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Sample records for dodecyl alcohol ethoxylated

  1. Study of adjuvant effect of model surfactants from the groups of alkyl sulfates, alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxylates and soaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, S K; Sobhani, S; Poulsen, O M

    2000-01-01

    The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice...... showed a statistically significant increase in OVA specific IgE levels. After two boosters, a statistically significant suppression in OVA-specific IgE production occurred with SDS (1000 mg/l), SDBS (1000 and 100 mg/l), coconut soap (1000 mg/l) and the alcohol ethoxylate (10 mg/l). This study suggests...

  2. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-ethoxylated polyethylenimine adsorption at the air-water interface: how the nature of ethoxylation affects the pattern of adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Stephen N; Tucker, Ian; Petkov, Jordan T; Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K

    2014-08-19

    The strong interaction between ionic surfactants and polyelectrolytes of opposite charge results in enhanced surface adsorption at the air-water interface down to low surfactant concentrations and in some cases in the formation of ordered surface structures. A notable example which exhibits such properties is the mixture of polyethylenimine, PEI, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS. However, the electrostatic interaction, around charge neutralization, between the surfactant and polymer often results in precipitation or coacervation. This can be mitigated for PEI-surfactant mixtures by ethoxylation of the PEI, but this can also result in a weaker surface interaction and a significant reduction in the adsorption. It is shown here that by localizing the ethoxylation of the PEI into discrete regions of the polymer precipitation upon the addition of SDS is suppressed, the strong surface interaction and enhanced adsorption of the polymer-surfactant mixture is retained. The adsorption of SDS in the presence of ethoxylated PEI is greatly enhanced at low SDS concentrations compared to the adsorption for pure SDS. The adsorption is equally pronounced at pH 7 and 10 and is largely independent of the degree of ethoxylation. Surface ordering, more than monolayer adsorption, is observed over a relatively narrow range of SDS concentrations and is most pronounced at pH 10 and for the polymers with the lower degree of ethoxylation. The results show that ethoxylated PEI's reported here provide a suitable route to enhanced surfactant adsorption while retaining favorable solution properties in which precipitation effects are minimized.

  3. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... salt. 721.643 Section 721.643 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  4. Parallel pathways of ethoxylated alcohol biodegradation under aerobic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zembrzuska, Joanna, E-mail: Joanna.Zembrzuska@put.poznan.pl; Budnik, Irena, E-mail: Irena.Budnik@gmail.com; Lukaszewski, Zenon, E-mail: zenon.lukaszewski@put.poznan.pl

    2016-07-01

    Non-ionic surfactants (NS) are a major component of the surfactant flux discharged into surface water, and alcohol ethoxylates (AE) are the major component of this flux. Therefore, biodegradation pathways of AE deserve more thorough investigation. The aim of this work was to investigate the stages of biodegradation of homogeneous oxyethylated dodecanol C{sub 12}E{sub 9} having 9 oxyethylene subunits, under aerobic conditions. Enterobacter strain Z3 bacteria were chosen as biodegrading organisms under conditions with C{sub 12}E{sub 9} as the sole source of organic carbon. Bacterial consortia of river water were used in a parallel test as an inoculum for comparison. The LC-MS technique was used to identify the products of biodegradation. Liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate was selected for the isolation of C{sub 12}E{sub 9} and metabolites from the biodegradation broth. The LC-MS/MS technique operating in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantitative determination of C{sub 12}E{sub 9}, C{sub 12}E{sub 8}, C{sub 12}E{sub 7} and C{sub 12}E{sub 6}. Apart from the substrate, the homologues C{sub 12}E{sub 8}, C{sub 12}E{sub 7} and C{sub 12}E{sub 6}, being metabolites of C{sub 12}E{sub 9} biodegradation by shortening of the oxyethylene chain, as well as intermediate metabolites having a carboxyl end group in the oxyethylene chain (C{sub 12}E{sub 8}COOH, C{sub 12}E{sub 7}COOH, C{sub 12}E{sub 6}COOH and C{sub 12}E{sub 5}COOH), were identified. Poly(ethylene glycols) (E) having 9, 8 and 7 oxyethylene subunits were also identified, indicating parallel central fission of C{sub 12}E{sub 9} and its metabolites. Similar results were obtained with river water as inoculum. It is concluded that AE, under aerobic conditions, are biodegraded via two parallel pathways: by central fission with the formation of PEG, and by Ω-oxidation of the oxyethylene chain with the formation of carboxylated AE and subsequent shortening of the oxyethylene chain by a

  5. The Effect of Liquid Crystalline Structures on Antiseizure Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Ethoxylated Alcohols

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of ethoxylated alcohols which form lyotropic liquid crystals at high concentrations (40–80%) were selected as model lubricating substances. Microscopic studies under polarized light and viscosity measurements were carried out in order to confirm the presence of liquid crystalline structures in the case of alcohol solutions with ethoxylation degrees of 3, 5, 7 and 10. Microscopic images and viscosity coefficient values characteristic of various mesophases were obtained. As ex...

  6. Predicting the sorption of fatty alcohols and alcohol ethoxylates to effluent and receiving water solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Compernolle, R; McAvoy, D C; Sherren, A; Wind, T; Cano, M L; Belanger, S E; Dorn, P B; Kerr, K M

    2006-05-01

    Alcohol ethoxylates (AEs) are an important group of nonionic surfactants. Commercial AEs consist of a mixture of several homologues of varying carbon chain length (Cx) and degree of ethoxylation (EOy). The major disposal route of AE is down the drain to municipal wastewater treatment plants that discharge into receiving surface waters. Sorption of AE homologues onto activated sludge and river water solids is an important factor in assessing exposure of AE in the environment. This study presents the experimental determination of sorption coefficients for a wide array of AE homologues including five alcohols under environmentally relevant conditions and combines these data with literature data to generate a predictive model for the sorption of AEs in the environment. These results demonstrate that sorption can be effectively modeled using a log Kd vs. Cx and EOy predictive equation having the form log Kd = 0.331C - 0.00897EO - 1.126(R2 = 0.64).

  7. Oxidation of ethoxylated fatty alcohols to alkylpolyglycol carboxylic acids using noble metals as catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagredos, Angelos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of ethoxylated fatty alcohols to the corresponding carboxylic acids through dehydrogenation/ oxidation using noble-metal catalysts has been studied. Ethoxylated primary aliphatic alcohols, ethoxylated random secondary aliphatic alcohols and ethoxylated alkylphenols have been converted to the corresponding acids in the presence of a base. The noble metal catalysts Palladium and Platinum were used without significant degradation of the ethoxyl chain in yields that exceeded 90%. On the other hand, the catalysts Rhodium and Ruthenium gave yields of about 80% and 60% respectively.La conversión de alcoholes grasos etoxilados a los correspondientes ácidos carboxílicos por deshidrogenación/ oxidación con metales nobles como catalizador ha sido estudiada. Alcoholes primarios alifáticos etoxilados, alcoholes alifáticos secundarios etoxilados al azar y alquilfenoles etoxilados han sido convertidos a los correspondientes ácidos en presencia de base. Los catalizadores paladio y platino fueron usados sin degradación significativa de las cadenas etoxiladas con un rendimiento que excedió del 90%. Por otra parte catalizadores de rodio y rutenio produjeron rendimientos del 80 y 60%, respectivamente.

  8. Correlation and prediction of environmental properties of alcohol ethoxylate surfactants using the UNIFAC method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2005-01-01

    Environmental properties of one type of nonionic surfactants, the alcohol ethoxylates (polyoxyethylene alcohols), are predicted using the UNIFAC (universal quasi-chemical functional group activity coefficient) method. Various properties are considered; the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow......), the bioconcentration factor (BCF), and the toxicity. Kow values of alcohol ethoxylates are difficult to measure. Existing methods such as those in commercial software like ACD,ClogP and KowWin have not been applied to surfactants, and they fail for heavy alcohol ethoxylates (alkyl carbon numbers above 12). Thus......, the Kow values are predicted here via UNIFAC and compared to the few available experimental data. Based on the predicted Kow values, a correlation between Kow and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) is establi2shed because HLB is a widely used parameter in surfactant applications. Finally, BCF...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic... identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction...

  10. The Effect of Liquid Crystalline Structures on Antiseizure Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Ethoxylated Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous solutions of ethoxylated alcohols which form lyotropic liquid crystals at high concentrations (40–80% were selected as model lubricating substances. Microscopic studies under polarized light and viscosity measurements were carried out in order to confirm the presence of liquid crystalline structures in the case of alcohol solutions with ethoxylation degrees of 3, 5, 7 and 10. Microscopic images and viscosity coefficient values characteristic of various mesophases were obtained. As expected, the viscosity of LLCs decreases considerably with an increase in shearing rate which is characteristic of liquid crystals being non-Newtonian liquids. Antiseizure properties were determined by means of a four-ball machine (T-02 Tester and characterized by scuffing load (Pt, seizure load (Poz and limiting pressure of seizure (poz. Alcohol ethoxylates forming mesophases in aqueous solutions have the strongest effect on the Pt values which are several times higher than those measured in the presence of water. Ethoxylates with higher degrees of ethoxylation exhibit higher values of scuffing load. Those changes have been interpreted as a result of higher cloud points at which those compounds lose their amphiphilic properties. In general, the presence of mesophases in the bulk phase and particularly in the surface phase may lead to the formation of a lubricant film which separates the frictionally cooperating elements of a friction pair. The antiseizure efficiency of alcohol solutions is highest up to the load value which does not exceed the scuffing load value.

  11. The effect of liquid crystalline structures on antiseizure properties of aqueous solutions of ethoxylated alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulek, Marian Wlodzimierz; Bak, Anna

    2010-01-12

    Aqueous solutions of ethoxylated alcohols which form lyotropic liquid crystals at high concentrations (40-80%) were selected as model lubricating substances. Microscopic studies under polarized light and viscosity measurements were carried out in order to confirm the presence of liquid crystalline structures in the case of alcohol solutions with ethoxylation degrees of 3, 5, 7 and 10. Microscopic images and viscosity coefficient values characteristic of various mesophases were obtained. As expected, the viscosity of LLCs decreases considerably with an increase in shearing rate which is characteristic of liquid crystals being non-Newtonian liquids. Antiseizure properties were determined by means of a four-ball machine (T-02 Tester) and characterized by scuffing load (P(t)), seizure load (P(oz)) and limiting pressure of seizure (p(oz)). Alcohol ethoxylates forming mesophases in aqueous solutions have the strongest effect on the P(t) values which are several times higher than those measured in the presence of water. Ethoxylates with higher degrees of ethoxylation exhibit higher values of scuffing load. Those changes have been interpreted as a result of higher cloud points at which those compounds lose their amphiphilic properties. In general, the presence of mesophases in the bulk phase and particularly in the surface phase may lead to the formation of a lubricant film which separates the frictionally cooperating elements of a friction pair. The antiseizure efficiency of alcohol solutions is highest up to the load value which does not exceed the scuffing load value.

  12. 脂肪醇醚硫酸盐直接转化合成醇醚磺酸盐%Synthesis of ethoxylated fatty alcohol sulfonate by direct conversion of ethoxylated fatty alcohol sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨铭; 郭奕; 陈楠; 方云; 张丽萍

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis of ethoxylated fatty alcohol sulfonate (AESO) from direct conversion of ethoxylated fatty alcohol sulfate (AES- 3 ) was studied by using single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment method.The experiment results indicated that the yield of AESO was as high as 75.4% along with only 4.6% of hydrolysis rate of AES under the optimized reaction conditions: n ( SO32 - )∶ n ( AES - 3 ) = 4∶ 1, x ( Na2SO3 ) = 92% and w ( AES - 3 ) = 14% in aqueous solution at 190 ℃ for 4 h.Additionally, three other sulfate salts AES - 2, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium nonylphenyl polyoxyethylene ether sulfate ( NPS - 4 ) were prepared under the same conditions, and 72.3% ,73.5% and 67.4% product yield was obtained respectively.%采用单因素法和正交分析法研究了脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚(3)硫酸钠(AES-3)直接转化合成脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚磺酸钠(AESO)工艺.结果表明,优化反应条件为:ω(AES-3)=14%,n(SO32-):n(AES-3)=4:1,x(Na2SO3)=92%,190℃压热条件下反应4 h,磺化率为75.4%,水解率为4.6%.在上述工艺条件下磺化脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚(2)硫酸钠、十二烷基硫酸钠和壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚(4)硫酸钠的磺化率分别为72.3%,73.5%和67.4%.

  13. A novel application of horseradish peroxidase: Oxidation of alcohol ethoxylate to alkylether carboxylic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A novel application of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the oxidation of alcohol ethoxylate to alkylether carboxylie acid in the present of H2O2 was reported in this paper. We propose the mechanism for the catalytic oxidation reaction is that the hydrogen transfers from the substrate to the ferryl oxygen to form the a-hydroxy carbon radical intermediate. The reaction offers a new approach for further research structure and catalytic mechanism of HRP and production of alkylether carboxylic acid.

  14. Removal and environmental exposure of alcohol ethoxylates in US sewage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrall, S W; Dunphy, J C; Cano, M L; Evans, A; McAvoy, D C; Price, B P; Eckhoff, W S

    2006-05-01

    Alcohol ethoxylates (AE) are a common nonionic surfactant employed in consumer and industrial detergents worldwide. Commercial AE are typically complex mixtures composed of > 100 homologous compounds with varying alkyl chain lengths and varying numbers of ethylene oxide (EO) units. Recent improvements in analytical methodology have enabled accurate measurement of the entire AE mixture in sewage treatment plant (STP) influents and effluents, including alkyl chain lengths from 12 to 18 carbons with a range of ethoxylation from 0 to 18 EO units. These improved analytical methods were used to measure AE concentrations at nine sites representative of sewage treatment processes and geographical locations. These new data will make possible a more accurate assessment of environmental risk for AE in the United States. The results indicate that all AE homologues are effectively removed (> 99%) in the most common treatment types. Individual STP total AE effluent concentrations ranged from a low of 0.92 microg/L for activated sludge to a high of 15.6 microg/L for a trickling filter process. For the purpose of representing a national average distribution, an average-flow-weighted wastewater treatment plant effluent concentration was determined for each AE component. The total-flow-weighted average AE effluent concentration was 3.64 microg/L.

  15. Linear alcohol ethoxylates: insecticidal and synergistic effects on German cockroaches (Blattodea: Blattellidae) and other insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Steven R; Appel, Arthur G

    2007-06-01

    Sixteen linear ethoxylated alcohol surfactants (AEOs) were studied to determine their contact insecticidal activity to adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae). Within groups of AEOs of equal carbon chain length, insecticidal activity, measured as LT50 values (in minutes) and 24-h mortality after treatment, was inversely related to the amount of ethoxylation. There was a highly significant negative relationship between the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) value of the AEO and contact toxicity. The AEO with the lowest HLB value, Tomadol 23-1 (HLB = 3.7), produced the greatest 24-h cockroach mortality. The contact activity of Tomadol 23-1 was evaluated against a wide range of other insect species. Most species were killed within 24 h by direct exposure (1-4 microl of a 50% ethanol solution) to Tomadol 23-1 or by spray exposure to an aqueous solution. Tomadol 23-1, at a sublethal concentration, was tested in combination with representative members of the carbamate, nicotinoid, organophosphate, pyrethrum, pyrethroid, and pyrrole insecticide classes. Significant synergism was demonstrated in combinations of Tomadol 23-1 and chlorfenapyr, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and pyrethrum. Tomadol 23-1 significantly reduced the insecticidal activity of propoxur, suggesting antagonism. The insecticidal activity of Tomadol 23-1 was synergized by coapplication with a sublethal amount of piperonyl butoxide, indicating the involvement of cytochrome P450 microsomal monooxygenases in insect metabolism of AEO surfactants.

  16. A comparison of alcohol ethoxylate environmental monitoring data using different analytical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Drew C; Eckhoff, William S; Begley, William M; Pessler, Daniel G

    2006-05-01

    Several analytical methods have been developed for analyzing alcohol ethoxylates (AE) in aqueous environmental samples. These methods differ widely in their selectivity and sensitivity for measuring the AE components; that is, they vary in their resolution of alkyl chain length homologs and ethoxymer distributions (degree of ethoxylation for each homolog). Given these differences, AE monitoring results from different studies often are inconsistent and, sometimes, are deemed to be incomparable. To address these differences, three currently available methods for determining AE concentrations in environmental matrices were compared among a common set of wastewater treatment plant samples. These methods included the detection of hydrogen bromide-derivatized homologs by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the detection of aqueous homologs by high-pressure liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry, and the detection of pyridinium-derivatized homologs by high-pressure liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry. Results from the present study showed that all three methods responded differently in determining the complex suite of chemical species that comprise AE in the environment. The collective information, however, allowed a consistent comparison among the methods. This comparison was then used to reevaluate results from previous AE monitoring studies. Results from this reevaluation provided a more realistic profile of both historical AE removal during wastewater treatment as well as the occurrence of AE in U.S. surface waters.

  17. Effects of nonionic surfactant lauryl alcohol ethoxylated on stratum corneum alternative model biomembranes evaluated by biophysical techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Baby, André R.; Lacerda, Áurea C. L.; Prestes, Paula S.; Velasco, María Valéria R.; Kawano, Yoshio; Kaneko,Telma Mary

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the nonionic surfactant lauryl alcohol ethoxylate with 12 moles ethylene oxide (LAE-12OE) was evaluated on the Stratum corneum model biomembrane (SCMM) of shed snake skin (Bothrops jararaca and Spilotes pullatus) through the biophysical techniques Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS-FTIR). The surfactant was used in aqueous solutions above and below the critical micelle concentration (cmc), 50.0 and 0....

  18. The fate of linear alcohol ethoxylates during activated sludge sewage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, N S; Sherren, A J; Bumpus, R N; Eagle, R; Molade, I K

    2001-10-01

    Model continuous activated sludge (CAS) plants (Husmann units) were used to study the fate of two commercial, alcohol ethoxylate (AE) surfactants during aerobic sewage treatment. The surfactants were produced by the ethoxylation of an essentially linear C(12-15) alcohol (NEODOL 25) with an average of 7 (C(12-15)EO7) or 3 (C(12-15)EO3) moles of ethylene oxide (EO). Recent analytical developments made it possible to measure levels of AE that included the free alcohol and EO1 oligomers across the CAS system, from the influent feed, on the activated sludge, through to the effluent. Measured concentrations of AE (as C(12-15)EO(0-20)) in the synthetic sewage feeds to the test CAS plants lay in the range 11-13 mg/l. During stable operation at 20 degrees C, an average of 5 microg/l AE were present in the C(12-15)EO7 CAS plant effluent, giving a removal (bioelimination) of >99.9%. When levels of AE on the sludge, and polyethylene glycols (PEGs--an expected biodegradation intermediate) in the effluent and on the sludge were also taken into account, biodegradation was considered to be responsible for >98.7% of the observed removal. During operation at a winter temperature (10 degrees C), an average of 26 microg/l AE were present in the C(12-15)EO7 CAS plant effluent, giving a removal of 99.8%. Biodegradation was estimated to be responsible for >97.2% of the observed removal. During operation at 20 degrees C, an average of 7 microg/l AE were present in the C(12-15)EO3 CAS plant effluent, giving a removal of >99.9%. No analysis for PEG was performed in this case but the low level of AE on the sludge (0.2 mg/g dry solids) suggested that biodegradation was responsible for most of the observed removal. Neither surfactant had any adverse effect on the sewage treatment efficiencies of the CAS plants in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal, nitrification or biomass levels.

  19. Occurrence and risk screening of alcohol ethoxylate surfactants in three U.S. river sediments associated with wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Hans; van Compernolle, Remi; Dyer, Scott D; Price, Bradford B; Nielsen, Allen M; Selby, Martin; Ferrer, Darci; Stanton, Kathleen

    2013-10-01

    Alcohol ethoxylates (AE) are high production volume (HPV) chemicals globally used in detergent and personal care products and are truly a work-horse for the household and personal care industries. Commercial AE generally consist of a mixture of several homologues of varying carbon chain length and degree of ethoxylation. Homologues that are not ethoxylated are also known as aliphatic alcohols or simply fatty alcohols (FA). This group of homologues represents a special interest in the context of environmental risk, as these are also abundant and ubiquitous naturally occurring compounds (e.g. animal fats and in human feces). Hence, in a risk assessment one needs to distinguish between the natural (background) concentrations and the added contribution from anthropogenic activities. We conducted a weight-of-evidence risk assessment in three streams, documenting the exposure and predicted risk, and compared these to the habitat and in situ biota. We found that the parameters (e.g., habitat quality and total perturbations hereunder total suspended solids (TSS) and other abiotic and biotic stressors) contributed to the abundance of biota rather than the predicted risk from AE and FA. Moreover, the documented natural de novo synthesis and rapid degradation of FA highlight the need to carefully consider the procedures for environmental risk assessment of naturally occurring compounds such as FA, e.g. in line with the added risk concept known from metal risk assessment.

  20. Phase Separation Kinetics in Isopycnic Mixtures of H2O/CO2/Ethoxylated Alcohol Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesemann, Markus; Paulaitis, Michael E.; Kaler, Eric W.

    1999-01-01

    Ternary mixtures of H2O and CO2 with ethoxylated alcohol (C(sub i)E(sub j)) surfactants form three coexisting liquid phases at conditions where two of the phases have equal densities (isopycnic phases). Isopycnic phase behavior has been observed for mixtures containing C8E5, C10E6, and C12E6 surfactants, but not for those mixtures containing either C4E1 or C8E3 surfactants. Pressure-temperature (PT) projections for this three-phase equilibrium were determined for H2O/CO2/C8E5 and H2O/CO2/C10E6 mixtures at temperatures from approximately 25 to 33 C and pressures between 90 and 350 bar. Measurements of the microstructure in H2O/CO2/C12E6 mixtures as a function of temperature (25-31 C), pressure (63.1-90.7 bar), and CO2 composition (0-3.9 wt%) have also been carried out to show that while micellar structure remains essentially un-changed, critical concentration fluctuations increase as the phase boundary and plait point are approached. In this report, we present our first measurements of the kinetics of isopycnic phase separation for ternary mixtures of H2O/CO2/C8E5.

  1. Decreases in surface activities and aquatic toxicities of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate and alcohol ethoxylates during biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Masaru; Hisano, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    We discussed the relation between aquatic toxicity and interfacial activity during biodegradation with using LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate) and AE (Alcohol Ethoxylate). The change of death rate of Daphnia magna, surface tension, concentration of surfactant, and biodegradation by oxygen demand during biodegradation were measured. As a result, a rapid decrease in toxicity and rapid increase in surface tension were observed within the time before biodegradation based on oxygen demand started to increase. These rapid changes in toxicity and surface tension occurred due to the structural change of surfactant molecules in the primary biodegradation process, which was confirmed by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis. We also performed re-addition test to study the effects of acclimatization since it takes an important role on boidegradation, and found that the acclimatization significantly accelerated the primary biodegradation, which were indicated by increase in surface tension and decrease in aquatic toxicity. These results show that the environmental risk of surfactants should be considered not only with the biodegradation based on oxygen demand but also with the decrease of interfacial activity through the primary biodegradation process.

  2. Partitioning of alcohol ethoxylates and polyethylene glycols in the marine environment: Field samplings vs laboratory experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traverso-Soto, Juan M. [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEI-MAR), Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real, Cádiz 11510 (Spain); Brownawell, Bruce J. [School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); González-Mazo, Eduardo [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEI-MAR), Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real, Cádiz 11510 (Spain); Lara-Martín, Pablo A., E-mail: pablo.lara@uca.es [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEI-MAR), Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real, Cádiz 11510 (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Nowadays, alcohol ethoxylates (AEOs) constitute the most important group of non-ionic surfactants, used in a wide range of applications such as household cleaners and detergents. Significant amounts of these compounds and their degradation products (polyethylene glycols, PEGs, which are also used for many other applications) reach aquatic environments, and are eliminated from the water column by degradation and sorption processes. This work deals with the environmental distribution of AEOs and PEGs in the Long Island Sound Estuary, a setting impacted by sewage discharges from New York City (NYC). The distribution of target compounds in seawater was influenced by tides, consistent with salinity differences, and concentrations in suspended solid samples ranged from 1.5 to 20.5 μg/g. The more hydrophobic AEOs were mostly attached to the particulate matter whereas the more polar PEGs were predominant in the dissolved form. Later, the sorption of these chemicals was characterized in the laboratory. Experimental and environmental sorption coefficients for AEOs and PEGs showed average values from 3607 to 164,994 L/kg and from 74 to 32,862 L/kg, respectively. The sorption data were fitted to a Freundlich isotherm model with parameters n and log K{sub F} between 0.8–1.2 and 1.46–4.39 L/kg, respectively. AEO and PEG sorptions on marine sediment were also found to be mostly not affected by changes in salinity. - Highlights: • AEO and PEG levels in estuaries are influenced by tides and suspended solids. • Sediment–water partition coefficients in the lab and in the field are comparable. • Sorption is depending on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. • Sorption data fits Freundlich isotherms, showing K{sub F} values from 29 to 24,892 L/kg. • Sorption is very weakly influenced by salinity changes.

  3. Determination of the fate of alcohol ethoxylate homologues in a laboratory continuous activated-sludge unit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, T; Stephenson, R J; Eadsforth, C V; Sherren, A; Toy, R

    2006-05-01

    Environmental monitoring indicates that the distribution of alcohol ethoxylate (AE) homologues in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents differs from the distribution in commercial AE products, with a relative higher proportion of fatty alcohol (AOH, which is AE with zero ethoxylation). To determine the contribution of AE-derived AOH to the total concentration of AE and AOH in WWTP effluents, we conducted a laboratory continuous activated-sludge study (CAS). This consisted of a test unit fed with AE-amended synthetic sewage and a control unit fed with only synthetic sewage to avoid AE contamination from the feed. The removal efficiencies of some 114 AE homologues were determined by the application of a specific and sensitive analytical method. The extent of the removal of AE ranged from 99.70% for C18 compounds to > 99.98% for C12-16. Relatively high-AOH concentrations were observed in the effluents from blank and test units. By building the concentration difference from the test minus the control unit, the AE in the CAS effluent originating from AE in the influent was determined. Thus, it could be shown that AOH represented only 19% of the total AE (EO0-18) in the CAS, while monitoring in 29 WWTP effluents (European, Canadian, and US) revealed in total a mean AOH fraction of 55% (5-82%) of the total AE (EO0-18). This shows that only a small fraction of AOH in WWTP effluents originates from AE entering the WWTP.

  4. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty...

  5. Effect of Anionic Surfactant on the Thermo Acoustical Properties of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate in Polyvinyl Alcohol Solution by Ultrasonic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravichandran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS / poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA solution was studied by ultrasonic velocity measurements. Ultrasonic velocity, density, viscosity in mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulphate in polyvinyl alcohol was measured over the entire range of composition. From the experimental data, other related thermodynamic parameters, viz., adiabatic compressibility, intermolecular free length, surface tension, relative association, relaxation time, absorption coefficient and internal pressure were calculated. Formations of rods interfere with velocity of ultrasonic waves. Hence the ultrasonic velocity decreases with concentration. These results were interpreted in terms of polymer-surfactant complex reactions.

  6. Comprehensive analysis of fatty alcohol ethoxylates by ultra high pressure hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with ion mobility spectrometry mass spectrometry using a custom-designed sub-2 μm column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiang; Ma, Wei; Chen, Xi; Wang, Ziming; Bai, Hua; Zhang, Lanwei; Li, Wentao; Wang, Chao; Li, Xinshi

    2015-06-01

    Comprehensive analysis of fatty alcohol ethoxylates has been conducted by coupling ultra high pressure hydrophilic interaction chromatography and ion mobility spectrometry mass spectrometry. A custom-designed sub-2 μm column was used for the chromatographic separation of fatty alcohol ethoxylates by hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Ion mobility spectrometry provided a post-ionization resolution during a very short period of 6.4 ms. Distinguishable families of singly, doubly, and triply charged fatty alcohol ethoxylates were clearly observed. By virtue of the combination of hydrophilic interaction chromatography and ion mobility spectrometry, comprehensive resolution based on both hydrophobicity difference and mobility disparity has been achieved for fatty alcohol ethoxylates. The orthogonality of the developed separation and analysis system was evaluated with the correlation coefficient and peak spreading angle of 0.0224 and 88.72°, respectively. The actual peak capacity obtained was individually 40 and 193 times than those when hydrophilic interaction chromatography and ion mobility spectrometry were used alone. The collision cross-sections of fatty alcohol ethoxylates were calculated by calibrating the traveling wave ion mobility device with polyalanine.

  7. Acute toxicity and relationship between metabolites and ecotoxicity during the biodegradation process of non-ionic surfactants: fatty-alcohol ethoxylates, nonylphenol polyethoxylate and alkylpolyglucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, E; Fernández-Serrano, M; Núñez-Olea, J; Luzón, G; Lechuga, M

    2009-01-01

    The toxicity values of fatty-alcohol ethoxylates, nonylphenol polyethoxylate, and alkylpolyglucosides have been determined by applying assays with luminescent bacteria. Also, the relation between metabolites and ecotoxicity during the biodegradation process has been determined. The biodegradation tests were carried out according to the OECD 301 E test for ready biodegradability. In these tests a solution of the surfactant, representing the sole carbon source for the microorganisms, was tested in a mineral medium, inoculated and incubated under aerobic conditions in the dark. The toxicity of surfactants is related to their molecular structure (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships, QSAR). For the alkylpolyglucosides, toxicity expressed as EC(50) is related with the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of the surfactant, and the hydrophobic alkyl chain (R). The results indicate that toxicity increased as the CMC decreased and as the hydrophobicity increased and R rose. For fatty-alcohol ethoxylates, parameters characteristic studied have been HLB, number of units of ethylene oxide and the alkyl chain length. Relationships found are in agreement with the fact that increasing the alkyl chain length leads to a lower EC(50), whereas increasing ethoxylation leads to a lower toxicity. An analysis of the behaviour of the toxicity and HLB again indicates that the toxicity was greater for surfactants with a smaller HLB. The evolution of the toxicity was studied over the biodegradation process, expressed as a percentage of inhibition. For all the non-ionic surfactants assayed, except for the nonylphenol polyethoxylate, a major decline was found in toxicity during the first days of the biodegradation assay and at all the concentrations tested.

  8. 十二烷基苄醇聚氧乙烯醚的合成及性能%Synthesis and physicochemical properties of ethoxylated lauryl benzyl alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆颖; 刘雪锋; 方云

    2012-01-01

    Ethoxylated lauryl benzyl alcohol (LBAEOn) ,was synthesized starting from n - dodecylbenzene by a three - step process including chloromethylation, hydrolysis and ethoxylation. Structure of the LBAEOn was characterized by FTIR and 1HNMR, and number of EO moles adducted n =9.5. Distribution of EO mole number in the LBAEO, was characterized by ESI - MS. Critical micelle concentration ( cmc) and surface tension at cmc (γcmc) of the product is 1. 83 × 10-6 mol · L-1 and 39. 0 mN ? m-1 respectively, which were measured by surface tension method at 25 ℃. In comparison with common nonionic surfactants such as ethoxylated fatty alcohol ( AEO9) and ethoxylated nonyl phenol ( NPEO10) , surface activity of the LBAEOn is higher while the foaming power is lower and lime soap dispersing power is similar. Solubilization capacity to octanol of the LBAEOn is higher,and wetting power is lower.%以十二烷基苯为原料,经氯甲基化、水解及环氧乙基化等步骤得到平均乙氧基(EO)数为9.5的十二烷基苄醇聚氧乙烯醚(LBAEOn).分别用FTlR和1HNMR表征了产物LBAEOn的结构特征,并用ESI - MS确定了LBAEOn中的EO分布.以表面张力法测得在25℃时LBAEOn的cmc和γcmc分别为1.83×10-6mol·L-1和39.0 mN·m-1;与脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚(AEO9)和壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚(NPEO10)相比较,除钙皂分散性能大致相当以外,LBAEOn的表面活性较好、发泡力较低、对正辛醇的增溶能力较强和对帆布的润湿性能较差.

  9. The effects of detergent, sodium tripoly-phosphate and ethoxyled oleyl-cetyl alcohol on metabolic parameters of the fungus Trichothecium roseum link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Jelica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of detergents that are dispersed in water and soil partially depends on the metabolic activities of fungi. Among the fungi that have this ability, Deuteromycetes are particularly noted for their biochemical characteristics. Taking this into account, it was of interest to analyze the influence of detergent and its main compounds, ethoxyled oleylcetyl alcohol (AOC and sodium tripoly-phosphate (TTP, on the metabolism of the fungus Trichothecium roseum. Our results revealed that both detergent and AOC had an inhibitory effect on the bioproduction of free organic acids, while TTP stimulated their production. Also, detergent inhibited the bioproduction of basic amino acids, with the exception of alanine. In addition, detergent applied at 1% concentration inhibited the bioproduction of proteins and the total biomass of the fungus, while AOC and TTP inhibited the production of proteins, but stimulatedl the production of Trichothecium.

  10. 醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯盐的制备与性能研究%Preparation and performance of citrate monoesters salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛少勇; 杨秀全; 白亮; 周媛; 张军

    2012-01-01

    Through indirect eaterification,citric acid anhydride was synthesized with citric acid and acetic anhydride as raw materials,the citrate monoesters were prepared with synthetic citric acid anhydride and ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside (containing excess ethoxylated fatty alcohols) ,and then neutralization with NaOH,Ca (OH)2 and Mg (OH)2 obtained the citrate monoesters disodium salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside (MAEG-EC-Na) , citrate monoesters calcium salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside (MAEC-EC-Ca) and citrate monoesters magnesium salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside (MAEG- EC-Mg). The physicochemical properties of the products were measured. Results showed that the γcmc range of the three products are very small, and the one of citric acid monoester disodium salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside is minimum. The order of foaming ability and foam stability of citric acid monoester salt is MAEG-EC-Mg > MAEG-EC-Ca > MAEG-EC-Na.%采用间接酯化法,以柠檬酸和乙酸酐为原料,先合成柠檬酸酐,后与醇醚糖苷(含有未反应的脂肪醇醚)反应,合成了醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯,再用NaOH溶液、饱和Ca(OH)2水溶液和Mg(OH)2乳浊液中和制得醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯二钠盐(MAEG-EC-Na)、醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯钙盐(MAEG-EC-Ca)和醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯镁盐(MAEGEC-Mg),对产物的物化性能进行了测定.结果表明,上述3种产品的γcmc变化范围均很小,而柠檬酸单酯二钠盐的cmc最小,柠檬酸单酯盐起泡性能、泡沫稳定性的顺序为MAEG-EC-Mg> MAEG-EC-Ca> MAEG-EC-Na.

  11. Effect of a commercial alcohol ethoxylate surfactant (C11-15E7) on biodegradation of phenanthrene in a saline water medium by Neptunomonas naphthovorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Liang; Bai, Renbi

    2005-02-01

    Biodegradation of poorly soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been a challenge in bioremediation. In recent years, surfactant-enhanced bioremediation of PAH contaminants has attracted great attention in research. In this study, biodegradation of phenanthrene as a model PAHs solubilized in saline micellar solutions of a biodegradable commercial alcohol ethoxylate nonionic surfactant was investigated. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant and its solubilization capacity for phenanthrene were examined in an artificial saline water medium, and a type of marine bacteria, Neptunomonas naphthovorans, was studied for the biodegradation of phenanthrene solubilized in the surfactant micellar solutions of the saline medium. It is found that the solubility of phenanthrene in the surfactant micellar solutions increased linearly with the surfactant concentrations, but, at a fixed phenanthrene concentration, the biodegradability of phenanthrene in the micellar solutions decreased with the increase of the surfactant concentrations. This was attributed to the reduced bioavailability of phenanthrene, due to its increased solubilization extent in the micellar phase and possibly lowered mass transfer rate from the micellar phase into the aqueous phase or into the bacterial cells. In addition, an inhibitory effect of the surfactant on the bacterial growth at high surfactant concentrations may also play a role. It is concluded that the surfactant largely enhanced the solubilization of phenanthrene in the saline water medium, but excess existence of the surfactant in the medium should be minimized or avoided for the biodegradation of phenanthrene by Neptunomonas naphthovorans.

  12. Titration procedure for low ethoxylated nonionic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschmann, N. [Anorganisch-Chemisches Inst., Lehrstuhl fuer Analytische Chemie, Muenster Univ. (Germany); Huelskoetter, F. [Anorganisch-Chemisches Inst., Lehrstuhl fuer Analytische Chemie, Muenster Univ. (Germany)

    1997-01-01

    Highly lipophilic surfactants are frequently used as emulsifiers for preparing oil-in-water emulsions (e.g. coolants lubricants). Typical surfactants used for this purpose are low ethoxylated alcohols and ethoxylated alkylphenols. Due to the low degree of ethoxylation they cannot be analysed by conventional methods. The method described in this article is based on the introduction of an anionic group into the molecule by a derivatization reaction. The reaction product can be determined by conventional titration methods for anionic surfactants without any modification. The use of the new method for other nonionic surfactants like sorbitan esters, (ethoxylated) fatty acid amides or glycerol fatty acid partial esters is also described as well as the sample preparation for coolants lubricants. (orig.) [Deutsch] Lipophile Tenside werden haeufig zur Herstellung von Oel-in-Wasser-Emulsionen verwandt, wie sie beispielsweise in Kuehlschmiermitteln eingesetzt werden. Typische Vertreter dieser Tenside sind niedrig ethoxylierte Fettalkohole und Alkylphenole. Wegen ihres geringen Ethoxylierungsgrades koennen sie mit den konventionellen Methoden nicht analytisch bestimmt werden. Die hier beschriebene Analysenmethode beruht auf der Derivatisierung der Ethoxylate zu entsprechenden anionischen Tensiden (Ethersulfate). Diese koennen ohne weiteres mit den etablierten Titrationsverfahren bestimmt werden. Die Anwendung dieses neuen Verfahrens auf die Bestimmung anderer nichtionischer Tenside - Sorbitanester, (ethoxylierte) Fettsaeureamide und Partialglyceride - wird ebenso beschrieben wie die Probenvorbereitung fuer die Analyse von Kuehlschmiermitteln. (orig.)

  13. Proliferation inhibition effects of ethoxylated fatty alcohol on cells%脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚对细胞的增殖抑制影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓伟; 王晓宁; 龚龑; 廖青

    2011-01-01

    In view of the safety problem of chemicals for textiles, MTT assay was adopted to study the effects of three different kinds of ethoxylated fatty alcohols on the proliferation inhibition of Chinese hamster ovary ( CHO ) cells and human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. The results indicated that the proliferation inhibition effect of ethoxylated fatty alcohol on both CHO cells and HeLa cells gradually decreased as the number of EO increased. In other words, with respect to the proliferation inhibition on both cells, it showed the following order; AEO5 > AEO9 > AE015. When the concentrations of AE05 and AE09 were higher than 0. 050 μL/mL and 0. 075 μL/mL, respectively, the increase of proliferation inhibition effect on the cells exhibited insignificant with the increase of the concentration. However, when the concentration of AEO15 was higher than 0. 100 μL/mL, its proliferation inhibition effect on the cells still showed an upward tend. When the concentrations of AE05, AEO9 and AEO15 were lower than 0.005, 0.005 and 0.010 μL/mL, respectively, their proliferation inhibition effect on CHO cells and HeLa cells was not noticeable.%针对纺织用化学品安全问题,采用噻唑蓝(MTT)比色法研究了脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚系列表面活性剂对中华仓鼠卵巢CHO细胞及人体宫颈癌HeLa细胞增殖抑制情况.结果表明:随着环氧乙烷(EO)数量的增加,脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚对CHO细胞及HeLa细胞增殖抑制率均逐渐减小,脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚AEO5对2种细胞增殖抑制率最大,AEO9次之,AEO15最小;AEO5浓度大于0.050 μL/mL时,细胞增殖抑制率随浓度增大变化不明显,AEO9浓度大于0.075 μL/mL时,细胞增殖抑制率随浓度增大变化不明显,而AEO15浓度为0.100 μL/mL时,对细胞增殖抑制率仍呈现上升趋势.AEO5、AEO9和AEO15浓度分别低于0.005、0.005、0.010 μL/mL时,对CHO细胞及HeLa细胞增殖无明显抑制.

  14. In vitro biotransformation of surfactants in fish. Part I: linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (C12-LAS) and alcohol ethoxylate (C13EO8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Scott D; Bernhard, Mary Jo; Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina; Perdu-Durand, Elisabeth; Demmerle, Susanne; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre

    2008-06-01

    Developing regulatory activities (e.g., REACh, [DGEE. 2003. Directorates General Enterprise and Environment. The new EU chemicals legislation REACH. DG Enterprise, Brussels, Belgium. (http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/reach/index_en.htm)]) will require bioaccumulation to be assessed for thousands of chemicals. Further, there is increasing pressure to reduce, refine or replace animal tests. Given this scenario, there is an urgent need to evaluate the feasibility of in vitro systems to supply data useful for bioaccumulation estimation. Subcellular and cellular hepatic systems were tested to determine the biotransformation of two surfactants: C12-2-LAS (2-phenyl dodecane p-sulfonate) and an alcohol ethoxylate C13EO8 (Octaethylene glycol monotridecyl ether). The subcellular systems tested were liver homogenates and microsomes from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Cellular systems consisted of primary hepatocytes from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and PLHC-1 cells, hepatocarcinoma cells from the desert topminnow (Poeciliopsis lucida). All in vitro systems were exposed to radiolabeled test compounds and assayed for biotransformation using liquid scintillation and thin layer chromatographic methods. First-order kinetics were used to estimate rates of biotransformation. Bioconcentration of test materials in fish were predicted using an in vitro to in vivo metabolic rate extrapolation model linked to a mass-balance model commonly used to predict bioaccumulation in fish. Subcellular biotransformation rates for each of the surfactants were greatest with microsomes. Cellular loss rates exceeded subcellular rates, leading to lower predicted BCF values. Predicted BCFs corresponded closely to measured values in several fish species, verifying the utility of in vitro systems in refining Kow-only-based BCFs via the inclusion of biotransformation rates.

  15. Structural and phase transition changes of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in alcohols probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Gedung 40 BATAN, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia); Patriati, Arum [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Gedung 40 BATAN, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia giri@batan.go.id (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on 0.3M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solutions have been performed in the presence of n-alcohols, from ethanol to decanol at different alcohol concentrations, 2–10 wt%. The ellipsoid micellar structure which occurred in the 0.3M SDS in aqueous solution with the size range of 30–50 Å has different behavior at various hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. At low concentration and short chain-length of alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol, and butanol, the size of micelles reduced and had a spherical-like structure. The opposite effect occurred as medium to long chain alcohols, such as hexanol, octanol and decanol was added into the 0.3M SDS micellar solutions. The micelles structure changed to be more elongated in major axis and then crossed the critical phase transition from micellar solution into liquid crystal phase as lamellar structure emerged by further addition of alcohols. The inter-lamellar distances were also depending on the hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. In the meantime, the persistent micellar structures occurred in addition of medium chain of n-alcohol, pentanol at all concentrations.

  16. Preparation of ethoxylated fatty alcohol carboxylate by catalytic oxidation and its blending performance%催化氧化制备醇醚羧酸盐及其复配性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张望; 李秋小; 李运玲

    2009-01-01

    以脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚(AEO9)、氧气和氢氧化钠为原料,在自制的Pd/C催化剂作用下催化氧化制备醇醚羧酸盐(AE9C)阴离子表面活性剂.考察了反应条件对产品收率的影响,并研究了AE9C与双癸基二甲基氯化铵(DDMAC10)复配体系的润湿、乳化和泡沫性能.结果表明较佳的反应条件为:温度70℃、压力0.08 Mpa、反应时间4 h,产品的收率可达85%.AE9C与DDMAC10复配具有较好的协同效应.%Ethoxylated fatty alcohol carboxylate (AE9C), an anionic surfactant was synthesized by using AEO9, O2 and NaOH as starting materials with self-made Pd/C catalyst. Reaction conditions were investigated. AE9C product was blended with didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDMAC10). The properties of the blended surfactant, such as foaming power, wetting power and emulsifying power were measured. The experiment results showed that the optimum reaction conditions to prepare AE9C are temperature 70 ℃;pressure 0.08 Mpa;reaction time 4 h. Yield up to 85% can be achieved. The performance of the blended surfactant of AE9C with DDMAC10 showed that such blending has significant synergistic effect.

  17. Two Ethoxylation Techniques and Their Influences on Performance of Alcohol Ether%两种乙氧基化技术及其对醇醚性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟

    2016-01-01

    The present situation, advantages and disadvantages of the two ethoxylation technique were introduced. The Press and HH technique influence on EO distribution of AEO2 and PEG content were discussed.%简要介绍了国内两种主要乙氧基化技术的现状及其优缺点,并对Press技术和HH技术对AEO2中的EO分布、PEG含量的影响进行了分析讨论。

  18. 40 CFR 721.4365 - Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4365 Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical... as Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (PMN P-99-0313) is subject to reporting under this section...

  19. Nature of the Intermicellar Interactions in Ethoxylated Polysorbate Surfactants with High Degrees of Ethoxylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, J; Thomas, R K; Li, P X; Tucker, I; Petkov, J; Petkova, R E

    2016-02-09

    Ethoxylated polysorbate Tween nonionic surfactants are extensively used as foam and emulsion stabilizers and in aqueous solution form globular micelles. The ethoxylated polysorbate surfactants with higher degrees of ethoxylation than the Tween surfactants exhibit some interesting self-assembly properties. Small-angle neutron scattering, SANS, measurements have revealed intermicellar interactions which are more pronounced than the hard-sphere excluded volume interactions normally associated with nonionic surfactant micelles. The interactions are interpreted as arising from the partial charge on the ether oxygen of the ethylene oxide groups. This gives rise to an effective net negative charge on the micelles, which has been determined from the SANS data and zeta potential measurements. For degrees of ethoxylation of ⩽20, the effect is relatively small. The interaction increases with increasing ethoxylation such that for a degree of ethoxylation of 50 the interaction is comparable to that of ionic surfactant micelles. Unlike the intermicellar interaction in ionic surfactant micellar solutions, which results from the charge on the micelle arising from the partial binding of counterions, the interaction between ethoxthylated polysorbate surfactant micelles is unaffected by the addition of electrolyte.

  20. Phase Behavior and Structural Transitions in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfonate Microemulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨根生; 施介华; 等

    2002-01-01

    The forming mechanism of microemulsion of sodium dodecyl sulfonate.alcohols,water and isooctane was studied,with particular emphasis on the effect of molecular weight and concentration of alocohols.Phase diagram of the four components,alcohol, sodium dodecyl sulfonate,water and isooctane,was used as a means of study,through which the microemulsion regions were determined.Phase diagram of sodium dodecyl sulfonate/n-pentanol/isooctane/water system at km=2(km=Wn-pentanol/WSDS)is presented. The variation of conductivities of different microemulsion samples with water was measured.From the conductivities we investigated a change in structure from water droplets in oil(W/O)at low water content to liquid crystal at intermediate water content and a structure of oil droplets in water(O/W)at high water content.

  1. Ethoxylated rapeseed oil derivatives as novel adjuvants for herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas; Brancq, Bernard; Milius, Alain; Okori, Nathalie; Vaille, Claude; Gauvrit, Christian

    2002-12-01

    Ethoxylates of rapeseed oil and of methylated rapeseed oil were synthesized and tested as adjuvants for 2,4-D and phenmedipham. Provided they had less than 6 units of ethylene oxide (EO), 1.0 to 10 g litre(-1) ethoxylates in water induced droplet spreading on barley leaves. In an acetone-based medium all derivatives strongly promoted the foliar uptake of 2,4-D, with no clear influence of the ethoxylation degree. In the same medium there was a negative influence of ethoxylate chain length on the foliar uptake of phenmedipham. In a water-based medium, phenmedipham applied with rapeseed oil emulsified with ethoxylated (20 EO) rapeseed oil displayed uptake rates close to a commercial preparation. The same was true for phenmedipham applied with ethoxylated (2 EO) methylated rapeseed oil. In bioassays, phenmedipham prepared with methylated rapeseed oil emulsified with ethoxylated (20 EO) rapeseed oil was as efficacious on barley as a commercial formulation. The same was true for phenmedipham prepared with ethoxylated (2 EO) methylated rapeseed oil. However, neither rapeseed oil nor methylated rapeseed oil emulsified with ethoxylated (2 EO) methylated rapeseed oil conferred good efficacy to phenmedipham. Hence, ethoxylated rapeseed oil derivatives are promising adjuvants or formulants for herbicides.

  2. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting under...

  3. Impact of the degree of ethoxylation of the ethoxylated polysorbate nonionic surfactant on the surface self-assembly of hydrophobin-ethoxylated polysorbate surfactant mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Li, Peixun; Petkov, Jordan T; Tucker, Ian; Cox, Andrew R; Hedges, Nick; Webster, John R P; Skoda, Maximilian W A

    2014-08-19

    Neutron reflectivity measurements have been used to study the surface adsorption of the polyethylene sorbitan monostearate surfactant, with degrees of ethoxylation varying from 3 to 20 ethylene oxide groups, with the globular protein hydrophobin. The surface interaction between the ethoxylated polysorbate nonionic surfactants and the hydrophobin results in self-assembly at the air-solution interface in the form of a well-defined layered surface structure. The surface interaction arises from a combination of the hydrophobic interaction between the surfactant alkyl chain and the hydrophobic patch on the surface of the hydrophobin, and the hydrophilic interaction between the ethoxylated sorbitan headgroup and the hydrophilic regions on the surface of the hydrophobin. The results presented show that varying the degree of ethoxylation of the polysorbate surfactant changes the interaction between the surfactant and the hydrophobin and the packing, and hence the evolution in the resulting surface structure. The optimal degree of ethoxylation for multilayer formation is over a broad range, from of order 6 to 17 ethylene oxide groups, and for degrees of ethoxylation of 3 and 20 only monolayer adsorption of either the surfactant or the hydrophobin is observed.

  4. Partitioning behavior of an acid-cleavable, 1,3-dioxolane alkyl ethoxylate, surfactant in single and binary surfactant mixtures for 2- and 3-phase microemulsion systems according to ethoxylate head group size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Del Rio, Javier A [ORNL; Hayes, Douglas G [ORNL; Urban, Volker S [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Partition coefficients for a pH-degradable 1,3-dioxolane alkyl ethoxylate surfactant, 4-CH{sub 3}O (CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub 5.6}-CH{sub 2}, 2,2-(CH{sub 2}){sub 12}CH{sub 3}, 2-(CH{sub 2}) CH{sub 3}, 1,3-dioxolane or ''cyclic ketal'' surfactant, CK-2,13-E{sub 5.6,ave}, between isooctane- and water-rich phases of 2- and 3-phase microemulsion systems (K{sub n}) were determined as functions of the ethoxylate size, n, and temperature for the neat surfactant and its binary surfactant mixtures, to understand the partitioning of alkyl ethoxylates possessing a broad distribution of ethoxylate size and to determine conditions required for formation of 3-phase microemulsion systems at an optimal temperature where phase separation occurs rapidly, important for protein purification via proteins selective partitioning to the middle phase, driven by affinity to the second surfactant of the binary mixture. A semi-empirical thermodynamic mathematical model described the partitioning data well, provided optimal temperature values consistent with phase diagrams and theory, and demonstrated that the tail region of CK-2,13-E{sub 5.6,ave} is more polar than the hydrophobes of fatty alcohol ethoxylates. The addition of Aerosol-OT (AOT) removed the temperature sensitivity of CK-2,13-E{sub 5.6,ave}s partitioning, producing 3-phase microemulsion systems between 20 C and 40 C. Analysis of the bottom phases of the 2- and 3-phase microemulsion systems formed by CK-2,13-E{sub 5.6,ave} via small-angle neutron scattering demonstrated the presence of spherical, monodisperse oil-in-water microemulsions.

  5. Synthesis, Characterization of Mesoporous Al-Mg Composite Oxide and Catalytic Performance for Oxyethylation of Fatty Alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Wei-ming; DENG Qi-gang; ZHOU De-rui; ZHAO De-feng

    2005-01-01

    A mesoporous Al-Mg composite oxide with a hexagonal structure was synthesized with aluminium nitrate and magnesium nitrate as the reagents and sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS) as the template in the presence of ethylenediamine. The XRD, nitrogen adsorption-desorption and TEM studies indicate that the composite has a hexagonal framework structure and an average pore diameter of 2.6 nm. The TG/DTA spectra indicate that the decomposition and the removal of the occluded surfactant of the sample take place in a range of 230-550 ℃. The mesoporous Al-Mg composite oxide exhibites a highly catalytic activity for the oxyethylation of fatty alcohols. Narrow-range distributed ethoxylates are formed in the presence of the mesoporous Al-Mg composite oxide catalyst. The distribution selectivity coefficient(Cs) is 24 when the mesoporous Al-Mg composite oxide was used as a catalyst for the oxyethylation of octanol and the average adduct degree of ethoxylates is 6.4.

  6. Synthesis and Properties of Laurylbenzyl Ethoxylates%十二烷基苄基聚氧乙烯醚的合成与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙美玲; 梁雪芬; 胡学一; 岳成光

    2016-01-01

    Six kinds of laurylbenzyl ethoxylates(LBEOn) with different numbers, n, of ethylene oxide (EO) unit (n=4, 5, 7, 9, 11, or 13) were synthesized starting from laurylbenzyl alcohol by ethoxylation. The performance of surfactants were determined. Compared to the most commonly used alkylphenol ethoxylate, nonylphenol ethoxylate (trade name TX-10), LBEO9 has similar performance as TX-10. This LBEOn may be an effective alternative to TX-10.%研究了以十二烷基苄醇为原料进行乙氧基化反应,合成了6种具有不同乙氧基数(其乙氧基数分别为4,5,7,9,11和13)的十二烷基苄基聚氧乙烯醚(LBEOn)非离子表面活性剂,测定其性能并与最常用的烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚——壬基酚聚氧乙烯(9)醚(商品名TX-10)比较,发现乙氧基数为9的LBEOn的性能与TX-10接近,可能成为TX-10的有效替代品。

  7. Poly[bis(μ3-dodecyl sulfatocalcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genta Sakane

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound [Ca(C12H25O4S2]n, the unique CaII ion lies on an inversion center and is coordinated in a slightly distorted octahedral environment by six O atoms from dodecyl sulfate anions. The crystal structure is based on hydrocarbon (dodecyl sulfate layers which sandwich the CaII ions. Within the layers, the hydrocarbon zigzag chains are parallel to one another and interact via van der Waals forces.

  8. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  9. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  10. 21 CFR 172.834 - Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ethoxylated mono-and diglycerides (polyoxyethylene (20) mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids) (polyglycerate... labeling it shall be followed by either “polyoxyethylene (20) mono-and diglycerides of fatty acids” or... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD...

  11. Synthesis of Ethoxylated Carboxylates Under Reduced Pressure%减压法合成醇醚和酚醚羧酸盐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹素红; 刘云

    2001-01-01

    Ethoxylated carboxylates are excellent surfactants. Their synthetic method from ethoxylated alcohols, chlorocetic acid and sodium hydroxide under reduced pressure is described. The optimum technical conditions for carboxymethylation were studied.%醇醚和酚醚羧酸盐是一种性能温和、无毒、生物降解性表面活性剂。报道了以醇醚(酚醚)、一氯乙酸和氢氧化钠为原料通过减压除水法合成醇醚(酚醚)羧酸盐的方法和限制一氯乙酸钠的情况下合成反应的最佳条件。

  12. Comparison of Oleo- vs Petro-Sourcing of Fatty Alcohols via Cradle-to-Gate Life Cycle Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Jignesh; Arslan, Erdem; Cirucci, John; O’Brien, Julie; Moss, Dave

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol ethoxylates surfactants are produced via ethoxylation of fatty alcohol (FA) with ethylene oxide. The source of FA could be either palm kernel oil (PKO) or petrochemicals. The study aimed to compare the potential environmental impacts for PKO-derived FA (PKO-FA) and petrochemicals-derived FA (petro-FA). Cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment has been performed for this purpose because it enables understanding of the impacts across the life cycle and impact categories. The results show th...

  13. Mechanism study on UV-induced photodegradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates by intermediate products analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Chen; Hai Yun Zhou; Lan Liu; Qin Ying Deng

    2007-01-01

    Photodegradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP10EO) was investigated in laboratory scale under UV irradiation. The intermediate photodegradation products were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS. Three kinds of intermediate products including aldehydic compounds, carboxylic compounds and cyclohexanyl compounds were identified. Five main degradation routes involving the oxidation of the alkyl chain and ethoxylate unit, shortening of the alkyl chain and ethoxylate unit, hydrogenation of the benzene ring were proposed.

  14. Alkyl propoxy ethoxylate "graded" surfactants: micelle formation and structure in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Biswajit; Alexandridis, Paschalis

    2010-04-08

    The self-assembly of alkyl propoxy ethoxylate surfactants in aqueous solutions has been investigated with a focus on the (i) thermodynamics of micellization (critical micellization concentration; free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of micellization) and (ii) structure of the micelles (overall shape and size; local environment in the micelle core and corona) as affected by the surfactant composition (variation of degree of ethoxylation). The various results are compared to those for alkyl ethoxylate and poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide) amphiphiles with the aim to elucidate the role of the middle, propoxy, block in the novel alkyl propoxy ethoxylate surfactants which exhibit a "graded" hydrophobic-hydrophilic character.

  15. Synthesis and Ethoxylation of Poly Methyl Acrylate%聚丙烯酸甲酯齐聚物的合成及乙氧基化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜鹏飞; 孙永强; 康保安; 田春花; 刘广宇; 史修启; 张勇

    2011-01-01

    以四氩呋喃为溶剂,正十二硫醇为链转移剂,采用自由基溶液聚合的方法合成了聚丙烯酸甲酯齐聚物.考察了单体滴加时闻对黏均分子量的影响,确定滴加时间为40 min可以得到较低黏均分子量的聚丙烯酸甲酯齐聚物.在自制的插入式酯基乙氧基化催化荆MCT-09催化下成功地对聚丙烯酸甲酯齐聚物进行了乙氧基化反应.反应结果显示,随着反应进行,催化剂活性下降,乙氧基化反应速度逐渐降低.采用红外光谱对聚丙烯酸甲酯齐聚物及其乙氧基化物进行了结构表征.%Poly methyl acrylate(PMA) was synthesized by the method of free radical solvent polymerization using the tetrahydrofuran as solvent and the n-dodecyl mercaptan as chain transfer agent. The effect of the monomer dropping time on the viscosity molecular weight was tested. The results show that poly methyl acrylate with low viscosity molecular weight can be obtained when the monomer dropping time is set to be 40 minutes approximately.Following, with the help of self-made inserting ester ethoxylation catalyst MCT-09 the poly methyl acrylate is carriedout the ethoxylation successfully. The reaction results demonstrate that with the reaction carried through, the reaction rate decreases gradually due to the catalyst activity decline. Finally, the structure of the PMA and PMA ethoxylate was characterized by infrared spectrum(IR).

  16. Location of ethanol in sodium dodecyl sulfate aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU, Tian-Qing; YU, Wei-Li; GUO, Rong

    2000-01-01

    The hexagonal liquid crystalline phase of SDS ( Sodium dodecyl sulfate)/H2O system changes into lamellar liquid crystal and the effective length of surfactant molecule d0/2 in the lamellar liquid crystal decreases with the addition of ethanol.The micellar aggregation number N of SDS decreases and the micellar diffusion coefficient increases with the added ethanol.Under a constant concentration of SDS, the molecule number ratio of ethanol to SDS in the micelle increases with the concentration of ethanol and even exceeds 10 when ethanol concentration is 1.085 mol/L. All these results show that ethanol, even though a short chain alcohol and soluble in water, can partly exist in the interphase of the amphiphilic aggregates showing some properties of co-surfactant.

  17. Modifying the adsorption properties of anionic surfactants onto hydrophilic silica using the pH dependence of the polyelectrolytes PEI, ethoxylated PEI, and polyamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Taylor, Diana; Thomas, Robert; Penfold, Jeffrey; Tucker, Ian

    2011-04-05

    The manipulation of the adsorption of the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS, onto hydrophilic silica by the polyelectrolytes, polyethyleneimine, PEI, ethoxylated PEI, and the polyamine, pentaethylenehexamine, has been studied using neutron reflectometry. The adsorption of a thin PEI layer onto hydrophilic silica promotes a strong reversible adsorption of the SDS through surface charge reversal induced by the PEI at pH 7. At pH 2.4, a much thicker adsorbed PEI layer is partially swelled by the SDS, and the SDS adsorption is now no longer completely reversible. At pH 10, there is some penetration of SDS and solvent into a thin PEI layer, and the SDS adsorption is again not fully reversible. Ethoxylation of the PEI (PEI-EO(1) and PEI-EO(7)) results in a much weaker and fragile PEI and SDS adsorption at both pH 3 and pH 10, and both polymer and surfactant desorb at higher surfactant concentrations (>critical micellar concentration, cmc). For the polyamine, pentaethylenehexamine, adsorption of a layer of intermediate thickness is observed at pH 10, but at pH 3, no polyamine adsorption is evident; and at both pH 3 and pH 10, no SDS adsorption is observed. The results presented here show that, for the amine-based polyelectrolytes, polymer architecture, molecular weight, and pH can be used to manipulate the surface affinity for anionic surfactant (SDS) adsorption onto polyelectrolyte-coated hydrophilic silica surfaces.

  18. 75 FR 22234 - Phosphate Ester, Tallowamine, Ethoxylated; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Phosphate Ester, Tallowamine, Ethoxylated; Exemption from the Requirement of a... establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of phosphate ester, tallowamine..., ethoxylated, mixture of dihydrogen phosphate and monohydrogen phosphate esters and the corresponding...

  19. Determination of dodecylbenzenesulphonates and ethoxylated alkylphenols in liquid pesticide formulations by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, R H; Martijn, A

    1988-01-01

    A method is presented for determining mixtures of calcium dodecylbenzene-sulphonate (CaDBS) and ethoxylated alkylphenols in pesticidal emulsifiable concentrates. The pesticide formulations are adsorbed on a pre-concentration column. The active ingredients, the solvents and the emulsifiers are eluted successively by using solvents with increasing polarities. The various homologues of CaDBS and the ethoxylated alkylphenols are separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography using methanol-water containing tetramethylammonium bromide. The oligomers of the ethoxylated phenols are separated on an aminopropyl-modified column using a solvent gradient (propan-2-ol-water and hexane-tetrahydrofuran). Quantitative results are given for synthetic samples. The degree of ethoxylation of the ethoxylated alkylphenols has been determined and the CaDBS components characterized.

  20. Flotation of kaolinite with dodecyl tertiary amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xue-feng; LIU Chang-miao; HU Yue-hua

    2009-01-01

    The flotation of kaolinite using a series of tertiary amines (N,N-dimethyl-dodecyl amine (DRN), N,N-diethyl-dodecyl amine (DEN), N,N-dipropyl-dodecyl amine (DPN) and N,N-dibenzyl-bodecyi amine (DBN)) was investigated. The results show that the maximum recoveries of kaolinite for DEN, DPN and DRN are 93%, 88% and 84%, respectively, but that of DBN is very low. On the basis of zeta potential and FT-IR spectra, the ionization of surface hydroxyl and isomorphic exchange of surface ions account for the charging mechanisms of kaolinite surface. The adsorption mechanism of tertiary amines on kaolinite surface is mainly electrostatic. The isoelectric point (IEP) of kaolinite increases from 3.4 to some more positive points after the interaction of kaolinite with the four tertiary amines. The FT-IR spectra of kaolinite change with the presence of some new sharp shapes belonging to the tertiary amines. The inductive electronic effects and space-steric effects of -CH_3, -C_2H_5, -C_3H_7 and -C_7H_7 bonding to N atom result in different collecting power of the four tertiary amines.

  1. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases an

  2. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes that come from drinking alcohol can make people do stupid or embarrassing things, like throwing up or peeing on themselves. Drinking also gives people bad breath, and no one enjoys a hangover. ...

  3. Comparative toxicity of nonylphenol, nonylphenol-4-ethoxylate and nonylphenol-10-ethoxylate to wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingming; Wang, Feifei; Xue, Changhui; Wang, Caixia; Chi, Shengqi; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2016-09-01

    Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) are a group of surfactants that are widely used in industrial and household products and often detected in the environment. The metabolite of NPEOs, named nonylphenol (NP), has proven to be an endocrine disruptor, and its environmental behavior and eco-toxicity have been widely investigated in previous studies. However, to the best of our knowledge, insight into the toxicity differences of NP and NPEOs on important crops remains limited. Therefore, this study investigated the comparative toxicity of NP, nonylphenol-4-ethoxylate (NP4EO), and nonylphenol-10-ethoxylate (NP10EO) on wheat seedlings using hydroponic experiments. The results indicated that NP is most toxic to wheat followed by NP4EO, and NP10EO is the least toxic to wheat. The adverse effects of NP on wheat were observed for all the tested parameters including germination, shoot length, root length, chlorophyll, lipid peroxidation, and enzymatic activities. To gain insight into the molecular response, we analyzed the transcript abundance of SOD-Cu/Zn and CAT with NP, NP4EO, and NP10EO exposure using quantitative real-time PCR. The data revealed that both genes exhibited up- or down-regulated expression patterns that were consistent with the activities of the two enzymes. This result further conformed that NP is most toxic to wheat plants.

  4. Degradation pathways of low-ethoxylated nonylphenols by isolated bacteria using an improved method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Gu, Xin; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) with low ethoxylation degree (NPav₂EO; containing two ethoxy units on average) and estrogenic properties are the intermediate products of nonionic surfactant NPEOs. To better understand the environmental fate of low-ethoxylated NPEOs, phylogenetically diverse low-ethoxylated NPEO-degrading bacteria were isolated from activated sludge using gellan gum as the gelling reagent. Four isolates belonging to four genera, i.e., Pseudomonas sp. NP522b in γ-Proteobacteria, Variovorax sp. NP427b and Ralstonia sp. NP47a in β-Proteobacteria, and Sphingomonas sp. NP42a in α-Proteobacteria were acquired. Ralstonia sp. NP47a or Sphingomonas sp. NP42a, have not been reported for the degradation of low-ethoxylated NPEOs previously. The biotransformation pathways of these isolates were investigated. The first three strains (NP522b, NP427b, and NP47a) exhibited high NPav₂EO oxidation ability by oxidizing the polyethoxy (EO) chain to form low-ethoxylated nonylphenoxy carboxylates, and then further oxidizing the alkyl chain to form carboxyalkylphenol polyethoxycarboxylates. Furthermore, Sphingomonas sp. NP42a degraded NPav2EO through a nonoxidative pathway with nonylphenol monoethoxylate as the dominant product.

  5. Preparation of Barley Storage Protein, Hordein, for Analytical Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Andersen, Bente

    1981-01-01

    The extraction, reduction, and alkylation of barley hordein for routine electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were studied to set up a simple preparation procedure giving well-resolved bands in the electrophoresis gel. Hordein was extracted from single crushed seeds or flour...... by aqueous 50% propan-2-ol containing a Tris-borate buffer, pH 8.6. The presence of the buffer facilitates the consecutive complete reduction of the extracted protein in the alcohol. Reduction and alkylation in the buffer containing propan-2-ol give sharper bands in the electrophoresis than reduction...

  6. A combined binding mechanism of nonionic ethoxylated surfactants to bovine serum albumin revealed by fluorescence and circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovescu, Alina; Băran, Adriana; Stîngă, Gabriela; Cantemir-Leontieş, Anca Ruxandra; Maxim, Monica Elisabeta; Anghel, Dan Florin

    2015-12-01

    The study systematically investigates aqueous mixtures of fixed bovine serum albumin (BSA) and various ethoxylated nonionic surfactants belonging to a homologous series or not. Mono-disperse tetra-(C12E4), hexa-(C12E6) and octa-ethyleneglycol mono-n-dodecyl ether (C12E8), and poly-disperse eicosa-ethyleneglycol mono-n-tetradecyl ether (C14EO20) are respectively employed. Fluorescence and circular dichroism measurements are performed at surfactant/protein molar ratios (rm)s lower and higher than one. We aim to get new insights into the binding mechanism of these species and to differentiate among the interaction abilities of these surfactants. The relative magnitude of the binding thermodynamic parameters by fluorescence, and the increase of α-helix prove that hydrogen bonding drives the interaction next to the hydrophobic attraction. C12En (n=4,6,8) develop more H bonds with the albumin than C14EO20 owing to a zigzag conformation of their short ethyleneoxide chains. Among the homologous surfactants, C12E6 has a slightly stronger interaction with BSA due to a maximal number of H bonds at a minimal hindering. Static fluorescence and dynamic fluorescence indicate an inter-conversion between the tryptophan (Trp) rotamers which happens around the surfactants critical micellar concentration. For C14EO20, the meander conformation of the polar group determines a less evident conversion of the Trp rotamers and smaller α-helix rise. Binding isotherms of the homologous surfactants and the fluorescence quenching mechanism by C12E6 are also provided.

  7. Colloidal particles derived from a complex of phosphotungstic Acid and ethoxylated surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Maura A; Smith, Thomas W; Croucher, Melvin; Langner, Andreas; Miri, Massoud; Klymachyov, Alex; Kaplan, Sam; Tshudy, Dwight

    2002-09-01

    Stable, colloidal sols of submicron size were prepared by titration of aqueous solutions of alkylene oxide surfactants with phosphotungstic acid, H(3)PW(12)O(40) (PTA), followed by neutralization with ammonium or potassium hydroxide. The stoichiometry of the complex between phosphotungstic acid and the ethoxylated surfactant was determined by (1)H and (31)P NMR and was dependent upon the degree of ethoxylation. For example, in the ethoxylated octylphenol having 9-10 ethylene oxide units, Triton X-100, the mole ratio of surfactant to PTA was 4.5. In the ethoxylated octylphenol having 70 ethylene oxide units, Triton X-705, the mole ratio of surfactant to PTA was 1. Prior to nucleation of particles, phosphotungstic acid forms an apparent yellow charge transfer complex with ethoxylated alkylphenol surfactants, typified by Triton X-405. This complex is characterized by an absorption spectrum that is the sum of the spectra of Triton X-405 and PTA with a very weak shoulder at 400-500 nm. Particles were nearly monodisperse and their size was dependent on the nonionic surfactant employed, the heteropolyacid, and the rate of addition of heteropolyacid solution.

  8. Production of mono- and di-carboxylated polyethylene glycols as a factor obstacle to the successful ozonation-assisted biodegradation of ethoxylated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Satoshi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2015-10-01

    Ozonation is believed to improve the biodegradability of organic compounds. In the present study, degradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) was monitored in hybrid treatment systems consisting of ozonation and microbial degradation processes. We found that ozonation of NPEOs decreased, rather than increased, the biodegradability under certain conditions. The timing of ozonation was a definitive factor in determining whether ozonation increased or decreased the biodegradation rates of NPEOs. Initial ozonation of NPEOs prior to biodegradation reduced the rate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal during the subsequent 14 d of biodegradation, whereas intermediate ozonation at the 9th day of biodegradation improved subsequent DOC removal during 14 d of NPEO biodegradation. Furthermore, reduction of DOC removal was also observed, when initial ozonation prior to biodegradation was subjected to cetyl alcohol ethoxylates. The production of less biodegradable intermediates, such as mono- and dicarboxylated polyethylene glycols (MCPEGs and DCPEGs), was responsible for the negative effect of ozonation on biodegradability of NPEOs. DCPEGs and MCPEGs were produced by biodegradation of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) that were ozonolysis products of the NPEOs, and the biodegradability of DCPEGs and MCPEGs was less than that of the precursor PEGs. The results indicate that, if the target chemicals contain ethoxy chains, production of PEGs may be one of the important factors when ozonation is considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Degradation behaviors of nonylphenol ethoxylates by isolated bacteria using improved isolation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xin; ZHANG Yu; ZHANG Jing; YANG Min; Hideyuki Tamaki; Yoichi Kamagata

    2008-01-01

    Nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO)-degrading bacteria were isolated from activated sludge using an improved isolation method, and the corresponding degradation behaviours were investigated. Eight NPEO-degrading strains distributed in genera Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Sphingobium, Cupriavidus, Ralstonia, Achromobacter, and Staphylococcus were acquired. The latter five genera have never been reported for the degradation of NPEOs. Four degradation patterns were observed for the eight pure strains. In pattern A, NPEOs were converted to short-chain NPEOs and carboxylated products, while in pattern B, lower ethoxylated oligomers appeared. Nonylphenol monoethoxylate was the main product in pattern C, while in pattern D ethoxylated units was oxidized but not shortened. Pattern C and D have not yet been reported.

  10. Naval Research Reviews. Volume XXXIV. Number 2,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Garti, Cazali Inst., monolaurate Jerusalem C Brij 35 Ethoxylated (23)- lauryl - alcohol N. Garti, Cazali Inst., Jerusalem D 10.G.1.0 Deca-glycerol...in the present study Commercial Code Name Generic Name Source A SDS Sodium-dodecyl-sulfate Sigma Company, USA B Tween 20 Ethoxylated (20)-sorbitan- N...Steroidic glycosides Sigma Company, USA G Myrj 59 Ethoxylated (100)-stearate N. Garti, Cazali Inst., Jerusalem H Triton X 100 lso-octyl-phenoxy

  11. SODIUM DI-N-DODECYL PHOSPHATE VESICLES IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTION - EFFECTS OF ETHANOL, PROPANOL, AND TETRAHYDROFURAN ON THE GEL TO LIQUID-PHASE TRANSITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BLANDAMER, MJ; BRIGGS, B; BUTT, MD; WATERS, M; CULLIS, PM; ENGBERTS, JBFN; HOEKSTRA, D; MOHANTY, RK

    1994-01-01

    For aqueous solutions containing vesicles formed by sodium di-n-dodecyl phosphate, the gel to liquid-crystal transition occurs near 35 degrees C, the temperature T-m. When ethanol is added, T-m decreases, but the scan shows evidence of several transitions as more alcohol is added. The effect of adde

  12. Surface and thermodynamic properties of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium dodecyl sulphonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janczuk, B. [Dept. de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain); Gonzalez-Martin, M.L. [Dept. de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain); Bruque, J.M. [Dept. de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain); Dorado-Calasanz, C. [Dept. de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain)

    1996-09-01

    Determinations of the surface tension of aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium dodecyl sulphonate were made in the presence of a neutral salt (NaCl; 0.1 M) at 20 C. On the basis of these determinations the isotherms and the standard thermodynamic parameters of adsorption were determined. The equation of state for a monolayer film of the studied surfactants was also discussed. A linear dependence was found between log {Gamma} and log c in the range of low surfactant concentrations. The limiting value of {Pi} (A-A{sub 0}) was found to be 1 kT in contrary to the case in which the solutions were made in the absence of neutral salt. It has been suggested that there are not only attractive forces of the Lifshitz-van der Waals type but also acid-base forces which can affect the {Pi} parameter. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Grenzflaechenspannung waessriger Loesungen von Natriumdodecylsulfat und Natriumdodecylsulfonat bei 20 C in Gegenwart eines Neutralsalzes (0,1 M NaCl) wurde bestimmt. Auf der Grundlage dieser Messungen wurden die Isothermen und die thermodynamischen Standardgroessen der Adsorption ermittelt. Die Zustandsgleichung fuer einen monomolekularen Film der untersuchten Tenside wird diskutiert. Es wurde eine lineare Beziehung zwischen log {Gamma} und log c fuer niedrige Tensidkonzentrationen gefunden. Ferner wurde festgestellt, dass der Grenzwert von {Pi} (A-A{sub 0}) in den Loesungen gleich 1 kT ist, anders als bei Abwesenheit eines Neutralsalzes. Daraus wurde geschlossen, dass nicht nur Anziehungskraefte des Lifshitz-van der Waals-Typs vorliegen, sondern auch Saeure-Base-Kraefte, die die {Pi}-Parameter beeinflussen koennen. (orig.)

  13. 75 FR 74628 - Tristyrylphenol Ethoxylates; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... share a close structural similarity and same functional groups with the only difference being in the..., the Agency applied a correction factor of 3x to the citrus crop group to account for the potentially... tristyrylphenol ethoxylate, a conservative drinking water concentration value of 100 ppb based on screening level...

  14. SEPARATION OF T-MAZ ETHOXYLATED SORBITAN FATTY ACID ESTERS BY SUPERCRITICAL FLUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) to the analysis of T-MAZ ethoxylated sorbitan fatty acid esters is described. FC separation methods utilize a density programming technique and a 50 um I.D. capillary column. his work demonstrates that capillary column S...

  15. Mobility of alkali cations in polypyrrole-dodecyl sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupila, E.L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20500 Turku (Finland); Kankare, J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20500 Turku (Finland)

    1995-03-01

    Due to the immobility of the large dodecyl sulfate anion, the mobile ions in polypyrrole-dodecyl sulfate are small ions from the solution. Virgin PP-dodecyl sulfate does not contain other ionic species, but already the first reduction causes the incorporation of cations into the membrane. Using in situ AC conductimetry on a double-band platinum electrode, we show that the insertion of cations from the solution into the PP membrane proceeds as a non-conducting zone advancing from the solution interface toward the substrate. The model allows to estimate ion mobilities in the membrane giving 8.6x10{sup -7}cm{sup 2}s{sup -1}V{sup -1} for K{sup +}. (orig.)

  16. DIRECT ETHOXYLATION OF GLYCEROL MONO OLEATE FROM PALM OIL DERIVATE AS A NOVEL NON-IONIC POLYMERIC SURFACTANT

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The work investigates ethoxylation of glycerol mono oleate (GMO) performed in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. Glycerol mono oleate applied was derivated from Indonesian palm oil. The reaction was conducted with variation of Glycerol mono oleate : ethylene oxide ratio, temperature, and catalyst concentration. Forier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis showed products with degrees of ethoxylation n=2 and n=3. FTIR analysis of products gave a new peak a...

  17. Anaerobic degradation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) by denitrifying bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, A.; Plugge, C.M.; Garcia Encina, P.A.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Two denitrifying bacteria were isolated using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as substrate. Strains SN1 and SN2 were isolated from an activated sludge reactor of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with Anaerobic–Anoxic–Oxic (A2/O) steps. Based on 16S rRNA gene analysis strain SN1 is 99% similar to Pse

  18. Electronic Conductivity of Polypyrrole−Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Keld; Bay, Lasse; Nielsen, Martin Meedom

    2004-01-01

    The electronic conductivity of the electroactive polymer polypyrrole-dodecyl benzene sulfonate (PPy-DBS) has been characterized as function of the redox level. The polymer was synthesized with different isomers of the dopant anions: the common mixed DBS tenside and three well-defined synthetic...

  19. Anaerobic degradation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) by denitrifying bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, A.; Plugge, C.M.; Garcia Encina, P.A.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Two denitrifying bacteria were isolated using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as substrate. Strains SN1 and SN2 were isolated from an activated sludge reactor of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with Anaerobic–Anoxic–Oxic (A2/O) steps. Based on 16S rRNA gene analysis strain SN1 is 99% similar to

  20. Low Temperature Aqueous Solution-Processed ZnO and Polyethylenimine Ethoxylated Cathode Buffer Bilayer for High Performance Flexible Inverted Organic Solar Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hailong You; Junchi Zhang; Zeyulin Zhang; Chunfu Zhang; Zhenhua Lin; Jingjing Chang; Genquan Han; Jincheng Zhang; Gang Lu; Yue Hao

    2017-01-01

    High performance flexible inverted organic solar cells (OSCs) employing the low temperature cathode buffer bilayer combining the aqueous solution-processed ZnO and polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE...

  1. Oxidation of polyvinylpyrrolidone and an ethoxylate surfactant in phase-inversion wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loraine, Gregory A

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, components of an industrial wastewater that cause operational problems during biological treatment were oxidized by UV light and hydrogen peroxide (UV/H202). Preoxidation of wastewater was shown to remove polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and ethoxylate surfactant and increase overall biodegradability. Several UV intensities and hydrogen peroxide concentrations were tested to find optimal conditions for the complete depolymerization of PVP in a synthetic wastewater composed of high concentrations of hydroxyl radical scavengers. To compare treatment options, absorption isotherms for PVP on granular activated carbon (GAC) in water and in the synthetic phase-inversion wastewater matrix were determined. The data were extrapolated to estimate the cost of using UV/H2O2, GAC, or off-site treatment. It was found that UV/H2O2 pretreatment was economically viable. Incomplete oxidation of an ethoxylate surfactant increased foaming tendency and foam stability; however, extended oxidation (> 90 minutes) destroyed the foam.

  2. Detailed molecular characterization of castor oil ethoxylates by liquid chromatography multistage mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasioudis, Andreas; van Velde, Jan W; Heeren, Ron M A; van den Brink, Oscar F

    2011-10-07

    The molecular characterization of castor oil ethoxylates (CASEOs) was studied by reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) mass spectrometry (MS) and multistage mass spectrometry (MS(n)). The developed RPLC method allowed the separation of the various CASEO components, and especially, the baseline separation of multiple nominal isobars (same nominal mass) and isomers (same exact mass). MS and MS(n) were used for the determination and structure elucidation of various structures and for the discrimination of the isobars and isomers. Different ionization techniques and adduct ions were also tested for optimization of the MS detection and the MS(n) fragmentation. A unique fragmentation pathway of ricinoleic acid is proposed, which can be used as a marker of the polymerization process and the topology of ethoxylation in the CASEO. In addition, characteristic neutral losses of ricinoleic acid reveal its (terminal or internal) position in the molecule.

  3. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  4. Comparison of Typical Ethoxylation Processes%典型乙氧基化工艺对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓东; 尤成宏; 李宁; 吴华远; 李元明; 马国权

    2013-01-01

    Ethoxylation reaction is the most important process for producing non-ionic surface active agent. Ethoxylate can be obtained by the reaction between ethylene oxide (EO) and organic compounds containing active hydrogen in the presence of the catalyst. In the field of ethoxylation, beginning from the first stirring tank reactor, reactor safety, product diversity and selectivity force designers to continuously improve design to make all kinds of new reactors. In this paper, typical ethoxylation reactors and processes at home and abroad were mainly analyzed, and their respective characteristics were discussed.%  乙氧基化反应是生产非离子表面活性剂最重要的技术,乙氧基化物由环氧乙烷(EO)在催化剂的作用下与含活泼氢的有机化合物反应制得。在乙氧基化领域,从起初的搅拌釜式反应器开始,反应器安全性、产品多样性及可选择性等方面的要求迫使设计师们不断改进设计,使得各种各样的新式反应器不断涌现,本文主要对目前国际国内典型乙氧基化反应器及工艺技术进行对比分析,指出各自所具有的特点

  5. Micellization of alkyl-propoxy-ethoxylate surfactants in water-polar organic solvent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Biswajit; Lam, Stephanie; Alexandridis, Paschalis

    2010-07-06

    The effects of cosolvents (glycerol, ethanol, and isopropanol) on the self-assembly of novel alkyl-propoxy-ethoxylate surfactants in aqueous solutions have been investigated with a focus on the (i) quantification of solvent effects on the critical micelle concentration (cmc), (ii) free-energy contributions to micellization, (iii) local environment in the micellar solution, and (iv) structure of the micelles. The introduction of the polar organic solvents considered in this work into water decreases cohesive forces in the solvent mixture, resulting in an increase in the solubility of the surfactant molecules. As a result, micelle formation becomes less favorable and the cmc increases. The contribution of the cosolvent to the free energy of micellization is positive, and the data for different mixed solvents collapse onto a single straight line when plotted versus a function of the solubility parameters of the surfactant alkyl chains and the mixed solvents. The behavior of the poly(propylene oxide) part of the alkyl-propoxy-ethoxylate surfactants is hydrophilic, albeit less so in the ethanol-water mixed solvent than in plain water. Pyrene fluorescence emission I(1)/I(3) data suggest that the microenvironment in micellar solutions is affected mainly by the cosolvent concentration, not the surfactant degree of ethoxylation. Small-angle X-ray scattering data for both water and ethanol-water surfactant solutions are consistent with oblate ellipsoid micelles and reveal that the introduction of 20% ethanol decreases the micelle long axis by 10-15%.

  6. 脂肪醇醚市场分析%Market analysis of fatty alcohol ethoxylates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓东; 尤成宏; 刘伟

    2013-01-01

    介绍了脂肪醇醚的生产情况和市场动向,对国内主要脂肪醇醚企业的产能、产量及销售情况进行了详细的分析.最后,对脂肪醇醚主要产品的价格走势和发展趋势进行了预测.

  7. Spontaneous surface self-assembly in protein-surfactant mixtures: interactions between hydrophobin and ethoxylated polysorbate surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Ian M; Petkov, Jordan T; Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Li, Peixun; Cox, Andrew R; Hedges, Nick; Webster, John R P

    2014-05-01

    The synergistic interactions between certain ethoxylated polysorbate nonionic surfactants and the protein hydrophobin result in spontaneous self-assembly at the air-water interface to form layered surface structures. The surface structures are characterized using neutron reflectivity. The formation of the layered surface structures is promoted by the hydrophobic interaction between the polysorbate alkyl chain and the hydrophobic patch on the surface of the globular hydrophobin and the interaction between the ethoxylated sorbitan headgroup and hydrophilic regions of the protein. The range of the ethoxylated polysorbate concentrations over which the surface ordering occurs is a maximum for the more hydrophobic surfactant polyoxyethylene(8) sorbitan monostearate. The structures at the air-water interface are accompanied by a profound change in the wetting properties of the solution on hydrophobic substrates. In the absence of the polysorbate surfactant, hydrophobin wets a hydrophobic surface, whereas the hydrophobin/ethoxylated polysorbate mixtures where multilayer formation occurs result in a significant dewetting of hydrophobic surfaces. The spontaneous surface self-assembly for hydrophobin/ethoxylated polysorbate surfactant mixtures and the changes in surface wetting properties provide a different insight into protein-surfactant interactions and potential for manipulating surface and interfacial properties and protein surface behavior.

  8. Use of highly saline ethoxylated surfactant system for oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisberg, J.

    1970-03-17

    An aqueous solution of a sulfated polyoxylated primary alcohol and a soluble inorganic electrolyte was used for enhanced oil recovery. The electrolyte should be present in a concentration exceeding the critical concentration for forming a two-phase coacervate system, by an amount sufficient to convert the two-phase system to a turbid dispersion. The dispersion permits an interfacial tension with petroleum of 10/sup -4/ dynes/cm. A berea core (400 md) was flooded to residual oil saturation before flooding with a 4 M sodium chloride brine which contained Tergitol 15-S4 (4 ethylene oxide units, sodium salt). A 1 PV slug of the surfactant solution left only about 7 percent PV of oil.

  9. Genotoxic effects of 2-dodecyl cyclobutanone; Genotoxizitaet von 2-Dodecylcyclobutanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delincee, H.; Pool-Zobel, B.L.; Rechkemmer, G. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Ernaehrung, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Ernaehrungsphysiologie

    1999-07-01

    The paper reports in vivo experiments with rats who received two different doses of 2-dodecyl cyclobutane administered orally. 16 hours after administration, colon cells were isolated and examined for DNA damage by means of the comet assay. No cytotoxic effects were found with the trypan blue exclusion test. When the '% tail intensity' or the 'tail moment' were used for quantitative analysis with the comet assay, it was found that similar results are obtained for the test group which received a lower dose of 2-dodecyl cyclobutane (1.12 mg/kg of body weight) and the control group which received 2% dimethyl sulfoxide. Administration of higher concentrations of the 2-dodecyl cyclobutane (14.9 mg/kg of body weight) was found to induce minor, but significant DNA damage in the test group. Further experiments will be needed in order to assess the relevance of these results for assessment of health risks due to consumption of irradiated food. (orig./CB) [German] In dieser Arbeit wurden in vivo-Versuche an Ratten, die zwei Dosierungen an 2-Dodecylcyclobutanon per Schlundsonde erhielten, durchgefuehrt. Nach 16-stuendiger Einwirkung wurden Kolonzellen aus den Ratten isoliert und mit Hilfe des Comet Assay auf DNA-Schaeden analysiert. Zytotoxische Effekte wurden bei der Anwendung des Trypanblau-Ausschlusstests nicht festgestellt. Wenn im Comet Assay zur quantitativen Auswertung das '% tail intensity' oder das 'tail moment' eingesetzt wurde, wurde bei der Versuchsgruppe, die eine niedrigere Konzentration des 2-Dodecylcyclobutanons (1,12 mg/kg Koerpergewicht) erhielt, aehnliche Werte wie bei der Kontrollgruppe, die 2% Dimethylsulfoxid verabreicht bekamen, beobachtet. Bei der hoeheren Konzentration des 2-Dodecylcyclobutanons (14,9 mg/kg Koerpergewicht) wurde in der Versuchsgruppe eine geringe, aber signifikante DNA-Schaedigung festgestellt. Weiterfuehrende Untersuchungen sind erforderlich, um die Relevanz dieser Ergebnisse fuer eine

  10. DIRECT ETHOXYLATION OF GLYCEROL MONO OLEATE FROM PALM OIL DERIVATE AS A NOVEL NON-IONIC POLYMERIC SURFACTANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joddy Arya Laksmono

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The work investigates ethoxylation of glycerol mono oleate (GMO performed in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. Glycerol mono oleate applied was derivated from Indonesian palm oil. The reaction was conducted with variation of Glycerol mono oleate : ethylene oxide ratio, temperature, and catalyst concentration. Forier Transform Infra Red (FTIR and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR analysis showed products with degrees of ethoxylation n=2 and n=3. FTIR analysis of products gave a new peak at 1570 cm-1 supporting that C-O-C bond was formed. New peaks were also observed in 13-C-NMR analysis of run 2 and run 3 with chemical shift of (δ 61.3385; 61.9108; 62.5117; 63.8566; 66.0982; 72.6127 and 61.2172; 63.2393; 65.9100; 72.5201, respectively. Glycerol mono oleate ethoxylated was yielded and could be useful for a novel non-ionic polymeric surfactant.

  11. Copolymerization of Styrene with Dodecyl Methacrylate and Octadecyl Methacrylate

    OpenAIRE

    Vidović, Elvira; SARIĆ, Karla; JANOVIĆ, Zvonimir

    2002-01-01

    Styrene (Sty) was copolymerized with dodecyl methacrylate (DDMA) and with octadecyl methacrylate (ODMA) in toluene solution using 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) as a free radical initiator over a wide composition and conversion range. The copolymer composi-tion was determined from NMR spectra. The copolymerization reactivity ratios were found to be r1 = 0.52 (Sty) and r2 = 0.42 (DDMA) for the Sty-DDMA system, and r1 = 0.58 (Sty) and r2 = 0.45 (ODMA) for the Sty-ODMA system, showing a te...

  12. Complexation between dodecyl sulfate surfactant and zein protein in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruso, Juan M; Deo, Namita; Somasundaran, P

    2004-10-12

    Interactions between sodium dodecyl sulfate and zein protein, a model system for the understanding of the effect of surfactants on skin, were investigated using a range of techniques involving UV-vis spectroscopy, TOC (total organic carbon analysis), electrophoresis, and static and dynamic light scattering. Zein protein was solubilized by SDS. The adsorption of SDS onto insoluble protein fraction caused the zeta potential of the complex to become more negative. From these values, we calculated the Gibbs energy of absorption, which decreases when the SDS concentration is raised. Finally the structure of the complex, based on the analysis by static and dynamic light scattering, is proposed to be rod like.

  13. New hydrophilic interaction/reversed-phase mixed-mode stationary phase and its application for analysis of nonionic ethoxylated surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Pohl, Christopher

    2008-05-16

    We have developed a new stationary phase that combines both hydrophilic interaction and reversed-phase characteristics. The new phase is based on high-purity, porous and spherical silica gel functionalized with a silyl ligand consisting of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic functionalities. This phase can be operated in both HILIC mode (high organic solvent) and RPLC mode (low organic solvent). An optimal balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties on the silica surface provides unique chromatographic properties that make it useful for determination of alkyl chain distribution and degree of ethoxylation (EO number) of nonionic ethoxylated surfactants.

  14. Releases of selected alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates and use in consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Carsten; Warming, Marlies; Fauser, Patrik

    EPA has initiated a survey of emissions of alkylphenols and al-kylphenol ethoxylates from all life cycle stages of the substances and a survey of the use of the sub-stances in consumer products. The main objectives of the surveys are:  to establish an overview of the releases of the AP....... The surveys have been undertaken by COWI A/S in co-operation with the National Centre for Ener-gy and Environment (DCE), Aarhus University. The project has been followed by a steering group consisting of:  Sidsel Dyekjær, Danish EPA  Carsten Lassen, COWI A/S  Patrik Fauser, DCE...

  15. Determination of free and ethoxylated alkylphenols in leather with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, He-Wei; Cheng, Ya

    2010-12-10

    An analytical approach was developed to determine nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEO(n)) and octylphenol ethoxylates (OPEO(n)) in leather samples involving the conversion of NPEO(n) and OPEO(n) into the corresponding NP and OP. The four targets were extracted from samples using ultrasonic-assisted acetonitrile extraction. NP and OP in the extracts were directly isolated with hexane and quantitatively determined with 4-n-nonylphenol as internal standard by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For NPEO(n) and OPEO(n) in the extracts, they were first converted into NP and OP with aluminum triiodide as cleavage agent, and the yielded NP and OP were determined by GC-MS. The contents of NPEO(n) and OPEO(n) were calculated by normalizing to NPEO(9) and OPEO(9), respectively. This method was properly validated and the real sample tests revealed the pollution significance of leather by NPEO(n) and OPEO(n).

  16. Estimation of interfacial acidity of sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arghya Dey; G Naresh Patwari

    2011-11-01

    An enhancement in the excited state proton transfer (ESPT) processes of coumarin-102 (C-102) dye was observed upon addition of salicylic acid and hydrochloric acid in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solution. The phenomenon was observed only in the micellar medium of anionic surfactant SDS and not in case of cationic (CTAB) or neutral (Trition X -100) surfactants. ESPT of C-102 was also observed in aqueous solutions but on addition of very high concentrations of hydrochloric acid. However, on comparing the ratio of the protonated species from the emission spectra in the presence and absence of SDS micelle, a conclusive estimation of the local proton concentration at the Stern layer of SDS micelles could be evaluated.

  17. Ionic quenching of naphthalene fluorescence in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alessandra F; Fiedler, Haidi D; Nome, Faruk

    2011-03-31

    Micellar effects on luminescense of organic compounds or probes are well established, and here we show that quenching is highly favored in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles, which concentrate a naphthalene probe and cations of lanthanides, transition metals, and noble metals. Interactions have been studied by steady state and time-resolved fluorescence in examining the fluorescence suppression of naphthalene by metal ions in anionic SDS micelles. The quenching is collisional and correlated with the unit charge and the reduction potential of the metal ion. The rate constants, calculated in terms of local metal ion concentrations, are close to the diffusion control limit in the interior of SDS micelles, where the microscopic viscosity decreases the transfer rate, following the Stokes-Einstein relation.

  18. Complexation between sodium dodecyl sulfate and amphoteric polyurethane nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yong; Zhang, Shifeng; Lin, Ouya; Deng, Liandong; Dong, Anjie

    2007-09-27

    The complexation between negatively charged sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and positively charged amphoteric polyurethane (APU) self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) containing nonionic hydrophobic segments is studied by dynamic light scattering, pyrene fluorescent probing, zeta-potential, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in the present paper. With increasing the mol ratio of SDS to the positive charges on the surface of APU NPs, the aqueous solution of APU NPs presents precipitation at pH 2, around stoichiometric SDS concentration, and then the precipitate dissociates with excess SDS to form more stable nanoparticles of ionomer complexes. Three stages of the complexation process are clearly shown by the pyrene I1/I3 variation of the complex systems, which only depends on the ratio of SDS/APU, and demonstrate that the process is dominated by electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic aggregation.

  19. Optimization of Ethoxylation Reaction Process Conditions%乙氧基化反应工艺条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱梁华; 吕海丽

    2016-01-01

    对乙氧基化反应机理及反应特点进行了研究,进而分析了催化剂、反应温度、反应压力及传质等因素对乙氧基化反应速率的影响;通过对乙氧基化反应回路换热器热量衡算,对乙氧基化反应工艺条件优化进行了探讨。结果表明:提高反应温度及压力,有利于乙氧基化反应速率的提高;采用冷却水作为换热介质,在换热量不变的情况下,冷却水的用量约为导热油用量的48%,可以起到降耗的作用。%The mechanism and characteristics of ethoxylation reaction were studied,and the effects of influencing factors such as catalyst,reaction temperature,reaction pressure and mass transfer on ethoxylation reaction rate were further analyzed.Based on the heat balance of ethoxylation reaction loop heat exchanger,the optimization of ethoxylation reaction process conditions was discussed.Results showed that increasing the reaction temperature and pressure were beneficial to the improvement of the ethoxylation reaction rate;and the amount of consumption of cooling water is approximate 48% of the conduction oil under the condition of the constant heat transfer if taking the cooling water as heat transfer medium,which could save energy and reduce consumption.

  20. Production of ethoxylated fatty acids derived from Jatropha non-edible oil as a nonionic fat-liquoring agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shattory, Y; Abo-Elwafa, Ghada A; Aly, Saadia M; Nashy, El-Shahat H A

    2012-01-01

    Natural fatty derivatives (oleochemicals) have been used as intermediate materials in several industries replacing the harmful and expensive petrochemicals. Fatty ethoxylates are one of these natural fatty derivatives. In the present work Jatropha fatty acids were derived from the non edible Jatropha oil and used as the fat source precursor. The ethoxylation process was carried out on the derived fatty acids using a conventional cheap catalyst (K₂CO₃) in order to obtain economically and naturally valuable non-ionic surfactants. Ethoxylation reaction was proceeded using ethylene oxide gas in the presence of 1 or 2% K₂CO₃ catalyst at 120 and 145°C for 5, 8 and 12 hours. The prepared products were evaluated for their chemical and physical properties as well as its application as non- ionic fat-liquoring agents in leather industry. The obtained results showed that the number of ethylene oxide groups introduced in the fatty acids as well as their EO% increased as the temperature and time of the reaction increased. The highest ethoxylation number was obtained at 145°C for 8 hr. Also, the prepared ethoxylated products were found to be effective fat-liquors with high HLB values giving stable oil in water emulsions. The fat-liquored leather led to an improvement in its mechanical properties such as tensile strength and elongation at break. In addition, a significant enhancement in the texture of the treated leather by the prepared fat-liquors as indicated from the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images was observed.

  1. Asr1, an alcohol-responsive factor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is dispensable for alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Shingo; Ikeda, Kayo; Kita, Takeomi; Inoue, Yoshiharu

    2006-09-01

    Yeast Asr1 is the first reported protein whose intracellular distribution changes specifically in response to alcohol (Betz et al. (2004) J Biol Chem 279:28174-28181). It was reported that Asr1 is required for tolerance to alcohol and plays an important role in the alcohol stress response. Therefore, Asr1 is of interest to brewers and winegrowers attempting to improve the techniques of alcoholic fermentation. We verified the importance of Asr1 in the alcohol stress response during alcoholic fermentation. Although we reconfirmed the alcohol-responsive changes in the intracellular localization of Asr1, we could not detect the effects of Asr1-deficiency on Japanese sake brewing or winemaking. In addition, we could not reconfirm the hypersensitivity of Asr1-deficient mutants to alcohol and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Instead, we conclude that Asr1 is not required and nor important for tolerance to alcohol stress.

  2. 十二烷基磺酸钠/异辛烷/正构醇/水微乳状液的相行为及其结构转变的研究%Phase Behavior and Structural Transitions in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfonate Microemulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨根生; 施介华; 李景华; 王普; 姚善泾

    2002-01-01

    The forming mechanism ofmicroemulsion of sodium dodecyl sulfonate, alcohols, water and isooctane was studied, with particular emphasis on the effect of molecular weight and concentration of alcohols. Phase diagram of the four components, alcohol,sodium dodecyl sulfonate, water and isooctane, was used as a means of study, through which the microemulsion regions were determined. Phase diagram of sodium dodecyl sulfonate/n-pentanol/isooctane/water system at km, = 2 (km, = Wn-pentanol / WsDs ) is presented.The variation of conductivities of different microemulsion samples with water was measured. From the conductivities we investigated a change in structure from water droplets in oil (W/O) at low water content to liquid crystal at intermediate water content and a struc ture ofoil droplets in water (O/W) at high water content.

  3. Phospholipid containing mixed micelles. Characterization of diheptanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate and DHPC and dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Radha; Vautier-Giongo, Carolina; Bakshi, Mandeep Singh; Bales, Barney L; Hajdu, Joseph

    2005-05-01

    Mixed micelles of l,2-diheptanoyl-sn-grycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) with ionic detergents were prepared to develop well characterized substrates for the study of lipolytic enzymes. The aggregates that formed on mixing DHPC with the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and with the positively charged dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) were investigated using time-resolved fluorescence quenching (TRFQ) to determine the aggregation numbers and bimolecular collision rates, and electron spin resonance (ESR) to measure the hydration index and microviscosity of the micelles at the micelle-water interface. Mixed micelles between the phospholipid and each of the detergents formed in all compositions, yielding interfaces with varying charge, hydration, and microviscosity. Both series of micelles were found to be globular up to 0.7 mole fraction of DHPC, while the aggregation numbers varied within the same concentration range of the components less than 15%. Addition of the zwitterionic phospholipid component increased the degree of counterion dissociation as measured by the quenching of the fluorescence of pyrene by the bromide ions bound to DHPC/DTAB micelles, showing that at 0.6 mole fraction of DHPC 80% of the bromide ions are dissociated from the micelles. The interface water concentration decreased significantly on addition of DHPC to each detergent. For combined phospholipid and detergent concentration of 50 mM the interface water concentration decreased, as measured by ESR of the spin-probes, from 38.5 M/L of interface volume in SDS alone to 9 M/L when the phospholipid was present at 0.7 mole fraction. Similar addition of DHPC to DTAB decreased the interfacial water concentration from 27 M/L to 11 M/L. Determination of the physicochemical parameters of the phospholipid containing mixed micelles here presented are likely to provide important insight into the design of assay systems for kinetic studies of phospholipid metabolizing enzymes.

  4. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject to...

  5. Adsorption at air-water and oil-water interfaces and self-assembly in aqueous solution of ethoxylated polysorbate nonionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Li, Peixun X; Petkov, Jordan T; Tucker, Ian; Webster, John R P; Terry, Ann E

    2015-03-17

    The Tween nonionic surfactants are ethoxylated sorbitan esters, which have 20 ethylene oxide groups attached to the sorbitan headgroup and a single alkyl chain, lauryl, palmityl, stearyl, or oleyl. They are an important class of surfactants that are extensively used in emulsion and foam stabilization and in applications associated with foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. A range of ethoxylated polysorbate surfactants, with differing degrees of ethoxylation from 3 to 50 ethylene oxide groups, have been synthesized and characterized by neutron reflection, small-angle neutron scattering, and surface tension. In conjunction with different alkyl chain groups, this provides the opportunity to modify their surface properties, their self-assembly in solution, and their interaction with macromolecules, such as proteins. Adsorption at the air-water and oil-water interfaces and solution self-assembly of the range of ethoxylated polysorbate surfactants synthesized are presented and discussed.

  6. Electronic structure and mesoscopic simulations of nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactants. a combined DFT and DPD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Diego; Aburto, Jorge; García-Cruz, Isidoro

    2013-08-07

    The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of ethylene oxide (EO) chains on the properties of a series of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE) surfactants. We performed a theoretical study of NPE surfactants by means of density functional theory (DFT) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). Both approximations were used separately to obtain different properties. Four NPEs were selected for this purpose (EO = 4, 7, 11 and 15 length chains). DFT methods provided some electronic properties that are related to the EO units. One of them is the solvation Gibbs energy, which exhibited a linear trend with EO chain length. DPD calculations allow us to observe the dynamic behavior in water of the NPE surfactants. We propose a coarse-grained model which properly simulates the mesophases of each surfactant. This model can be used in other NPEs applications.

  7. Electronic Structure and Mesoscopic Simulations of Nonylphenol Ethoxylate Surfactants. A Combined DFT and DPD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro García-Cruz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of ethylene oxide (EO chains on the properties of a series of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE surfactants. We performed a theoretical study of NPE surfactants by means of density functional theory (DFT and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD. Both approximations were used separately to obtain different properties. Four NPEs were selected for this purpose (EO = 4, 7, 11 and 15 length chains. DFT methods provided some electronic properties that are related to the EO units. One of them is the solvation Gibbs energy, which exhibited a linear trend with EO chain length. DPD calculations allow us to observe the dynamic behavior in water of the NPE surfactants. We propose a coarse-grained model which properly simulates the mesophases of each surfactant. This model can be used in other NPEs applications.

  8. Anaerobic nonylphenol ethoxylate degradation coupled to nitrate reduction in a modified biodegradability batch test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppi, Lorena I; Hardmeier, Ivo; Babay, Paola A; Itria, Raúl F; Erijman, Leonardo

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this work was to elucidate the role of nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor on the biodegradation of NPEO. We have characterized the products of NPEO degradation by mixed microbial communities in anaerobic batch tests by means of HPLC, (1)H NMR and GC-MS. Anaerobic degradation of NPEO was strictly dependent on the presence of nitrate. Within seven days of anoxic incubation, NP2EO appeared as the major degradation product. After 21 days, NP was the main species detected, and was not degraded further even after 35 days. Nitrate concentration decreased in parallel with NPEO de-ethoxylation. A transient accumulation of nitrite was observed within the time period in which NP formation reached its maximum production. The observed generation of nonylphenol coupled to nitrate reduction suggests that the microbial consortium possessed an alternate pathway for the degradation of NPEO, which was not accessible under aerobic conditions.

  9. Elimination and Recycling of Imatinib by Ethoxylated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Pakzad Masouleh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An adsorbent and carrier based on ethoxylated functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs were prepared with diethylene glycol (2EG followed by esterification process. Resultant dietylene glycolated MWCNTs (MWCNTs-2EG used for elimination of Imatinib mesylate (Ima from water. Maximum Ima adsorption per 3 mg of adsorbent and 9 mg of initial Ima was 8.76 mg. maximum recycling at two pH values 7.4 and 5.3 was determined about 6.15 mg (70% and 7.42 mg (85% respectively. Ima elimination and recycling process is greatly enhanced by the creation of functional groups on the MWCNTs-2EG in compare with carboxylated MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH.

  10. Adsorption and recovery of nonylphenol ethoxylate on a crosslinked beta-cyclodextrin-carboxymethylcellulose polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonenfant, Danielle; Niquette, Patrick; Mimeault, Murielle; Hausler, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A study of adsorption/recovery of nonylphenol 9 mole ethoxylate (NP9EO) on a crosslinked beta-cyclodextrin-carboxymethylcellulose (beta-CD-CMC) polymer was carried out by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. The adsorption was performed in mixtures containing 500 mg of the beta-CD-CMC polymer and aqueous NP9EO solutions at concentrations 12-82 mg/L, whereas the recovery of NP9EO was effectuated by shaking the beta-CD-CMC polymer loaded with methanol. The assays were made at 25 degrees C and atmospheric pressure under agitation. The results have shown that the adsorption is a rapid process and the beta-CD-CMC polymer exhibits a high NP9EO adsorption capacity of 83-92 w% (1.1-6.8 mg NP9EO/g beta-CD-CMC polymer) dependent of the initial NP9EO concentration in liquid phase. This adsorption may involve the formation of an inclusion complex beta-CD-NP9EO and a physical adsorption in the polymer network. The adsorption equilibrium measurements, which were analyzed using the Langmuir isotherm, have indicated a monolayer coverage and the homogeneous distribution of active sites at the surface of the beta-CD-CMC polymer. Moreover, the negative value obtained for the free energy change (-13.2 kJ/mol) has indicated that the adsorption process is spontaneous. In parallel, the beta-CD-CMC polymer exhibited a high NP9EO recovery efficiency of 97 w% that may occur through a decrease of binding strength between beta-CD-CMC polymer and NP9EO. Together, these results suggest that the beta-CD-CMC polymer could constitute a good adsorbent for removing nonylphenol ethoxylates from wastewater due to its high adsorption capacity and non-toxic character of beta-CD and CMC to environment.

  11. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-induced rapid gelation of silk fibroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xilong; Hou, Jing; Li, Mingzhong; Wang, Jiangnan; Kaplan, David L; Lu, Shenzhou

    2012-07-01

    The in situ formation of injectable silk fibroin (SF) hydrogels have potential advantages over various other biomaterials due to the minimal invasiveness during application. Biomaterials need to gel rapidly under physiological conditions after injection. In the current paper, a novel way to accelerate SF gelation using an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), as a gelling agent is reported. The mechanism of SDS-induced rapid gelation was determined. At low surfactant concentrations, hydrophobic interactions among the SF chains played a dominant role in the association, leading to decreased gelation time. At higher concentrations of surfactant, electrostatic repulsive forces among micellar aggregates gradually became dominant and gelation was hindered. Gel formation involves the connection of clusters formed by the accumulation of nanoparticles. This process is accompanied by the rapid formation of β-sheet structures due to hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. It is expected that the silk hydrogel with short gelation time will be used as an injectable hydrogel in drug delivery or cartilage tissue engineering.

  12. Laccase aided modification of nanofibrillated cellulose with dodecyl gallate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Saastamoinen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanofibrillated cellulose, NFC, is an interesting wood fibre-based material that could be utilized in coatings, foams, composites, packages, dispersions, and emulsions, due to its high tensile strength and barrier properties, light weight, and stabilizing features. To improve applicability and properties of NFC, modification of its surface properties is often needed. In this study, the applicability of laccase-aided surface modification with hydrophobic dodecyl gallate (DOGA on unbleached NFC was investigated. Also, laccase-catalyzed polymerization of DOGA and other phenolic compounds with lignin moieties was investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS. NFC modified with T. hirsuta-based laccase and DOGA showed decreased hydrophilicity, as compared with the native NFC, when coated on a paper surface. When dried as free-standing films, the surface properties of chemo-enzymatically modified NFC resembled those of the native NFC. The effect of modification was thus greatly influenced by different surface formation in differently prepared samples. Also, changing of the dispersion properties of DOGA by enzymatic polymerization affected the surface properties of the dried NFC samples. Covalent bonding between DOGA and NFC was not the main factor affecting the surface properties of the NFC in free-standing films or coatings.

  13. The Cloud Point of Alkyl Ethoxylates and Its Prediction with the Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Difference (HLD) Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate-Muñoz, Silvia; Boza Troncoso, Americo; Acosta, Edgar

    2015-11-10

    The hydrophobicity of surfactants has been described through different concepts used to guide the formulation of surfactant-water (SW) and surfactant-oil-water (SOW) systems. An integrated framework of hydrophobicity indicators could provide a complete tool for surfactant characterization, and insights on how their relationship may influence the overall phase behavior of the system. The hydrophilic-lipophilic difference (HLD) and the characteristic curvature (Cc) parameter, included in the HLD, have been shown to correlate with different hydrophobicity indicators including the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB), packing factor (Pf), phase inversion temperature (PIT), spontaneous curvature (Ho), surfactant partition (K(o-w)), and the critical micelle concentration (CMC). This work aims to investigate whether the HLD can further describe a concomitant hydrophobicity parameter, the cloud point (CP) of alkyl ethoxylates. After applying group contribution models to calculate the Cc of monodisperse (pure) nonionic alkyl ethoxylates, a linear correlation between the calculated Cc and the CP was observed for pure surfactants with 8 ethylene oxide (EO) units or less. Furthermore, using an apparent equivalent alkane carbon number (EACN) to represent the hydrophobicity of the micelle core, the HLD equation was capable of predicting cloud point temperatures of pure alkyl ethoxylates, typically within 5 °C. Polydisperse surfactants did not follow the linear CP-Cc correlation found for pure surfactants. After treating polydisperse samples using a liquid-liquid extraction procedure used to remove the most hydrophobic components in the mixture, the resulting treated surfactants fell in the correlation line of pure alkyl ethoxylates. A closer look at the partition behavior of these treated surfactants showed that their partition, Cc and cloud point are dominated by the most abundant ethoxymers in the treated surfactant. The HLD also predicted the cloud point depression of

  14. Biodegradation of low-ethoxylated nonylphenols in a bioreactor packed with a new ceramic support (Vukopor ® S10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciubba, Luigi; Bertin, Lorenzo; Todaro, Daniela; Bettini, Cristina; Fava, Fabio; Di Gioia, Diana

    2014-03-01

    This work was aimed at studying the possibility of biodegrading 4-nonylphenol and low ethoxylated nonylphenol mixtures, which are particularly recalcitrant to microbial degradation, by employing a biofilm reactor packed with a ceramic support (Vukopor® S10). A selected microbial consortium (Consortium A) was used to colonize the support. 4-Nonylphenol and ethoxylated nonylphenol degradation and mineralization capabilities were studied both in batch and continuous mode. The results showed that Vukopor® S10 was able to be colonized by an active biofilm for the degradation of the target pollutants with the reactor operating both in batch and continuous mode. On the other hand, pollutant adsorption on the support was negligible. FISH showed equal proportion of Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in the Igepal CO-520 degrading reactor. A shift towards high proportion of Gammaproteobacteria was observed by supplying Igepal CO-210. PCR-density gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses also evidenced that the biofilm evolved with time by changing the mixture applied and that Proteobacteria were the most represented phylum in the biofilm. Taken together, the data obtained provide a strong indication that the biofilm reactor packed with Vukopor® S10 and inoculated with Consortium A could potentially be used to develop a technology for the decontamination of 4-nonylphenol and low ethoxylated nonylphenol polluted effluents.

  15. Sugar-based ethoxylated amine surfactants as demulsifiers for crude oil emulsions: 2-demulsification of different types of crudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Azim, A.A.A.; Abdel-Raouf, M.E.S.; Abdul-Raheim, A.R.M.; Maysor, N.E.S. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Cairo (Egypt). Petroleum Application Dept.], e-mail: drmanar770@yahoo.com

    2010-10-15

    The present work studies demulsification of two types of crude oil emulsions by nine sugar-based ethoxylated amine surfactants. The effect of pH and salinity of aqueous phase of crude oil on emulsion stability was considered, and the correlation between demulsification rate and the type of crude was studied. Nine sugar-based ethoxylated amine surfactants were tested as demulsifiers for light and heavy crudes at different aqueous phase conditions. It was found that the light crude was more easily demulsified than the heavy crude. The experimental data showed that changes in pH or salinity of the aqueous phase of the emulsion enhance its stability and decrease the demulsification efficiency of the applied demulsifiers. Also, it has been shown that surfactants based on glucose octyl amine ethoxylates (GO) are the most effective in demulsifying the investigated emulsions. The data reveal that maximum demulsification efficiency is attained at a neutral pH whereas it decreases in both directions for either of the investigated crude oils. Furthermore, the results indicate that the percentage of water separation decreases as the salinity of the emulsion's aqueous phase increases. Light crudes showed better demulsification than heavy crudes under any test condition. The demulsification process for selected emulsions was monitored by optical microscopy. (author)

  16. Preparation and characterization of n-dodecyl-ferulate-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, E B; Anselmi, C; Centini, M; Müller, R H

    2005-05-13

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing a novel potential sunscreen n-dodecyl-ferulate (ester of ferulic acid) were developed. The preparation and stability parameters of n-dodecyl-ferulate-loaded SLN have been investigated concerning particle size, surface electrical charge (zeta potential) and matrix crystallinity. The chemical stability of n-dodecyl-ferulate at high temperatures was also assessed by thermal gravimetry analysis. For the selection of the appropriated lipid matrix, chemically different lipids were melted with 4% (m/m) of active and lipid nanoparticles were prepared by the so-called high pressure homogenization technique. n-Dodecyl-ferulate-loaded SLN prepared with cetyl palmitate showed the lowest mean particle size and polydispersity index, as well as the highest physical stability during storage time of 21 days at 4, 20 and 40 degrees C. These colloidal dispersions containing the sunscreen also exhibited the common melting behaviour of aqueous SLN dispersions.

  17. Syntheses of Styrene-acrylic Emulsion Using Alkylalcohol Gemini Surfactants to Replace Alkylphenolic Ethoxylates%用烷基醇Gemini表面活性剂替代烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚合成苯丙乳液

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑清皇; 张超; 陈燕红; 吴宗华

    2012-01-01

    The syntheses of styrene-acrylic emulsion was carried out, using the following three emulsifiers: the sodium polyethylene-glycol octyl alcohol sufisuccinates (RCS-8), the sodium polyethylene-glycol lauryl alcohol sufisuccinates (RCS-12) and the sodium succinate nonylphenol ethoxylate (RCD-NP) respectively. Their surface tension, mechanical stability, partical size and particle size distributions were determined and compared to others. The results showed that the syntheses of styrene-acrylic emulsion could be used the alkyl-alcohol Gemini surfactants to replace the alkyl-phenol ethoxylates, the structures of emulsifiers had a big effect on the syntheses. The main physicochemical properties of the styrene-acrylic emulsion synthesized by the emulsifiers of RCS-8 and RCD-NP had no obvious difference, but the gel-rate, mechanical stability, and particle size distributions were better than the latter. When the temperature of polymerization was 80 °C, the amount of initiator was 1 % of monomer contents, the partical size of styrene-acrylic emulsion which was synthesized by RCS-8 was the smallest, the partical size distribution was the narrowest.%分别用琥珀酸聚乙二醇辛醇双酯磺酸钠(RCS-8),琥珀酸聚乙二醇十二正烷醇双酯磺酸钠(RCS-12)和琥珀酸壬基酚聚氧乙烯(10)醚酯磺酸钠(RCD-NP)为乳化剂合成了苯丙乳液,并进行了乳液表面张力、机械稳定性、粒径和粒径分布等的测试和比较.结果表明,烷基醇Gemini表面活性剂可以取代烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚用于苯丙乳液合成,其结构对合成乳液的性能影响大.采用RCS-8与RCD-NP为乳化剂合成的苯丙乳液其主要理化性能无明显差异,而其凝胶率、机械稳定性、粒径分布等方面优于后者.聚合温度为80℃,引发剂用量为单体质量的1%时,用RCS-8合成的苯丙乳液的粒径最小,粒径分布范围最窄.

  18. Reversible and Irreversible Adsorption Energetics of Poly(ethylene glycol) and Sorbitan Poly(ethoxylate) at a Water/Alkane Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Kyle J; Larson, Ronald G

    2015-07-14

    We simulate poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) oligomers and model Tween 80 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate) molecules at water/alkane interfaces. Using the weighted histogram analysis method (WHAM), including an extension of WHAM to two reaction coordinates to remove hysteresis, we calculate interfacial potentials of mean force (PMFs) for PEG and Tween 80 using three force fields: the atomistic GROMOS 53a6OXY+D and two coarse-grained (CG) MARTINI force fields. Because the force fields have not yet been validated for PEO adsorption to hydrophobic interfaces, we calculate PMFs for alcohol ethoxylates C12E2 and C12E8 and find that they agree with semiempirical results of Mulqueen and Blankschtein [Langmuir 2002, 18 (2), 365-376] for the GROMOS 53a6OXY+D force field, whereas for both MARTINI force fields, PEO adsorbs too weakly to a clean hydrophobic interface. One MARTINI force field incorrectly shows depletion rather than adsorption to a clean hydrophobic interface. We find that the adsorption free energy for PEG oligomers at a clean, planar water/alkane interface is around 1.3 kBT per monomer for the atomistic force field but is less than half of this for the two CG force fields. With the newly validated GROMOS 53a6OXY+D force field, we bracket the dilute adsorption free energy for a model Tween 80 molecule at the clean water/squalane interface. We also calculate the pressure-area isotherm. We exploit these data with the Nikas-Mulqueen-Blankschtein (NMB) theory and a simple transport model to demonstrate a transition from irreversible to reversible adsorption with increasing surface coverage, consistent with experimental results of Reichert and Walker [Langmuir 2013, 29 (6), 1857-1867].

  19. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  20. Degradation of the commercial surfactant nonylphenol ethoxylate by advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Salatiel Wohlmuth; Klauck, Cláudia Regina; Siqueira, Marco Antônio; Bernardes, Andréa Moura

    2015-01-23

    Four different oxidation process, namely direct photolysis (DP) and three advanced oxidation processes (heterogeneous photocatalysis - HP, eletrochemical oxidation - EO and photo-assisted electrochemical oxidation - PEO) were applied in the treatment of wastewater containing nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPnEO). The objective of this work was to determine which treatment would be the best option in terms of degradation of NPnEO without the subsequent generation of toxic compounds. In order to investigate the degradation of the surfactant, the processes were compared in terms of UV/Vis spectrum, mineralization (total organic carbon), reaction kinetics, energy efficiency and phytotoxicity. A solution containing NPnEO was prepared as a surrogate of the degreasing wastewater, was used in the processes. The results showed that the photo-assisted processes degrade the surfactant, producing biodegradable intermediates in the reaction. On the other hand, the electrochemical process influences the mineralization of the surfactant. The process of PEO carried out with a 250W lamp and a current density of 10mA/cm(2) showed the best results in terms of degradation, mineralization, reaction kinetics and energy consumption, in addition to not presenting phytotoxicity. Based on this information, this process can be a viable alternative for treating wastewater containing NPnEO, avoiding the contamination of water resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrochemical regeneration of partially ethoxylated polyethylenimine used in the polymer-supported ultrafiltration of copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llanos, Javier, E-mail: javier.llanos@uclm.es [Chemical Engineering Department, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Edificio Enrique Costa Novella, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Perez, Angel; Rodrigo, Manuel A.; Canizares, Pablo [Chemical Engineering Department, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Edificio Enrique Costa Novella, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2009-08-30

    This work is focussed on the application of an electrochemical technology to regenerate the bonding agent of a polymer-supported ultrafiltration process, technique commonly used to remove metal ions from wastewaters. To do this, a batch rotating-electrode electrochemical cell has been set up to recover the copper bind to partially ethoxylated polyethyleneimine by electrodeposition. The influence of the main parameters (current efficiency, stirring rate, pH, electrode material and nature of the counterion) on the performance of the process has been studied. Current efficiency is clearly enhanced with the stirring rate, reaching values as high as 0.93 for the optimum working conditions. Regarding pH, this variable has been observed to play an important role in process efficiency. Thus, it has been found that the reactor can operate at pH 4 without affecting process performance. This is a clear advantage with respect to other regeneration techniques and also to previous works of electrochemical regeneration. The electrode material seems to have a clear influence on process behaviour and especially on the appearance of a first transitory stage with lower current efficiency. Finally, the electrolyte salt also influences significantly on the results and the presence of sulphate as counterion leads to the best system performance.

  2. Biotransformation of nonylphenol ethoxylates during sewage treatment under anaerobic and aerobic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Biotransformation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) during continuous anaerobic sewage treatment was compared with the aerobic treatment of sewage spiked with 23 μmol/L technical NPEOs over a period of 90 d. Immediate degradation of NPEOs was observed under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, indicating that the enzymes and bacteria required for NPEO degradation existed abundantly in both aerobic and anaerobic sludge. Both treatments achieved high removal (>92%) of the spiked NPEO9 mixture.Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis showed that short-chain NPEOs (NPEO1-NPEO3) accumulated in anaerobic (2.01-2.56 μmol/L) and aerobic (1.62-2.03 μmol/L) effluents, with nonylphenol (NP) (0.24-0.31 μmol/L) as another group of metabolites in the anaerobic effluent, and nonylphenoxy carboxylates (NPECs) (2.79-3.30 μmol/L) in the aerobic effluent. Significant accumulation of NP in the anaerobic sludge and NPEO1-3 in the sludge of two reactors was observed. These results indicated that it was difficult to control these harmful metabolites in the conventional treatment processes. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of sludge samples support the speculation that the NPEO degradation bacteria might be the dominant indigenous species.

  3. Vertical distribution of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates in sedimentary core from the Beipaiming Channel, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Fen; HU Jian-ying; YANG Min

    2007-01-01

    The vertical profiles of nonylphenol(NP)and nonylphenol ethoxylates(NPEOs) were investigated in a sediment core from the Beipaiming Channel,North China using high sensitive LC-MS and GC-MS methods.In this core,relatively high concentrations of NP and NPEOS occurred in the surface sediment(≤40 cm),with the maximum value of NP and NPEOs reaching 3539 and 12735 ng/g,respectively,whereas,no NP or NPEOs were detected in deeper sediments(>40 cm).The high concentrations of NP and NPEOs in the surface layers suggested recent inputs in this area.NPEOs with short ethoxy chains(NPnEO,n=0-3)were dominant in the NPEO mixture with percentages from 54%tO 78%.which were similar to the distribution of homolog NPEO in efttuents from nearby sewage treatment plants(STPs).indicating that the channel received the effluents from these STPs.The sewage treatment ratio was quite similar to that found in North America before the 1980s.Finally,the concentrations of NP and NPEOS were related to the total organic carbon(TOC)(P<0.001),suggesting that TOC was an important factor for vertical distribution of NPEOs and NP from the Beipaiming Channel.

  4. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beer-alcohol.aspx. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015. Alcohol angioedema and uticaria. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. http://www.aaaai.org/ask-the-expert/alcohol-angioedema-urticaria.aspx. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015. Alcohol and ...

  5. Degradation of the commercial surfactant nonylphenol ethoxylate by advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlmuth da Silva, Salatiel, E-mail: salatielws@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) – Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Minas, Metalúrgica e de Materiais (PPGEM), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Klauck, Cláudia Regina, E-mail: claudiark@feevale.br [Universidade Feevale, Campus II ERS-239, 2755, Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Siqueira, Marco Antônio, E-mail: marcor@feevale.br [Universidade Feevale, Campus II ERS-239, 2755, Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Bernardes, Andréa Moura, E-mail: amb@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) – Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Minas, Metalúrgica e de Materiais (PPGEM), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-01-23

    Highlights: • NP{sub 4}EO in industrial effluents can be treated before reaching water reservoirs. • Advanced oxidation processes are proposed for the degradation of NP{sub 4}EO. • The degradation rate depends mainly on the light intensity. • The mineralization rate depends mainly on the current density. • Photo-assisted electrochemical oxidation showed the best degradation results. - Abstract: Four different oxidation process, namely direct photolysis (DP) and three advanced oxidation processes (heterogeneous photocatalysis – HP, eletrochemical oxidation – EO and photo-assisted electrochemical oxidation – PEO) were applied in the treatment of wastewater containing nonylphenol ethoxylate (NP{sub n}EO). The objective of this work was to determine which treatment would be the best option in terms of degradation of NP{sub n}EO without the subsequent generation of toxic compounds. In order to investigate the degradation of the surfactant, the processes were compared in terms of UV/Vis spectrum, mineralization (total organic carbon), reaction kinetics, energy efficiency and phytotoxicity. A solution containing NP{sub n}EO was prepared as a surrogate of the degreasing wastewater, was used in the processes. The results showed that the photo-assisted processes degrade the surfactant, producing biodegradable intermediates in the reaction. On the other hand, the electrochemical process influences the mineralization of the surfactant. The process of PEO carried out with a 250 W lamp and a current density of 10 mA/cm{sup 2} showed the best results in terms of degradation, mineralization, reaction kinetics and energy consumption, in addition to not presenting phytotoxicity. Based on this information, this process can be a viable alternative for treating wastewater containing NP{sub n}EO, avoiding the contamination of water resources.

  6. Alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates contamination of crustaceans and fishes from the Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Fulvio; Fabietti, Fabio; Delise, Mirella; Funari, Enzo

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the occurrence of alkylphenols (APs) and their ethoxylates (APEs) in 8 edible marine species from the Adriatic Sea and tries to estimate the corresponding intake for the Italian population. Two crustaceans, Nephrops norvegicus (Norway lobster) and Squilla mantis (spottail mantis shrimp), plus six fish species, Engraulis enchrascicolus (anchovy), Scomber scombrus (Atlantic mackerel), Merluccius merluccius (European hake), Mullus barbatus (red mullet), Solea vulgaris (common sole) and Lophius piscatorius (angler) were analyzed for their content of nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP) and octylphenol polyethoxylates (OPEs). These compounds were found in all analysed samples. NP was detected at the highest concentrations: 118-399 and 9.5-1431 ng g(-1) fresh weight (fw) respectively in crustaceans and fish. OP was found at respective levels of 2.7-4.7 and 0.3-3.8 ng g(-1) fw in crustaceans and fish, whereas OPE was determined at respective concentrations of 1.2-16.8 and 0.2-21.1 ng g(-1) fw in the same species. These results, together with those from a previous study on 4 edible mollusc, allow to estimate respective daily intakes for NP, OP, and OPE of about 12, 0.1, and 0.1 microg day(-1) for an Italian adult living along the Adriatic Coast. In relation to NP and OP, these intakes are much lower than the doses associated with toxic effects in laboratory animals (9 mg kg(-1) bw for rats). Nevertheless, data of exposure from other sources to these chemicals and others with similar biological characteristics are needed.

  7. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)-Loaded Nanoporous Polymer as Anti-Biofilm Surface Coating Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Li; Molin, Søren; Yang, Liang

    2013-01-01

    -b-polydimethylsiloxane (1,2-PB-b-PDMS) block copolymer via chemical cross-linking of the 1,2-PB block followed by quantitative removal of the PDMS block. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was loaded into the nanoporous 1,2-PB from aqueous solution. The SDS-loaded nanoporous polymer films were shown to block bacterial attachment...

  8. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles reduced and stabilized by sodium glutamate and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Gil Felicisimo S; Balbin, Michelle M; Eugenio, Paul John G; Zapanta, Charleo S; Monserate, Juvy J; Salazar, Joel R; Mingala, Claro N

    2017-03-18

    The Turkevich method has been used for many years in the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Lately, the use of plant extracts and amino acids has been reported, which is valuable in the field of biotechnology and biomedicine. The AuNPs was synthesized from the reduction of HAuCl4 3H2O by sodium glutamate and stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The optimum concentrations for sodium glutamate and sodium dodecyl sulfate in the synthesis process were determined. The characteristics of the synthesized AuNPs was analysed through UV-Vis Spectroscopy and SEM. The AuNPs have spherical shape with a mean diameter of approximately 21.62 ± 4.39 nm and is well dispersed. FTIR analysis of the AuNPs reflected that the sulfate head group of sodium dodecyl sulfate is adsorbed at the surface of the AuNPs. Thus, we report herein the synthesis of AuNPs using sodium glutamate and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermodynamics of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) Micellization: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolongo, Juan P.; Mirenda, Martin

    2011-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment is presented that allows a thermodynamic characterization of micelle formation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solutions. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the degree of micelle ionization (alpha) are obtained at different temperatures by conductimetry. The molar standard free energy…

  10. The Electrooxidation of Tetracycline at Acetylene Black Electrode in the Presence of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Ping DANG; Cheng Guo HU; Ying Liang WEI; Sheng Shui HU

    2004-01-01

    The electrooxidation of tetracycline (TC) at acetylene black electrode has been studied in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Tetracycline (TC) exhibited very sensitive oxidation peak in this system. The peak current was proportional to TC concentration, and the detection limit was 1.2 × 10-8 mol/L. The system was used to the determination of TC in pharmaceuticals.

  11. CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF PSEUDOMONAS GENES DETERMINING SODIUM DODECYL-SULFATE BIODEGRADATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DAVISON, J; BRUNEL, F; PHANOPOULOS, A; PROZZI, D; TERPSTRA, P

    1992-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of two genes involved in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) degradation, by Pseudomonas, have been determined. One of these, sdsA, codes for an alkyl sulfatase (58 957 Da) and has similarity (31.8% identity over a 201-amino acid stretch) to the N terminus of a predicted protein of

  12. Tandem Extraction/Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Protocol for the Analysis of Acrylamide and Surfactant-Related Compounds in Complex Matrix Environmental Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethoxylated alcohols, alkylphenols, and acrylamide are emerging contaminants with many different routes into the environment. Ethoxylated alcohols are used ubiquitously as surfactants in both industrial and household products. The use of ethoxylated alcohols and alkylphenols as s...

  13. Soft matter dispersions with ordered inner structures, stabilized by ethoxylated phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libster, Dima; Aserin, Abraham; Yariv, Doron; Shoham, Gil; Garti, Nissim

    2009-11-01

    This paper describes the formation and characterization of liquid crystalline dispersions based on the hexagonal phase of GMO/tricaprylin/water. As a stabilizer of the soft particles dispersed in the aqueous phase, a non-ionic, non-polymeric surfactant--ethoxylated phytosterol with 30 oxyethylene units (PhEO) was utilized. In contrast to Pluronic copolymers, normally utilized in the stabilization of liquid crystalline dispersions with ordered inner structure, use of such non-polymeric surfactant is not a common practice in this field. We revealed how properties of these particles, such as internal structure, size, and stability, can be rationally modified by the concentration of the stabilizing agent and processing conditions. The physical stability of the hexosomes was further examined by the LUMiFuge technique. Structural effect of PhEO solubilization on the properties of the bulk H(II) mesophase system showed that phase behavior was greatly influenced following phase transitions: H(II)-->H(II)+cubic-->cubic+L(alpha)-->L(alpha). The decrease of hydrogen bonding of the hydroxyl and carbonyl groups of monoolein with water and simultaneous hydration of EO groups of PhEO appeared to be important for the observed behavior. The use of PhEO as a dispersant resulted in a soft matter multi-phase water dispersion with bimodal distribution of the particle population. Effective stabilization of hexosomes was obtained in an extremely narrow concentration range of PhEO (0.1-0.2 wt%), coexisting with small vesicles and disordered particles. At higher PhEO content, particles had disordered inner structure, and unilamellar and multilamellar vesicles, at the expense of hexosomes in consequence of incorporation of the dispersant into the hexosome structure. PhEO was found to induce lamellar phase formation, introducing disorder into the hexagonal LLC and reducing their domain size. Finally, hexosomes were evaluated as delivery vehicles for the therapeutic peptide desmopressin

  14. Analysis of fatty alcohol derivatives with comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Victoria; Laun, Sabrina; Melchior, David; Köhler, Michael; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2012-12-14

    A simultaneous separation of anionic (fatty alcohol sulfates, fatty alcohol ether sulfates), non-ionic (alkyl polyglucosides, fatty alcohol ethoxylates) and amphoteric (cocamidopropyl betaines) surfactants was performed by comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LCxLC) utilizing a ZIC(®)-HILIC column in the first dimension, a Reprosphere 100 C8-Aqua column in the second dimension and a 10-port two position valve as the interface. The volume of the two sample loops were 25 or 50 μL and allow a one or two minute modulation at a 25 μL/min flow rate. In the first dimension, a gradient of acetonitrile and an ammonium acetate buffer was used to separate polyethoxylated surfactants by their degree of ethoxylation (EO number) whereas in the second dimension, a separation by alkyl chain was performed using a methanol/ammonium acetate buffer gradient. A baseline separation of the above mentioned surfactants according to both EO number and alkyl chain was achieved. The best performance was used to compare two different LCxLC-QTOF MS systems, which demonstrate that a transfer of the method from one system to a totally different system is possible. However, because of the differences in delay volume and extra-column volume between these systems the separation power is changed.

  15. Comparative study on the mechanisms of rotavirus inactivation by sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethylenediaminetetraacetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, R.L. (Sandia Labs., Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, C.S.

    1980-06-01

    This report describes a comparative study on the effects of the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate and the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetate on purified rotavirus SA-11 particles. Both chemicals readily inactivated rotavirus at quite low concentrations and under very mild conditions. In addition, both agents modified the viral capsid and prevented the adsorption of inactivated virions to cells. Capsid damage by ethylenediaminetetraacetate caused a shift in the densities of rotavirions from about l.35 to about 1.37 g/ml and a reduction in their sedimentation coefficients. Sodium dodcyl sulfate, on the other hand, did not detectably alter either of these physical properties of rotavirions. Both agents caused some alteration of the isoelectric points of the virions. Finally, analysis of rotavirus proteins showed that ethylenediaminetetraacetate caused the loss of two protein peaks from the electrophoretic pattern of virions but sodium dodecyl sulfate caused the loss of only one of these same protein peaks.

  16. Experimental Investigation on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer With Ammonium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.P. Atcha Rao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We have so many applications related to Pool Boiling. The Pool Boiling is mostly useful in arid areas to produce drinking water from impure water like sea water by distillation process. It is very difficult to distill the only water which having high surface tension. The surface tension is important factor to affect heat transfer enhancement in pool boiling. By reducing the surface tension we can increase the heat transfer rate in pool boiling. From so many years we are using surfactants domestically. It is proven previously by experiments that the addition of little amount of surfactant reduces the surface tension and increase the rate of heat transfer. There are different groups of surfactants. From those I‟m conducting experimentation with anionic surfactant Ammonium Dodecyl Sulfate (ADS, which is most human friendly and three times best soluble than Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate, to test the heat transfer enhancement.

  17. Electrochemical Oxidation of L-Cysteine in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Admicelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李中春; 刘天晴; 郭荣

    2005-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of L-cysteine can be catalyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) admicelles. The catalytic efficiency increases hardly when SDS concentration is lower than the critical admicelle concentration (CAC) and increases rapidly when SDS concentration is between CAC and the critical micelle concentration (CMC), but decreases when SDS concentration is higher than CMC. Both results of rate constant k0 and Gibbs free energy ΔGck accord with that of catalytic efficiency.

  18. Preparation and Catalytic Properties of Iron-Cerium Phosphates with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Onoda; Takeshi Sakumura

    2012-01-01

    Iron phosphate was prepared from iron nitrate and phosphoric acid with sodium dodecyl sulfate at various stirring hours. The chemical composition of the obtained samples was estimated from ICP and XRD measurements. Particle shape and size distribution were observed by SEM images and laser diffraction/scattering methods. Further, the catalytic activity was studied with the decomposition of the complex between formaldehyde, ammonium acetate, and acetylacetone. The peaks of FePO4 were observed i...

  19. Complexation between Sodium Poly(styrenesulfonate) and Alkyltrimethylammonium Bromides in the Presence of Dodecyl Maltoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegyver, Edit; Mészáros, Róbert

    2015-04-23

    In the present paper, the impact of dodecyl maltoside (C12G2) on the association of sodium poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) with dodecyl- and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromides (DTAB and CTAB) was studied. A low amount of nonionic surfactant enhances the binding of the investigated cationic amphiphiles on PSS, reducing the cationic surfactant-to-polyanion ratio needed for charge neutralization and precipitation. This effect is more pronounced for DTAB than for CTAB due to the considerably higher free surfactant concentration of the former cationic amphiphile. The synergistic surfactant binding also affects the nonequilibrium features of PSS/CTAB association via enhancing the kinetically stable concentration range of overcharged polyion/surfactant nanoparticle dispersions. With increasing C12G2 concentration, however, an opposite effect of the uncharged additive dominates. Namely, the CTAB molecules are solubilized excessively into mixed surfactant micelles, which reduces the surface charge of the PSS/CTAB/C12G2 nanoparticles and thus destabilizes their dispersion. At appropriately large nonionic surfactant concentrations, the binding of CTAB is largely reduced, resulting in the redissolution of the precipitate. In contrast, neither the destabilization nor the resolubilization effects of the added dodecyl maltoside were observed for the PSS/DTAB system due to the much lower driving force of DTAB binding compared to CTAB. Our results clearly demonstrate that the alkyl chain length of the ionic amphiphile has a pronounced effect on both the equilibrium and nonequilibrium aspects of polyion/mixed surfactant complexation which might be further exploited in various next generation applications.

  20. Interactions between dodecyl phosphates and hydroxyapatite or tooth enamel: relevance to inhibition of dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Siân B; Barbour, Michele E; Shellis, R Peter; Rees, Gareth D

    2014-05-01

    Tooth surface modification is a potential method of preventing dental erosion, a form of excessive tooth wear facilitated by softening of tooth surfaces through the direct action of acids, mainly of dietary origin. We have previously shown that dodecyl phosphates (DPs) effectively inhibit dissolution of native surfaces of hydroxyapatite (the type mineral for dental enamel) and show good substantivity. However, adsorbed saliva also inhibits dissolution and DPs did not augment this effect, which suggests that DPs and saliva interact at the hydroxyapatite surface. In the present study the adsorption and desorption of potassium and sodium dodecyl phosphates or sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) to hydroxyapatite and human tooth enamel powder, both native and pre-treated with saliva, were studied by high performance liquid chromatography-mass Spectrometry. Thermo gravimetric analysis was used to analyse residual saliva and surfactant on the substrates. Both DPs showed a higher affinity than SDS for both hydroxyapatite and enamel, and little DP was desorbed by washing with water. SDS was readily desorbed from hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the phosphate head group is essential for strong binding to this substrate. However, SDS was not desorbed from enamel, so that this substrate has surface properties different from those of hydroxyapatite. The presence of a salivary coating had little or no effect on adsorption of the DPs, but treatment with DPs partly desorbed saliva; this could account for the failure of DPs to increase the dissolution inhibition due to adsorbed saliva.

  1. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use ...

  2. The effects of deoxycholate and sodium dodecyl sulphate on the serological reactivity of antigens isolated from six Bacteroides reference strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Beckmann (Ilse); F. Meisel-Mikolajczyk; H.C.S. Wallenburg (Henk)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The detergents sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and sodium deoxycholate (NaD) are frequently used as solvents for macromolecular polysaccharide complexes in immunochemical and serological techniques. The influence of the disaggregating surfactants on the serological reactivit

  3. The effects of deoxycholate and sodium dodecyl sulphate on the serological reactivity of antigens isolated from six Bacteroides reference strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Beckmann (Ilse); F. Meisel-Mikolajczyk; H.C.S. Wallenburg (Henk)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The detergents sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and sodium deoxycholate (NaD) are frequently used as solvents for macromolecular polysaccharide complexes in immunochemical and serological techniques. The influence of the disaggregating surfactants on the serological

  4. Synthesis of dodecyl lauroyl benzene sulfonate and its application in enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Zhenggang; Wu, Le; Sun, Mingming; Jiang, Jian-zhong; Wang, Feng [Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China). School of Chemical and Material Engineering

    2011-09-15

    A new hydrophobic surfactant, dodecyl lauroyl benzene sulfonate (DLBS), was synthesized and its application in enhanced oil recovery by alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding was studied. The results show that DLBS can be synthesized by reaction of industrial dodecyl benzene with lauroyl chloride in the presence of AlCl{sub 3}, followed by sulfonation with ClSO{sub 3}H and neutralization with NaOH. The lauroyl-group is confirmed to be connected to the para-position of the alkylbenzene by1HNMR spectrum. The synthesized DLBS is well soluble in pure water and reservoir (connate) water at 45 C. It is highly surface active which is indicated by its low CMC of 1.1 . 10{sup -5} mol/L, and its low surface tension, {gamma}{sub cmc} of 28.6 mN m{sup -1}. By mixing with heavy alkylbenzene sulfonates of relatively low average molar mass (387g mol{sup -1}) at a total surfactant concentration of 5 mM, DLBS can reduce the interfacial tension of Daqing crude oil/connate water to an order of 10{sup -3} mN/m at 45 C in the presence of 0.5-1.0 wt.% NaOH and 1000 mg L{sup -1} of polymer. If the NaOH was replaced by a gentle alkaline salt, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, certain amounts of dodecyl dimethyl carboxy betaine were added and the concentration of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was increased to 1.2-2.0 wt.%, the interfacial tension of Daqing crude oil/connate water can also be reduced to an ultralow value. Therefore DLBS is a good hydrophobic surfactant applicable in ASP flooding with either NaOH or Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as alkaline agents. (orig.)

  5. DCl Transport through Dodecyl Sulfate Films on Salty Glycerol: Effects of Seawater Ions on Gas Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaloski, Michael A; Sobyra, Thomas B; Nathanson, Gilbert M

    2015-12-17

    Gas-liquid scattering experiments were employed to measure the entry and dissociation of the acidic gas DCl into salty glycerol coated with dodecyl sulfate ions (DS(-) = CH3(CH2)11OSO3(-)). Five sets of salty solutions were examined: 0.25 and 0.5 M NaCl, 0.25 M MgCl2, 0.25 M CaCl2, and artificial sea salt. DS(-) bulk concentrations were varied from 0 to 11 mM, generating DS(-) surface coverages of up to 34% of a compact monolayer, as determined by surface tension and argon scattering measurements. DS(-) surface segregation is enhanced by the dissolved salts in the order MgCl2 ≈ CaCl2 > sea salt > NaCl. We find that DCl penetration through the dodecyl chains decreases at first gradually and then sharply as more chains segregate to the surface, dropping from 70% entry on bare glycerol to 11% for DS(-) surface concentrations of 1.8 × 10(14) cm(-2). When plotted against DS(-) surface concentration, the DCl entry probabilities fall within a single band for all solutions. These observations imply that the monovalent Na(+) and divalent Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions do not bind differently enough to the ROSO3(-) headgroup to significantly alter the diffusive passage of DCl molecules through the dodecyl chains at the same DS(-) chain density. The chief difference among the salts is the greater propensity for the divalent salts to expel the soluble ionic surfactant to the surface.

  6. Polarized synchronous light scattering characterization of the interaction of proteins with sodium dodecyl sulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO XiaoHui; HUANG ChengZhi

    2007-01-01

    In acid buffer solution, proteins with positive charge can react with anion surfactant and result in a great enhancement of synchronous light scattering (SLS) signals. In this contribution, the correlative experiment was made to compare the interaction of human serum albumin (HAS) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) with sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS). Based on the measurements of the polarization light scattering signals, a new method of scattering polarization was constituted to distinguish these two interaction systems with molecular weight difference (HAS 66 kDa; IgG 150 kDa). The results were consistent with the data measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique.

  7. Adsorption characteristics of zinc ions on sodium dodecyl sulfate in process of micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To separate zinc ions from aqueous solution efficiently, micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration(MEUF) of hollow ultrafiltration membrane was used with sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS) as surfactant. The formation of micellar and the adsorption mechanism were investigated, including the influence of the ratio of SDS to zinc ions on the micelle quantity, the micelle ratio, the gross adsorptive capacity, the rejection of zinc ions and the adsorption isotherm law. The results show that the rejection rate of zinc ions reaches 97% and the adsorption of zinc ions on SDS conforms to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the adsorption is a chemical adsorption process.

  8. Aggregation of Dodecyl 1-Pyrenylmethyl Ether and Its Application in Structure-Polarity Relations of Aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANG,Da-Yong; TIAN,Juan; JI,Guo-Zhen

    2006-01-01

    The aggregation behavior of dodecyl 1-pyrenylmethyl ether was studied in dioxane-water mixture solvents by fluorescence techniques. The labeled pyrenyl group was effective in monitoring the polarity change of its environment during aggregation processes. Based on the structural effects such as chain-length effect, self-coiling effect,and branch-group effect on the polarity of the probe environment, the structure features of aggregates were discussed and have been used to interpret the effect of the structural features on the aggregates formed by three cholesteryl esters and three long chain alkanes.

  9. A comparison study between sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecyl sulfonate with respect to the thermodynamic properties, micellization, and interaction with poly(ethylene glycol) in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat, E-mail: rsadeghi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahabi, Somayyeh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Apparent molar volume against molality: o, {center_dot}, and {Delta}, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 293.15 K; x, {Delta}, and lozenge, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 313.15 K. Research Highlights: > C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na(SDSn) was seen to interact with PEG more weakly than C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na(SDS). > The constraints on molecular mobility of SDS micelles are larger than those of SDSn. > Entropy change on micellization for SDSn is larger than those for SDS. > Micelle formation of SDS is less endothermic and more spontaneous than that of SDSn. > Micelles of SDS have smaller aggregation number than that of SDSn. - Abstract: The density, sound velocity, and conductivity measurements were performed on aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na) or sodium dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na) in the absence and presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) at different temperatures. Changes in the apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities upon micellization were derived using a pseudophase-transition approach and the infinite dilution apparent molar properties of the monomer and micellar form of C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na and C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na were determined. Variations of the critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of both surfactants in the solutions investigated with temperature were obtained from which thermodynamic parameters of micellization were estimated. It was found that at low temperature the micelle formation process is endothermic and therefore, this process must be entropically driven. However, upon increasing the temperature, the enthalpic factor becomes more significant and, at temperatures higher than 303.15 K the micellization is enthalpy driven. The interactions between C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na/C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na and PEG were studied and it was found that sodium alkyl sulfonates were seen

  10. Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... even small amounts of alcohol may hurt an unborn child)Drink alcohol while you are looking after ... shakes, being very suspicious), and can even include death. This is why you need your doctor’s care ...

  11. Alcohol Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The recent alcohol tax increase poses a challenge to China’s white spirits makers Alcohol, rather than wine, is an in-dispensable component to Chinese table culture. The financial crisis has failed to affect white spirits sales, but an alcohol tax increase might.

  12. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t be awakened is at risk of dying. Alcohol poisoning is an emergency If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning — even if you don't see the ... immediately. Never assume the person will sleep off alcohol poisoning. Be prepared to provide information. If you ...

  13. Effect of 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Halide on the Relative Stability between Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Poly(ethylene oxide) Nanoaggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gabriel M Dias; Ferreira, Guilherme M Dias; Agudelo, Álvaro J Patiño; Hespanhol da Silva, Maria C; Rezende, Jaqueline de Paula; Pires, Ana Clarissa Dos Santos; da Silva, Luis Henrique Mendes

    2015-12-24

    It is well-known that ionic liquids (ILs) alter the properties of aqueous systems containing only surfactants. However, the effect of ILs on polymer-surfactant systems is still unknown. Here, the effect of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (bmimBr) and chloride (bmimCl) on the micellization of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and its interaction with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was evaluated using conductimetry, fluorimetry, and isothermal titration calorimetry. The ILs decreased the critical micellar concentration (cmc) of the surfactant, stabilizing the SDS micelles. A second critical concentration (c2thc) was verified at high SDS concentrations, due to the micelle size decrease. The stability of PEO/SDS aggregates was also affected by ILs, and the critical aggregation concentration (cac) of SDS increased. Integral aggregation enthalpy changed from -0.72 in water to 2.16 kJ mol(-1) in 4.00 mM bmimBr. IL anions did not affect the SDS micellization or the beginning of PEO/SDS aggregation. Nevertheless, when chloride was replaced with bromide, the amount of SDS bound to the polymer increased. At 100.0 mM IL, the PEO-SDS interaction vanished. We suggest that the effect of ILs comes from participating in the structure of the formed aggregates, interacting with the SDS monomers at the core/interface of the micelles, and promoting preferential solvation of the polymer.

  14. Studies of the behaviour of alcohols as co-surfactants in stabilizing microemulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadur, P. (Chemistry Dept., D.A.V. (P.G.) Coll., Muzaffarnagar- (India)); Chand, M. (Chemistry Dept., D.A.V. (P.G.) Coll., Muzaffarnagar- (India))

    Micoremulsion formation was investigated in the following quaternary systems. Water/oil/surfactant/co-surfactant alcohol systems i.e. (i) water/xylene, benzene, toluene/tween-20/propanol-1, propanol-2, methanol, (ii) water/xylene, benzene, toluene/sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate/propanol-1, propanol-2, methanol, (iii) water/xylene, benzene, toluene/dodecyl ammonium chloride/propanol-1, propanol-2, methanol. The formation of microemulsions is explained in terms of ternary phase diagrams for all three nonionic, anionic and cationic surfactants used. The viscosities and densities of the microemulsions were determined in all the systems. (orig.)

  15. New fluorescent polymeric nanocomposites synthesized by antimony dodecyl-mercaptide thermolysis in polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the formation of semiconductive Sb2S3 nanoparticles inside amorphous polystyrene has been achieved by thermal degradation of the corresponding antimony dodecyl-mercaptide, Sb(SC12H253. The thermolysis of the dodecyl-mercaptide precursor was studied as both pure phase and mercaptide solution in polystyrene. The thermal decomposition of the antimony mercaptide precursor at 350°C, under vacuum, showed the formation of a mixture of antimony trisulfide (stibnite, Sb2S3 and zero-valent antimony (Sb phase. X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD and Rietveld analysis carried out on the obtained nanostructured powder confirmed the presence of Sb and Sb2S3 phases in 10.4 wt% and 89.6 wt% amount, respectively. The same pyrolysis reaction was carried out in the polymer and the resulting nanocomposite material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, UV-VIS spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The nanocomposite structural characterization indicated the presence of well-dispersed nanoclusters of antimony and stibnite (15–30 nm in size inside the amorphous polymeric phase. Optical measurements on the obtained nanocomposite films showed a strong emission at 432 nm upon excitation at 371 nm, probably related to the presence of Sb2S3 nanoclusters.

  16. Study of sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiat, Guillaume; Grassl, Bruno; Khoukh, Abdel; François, Jeanne

    2004-07-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate (PPOMA) (of molecular weight M(w) = 434 g x mol(-1)) mixtures have been studied using conductimetry, static light scattering, fluorescence spectroscopy, and 1H NMR. It has been shown that SDS and PPOMA form mixed micelles, and SDS and PPOMA aggregation numbers, N(ag SDS) and N(ag PPOMA), have been determined. Total aggregation numbers of the micelles (N(ag SDS) + N(ag PPOMA)) and those of SDS decrease upon increasing the weight ratio R = PPOMA/SDS. Localization of PPOMA inside the mixed micelles is considered (i) using 1H NMR to localize the methacrylate function at the hydrophobic core-water interface and (ii) by studying the SDS-PPO micellar system (whose M(w) = 400 g x mol(-1)). Both methods have indicated that the PPO chain of the macromonomer is localized at the SDS micelle surface. Models based on the theorical prediction of the critical micellar concentration of mixed micelles and structural model of swollen micelles are used to confirm the particular structure proposed for the SDS-PPOMA system, i.e., the micelle hydrophobic core is primarily composed of the C12 chains of the sodium dodecyl sulfate, the hydrophobic core-water interface is made up of the SDS polar heads as well as methacrylate functions of the PPOMA, the PPO chains of the macromonomer are adsorbed preferentially on the surface, i.e., on the polar heads of the SDS.

  17. Presence of nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactants in a watershed in central Mexico and removal from domestic sewage in a treatment wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, Marco A; Ikonomou, Michael; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    The Texcoco River in central Mexico is polluted with domestic wastewater as a result of discharges of untreated or inadequately treated sewage. Since nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO) surfactants and their intermediate degradation products such as nonylphenol (NP) and NP mono- and diethoxylate (NP1EO, NP2EO) have been found in domestic wastewater and in surface waters near wastewater discharges in industrialized countries, the Texcoco River was sampled to determine whether these compounds were present. The results indicated that NPEOs were present at very high concentrations (> 100 microg/L) in the lower reaches of the Texcoco River, but unlike rivers in industrialized countries, relatively low concentrations of intermediate degradation products, including NP1EO, NP2EO, and NP, were present. The presence and fate of NPEOs compounds in wastewater treatment plants have been studied only in conventional treatment systems in industrialized countries. In this study, the fate of these compounds was studied in a pilot-scale treatment wetland constructed in the small community of Santa Maria Nativitas in the Texcoco River watershed. The treatment wetland removed > 75% of NPEOs from the domestic wastewater, but the greatest proportion of removal occurred in parts of the treatment wetland where sedimentation existed. This is the first report of NPEO compounds in the water resources of a developing country. These data indicate that construction of low-cost and technologically simple treatment wetlands may be one solution to reducing the impacts of contaminants from domestic sewage in developing countries, such as Mexico.

  18. Fate of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO) and its inhibitory impact on the biodegradation of acetate under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdal, Alpaslan

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the kinetics of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO) and acetate biodegradation at a moderate sludge age by acclimated culture under aerobic conditions. A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor was set and fed only with acetate mixture. The system was operated at steady state with a sludge age of 8 days. Following this stage, a mixture of NPEO and acetate was fed to the mixed culture in order to assess the biodegradation kinetics of NPEO and its impact on acetate utilization. A mechanistic model was developed involving model components and kinetic parameters for both substrates. The model was calibrated with parameters such as oxygen uptake rate and polyhydroxyalkanoates. Biodegradation characteristics and kinetics of acetate and NPEO were estimated by using the model results. Evaluation of calibrated model indicated that exposure of NPEO to non-acclimated sludge caused significant inhibitory impact on the utilization and storage of acetate. However, acclimation ofbiomass greatly suppressed inhibitory effects of NPEO on growth process involved in the degradation of acetate.

  19. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  20. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  1. Naltrexone for Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prescription Medicines, Your Health ResourcesTags: alcohol abuse, alcohol addiction, alcohol dependence, alcoholism, craving, Depade, drunk, hepatoxicity, intoxication, naltrexone, narcotic antagonist, opiate ...

  2. MICELLIZATION STUDIES OF DODECYL BENZENESULFONIC ACID AND ITS INTERACTION WITH POLYVINYLPYRROLIDONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Saleem Khan; Zarshad Ali

    2005-01-01

    Dodecyl benzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) surfactant was used in the present study to find the effect of concentration on its electrical conductance in solution from 293-323 K above and below the critical micelle concentration (CMC). The micellization parameters i.e. degree of counter ion binding (β), aggregation number (n) and number of counter ion micelle(m) were measured. The interaction of DBSA with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was also studied at 293 K through conductance and surface tension measure ments. A number of important parameters i.e. critical aggregation concentration(CAC), Gibb's free energy (AG) and binding ratio (R) were determined and the effect of NaCl on the CAC and polymer saturation point (PSP) was also investigated.

  3. Esterification process to synthesize isopropyl chloroacetate catalyzed by lanthanum dodecyl sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jiasheng; Zhang, Jie; Yin, Xiangyu; Zhang, He; Qian, Jianhua; Liu, Lianli, E-mail: jiashengxu@bhu.edu.c [Bohai University, Jinzhou (China). Liaoning Province Research Center for Silicon Materials Engineering Technology. Liaoning Province Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Application of Functional Compounds; Yang, Dongjiang [Griffith University (Australia). Environmental Futures Centre and Griffith School of Environment; Liu, Xiaoyang [Jilin University (China). College of Chemistry. State Key Lab. of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry

    2011-04-15

    Isopropyl chloroacetate has been synthesized by esterification of chloroacetic acid and isopropanol, using lanthanum dodecyl sulfate (LDDS) as the catalyst. Various factors that affected the esterification have been investigated, such as reaction time, different water-carrying agent and the amount of catalyst. Under the condition of 1.2/1 molar ratio of isopropanol to chloroacetic acid, 1.0% catalyst (molar percent of chloroacetic acid), 2.5 h reaction time, 5 mL cyclohexane as water-carrying agent and reflux temperature, the esterification conversion of isopropyl chloroacetate reaches 98.3%. The catalytic activity of LDDS is almost equal to that of a Bronsted acid. LDDS, as one kind of water-tolerant Lewis acid, is an excellent catalyst compared to the traditional Lewis acid. (author)

  4. Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate on flow and electrokinetic properties of Na-activated bentonite dispersions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Günıster; S İşçı; A Alemdar; N Güngör

    2004-06-01

    The present study reports the effect of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, C12H25 OSO3Na) upon the electrokinetic (electrophoretic mobility, zeta potential) and rheological (viscosity, yield value) properties of the Ca-bentonitic clay found in Turkey and its Na-activated form. The SDS dispersant was added in different concentrations in the range of 1 × 10-5-5 × 10-2 mol/l. The results show that the viscosity and zeta potential values of bentonite dispersion are affected by the addition of anionic surfactant. The obtained data are analysed by considering the kind of exchangeable cations. Thixotropic property effect was observed in bentonite dispersions.

  5. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS-Loaded Nanoporous Polymer as Anti-Biofilm Surface Coating Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokol Ndoni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms cause extensive damage to industrial settings. Thus, it is important to improve the existing techniques and develop new strategies to prevent bacterial biofilm formation. In the present study, we have prepared nanoporous polymer films from a self-assembled 1,2-polybutadiene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (1,2-PB-b-PDMS block copolymer via chemical cross-linking of the 1,2-PB block followed by quantitative removal of the PDMS block. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS was loaded into the nanoporous 1,2-PB from aqueous solution. The SDS-loaded nanoporous polymer films were shown to block bacterial attachment in short-term (3 h and significantly reduce biofilm formation in long-term (1 week by gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Tuning the thickness or surface morphology of the nanoporous polymer films allowed to extent the anti-biofilm capability.

  6. Use of nanoparticles to improve the performance of sodium dodecyl sulfate flooding in a sandstone reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Ali

    2016-12-01

    One of the prominent enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods in oil reservoirs is surfactant flooding. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of nanoparticles on the surfactant adsorption. Real reservoir sandstone rock samples were implemented in adsorption tests. The ranges of the initial surfactant and nano silica concentrations were from 500 to 5000 ppm and 500 ppm to 2000 ppm, respectively. The commercial surfactant used is sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an ionic surfactant and two different types of nano silica were employed. The rate of surfactant losses extremely depends on the concentration of surfactant in the system, and it was found that the adsorption of surfactant decreased with increasing the concentration of nano silica. Also, it was found that hydrophobic nano silica is more effective than hydrophilic nanoparticles.

  7. Improving the performance of starch-based wood adhesive by using sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaofeng; Wang, Jian; Cheng, Li; Gu, Zhengbiao; Hong, Yan; Kowalczyk, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used to improve the performance of starch-based wood adhesive. The effects of SDS on shear strength, viscosity and storage stability were investigated. It was shown that, although the addition of 1.5-2% (dry starch basis) SDS resulted in a slight decrease in shear strength, the mobility and storage stability of adhesive were significantly enhanced. Possible mechanisms regarding specific action of SDS were discussed. It was proved, using blue value or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, that the amylose-SDS complexes were formed in the adhesive. The complex formation or simple adsorption of SDS with starch molecules might hinder the aggregation of latex particles, as shown by scanning electron microscopy images, and inhibit starch retrogradation, as observed by DSC analysis. As a result, in the presence of SDS, the adhesive had higher mobility and storage stability, indicating that SDS could be used to prepare starch-based wood adhesives with high performance.

  8. Combined Quenching Mechanism of Anthracene Fluorescence by Cetylpyridinium Chloride in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soemo, Angela R; Pemberton, Jeanne E

    2014-03-01

    The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV) for quenching of anthracene fluorescence in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles by pyridinium chloride has been reported previously to be 520 M(-1) based on steady state fluorescence measurements. However, such measurements cannot distinguish static versus dynamic contributions to the overall quenching. In the work reported here, the quenching dynamics of anthracene in SDS micelles by cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), an analogue of pyridinium chloride, were investigated using both steady state and time resolved fluorescence quenching. Concurrent measurement of the decrease in fluorescence intensity and lifetime of anthracene provide a quantitative evaluation of collision induced (i.e. dynamic) versus complex formation (i.e. static) quenching of the anthracene fluorophore. The results reveal that a combined quenching mechanism is operative with approximately equal constants of 249 ± 6 M(-1) and 225 ± 12 M(-1) for dynamic and static quenching, respectively.

  9. Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on the reaction between Nile Blue A and hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANA A. JANKOVIC

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate on the rate of the reaction between the cationic form of Nile Blue A and hydrogen peroxide was investigated in the pH range from 5 to 8.5. A retardation of the oxidation of Nile Blue A with hydrogen peroxide of three orders of magnitude was observed at pH 8.5 in the presence of anionic micelles compared to the kinetic data in water. The retardation effect was less pronounced at lower pH values. These effects were explained by the electrostatic interaction of the species involved in the reaction with the negatively charged micellar surface and their effective separation in the vicinity of the micellar surface.

  10. Improved detection of amylase activity by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with copolymerized starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, T F; Alarcón, F J; Díaz-López, M; Moyano, F J

    2000-08-01

    An improved method, based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for detection of amylase activity is described. This method will allow better characterization of certain amylases than that obtained by the Davis technique. The main features of the technique are: (i) identification of amylase bands and molecular mass determination are possible in the same gel; (ii) the hydrolysis of copolymerized substrate during electrophoretic separation is prevented using very low temperatures instead of inactivating agents such as chelating agents; and (iii) the technique is applicable to reveal amylase activity in a wide range of biological samples. The method is not useful for enzymes sensitive to SDS and for high molecular mass amylases.

  11. Local gene delivery via endovascular stents coated with dodecylated chitosan–plasmid DNA nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunwan Zhu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dunwan Zhu1*, Xu Jin2*, Xigang Leng1, Hai Wang1, Junbo Bao1, Wenguang Liu3, Kangde Yao3, Cunxian Song11Tianjin Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, China; 2Department of Anesthesia and Pain Therapy, Capital Medical University Affiliated Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing, China; 3Research Institute of Polymeric Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China; *Both investigators contributed equally to this work and are senior authors.Abstract: Development of efficacious therapeutic strategies to prevent and inhibit the occurrences of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is critical for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the feasibility and efficiency of stents coated with dodecylated chitosan–plasmid DNA nanoparticles (DCDNPs were evaluated as scaffolds for localized and prolonged delivery of reporter genes into the diseased blood vessel wall. Dodecylated chitosan–plasmid DNA complexes formed stable positive charged nanospheres with mean diameter of approximately 90–180 nm and zeta potential of +28 ± 3 mV. As prepared DCDNPs were spray-coated on stents, a thin layer of dense DCDNPs was successfully distributed onto the metal struts of the endovascular stents as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. The DCDNP stents were characterized for the release kinetics of plasmid DNA, and further evaluated for gene delivery and expression both in vitro and in vivo. In cell culture, DCDNP stents containing plasmid EGFP-C1 exhibited high level of GFP expression in cells grown on the stent surface and along the adjacent area. In animal studies, reporter gene activity was observed in the region of the artery in contact with the DCDNP stents, but not in adjacent arterial segments or distal organs. The DCDNP stent provides a very promising strategy for cardiovascular gene therapy

  12. Micellization, interaction and thermodynamic study of butylated hydroxyanisole (synthetic antioxidant and sodium dodecyl sulfate in aqueous-ethanol solution at 25, 30 and 35 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Bhardwaj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are found to enhance the diffusion significantly depending on hydrophobic/hydrophilic group lengths and the structure of the surfactant molecule. Aggregation properties of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS in the presence of butylated hydroxyanisole (synthetic antioxidant, at a range of temperatures (25, 30 and 35 °C have been measured by the conductometric study in aqueous-ethanolic composite solution. The experimental data of aqueous-ethanolic solutions as a function of SDS concentration ranging from 1 to 14 mM dm−3 show the presence of inflexion points indicating micellization and interaction mechanisms. Effect of temperature was also observed in increasing the CMC (Critical Micelle Concentration in the narrow composition. From the CMC values as a function of temperature, various thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated viz: (a the standard enthalpy change (ΔHm°, (b standard entropy change (ΔSm°, and (c standard Gibbs energy change (ΔGm°. The results showed that the presence of alcohol, as well as the composition of water + ethanol may have effect on thermodynamic parameters. The variation in these parameters with the concentration of surfactant or with the change in temperature suggests the manifestation of hydrophobic interactions in the studied system.

  13. Polyethylenimine Interfacial Layers in Inverted Organic Photovoltaic Devices: Effects of Ethoxylation and Molecular Weight on Efficiency and Temporal Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, Brett A E; Jenekhe, Samson A

    2015-12-02

    We report a comparative study of polyethylenimine (PEI) and ethoxylated-polyethylenimine (PEIE) cathode buffer layers in high performance inverted organic photovoltaic devices. The work function of the indium-tin oxide (ITO)/zinc oxide (ZnO) cathode was reduced substantially (Δφ = 0.73-1.09 eV) as the molecular weight of PEI was varied from 800 g mol(-1) to 750 000 g mol(-1) compared with the observed much smaller reduction when using a PEIE thin film (Δφ = 0.56 eV). The reference inverted polymer solar cells based on the small band gap polymer PBDTT-FTTE (ITO/ZnO/PBDTT-FTTE:PC70BM/MoO3/Ag), without a cathode buffer layer, had an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.06 ± 0.22%. Incorporation of a PEIE cathode buffer layer in the same PBDTT-FTTE:PC70BM blend devices gave an enhanced performance with a PCE of 7.37 ± 0.53%. In contrast, an even greater photovoltaic efficiency with a PCE of 8.22 ± 0.10% was obtained in similar PBDTT-FTTE:PC70BM blend solar cells containing a PEI cathode buffer layer. The temporal stability of the inverted polymer solar cells was found to increase with increasing molecular weight of the cathode buffer layer. The results show that PEI is superior to PEIE as a cathode buffer layer in high performance organic photovoltaic devices and that the highest molecular weight PEI interlayer provides the highest temporal stability.

  14. Application of the GREAT-ER model for environmental risk assessment of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lai; Cao, Yan; Hao, Xuewen; Zhang, Yongyong; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-12-01

    The environmental risk presented by "down-the-drain" chemicals to receiving rivers in large urban areas has received increasing attention in recent years. Geo-referenced Regional Environmental Assessment Tool for European Rivers (GREAT-ER) is a typical river catchment model that has been specifically developed for the risk assessment of these chemicals and applied in many European rivers. By utilizing the new version of the model, GREAT-ER 3.0, which is the first completely open source software for worldwide application, this study represents the first attempt to conduct an application of GREAT-ER in the Wenyu River of China. Aquatic exposure simulation and an environmental risk assessment of nonylphenol (NP) and its environmental precursor nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) were conducted effectively by GREAT-ER model, since NP is one of typical endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and its environmental precursor NPEOs as a "down-the-drain" chemical are extensively used in China. In the result, the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of NP and NPEOs in the water of Wenyu River were 538 and 4320 ng/L, respectively, at the regional scale, and 1210 and 8990 ng/L, respectively, at the local scale. From the results profile of the RCR, the combination of high emissions from large STPs with insufficient dilution of the river caused the high RCR. The PECs of NP in the sediment were in the range of 216.8-8218.3 ng/g (dry weight), which was consistent with the available monitoring data. The study showed the worldwide applicability and reliability of GREAT-ER as a river catchment model for the risk assessment of these chemicals and also revealed the general environmental risks presented by NP and NPEOs in the Wenyu River catchment in Beijing due to the extensive use of these chemicals. The results suggest that specific control or treatment measures are probably warranted for these chemicals to reduce their discharge in major cities.

  15. Epidermal cell proliferation and terminal differentiation in skin organ culture after topical exposure to sodium dodecyl sulphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Bos, T.A.; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal cell proliferation and differentiation were investigated in vitro after exposure to the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Human skin organ cultures were exposed topically to various concentrations of SDS for 22 h, after which the irritant was removed. Cell proliferation was

  16. Modification of an acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate disruption method for cellular protein extraction from neuropathogenic Clostridium botulinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    An acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) disruption method was used for the extraction of cellular proteins from neurotoxigenic Clostridium botulinum. The amount of protein extracted per gram of dry weight and the protein profile as revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was comparabl...

  17. A Novel Method for Detection of Glycoproteins on Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Using Radio-Iodinated Tyrosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalla, Amarnadh; Draz, Hossam M.; Dole, Anita;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a novel method for detection of glycoproteins on polyacrylamide gel. In this method, radio-iodinated-tyrosine (125I-tyrosine) was conjugated to glycoprotein by schiff's base mechanism on the sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel. Ovalbumin and Concanavalin...

  18. Impact of sodium dodecyl sulphate on the dissolution of poorly soluble drug into biorelevant medium from drug-surfactant discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madelung, Peter; Ostergaard, Jesper; Bertelsen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    The purpose was to elucidate the mechanism of action of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) on drug dissolution from discs under physiologically relevant conditions. The effect of incorporating SDS (4-30%, w/w) and drug into discs on the dissolution constant and solubility were evaluated for the poorly...

  19. Reduced photoinactivation of 10-dodecyl acridine orange-sensitized yeast cells at high fluence rates measurements and computer simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keij, J.F.; Jansen, J.Th.M.; Schultz, F.W.; Visser, J.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    During the development of a photodamage cell sorter several photosensitizers were tested for their ability to photoinactivate more than 90% of the sensitized cells after a brief irradiation with a fluence of 10 kJ/m2. In pilot experiments, yeast cells sensitized with 10-dodecyl acridine orange (DAO)

  20. 蓖麻油酸甲酯乙氧基化物洗涤性能的研究%Washing performance of ethoxylated castor oil acid methyl esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张谦; 孙永强; 王万绪; 智丽飞; 张勇; 孙晋源; 武华萍

    2015-01-01

    The washing properties of different average ethylene oxide (EO) adduct number of ethoxylated castor oil acid methyl esters (ECAME) was tested and the hydrolysis resistant ability of ECAME was investigat-ed under different pH. The results showed that ethoxylated castor oil acid methyl esters with 14 of EO adduct number (ECAME- 14) had the best washing property. The hydrolysis rate of ECAME- 14 was low under pH=4~9 for 4 weeks. Under alkaline condition, the surface activity of ECAME- 14 was weakened while its surface ac-tivity was enhanced under acidic condition.%对不同平均环氧乙烷(EO)加合数的蓖麻油酸甲酯乙氧基化物(ECAME)的洗涤性能进行了测定,并考察了其在不同pH条件下的抗水解能力.结果表明,平均EO加合数为14的蓖麻油酸甲酯乙氧基化物(ECAME-14)的洗涤能力最好.在pH为4~9的溶液中放置4周,ECAME-14水解率很低.在碱性条件下,其表面活性被削弱,但在酸性条件下,其表面活性增强.

  1. 4-羟基-5-乙氧基苯胺的合成%Synthesis of 5-Ethoxyl-4-hydroxylaniline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志华; 狄庆锋

    2013-01-01

    以苯胺为原料,经重氮化、偶合、还原得到4-羟基-5-乙氧基苯胺.合成中,通过保险粉还原偶氮化合物的方法在芳香环上引进氨基,不仅产物收率高(总收率86%,较文献提高了26.3%),而且还原产物容易分离,粗品纯度可达95%.本合成路线中间体均不经提纯,且氨基的引入中避免了贵金属的加氢还原,是一条适合大规模生产4-羟基-5-乙氧基苯胺的新合成工艺路线.%5-Ethoxyl-4-hydroxylaniline was prepared through diazotization of aniline,coupling with o-ethoxyl phenol and followed by the reduction of azo compounds with sodium hyposulfite in overall yield of 86% and 95% HPLC purity.The yield was increased by 26.3% compared with the literature.This synthesis avoids noble metal catalized hydrogenation and is suitable for mass production without purification of the intermediates.

  2. α-烯烃羰基合成醇醚性能研究%Study on Properties of Alpha Olefin OXO-synthesis Alcohol Ether

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟

    2016-01-01

    以内烯烃、α-烯烃羰基合成醇为原料进行乙氧基化和磺化试验,并对产品进行分析,解决了α-烯烃AEO 3凝固点偏高的问题,确定了α-烯烃羰基合成醇生产醇醚的可行性。%Ethoxylation and sulfonation tests with inner olefin and alpha olefin OXO-synthesis alcohol were carried out,the products were analyzed. The problem that alpha olefin AEO3had high freezing point was resolved,and the feasibility to produce alcohol ether with alpha olefin OXO-synthesis alcohol was verified.

  3. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  4. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 28133 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are premixed ...

  5. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate-assisted synthesis through a hydrothermal reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobhani, Azam [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317–51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati-Niasari, Masoud, E-mail: salavati@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317–51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317–51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Reaction of a SeCl{sub 4} aqueous solution with a NiCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O aqueous solution in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as capping agent and hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O) as reductant, produces nanosized nickel selenide through a hydrothermal method. The effect of temperature, reaction time and amounts of reductant on the morphology, particle sizes of NiSe nanostructures has been investigated. Highlights: ► NiSe nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method. ► A novel Se source was used to synthesize NiSe. ► SDBS as capping agent plays a crucial role on the morphology of products. ► A mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe was prepared in the presence of 2 ml hydrazine. ► A pure phase of NiSe was prepared in the presence of 4 or 6 ml hydrazine. -- Abstract: The effects of the anionic surfactant on the morphology, size and crystallization of NiSe precipitated from NiCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O and SeCl{sub 4} in presence of hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O) as reductant were investigated. The products have been successfully synthesized in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant via an improved hydrothermal route. A variety of synthesis parameters, such as reaction time and temperature, capping agent and amount of reducing agent have a significant effect on the particle size, phase purity and morphology of the obtained products. The sample size became bigger with decreasing reaction temperature and increasing reaction time. In the presence of 2 ml hydrazine, the samples were found to be the mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe. With increasing the reaction time and amount of hydrazine a pure phase of hexagonal NiSe was obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicate phase, particle size and morphology of the products. Chemical composition and purity of the products were

  6. A new insight on the dynamics of sodium dodecyl sulfate aqueous micellar solutions by dielectric spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Leandro; Carlà, Marcello; Lanzi, Leonardo; Gambi, Cecilia M C

    2009-02-01

    Aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solutions were investigated by a recently developed double-differential dielectric spectroscopy technique in the frequency range 100 MHz-3 GHz at 22 degrees C, in the surfactant concentration range 29.8-524 mM, explored for the first time above 104 mM. The micellar contribution to dielectric spectra was analyzed according to three models containing, respectively, a single Debye relaxation, a Cole-Cole relaxation and a double Debye relaxation. The single Debye model is not accurate enough. Both Cole-Cole and double Debye models fit well the experimental dielectric spectra. With the double Debye model, two characteristic relaxation times were identified: the slower one, in the range 400-900 ps, is due to the motion of counterions bound to the micellar surface (lateral motion); the faster one, in the range 100-130 ps, is due to interfacial bound water. Time constants and amplitudes of both processes are in fair agreement with Grosse's theoretical model, except at the largest concentration values, where interactions between micelles increase. For each sample, the volume fraction of bulk water and the effect of bound water as well as the conductivity in the low frequency limit were computed. The bound water increases as the surfactant concentration increases, in quantitative agreement with the micellar properties. The number of water molecules per surfactant molecule was also computed. The conductivity values are in agreement with Kallay's model over the whole surfactant concentration range.

  7. Phase Behavior and Dielectric Spectroscopy of the Sodiun Dodecyl Trioxyethylene Sulfate/n-Butanol/Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI, Su-Xiang; MU, Jian-Hai; ZHAO, Kong-Shuang; LEI, Jian-Ping; LI, Gan-Zuo

    2003-01-01

    The phase diagram of the ternary system of sodium dodecyl trioxyethylene sulfate (SDES)/n-butanol/water is obtained at (30.0 ± 0.1) ℃. There exists a clear, isotropic, and low-viscosity L phase, which could be divided into W/O micelle, bicontinuous (B. C. ) phase and O/W micelle by conductivity measurements. Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy (DRS) measurements are applied to investigate microstructure changes of this system. For samples with a fixed weight ratio, SDES/nbutanol = 3/7, DRS indicates a structure transition from W/Oto O/W micelles via B.C. Phase with the increase of water content. For the samples with a fixed weight ratio, SDES/H2O =4/6, DRS can presents that there exist changes of onefold structure size of W/O micelles as n-butanol content increases. The results obtained from DRS and their analyses are in good agreement with those from phase diagram and conductivity measurements.

  8. Thermodynamic selectivity of functional agents on zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Ling; Wang, Jian; Qiu, Xianxiu; Zhao, Yanxiang; Yip, Yuk-Wang; Law, Ga-Lai; Shih, Kaimin; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Lee, Po-Heng

    2016-11-15

    This study proposes a thermodynamic approach to effectively select functional agents onto zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sequestration in greywater reuse. We combine isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and quantum chemistry simulation (QCS) to identify the interactions between SDS and agents at the molecular level. Three potential agents, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C14TAB), and 14-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C14HTAB), differ in carbon chain length and hydrophilic groups. The ITC titration of SDS with CTAB released the highest heat, followed by those with C14TAB and C14HTAB, as was the same trend for the amounts of SDS adsorbed by the respective functionalized-zeolites. Results suggest that the favorable SDS sorption occurred at the bilayer CTAB-zeolite is driven by enthalpy as similar as the SDS…CTAB interaction found, regardless of the contribution from electrostatic and/or hydrophobic behaviors, while the declined sorption is entropy-driven via the predominant hydrophobic interaction onto the monolayer CTAB-zeolite. The data presented here interpret the nature of molecularly thermodynamic quantities and enable the manipulation of sorption capacity optimization.

  9. Characterization of a sodium dodecyl sulphate-degrading Pseudomonas sp. strain DRY15 from Antarctic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmi, M I E; Hussin, W S W; Aqlima, A; Syed, M A; Ruberto, L; MacCormack, W P; Shukor, M Y

    2013-11-01

    A bacterium capable of biodegrading surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was isolated from Antarctic soil. The isolate was tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. strain DRY15 based on carbon utilization profiles using Biolog GN plates and partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny. Growth characteristic studies showed that the bacterium grew optimally at 10 degrees C, 7.25 pH, 1 g l(-1) SDS as a sole carbon source and 2 g l(-1) ammonium sulphate as nitrogen source. Growth was completely inhibited at 5 g l(-1) SDS. At a tolerable initial concentration of 2 g l(-1), approximately 90% of SDS was degraded after an incubation period of eight days. The best growth kinetic model to fit experimental data was the Haldane model of substrate inhibition with a correlation coefficient value of 0.97. The maximum growth rate was 0.372 hr(-1) while the saturation constant or half velocity constant (Ks) and inhibition constant (Ki), were 0.094% and 11.212 % SDS, respectively. Other detergent tested as carbon sources at 1 g l(-1) was Tergitol NP9, Tergitol 15S9, Witconol 2301 (methyl oleate), sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), benzethonium chloride, and benzalkonium chloride showed Tergitol NP9, Tergitol 15S9, Witconol 2301 and the anionic SDBS supported growth with the highest growth exhibited by SDBS.

  10. Examination of surface adsorption of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hiromichi; Shibata, Osamu; Moroi, Yoshikiyo

    2011-07-28

    Several pieces of experimental evidence of condensation of soluble surfactant molecules, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), into the air/water surface region from the bulk solution are presented at different added salt concentrations in order to substantiate that the concentrated molecules do not locate just at the air/solution interface. The insoluble monolayer just at the air/subphase interface for the two surfactants could be studied by surface pressure (π) versus molecular surface area (A), surface potential (ΔV) versus the area (A), infrared absorption of the surface region, and BAM (Brewster angle microscope) image. From surface tension versus concentration curves for the two surfactant solutions, the apparent molecular surface area and the cmc values were determined at different added salt concentrations, and the degree of counterion binding to micelle was found to be 0.70 and 0.73 for CTAB and SDS, respectively. Further examination was made on infrared absorption from the surface region of the surfactant solutions and on BAM images of the surface planes in order to examine the difference between the insoluble monolayer and the condensation in the surface region. Finally, the new concept of bilayer or bilamellar aggregate for soluble surfactant solutions is presented together with the former experimental evidence, which is consistent with several interfacial phenomena of the surfactant solutions.

  11. Effect of Addition of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfite on Physical Properties of Wheat Gluten Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yuwei; ZHAO Mouming; WANG Jinshui

    2005-01-01

    Films were made from the wheat glutens treated with 5%,10%,15%,20%,25% and 30%(wt% of gluten) of sodium dodecyl sulfite (SDS) in order to improve the properties of the films. Glycerol was used as a plasticizer.An addition of SDS in wheat glutens prior to forming films significantly increased the elongation at break(E) (P<0.05) and reduced notably the water vapor permeability(WVP) (P<0.05). In contrast,a decrease in the tensile strength(TS) of the films from gluten containing-SDS was found.Moreover,a significant decrease in PO2 and PCO2 of films from gluten treated with SDS was noticed. Although SDS-treated gluten film was slightly more yellow and darker than control one, it was not visually detrimental. It is indicated that the treatment with SDS prior to forming films greatly enhances the mechanical properties of wheat gluten films.The obivous improvement in water vapor permeability and extensibility of gluten films means that the use of SDS is a potential choice for improving properties of gluten films. The edible film was used to preserve tomatoes. The experimental results show that the shelf life of tomatoes coated with the edible film is extended, and the nutritional quality is kept well.

  12. An investigation of chitosan and sodium dodecyl sulfate interactions in acetic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Lidija B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer/surfactant association is a cooperative phenomenon where surfactant binds to the polymer in the form of aggregates, usually through electrostatic or hydrophobic forces. As already known, polyelectrolytes may interact with oppositely charged surfactants through electrostatic attraction that results in polymer/surfactant complex formation. This behavior could be desirable in wide range of application of polymer/surfactant mixtures, such as improving colloid stability, gelling, emulsification and microencapsulation. In the present study surface tension, turbidity, viscosity and electrophoretic mobility measurements were used to investigate interactions of cationic polyelectrolyte chitosan (Ch and oppositely charged anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, in buffered water. Obtained results show the presence of interactions that lead to Ch/SDS complexes formation at all investigated pH and for all investigated polymer concentrations. Mechanisms of interaction, as well as characteristics of formed Ch/SDS complexes, are highly dependent on their mass ratio in the mixtures, while pH has no significant influence. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. II46010

  13. Plasmid-mediated biodegradation of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate, by Pseudomonas aeruginosa S7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeldho, Deepthi; Rebello, Sharrel; Jisha, M S

    2011-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), an anionic surfactant, has been used extensively due to its low cost and excellent foaming properties. Fifteen different bacterial isolates capable of degrading SDS were isolated from detergent contaminated soil by enrichment culture technique and the degradation efficiency was assessed by Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) assay. The most efficient SDS degrading isolate was selected and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa S7. The selected isolate was found to harbor a single 6-kb plasmid. Acridine orange, ethidium bromide, SDS and elevated temperatures of incubation failed to cure the plasmid. The cured derivatives of SDS degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa were obtained only when ethidium bromide and elevated temperature (40 °C) were used together. Transformation of E. coli DH5α with plasmid isolated from S7 resulted in subsequent growth of the transformants on minimal salt media with SDS (0.1%) as the sole source of carbon. The SDS degradation ability of S7 and the transformant was found to be similar as assessed by Methylene Blue Active Substance Assay. The antibiotic resistance profiles of S7, competent DH5α and transformant were analyzed and it was noted that the transfer of antibiotic resistance correlated with the transfer of plasmid as well as SDS degrading property.

  14. Microenvironment of tryptophan residues in beta-lactoglobulin derivative polypeptide-sodium dodecyl sulfate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, T; Konishi, K

    1992-06-01

    The changes of microenvironment of tryptophan residues in beta-lactoglobulin A and its cyanogen bromide (CNBr) fragments with the binding of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were studied with measurements of the rates of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) modification reactions by stopped-flow photometry. Two tryptophan residues of carboxyamidomethylated (RCM) beta-lactoglobulin A in the states of their complexes with SDS were clearly distinguishable by their differences in NBS modification rates. We confirmed by experiments with CNBr fragments containing trytophan residue. The modification rates of Trp 19 in RCM beta-lactoglobulin A-SDS complexes were about 10-fold smaller than those expected for tryptophan residues exposed entirely to the aqueous solvent. The Trp 61 was hardly changed. The change of rate constants for Trp 19 was virtually consistent with those observed when N-acetyl-L-trytophan ethylester was dissolved in SDS micelles. For various species of polypeptide-SDS complexes, all tryptophan residues were reactive to NBS and also, for some of them, the differences in NBS modification rates were observed between tryptophan residues on a common polypeptide chain. These results suggest micellar and heterogeneous bindings of SDS to polypeptides.

  15. Mg2+-induced vesicles of tetradecyldimethylamine oxide and magnesium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Minmin; Song, Aixin; Hao, Jingcheng

    2009-10-15

    A Mg2+-induced vesicle phase was prepared from a mixture of tetradecyldimethylamine oxide (C14DMAO) and magnesium dodecyl sulfate [Mg(DS)2] in aqueous solution. Study of the phase behavior shows that at the appropriate mixing ratios, Mg2+-ligand coordination between C14DMAO and Mg(DS)2 results in the formation of molecular bilayers, in which Mg2+ can firmly bind to the head groups of the two surfactants. The area of the head group can be reduced because of the complexation. In this case, no counterions exist in aqueous solution because of the fixation of Mg2+ ions to the bilayer membranes. Therefore, the charges of the bilayer membranes are not shielded by salts. The birefringent solutions of Mg(DS)2 and C14DMAO mixtures consist of vesicles which were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and rheological measurements. Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoplates were obtained via the decomposition of Mg(OH)2 which were synthesized in Mg2+-induced vesicle phase which was used as the microreactor under the existence of ammonia hydroxide. The morphologies and structures of the obtained MgO nanoplates have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the crystal growth is along the (111) direction which can be affected by the presence of a vesicle phase having a fixation of Mg2+ ions to the bilayer membranes.

  16. Electrochemistry of Cytochrome P450 BM3 in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udit, Andrew K.; Hill, Michael G.; Gray, Harry B.

    2008-01-01

    Direct electrochemistry of the cytochrome P450 BM3 heme domain (BM3) was achieved by confining the protein within sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) films on the surface of basal-plane graphite (BPG) electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry revealed the heme FeIII/II redox couple at −330 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl, pH 7.4). Up to 10 V/s, the peak current was linear with scan rate, allowing us to treat the system as surface-confined within this regime. The standard heterogeneous rate constant determined at 10 V/s was estimated to be 10 s−1. Voltammograms obtained for the BM3-SDS-BPG system in the presence of dioxygen exhibited catalytic waves at the onset of FeIII reduction. The altered heme reduction potential of the BM3-SDS-graphite system indicates that SDS is likely bound in the enzyme active-site region. Compared to other P450-surfactant systems, we find redox potentials and electron transfer rates that differ by ~ 100 mV and > 10-fold, respectively, indicating that the nature of the surfactant environment has a significant effect on the observed heme redox properties. PMID:17129070

  17. Biodegradation of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate by Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 10311.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambily, P S; Jisha, M S

    2012-07-01

    The anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), the core components of detergent and cosmetic product formulations, contributes significantly to the pollution profile of sewage and wastewater of all kinds. In this study, 44 SDS degrading strains were isolated by soil enrichment methods and the utilization efficiency was assessed by methylene blue active substances (MBAS) assay and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Isolate S2 which showed maximum degradation was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 10311 based on phenotypic features and 16 S rDNA typing. The isolate was found to harbor plasmid within the size range of 9-10 kb. The cured derivative of SDS degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa was obtained at a frequency of 10.7% by incubation with ethidium bromide (500 mg ml(-1) at 40 degrees C. 96% of SDS degradation occurred at 1500 ppm level within 48 hr of incubation, whereas higher concentration of SDS (10000 ppm) showed only 20% degradation. The optimum temperature and pH was 30 degrees C and 7.5, respectively. The additional supplementation of carbon and nitrogen source increased the degradation capacity from 93 to 95% and 90 to 96% respectively within 36 hrs of incubation.

  18. Inhibition of human hemoglobin autoxidation by sodium n-dodecyl sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Dayer Mohammad; Akbar, Moosavi-Movahedi Ali; Parviz, Norouzi; Ghourchian; Hedayat-Olah; Shahrokh, Safarian

    2002-07-31

    The effect of sodium n-dodecyl sulphate (SDS) on hemoglobin autoxidation was studied in the presence of a 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) by different methods. These included spectrophotometry, fluorescence technique, cyclic voltametry, differential scanning calorimetry, and densitometry. Spectroscopic studies showed that SDS concentrations up to 1 mM increased deoxy-, decreases oxy-, and had no significant effect on the met- conformation of hemoglobin. Therefore, a SDS concentration up to 1 mM increased the deoxy form of hemoglobin as the folded, compact state and decreases the oxy conformation. The turbidity measurements and differential scanning calorimetry techniques indicated a more stable conformation for hemoglobin in the presence of SDS up to 1 mM. Electrochemical studies also confirmed a more difficult oxidation under these conditions. The induction of the deoxy form in the presence of SDS was confirmed by densitometry techniques. The compact structure of deoxyhemoglobin blocks the formation of met-conformation in low SDS concentrations.

  19. [Electrochemical behavior of dopamine at dodecyl benzenesulfonate self-assembled monolayers modified electrode and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao-xia; Gao, Zuo-ning

    2007-04-01

    Sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) self-assembled monolayers in situ modified electrode (SDBS/CPE) was prepared. The electrochemical behaviors of dopamine (DA) on SDBS/CPE were studied. Electrochemical behaviors and kinetic parameters of DA were investigated at SDBS/CPE by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and chronocoulometry (CC). The changes of the oxidation peak currents with concentration of DA were examined by square wave voltametry (SWV). The difference of peak potential at CPB/CPE was less than 149 mV comparing with that at CPE. The charge transfer coefficient alpha, diffusion coefficient D and the apparent reaction rate constant k(f) are 0.61, 3.6 x 10(-5) cm2 x s(-1) and 4.2 x 10(-3) cm x s(-1), respectively. The oxidation peak currents of DA versus its concentration have a good linear relationship in the concentration range of 2.0 x 10(-6)-1.0 x 10(-3) mol x L(-1) with the correlation coefficient of 0.9979 and the detection limit of 9.0 x 10(-7) mol x L(-1) by square wave voltammetry (SWV) response. The modified electrode showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity for the DA electrochemical oxidation. The method can be applied in the determination of DA in injection samples with the satisfactory results.

  20. Interaction of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) with sodium dodecyl sulfate below the critical aggregation concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Nobuo; Ogawa, Minami

    2014-06-10

    Interaction between the thermoresponsive polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (P-NIP) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) both above and below its phase transition temperature was examined under dilute conditions. Above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of P-NIP (32 °C), 0.01 wt % P-NIP specifically interacted with 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L SDS to form a precipitate. However, when SDS was added at concentrations above or below 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L, the P-NIP solution remained clear above the LCST. A fluorometric probe, N-phenyl-naphthalene, indicated that the hydrophobicity of the aggregates composed of P-NIP and SDS changed at an SDS concentration of 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L. Although the hydrophobicity of the precipitate was similar to that of P-NIP alone at less than 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L, it approached that of SDS homomicelles as the SDS concentration increased above 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L. Dynamic light scattering and turbidimetry studies showed no P-NIP phase transition above an SDS concentration of 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L, which is much lower than the reported critical association concentration (CAC) of SDS with P-NIP. This indicates that P-NIP interacted with SDS above the LSCT at much lower SDS concentration than the reported CAC.

  1. Toxicity Biosensor for Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Using Immobilized Green Fluorescent Protein Expressing Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Ooi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Green fluorescent protein (GFP is suitable as a toxicity sensor due to its ability to work alone without cofactors or substrates. Its reaction with toxicants can be determined with fluorometric approaches. GFP mutant gene (C48S/S147C/Q204C/S65T/Q80R is used because it has higher sensitivity compared to others GFP variants. A novel sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS toxicity detection biosensor was built by immobilizing GFP expressing Escherichia coli in k-Carrageenan matrix. Cytotoxicity effect took place in the toxicity biosensor which leads to the decrease in the fluorescence intensity. The fabricated E. coli GFP toxicity biosensor has a wide dynamic range of 4–100 ppm, with LOD of 1.7 ppm. Besides, it possesses short response time (0.98, and long-term stability (46 days. E. coli GFP toxicity biosensor has been applied to detect toxicity induced by SDS in tap water, river water, and drinking water. High recovery levels of SDS indicated the applicability of E. coli GFP toxicity biosensor in real water samples toxicity evaluation.

  2. Nature of large aggregates in supercooled aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franses, E.I. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN); Davis, H.T.; Miller, W.G.; Scriven, L.E.

    1980-09-18

    Preparations of 2.0 and 5.5 wt % sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in 3.5 wt % (0.6 M) aqueous NaCl are equilibrium micellar solutions above 28/sup 0/C, the Krafft point of the surfactant at this salinity. These systems can be supercooled and remain transparent for hours and days. At 25/sup 0/C at equilibrium they are biphasic, a hydrated crystal phase and an aqueous salt solution phase containing only 0.01/sub 2/ wt % SDS. Conductimetry and /sup 13/C NMR show that these transparent supercooled systems are indeed supersaturated solutions and not microdispersions of the hydrated crystal. The time lag for the onset of nucleation of the crystals depends strongly on stirring details and probably on presence of gas-liquid interface. The big nonequilibrium aggregates present in the supersaturated systems resemble micelles in conductivity and molecular motion, and are likely to be metastable micelles as is presumed by Mazer, Benedek, and Carey. 21 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  3. Solvation dynamics of DCM in a polypeptide-surfactant aggregate: gelatin-sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Arnab; Sen, Pratik; Burman, Anupam Das; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2004-02-03

    Solvation dynamics of 4-(dicyanomethylidene)-2-[p-(dimethylamino)styryl]-6-methyl-4H-pyran (DCM) is studied in a polypeptide-surfactant aggregate consisting of gelatin and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KP) buffer. The average solvation time (tauS) in gelatin-SDS aggregate at 45 degrees C is found to be 1780 ps, which is about 13 times slower than that in 15 mM SDS in KP buffer at the same temperature. The fluorescence anisotropy decay in gelatin-SDS aggregate is also different from that in SDS micelles in KP buffer. DCM displays negligible emission in the presence of gelatin in aqueous solution. Thus the solvation dynamics in the presence of gelatin and SDS is exclusively due to the probe (DCM) molecules at the gelatin-micelle interface. The slow solvation dynamics is ascribed to the restrictions imposed on the water molecules trapped between the polypeptide chain and micellar aggregates. The critical association concentration (cac) of SDS for gelatin is determined to be 0.5 +/- 0.1 mM.

  4. Atomistic Simulation of Solubilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xujun; Marchi, Massimo; Guo, Chuling; Dang, Zhi; Abel, Stéphane

    2016-04-19

    Solubilization of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), naphthalene (NAP, 2-benzene-ring PAH) and pyrene (PYR, 4-benzene-ring PAH), into a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelle was studied through all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We find that NAP as well as PYR could move between the micelle shell and core regions, contributing to their distribution in both regions of the micelle at any PAH concentration. Moreover, both NAP and PYR prefer to stay in the micelle shell region, which may arise from the greater volume of the micelle shell, the formation of hydrogen bonds between NAP and water, and the larger molecular volume of PYR. The PAHs are able to form occasional clusters (from dimer to octamer) inside the micelle during the simulation time depending on the PAH concentration in the solubilization systems. Furthermore, the micelle properties (i.e., size, shape, micelle internal structure, alkyl chain conformation and orientation, and micelle internal dynamics) are found to be nearly unaffected by the solubilized PAHs, which is irrespective of the properties and concentrations of PAHs.

  5. Application and Mechanism of Anionic Collector Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS in Phosphate Beneficiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Sun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate ore is a valuable strategic resource. Most phosphate ore in China is collophane. Utilization of mid-low grade collophane is necessary to maintain social sustainable development. The gravity-flotation combination separation process can be utilized to separate mid-low grade collophane, but the process consumes a large quantity of acid in the reverse stage. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS was used as a dolomite collector in this study to reduce the acid consumption of collophane flotation. SDS effectively removed dolomite from the gravity concentrate when no other reagents were present. Flotation test results showed that, compared to the conventional gravity-flotation process, the proposed SDS-based process reduced phosphoric acid dosage from 6.1 kg/t to 3.9 kg/t with similar separation results. The SDS action mechanisms on dolomite were further investigated by zeta potential analysis, single mineral flotation tests, infrared spectrum detection, and theoretical analysis. The results indicate that the SDS adsorption on dolomite is mainly physical adsorption, and that favorable separation effects between collophane and dolomite may be attributed to physical adsorption and entrainment. In addition, it also indicates that the physical adsorption can be utilized to remove dolomite from phosphate on account of zeta potential differences when the separate feed is coarse.

  6. Aggregation behavior modulation of 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide by organic solvents in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Lamei; Wang, Huiyong; Wu, Changzeng

    2011-05-05

    Material preparation in ionic liquids and environmental pollution control by ionic liquids are often closely dependent on the aggregation behavior of ionic liquids in solution. In the present work, conductivity, fluorescence probe, and dynamic light scattering techniques have been used to study the effect of organic solvents on the aggregation behavior of 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide in water. It was shown that the critical aggregation concentration (CAC), the ionization degree of the aggregates (α), and the standard Gibbs energy of aggregation (ΔG(m)°) of the ionic liquid increase, while its aggregation number (N(agg)) and aggregates' size decrease with increasing concentration of organic additives in water. These results have been discussed from the favorable interactions of alkyl chain of the ionic liquid with the mixed solvents. It is suggested that the solvophobic parameter, characterized quantitatively by Gibbs energy of transfer of hydrocarbon from gas into a given solvent, can be used to account for the effect of organic additives on the formation and growth of the ionic liquid aggregates in water. Aggregation behavior of ionic liquids in aqueous organic solutions can be modulated simply by the solvophobic parameters of hydrocarbon in the mixed solvents.

  7. Gamma radiation/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment of a nonylphenol ethoxylates: Degradation, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Munawar, E-mail: bosalvee@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Physical Chemistry, University of Peshawar, Peshawar-25120 (Pakistan); Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040 (Pakistan)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Nonylphenol ethoxylates undergone gamma ray/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. • Treatment efficiency was evaluated on the basis of degradation and toxicity reduction. • A significant reductions in COD and TOC were achieved. • Radiolytic by-products were low carbon carboxylic acids. • AOP reduced the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity considerably. - Abstract: Gamma radiation/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment of nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEO) was performed and treatment effect was evaluated on the basis of degradation, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC), and toxicity reduction efficiencies. The radiolytic by-products were determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) techniques. Low mass carboxylic acids, aldehyde, ketone, and acetic acid were identified as the by-products of the NPEO degradation. NPEO sample irradiated to the absorbed dose of 15 kGy/4.58% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} showed more than 90% degradation. Allium cepa (A. cepa), brine shrimp, heamolytic tests were used for cytotoxicity study, while mutagenicity was evaluated through Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains) of treated and un-treated NPEO. The reductions in COD and TOC were greater than 70% and 50%, respectively. Gamma radiation/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment revealed a considerable reduction in cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. A. cepa, heamolytic and shrimp assays showed cytotoxicity reduction up to 68.65%, 77%, and 94%, respectively. The mutagenicity reduced up to 62%, 74%, and 79% (TA98) and 68%, 78%, and 82% (TA100), respectively of NPEO-6, NPEO-9, and NPEO-30 irradiated to the absorbed dose of 15 kGy/4.58% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. NPEO-6 detoxified more efficiently versus NPEO-9 and NPEO-30 and results showed that Gamma radiation/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment has the potential to mineralize and detoxify NPEO.

  8. Effect of O-4-ethoxyl-butyl-berbamine in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin on advanced hepatoma in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai-Jun Fang; Mei-Li Yu; Shao-Guang Yang; Lian-Ming Liao; Jie-Wen Liu; Robert-C-H Zhao

    2004-01-01

    AIM:To study the synergistic effects of calmodulin (CaM) antagonist O-4-ethoxyl-butyl-berbamine (EBB) and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) on hepatoma-22 (H22)in vivo.METHODS: Hepatoma model was established in 50 Balb/c mice by inoculating H22 cells (2.5x106) subcutaneously into the right backs of the mice. These mice were divided into 5 groups, and treated with saline only, PLD only, doxorubicin (Dox) only, PLD plus EBB and Dox plus EBB, respectively.In the treatment groups, mice were given 5 intravenous of PLD or Dox on days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12. The first dosage of PLD or Dox was 4.5 mg/kg, the other 4 injections was 1 mg/kg.EBB (5 mg/kg)was coadministered with PLD or Dox in the corresponding groups. The effect of drugs on the life spans of hepatoma-bearing mice and tumor response to the drugs were recorded. Dox levels in the hepatoma cells were measured by a fluorescence assay. Light microscopy was performed to determine the histopathological changes in the major organs of these tumor-bearing mice. The MTT method was used to analyze the effect of Dox or PLD alone,Dox in combination with EBB, or PLD in combination with EBB on the growth of H22 cells in an in vitro experiment.RESULTS: EBB (5 mg/kg) significantly augmented the antitumor activity of Dox or PLD, remarkably prolonged the median survival time. The median survival time was 18.2 d for control group, but 89.2 d for PLD+EBB group and 70.1 d for Dox+EBB group, respectively. However,Dox alone did not show any remarkable antitumor activity,and the median survival time was just 29.7 d. Addition of EBB to Dox or PLD significantly increased the level of Dox in H22 cells in vivo. Moreover, EBB diminished liver toxicity of Dox and PLD.In vitro, EBB reduced the IC50 value of Dox or PLD on H22cells from 0.050±0.006 mg/L and 0.054±0.004 mg/L to 0.012±0.002 mg/L and 0.013±0.002 mg/L, respectively (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: EBB and liposomization could improve the therapeutic efficacy of Dox in liver cancer, while

  9. Study on adsorption behavior of octylphenol ethoxylates on silk fabric%辛基酚聚氧乙烯醚在丝织物上的吸附行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文武; 宁小玉; 林型跑; 戴宏翔; 陈海相

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the adsorption behavior of octylphenol ethoxylates on silk fabric including isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics was studied. The influences of temperature and second component alkylphenol ethoxylates on adsorption were investigated. Moreover, the adsorption properties of octylphenol ethoxylates on five kinds of fabrics were compared. The results show that the adsorption isotherm of octylphenol ethoxylates on silk fabric could be well described by Langmuir-Freundlich equation, and the adsorption kinetics could be well described by quasi-second-order kinetic equation. The adsorption properties of octylphenol ethoxylates on five kinds of fabrics are sorted in descending order as follows:silk, cotton, linen, PET, PAN.%研究辛基酚聚氧乙烯醚在丝织物上的吸附行为,包括吸附等温线、动力学和热力学,以及温度和第二组分烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚对吸附的影响,同时比较了辛基酚聚氧乙烯醚在五种织物上的吸附性能。结果表明,辛基酚聚氧乙烯醚在丝织物上的吸附等温线可用Langmuir-Freundlich方程、吸附动力学可用准二阶动力学方程分别描述。辛基酚聚氧乙烯醚在五种织物上的吸附能力由强到弱依次为:丝,棉,麻,涤纶,腈纶。

  10. [Alcohol experience, alcohol knowledge, and alcohol expectancy in early adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Young-Ran; Yun, E-hwa; An, Ji-Yeon

    2007-02-01

    This study was to explore the prevalence of alcohol experiences and to identify the expectancy on the effects of alcohol and alcohol knowledge in early adolescents. The cross-sectional survey of 1854 students from seven middle schools in one district of Seoul was conducted by convenience sampling. Alcohol experience and early onset of alcohol use were measured by the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Alcohol expectancy was measured by an Alcohol Effects Questionnaire. Over sixty five percent of adolescents reported that they had previous drinking experiences. The participants with no alcohol drinking experience had a lower level of alcohol knowledge than those with experience(t=2.73, p=.007). In expectancy on effects of alcohol, girls had a more positive alcohol expectation than boys(t=-2.54, p=.011). Alcohol knowledge negatively correlated with alcohol expectancy(r=-.40 p=.000). In regression of alcohol expectancy, gender and alcohol knowledge were significant predictors explaining 17%. The results support that alcohol expectancy is an important link with early drinking experiences and alcohol knowledge, focusing on the importance of gender differences. Therefore, an alcohol prevention program in early adolescence is needed and should be focused on multidimensionality of the alcohol expectancy with developmental and psychosocial factors for early adolescents.

  11. Thermodynamic selectivity of functional agents on zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Ling; Wang, Jian [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China); Qiu, Xianxiu; Zhao, Yanxiang; Yip, Yuk-Wang; Law, Ga-Lai [Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, State Key Laboratory of Chirosciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China); Shih, Kaimin; Zhou, Zhengyuan [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Lee, Po-Heng, E-mail: poheng76@gmail.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A thermodynamic approach to select a functional agent for adsorbent is proposed. • ITC and QCS were used to interpret the interaction between adsorbate and agent. • The interaction identifies the adsorption mechanism and performance. • This approach enables the manipulation of adsorption capacity optimization. - Abstract: This study proposes a thermodynamic approach to effectively select functional agents onto zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sequestration in greywater reuse. We combine isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and quantum chemistry simulation (QCS) to identify the interactions between SDS and agents at the molecular level. Three potential agents, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C{sub 14}TAB), and 14-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C{sub 14}HTAB), differ in carbon chain length and hydrophilic groups. The ITC titration of SDS with CTAB released the highest heat, followed by those with C{sub 14}TAB and C{sub 14}HTAB, as was the same trend for the amounts of SDS adsorbed by the respective functionalized-zeolites. Results suggest that the favorable SDS sorption occurred at the bilayer CTAB-zeolite is driven by enthalpy as similar as the SDS…CTAB interaction found, regardless of the contribution from electrostatic and/or hydrophobic behaviors, while the declined sorption is entropy-driven via the predominant hydrophobic interaction onto the monolayer CTAB-zeolite. The data presented here interpret the nature of molecularly thermodynamic quantities and enable the manipulation of sorption capacity optimization.

  12. Micelles in mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate and a bolaform surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzalupo, Rita; Gente, Giacomo; La Mesa, Camillo; Caponetti, Eugenio; Chillura-Martino, Delia; Pedone, Lucia; Saladino, Maria Luisa

    2006-07-04

    Mixtures composed of water, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and a bolaform surfactant with two aza-crown ethers as polar headgroups (termed Bola C-16) were investigated by modulating the mole ratios between the components. The two surfactants have ionic and nonionic, but ionizable, headgroups, respectively. The ionization is due to the complexation of alkali ions by the aza-crown ether unit(s). Structural, thermodynamic, and transport properties of the above mixtures were investigated. Results from surface tension, translational self-diffusion, and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) are reported and discussed. Interactions between the two surfactants to form mixed micelles result in a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic contributions. These effects are reflected in the size and shape of the aggregates as well as in transport properties. The translational diffusion of the components in mixed micelles, in particular, depends on the Bola C-16/SDS mole ratio. Nonideality of mixing of the two components was inferred from the dependence of the critical micelle concentration, cmc, on the mole fraction of Bola C-16. This behavior is also reflected in surface adsorption and in the area per polar headgroup at the air-water interface. SANS data analysis for the pure components gives results in good agreement with previous findings. An analysis of data relative to mixed systems allows us to compute some structural parameters of the mixed aggregates. The dependence of aggregation numbers, nu(T), on the Bola C-16/SDS mole ratio displays a maximum that depends on the overall surfactant content and is rationalized in terms of the nonideality of mixing. Aggregates grow perpendicularly to the major rotation axis, as formerly observed in the Bola C-16 system, and become progressively ellipsoidal in shape.

  13. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE of urinary protein in acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufi M Suhail

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and clinical studies have shown the importance of urinary proteomics in acute kidney injury (AKI. We analyzed the protein in urine of patients with clinical AKI using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE for its diagnostic value, and followed them up for 40 months to evaluate prognosis. Urine from 31 consecutive cases of AKI was analyzed with SDS-PAGE to determine the low, middle and high molecular weight proteins. Fractional excretion of sodium (FENa was estimated from serum and urine creatinine and sodium (Na. The cases were followed-up for 40 months from the end of the recruitment of study cases. Glomerular protein was higher in the hematuria group when compared with the non-hematuria group (P <0.04 and in the AKI group than in the acute on chronic renal failure (AKI-on-CRF group (P <0.002. Tubular protein was higher in the AKI-on-CRF group (P <0.003 than in the AKI group. Tubular protein correlated with FENa in groups with diabetes mellitus (DM, AKI-on-CRF, and without hematuria (P <0.03, P <0.02 and P <0.004, respectively. Pattern of protein did not differ between groups with and without DM and clinical acute tubular necrosis (ATN. At the end of 40 months follow-up, category with predominantly glomerular protein progressed to chronic renal failure (CRF or end-stage renal failure in higher proportion (P <0.05. In clinical AKI, we observed that glomerular protein dominated in cases with glomerular insult, as indicated by hematuria. Tubular protein was common in the study cases with CRF, DM and cases without hematuria. This indicates tubulo-interstitial injury for AKI in these cases. Patients with predominantly glomerular protein had an adverse outcome.

  14. Isolation of a strain of Pseudomonas putida capable of metabolizing anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS is one of the most widely used anionic detergents. The present study deals with isolation and identification of SDS-degrading bacteria from a detergent contaminated pond situated in Varanasi city, India."nMaterials and Methods: Employing enrichment technique in minimal medium (PBM, SDS-degrading bacteria were isolated from pond water sample. Rate of degradation of SDS was studied in liquid PBM and also degradation of different concentrations of SDS was also studied to find out maximum concentration of SDS degraded by the potent isolates. Alkyl sulfatase activity (key enzyme in SDS degradation was estimated in crude cell extracts and multiplicity of alkyl sulfatase was studied by Native PAGE Zymography. The potent isolate was identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis."nResults: Using enrichment technique in minimal medium containing SDS as a sole carbon source, initially three SDS degrading isolates were recovered. However, only one isolate, SP3, was found to be an efficient degrader of SDS. It was observed that this strain could completely metabolize 0.1% SDS in 16 h, 0.2% SDS in 20 h and 0.3% SDS in 24 h of incubation. Specific activity of alkyl sulfatase was 0.087±0.004 μmol SDS/mg protein/min and Native PAGE Zymography showed presence of alkyl sulfatase of Rf value of 0.21. This isolate was identified as Pseudomonas putida strain SP3."nConclusion: This is the report of isolation of SDS-degrading strain of P. putida, which shows high rate of SDS degradation and can degrade up to 0.3% SDS. It appears that this isolate can be exploited for bioremediation of this detergent from water systems.

  15. Cadmium Immobilization in Soil using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Stabilized Magnetite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farrokhian Firouzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Some methods of contaminated soils remediation reduces the mobile fraction of trace elements, which could contaminate groundwater or be taken up by soil organisms. Cadmium (Cd as a heavy metal has received much attention in the past few decades due to its potential toxic impact on soil organism activity and compositions. Cadmium is a soil pollutant of no known essential biological functions, and may pose threats to soil-dwelling organisms and human health. Soil contamination with Cd usually originates from mining and smelting activities, atmospheric deposition from metallurgical industries, incineration of plastics and batteries, land application of sewage sludge, and burning of fossil fuels. Heavy metal immobilization using amendments is a simple and rapid method for the reduction of heavy metal pollution. One way of the assessment of contaminated soils is sequential extraction procedure. Sequential extraction of heavy metals in soils is an appropriate way to determine soil metal forms including soluble, exchangeable, carbonate, oxides of iron and manganese, and the residual. Its results are valuable in prediction of bioavailability, leaching rate and elements transformation in contaminated agricultural soils. Materials and Methods The objective of this study was to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and to investigate the effect of its different percentages (0, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10% on the different fractions of cadmium in soil by sequential extraction method. The nanoparticles were synthesized following the protocol described by Si et al. (19. The investigations were carried out with a loamy sand topsoil. Before use, the soil was air-dried, homogenized and sieved (

  16. Alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasco, Anton; Chang, Shannon; Larriviere, Joseph; Hamm, L Lee; Glass, Marcia

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios.

  17. Effects of dodecyl sulfate and nitrate anions on the supercapacitive properties of α-Co(OH){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.; Cheng, J.P., E-mail: chengjp@zju.edu.cn; Zhang, J.; Liu, F.; Zhang, X.B.

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • DS intercalated α-Co(OH){sub 2} is prepared using a simple and efficient co-precipitation method. • The effects of DS and nitrate anions on the supercapacitive properties of α-Co(OH){sub 2} are studied. • α-Co(OH){sub 2} studied here can be applied as an efficient electrode materials for supercapacitors. - Abstract: Dodecyl sulfate and nitrate intercalated α-Co(OH){sub 2} are prepared by a simple co-precipitation and a subsequent anion-exchange method using hexamethylenetetramine as a hydrolysis agent, which have been confirmed by X-ray diffraction and FTIR analysis. Interlayer spacing of α-Co(OH){sub 2} layers for dodecyl sulfate and nitrate intercalated α-Co(OH){sub 2} is determined to be 12.96 and 8 Å, respectively. Their supercapacitive properties are measured by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge–discharge tests. The α-Co(OH){sub 2} exhibits a higher specific capacitance and better rate capability after anion exchange from dodecyl sulfate to nitrate with the specific capacitance increasing from 304.4 to 582.7 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1}.

  18. Enlarging Capacity Design of PressⅡ Ethoxylation Device%普利斯二代乙氧基化装置扩能改造设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟

    2016-01-01

    提出了普利斯二代乙氧基化装置扩能改造设计方案,装置生产能力由5.2万t/a提高到7.5万t/a,综合能耗由51.3 kg Eo/t降至43.6 kg Eo/t,节约费用85.51元/t。%Enlarging capacity design project of PressⅡ ethoxylation device was mentioned, device production capacity was increased from 52 kt/a to 75 kt/a, synthesized power consumption was decreased from 51.3 kg Eo/t to 43.6 kg Eo/t.

  19. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  20. Surface modification to produce hydrophobic nano-silica particles using sodium dodecyl sulfate as a modifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Bing; Liang, Yong; Wang, Ting-Jie, E-mail: wangtj@tsinghua.edu.cn; Jiang, Yanping

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: Nano silica particle was modified to produce hydrophobic surface with contact angle of 107° using the water soluble SDS as a modifier through a new route. The grafted density reached 1.82–2 nm. Brønsted acid sites supply proton to react with SDS via generating carbocation, forming a Si–O–C structure. - Highlights: • Silica was modified to produce hydrophobic surface using SDS as modifier. • The route is free of organic solvent and gets perfect contact of SDS and silica. • Contact angle of modified silica particles reached 107°. • Grafted density on the silica surface reached 1.82 SDS nm{sup −2}. • Brønsted acid sites supply proton to react with SDS via generating carbocation. - Abstract: Hydrophobic silica particles were prepared using the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a modifier by a new route comprising three processes, namely, aqueous mixing, spray drying and thermal treatment. Since SDS dissolves in water, this route is free of an organic solvent and gave a perfect dispersion of SDS, that is, there was excellent contact between SDS and silica particles in the modification reaction. The hydrophobicity of the modified surface was verified by the contact angle of the nano-sized silica particles, which was 107°. The SDS grafting density reached 1.82 nm{sup −2}, which is near the highest value in the literature. The optimal parameters of the SDS/SiO{sub 2} ratio in the aqueous phase, process temperature and time of thermal treatment were determined to be 20%, 200 °C and 30 min, respectively. The grafting mechanism was studied by comparing the modification with that on same sized TiO{sub 2} particles, which indicated that the protons of the Brønsted acid sites on the surface of SiO{sub 2} reacted with SDS to give a carbocation which then formed a Si–O–C structure. This work showed that the hydrophilic surface of silica can be modified to be a hydrophobic surface by using a water soluble modifier SDS in a

  1. Fabrication and study of properties of magnetite nanoparticles in hybrid micelles of polystyrene-block-polyethylene oxide and sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loginova, T. P., E-mail: tlg@ineos.ac.ru; Timofeeva, G. I.; Lependina, O. L.; Shandintsev, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds (Russian Federation); Matyushin, A. A. [Ministry of Public Health of the Russian Federation, First Moscow State Medical University (Russian Federation); Khotina, I. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds (Russian Federation); Shtykova, E. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Magnetite nanoparticles have been formed for the first time in hybrid micelles of polystyrene-block-polyethylene oxide and sodium dodecyl sulfate in water by ultrasonic treatment at room temperature. An analysis by small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that magnetite nanoparticles in hybrid micelles of block copolymer and sodium dodecyl sulfate are polydesperse (have sizes from 0.5 to 20 nm). The specific magnetization of solid samples has been measured.

  2. Small-angle neutron scattering study of the structure of mixed micellar solutions based on heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether and cesium dodecyl sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajewska, A., E-mail: aldonar@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Medrzycka, K.; Hallmann, E. [Gdansk University of Technology (Poland); Soloviov, D. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The micellization in mixed aqueous systems based on a nonionic surfactant, heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether (C{sub 14}E{sub 7}), and an anionic surfactant, cesium dodecyl sulfate, has been investigated by small-angle neutron scattering. Preliminary data on the behavior of the C{sub 14}E{sub 7} aqueous solutions (with three concentrations, 0.17, 0.5, and 1%) mixed with a small amount of anionic surfactant, cesium dodecyl sulfate, are reported.

  3. Thermodynamic properties of a second-generation poly(phenylene-pyridyl) dendron with a dodecyl-decorated periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, N. N.; Markin, A. V.; Kuchkina, N. V.; Yuzik-Klimova, E. Yu.; Shushunov, A. N.; Shifrina, Z. B.

    2016-12-01

    The heat capacity of a partially crystalline second-generation poly(phenylene-pyridyl) dendron with a dodecyl-decorated periphery is studied by high-precision adiabatic vacuum and differential scanning calorimetry in the temperature range of 6 to 530 K. The thermodynamic characteristics of the glass's transition and melting are determined from the calorimetric data and the degree of its crystallinity is estimated (α = 30%). Standard thermodynamic functions (Cp°, H°- H°(0), S°- S°(0), and G°- H°(0)) for a partially crystalline dendron in the range of T → 0 to 480 K are calculated.

  4. Small angle neutron scattering studies of mixed micelles of sodium cumene sulphonate with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulphate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V Padalkar; V G Gaikar; V K Aswal

    2008-11-01

    The aqueous solutions of sodium cumene sulphonate (NaCS) and its mixtures with each of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) are characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). NaCS when added to CTAB solution leads to the formation of long rod-shaped micelles with a dramatic increase in the CTAB aggregation number. Its addition to SDS on the other hand results in the formation of smaller mixed micelles where part of SDS molecules in the micelle is replaced by NaCS molecules.

  5. Optimal concentrations of N-decanoyl-N-methylglucamine and sodium dodecyl sulfate allow the extraction and analysis of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Jen-Hua; Kao, Yu-Jing; Ruderman, Neil B; Tung, Li-Chu; Lin, Yenshou

    2011-11-15

    We studied the extraction and analysis of integral membrane proteins possessing hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains and found that a nonionic detergent called MEGA-10, used in lysis buffers, had a superior extraction effect compared to most conventional detergents. A sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentration of >0.4% (w/v) in the sample buffer was crucial for those proteins to be clearly analyzed by electrophoresis and Western blotting. Furthermore, MEGA-10 had the tendency to maximally extract proteins around its critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 0.24% (w/v). These solutions can greatly assist functional investigations of membrane proteins in the proteomics era.

  6. Advance in the Study on Determining and Removal of Nonylphenol Ethoxylates in Water%水中壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚的测定及去除方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳治杰; 李文岩

    2012-01-01

    Along with the ethoxylates becomes a hot mine the concentration of as pretreatment technique. dangers of endocrine disruptors getting peopleg attention, research of water treatment. GC - MS and HPLC are now the study on nonylphenol mainly applied to deter- nonylphenol ethoxylates in water samples, and solid phase extraction (SPE) is used The deep treatment process such as activated carbons and resin adsorption, photo- decomposition and biodegradation which paid much attention to in recent years show effective decomposition of nonylphenol ethoxylates in water.%随着内分泌干扰物的危害不断得到人们的重视,壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚的研究成为了水处理的热点。目前检测水样中壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚的主要方法是采用GC-MS和HPLC,预处理主要采用固相萃取。近年来倍受关注的深度处理工艺如活性炭、树脂吸附法,以及光催化降解和生物降解法能有效的去除水中的壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚。

  7. Removal by irradiation of alcohols in micellar systems; Remocion por irradiacion de alcoholes en sistemas micelares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, A.J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Mijata, T.; Arai, H. [JAERI, Takasaki, Gunma (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Mixtures of ortho-chloro phenol and butanol of 40 mg L{sup -1} in aqueous solution in presence of the surfactant dodecyl sulfate of sodium (1 to 9 m mol L{sup -1}) were irradiated at 2 and 5 kGy of gamma radiation. The quantitative analysis of the irradiated and not irradiated samples carries out by gas chromatography. It was determined that the surfactant exercises a protection effect in the radiolytic removal of the studied alcohols. In general terms this it increases in function of the concentration of the surfactant. However, competition reactions exist among the substrate and some reactive species produced by the radiolysis of the water that in some moment exercise a positive catalytic effect in the removal of the substrate. (Author)

  8. Thermodynamic solution properties of pefloxacin mesylate and its interactions with organized assemblies of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usman, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Rashid, Muhammad Abid [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Mansha, Asim [Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Siddiq, Mohammad, E-mail: m_sidiq12@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2013-12-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Free energy of adsorption is more negative than free energy of micellization. • Micellization becomes more spontaneous at high temperature. • There is strong interaction between PFM and SDS. - Abstract: This manuscript reports the physicochemical behavior of antibiotic amphiphilic drug pefloxacin mesylate (PFM) and its interaction with anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The data of surface tension and electrical conductivity are helpful to detect the CMC as well as to calculate surface parameters, i.e. surface pressure, π, surface excess concentration, Γ, area per molecule of drug and standard Gibbs free energy of adsorption, ΔG{sub ads} and thermodynamic parameters like standard free energy of micellization, ΔG{sub m}, standard enthalpy of micellization, ΔH{sub m} and standard entropy of micellization, ΔS{sub m}. The interaction of this drug with anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied by electrical conductivity and UV/visible spectroscopy. This enabled us to compute the values of partition coefficient (K{sub x}), free energy of partition, ΔG{sub p}, binding constant, K{sub b}, free energy of binding, ΔG{sub b}, number of drug molecules per micelle, n, and thermodynamic parameters of drug–surfactant interaction.

  9. Allergic contact stomatitis to dodecyl gallate? A review of the relevance of positive patch test results to gallates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboni, Sarah E; Palmer, Amanda M; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2013-08-01

    Gallic acid esters or gallates are antioxidants used as preservatives in food and cosmetics. Few cases of gallates causing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) have been reported in the literature. We present a case report of a 42-year-old beauty therapist who presented with a swollen tongue. Patch testing was positive to dodecyl gallate, commonly reported as being present in edible oil and oily foods such as margarine. Our patient avoided foods presumed to contain gallates and at the 6-week review reported a substantial improvement in her tongue symptoms. We reviewed our database and found 16 (7%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to dodecyl gallate, seven (15%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to propyl gallate and six (3%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to octyl gallate. Most reactions were attributed to margarine, moisturising cream and lipstick. These products are often mentioned in the literature as containing gallates; however, ingredient labelling and discussions with manufacturers made it difficult to establish whether they are currently present in foods. Ascertaining relevance for these reactions is not always possible.

  10. 乙氧基化对表面活性剂最终生物降解性能的影响%Effect of ethoxylation on ultimate biodegradability of surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广良; 冯瑜; 李国晋; 宋鹏

    2014-01-01

    采用CO2气体溢出法研究了乙氧基化对非离子及阳离子表面活性剂最终生物降解性能的影响。结果表明,对于非离子表面活性剂APG与对应的AEG,经过乙氧基化后的AEG最终生物降解率较APG略有升高;对于阳离子表面活性剂二硬脂酸乙酯基甲基硫酸甲酯铵(2C17EQDMS)与对应的乙氧基化二硬脂酸乙酯基羟乙基甲基硫酸甲酯铵(2C17EQDMS-3EO),2C17EQDMS-3EO的最终生物降解率较2C17EQDMS也略有升高;对于三硬脂酸乙酯基甲基硫酸甲酯铵(3C17EQDMS)及对应的乙氧基化三硬脂酸乙酯基甲基硫酸甲酯铵(3C17EQDMS-nEO),3C17EQDMS-nEO的最终生物降解率较3C17EQDMS下降,并且随着EO链的增加,最终生物降解率呈下降趋势。%The effect of ethoxylation on ultimate biodegradability of surfactants was studied by CO2 evolu⁃tion method. The results showed that for nonionic surfactants alkyl polyglycosides (APG) and the correspond⁃ing AEG, after ethoxylation the ultimate biodegradability of AEG was increased slightly compared with APG;for anionic surfactants di-stearic acid methyl ammonium methylsulfate (2C17EQDMS) and the corresponding ethoxylated di-stearic acid hydroxyethyl methyl ammonium methylsulfate (2C17EQDMS-3EO), after ethoxyl⁃ation the ultimate biodegradability of 2C17EQDMS-3EO was also increased compared with 2C17EQDMS; but for tri-stearic acid methyl ammonium methylsulfate (3C17EQDMS) and the corresponding ethoxylated tri-stea⁃ric acid methyl ammonium methylsulfate 3C17EQDMS-nEO, after ethoxylation the ultimate biodegradability of 3C17EQDMS-nEO was decreased, and with the increase of EO chains, the biodegradability was on the decline.

  11. Comparison of Oleo- vs Petro-Sourcing of Fatty Alcohols via Cradle-to-Gate Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jignesh; Arslan, Erdem; Cirucci, John; O'Brien, Julie; Moss, Dave

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol ethoxylates surfactants are produced via ethoxylation of fatty alcohol (FA) with ethylene oxide. The source of FA could be either palm kernel oil (PKO) or petrochemicals. The study aimed to compare the potential environmental impacts for PKO-derived FA (PKO-FA) and petrochemicals-derived FA (petro-FA). Cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment has been performed for this purpose because it enables understanding of the impacts across the life cycle and impact categories. The results show that petro-FA has overall lower average greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (~2.97 kg CO2e) compared to PKO-FA (~5.27 kg CO2e). (1) The practices in land use change for palm plantations, (2) end-of-life treatment for palm oil mill wastewater effluent and (3) end-of-life treatment for empty fruit bunches are the three determining factors for the environmental impacts of PKO-FA. For petro-FA, n-olefin production, ethylene production and thermal energy production are the main factors. We found the judicious decisions on land use change, effluent treatment and solid waste treatment are key to making PKO-FA environmentally sustainable. The sensitivity results show the broad distribution for PKO-FA due to varying practices in palm cultivation. PKO-FA has higher impacts on average for 12 out of 18 impact categories evaluated. For the base case, when accounted for uncertainty and sensitivity analyses results, the study finds that marine eutrophication, agricultural land occupation, natural land occupation, fossil depletion, particulate matter formation, and water depletion are affected by the sourcing decision. The sourcing of FA involves trade-offs and depends on the specific practices through the PKO life cycle from an environmental impact perspective.

  12. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  13. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  14. Weight loss and alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 19548203 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Rethinking Drinking: Alcohol and Your Health. rethinkingdrinking.niaaa.nih. ... about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , editorial process and privacy policy . A.D.A.M. is ...

  15. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  16. ALCOHOL AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the questions of the relationship between the amount of the consumed alcohol, the type of alcoholic beverage, pattern of alcohol consumption and the blood pressure level. The article presents data on the positive effect of alcohol intake restrictions and recommendations for permissible limits of alcohol consumption. New possibilities of drug therapy aimed at limiting alcohol consumption are being reported.

  17. Genetics and alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed, but excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to many diseases. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence, alcohol use disorders) is a maladaptive pattern of excessive drinking leading to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcoholism is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting risk. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes of alcohol me...

  18. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may...... be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking...... and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men...

  19. Degradation of chlorophenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates, two representative textile chemicals, in water by advanced oxidation processes: the state of the art on transformation products and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karci, Akin

    2014-03-01

    Advanced oxidation processes based on the generation of reactive species including hydroxyl radicals are viable options in eliminating a wide array of refractory organic contaminants in industrial effluents. The assessment of transformation products and toxicity should be, however, the critical point that would allow the overall efficiency of advanced oxidation processes to be better understood and evaluated since some transformation products could have an inhibitory effect on certain organisms. This article reviews the most recent studies on transformation products and toxicity for evaluating advanced oxidation processes in eliminating classes of compounds described as "textile chemicals" from aqueous matrices and poses questions in need of further investigation. The scope of this paper is limited to the scientific studies with two classes of textile chemicals, namely chlorophenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates, whose use in textile industry is a matter of debate due to health risks to humans and harm to the environment. The article also raises the critical question: What is the state of the art knowledge on relationships between transformation products and toxicity?

  20. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  1. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  2. Microencapsulation of dodecyl acetate by complex coacervation of whey protein with acacia gum and its release behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Tong Yu; Li Na Liu; Xiao Li Zhu; Xiang Zheng Kong

    2012-01-01

    Complex coacervation of whey protein (WP) with acacia gum (AG) was carried out in water with the presence of dodecyl acetate (DA),a component of insect sex pheromones,in order to obtain microeapsules with DA as the core material and WP-AG coacervate as the wall materials.Through variations in wall/core ratios,concentrations of the wall materials in capsule preparations,DA encapsulation was optimized,which showed a high DA encapsulation was achieved when coacervation was conducted at pH 3.5 with wall/core mass ratio at 3 combined with concentration of wall materials at 1.0 wt%.Morphology and the structure of DA loaded microcapsules were examined by scanning electron microscope,which showed the microcapsules were of core/shell structure with DA encapsulated in the inner of the microcapsules.DA release was examined and the behavior of the release was discussed.

  3. Quantitation of antihistamines in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography with a micellar mobile phase of sodium dodecyl sulfate and pentanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Agustí, M; Monferrer-Pons, L; Esteve-Romero, J; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    2001-01-01

    A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic procedure with a micellar mobile phase of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), containing a small amount of pentanol, was developed for the control of 7 antihistamines of diverse action in pharmaceutical preparations (tablets, capsules, powders, solutions, and syrups): azatadine, carbinoxamine, cyclizine, cyproheptadine, diphenhydramine, doxylamine, and tripelennamine. The retention times of the drugs were <9 min with a mobile phase of 0.15M SDS-6% (v/v) pentanol. The recoveries with respect to the declared compositions were in the range of 93-110%, and the intra- and interday repeatabilities and interday reproducibility were <1.2%. The results were similar to those obtained with a conventional 60 + 40 (v/v) methanol-water mixture, with the advantage of reduced toxicity, flammability, environmental impact, and cost of the micellar-pentanol solutions. The lower risk of evaporation of the organic solvent dissolved in the micellar solutions also increased the stability of the mobile phase.

  4. Investigation on Molecular Non-covalent Interaction in the Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonatepolychrome Blue B-protein Replacement Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO,Hong-Wen(郜洪文); WU,Ji-Rong(邬继荣); SHEN,Rong(沈荣)

    2004-01-01

    The molecular non-covalent interaction often originates from the electrostatic attraction and accords with the Langmuir isothermal adsorption. The sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS)-polychrome blue B (PCB)-protein [bovine serum albumin (BSA), ovalbumin (OVA) and myoglobin (MB)] ternary reaction has been investigated at Ph 3.88. Protein to replace PCB from the PCB-SDBS binding product was used to characterize the assembly of an invisible-spectral compound, SDBS, on proteins by measuring the variation of PCB light-absorption by the microsurface adsorption-spectral correction (MSASC) technique. The effect of ionic strength and temperature on the aggregation was studied. Results showed that the aggregates SDBS92·BSA, SDBS58·OVA and SDBS15·MB at 30 ℃ and SDBS83·BSA, SDBS39·OVA and SDBS10·MB at 50 ℃ are formed.

  5. Micelle enhanced and native spectrofluorimetric methods for determination of sertindole using sodium dodecyl sulfate as sensitizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kosasy, Amira M; Hussein, Lobna A; Sedki, Nehal G; Salama, Nahla N

    2016-01-15

    Two stability indicating spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and validated for the determination of sertindole (SER) in the presence of its acid and oxidative degradates at λ(ex) 257 nm and λ(em) 335 nm. Method A was based on measuring the native fluorescence of SER using isopropanol as solvent. Method B was based on the enhancement of native fluorescence of SER quenched in aqueous media by using micellar microenvironment created by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) anionic micelles using Britton Robinson Buffer (BRB) pH3.29 as solvent. Different factors affecting fluorescence intensity; both native and enhanced, were carefully studied to reach the optimum conditions of measurements. The proposed spectrofluorimetric methods were validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and were successfully applied for the determination of SER in bulk powder and pharmaceutical preparation with high sensitivity and stability indicating power. They were also statistically compared to the manufacturer methods with no significant difference in performance.

  6. A comparative study of sodium dodecyl sulfate and freezing/thawing treatment on wheat starch: The role of water absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Han; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Bao; Wu, Fengfeng; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-06-05

    The effect of freezing on functionality of native and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-treated wheat starches was investigated, with the aim of understanding the role of water absorption during freezing process. SDS is one of most efficient detergents to remove non-starch components (such as proteins and lipids) for starches but does not cause any apparent damage on granular structure. Slow swelling could be converted to rapid swelling by SDS washing, indicating higher water absorption. Freezing process induced slight roughness on starch granules but the non-starch components content was little affected. Combined SDS+freezing treatment significantly decreased both amylose and proteins non-starch components contents, which was accompanied with high gelatinization temperatures, melting enthalpy, and pasting viscosities. A smaller bread specific volume was obtained from SDS+freezing-treated starches while the crumb firmness significantly increased (pstarch granules, leading to high water absorption and making granules sensitive to the freezing treatment.

  7. Quantitation of yeast total proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer for uniform loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Hyukho

    2016-04-01

    Proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) sample buffer are difficult to quantitate due to SDS and reducing agents being in the buffer. Although acetone precipitation has long been used to clean up proteins from detergents and salts, previous studies showed that protein recovery from acetone precipitation varies from 50 to 100% depending on the samples tested. Here, this article shows that acetone precipitates proteins highly efficiently from SDS-PAGE sample buffer and that quantitative recovery is achieved in 5 min at room temperature. Moreover, precipitated proteins are resolubilized with urea/guanidine, rather than with SDS. Thus, the resolubilized samples are readily quantifiable with Bradford reagent without using SDS-compatible assays.

  8. Occurrence of photoluminescence and onion like structures decorating graphene oxide with europium using sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño, V. J.; Rangel, R.; Cervantes, J. L.; Lara, J.; Alvarado, J. J.; Galván, D. H.

    2017-07-01

    Graphene oxide decoration with europium was carried out using SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) as the surfactant. The reaction was performed in a microwave oven and subsequently underwent thermal treatment under hydrogen flow. The results found in the present work demonstrate that through the use of SDS surfactant aggregates of hemi-cylindrical and onion-like structures could be obtained; which propitiate an enhanced synergistic photoluminescence located at the red wavelength. On the other hand, after thermal treatment the aggregates disappear providing a good dispersion of europium, however a decrease in the photoluminescence signal is observed. The graphene oxide decorated with europium was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier infrared transform spectroscopy (FTIR), RAMAN spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, showing the characteristic features of graphene oxide and europium.

  9. Measuring the enthalpies of interaction between glycine, L-cysteine, glycylglycine, and sodium dodecyl sulfate in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badelin, V. G.; Mezhevoi, I. N.; Tyunina, E. Yu.

    2017-03-01

    Calorimetric measurements of enthalpies of solution Δsol H m for glycine, L-cysteine, and glycylglycine in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with concentrations of up to 0.05 mol kg-1 are made. Standard enthalpy of solution Δsol H 0 and enthalpy of transfer Δtr H 0 of the dipeptide from water into mixed solvent are calculated. The calculated enthalpy coefficients of paired interactions of amino acids and dipeptide with SDS prove to be positive. Hydrophobic interactions between the biomolecules and SDS are found to have a major impact on the enthalpies of interaction in the three-component systems under study, within the indicated range of concentrations.

  10. Differential refractometric determination of binding of sodium dodecyl sulfate to protein using high-performance gel chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P F; Takagi, T

    1988-10-01

    When sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is added to a high-performance gel chromatographic column equilibrated with a buffer solution containing SDS at a level above the critical micelle concentration, the surplus SDS migrates as micelles giving a sharp peak. The presence of an unfolded protein in the sample solution gives a polypeptide peak in advance of the SDS micelle peak. As the result of SDS binding to the polypeptide, the SDS micelle peak is attenuated in comparison to that in the absence of protein. Thus the amount of SDS bound to the polypeptide can be determined accurately and simply from the decrease in the area of the SDS micelle peak. This approach is particularly useful for precise determination of bound SDS, which is pertinent to understanding the state of the protein polypeptide-SDS complex under the conditions of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  11. [Representations of alcoholism in a former alcoholics' association: Alcoholics Anonymous].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Edemilson Antunes de

    2004-01-01

    This article is designed to review the representations of alcoholism provided by members of an association of former alcoholics, namely Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), based on partial results from a qualitative survey conducted in the Sapopemba group of AA in a neighborhood on the outskirts of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The article thus analyzes alcoholism from an emic perspective, i.e., how it is conceived and managed by those who acknowledge themselves as being "sick as alcoholics", how they explain the sickness, how they experience it, and how they endeavor to overcome it. The purpose is to present AA and its treatment strategy and to highlight the link made by the association by conceiving of alcoholism as a physical, moral, and spiritual illness.

  12. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  13. Study on Separation of Alkylphenol Ethoxylates in Different Liquid Chromatography Modes%烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚在不同液相色谱分离模式中的分离研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马强; 王超; 白桦; 王星; 张庆; 肖海清; 闫妍; 董益阳; 王宝麟

    2009-01-01

    考察了烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚在反相色谱、正相键合色谱、硅胶吸附色谱、体积排阻色谱4种不同液相色谱分离模式中的分离效果,分别采用Kromasil C_(18)(250 mm× 4.6 mm,5 μm)、Agilent ZORBAX NH_2(250 mm× 4.6 mm,5 μm)、Waters Spherisorb S3W(150 mm×2.0 mm,3 μm)和Shodex MSpak GF-310 2D(150 mm×2.0 mm,5 μm)色谱柱,以225 nm为紫外检测波长,对不同液相色谱分离模式的流动相组成、梯度洗脱条件、柱温、流速等进行了优化,并对烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚在不同液相色谱分离模式中的保留机理进行了初步探讨.结果表明,正相键合色谱实现了烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚的最佳分离;硅胶吸附色谱和体积排阻色谱的分离效果较正相键合色谱稍差.%The separation effects of alkylphenol ethoxylates in different liquid chromatography modes, such as reversed-phase liquid chromatography, bonded normal-phase liquid chromatography, silica adsorption chromatography and size exclusion chromatography were investigated. The chromatographic columns including Kromasil C_(18)(250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) , Agilent ZORBAX NH_2(250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), Waters Spherisorb S3W(150 mm × 2.0 mm, 3 μm) and Shodex MSpak GF-310 2D( 150 mm × 2. 0 mm, 5 μm) were utilized and detection wavelength was set at 225 nm. The chro-matographic conditions, including mobile phase composition, gradient elution, column temperature, flow rate, etc, were optimized. The retention mechanism of alkylphenol ethoxylates in different liq-uid chromatography modes was discussed. The best resolution of alkylphenol ethoxylates was achieved by bonded normal-phase liquid chromatography, which was slightly better than the resolution in silica adsorption chromatography and size exclusion chromatography. However, the reversed-phase mobile phase in silica adsorption chromatography and size exclusion chromatography possessed excellent com-patibility with ESI mass spectrometry. Both the structural information of

  14. LINEAR SOLVATION ENERGY RELATIONSHIPS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF MLC SYSTEMS WITH SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE MOBILE PHASES MODIFIED BY ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS OR CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markov, Vadym V.; Boichenko, Alexander P.; Loginova, Lidia P.

    2012-01-01

    The Linear Solvation Energy Relationships (LSER) have been successfully used for the modeling of partition and retention of the set of test compounds in different systems. The properties of micellar chromatographic systems with the mobile phases on the basis of sodium dodecylsulphate modified (ODS)

  15. 40 CFR 180.1130 - N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n-dodecyl)-2-pyrrolidone; exemptions from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1130 N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n-dodecyl)-2-pyrrolidone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance....

  16. Preparative isolation of a cytotoxic principle of a forest mushroom Suillus luteus by sodium dodecyl sulfate based "salting-in" countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Hu, Xueqian; Wu, Shihua

    2016-02-01

    In the course of screening new anticancer natural products, an edible forest mushroom Suillus luteus (L. Ex Franch). Gray was found to have potent cytotoxicity against several human cancer cells. However, the lipophilic sample made some countercurrent chromatography solvent systems emulsify, which caused difficulties in the separation of its cytotoxic components. Here, we found that the addition of an organic salt sodium dodecyl sulfate could efficiently shorten the settling time of the mushroom sample solutions by eliminating the emulsification of two-phase solvent systems. Moreover, we found that sodium dodecyl sulfate could play a new "salting-in" role and made the partition coefficients of the solutes decrease with the increased concentrations. Thus, a sodium dodecyl sulfate based salting-in countercurrent chromatography method has been successfully established for the first time for preparative isolation of a cytotoxic principle of the mushroom. The active component was identified as isosuillin. Whole results indicated that sodium dodecyl sulfate could be used as an efficient salting-in reagent for two-phase solvent system selection and targeted countercurrent chromatography isolation. It is very useful for current natural products isolation and drug discovery.

  17. 脂肪酸甲酯乙氧基化物的生产工艺及性能研究%Study on Production Process and Properties of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Ethoxylates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟

    2015-01-01

    Production condition of fatty acid methyl ester ethoxylates at home and abroad was introduced, and its production process and properties were discussed, application prospect of MEE was analyzed.%论述了国内外脂肪酸甲酯乙氧基化物的现状,主要对其生产工艺、产品性能进行了分析讨论,并在此基础上对其应用前景进行了阐述。

  18. Polymer monolith microextraction using poly(butyl methacrylate-co-1,6-hexanediol ethoxylate diacrylate) monolithic sorbent for determination of phenylurea herbicides in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Ling; Wu, Yu-Ru; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2016-01-15

    In this study, recently developed 1,6-hexanediol ethoxylate diacrylate (HEDA)-based polymeric monoliths were utilized as sorbents for efficient extraction of phenylurea herbicides (PUHs) from water samples. The HEDA-based monolithic sorbents were prepared in a fused silica capillary (0.7mm i.d., 4.5-cm long) for polymer monolith microextraction (PMME). The experimental parameters of PMME microextraction including sample loading speed, pH of sample solution, composition of elution solvent, and addition of salt were optimized to efficiently extract PUHs from environmental water samples. The extracted PUHs were determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with UV-photodiode array detection. The extraction recoveries for PUHs-spiked water samples were 91.1-108.1% with relative standard deviations lower than 5%. The linearity range was 0.025-25ngmL(-1) for each PUH and the detection limits of PUHs were estimated at 0.006-0.019ng mL(-1). In addition, good intra-day/inter-day precision (0.1-8.7%/0.2-8.9%) and accuracy (92.0-108.0%/96.5-105.2%) of the proposed method were obtained. The extraction capacity of the monolith-filled capillary was also determined to be approximately 1μg. Moreover, each monolith-filled capillary could be reused up to 8 times without carry-over. According to the European Union regulations, the allowed permissible limit of any single herbicide in drinking water is 0.1ng mL(-1). This permissible level fell in the linear range examined in this study. In addition, the proposed method provided detection limits lower than the allowed permissible level, which demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing the HEDA-based monolithic sorbent to perform PMME for determining contaminants, such as PUHs, in environmental application.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of ZnO flower and pseudo-sphere: Nonylphenol ethoxylate degradation under UV and solar irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashar, Ambreen [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Iqbal, Munawar, E-mail: bosalvee@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Qurtuba University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar 25100, KPK (Pakistan); Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Muhammad Zubair; Qureshi, Khizar [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Nisar, Jan [National Centre of Excellence in Physical Chemistry, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120 (Pakistan); Bukhari, Iftikhar Hussain [Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad (Pakistan)

    2016-09-05

    ZnO particles (flower and pseudo sphere) were synthesized via precipitation route and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Particle size analyzer and UV–visible techniques. The photocatalytic activities (PCA) of ZnO flower (uncalcined) and pseudo-sphere (calcined) were evaluated by degrading nonylphenol ethoxylate-9 (NP9EO) under UV and solar irradiation. The process variables i.e., catalyst dose, calcination temperature, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, pH and UV/solar light exposure were investigated and under optimum conditions of process variables, paper, textile and leather industries effluents were also treated. Calcination at high temperature affected the morphology of ZnO particles. Both ZnO flower and pseudo-sphere degraded NP9EO and pollutants in industrial wastewater efficiently under both UV and solar irradiation. Maximum NP9EO degradation was achieved at 2.5 g/L catalyst dose, high calcination temperature, 4% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, 6 pH, 110 UV exposure and 12 h solar light exposure. Results reveal that ZnO is efficient photo-catalyst and could be used under solar irradiation for photocatalytic application by tuning the band gap. - Highlights: • ZnO flower and pseudo-spheres were synthesized via precipitation route. • The photocatalytic activities by degrading surfactant. • ZnO particles showed considerable photocatalytic activity under UV and solar irradiation. • By tuning the band gap of ZnO absorption capacity can be enhanced.

  20. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  1. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems with ...

  2. Alcohol Dependence and Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Mann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a disabling condition that has a high prevalence, but in Europe only a small fraction of the people diagnosed with alcohol abuse and dependence are treated, representing the widest treatment gap, as compared with other mental disorders. Early diagnosis and monitoring of alcoholic liver disease (ALD is still insufficiently solved. Although ALD is the most common cause for liver disease in the Western world, it largely remains underestimated and underdiagnosed for many reasons. The recent introduction of non-invasive elastographic techniques such as transient elastography (TE has significantly improved the early diagnosis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC. As demonstrated in the literature, inflammation-associated liver stiffness (LS rapidly decreases during alcohol detoxification, and is also directly correlated to change in LS in both abstinent and relapsing patients. Newly published data show that LS could be used to monitor and validate hepatoprotective effects during nalmefene usage. Nalmefene is an opioid system modulator that diminishes the reinforcing effects of alcohol, helping the patient to reduce drinking. Three randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallelgroup Phase III studies were designed to assess the efficacy and safety of nalmefene in reducing alcohol consumption. Patients with a high or very high drinking risk level (DRL at baseline and randomisation show a clinically significant effect from nalmefene treatment, which is generally well tolerated. Moreover, reduced alcohol consumption supported by nalmefene in combination with psychosocial support may indeed help to reduce the alcohol-related burden and the large treatment gap.

  3. Consumo de alcohol alcoholismo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Páez, Pablo E.; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1999-01-01

    ¿Qué es el alcohol?/¿Cómo actual el alcohol en el organismo?/¿Qué efectos causa?/Efectos por el consumo crónico/¿El consumo de alcohol durante el embarazo afecta el embrión?/¿Qué otras consecuencias tiene el consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se considera que una persona tiene problemas con su consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se debe sospechar que alguien tiene problemas con el consumo de alcohol?/Características del saber beber adecuadamente?/¿Cuales son las alternativas de tratamiento para este problem...

  4. Alcohol homograph priming in alcohol-dependent inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Salemink, E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Rinck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Alcohol dependency is characterized by alcohol-related interpretation biases (IBs): Individuals with high levels of alcohol consumption generate more alcohol-related than alcohol-unrelated interpretations in response to ambiguous alcohol-related cues. However, a response bias could be an altern

  5. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  6. Highly selective colorimetric detection of Ni2+ using silver nanoparticles cofunctionalized with adenosine monophosphate and sodium dodecyl sulfonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiayu; Jin, Weiwei; Huang, Pengcheng; Wu, Fangying

    2017-09-01

    We report a dual-ligand strategy based on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for highly selective detection of Ni2+ using colorimetric techniques. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) were both used as ligands to modify AgNPs. The presence of Ni2+ induces the aggregation of AgNPs through cooperative electrostatic interaction and metal-ligand interaction, resulting in a color change from bright yellow to orange. The cofunctionalized AgNPs showed obvious advantages over the ones functionalized only by AMP or SDS in terms of selectivity. Under the optimized conditions, this sensing platform for Ni2+ works in the concentration range of 4.0 to 60 μM and has a low detection limit of 0.60 μM. In addition, the colorimetric assay is very fast, and the whole analysis can be completed within a few minutes. Thus, it can be directly used in tap water and lake water samples. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Thermodynamics of sodium dodecyl sulphate-salicylic acid based micellar systems and their potential use in fruits postharvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, A; Morales, J; Mejuto, J C; Briz-Cid, N; Rial-Otero, R; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-05-15

    Micellar systems have excellent food applications due to their capability to solubilise a large range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances. In this work, the mixed micelle formation between the ionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and the phenolic acid salicylic acid have been studied at several temperatures in aqueous solution. The critical micelle concentration and the micellization degree were determined by conductometric techniques and the experimental data used to calculate several useful thermodynamic parameters, like standard free energy, enthalpy and entropy of micelle formation. Salicylic acid helps the micellization of SDS, both by increasing the additive concentration at a constant temperature and by increasing temperature at a constant concentration of additive. The formation of micelles of SDS in the presence of salicylic acid was a thermodynamically spontaneous process, and is also entropically controlled. Salicylic acid plays the role of a stabilizer, and gives a pathway to control the three-dimensional water matrix structure. The driving force of the micellization process is provided by the hydrophobic interactions. The isostructural temperature was found to be 307.5 K for the mixed micellar system. This article explores the use of SDS-salicylic acid based micellar systems for their potential use in fruits postharvest.

  8. Structural Studies on Nonequilibrium Microstructures of Dioctyl Sodium Dodecyl Sulfosuccinate (Aerosol-OT in p-Toluenesulfonic Acid and Phosphatidylcholine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Temgire

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several microstructures are evolved at the interface when sparingly soluble solid surfactants come in contact with water. One class of these microstructures is termed as “myelin figures”; these were observed when phosphatidylcholine came in contact with water. Although the myelins are initially simple rod-like, complex forms like helices, coils and so forth. appear in the later stage. Finally, the myelins fuse together to form a complex mosaic-like structure. When studied by taking a cross-section using cryoscanning electron microscopy, it revealed concentric circular pattern inside the myelin figures. The cross-sections of (dioctyl sodium dodecyl sulfosiccinate AOT/water system myelin internal structures were lost. When p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTS 2 wt% was present in the water phase, AOT myelins revealed the internal microstructures. It has annular concentric ring-like structure with a core axon at the centre. Further investigation revealed new microstructures for the first time having multiple axons in the single-myelin strand.

  9. A small-angle neutron scattering study of sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiat, Guillaume; Grassl, Bruno; Borisov, Oleg; Lapp, Alain; François, Jeanne

    2006-03-15

    Mixed micelle of protonated or deuterated sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and SDSd25, respectively) and poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate (PPOMA) are studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). In all the cases the scattering curves exhibit a peak whose position changes with the composition of the system. The main parameters which characterize mixed micelles, i.e., aggregation numbers of SDS and PPOMA, geometrical dimensions of the micelles and degree of ionisation are evaluated from the analysis of the SANS curves. The position q(max) of the correlation peak can be related to the average aggregation numbers of SDS-PPOMA and SDSd25-PPOMA mixed micelles. It is found that the aggregation number of SDS decreases upon increasing the weight ratio PPOMA/SDS (or SDSd25). The isotopic combination, which uses the "contrast effect" between the two micellar systems, has allowed us to determine the mixed micelle composition. Finally, the SANS curves were adjusted using the RMSA for the structure factor S(q) of charged spherical particles and the form factor P(q) of spherical core-shell particle. This analysis confirms the particular core-shell structure of the SDS-PPOMA mixed micelle, i.e., a SDS "core" micelle surrounded by the shell formed by PPOMA macromonomers. The structural parameters of mixed micelles obtained from the analysis of the SANS data are in good agreement with those determined previously by conductimetry and fluorescence studies.

  10. Hexavalent Molybdenum Reduction to Mo-Blue by a Sodium-Dodecyl-Sulfate-Degrading Klebsiella oxytoca Strain DRY14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. E. Halmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria with the ability to tolerate, remove, and/or degrade several xenobiotics simultaneously are urgently needed for remediation of polluted sites. A previously isolated bacterium with sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS- degrading capacity was found to be able to reduce molybdenum to the nontoxic molybdenum blue. The optimal pH, carbon source, molybdate concentration, and temperature supporting molybdate reduction were pH 7.0, glucose at 1.5% (w/v, between 25 and 30 mM, and 25°C, respectively. The optimum phosphate concentration for molybdate reduction was 5 mM. The Mo-blue produced exhibits an absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. None of the respiratory inhibitors tested showed any inhibition to the molybdenum-reducing activity suggesting that the electron transport system of this bacterium is not the site of molybdenum reduction. Chromium, cadmium, silver, copper, mercury, and lead caused approximately 77, 65, 77, 89, 80, and 80% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity, respectively. Ferrous and stannous ions markedly increased the activity of molybdenum-reducing activity in this bacterium. The maximum tolerable concentration of SDS as a cocontaminant was 3 g/L. The characteristics of this bacterium make it a suitable candidate for molybdenum bioremediation of sites cocontaminated with detergent pollutant.

  11. A molecular simulation probing of structure and interaction for supramolecular sodium dodecyl sulfate/single-wall carbon nanotube assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhijun; Yang, Xiaoning; Yang, Zhen

    2010-03-10

    Here we report a larger-scale atomic-level molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for the self-assembly of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) surfaces and the interaction between supramolecular SDS/SWNT aggregates. We make an effort to address several important problems in regard to carbon nanotube dispersion/separation. At first, the simulation provides comprehensive direct evidence for SDS self-assembly structures on carbon nanotube surfaces, which can help to clarify the relevant debate over the exact adsorption structure. We also, for the first time, simulated the potential of mean force (PMF) between two SWNTs embedded in SDS surfactant micelles. A novel unified PMF approach has been applied to reveal various cooperative interactions between the SDS/SWNT aggregates, which is different from the previous electrostatic repulsion explanation. The unique role of sodium ions revealed here provides a new microscopic understanding of the recent experiments in the electrolyte tuning of the interfacial forces on the selective fractionation of SDS surrounding SWNTs.

  12. ISOLATION OF EGG DROP SYNDROME VIRUS AND ITS MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION USING SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE POLYACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Rasool, S. U. Rahman and M. K. Mansoor

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Six isolates of egg drop syndrome (EDS virus were recovered from five different outbreaks of EDS in commercial laying hens in and around Faisalabad. The aberrant eggs were fed to the susceptible laying hens for experimental induction of infection. The samples from infected birds (egg washing, cloacal swabs, oviducts and spleens were collected, processed and inoculated into 11-day old duck embryos. The presence of virus in harvested allanto-amniotic fluid was monitored by spot and microhaemagglutination tests and confirmed by haemagglutination inhibition and agar gel precipitation tests. The EDS virus grew well in duck embryos and agglutinated only avian but not mammalian red blood cells. These isolates were purified through velocity density gradient centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined through Lowry method and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE was conducted by loading 300 µg protein concentration on 12.5% gel using discontinuous buffer system. All the six isolates showed 13 polypeptides, which were identical to those described in the referral EDS-76 virus (strain-127. The molecular weights of the polypeptides ranged from 6.5 KDa to 126 KDa.

  13. Silver nanoparticles synthesis in aqueous solutions using sulfite as reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate as stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Miranda, A.; Lopez-Valdivieso, A., E-mail: alopez@uaslp.mx [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Metalurgia (Mexico); Viramontes-Gamboa, G. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Facultad de Ciencia Fisico-Matematicas (Mexico)

    2012-09-15

    The synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been carried out in aqueous solutions in a stirred semibatch reactor through the reduction of silver ions (Ag{sup +}) by sulfite ions (SO{sub 3}{sup 2-}), which were added at a tightly controlled rate up to a final sulfite/silver molar ratio of 0.45. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as the stabilizer at concentrations below its critical micelle concentration. The effects of temperature, sulfite addition rate, and SDS concentration have been assessed. Ag{sup +} turned to Ag{sup 0} in 5 min or less only when the synthesis was performed at 97 Degree-Sign C and not below. The sulfite addition rates studied were 0.5, 7.5, 15, and 90 {mu}mol/min. The size, shape, polydispersity, and stability of the nanoparticles were determined by the sulfite addition rate and SDS concentration. At low SDS concentration (4 mM), stable, spherical shape, small size nanoparticles were formed only at the two intermediate sulfite addition rates. At the highest sulfite addition rate, 9 nm mean size spherical nanoparticles having a low {+-}5 nm polydispersity were produced at a high SDS concentration of 10 mM. With the low SDS concentration, larger truncated and spherical shape nanoparticles were obtained. UV-Vis spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the nanoparticles.

  14. Silver nanoparticles synthesis in aqueous solutions using sulfite as reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate as stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Miranda, A.; López-Valdivieso, A.; Viramontes-Gamboa, G.

    2012-09-01

    The synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been carried out in aqueous solutions in a stirred semibatch reactor through the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) by sulfite ions (SO3 2-), which were added at a tightly controlled rate up to a final sulfite/silver molar ratio of 0.45. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as the stabilizer at concentrations below its critical micelle concentration. The effects of temperature, sulfite addition rate, and SDS concentration have been assessed. Ag+ turned to Ag0 in 5 min or less only when the synthesis was performed at 97 °C and not below. The sulfite addition rates studied were 0.5, 7.5, 15, and 90 μmol/min. The size, shape, polydispersity, and stability of the nanoparticles were determined by the sulfite addition rate and SDS concentration. At low SDS concentration (4 mM), stable, spherical shape, small size nanoparticles were formed only at the two intermediate sulfite addition rates. At the highest sulfite addition rate, 9 nm mean size spherical nanoparticles having a low ±5 nm polydispersity were produced at a high SDS concentration of 10 mM. With the low SDS concentration, larger truncated and spherical shape nanoparticles were obtained. UV-Vis spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the nanoparticles.

  15. Photochemistry of "end-only" oligo-p-phenylene ethynylenes: complexation with sodium dodecyl sulfate reduces solvent accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Eric H; Evans, Deborah G; Whitten, David G

    2013-08-06

    Cationic oligo-p-phenylene ethynylenes are very effective light-activated biocides and biosensors but degrade upon exposure to light. In this study, we explore the photochemistry of a class of "end-only" compounds from this series, which have cationic moieties on the ends of the backbone. Product characterization by mass spectrometry reveals that the photoreactivity of these molecules is higher than that of a previously studied oligomer and that the primary products of photolysis result from the addition of water or oxygen across the triple bond. In addition, a product suggesting the addition of peroxide or other reactive oxygen species across the triple bond was observed. To explore avenues by which the photodegradation of these compounds can be mitigated, the effects of complexation with sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles on their photochemistry was explored. Classical molecular dynamics simulations revealed that compounds that were protected from photolysis by SDS buried their phenylene ethynylene backbones into the interior of the micelle, protecting it from contact with water. This work has revealed a molecular basis for the protection of a novel class of light-activated biocides from irradiation that is consistent with the proposed photochemistry of these compounds. This information can be useful for developing photodegradation-resistant biocidal materials and applications for current compounds and leads to new molecular design.

  16. Effect of low concentration sodium dodecyl sulfate on the electromigration of palonosetron hydrochloride stereoisomers in micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shao-Qiang; Wang, Gui-Xia; Guo, Wen-Bo; Guo, Xu-Ming; Zhao, Min

    2014-05-16

    The effect of low concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the separation of palonosetron hydrochloride (PALO) stereoisomers by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) has been investigated. It was found that the addition of SDS prolongs the migration time and the migration order of four stereoisomers changes regularly with the SDS concentration. Good separations for all the four stereoisomers were achieved at appropriate SDS concentration. The effect of SDS on the electromigration (mobilities) of PALO stereoisomers has been studied, in order to explain its effect on the separation by MEKC. It was found that low concentrations of SDS added into the separation media forms negatively charged complexes with PALO stereoisomers and hence reverses their electromigration direction. Furthermore, the migration order between two enantiomeric pairs is also reversed because the enantiomeric pair with a bigger positive mobility than that of another pair turns to have a bigger negative mobility when bound with SDS. Based on these results, the effect of SDS on the MEKC separation of PALO stereoisomers was elucidated reasonably. The performance of the developed chiral MEKC method was validated by the analysis of a real sample.

  17. Cytochrome P450 102A2 Catalyzes Efficient Oxidation of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate: A Molecular Tool for Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Axarli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cytochrome P450s (CYPs constitute an important family of monooxygenase enzymes that carry out essential roles in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and foreign chemicals. In the present work we report the characterization of CYP102A2 from B. subtilis with a focus on its substrate specificity. CYP102A2 is more active in oxidation of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS than any other characterized CYP. The effect of SDS and NADPH concentration on reaction rate showed nonhyperbolic and hyperbolic dependence, respectively. The enzyme was found to exhibit a bell-shaped curve for plots of activity versus pH, over pH values 5.9–8.5. The rate of SDS oxidation reached the maximum value approximately at pH 7.2 and the pH transition observed controlled by two pas in the acidic (pa=6.7±0.08 and basic (pa=7.3±0.06 pH range. The results are discussed in relation to the future biotechnology applications of CYPs.

  18. Enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-pretreated newspaper for cellulosic ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Fengxue; Geng, Anli; Chen, Ming Li; Gum, Ming Jun Marcus

    2010-10-01

    Fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysate of waste newspaper was investigated for cellulosic ethanol production in this study. Various nonionic and ionic surfactants were applied for waste newspaper pretreatment to increase the enzymatic digestibility. The surfactant-pretreated newspaper was enzymatically digested in 0.05 M sodium citrate buffer (pH 4.8) with varying solid content, filter paper unit loading (FPU/g newspaper), and ratio of filter paper unit/beta-glucosidase unit (FPU/CBU). Newspaper pretreated with the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) demonstrated the highest sugar yield. The addition of Tween-80 in the enzymatic hydrolysis process enhanced the enzymatic digestibility of newspaper pretreated with all of the surfactants. Enzymatic hydrolysis of SDS-pretreated newspaper with 15% solid content, 15 FPU/g newspaper, and FPU/CBU of 1:4 resulted in a newspaper hydrolysate conditioning 29.07 g/L glucose and 4.08 g/L xylose after 72 h of incubation at 50 degrees C. The fermentation of the enzymatic hydrolysate with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia stipitis, and their co-culture produced 14.29, 13.45, and 14.03 g/L of ethanol, respectively. Their corresponding ethanol yields were 0.43, 0.41, and 0.42 g/g.

  19. A 36 m SANS BATAN spectrometer (SMARTer): Probing n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside micelles structures by a contrast variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Gedung 40 Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia)], E-mail: e.giri@centrin.net.id; Ikram, Abarrul [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Gedung 40 Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia)

    2009-02-21

    The performance of a 36 m small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) BATAN spectrometer (SMARTer) in Serpong, Indonesia, was explored in investigating a micelle structure by a contrast variation technique, changing the H{sub 2}O/D{sub 2}O ratio as aqueous solution. Micellar solution of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside was chosen for its sensitivity in various concentrations of 0% D{sub 2}O, 50% D{sub 2}O and 100% D{sub 2}O to reveal the detail structures of the micelle. At first, a spherical lognormal model calculation was employed and fitted on the experimental data to obtain the size range of the micelle. The refinement of the micelle structure was then completed using an oblate-core shell ellipsoid model calculation. The results show that the micelle is composed of 4-9 A thick disaccharides group as a shell or corona layer, while over all the oblate ellipsoid micelle structure has major-axis and minor-axis of 34 and 18 A, respectively.

  20. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/β-cyclodextrin vesicles embedded in chitosan gel for insulin delivery with pH-selective release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In an answer to the challenge of enzymatic instability and low oral bioavailability of proteins/peptides, a new type of drug-delivery vesicle has been developed. The preparation, based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD embedded in chitosan gel, was used to successfully deliver the model drug-insulin. The self-assembled SDS/β-CD vesicles were prepared and characterized by particle size, zeta potential, appearance, microscopic morphology and entrapment efficiency. In addition, both the interaction of insulin with vesicles and the stability of insulin loaded in vesicles in the presence of pepsin were investigated. The vesicles were crosslinked into thermo-sensitive chitosan/β-glycerol phosphate solution for an in-situ gel to enhance the dilution stability. The in vitro release characteristics of insulin from gels in media at different pH values were investigated. The insulin loaded vesicles–chitosan hydrogel (IVG improved the dilution stability of the vesicles and provided pH-selective sustained release compared with insulin solution–chitosan hydrogel (ISG. In vitro, IVG exhibited slow release in acidic solution and relatively quick release in neutral solutions to provide drug efficacy. In simulated digestive fluid, IVG showed better sustained release and insulin protection properties compared with ISG. Thus IVG might improve the stability of insulin during its transport in vivo and contribute to the bioavailability and therapeutic effect of insulin.

  1. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/β-cyclodextrin vesicles embedded in chitosan gel for insulin delivery with pH-selective release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuo; Li, Haiyan; Wang, Caifen; Xu, Jianghui; Singh, Vikramjeet; Chen, Dawei; Zhang, Jiwen

    2016-07-01

    In an answer to the challenge of enzymatic instability and low oral bioavailability of proteins/peptides, a new type of drug-delivery vesicle has been developed. The preparation, based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) embedded in chitosan gel, was used to successfully deliver the model drug-insulin. The self-assembled SDS/β-CD vesicles were prepared and characterized by particle size, zeta potential, appearance, microscopic morphology and entrapment efficiency. In addition, both the interaction of insulin with vesicles and the stability of insulin loaded in vesicles in the presence of pepsin were investigated. The vesicles were crosslinked into thermo-sensitive chitosan/β-glycerol phosphate solution for an in-situ gel to enhance the dilution stability. The in vitro release characteristics of insulin from gels in media at different pH values were investigated. The insulin loaded vesicles-chitosan hydrogel (IVG) improved the dilution stability of the vesicles and provided pH-selective sustained release compared with insulin solution-chitosan hydrogel (ISG). In vitro, IVG exhibited slow release in acidic solution and relatively quick release in neutral solutions to provide drug efficacy. In simulated digestive fluid, IVG showed better sustained release and insulin protection properties compared with ISG. Thus IVG might improve the stability of insulin during its transport in vivo and contribute to the bioavailability and therapeutic effect of insulin.

  2. Impact of model perfume molecules on the self-assembly of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl 6-benzene sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Robert; Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Tucker, Ian M; Petkov, Jordan T; Jones, Craig; Grillo, Isabelle

    2013-03-12

    The impact of two model perfumes with differing degrees of hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity, linalool (LL) and phenylethanol (PE), on the solution structure of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl 6-benzene sulfonate, LAS-6, has been studied by small angle neutron scattering, SANS. For both types of perfume molecules, complex phase behavior is observed. The phase behavior depends upon the concentration, surfactant/perfume composition, and type of perfume. The more hydrophilic perfume PE promotes the formation of more highly curved structures. At relatively low surfactant concentrations, small globular micelles, L1, are formed. These become perfume droplets, L(sm), stabilized by the surfactant at much higher perfume solution compositions. At higher surfactant concentrations, the tendency of LAS-6 to form more planar structures is evident. The more hydrophobic linalool promotes the formation of more planar structures. Combined with the greater tendency of LAS-6 to form planar structures, this results in the planar structures dominating the phase behavior for the LAS-6/linalool mixtures. For the LAS-6/linalool mixture, the self-assembly is in the form of micelles only at the lowest surfactant and perfume concentrations. Over most of the concentration-composition space explored, the structures are predominantly lamellar, L(α), or vesicle, L(v), or in the form of a lamellar/micellar coexistence. At low and intermediate amounts of LL, a significantly different structure is observed, and the aggregates are in the form of small, relatively monodisperse vesicles (i.e., nanovesicles), L(sv).

  3. The Mechanism by Which Dodecyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride Increased the Toxicity of Chlorpyrifos to Spodoptera exigua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cui

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner is one of the most destructive pests that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, S. exigua have developed resistance toward the majority of insecticides. Synergists may provide an important choice to deal with the resistance problems. Dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (DDBAC is a cationic surfactant, which displayed enhancement effect when combined with chlorpyrifos against S. exigua, giving enhancement factors of 1.50 and 1.57 at the concentrations of 90 and 810 mg L−1. In order to clarify the possible mechanisms, we investigate the effects of DDBAC on detoxification enzymes. However, DDBAC showed no inhibition on these enzymes activities. Meanwhile, scanning electron microscope images indicated DDBAC did not affect the cuticle super micro structure of S. exigua. The alterations in cuticular penetration rate have also been observed; indeed, it has been suggested that synergism is obtained by an acceleration of insecticide penetration through the cuticle. The chlorpyrifos penetration increased sharply when combined with 90 and 810 mg L−1 DDBAC, with only 12.6 and 8.5% of the initial chlorpyrifos recovered by external rinsing after 8 h. In contrast, when there was no DDBAC, more than 23.3% of the initial dose was recovered after 8 h.

  4. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous nickel cobaltite nanoparticles with enhanced catalytic activity for methanol electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Qi, Li; Jia, Mingjun; Wang, Hongyu

    2014-04-01

    Mesoporous nickel cobaltite (NiCo2O4) nanoparticles have been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal strategy with the assistance of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) soft template (ST). Their physicochemical properties have been characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and nitrogen sorption measurements. Their electrocatalytic performances have been examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. The obtained NiCo2O4 materials exhibit a typical nanoscale crystalline hexagonal morphology with specific surface area (SSA) and mesopore volume of 88.63 m2 g-1 and 0.298 cm3 g-1. Impressively, the SDS-assisted NiCo2O4 electrode shows a catalytic current density of 125 mA cm-2 and 72% retention for consecutive 1000 s at 0.6 V in 1 M KOH and 0.5 M CH3OH electrolytes towards methanol (CH3OH) electrooxidation, which is better than the one without SDS assistance. The pronounced electrocatalytic activity is largely ascribed to their higher surface intensities of Co and Ni species and superior mesoporous nanostructures, which provide the richer electroactive sites and faster electrochemical kinetics, leading to the enhanced electrocatalytic activity.

  5. Nonlinear response of a batch BZ oscillator to the addition of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciascia, Luciana; Lombardo, Renato; Turco Liveri, Maria Liria

    2007-02-15

    The response of the Belousov-Zhabotinsy (BZ) system to the addition of increasing amounts of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was monitored at 25.0 degrees C in stirred batch conditions. The presence of SDS in the reaction mixture influences the oscillatory parameters, i.e., induction period and oscillation period, to an extent that depends on the surfactant concentration. The experimental results have shown that the induction period increases slightly on increasing surfactant concentration and, then, a further increase in the [SDS] leads to an enhancement while the oscillation period increases monotonously on increasing SDS concentration. It has been proposed that the response of the oscillatory BZ system to the addition of SDS is due to the peculiar capability of the organized surfactant assemblies to affect the reactivity by selectively sequestering some key reacting species. Indeed, explanations of the experimental results have been given on the basis of the role played by the micellar shape, which in turn dictates the hydrophobic nature. The suggested perturbation effects have been supported by performing viscosity measurements on the aqueous SDS solutions and by the spectrophotometric estimation of the binding constant of the bromine species to the micellar aggregates. This study has indirectly corroborated the existence of two kind of micelles and unambiguously revealed that the bromine species show a different affinity toward the spherical and rod-like micelles.

  6. A Microfluidic Approach to Investigating a Synergistic Effect of Tobramycin and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soojeong; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Hwang, Jangsun; Seo, Youngmin; Lee, Eunwon; Choi, Jonghoon; Moon, Sangjun; Hong, Jong Wook

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a microfluidic technology has contributed a significant role in biological research, specifically for the study of biofilms. Bacterial biofilms are a source of infections and contamination in the environment due to an extra polymeric matrix. Inadequate uses of antibiotics make the bacterial biofilms antibiotic resistant. Therefore, it is important to determine the effective concentration of antibiotics in order to eliminate bacterial biofilms. The present microfluidic study was carried out to analyze the activities of tobramycin and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms with a continuous flow in order to achieve a greater delivery of the agents. The results show that a co-treatment of tobramycin and SDS significantly reduced the biomass of biofilms (by more than 99%) after 24 h. Tobramycin and SDS killed and detached bacteria in the cores of biofilms. Evidently, our data suggest that a microchannel would be effective for both quantitative and qualitative evaluations in order to test combinatorial effect of drugs and chemicals on a complexed biological system including biofilm.

  7. Evidence of β-sheet structure induced kinetic stability of papain upon thermal and sodium dodecyl sulphate denaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašković Brankica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Papain is a protease that consists of α-helical and β-sheet domains which unfold almost independently. Both, papain considerable thermal stability and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS resistance have been shown. However, the ability of each domain to unfold upon thermal and SDS denaturation has never been studied. This work shows that fruit papain has slightly higher thermal inactivation resistance when it is compared to stem papain with rather high activation energy (Ea of 223 ± 16 kJmol-1 and Tm50 value of 79 ± 2 °C. SDS resistance of fruit papain was estimated by SDS-PAGE analysis and activity staining. It has been noted that, in the presence of SDS, unless heat energy was applied in order to unfold papain, the protein remained active. Furthermore, it has been proven via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR that α-helical domain of fruit papain is more prone to unfolding at elevated temperatures and in the presence of SDS then β-sheet rich domain. Thermal denaturation of papain without detergent present led to accelerated formation of aggregation specific intermolecular β-sheets as compared to native protein. Presented results are both, of fundamental and application importance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172049

  8. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic method for assessing the quaternary state and comparative thermostability of avidin and streptavidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, E A; Ehrlich-Rogozinski, S; Wilchek, M

    1996-08-01

    Avidin, a positively charged egg-white protein, aggregates extensively when mixed at ambient temperatures with anionic detergents, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The resultant aggregates fail to penetrate the stacking gel during polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To prevent the formation of such aggregates, avidin was acetylated and the pI was thus reduced. Acetylated avidin was found to behave in a manner similar to that of streptavidin; under nondenaturing conditions (i.e., incubation of samples at room temperature), both proteins normally migrated mainly as tetramers with a tendency to form oligomers of the tetramer. When samples were boiled, both proteins migrated mainly as the monomer. The comparative stability properties of avidin and streptavidin were also examined using SDS-PAGE by heating samples and determining the extent of dissociation of tetramers to monomers as a function of temperature. A distinctive transition temperature could be defined for individual samples. Using this assay, it was determined that, in the absence of biotin, the quaternary structure of streptavidin is more stable than that of avidin. Biotin appears to stabilize structures of both avidin and streptavidin to a similar degree. Acetylation of avidin thus provides a simple means to analyze the quaternary structure of the molecule using SDS-PAGE.

  9. Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-dodecyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid): synthesis, physico-chemical characterisation and nafcillin carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecheru, Teodora; Rotariu, Traian; Rusen, Edina; Mărculescu, Bogdan; Miculescu, Florin; Alexandrescu, Laura; Antoniac, Iulian; Stancu, Izabela-Cristina

    2010-10-01

    In the present study polymeric microbeads of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-dodecyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) or p(HEMA-co-dDMA-co-AA) were synthesised and characterized through FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM); their swelling behavior against saline solution was explored and their in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated. Further, in order to elucidate kinetic aspects regarding the ternary system p(HEMA-co-dDMA-co-AA), a mathematical model of the reactivity ratios of the comonomers in the terpolymer has been conceived and analyzed. An intensified tendency of AA units accumulation in the copolymer has been noticed, in spite of HEMA units, while dDMA conserves in the copolymer the fraction from the feed. Three compositions have been selected for nafcillin-loading and their in vitro release capacity was evaluated. The compositions of 80:10:10 and 75:10:15 M ratios appear suitable for further in vivo testing, in order to be used as drug delivery systems in the treatment of different osseous diseases.

  10. Interfacial properties and fluorescence of a coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds and its interaction with sodium dodecyl sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikokera, R; Kwaambwa, H M

    2007-04-01

    The surfactant behaviour of aqueous coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds has been investigated by surface tension measurements. The interaction of the coagulant protein with an anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) has been monitored by surface tension and intrinsic protein fluorescence measurements. The extracted protein shows some weak surface activity at low concentrations. To achieve maximum surface activity (i.e. maximum reduction in surface tension of water), substantially higher concentrations of protein are required. The coagulant protein-SDS interaction scheme did not exhibit the behaviour of weakly interacting polymer-surfactant systems and the SDS interacts in a monomeric form with the protein. The association process of SDS with the coagulant protein is supported by protein fluorescence measurements. SDS has an effect on the fluorescence of the coagulant protein indicating that the local environment of tryptophan in the protein changes as SDS concentration below its critical micelle concentration is increased. These results have led us to the conclusions that: (1) the protein extracted from M. oleifera seeds has significant surfactant behaviour; (2) the coagulant protein interacts strongly with SDS and the protein might have specific binding sites for SDS; (3) there is formation of protein-SDS complex.

  11. Partial characterization of biosurfactant from Lactobacillus pentosus and comparison with sodium dodecyl sulphate for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, A B; Paradelo, R; Vecino, X; Cruz, J M; Gudiña, E; Rodrigues, L; Teixeira, J A; Domínguez, J M; Barral, M T

    2013-01-01

    The capability of a cell bound biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus pentosus, to accelerate the bioremediation of a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was compared with a synthetic anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate SDS-). The biosurfactant produced by the bacteria was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) that clearly indicates the presence of OH and NH groups, C=O stretching of carbonyl groups and NH nebding (peptide linkage), as well as CH2-CH3 and C-O stretching, with similar FTIR spectra than other biosurfactants obtained from lactic acid bacteria. After the characterization of biosurfactant by FTIR, soil contaminated with 7,000 mg Kg(-1) of octane was treated with biosurfactant from L. pentosus or SDS. Treatment of soil for 15 days with the biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus led to a 65.1% reduction in the hydrocarbon concentration, whereas SDS reduced the octane concentration to 37.2% compared with a 2.2% reduction in the soil contaminated with octane in absence of biosurfactant used as control. Besides, after 30 days of incubation soil with SDS or biosurfactant gave percentages of bioremediation around 90% in both cases. Thus, it can be concluded that biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus accelerates the bioremediation of octane-contaminated soil by improving the solubilisation of octane in the water phase of soil, achieving even better results than those reached with SDS after 15-day treatment.

  12. Small-angle neutron scattering from mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate and a cationic, bolaform surfactant containing azobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, F Pierce; Santonicola, Gabriella; Kaler, Eric W; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2005-07-05

    This paper reports on the microstructures formed in aqueous solutions containing mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and a photosensitive, bolaform surfactant, bis(trimethylammoniumhexyloxy)azobenzene dibromide (BTHA). By using quasi-elastic light scattering and small-angle neutron scattering, we determined that aqueous solutions containing SDS and the trans isomer of BTHA (0.1 wt % total surfactant, 15 mol % BTHA, 85 mol % SDS) form vesicles with average hydrodynamic diameters of 1350 +/- 50 angstroms and bilayer thicknesses of 35 +/- 2 angstroms. The measured bilayer thickness is consistent with a model of the vesicle bilayer in which the trans isomer of BTHA spans the bilayer. Upon illumination with UV light, the BTHA underwent photoisomerization to produce a cis-rich photostationary state (80% cis isomer). We measured this photoisomerization to drive the reorganization of vesicles into cylindrical aggregates with cross-sectional radii of 19 +/- 3 angstroms and average hydrodynamic diameters of 240 +/- 50 angstroms. Equilibration of the cis-rich solution in the dark at 25 degrees C for 12 h or illumination of the solution with visible light leads to the recovery of the trans-rich photostationary state of the solution and the reformation of vesicles, thus demonstrating the potential utility of this system as the basis of a tunable fluid.

  13. Sodium dodecyl sulfate coated poly (vinyl) chloride: an alternative support for solid phase extraction of some transition and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marahel, Farzaneh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Montazerozohori, Morteza; Davoodi, Shahnaz

    2009-01-01

    A simple and relatively fast approach for developing a solid phase extraction has been described and used for determination of trace quantities of some heavy and transition metal ions with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated poly vinyl chloride (PVC) modified with bis(2-hydroxyacetophenone)-1,4-butanediimine (BHABDI) ligand. The adsorbed ions were stripped from the solid phase by 10 mL of 3M nitric acid as eluent. The eluting solution was analyzed for metals content (cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead and zinc) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The main factors such as pH, amount of ligand and PVC, amount and type of surfactant, and condition of eluting solutions on the sorption recovery of metal ions have been investigated in detail. The relative standard deviation was found in the range of 1.0-3.2% for 0.2 microg mL(-1)of metals ions. After optimization of the extraction condition and the instrumental parameters, a detection limit was found to be in the range of 1.2-3.1 microg L(-1), with enrichment factor of 50 was achieved. The method was successfully applied for the determination of these metals contents in real samples with satisfactory results.

  14. Inactivation of salmonella in biofilms and on chicken cages and preharvest poultry by levulinic Acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Zhao, Ping; Cannon, Jennifer L; Doyle, Michael P

    2011-12-01

    Surface contamination (skin and feathers) of broilers with Salmonella occurs primarily during growth and transportation. Immediately after transporting chickens, chicken cage doors were sprayed with a foam containing 3% levulinic acid plus 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Samples were collected for Salmonella assay after 45 min. Salmonella on cage doors was reduced from 19% (19 of 100 doors) before treatment to 1% (1 of 100 doors) after treatment, coliform counts were reduced from 6 to 8 to 2 to 4 log CFU/9 cm(2), and aerobic plate counts were reduced from 7 to 9 to 4 to 6 log CFU/9 cm(2). Whole chicken carcasses with feathers were inoculated with 10(8) CFU of Salmonella Enteritidis, soaked for 5 min at 21°C in 72 liters of a treatment or control solution, and assayed for Salmonella. Salmonella counts on chickens treated with water were 6.8 to 8.5 log CFU/9 cm(2), those treated with 50 ppm of calcium hypochlorite were 7.6 to 8.9 log CFU/9 cm(2), and those treated with 3% levulinic acid plus 2% SDS were 4-log reduction). Results of biofilm studies on surfaces of various materials revealed that a 3% levulinic acid plus 2% SDS treatment used as either a foam or liquid for 10 min effectively reduced Salmonella populations by 5 and >6 log CFU/cm(2), respectively.

  15. Small angle neutron scattering study of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar growth driven by addition of a hydrotropic salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, P A; Fritz, Gerhard; Kaler, Eric W

    2003-01-01

    The structures of aggregates formed in aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), with the addition of a cationic hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), have been investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The SANS spectra exhibit a pronounced peak at low salt concentration, indicating the presence of repulsive intermicellar interactions. Model-independent real space information about the structure is obtained from a generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) technique in combination with a suitable model for the interparticle structure factor. The interparticle interaction is captured using the rescaled mean spherical approximation (RMSA) closure relation and a Yukawa form of the interaction potential. Further quantification of the geometrical parameters of the micelles was achieved by a complete fit of the SANS data using a prolate ellipsoidal form factor and the RMSA structure factor. The present study shows that PTHC induces a decrease in the fractional charge of the micelles due to adsorption at the micellar surface and consequent growth of the SDS micelles from nearly globular to rodlike as the concentration of PTHC increases.

  16. Viscosity measurements of CO2-in-water foam with dodecyl polypropoxy sulfate surfactants for enhanced oil recovery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudita, Ria Ayu; Ryoo, Won Sun

    2016-08-01

    Apparent viscosities of CO2-in-water foams were measured in a wide range of shear rate from 50 to 105 inverse second for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) application. The CO2-in-water dispersions, made of 50:50 weight proportions of CO2 and water with 1 wt.% surfactant concentration, were prepared in high-pressure recirculation apparatus under pressure where CO2 density becomes 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9 g/mL at each temperature of 35, 45, and 55°C. The surfactants used for the foam generation were sodium dodecyl polypropoxy sulfates with average propoxylation degrees of 4.7 and 6.2. The foam viscosity showed shear thinning behaviors with power-law indices ranging from 0.80 to 0.85, and approached a Newtonian regime in the lower shear rate range at several tens of inverse second. Zero-shear viscosity values projected from experimental data based on Ellis model were as high as 57.4 mPa·s and enough to control the mobility of water and CO2 in oil reservoirs.

  17. Studies on Middle-Phase Microemulsions of Green Surfactant n -Dodecyl Polyglucoside C12G1.46

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI,Jin-Ling; WU,Chang-Ju; LI,Gan-Zuo; ZHANG,Gao-Yong

    2003-01-01

    The three-phase behavior in the quaternary system ot n-dodecyl polyglucoside C12G1.46/1-butanol/cyclohexane/water has been studied at 40 ℃ in terms of the variables γ and δ. Increasing δ at constant γ causes a phase inversion from an oil-in-water microemulsion in contact with excess oil ( winsor Ⅰ or 2) to a water-in-oil microemulsion in contact with excess water (winsor Ⅱ or 2) via a middle-phase microemulsion in contact with excess oil and water (winsor Ⅲ or 3). By taking into account the different solubilities of alkyl polyglucoside and 1-butanol in the oil phase, the composition of the hydrophile-lipophile balanced interfacial film in the middle of the three-phase body can be calculated. The effects of different oils and aqueous media on the phase behavior and on the composition of the interfacial film and the efficiency for alkyl polyglucoside to make equal weights of water and oil to a single phase were investigated.It was found that the oil molecules with small molecular volumes can improve the solubilizing efficiency of the surfactant to form single-phase microemulsion. In inorganic salt (NaCl) and acid (HCl)solutions, less 1-butanol is needed than that in alkali (NaOH) solution to form middle-phase microemulsion.

  18. Doping effect of dodecyl benzene sulphonic acid in poly(3-hexylthiophene)-P3HT-films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveroglu, Esra

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrated that how dodecyl benzene sulphonic acid (DBSA) as a small-molecular dopant, affects the spectroscopic, electronic and structural properties of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The DBSA volume ratio was varied from 0.001 μL to 30 μL per 1 mL P3HT solvent in p-xylene. DBSA doping reaction was confirmed by the emerging huge absorption peak at the wavelength of ∼800 nm while the ionization potential and nanostructure of P3HT films were highly affected. Additionally, conductivity of P3HT films increased nearly 1000 times at 30 μL DBSA. The crystallinity, as well as the conductivity and the UV-Vis absorption changed with the presence of P3HT. P3HT grain sized crystals seems to be disturbed by the addition of DBSA, but still remained even more DBSA was introduced. DBSA doping has interesting properties when incorporated in OFTs, OPVs and bioelectronics applications, so addition of DBSA can open new pathways for structural, spectroscopic and electronic control of organic semiconductor's blends.

  19. Partial Characterization of Biosurfactant from Lactobacillus pentosus and Comparison with Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate for the Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Moldes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability of a cell bound biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus pentosus, to accelerate the bioremediation of a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was compared with a synthetic anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate SDS-. The biosurfactant produced by the bacteria was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR that clearly indicates the presence of OH and NH groups, C=O stretching of carbonyl groups and NH nebding (peptide linkage, as well as CH2–CH3 and C–O stretching, with similar FTIR spectra than other biosurfactants obtained from lactic acid bacteria. After the characterization of biosurfactant by FTIR, soil contaminated with 7,000 mg Kg−1 of octane was treated with biosurfactant from L. pentosus or SDS. Treatment of soil for 15 days with the biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus led to a 65.1% reduction in the hydrocarbon concentration, whereas SDS reduced the octane concentration to 37.2% compared with a 2.2% reduction in the soil contaminated with octane in absence of biosurfactant used as control. Besides, after 30 days of incubation soil with SDS or biosurfactant gave percentages of bioremediation around 90% in both cases. Thus, it can be concluded that biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus accelerates the bioremediation of octane-contaminated soil by improving the solubilisation of octane in the water phase of soil, achieving even better results than those reached with SDS after 15-day treatment.

  20. Adsorption of hydroxamate siderophores and EDTA on goethite in the presence of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jide

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Siderophore-promoted iron acquisition by microorganisms usually occurs in the presence of other organic molecules, including biosurfactants. We have investigated the influence of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS on the adsorption of the siderophores DFOB (cationic and DFOD (neutral and the ligand EDTA (anionic onto goethite (α-FeOOH at pH 6. We also studied the adsorption of the corresponding 1:1 Fe(III-ligand complexes, which are products of the dissolution process. Adsorption of the two free siderophores increased in a similar fashion with increasing SDS concentration, despite their difference in molecule charge. In contrast, SDS had little effect on the adsorption of EDTA. Adsorption of the Fe-DFOB and Fe-DFOD complexes also increased with increasing SDS concentrations, while adsorption of Fe-EDTA decreased. Our results suggest that hydrophobic interactions between adsorbed surfactants and siderophores are more important than electrostatic interactions. However, for strongly hydrophilic molecules, such as EDTA and its iron complex, the influence of SDS on their adsorption seems to depend on their tendency to form inner-sphere or outer-sphere surface complexes. Our results demonstrate that surfactants have a strong influence on the adsorption of siderophores to Fe oxides, which has important implications for siderophore-promoted dissolution of iron oxides and biological iron acquisition.

  1. Positional isomers of linear sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate: solubility, self-assembly, and air/water interfacial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-Guo; Boyd, Ben J; Drummond, Calum J

    2006-10-10

    Commercial linear alkyl benzene sulfonates (ABS) are a very important class of anionic surfactants that are employed in a wide variety of applications, especially those involving wetting and detergency. Linear ABS surfactants generally consist of a complex mixture of different chain lengths and positional isomers. This diversity and level of complexity makes it difficult to develop fundamental structure-property correlations for the commercial surfactants. In this work, six monodisperse headgroup positional isomers of sodium para-dodecyl benzene sulfonate (Na-x-DBS, x = 1-6) have been studied. The influence of headgroup position and added electrolyte (NaCl) on the solubility and self-assembly (micellar and vesicular aggregation and lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behavior) in the temperature range from 10 to 90 degrees C have been investigated. Additionally, the air-aqueous solution interfacial adsorption at 25 (no added NaCl) and 50 degrees C (from 0 to 1.0 M added NaCl) has been examined. The observed physicochemical behavior is interpreted in terms of local molecular packing constraints, and in the case of the lyotropic liquid crystalline behavior global aggregate packing constraints as well.

  2. Interaction between dodecyl oxypropyl β-hydroxyltrimethylammonium bromide and Xanthan: MesoDyn simulation and binding isotherm measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    MesoDyn density functional simulation method is used to study the interactions between dodecyl oxypropyl β-hydroxyltrimethylammonium bromide (C12NBr) and Xanthan (XC). The micro dynamic process of aggregate formation and the aggregate morphology are reported. Interaction between XC and nonyphenyloxypropylβ-hydroxyltrimethylammonium bromide (C9phNBr) is compared with that between XC and C12NBr. Simulation results show that the aggregate morphology of XC/C12NBr and XC/C9phNBr is of rod-like shape with helix characteristic. The binding of C9phNBr to XC is more difficult than that of C12NBr to XC. In addition, three stages for the dynamic evolution of surfactant binding to XC are observed. The simulation results agree with binding isotherms of C9phNBr (C12NBr) to XC obtained via the potentiometric titration method, which shows a typical cooperative binding between C9phNBr (C12NBr) and XC.

  3. Synthesis and physiological toxicity test of soybean oil ethoxylate%大豆油乙氧基化物的合成及其生理毒性测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建国; 孙永强; 史修启

    2012-01-01

    The natural soybean oil ethoxylate was synthesized through one step technology-ester group insertion, and physiological toxicity of the product was tested. The results showed that soybean ethoxylates with different EO numbers were obtained through one step insertion reaction catalyzed by MCT-09. The physiological toxicity tests indicated that among non-ionic surfactants, this product was the mildest one and considered to be a kind of green surfactant. The structure of the product was tested by YT-IR.%以天然大豆油为原料,采用酯基插入式乙氧基化技术一步法合成了天然大豆油乙氧基化物,并对产品生理毒性进行了测试。结果表明,在催化剂MCT-09作用下,大豆油与环氧乙烷可顺利合成不同EO数的大豆油乙氧基化物,与其他类型非离子表面活性剂相比,天然大豆油乙氧基化物生理毒性最小,为无毒类绿色表面活性剂,并通过红外光谱对产物进行了结构鉴定。

  4. Influence of rapid development of EO plant for downstream ethoxylation industry%环氧乙烷迅猛发展对下游乙氧基化装置格局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄朝兵

    2012-01-01

    随着环氧乙烷项目的迅猛发展,其与日增多的产量很大程度上缓解了市场的需求。同时,这种快速增长的形势对其下游产品更深更广的发展将起到重要的直接推动作用,目前环氧乙烷下游产品逐渐集中在乙醇胺系列、聚乙二醇系列、传统的AEO和TX系列以及新兴的减水剂系列等。通过对当前乙氧基化项目情况的分析,预测未来乙氧基化的发展格局。%The rapid growth of EO projects and increasing output promoted the development of" downstream products to some extent. At present, EO downstream products are mainly focused on ethanolamine, polyethylene glycol, traditional AEO, TX series as well as newly developed water reducing agent. This article analyzed current ethoxylation projects and predicted the future development of ethoxylation industry.

  5. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is through the activity of an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase, or ADH. Many individuals of Chinese, Korean, and ... Abstract] Yokoyama A, Omori T. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases and risk for esophageal and head and neck ...

  6. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol Facts and Statistics Print version Alcohol Use in the United States: ... 1245, 2004. PMID: 15010446 11 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2014 Crash Data Key Findings (Traffic ...

  7. Alcohol in moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study examines the market potential for low and very low alcohol wine products under two different tax regimes. The penetration and market share of low alcohol wine are estimated under both tax conditions. Consumers’ alcoholic beverage purchase portfolios are analysed and those...... products identified, which are jointly purchased with low alcohol wines. The effect of a tax increase on substitution patterns between alcoholic beverages is examined. Methodology: In a discrete choice experiment, based on their last purchase, consumers select one or several different alcoholic beverages...... volume is estimated under the current tax regime. Between six to eight percent of consumers are expected to adopt low alcohol wine alternatives as part of their alcoholic beverage portfolio. Consumers of cask wine and light beer are more likely and consumers of medium-full strength beer and spirits...

  8. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  9. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Diseases + Condition Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  10. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  11. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  12. Alcohol and Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yinglan; Song Jingyu; Jin Junshuo; Zhong Xiuhong; Ren Xiangshan; Liu Shuangping

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To study the relationship between alcohol and atherosclerosis (AS).Methods The paper reviewed the mechanism of the alcohol leading to AS from four aspects such as the introduction of alcohol and AS, imbalance of oxidationantioxidation system, oxygen free radical (OFR) and endothelium cell (EC) apoptosis, apoptosis and AS.Results Excessive alcohol could lead to imbalance of oxidation-antioxidation system, and increase OFR, in the meanwhile, OFR could lead to EC apoptosis,which could lead to AS.

  13. 窄分布脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚在清洗中替代壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚的可行性探讨%Possibility Research on Replacement of Nonylphenol Ethoxylates by Narrow Range Ethoxylates in Cleaning Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚永丽; 刘津南; 黄甦萍; 大鹏

    2016-01-01

    本文介绍了NRE(窄分布脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚)的性能,并就含NRE的Berol 609的低温流动性、溶解速度、凝胶范围、泡沫性能、润湿性和去污力进行了测试,并和NPE-9、NPE-10及常用来替代NPE的AEO-9进行了比较,结果显示:Berol 609的后两者性能与NPE-9类似,其他性能优于NPE-9,因此,Berol 609在清洗中完全有可能替代NPE-9。%The properties and performances of NRE (narrow range ethoxylates) are introduced in this article. Furthermore, Berol 609 which contains part of NRE is mainly studied. Some of its properties, including low temperature fluidity, dissolution property, gel property, foaming property, wetting property and cleaning effect, are tested and compared with NPE-9, NPE-10 and AEO-9 (the common replacement of NPE). The results demonstrate that the latter two properties of Berol 609 are similar with NPE-9 and other properties are better than NPE-9. So Berol 609 is an ideal replacement of NPE-9.

  14. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... her child’s genetic make-up, and changes in gene activity caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. NIH . . . Turning Discovery Into Health ® National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism www. niaaa. nih. gov • 301.443.3860 Interventions ...

  15. Hispanic Alcoholic Treatment Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Raymond M.

    1987-01-01

    A path analytic model for Hispanic alcoholics relating socioclinical prognostic variables to outcome following treatment in a therapeutic community differs markedly from that fitted to Anglo alcoholics. The differential relationship of education to alcoholism severity and outcome was noted specifically as reflecting different racial-ethnic paths…

  16. Alcohol and liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia Osna

    2009-01-01

    @@ Liver is a primary site of ethanol metabolism, which makes this organ susceptible to alcohol-induced damage.Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has many manifestations and complicated pathogenesis. In this Topic Highlight, we included the key reviews that characterize new findings about the mechanisms of ALD development and might be of strong interest for clinicians and researchers involved in liver alcohol studies.

  17. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  18. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  19. Alcohol and plasma triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, Boudewijn; do Rego, Ana Torres; Cabezas, Manuel Castro

    2013-08-01

    This study reviews recent developments concerning the effects of alcohol on plasma triglycerides. The focus will be on population, intervention and metabolic studies with respect to alcohol and plasma triglycerides. Alcohol consumption and fat ingestion are closely associated and stimulated by each other via hypothalamic signals and by an elevated cephalic response. A J-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and plasma triglycerides has been described. A normal body weight, polyphenols in red wine and specific polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein A-V and apolipoprotein C-III genes may protect against alcohol-associated hypertriglyceridemia. In contrast, obesity exaggerates alcohol-associated hypertriglyceridemia and therefore the risk of pancreatitis. High alcohol intake remains harmful since it is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides, but also with cardiovascular disease, alcoholic fatty liver disease and the development of pancreatitis. Alcohol-induced hypertriglyceridemia is due to increased very-low-density lipoprotein secretion, impaired lipolysis and increased free fatty acid fluxes from adipose tissue to the liver. However, light to moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with decreased plasma triglycerides, probably determined by the type of alcoholic beverage consumed, genetic polymorphisms and lifestyle factors. Nevertheless, patients should be advised to reduce or stop alcohol consumption in case of hypertriglyceridemia.

  20. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  1. Thixotropic Low-Solvent, Non-Hap Wheel Well Cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-28

    mixture of linear alcohol ethoxylates having a HLB in the range of 2 to 15 as a stabilizer, and the balance water. The cleaning composition may also...as an isoparrafinic hydrocarbon solvent, from about 10% to about 50% of a mixture of linear alcohol ethoxylates having a HLB in the range of 2 to 15...the alkylphenol ethoxylate or an ethoxylated higher aliphatic flash point of said cleaning composition above 140° F., such alcohol, and (2) a fatty

  2. Determination of Alkylphenol Ethoxylates in Leather and Textile by GC-MS%皮革及纺织品中APEO残留量的GC-MS测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马贺伟; 赵立国; 洪新球; 黄新霞

    2011-01-01

    A procedure was developed for determining alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOn) in leather and textile by gas chromatography - mass detector. The targets were extracted from samples using ultrasonic -assisted acetonitrile extraction. APEOn in the extracts were first converted into AP with aluminum triiodide as cleavage reagent, and the yielded AP were then isolated and detected by GC - MS. The contents of APEOn were calculated by normalizing to APEO9. For the total procedure, the recovery ranged from 91% to 101% and the precision (RSD%) ranged from 5% ~9%. The quantitative detection limits are 2.5mg/kg and 1.2mg/kg for NPEO9 and OPEO9, respectively. This analytical procedure is properly validated, offering a reliable and simple way for monitoring APEOn in leather and textile.%建立了皮革及纺织品中烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚(APEOn)残留量的GC-MS测定方法.采用超声波辅助乙腈对样品中的APEOn进行萃取,萃取液中的APEOn经过三碘化铝裂解后,完全转化为等摩尔量的烷基酚(AP),然后采用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)对AP进行测试,最后根据AP的浓度计算样品APEOn的含量,以APEO9表示.结果表明:方法的回收率在91%~101%之间,相对标准偏差在5%~9%之间,壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚(NPEO9)的定量检测限为3.0mg/kg、辛基酚聚氧乙烯醚(OPEO9)为1.2mg/kg.方法的可靠性强、灵敏度高,为皮革及纺织品中APEOn残留量的有效监测提供了简便、可靠的检测技术.

  3. Effects of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid on Salmonella Typhimurium survival, shelf-life, and sensory characteristics of ground beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzleni, Alexander M; Ponrajan, Amudhan; Harrison, Mark A

    2013-09-01

    The inclusion of two sources of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid were studied as interventions for Salmonella Typhimurium and for their effect on shelf-life and sensory characteristics of ground beef. For the Salmonella challenge, beef trimmings (80/20) were inoculated then treated with 2% (w/v) liquid buffered vinegar (LVIN), 2.5% (w/w) powdered buffered vinegar (PVIN), a solution containing 1.0% levulinic acid plus 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDLA) at 10% (w/v), or had no intervention applied (CNT). The same trim source and production methods were followed during production of patties for shelf-life and sensory testing without inoculation. SDLA patties had the largest reduction (PSalmonella. However, LVIN and PVIN had the least (Pcharacteristics, except PVIN exhibited stronger off-flavor (P<0.05).

  4. Effect of NaCl on the spectral and kinetic properties of cresyl violet (CV)-sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K I Priyadarsini; Hari Mohan

    2003-08-01

    Effect of added NaCl on the spectral and kinetic properties of cationically charged dye (cresyl violet) and anionically charged surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate) were studied in the pre-micellar and micellar regions. Addition of 0.2M NaCl to dye-surfactant solution decreased the critical micellar concentration for the micellization of the dye in sodium dodecyl sulphate to 1.2 × 10-3 M. Time-resolved studies using a stopped-flow spectrometer showed that NaCl influences the dynamics of micellisation. Addition of NaCl during the dye-surfactant complex formation converted the complex into micellized form at NaCl concentration of 0.01 to 0.05 M. In contrast, much higher concentration of NaCl (2 M) is required for the salting-out effect of the dye-surfactant complex for conversion to the micellized form.

  5. Genetics and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  6. [Physical diseases in alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Kojiro

    2015-09-01

    Rapid excessive alcohol drinking frequently causes disturbance of consciousness due to head trauma, brain edema, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hepatic coma and so on, provoked by acute alcohol intoxication. Rapid differential diagnosis and management are extremely important to save a life. On the other hands, the chronic users of alcohol so called alcoholism has many kinds of physical diseases such as liver diseases (i.e., fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic liver cirrhosis and miscellaneous liver disease), diabetes mellitus, injury to happen in drunkenness, pancreas disease (i.e., acute and chronic pancreatitis and deterioration of chronic pancreatitis), gastrontestinal diseases (i.e., gastroduodenal ulcer), and so on. Enough attention should be paid to above mentioned diseases, otherwise they would turn worse more with continuation and increase in quantity of the alcohol. It should be born in its mind that the excessive drinking becomes the weapon threatening life.

  7. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest......Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  8. Conductometric study of sodium dodecyl sulfate - nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85) mixed micelles in aqueous solution

    OpenAIRE

    Ćirin Dejan M; Poša Mihalj M.; Krstonošić Veljko S.; Milanović Maja Lj.

    2012-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the determination of the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of mixed micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate with one of five nonionic surfactants (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85) from conductance measurements. Based on the calculated values of the β parameters we have noticed that SDS-nonionic surfactants mostly showed strong synergistic effect. It was found that nonionic surfactants with mainly longer and more hydrophobic tail s...

  9. Identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and rRNA restriction patterns.

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington, T. H.; Harker, C.; Thomson-Carter, F

    1991-01-01

    A total of 1,417 staphylococcal and micrococcal strains were collected from the beards and scalps of 10 subjects over a period of 8 months. Sixteen strains identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis with an API system had distinctive yellow colonies on nutrient agar plates and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis whole-cell polypeptide profiles similar to those of Staphylococcus capitis; this identification was confirmed by analysis of rRNA gene restriction patterns.

  10. (4Z-1-Dodecyl-4-(2-oxopropylidene-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-1,5-benzodiazepin-2-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihad Sebhaoui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C24H36N2O2, the orientation of the 2-oxopropylidene substituent is determined by the formation of an intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond. The benzodiazepine seven-membered ring adopts a slightly twisted boat conformation. The molecules pack in a bilayer fashion with the dodecyl chains intercalated to form the inner portion, and the benzodiazepine moieties on the outer surfaces.

  11. The Catalysis of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/1-Pentanol/Water W/O Microemulsion on the Photoisomerization of trans-Stilbene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia GUO; Ling LIN; Rong GUO

    2004-01-01

    The photoisomerization of trans-stilbene was studied in the water in oil (W/O) micro- emulsion formed by SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate), n-C5H11OH (1-pentanol) and H2O. The experimental results show that after 2-minute UV-irradiation, the yield of cis-stilbene is higher in W/O microemulsion than in homogeneous solvent-n-C5H11OH.

  12. Optical and Thermal Properties of Zn/Al-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposite Intercalated with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Babakhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zn/Al-LDH-SDS nanocomposites have been prepared using a coprecipitation method in different molar ratio of Zn2+/Al3+ = 2, 3, and 4 at pH = 10 and different concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate solution (0.2 M, 0.4 M, and 0.8 M. The XRD and FTIR data show the successful intercalation of SDS into the LDH interlayer. The XRD diffractogram showed that the basal spacing for Zn/Al–NO3- is 0.89 nm compared to 2.54–2.61 nm for the Zn/Al-SDS nanocomposite. Optical band gap of the samples was calculated using Kubelka-Munk model. Due to the presence of LDH phase, two band gap energies (Eg1 and Eg2 were observed. The values of Eg1 and Eg2 were found around 4.8 eV and 3.75 eV for Zn/Al-LDH (r = 2, 3, and 4. The values of band gap of LDH-SDS nanocomposites were found to increase to around 4.2 eV and 5.2 eV. For Zn4Al-LDH-SDS with 0.4 M and 0.8 M of SDS, only one energy gap at around 3.23 eV was observed. The optical band gap of SO42- phase increased as the amount of SDS increases. Thermal diffusivity of the resulted nanocomposite was also investigated.

  13. Molecular Simulations of Dodecyl-β-maltoside Micelles in Water: Influence of the Headgroup Conformation and Force field Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Stéphane; Dupradeau, François-Yves; Raman, E. Prabhu; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Marchi, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the development and validation of new potential parameter sets, based on the CHARMM36 and GLYCAM06 force fields, to simulate micelles of the two anomeric forms (α and β) of N-Dodecyl-ß-maltoside (C12G2), a surfactant widely used in the extraction and purification of membrane proteins. In this context, properties such as size, shape, internal structure and hydration of the C12G2 anomer micelles were thoroughly investigated by molecular dynamics simulations and the results compared with experiments. Additional simulations were also performed with the older CHARMM22 force field for carbohydrates (Kuttel, M. et al. J. Comp. Chem. 2002, 23, 1236-1243). We find that our CHARMM and GLYCAM parameter sets yields similar results in case of properties related to the micelle structure, but differ for other properties such as the headgroup conformation or the micelle hydration. In agreement with experiments, our results show that for all model potentials the β-C12G2 micelles have a more pronounced ellipsoidal shape than those containing α anomers. The computed radius of gyration is 20.2 Å and 25.4 Å for the α- and β-anomer micelles, respectively. Finally, we show that depending on the potential the water translational diffusion of the interfacial water is 7 - 11.5 times slower than that of bulk water due to the entrapment of the water in the micelle crevices. This retardation is independent of the headgroup in α- or β- anomers. PMID:21192681

  14. Antigenic profile of heat-killed versus thimerosal-treated Leishmania major using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Arjmand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leishmania is a parasitic protozoan of trypanosomatidae family which causes a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions to deadly visceral forms. In endemic areas, field trials of different preparations of Leishmania total antigen were tested as leishmaniasis vaccine. Two preparations of killed Leishmania major were produced In Iran, which were heat-killed vaccine called autoclaved L. major (ALM and thimerosal-treated freeze-thawed vaccine called killed L. major (KLM. In this study, the protein content of both ALM and KLM were compared with that of freshly harvested intact L. major promastigotes using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Materials and Methods: L. major (MRHO/IR/75/ER from pre-infected Balb/c mice was isolated with modified Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN medium and then subcultured in liquid RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS 20% for mass production. Two preparations of KLM and ALM were produced by Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Iran, under WHO/TDR supervision. Electrophoresis was performed by SDS-PAGE method and the gel was stained by Coomassie brilliant blue dye. The resultant unit bands were compared using standard molecular proteins. Results: Electrophoresis of the two preparations produced many bands from 10 kDa to 100 kDa. KLM bands were much like those of freshly harvested intact L. major. Conclusion: It is concluded that although there are similar bands in the three forms of Leishmania antigens, there are some variations which might be considered for identification and purification of protective immunogens in a total crude antigen, and detection of their stability is essential for the production and marketing of a putative vaccine.

  15. Serum sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of patients with membranous nephropathy and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya Pant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of membranous nephropathy (MN and focal and segmental glomerulo- sclerosis (FSGS needs a renal biopsy, which is an invasive procedure with potentially serious complications. Proteomics may be applied for the development of a biomarker for these diseases which will obviate the need of biopsy. Serum sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis gives an idea of the various proteins with different molecular weights (MWs in a given sample. This study was conducted to analyze proteins with different MWs in patients with MN and FSGS and to compare the two groups with regard to their protein profile. This was a comparative, experimental study performed from June 2013 to July 2014 in the Department of Nephrology, Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Twenty-three histologically diagnosed cases of primary MN and 25 cases of FSGS were included in the study. Patients were categorized as having mild, moderate, and severe proteinuria with 24 h urinary protein levels of <4, 4- 8 and ≥8 g/24 h, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis was performed by the method of Laemmli and revealed a significantly higher number of patients with FSGS (80% having a protein corresponding to 29 kDa MW, than those with MN (39.1% (P = 0.004. Protein of 5 kDa MW was present in a significantly higher number of patients with moderate (80% and severe (100% proteinuria than those with mild proteinuria (25% (P <0.001. Thus, protein of MW 29 kDa may be a marker for FSGS and needs further characterization. Similarly, 5 kDa protein, present in patients with moderate and severe proteinuria, might be either contributing to or be a marker of severe illness.

  16. Serum sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of patients with membranous nephropathy and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Pragya; Singh, R G; Singh, Santosh K; Singh, Vijay P; Doley, Prodip K; Sivasankar, M

    2016-05-01

    Diagnosis of membranous nephropathy (MN) and focal and segmental glomerulo- sclerosis (FSGS) needs a renal biopsy, which is an invasive procedure with potentially serious complications. Proteomics may be applied for the development of a biomarker for these diseases which will obviate the need of biopsy. Serum sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis gives an idea of the various proteins with different molecular weights (MWs) in a given sample. This study was conducted to analyze proteins with different MWs in patients with MN and FSGS and to compare the two groups with regard to their protein profile. This was a comparative, experimental study performed from June 2013 to July 2014 in the Department of Nephrology, Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Twenty-three histologically diagnosed cases of primary MN and 25 cases of FSGS were included in the study. Patients were categorized as having mild, moderate, and severe proteinuria with 24 h urinary protein levels of <4, 4- 8 and ≥8 g/24 h, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis was performed by the method of Laemmli and revealed a significantly higher number of patients with FSGS (80%) having a protein corresponding to 29 kDa MW, than those with MN (39.1%) (P = 0.004). Protein of 5 kDa MW was present in a significantly higher number of patients with moderate (80%) and severe (100%) proteinuria than those with mild proteinuria (25%) (P <0.001). Thus, protein of MW 29 kDa may be a marker for FSGS and needs further characterization. Similarly, 5 kDa protein, present in patients with moderate and severe proteinuria, might be either contributing to or be a marker of severe illness.

  17. Aplikasi Metode SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis untuk Mengidentifikasi Sumber Asal Gelatin pada Kapsul Keras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hermanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin as the main ingredient of capsules is still a problem for a moslem. Most of gelatin production remains largely derived from non-halal materials. One of gelatin source is came from collagen of the skin and bones of bovine or pork. The main of study is determine the source of gelatin used in hard capsules by using SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Gel electrophoresis Poly Acrylamide method. In the early stages, optimization of standards bovine and pork gelatin were hydrolyzed by pepsin at pH 4.5 and 60°C for 1 hour, 2 hours, and 3 hours. Gelatin hydrolyzateswere analyzed by SDS-PAGE to determine the optimal hydrolysis time. Identification of gelatin hydrolyzate fragments were carried by molecular weight. Hydrolysis time optimization throught applied to identify the source of hard gelatin capsules in the samples obtained from market and compared with the simulation of hard gelatin capsules. The results showed there were of specific bands of bovine gelatin with a molecular weight of 11,4 kDa; 34 kDa; 47kDa and specific bands of pork gelatin with a molecular weight of 24.7 kDa; 28 kDa; and 60 kDa. Similar results were obtained on a sample of hard capsules with bands of protein fragments that were identical to bovine gelatinstandard. Based on the results,each of the samples were tested contain of bovine gelatin respectively. DOI :http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/jkv.v0i0.3150

  18. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  19. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  20. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  1. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  2. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects.

  3. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.

  4. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Foppa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have attributed a protective effect to alcohol consumption on the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake in the amount of one to two drinks per day results in an estimated 20-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. An additional protective effect, according to major cohort studies, has been attributed to wine, probably due to antioxidant effects and platelet antiaggregation agents. On the other hand, the influence of different patterns of alcohol consumption and environmental factors may explain a great part of the additional effect of wine. Protection may be mediated by modulation of other risk factors, because alcohol increases HDL-C, produces a biphasic response on blood pressure, and modulates the endothelial function, while it neither increases body weight nor impairs glucose-insulin homeostasis. Alcohol may also have a direct effect on atherogenesis. Despite these favorable effects, the current evidence is not enough to justify prescribing alcohol to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  5. Alcohol use and menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsnack, Richard W; Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2016-04-01

    Clinicians should periodically assess their menopausal patients' alcohol use. Specific health hazards from excessive alcohol consumption, as well as potential benefits of low-level consumption (for cardiovascular disease, bone health, and type 2 diabetes), should be discussed with their patients who drink. The information in this Practice Pearl can help clinicians provide evidence-based guidance about alcohol consumption and its relationship to common health concerns.

  6. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Jeong Kim; Dai-Jin Kim

    2012-01-01

    Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect i...

  7. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  8. Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and Tween 80 on Cell Viability in an Air-Cathode Microbial Fuel Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Fregoso, Luisa

    2011-07-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) generate current via electrochemical reactions produced by bacteria attached to the anode that oxidize organic matter. Due to their high volume use in household products, some concentration of surfactant will reach wastewater treatment plants. The average surfactant concentration in wastewater ranges from 10 to 20 mg L-1, and up to 300 mg L-1, for domestic and industrial wastewaters, respectively. This study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of enhancing power production by adding Tween 80 and SDS surfactants to air-cathode MFCs, and their effect in cell viability at the anodic biofilm. In order to analyze the effect of anionic and nonionic surfactants in MFCs performance, eight MFCs were spiked with two types of surfactants, the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the nonionic surfactant Tween® 80 at two different concentrations 10 and 100 mg L-1. Cell viability at the anodic biofilms was examined using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability assay and images were visualized with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The electrochemical results demonstrate that, for an air-cathode MFC operating on 1 g L-1 acetate in a fed-batch mode, reactors where SDS was added show a lower overall performance, maximum PD of 544 mW m-2, CE of 12.3%, Rint of 322 Ω (10 mg L-1) and maximum PD of 265 mW m-2, CE of 9.4%, Rint of 758 Ω (100 mg L-1). Reactors where Tween 80 was added show quite stable performance, maximum PD of 623 mW m-2, CE of 15.4%, Rint of 216 Ω (10 mg L-1) and maximum PD of 591 mW m-2, CE of 10.8%, Rint of 279 Ω (100 mg L-1), compared with reactors operating at only acetate as a substrate, maximum PD of 574 mW m-2. Confocal microscopy images confirm this observation and biofilm viability appeared severely compromised in SDS reactors, especially at high concentrations. This study has opened up a whole new research area in determining which types of surfactants are toxic to the anodic biofilm and to further investigate the

  9. Preparation of the cactus-like porous manganese oxide assisted with surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Jianling, E-mail: lijianling@ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Yan, Gang; Xu, Guofeng; Xue, Qingrui [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Kang, Feiyu [Lab of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-02-05

    Highlights: • The cactus-like porous MnO{sub 2} was synthesized by hydrothermal method assisted with SDS. • The MnO{sub 2} exhibits a max specific capacitance of 187.8 F g{sup −1} (0.2 A g{sup −1}, 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). • Excellent cycling stability: 92.9% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles. - Abstract: The cactus-like porous manganese dioxide (MnO{sub 2}) was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method assisted with the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The morphology, composition, property of the prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) measurements. It was found that the sample without surfactant was composed of nanoflakes which piling up together, whereas in the presence of the surfactant, the MnO{sub 2} samples with the max specific surface of 321.9 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} showed a porous cactus-like microstructure, consisted of uniform nanowires and porous nanoflakes. The electrochemical performances of the MnO{sub 2} with and without surfactant were analyzed using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical Impedance Spectrometry (EIS) and Galvanostatic Charge–Discharge (GCD) tests. The results showed that the MnO{sub 2} assisted with 1 wt.% SDS displayed a higher specific capacitance of 187.8 F g{sup −1} at the current density of 0.2 A g{sup −1} compared with the MnO{sub 2} without surfactant (134.8 F g{sup −1}). And such MnO{sub 2} samples with higher specific capacitance also afford an excellent cyclic stability with the capacity retention of approximately 92.9% after 1000 cycles in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at a current density of 1 A g{sup −1}. The superior capacitive performance of the as-prepared materials could be attributed to its unique cactus-like porous structure, which provided good electronic conductivity, large specific surface area as

  10. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  11. 典型乙氧基化装置中环氧乙烷安全操作分析%Analysis on Safe Operation of Using Epoxy Ethane in Typical Ethoxylation Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁

    2013-01-01

      介绍环氧乙烷操作风险以及导致环氧乙烷在典型乙氧基化反应器中没有有效的气相循环或没有气相循环操作条件下分解的主要原因。环氧乙烷在密闭乙氧基化反应器中达到爆炸极限时,是可以通过控制反应器中氮气浓度避免事故发生。%Main operational risks in using epoxy ethane were introduced as well as main reasons to not realize effective gas phase circulation of epoxy ethane and to cause epoxy ethane decomposition in typical ethoxylation plant. When ethylene oxide in a closed reactor reaches the explosion limit, to control nitrogen concentration in the reactor can avoid the accident.

  12. Purification and properties of a secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from the parasitic protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, D E; Johnston, M

    1985-07-05

    A novel secondary alcohol dehydrogenase has been isolated from Tritrichomonas foetus, the protozoan parasite which is responsible for bovine trichomonal abortion. The enzyme has been obtained in apparently homogeneous form after a 120-fold purification from cell homogenates, thus indicating that this activity constitutes an unusually high 1% of the total cytosolic protein. The native Mr = 115,000, determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels suggests that the enzyme is composed of 6-8 subunits, identical as to molecular size (Mr = 17,000). The enzyme catalyzes the reversible oxidation of 2-propanol to acetone, using NADP+ (and not NAD+) as the redox-active co-substrate. Other small secondary alcohols, such as 2-butanol, 2- and 3-pentanol, cyclobutanol, and cyclopentanol are substrates, as are the corresponding ketones of these alcohols. Primary alcohols, such as ethanol and 1-propanol, are oxidized at rates less than 5% of that observed for 2-propanol. Product inhibition studies demonstrate an ordered kinetic mechanism, wherein the co-substrate (NADP+/NADPH) binds to the enzyme prior to binding of the substrate (alcohol/ketone).

  13. Bio Warfare and Terrorism: Toxins and Other Mid-Spectrum Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    bacteria or fungi or weaken nium salts), nonionic (e.g., alkyl polyglycosides, the cell walls so that they are more susceptible to alcohol ethoxylates ...alkylphenol ethoxylates ), and other classes of biocides (see below). Sodium zwitterionic.

  14. Production of Fatty Methyl Ester Ethoxylates and Its Application in Leather Degreasing Process%脂肪酸甲酯乙氧基化物的生产及在毛皮脱脂中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贺

    2012-01-01

    脂肪酸甲酯乙氧基化物(FMEE)是一种低泡沫的非离子型表面活性剂,在低温条件下(低于40℃)具有优异的脱脂性能,特别是分散力出众,在净洗过程中能够有效地防止油脂在转鼓内积聚,避免油脂的反沾污,适用于毛皮表面与内部的油脂和其它杂质的清洗.本文详细介绍了非离子净洗剂脂肪酸甲酯乙氧基化物FMEE的合成以及在清洗动物油脂过程中的应用和优点,探讨了FMEE在毛皮实际脱脂生产工艺中的参数以及废水处理.%Fatty acid methyl ester ethoxylates ( FMEE ) is a low foam non-ionic surfactant. FMEE has the excellent degreasing capacity, with superior dispersibility under the condition of low temperature (<40℃). FMEE can prevent fat from storing up in the rotary drum in the washing process effectively and avoid reverse staining of fat. Therefore, FMEE is suitable for degreasing on the surface and inside the leather, as well as impurity cleaning. This paper introduced the synthesis of nonionic detergent -fatty acid methyl ester ethoxylates (FMEE) as well as its application and advantage in degreasing process. This paper also discussed the process parameters of FMEE in leather degreasing process including wastewater treatment.

  15. Alcohol: A Women's Health Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to drink than their peers. Staying Away From Alcohol. Young women under age 21 should not drink alcohol. ... talk frankly with their daughters about not drinking alcohol. Women in Young and Middle Adulthood Young women in their twenties ...

  16. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  17. Leisure and Alcohol Expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Cynthia P.

    1993-01-01

    Presents the results of a study that investigated the ways individuals expected drinking to affect their leisure experiences, and the relationship of those expectancies to alcohol consumption patterns. Data from a sample of 144 adults indicated they expected alcohol to positively affect their leisure experiences. (SM)

  18. Pellagra In An Alcoholic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa Devinder Mohan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pellagra is a nutritional disorder that occurs due to niacin deficiency. In the present day context, in western world, pellagra is confined to individuals who have improper food intake, such as psychiatry patients, alcoholics and recluses. Here with we report a case of pellagra occurring in a 60 year old male who was a chronic alcoholic.

  19. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart diseas...

  20. Alcoholism and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2012-04-01

    Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  1. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  2. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy.

  3. Children of Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11) • Abuse of drugs or alcohol; or • Aggression towards other children • Risk taking behaviors • Depression or suicidal thoughts or behavior Some children of alcoholics may cope by taking the role of responsible "parents" within the family and among friends. They may ...

  4. Alcohol, Medicines and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... declines with age, older people reach higher blood alcohol concentrations after each drink than younger people. Meanwhile, as we age we become more sensitive to some of the impairments alcohol produces. On tests that require ... younger adults after a few drinks. Similarly, balance, concentration, ...

  5. Alcohol Use and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a chemical that has been shown to cause cancer in lab animals. Alcohol and its byproducts can also damage the liver, leading to inflammation and scarring. As liver cells try to repair the ... to cancer. Effects on other harmful chemicals Alcohol may help ...

  6. Adolescents' Perceptions of Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Amit; Ikonen, Risto; Keinonen, Tuula; Kumar, Kuldeep

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Rising trends in alcohol consumption and early drinking initiation pose serious health risks especially for adolescents. Learner's prior knowledge about alcohol gained from the social surroundings and the media are important sources that can impact the learning outcomes in health education. The purpose of this paper is to map adolescents'…

  7. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  8. Analysis of Soluble Proteins in Natural Cordyceps sinensis from Different Producing Areas by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis and Two-dimensional Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Hong; Zuo, Hua-Li; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Feng-Qin; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Jia; Xia, Zhi-Ning; Yang, Feng-Qing

    2017-01-01

    As one of the bioactive components in Cordyceps sinensis (CS), proteins were rarely used as index components to study the correlation between the protein components and producing areas of natural CS. Protein components of 26 natural CS samples produced in Qinghai, Tibet, and Sichuan provinces were analyzed and compared to investigate the relationship among 26 different producing areas. Proteins from 26 different producing areas were extracted by Tris-HCl buffer with Triton X-100, and separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The SDS-PAGE results indicated that the number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 CS samples was a bit different. However, the 2-DE results showed that the numbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obviously different and showed certain association with producing areas. Based on the expression values of matched protein spots, 26 batches of CS samples can be divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by hierarchical cluster analysis. The number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 Cordyceps sinensis samples were a bit different on the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profilesNumbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obvious different on two-dimensional electrophoresis mapsTwenty-six different producing areas of natural Cordyceps sinensis samples were divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by Hierarchical cluster analysis based on the values of matched protein spots. Abbreviations Used: SDS-PAGE: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-DE: Two-dimensional electrophoresis, Cordyceps sinensis: CS, TCMs: Traditional Chinese medicines.

  9. Alcohol and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasenan, M E

    1981-01-14

    Diminished sexual functioning among individuals dependent upon alcohol has been assessed. Ninety-seven male patients entered the study, all inpatients as the unit for treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction (Villa 6) in Porirua Hospital, Porirua. The sexual ability of these patients before the development of alcoholism was also rated for the same items and this rating was used as a control. Of the 97 patients, 69 (71 percent) suffered from sexual dysfunction for a period more than 12 months prior to admission to hospital. The disturbances noted were diminished sexual desire (58 percent of patients), erectile impotence (16 percent), premature ejaculation (4 percent), ejaculatory in competence (22 percent). A high proportion of the alcoholics showed signs of sexual deviation-19 percent having performed sexual crimes and a further 28 percent having repeated thought of sexual crimes. The possible causes of alcohol induced sexual dysfunction are discussed.

  10. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (DSM-V includes alcoholic hallucinosis in the Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder (alcohol, beginning during abstinence; however, the document is not yet very well accepted among the medical community. The difficulty of the team to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic hallucinosis lies in the differential diagnosis, as Delirium tremens and severe withdrawal syndrome with psychotic symptoms. Thus, psychopathological differentiation is important, as well as continuity of research and collaboration of other clinical teams in the evaluation.

  11. Alcohol consumption in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Plevová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the level of alcohol consumption in a selected group of adolescents. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: The data were obtained using a part of the standardized ESPAD questionnaire for assessing consumption of alcoholic beverages. The sample comprised 422 students from seven secondary schools of different types in the city of Ostrava. For statistical analysis, the chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test (for n ≤ 5 were used. The data were processed using Stata v. 10. Results: More than half of respondents first tried alcohol before the age of 15. The most frequent alcohol-related problems were unprotected sex, decreased school performance and problems with parents or friends. Incomplete families were found to be an important factor in adolescents preferring and more frequently drinking beer. Conclusion: The study confirmed results reported by the Europe-wide survey ESPAD, namely that adolescents start to drink alcohol as early as before they turn fifteen.

  12. Homocysteine and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, S; Degner, D; Javaheripour, K; Kurth, C; Kornhuber, J

    2000-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption can induce alterations in the function and morphology of most if not all brain systems and structures. However, the exact mechanism of brain damage in alcoholics remains unknown. Partial recovery of brain function with abstinence suggests that a proportion of the deficits must be functional in origin (i.e. plastic changes of nerve cells) while neuronal loss from selected brain regions indicates permanent and irreversible damage. There is growing evidence that chronic alcoholism is associated with a derangement in the sulfur amino acid metabolism. Recently, it has been shown that excitatory amino acid (EAA) neurotransmitters and homocysteine levels are elevated in patients who underwent withdrawal from alcohol. Furthermore, it has been found that homocysteine induces neuronal cell damage by stimulating NMDA receptors as well as by producing free radicals. Homocysteine neurotoxicity via overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors may contribute to the pathogenesis of both brain shrinkage and withdrawal seizures linked to alcoholism.

  13. Development and validation of a scale of attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Divane de; Luis, Margarita Antonia Villar

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was the construction and validation of a scale that would measure the attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and the alcoholic, called the Scale of Attitudes Towards Alcohol, Alcoholism and the Alcoholic. The face and content validations, as well as the factor analysis of the data obtained in a preliminary test with 144 nursing students resulted in a scale consisting of 96 items, divided into 5 factors: Attitudes towards the alcoholic person: care and interpersonal relations; Etiology; Disease; Repercussions deriving from alcohol use/abuse; Alcoholic beverages. The general scale presented a consistency level of 0.90. The resulting instrument is concluded to be a reliable tool to evaluate attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts.

  14. Determination of amino acid compositions and NH2-terminal sequences of peptides electroblotted onto PVDF membranes from tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, M; Jensen, A L; Barkholt, V.

    1989-01-01

    The combination of high-resolution Tricine-Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (H. Schägger and G. von Jagow (1987) Anal. Biochem. 166, 368-379) and electroblotting onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes represents a powerful technique for the isolation of small...... amounts of peptides and protein fragments (Mr 1000-20,000) in a suitable form for amino acid sequencing, directly on the blotting membrane. Conditions for electrophoresis and electroblotting were optimized with respect to high transfer yield and suitability for both amino acid analysis and sequence...

  15. Isoelectric focusing of human hair keratins: correlation with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns and effect of cosmetic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Calvo, M S; Carracedo, A; Muñoz, I; Concheiro, L

    1992-03-01

    A new isoelectric focusing (IEF) technique in polyacrylamide gels with 6M urea and 1.5% Nonidet P40 has been developed to characterize human hair samples. The phenotypes demonstrated with this procedure has been correlated with the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns described by other authors. The method described can be applied in the forensic science analysis of a single human hair. Using the same IEF technique we have studied the changes in electrophoretic patterns of cosmetically treated hair. The characteristics of the modifications observed and its utility in forensic science work are also discussed in this paper.

  16. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  17. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  18. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  19. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  20. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  1. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Extramural Activities, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  2. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  3. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  4. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  5. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 44). Markers such as the P3 can help identify people who may be at greatest risk for developing problems with alcohol. END OF SIDEBAR ... Meta–analysis of P300 amplitude from males at risk for alcoholism. Psychological Bulletin 115:55–73, ... appeared in the journal Alcohol Research & Health, “Alcoholic Brain Damage” (Vol. 27, ...

  6. Alcoholism: genes and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroszi, Gabor; Goldman, David

    2004-12-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing/remitting disease that is frequently unrecognized and untreated, in part because of the partial efficacy of treatment. Only approximately one-third of patients remain abstinent and one-third have fully relapsed 1 year after withdrawal from alcohol, with treated patients doing substantially better than untreated [1]. The partial effectiveness of strategies for prevention and treatment, and variation in clinical course and side effects, represent a challenge and an opportunity to better understand the neurobiology of addiction. The strong heritability of alcoholism suggests the existence of inherited functional variants of genes that alter the metabolism of alcohol and variants of other genes that alter the neurobiologies of reward, executive cognitive function, anxiety/dysphoria, and neuronal plasticity. Each of these neurobiologies has been identified as a critical domain in the addictions. Functional alleles that alter alcoholism-related intermediate phenotypes include common alcohol dehydrogenase 1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 variants that cause the aversive flushing reaction; catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met leading to differences in three aspects of neurobiology: executive cognitive function, stress/anxiety response, and opioid function; opioid receptor micro1 (OPRM1) Asn40Asp, which may serve as a gatekeeper molecule in the action of naltrexone, a drug used in alcoholism treatment; and HTTLPR, which alters serotonin transporter function and appears to affect stress response and anxiety/dysphoria, which are factors relevant to initial vulnerability, the process of addiction, and relapse.

  7. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  8. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  9. Use of capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecyl sulfate to monitor disulfide scrambled forms of an Fc fusion protein during purification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapuarachchi, Suminda; Fodor, Szilan; Apostol, Izydor; Huang, Gang

    2011-07-15

    Overexpression of recombinant Fc fusion proteins in Escherichia coli frequently results in the production of inclusion bodies that are subsequently used to produce fully functional protein by an in vitro refolding process. During the refolding step, misfolded proteins such as disulfide scrambled forms can be formed, and purification steps are used to remove these product-related impurities to produce highly purified therapeutic proteins. A variety of analytical methods are commonly used to monitor protein variants throughout the purification process. Capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based techniques are gaining popularity for such applications. In this work, we used a nonreduced capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecyl sulfate (nrCE-SDS) method for the analysis of disulfide scrambled forms in a fusion protein. Under denatured nonreduced conditions, an extra post-shoulder peak was observed at all purification steps. Detailed characterization revealed that the peak was related to the disulfide scrambled forms and was isobaric with the correctly folded product. In addition, when sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used during the CE-SDS peak characterization, we observed that the migration order of scrambled forms is reversed on CE-SDS versus SDS-PAGE. This illustrates the importance of establishing proper correlation of these two techniques when they are used interchangeably to guide the purification process and to characterize proteins.

  10. Adsorption of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate on a C18 column under micellar and high submicellar conditions in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Bolsico, C; Ruiz-Angel, M J; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    2015-02-01

    Micellar liquid chromatography makes use of aqueous solutions or aqueous-organic solutions containing a surfactant, at a concentration above its critical micelle concentration. In the mobile phase, the surfactant monomers aggregate to form micelles, whereas on the surface of the nonpolar alkyl-bonded stationary phases they are significantly adsorbed. If the mobile phase contains a high concentration of organic solvent, micelles break down, and the amount of surfactant adsorbed on the stationary phase is reduced, giving rise to another chromatographic mode named high submicellar liquid chromatography. The presence of a thinner coating of surfactant enhances the selectivity and peak shape, especially for basic compounds. However, the risk of full desorption of surfactant is the main limitation in the high submicellar mode. This study examines the adsorption of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate under micellar and high submicellar conditions on a C18 column, applying two methods. One of them uses a refractive index detector to obtain direct measurements of the adsorbed amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate, whereas the second method is based on the retention and peak shape for a set of cationic basic compounds that indirectly reveal the presence of adsorbed monomers of surfactant on the stationary phase.

  11. Interactions between sodium dodecyl sulphate and non-ionic cellulose derivatives studied by size exclusion chromatography with online multi-angle light scattering and refractometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittgren, Bengt; Stefansson, Morgan; Porsch, Bedrich

    2005-08-05

    The novel approach described allows to characterise the surfactant-polymer interaction under several sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) concentrations (0-20 mM) using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with online multi-angle light scattering (MALS) and refractometric (RI) detection. Three different cellulose derivatives, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), have been studied in solution containing 10 mM NaCl and various concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulphate. It is shown that this approach is well suited for successful application of both Hummel-Dreyer and multi-component light scattering principles and yields reliable molecular masses of both the polymer complex and the polymer itself within the complex, the amount of surfactant bound into the complex as well as appropriate values of the refractive index increment (dn/dc)micro, of both the complex and the polymer in question. The more hydrophobic derivatives HPC and HPMC adsorbed significantly more SDS than HEC. The inter-chain interactions close to critical aggregation concentration (cac) were clearly seen for HPC and HPMC as an almost two-fold average increase in polymer molecular mass contained in the complex.

  12. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  13. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a combination of a person's: Genes Environment Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ... Examine you Ask about your medical and family history Ask about your alcohol use, and if you ...

  14. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2009-01-01

      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc....... that influence a given situation are described as actants and are entered into the analysis. The aim of this paper is to propose a way of including materiality in sociological analyses of alcohol and to explore ways of using focus group interview material in ANT-inspired analysis. By analyzing a girl...

  15. an Unrecorded Alcohol Beverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    alcohol consumption, including malnutrition, selfneglect, poor hygiene, pale skin, weight .... Table 2 Analytical performance parameters of the GC-FID for the stan- dards (n = 3). .... Kluwer Academic Plenum Publishers,. New York, 1999, pp.

  16. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    -cause mortality and mortality due to hepatorenal syndrome, and conversely, an increase in serious and non-serious adverse events. However, the evidence is not firm; no conclusions can be drawn regarding whether pentoxifylline has a positive, negative, or neutral effect on participants with alcoholic hepatitis....... analysis did not support this result. Data from one trial suggests that pentoxifylline may increase the occurrence of serious and non-serious adverse events compared to control. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The current available data may indicate a possible positive intervention effect of pentoxifylline on all......BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects...

  17. Antidepressants and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medication-FAQ/Can-I-drink-alcohol-while-taking-antidepressants. Accessed May 2, 2017. Back SE, et al. Treatment of co-occurring substance use disorder and anxiety-related disorders in adults. https://www.uptodate.com/ ...

  18. Alcohol en snelverkeer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, P.H.

    1968-01-01

    Dr Esser voert diverse redenen aan om zo snel mogelijk te starten met ademanalyse op tijden en plaatsen dat bestuurders, die alcohol gebruikt hebben, verwacht kunnen worden. Hij wijst op de preventieve waarde hiervan. Zie ook A 1469.

  19. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.

  20. Alcohol and liver, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia; A; Osna

    2010-01-01

    Liver is known as an organ that is primarily affected by alcohol. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the cause of an increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Progression of ALD is driven by "second hits". These second hits include the complex of nutritional, pharmacological, genetic and viral factors, which aggravate liver pathology. However, in addition to liver failure, ethanol causes damage to other organs and systems. These extrahepatic manifestations are regulated via the similar hepatitis mechanisms...

  1. Alcohol: Pleasures and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; Lawson, Jane

    This student booklet is to be used in conjunction with the Teacher Manual and films of the DIAL A-L-C-O-H-O-L series. It presents facts and illustrations on the use of alcohol, and is intended to aid young people in deciding whether or not to drink. This booklet is divided into the following parts: (1) Introduction; (2) The Enjoyment of Drinking;…

  2. Consumo de alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Gustavo del Sol Padrón; Orestes Álvarez Fernández; Juan De Dios Rivero Berovides

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo se emite una definición clasificatoria de los individuos que consumen alcohol, según supuestos establecidos por Manconi. Se estratifican las personas atendiendo a los diferentes riesgos para este consumo. Se describen las afectaciones a la salud que produce el consumo de alcohol, y además se plantean las medidas estratégicas para propiciar una conducta efectiva antialcohólica. Por último, se presenta un flujograma para la inter...

  3. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify alcohol-attributable and -preventable mortality, totally and stratified on alcohol consumption in Denmark 2010, and to estimate alcohol-related mortality assuming different scenarios of changes in alcohol distribution in the population. We estimated alcohol......-attributable and -preventable fractions based on relative risks of conditions causally associated with alcohol from meta-analyses and information on alcohol consumption in Denmark obtained from 14,458 participants in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 and corrected for adult per capita consumption. Cause-specific mortality...... data were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. In total, 1,373 deaths among women (5.0 % of all deaths) and 2,522 deaths among men (9.5 % of all deaths) were attributable to alcohol, while an estimated number of 765 (2.8 %) and 583 (2.2 %) deaths were prevented by alcohol...

  4. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette Skalshøi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64 years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993......-2011). Baseline information on alcohol intake, drinking pattern, and confounders was obtained from a questionnaire. Follow-up information came from national registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for alcoholic cirrhosis in relation to drinking frequency, lifetime alcohol amount, and beverage type. RESULTS......: We observed 257 and 85 incident cases of alcoholic cirrhosis among men and women, respectively, none among lifetime abstainers. In men, HR for alcoholic cirrhosis among daily drinkers was 3.65 (95% CI: 2.39; 5.55) compared to drinking 2-4 days/week. Alcohol amount in recent age periods (40-49 and 50...

  5. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.

  6. Comparing Alcohol Marketing and Alcohol Warning Message Policies Across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettlaufer, Ashley; Cukier, Samantha N; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2017-08-24

    In order to reduce harms from alcohol, evidence-based policies are to be introduced and sustained. To facilitate the dissemination of policies that reduce alcohol-related harms by documenting, comparing, and sharing information on effective alcohol polices related to restrictions on alcohol marketing and alcohol warning messaging in 10 Canadian provinces. Team members developed measurable indicators to assess policies on (a) restrictions on alcohol marketing, and (b) alcohol warning messaging. Indicators were peer-reviewed by three alcohol policy experts, refined, and data were collected, submitted for validation by provincial experts, and scored independently by two team members. The national average score was 52% for restrictions on marketing policies and 18% for alcohol warning message policies. Most provinces had marketing regulations that went beyond the federal guidelines with penalties for violating marketing regulations. The provincial liquor boards' web pages focused on product promotion, and there were few restrictions on sponsorship activities. No province has implemented alcohol warning labels, and Ontario was the sole province to have legislated warning signs at all points-of-sale. Most provinces provided a variety of warning signs to be displayed voluntarily at points-of-sale; however, the quality of messages varied. Conclusions/Importance: There is extensive alcohol marketing with comparatively few messages focused on the potential harms associated with alcohol. It is recommended that governments collaborate with multiple stakeholders to maximize the preventive impact of restrictions on alcohol marketing and advertising, and a broader implementation of alcohol warning messages.

  7. Study on Emulsifying Properties of Fatty Alcohol Ethoxylates/Sulfonate Complex System%脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚/磺酸盐复配体系乳化性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾伟男; 牛瑞霞; 孙志刚; 孙政钊

    2012-01-01

    At present, surfactants using in the flooding are always have many shortcomings when they use alone. But the system between the two compounds shows better characteristics than the single surfactant, and able to adapt to the different oil-water conditions. So it has a great promise in the oil extraction process. This article use non-ionic surfactants named MOA-4 which mix with alkyl benzene sulfonate, and determine the analysis of water rates of the compound surfactant alkaline system. The results shows when the concentration of NaOH is 0.8%,the surfactant concentration is 0.2%,benzene sulfonate MOA-4 compound system has the lowest interfacial tension and the emulsion stability is lower than Alkyl benzene sulfonate, the highest analysis of water rates is 22%.%目前驱油中经常用到的表面活性剂在单独使用总会存在各种缺点,而两种表面活性剂之间的复配体系却显示出优于单种表面活性剂的特性,能够适应不同的油水条件,在采油过程中拥有巨大的前景.本文采用烷基苯磺酸盐与脂肪醇非离子表面活性剂MOA-4复配的形式,对复配后表面活性剂碱水体系的界面张力及乳状液析水率进行测定.结果表明,MOA-4/磺酸盐表面活性剂碱浓度为0.8%,表面活性剂浓度为0.2%情况下界面张力最低,烷基苯磺酸盐与MOA-4的复配体系乳状液稳定性较磺酸盐单剂而言更低,放置24h时析水率最高为22%.

  8. Study on adsorption kinetics of octylphenol ethoxylates onto silk fiber%蚕丝纤维吸附辛基酚聚氧乙烯醚的动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 董锁拽; 翁伟明; 周文龙

    2011-01-01

    为实现蚕丝产品中烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚( APEO)的高效监控检测,研究蚕丝纤维对辛基酚聚氧乙烯醚(OPEO)的吸附特性.结果表明,OPEO在蚕丝纤维上的吸附符合Langmuir模型,吸附动力学符合拟二级动力学模型,并且初始浓度越大,平衡速率常数越小,到达平衡的时间越长.OPEO溶液的温度越高,平衡速率常数越大.毛孔内扩散是控制OPEO在蚕丝纤维上吸附的一个因素,但不是唯一的因素.OPEO在蚕丝纤维上的吸附活化能为25.69 kJ/mol,活化能远小于化学吸附所需的83.72 kJ/mol,说明OPEO在蚕丝纤维上的吸附是以物理吸附为主.%Silk fiber's adsorption of octylphenol ethoxylates (OPEO) was studied in order to realize high efficiency monitoring and detection of alkylphenol ethoxylates ( APnEO) in silk products. The results showed that silk fiber's adsorption of OPEO fitted Langmuir model, and the adsorption process could be well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. And higher the initial OPEO concentration, smaller the balancing rate constant was, and longer the balancing time was; higher the temperature of OPEO solution, greater the balancing rate constant was. The diffusion into the microspore is a main factor for controlling the silk fiber adsorption of OPEO, but it is not the only factor. The adsorption activation energy is 25.69 Kj/mol in silk fiber of OPEO, which is far lower than that required by chemical adsorption, that is, 83.72 kj/mol. It indicates that physical adsorption dominates the silk fiber absorption of OPEA.

  9. Verbal reasoning deficits in alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohman, J R; Parsons, O A

    1987-04-01

    The Conceptual Level Analogies Test (CLAT), a well-constructed test of analogical reasoning, was given to groups of middle-aged male alcoholics and control subjects in two separate studies. As predicted, the alcoholics had lower CLAT scores than nonalcoholics in both studies. These results support the generalized-diffuse model of the neuropsychological effects of alcoholism. Contrary to prediction, alcoholics differed from control subjects as much on the easy analogies as they did on the hard analogies, which suggested that alcoholics differ both qualitatively and quantitatively from nonalcoholics in cognitive impairment. Finally, in two of three studies in our laboratory, familial alcoholics had significantly lower CLAT scores than nonfamilial alcoholics. These findings emphasize the importance of considering familial history of alcoholism when studying the neuropsychological functioning of alcoholics.

  10. Determination of Alkylphenol Ethoxylates in Textiles by GelFiltration Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry%凝胶过滤色谱-串联质谱法测定纺织品中的烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马强; 王超; 白桦; 刘茜; 王烨; 席海为

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical method based on gel filtration chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of alkylphenol ethoxylates in textiles. The textile samples were extracted with ethanol by accelerated solvent extraction method. The extract was cleaned by a Sep-Pak Carbon/NH2 solid phase extraction cartridge. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out for alkylphenol ethoxylates under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode after the chromatographic separation on Shodex MSpak GF-310 2D column (150×2. 0 mm). The limits of quantitation (LOQs) for nonylphenol ethoxylates and octylphenol ethoxylates were 0. 2 mg/kg. At the spiked levels of 0. 2~5 mg/kg,the mean recoveries for nonylphenol ethoxylates were 84. 2%~93. 5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 3. 9%~7. 5%,and the mean recoveries for octylphenol ethoxylates were 85. 5%~96. 1% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 3. 4%~8. 1%. The method is suitable for the determination of alkylphenol ethoxylates in textiles.%建立了纺织品中烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚的凝胶过滤色谱-串联质谱(GFC-MS/MS)分析方法.纺织品样品采用加速溶剂萃取法,以无水乙醇为提取溶剂进行提取,提取液经Sep-Pak Carbon/NH2石墨化碳黑/氨基复合型固相萃取柱净化.烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚经Shodex MSpak GF-310 2D色谱柱(150×2.0 mm)分离后,在多反应监测(MRM)模式下进行串联质谱定性及定量分析.方法对壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚(NPnEO)和辛基酚聚氧乙烯醚(OPnEO)的定量眼均为0.2mg/kg,在0.2~5 mg/kg的3个添加水平范围内,NPnEO的平均回收率为84.2%~93.5%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为3.9%~7.5%;OPnEO的平均回收率为85.5%~96.1%,RSD为3.4%~8.1%.该方法能够满足纺织品中烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚的检测要求.

  11. Oropharynx microbiota among alcoholics and non-alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Golin

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The oropharynx microbiota plays an important role in the origin of infections, especially among alcoholics whose airway defenses are impaired. OBJECTIVE: To compare the normal oropharingeal flora in heavy alcohol drinker and non-alcoholics. PATIENTS: 117 persons, 58 heavy alcohol drinkers and 59 non-alcoholics. SETTING: Santa Casa de São Paulo Emergency Service. DESIGN: A blind prospective study. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Prevalence of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and fungi. RESULTS: The study of the oropharynx microbiota among heavy alcohol drinkers demonstrated the presence of anaerobic microorganisms in 84.5% of them, including: Bacteroides sp, Prevotella melaninogenica, Fusobacterium sp, Veilonella sp, Peptostreptococcus sp, Propionibacterium sp, Bifidobacterium sp and Clostridium sp, versus 30.5% (p<0.005 of non-alcoholics. Candida sp was present in 34.5% of heavy alcohol drinkers and 5.1% of non-alcoholics (p<0.005. Enterobacteria predominated among heavy alcohol drinkers (25% compared with non-alcoholics (5.5% only in the age group 14 to 34 years (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Based upon these results, it was possible to conclude that the knowledge of the oropharynx microbiota among heavy drinkers and non-alcoholics has an important predictive value concerning probable etiologic agents of lower airway infections. Infections caused by anaerobic microorganisms and fungi should be taken into consideration during the choice of empirical therapy for heavy alcohol drinkers.

  12. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  13. Anticonvulsants for alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Silvia; Amato, Laura; Vecchi, Simona; Davoli, Marina

    2010-03-17

    Alcohol abuse and dependence represents a most serious health problem worldwide with major social, interpersonal and legal interpolations. Besides benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants are often used for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Anticonvulsants drugs are indicated for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, alone or in combination with benzodiazepine treatments. In spite of the wide use, the exact role of the anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal has not yet bee adequately assessed. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of anticonvulsants in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. We searched Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group' Register of Trials (December 2009), PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL (1966 to December 2009), EconLIT (1969 to December 2009). Parallel searches on web sites of health technology assessment and related agencies, and their databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness, safety and overall risk-benefit of anticonvulsants in comparison with a placebo or other pharmacological treatment. All patients were included regardless of age, gender, nationality, and outpatient or inpatient therapy. Two authors independently screened and extracted data from studies. Fifty-six studies, with a total of 4076 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Comparing anticonvulsants with placebo, no statistically significant differences for the six outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsant versus other drug, 19 outcomes considered, results favour anticonvulsants only in the comparison carbamazepine versus benzodiazepine (oxazepam and lorazepam) for alcohol withdrawal symptoms (CIWA-Ar score): 3 studies, 262 participants, MD -1.04 (-1.89 to -0.20), none of the other comparisons reached statistical significance.Comparing different anticonvulsants no statistically significant differences in the two outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsants plus other drugs versus other drugs (3 outcomes considered), results

  14. Stress, epigenetics, and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonat, Sachin; Pandey, Subhash C

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic stressors have been associated with alterations in mood and increased anxiety that may eventually result in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Stress and associated disorders, including anxiety, are key factors in the development of alcoholism because alcohol consumption can temporarily reduce the drinker's dysphoria. One molecule that may help mediate the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that regulates the structure and function of the sites where two nerve cells interact and exchange nerve signals (i.e., synapses) and which is involved in numerous physiological processes. Aberrant regulation of BDNF signaling and alterations in synapse activity (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. Mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of genetic information without modification of the DNA sequence (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms) may play a role in the complex control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity-for example, by modifying the structure of the DNA-protein complexes (i.e., chromatin) that make up the chromosomes and thereby modulating the expression of certain genes. Studies regarding the epigenetic control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity provide a promising direction to understand the mechanisms mediating the interaction between stress and alcoholism.

  15. Genetics of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence strongly indicate that genetic factors contribute to the risk for alcohol use disorders (AUD). There is substantial heterogeneity in AUD, which complicates studies seeking to identify specific genetic factors. To identify these genetic effects, several different alcohol-related phenotypes have been analyzed, including diagnosis and quantitative measures related to AUDs. Study designs have used candidate gene analyses, genetic linkage studies, genomewide association studies (GWAS), and analyses of rare variants. Two genes that encode enzymes of alcohol metabolism have the strongest effect on AUD: aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B each has strongly protective variants that reduce risk, with odds ratios approximately 0.2-0.4. A number of other genes important in AUD have been identified and replicated, including GABRA2 and alcohol dehydrogenases 1B and 4. GWAS have identified additional candidates. Rare variants are likely also to play a role; studies of these are just beginning. A multifaceted approach to gene identification, targeting both rare and common variations and assembling much larger datasets for meta-analyses, is critical for identifying the key genes and pathways important in AUD.

  16. Diabetes mellitus and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wiel, Albert

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol influences glucose metabolism in several ways in diabetic patients as well as in non-diabetic patients. Since alcohol inhibits both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, its acute intake without food may provoke hypoglycaemia, especially in cases of depleted glycogen stores and in combination with sulphonylurea. Consumed with a meal including carbohydrates, it is the preferred fuel, which may initially lead to somewhat higher blood glucose levels and hence an insulin response in type 2 diabetic patients. Depending on the nature of the carbohydrates in the meal, this may be followed by reactive hypoglycaemia. Moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerotic disorders. Diabetic patients benefit from this favourable effect as much as non-diabetic patients. Apart from effects on lipid metabolism, haemostatic balance and blood pressure, alcohol improves insulin sensitivity. This improvement of insulin sensitivity may also be responsible for the lower incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus reported to be associated with light-to-moderate drinking. In case of moderate and sensible use, risks of disturbances in glycaemic control, weight and blood pressure are limited. Excessive intake of alcohol, however, may not only cause loss of metabolic control, but also annihilate the favourable effects on the cardiovascular system.

  17. Invertebrate models of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Henrike; Mustard, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    For invertebrates to become useful models for understanding the genetic and physiological mechanisms of alcoholism related behaviors and the predisposition towards alcoholism, several general requirements must be fulfilled. The animal should encounter ethanol in its natural habitat, so that the central nervous system of the organism will have evolved mechanisms for responding to ethanol exposure. How the brain adapts to ethanol exposure depends on its access to ethanol, which can be regulated metabolically and/or by physical barriers. Therefore, a model organism should have metabolic enzymes for ethanol degradation similar to those found in humans. The neurons and supporting glial cells of the model organism that regulate behaviors affected by ethanol should share the molecular and physiological pathways found in humans, so that results can be compared. Finally, the use of invertebrate models should offer advantages over traditional model systems and should offer new insights into alcoholism-related behaviors. In this review we will summarize behavioral similarities and identified genes and mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behaviors in invertebrates. This review mainly focuses on the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the honey bee Apis mellifera and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as model systems. We will discuss insights gained from those studies in conjunction with their vertebrate model counterparts and the implications for future research into alcoholism and alcohol-induced behaviors.

  18. Method development for cortisol and cortisone by micellar liquid chromatography using sodium dodecyl sulphate: application to urine samples of rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Hornillos, R; Gonzalo-Lumbreras, R; Santos-Montes, A

    2005-01-01

    The chromatographic behavior of cortisol and cortisone using a micellar medium of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as surfactant, a Hypersil C18 (150- x 3.2-mm i.d., 5 microm) column, a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, and UV absorbance detection at 245 nm is described. The effect of several organic modifiers and the surfactant concentration on the separation is studied. A mobile phase of 18 mM SDS and 8.3% tetrahydrofuran allows for the separation of cortisol and cortisone up to baseline. These results are also achieved by applying a bivariant optimization method. The proposed method is sensitive, reproducible, and selective. In addition, it is less expensive than conventional high-performance liquid chromatography methods for cortisol and cortisone. The method is applied to the determination of cortisol and cortisone in urine samples of rugby players before and after stress for doping control purposes.

  19. Micellar copolymerization of associative polymers: study of the effect of acrylamide on sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiat, Guillaume; Grassl, Bruno; François, Jeanne

    2005-09-15

    Mixed micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate (PPOMA) have been studied in the presence of acrylamide using conductimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) under the following conditions: (i) the SDS-acrylamide binary system in water; (ii) the SDS-acrylamide-PPOMA ternary system in water. The addition of acrylamide in SDS solutions perturbs the micellization of the surfactant by decreasing the aggregation number of the micelles and increasing their ionization degree. The variations of the various micellar parameters versus the weight ratio R=PPOMA/SDS are different in the presence of acrylamide or in pure water. These differences are much more pronounced for the lower than for the higher PPOMA concentrations. There is competition between acrylamide and PPOMA and at higher PPOMA concentration, acrylamide tends to be released from SDS micelles and is completely replaced by PPOMA.

  20. Conductometric study of sodium dodecyl sulfate - nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85 mixed micelles in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirin Dejan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the determination of the critical micelle concentration (cmc of mixed micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate with one of five nonionic surfactants (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85 from conductance measurements. Based on the calculated values of the β parameters we have noticed that SDS-nonionic surfactants mostly showed strong synergistic effect. It was found that nonionic surfactants with mainly longer and more hydrophobic tail show stronger interactions with hydrophobic part of SDS, thus expressing stronger synergism. In SDS-Tween 80 binary system the strongest synergistic effect was noticed. SDS-Tween 85 micellar system showed antagonistic effect, most probably because the presence of the double bond in its three hydrophobic tails (three C18 tails makes it sterically rigid.

  1. Characterization of Sm14 related components in different helminths by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Thaumaturgo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Sm14 was the first fatty acid-binding protein homologue identified in helminths. Thereafter, members of the same family were identified in several helminth species, with high aminoacid sequence homology between them. In addition, immune crossprotection was also reported against Fasciola hepatica infection, in animals previously immunized with the Schistosoma mansoni vaccine candidate, r-Sm14. In the present study, data on preliminary sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis of nine different helminth extracts focusing the identification of Sm14 related proteins, is reported. Out of these, three extracts - Ascaris suum (males and females, Echinostoma paraensei, and Taenia saginata - presented components that comigrated with Sm14 in SDS-PAGE, and that were recognized by anti-rSm14 policlonal serum, in Western blotting tests.

  2. Interaction between sodium dodecyl sulfate and membrane reconstituted aquaporins: A comparative study of spinach SoPIP2;1 and E. coli AqpZ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Vararattanavech, Ardcharaporn; Plasencia, Inés;

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the interaction between sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and membrane proteins reconstituted into large unilamellar lipid vesicles and detergent micelles studied by circular dichroism (CD) and polarity sensitive probe labeling. Specifically, we carried out a comparative study...... of two aquaporins with high structural homology SoPIP2;1 and AqpZ using identical reconstitution conditions. Our CD results indicate that SDS, when added to membrane-reconstituted aquaporins in concentrations below the SDS critical micelle concentration (CMC, ~8mM), causes helical rearrangements of both...... reconstituted SoPIP2;1 as well as AqpZ is associated with initial increased hydrophobic interactions in protein transmembrane (TM) spanning regions up to a concentration of 0.1× CMC. At higher SDS concentrations TM hydrophobic interactions, as reported by Badan, decrease and reach a plateau from SDS CMC up...

  3. Electrochemical deposition of Ni–TiN nanocomposite coatings and the effect of sodium dodecyl sulphate surfactant on the coating properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NAFISE PARHIZKAR; ABOLGHASEM DOLATI; ROYA AGHABABAZADEH; ZAHRA LALEGANI

    2016-08-01

    Ni–TiN nanocomposite coatings were prepared by using electrochemical deposition in a Watt’s bath containing TiN particles to increase the hardness of Ni. The effects of deposition current density, electrolyte agitation speed and the number of particles in the solution on the amount of incorporated particles in the coating process were investigated. The optimum deposition current density of 4 A dm$^{−2}$ and agitation speed of 450 rpm were obtained. The effect of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) anionic surfactant on the amount of particles in the coatings was investigated. It was observed that the maximum amount of incorporated particles, with a value of 7.5% by volume, was created in the current density of 4 A dm$^{−2}$, stirring rate of 450 rpm, 30 g l$^{−1}$ TiN particles and in the presence of 0.6 g l$^{−1}$ SDS anionic surfactant.

  4. Spectroscopy and computational studies on the interaction of octyl, dodecyl, and hexadecyl derivatives of anionic and cationic surfactants with adenosine deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajloo, Davood; Mahmoodabadi, Najmeh; Ghadamgahi, Maryam; Saboury, Ali Akbar

    2016-07-01

    Effects of sodium (octyl, dodecyl, hexadecyl) sulfate and their cationic analogous on the structure of adenosine deaminase (ADA) were investigated by fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy as well as molecular dynamics simulation and docking calculation. Root-mean-square derivations, radius of gyration, solvent accessible surface area, and radial distribution function were obtained. The results showed that anionic and cationic surfactants reduce protein stability. Cationic surfactants have more effect on the ADA structure in comparison with anionic surfactants. More concentration and longer surfactants are parallel to higher denaturation. Furthermore, aggregation in the presence of anionic surfactants is more than cationic surfactants. Docking data showed that longer surfactants have more interaction energy and smaller ones bound to the active site.

  5. Contribution of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium lauric acid in the one-pot synthesis of intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fengzhu Lv; Zilin Meng; Penggang Li; Yihe Zhang; Guocheng Lv; Qian Zhang; Zhilei Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Anion surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and sodium lauric acid (SLA), with almost the same chain length but different anion groups were used together as intercalates to prepare intercalated ZnAl–layered double hydroxides (ZnAl–LDHs). Their composition, structure and morphology were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated SDS intended to maintain the lamellae structure of LDHs, but SLA was more likely to expand the basal spacings of LDHs in the present system. The arrangement of the surfactants in the interlayer of ZnAl–LDHs was also simulated by Materials Studio. The basal spacings of the LDHs calculated based on simulated structure consisted with that from XRD.

  6. Synthesis of a new electrolyte by co-poly-esters doped with sodium dodecyl sulfate for application on PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, J.R.A.; Boaventura, F.J.S.; Jose, N.M.; Bresciani, D. [Univ. Federal da Bahia, Salvador (Brazil). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) use polymer membranes as electrolytes and protons as conductors. This paper reported on a study in which co-polyesters were doped with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The co-polymers were synthesized by a copolymerization process that used terephthalic and adipic acids with glycerol. A reactor was used to process the material, which was then hot-pressed to produce homogenous and flexible plates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric, direct scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analyses were conducted. Results of the analyses demonstrated that the composite material was stable up to a temperature of 250 degrees C. A micrographics study showed that MDS was homogeneously dispersed in the polymeric matrix. It was concluded that with an electrical conductivity between 10-7 to 10-1 S per cm, the copolymers were suitable for use in PEMFC applications.

  7. Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate on immuno-electrosyneresis between normal human erythrocyte membrane and sera of systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arimori,Shigeru

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available An anti-membrane antibody was present in the sera of systemic lupus erythematosus patients in immunoelectrosyneresis with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS solubilized erythrocyte membrane as antigen. The SDS bound to protein was detected by chromatography at 10(-3M concentration under U.V. light, at 10(-5M concentration by the distilled water spray method and at 10(-6M concentration by using rosaniline hydrochloride colorimetry. SDS was removed from the membrane protein at a concentration of 10(-3M by the first gel filtration of Sephadex G-25 column and at a concentration of 10(-6M by rechromatography of the same column. More than 99% of SDS in the solubilized erythrocyte membrane was removed by gel filtration. The antigenicity was still positive in the refiltrated fractions of systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Therefore, all precipitates in the gels were antigen-antibody aggregates.

  8. Fast Removal of Citalopram Drug from Waste Water Using Magnetic Nanoparticles Modified with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Followed by UV-Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khoeini Sharifabadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive, solid-phase extraction method for the removal of Citalopram drug from waste water has been developed by using magnetic nanoparticles modified with surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate. These magnetic nanoparticles have shown great adsorptive tendency towards Citalopram drug. The effect of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of this drug were investigated and optimized including the pH, amount of the surfactant, contact time and temperature. The extracts were analyzed by ultraviolet spectrophotometry at 239nm. Under these conditions, the related standard deviation (RSD % of the method at two concentrations (5 and 50µg.mL-1 was in the range of (3.14–3.75 % (n = 8. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 2-100 µg.mL-1 of Citalopram drug with a correlation coefficient of >0.99.

  9. Fast Removal of Citalopram Drug from Waste Water Using Magnetic Nanoparticles Modified with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Followed by UV-Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khoeini Sharifabadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive, solid-phase extraction method for the removal of Citalopram drug from waste water has been developed by using magnetic nanoparticles modified with surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate. These magnetic nanoparticles have shown great adsorptive tendency towards Citalopram drug. The effect of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of this drug were investigated and optimized including the pH, amount of the surfactant, contact time and temperature. The extracts were analyzed by ultraviolet spectrophotometry at 239nm. Under these conditions, the related standard deviation (RSD % of the method at two concentrations (5 and 50µg.mL-1 was in the range of (3.14–3.75 % (n = 8. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 2-100 µg.mL-1 of Citalopram drug with a correlation coefficient of >0.99.

  10. The Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS and Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB on the Properties of ZnO Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Hin Taufiq-Yap

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method using different molar ratios of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB and Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS as structure directing agents. The effect of surfactants on the morphology of the ZnO crystals was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM techniques. The results indicate that the mixture of cationic-anionic surfactants can significantly modify the shape and size of ZnO particles. Various structures such as flakes, sheets, rods, spheres, flowers and triangular-like particles sized from micro to nano were obtained. In order to examine the possible changes in other properties of ZnO, characterizations like powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG, FTIR, surface area and porosity and UV-visible spectroscopy analysis were also studied and discussed.

  11. Characterization and quantification of N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-dodecyl-1,3-propanediamine biocide by NMR, HPLC/MS and titration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondin, Andrea; Bogialli, Sara; Venzo, Alfonso; Favaro, Gabriella; Badocco, Denis; Pastore, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The present paper reports the determination of the tri-amine N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-dodecyl-1,3-propanediamine (TA) present in a raw material called LONZABAC used to formulate various, widely used commercial biocides. The active principle, TA, is present in LONZABAC together with other molecules at lower concentration levels. Three independent analytical approaches, namely solution NMR spectroscopy, liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC/HRMS) and acid-base titration in mixed solvent, were used to overcome the problem of the non-availability of the active principle as high purity standard. NMR analysis of raw material, using a suitable internal standard, evidenced in all analyzed lots the presence of the active principle, the N-dodecyl-1,3-propanediamine (DA) and the n-dodecylamine (MA) and the absence of non-organic, NMR-inactive species. NMR peak integration led to a rough composition of the MA:DA:TA as 1:9:90. The LC/HRMS analysis allowed the accurate determination of DA and MA and confirmed in all samples the presence of the TA, which was estimated by difference: MA=1.4±0.3%, DA=11.1±0.7%, TA=87.5±1.3%. The obtained results were used to setup an easy, rapid and cheap acid-base titration method able to furnish a sufficiently accurate evaluation of the active principle both in the raw material and in diluted commercial products. For the raw material the results were: TA+MA=91.1±0.8% and DA-MA=8.9±0.8%, statistically coherent with LC/MS ones. The LC/MS approach demonstrated also its great potentialities to recognize trace of the biocide components both in environmental samples and in the formulated commercial products.

  12. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855. Contact Person:...

  13. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  14. Alcoholic liver disease and pancreatitis: global health problems being addressed by the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Kenneth R; Murray, Margaret M

    2013-08-01

    The review article summarizes the mission of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) with focus on the NIAAA's current and future research version for alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic pancreatitis.

  15. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2009-01-01

      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc......'s development from being a non-drinker at the age of 14, to a heavy drinker at 16, the paper investigates how the actants brought out by young people themselves constitute different forms of agency. The analysis is based on a qualitative study consisting of 37 focus groups conducted with teenagers in Denmark...

  16. The Risks Associated With Alcohol Use and Alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol consumption, particularly heavier drinking, is an important risk factor for many health problems and, thus, is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. In fact, alcohol is a necessary underlying cause for more than 30 conditions and a contributing factor to many more. The most common disease categories that are entirely or partly caused by alcohol consumption include infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes, neuropsychiatric diseases (including alcohol use disorders), cardiov...

  17. Receptivity to alcohol marketing predicts initiation of alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Data were obtained from in-class surveys of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n = 1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity), and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents' receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors' marketing tactics.

  18. Neuropathology of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C G; Kril, J J

    1990-01-01

    There are wide ranging effects of alcohol on the nervous system. Some interfere with physiological and neurochemical functions but ultimately structural damage occurs. During life one of the most impressive changes is brain shrinkage which can be visualized using neuroradiological imaging techniques. This article reviews the pathological explanations for brain shrinkage and addresses the question of the pathogenesis of the reversible component of this damage in relation to prolonged abstinence from alcohol. This shrinkage seems to relate to a loss of white matter. However, the cortex is also abnormal in that there is a loss of neurones from the frontal region. In this and other regions of the cortex examined there is shrinkage of the neuronal soma. This is reflected in a retraction of the neuronal dendritic arbor which plays a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication. In addition, the cerebellum appears to be vulnerable in alcoholic patients although it may well be that associated nutritional deficiencies play an important role. The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is another important deficiency disorder which is seen most frequently in alcoholic patients. Two important population groups which are considered in this review are females and moderate ('social') drinkers. Females are thought to be more susceptible to the damaging effects of alcohol than males and this is examined in the light of the scant data available. Similarly, there are few neuropathological data on people who drink 30-80 grams of alcohol per day. In order to assess so-called 'safe levels of drinking' this is an important group to study.

  19. Photodegradation Behavior and Estrogenic Effect of Alkylphenol Ethoxylates in UV/H2O2Treatment Processes%烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚的光降解行为和雌激素效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光明; 魏芳; 余华锋

    2011-01-01

    A representative alkylphenol ethoxylates Triton X-100 (TX) was photodegradated in water by UV/H2O2 treatment processes. The photodegradation kinetics of TX and multiple influencing factors were investigated. With nitrobenzene as molecular probe in competitive kinetic experiment, the steady-state concentration of ·OH was measured. The estrogenic effect of TX through the photodegradation process was determined by recombinant gene yeast. The result shows estrogenic effect has no significant change through photodegradation process.%利用UV/H2O2工艺对典型的烷基酚聚氧乙烯醚类物质Triton X-100(TX)进行降解,考察了不同反应条件对降解效果的影响,并且使用分子探针法测定了光解体系中羟基自由基的稳态浓度.以人类雌激素受体重组基因酵母测定其光降解过程中的雌激素效应变化,结果表明雌激素效应并未随着光解过程有较大的变化.

  20. A comparison of blood alcohol concentration using non-alcohol- and alcohol-containing skin antiseptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfinger, T M; Schaber, D

    1982-12-01

    We simultaneously obtained blood samples in emergency patients for ethanol content from both antecubital fossae using an alcohol prep pad on one arm and a non-alcohol-containing germicidal solution on the other. Fifty patients with ethanol concentrations greater than zero were statistically analyzed. Twenty patients surveyed had no measurable alcohol level by either technique. There was no significant difference in the blood alcohol concentration obtained by either method of skin preparation in both groups (P less than .01). Blood alcohol concentration incidentally obtained in the emergency department by routine isopropyl alcohol skin preparation is an accurate laboratory parameter.

  1. Chicano Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in the Barrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso, Ricardo

    Conducted in January 1977, the community survey examined alcohol abuse and alcoholism among Chicanos in the barrios. Data were obtained from 160 respondents (119 females and 41 males) from 3 geographic areas in San Antonio: the Special Impact Area of Casa Del Sol (an alcoholism program) and the cities of San Antonio and Alamo Heights. Information…

  2. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 polymorphism, and colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Wark, P.A.; Ocké, M.C.; Bunschoten, A.; Otten, M.H.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is a probable risk factor with regard to colorectal neoplasm and is metabolized to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the genetically polymorphic alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) enzyme. We evaluated whether the association between alcohol and colorectal adenomas is modified by ADH3 polymorphism.

  3. NEUROCOGNITIVE ASSESSMENT OF ALCOHOL INPATIENTSDURING RECOVERY FROM ALCOHOLISM*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilijana Šprah

    2008-05-01

    Our study demonstrated that some alcohol-related cognitive, emotional and motivationaldeficits can also persist to certain extent after several weeks of sobriety. Especially alcoholabstainers with suicidal history revealed a specific neuropsychological profile in this regard. Employed neurocognitive assessment proved as useful approach for clinical evaluation of alcohol abstainers functioning, since cognitive deficits have been also hypothesizedto affect the efficacy of alcoholism treatment

  4. Values and Recovery from Alcoholism through Alcoholics Anonymous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Howard P. Jr.; Peterson, John H. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzed Rokeach Value Surveys completed by 57 alcoholics and addicts who had obtained at least 3 years' abstinence using a 12-step program of recovery. Data suggested a shift in values is involved in recovery from alcoholism through participation in Alcoholics Anonymous and that values clarification and value therapy may be useful in chemical…

  5. Alcohols as gasoline additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawetz, P.

    1982-12-01

    This paper showed that, when using alcohol octane-boosting additives to gasoline, one attains several goals at the same time: (a) there is an increased saving in petroleum crude, since the alcohol is not merely a substitute for gasoline but rather a substitute for the octane-boosting additives used in the manufacture of unleaded gasoline; and (b) the production of fermentation ethanol for a fuel purpose can help revitalize the agricultural sector in different economics systems, thus becoming a road to economic development.

  6. Alcohol y campaniforme

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez-Cuesta, A. (Antonio)

    2005-01-01

    Los recientes hallazgos de cerveza en recipientes neolíticos y campaniformes ofrecen una nueva base empírica sobre la que replantear ciertas hipótesis. El panorama que dibuja la documentación actual impide que aceptemos sin crítica planteamientos que, como los de Andrew Sherratt, suponen el marco de referencia para la interpretación del alcohol en la Prehistoria Reciente europea. Se plantea una vía indígena occidental para la elaboración de alcoholes y se pone en duda el gran valo...

  7. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provide ideas that may help you make a change. Is treatment for alcohol use disorder effective? For most people, treatment for an AUD is helpful. But overcoming an alcohol use disorder is an ongoing process, ...

  8. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fede, Giuseppe; Germani, Giacomo; Gluud, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  9. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2005-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  10. Alcohol dependence--classificatory considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, O M; Ades, J; Badawy, A; Pelc, I; Sasz, H

    1993-01-01

    The term alcoholism or alcohol dependence has acquired a broad range of meanings. The Plinius Maior Society herewith presents new classificatory considerations and suggests additional recording of special dimensions according to the individual hypothesis and design of a study.

  11. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  12. Alcoholics Anonymous: cult or cure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, George E

    2005-06-01

    To discuss the mechanism of action, the efficacy and the safety of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in the treatment of alcoholism. The published works on effective treatments for alcoholism is briefly reviewed and a prospective multidisciplinary follow-up of recovery from alcoholism in two community cohorts of adolescent males followed from 1940 until the present day is reviewed. The suggested mechanism of action of AA is that it employs four factors widely shown to be effective in relapse prevention in addictions: external supervision, substitute dependency, new caring relationships and increased spirituality. In addition, AA serendipitously follows the principles of cognitive behaviour therapy in relapse prevention. Alcoholics Anonymous appears equal to or superior to conventional treatments for alcoholism, and the skepticism of some professionals regarding AA as a first rank treatment for alcoholism would appear to be unwarranted. Alcoholics Anonymous is probably without serious side-effects.

  13. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  14. Alcohol and American Indian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, George A.

    The growing problem of teenage drinking and alcoholism in the United States, especially among Indian segments of society, increases the necessity for adequate education concerning alcoholism. This document is prepared for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools to acquaint Indian students with social concepts of alcohol outside their cultural…

  15. Photobiomodulation on alcohol induced dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang

    2007-05-01

    Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.

  16. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  17. Counseling Young Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, Kathryn J.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…

  18. Alcohol and retinoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crabb, D.W.; Pinairs, J.; Hasanadka, R.

    2001-01-01

    , M. Fang, and David W. Crabb; (2) Alcohol, vitamin A, and beta-carotene: Adverse interactions, by M. A. Leo and Charles S. Lieber; (3) Retinoic acid, hepatic stellate cells, and Kupffer cells, by Hidekazu Tsukamoto, K. Motomura, T. Miyahara, and M. Ohata; (4) Retinoid storage and metabolism in liver...

  19. Adolescent alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Pernille; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Huckle, Taisia

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To analyse how adolescent drunkenness and frequency of drinking were associated with adult drinking patterns and alcohol control policies. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional survey data on 13- and 15-year-olds in 37 countries who participated in the Health Behaviour in School...

  20. Development of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reference method for the analysis and identification of fish species in raw and heat-processed samples : A collaborative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineiro, C.; Barros-Velazquez, J.; Perez-Martin, R.I.;

    1999-01-01

    A collaborative study was carried out in seven European labs with the aim of achieving a sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) standard operation procedure to identify fish species in raw and cooked samples. Urea and SDS-containing solutions were evaluated as extra...

  1. Development of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reference method for the analysis and identification of fish species in raw and heat-processed samples : A collaborative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineiro, C.; Barros-Velazquez, J.; Perez-Martin, R.I.

    1999-01-01

    A collaborative study was carried out in seven European labs with the aim of achieving a sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) standard operation procedure to identify fish species in raw and cooked samples. Urea and SDS-containing solutions were evaluated as extra...

  2. Consumption of Noncommercial Alcohol among Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. E. Razvodovsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores types of alcohol and surrogates consumed, patterns of consumption, and reasons behind noncommercial alcohol consumption among alcohol-dependent patients in Belarus. The study was conducted in the Belarusian city Grodno in 2012 with 223 alcoholics admitted to narcological clinic using structured interviews. The results suggest that at least 20.2% of alcohol dependent patients regularly consume samogon and 11.8% of patients use surrogates, the most popular among which are medications with a high percentage of ethanol and industrial spirits. The belief that, according to quality criteria, samogon exceeds licensed vodka is the main motive for its consumption. The results of this study suggest the existence of the problem of consumption of noncommercial alcohol among alcohol dependent patients in Belarus.

  3. The risks associated with alcohol use and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol consumption, particularly heavier drinking, is an important risk factor for many health problems and, thus, is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. In fact, alcohol is a necessary underlying cause for more than 30 conditions and a contributing factor to many more. The most common disease categories that are entirely or partly caused by alcohol consumption include infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes, neuropsychiatric diseases (including alcohol use disorders), cardiovascular disease, liver and pancreas disease, and unintentional and intentional injury. Knowledge of these disease risks has helped in the development of low-risk drinking guidelines. In addition to these disease risks that affect the drinker, alcohol consumption also can affect the health of others and cause social harm both to the drinker and to others, adding to the overall cost associated with alcohol consumption. These findings underscore the need to develop effective prevention efforts to reduce the pain and suffering, and the associated costs, resulting from excessive alcohol use.

  4. Hyperventilation, anxiety, craving for alcohol: a subacute alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, S M

    1985-01-01

    Hyperventilation leading to respiratory alkalosis is part of the acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome On the basis of clinical observations and a literature review on withdrawal symptoms the following was hypothesized: (a) hyperventilation is also part of a subacute alcohol withdrawal syndrome and (b) hyperventilation appears together with anxiety and craving for alcohol. These hypotheses were tested in a sample of 37 male alcoholic inpatients, abstinent for periods from several weeks to 9 months. Subjects were administered a questionnaire dealing with drinking history and craving for alcohol during abstinence, the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory and a hyperventilation complaint checklist. Subjects' disposition to hyperventilation was assessed during a physiological measurement session. Results show that hyperventilatory symptoms, anxiety and craving for alcohol appear together. Moreover, the severity of hyperventilatory and anxiety symptomatology is positively correlated with the duration of physically dependent alcohol use but not with the duration of excessive drinking per se, irrespective of age. These results corroborate the hypotheses outlined before.

  5. Genetic studies in alcohol research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, R.W. [National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1994-12-15

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) supports research to elucidate the specific genetic factors, now largely unknown, which underlie susceptibility to alcoholism and its medical complications (including fetal alcohol syndrome). Because of the genetic complexity and heterogeneity of alcoholism, identification of the multiple underlying factors will require the development of new study designs and methods of analysis of data from human families. While techniques of genetic analysis of animal behavioral traits (e.g., targeted gene disruption, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping) are more powerful that those applicable to humans (e.g., linkage and allelic association studies), the validation of animal behaviors as models of aspects of human alcoholism has been problematic. Newly developed methods for mapping QTL influencing animal behavioral traits can not only permit analyses of human family data to be directly informed by the results of animal studies, but can also serve as a novel means of validating animal models of aspects of alcoholism. 55 refs.

  6. Preoperative alcoholism and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative risk assessment has become part of daily clinical practice, but preoperative alcohol abuse has not received much attention. METHODS: A Medline search was carried out to identify original papers published from 1967 to 1998. Relevant articles on postoperative morbidity...... in alcohol abusers were used to evaluate the evidence. RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective studies demonstrate a twofold to threefold increase in postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, the most frequent complications being infections, bleeding and cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Wound complications...... to postoperative morbidity. CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption should be included in the preoperative assessment of likely postoperative outcome. Reduction of postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers may include preoperative alcohol abstinence to improve organ function, or perioperative alcohol administration...

  7. Alcohol and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Tang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The frequent co-abuse of alcohol and tobacco may suggest that they share some common neurological mechanisms. For example, nicotine acts on Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs in the brain to release dopamine to sustain addiction. Might nAChRs be entwined with alcohol? Objectives This review summarizes recent studies on the relationship between alcohol and nAChRs, including the role of nAChRs in molecular biological studies, genetic studies and pharmacological studies on alcohol, which indicate that nAChRs have been potently modulated by alcohol. Methods We performed a cross-referenced literature search on biological, genetic and pharmacological studies of alcohol and nAChRs. Results Molecular biological and genetic studies indicated that nAChR (genes may be important in mediating alcohol intake, but we still lack substantial evidence about how it works. Pharmacological studies proved the correlation between nAChRs and alcohol intake, and the association between nicotine and alcohol at the nAChRs. The positive findings of varenicline (a partial agonist at the _4_2 nAChR, smoking-cessation pharmaceutical treatment for alcoholism, provides a new insight for treating co-abuse of these two substances. >Conclusions Molecular biological, genetic and pharmacological studies of alcohol at the nAChR level, provide a new sight for preventing and treating the co-abuse of alcohol and nicotine. Given the important role of nAChRs in nicotine dependence, the interaction between alcohol and nAChRs would provide a new insight in finding effective pharmacological treatments, in decreasing or stopping alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking concurrently.

  8. Exposure to alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption among Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Magee, Christopher A

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking is a major problem in Australia and may be influenced by exposure to alcohol advertising. The objective of the present study was to collect data on 12-17 year old Australian adolescents' exposure to different types of alcohol advertising and examine the association between exposure to advertising and alcohol consumption. A cross-sectional survey of 1113 adolescents aged 12-17 years recruited with a variety of methods to gain a cross-section of participants across metropolitan, regional and rural New South Wales (including independent schools, mall intercepts and online). Participants answered a series of questions assessing adolescents' exposure to alcohol advertising across eight media (including television, Internet and point-of-sale). Alcohol consumption was assessed using three questions (initiation, recent consumption and frequency of consumption in the previous 12 months). The majority indicated that they had been exposed to alcohol advertisements on television, in newspapers and magazines, on the Internet, on billboards/posters and promotional materials and in bottleshops, bars and pubs; exposure to some of these types of alcohol advertisements was associated with increased alcohol consumption, with differences by age and gender. The results are consistent with studies from other countries and suggest that exposure to alcohol advertisements among Australian adolescents is strongly associated with drinking patterns. Given current high levels of drinking among Australian youth, these findings suggest the need to address the high levels of young people's exposure to alcohol advertising.

  9. 椰子油脂乙氧基化物在餐具洗涤剂中的应用%Application of coconut oil ethoxylates in tableware detergent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵文竹

    2011-01-01

    通过对椰子油脂乙氧基化物(COE)与阴离子表面活性剂直链烷基苯磺酸钠(LAS)及脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚硫酸钠(AES)等的复配实验,研究了复配体系的黏度、去污力和泡沫性能。实验结果表明,COE与AES、LAS有优异的协同效能,COE适合做餐具洗涤剂中的主表面活性剂。%It studied the performance of the coconut oil ethoxylates(COE) mixed with anionic surfactants such as linear alkyl benzene sulfonate(LAS) and fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether sodium sulfate(AES),through the measurement of viscosity,detergency and foam properties of the mixed system.The experimental results showed that: COE has excellent synergistic efficiency with both AES and LAS.COE was a suitable candidate for use as main surface active agent in tableware detergent.

  10. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  11. Alcoholism: Current Marker Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    mongolism are high-risk candidates for certain types of leukemia. Similarly, hemophiliacs have a correspondingly high incidence of color blindness . (4...genetically determined characteristics such as color blindness and blood type. GENETIC MARKER STUDIES In 1966 Dr. Cruz-Coke and Dr. Varela reported that...their study had linked color blindness , cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism. They further hypothesized the existence of a sex-linked carrier gene

  12. Physician's information about alcohol problems at hospitalisation of alcohol misusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1992-01-01

    Information was gathered on recognition and treatment of alcohol problems in the primary and secondary health sectors, the latter represented by a department of hepatology. The general practitioner finds in most cases (18/26, 69%) that it is relevant to advise about a patient's alcohol misuse...... on admission forms when the patient previously has been discharged from another department with this diagnosis. However, if the patient has not previously been hospitalised due to alcohol misuse, information on the diagnosis is only rarely (30/114, 26%) available. This difference is highly significant (P = 0.......0001). The case-recording hospital physician at admission recognises 73% of alcohol misusers who are admitted with a non-alcohol-related diagnosis. When the patient had been evaluated by both the admitting physician and the case-recording hospital physician, information on the alcohol problem occurred...

  13. Alcohol and the work place

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has observed an increase in the number of personnel suffering from alcohol-related problems in recent years, in spite of the implementation of stricter regulations concerning the consumption of alcohol on the site. The causes of alcohol-related problems are often complex and many-faceted. A family history of alcohol abuse can be a cofactor in excessive drinking. The effects on a person's work are not negligible and should not be ignored. "Alcohol and the work place" is the third part of a campaign designed to raise awareness of the risks of alcohol consumption, which has already dealt with "alcohol and health" and "alcohol and road safety".Many employers have taken steps to confront the problem, and CERN launched a campaign to help its employees suffering from alcohol-related problems over ten years ago. A standing SCC sub-group on the prevention of alcoholism has been set up and Operational Circular No. 8, which defines the role and responsibilities of all parties concerned in the m...

  14. Rheology of Lamellar Liquid Crystal Formed from Nonyl Phenol Ethoxylate(10) and Water%壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚(10)/水体系层状液晶的流变性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯尚华; 张翠娟; 李衍飞

    2012-01-01

    采用应力控制流变仪,研究了非离子表面活性剂壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚(10)(NP-10)/水体系层状液晶在不同温度和表面活性剂质量分数的流变性.在线性黏弹区内,其储能模量和损耗模量与频率的关系不符合Maxwell模型,并用滑移模型、范德华力、水化作用解释了非离子表面活性剂层状液晶表现此类流变性的原因;用Burgers模型解释了蠕变-回复实验的结论,其结果与线性的振荡实验一致.%The rheological behavior of a lamellar lyotropic liquid crystal formed from nonyl phenol ethoxylate (10) (NP-10)/water was investigated using a rheometer. The influence of composition and temperature on the dynamic function was studied at varied surfactant concentration and temperature. The frequency-dependent storage and loss modulus were found not to be consistent with the Maxwell model in the linear viscoelastic region. The results were analyzed on the basis of slip-plane theory. The compliance was also measured, and the instantaneous elasticity measured in the creep tests was in according with the oscillatory tests. Burgers model was used to describe the time-dependent compliance.

  15. Analysis of the solution structure of Thermosynechococcus elongatus photosystem I in n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside using small-angle neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Rosemary K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Harris, Bradley J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Iwuchukwu, Ifeyinwa J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Bruce, Barry D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Cheng, Xiaolin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qian, Shuo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Heller, William T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); O’Neill, Hugh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Frymier, Paul D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were used to investigate the structure of trimeric photosystem I (PSI) from Thermosynechococcus elongatus (T. elongatus) stabilized in n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside (DDM) detergent solution. Scattering curves of detergent and protein–detergent complexes were measured at 18% D2O, the contrast match point for the detergent, and 100% D2O, allowing observation of the structures of protein/detergent complexes. It was determined that the maximum dimension of the PSI–DDM complex was consistent with the presence of a monolayer belt of detergent around the periphery of PSI. A dummy-atom reconstruction of the shape of the complex from the SANS data indicates that the detergent envelope has an irregular shape around the hydrophobic periphery of the PSI trimer rather than a uniform, toroidal belt around the complex. A 50 ns MD simulation model (a DDM ring surrounding the PSI complex with extra interstitial DDM) of the PSI–DDM complex was developed for comparison with the SANS data. The results suggest that DDM undergoes additional structuring around the membrane-spanning surface of the complex instead of a simple, relatively uniform belt, as is generally assumed for studies that use detergents to solubilize membrane proteins.

  16. In-tube magnetic solid phase microextraction of some fluoroquinolones based on the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles packed tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manbohi, Ahmad; Ahmadi, Seyyed Hamid

    2015-07-23

    In-tube magnetic solid phase microextraction (in-tube MSPME) of fluoroquinolones from water and urine samples based on the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles packed tube has been reported. After the preparation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) by a batch synthesis, these NPs were introduced into a stainless steel tube by a syringe and then a strong magnet was placed around the tube, so that the Fe3O4 NPs were remained in the tube and the tube was used in the in-tube SPME-HPLC/UV for the analysis of fluoroquinolones in water and urine samples. Plackett-Burman design was employed for screening the variables significantly affecting the extraction efficiency. Then, the significant factors were more investigated by Box-Behnken design. Calibration curves were linear (R(2)>0.990) in the range of 0.1-1000μgL(-1) for ciprofloxacin (CIP) and 0.5-500μgL(-1) for enrofloxacin (ENR) and ofloxacin (OFL), respectively. LODs for all studied fluoroquinolones ranged from 0.01 to 0.05μgL(-1). The main advantages of this method were rapid and easy automation and analysis, short extraction time, high sensitivity, possibility of fully sorbent collection after analysis, wide linear range and no need to organic solvents in extraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Adsorption on the Behavior of Water inside Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Dissipative Particle Dynamics Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh D. Vo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD simulations were utilized to investigate the ability of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS to adsorb inside a single-walled, arm-chair carbon nanotube (SWCNT, as well as the effect of surfactant on the properties of water inside the SWCNT. The diameter of the SWCNT varied from 1 to 5 nm. The radial and axial density profiles of water inside the SWCNTs were computed and compared with published molecular dynamics results. The average residence time and diffusivity were also calculated to show the size effect on mobility of water inside the SWCNT. It was found that nanotubes with diameter smaller than 3 nm do not allow SDS molecules to enter the SWCNT space. For larger SWCNT diameter, SDS adsorbed inside and outside the nanotube. When SDS was adsorbed in the hollow part of the SWCNT, the behavior of water inside the nanotube was found to be significantly changed. Both radial and axial density profiles of water inside the SWCNT fluctuated strongly and were different from those in bulk phase. In addition, SDS molecules increased the retention of water beads inside SWCNT (d ≥ 3nm while water diffusivity was decreased.

  18. Sodium dodecyl sulfate coated γ-alumina support modified by a new Schiff base for solid phase extraction and flame-AAS determination of lead and copper ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Shokrollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and fast approach for solid phase extraction is herein described, and used to determine trace amounts of Pb2+ and Cu2+ metal ions. The solid phase support is sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-coated γ-alumina modified with bis(2-hydroxy acetophenone-1,6-hexanediimine (BHAH ligand. The adsorbed ions were stripped from the solid phase by 6 mL of 4 M nitric acid as eluent. The eluting solution was analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The sorption recovery of metal ions was investigated with regard to the effects of pH, amount of ligand, γ-alumina and surfactant and the amount and type of eluent. Complexation of BHAH with Pb2+ or Cu2+ ions was examined via spectrophotometry using the HypSpec program. The detection limit for Cu2+ was 7.9 µg L-1 with a relative standard deviation of 1.67%, while that for Pb2+ was 6.4 µg L-1 with a relative standard deviation of 1.64%. A preconcentration factor of 100 was achieved for these ions. The method was successfully applied to determine analyte concentrations in samples of liver, parsley, cabbage, and water.

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new creatine fatty esters revealed dodecyl creatine ester as a promising drug candidate for the treatment of the creatine transporter deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotier-Faurion, Alexandra; Dézard, Sophie; Taran, Frédéric; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; de Lonlay, Pascale; Mabondzo, Aloïse

    2013-06-27

    The creatine transporter deficiency is a neurological disease caused by impairment of the creatine transporter SLC6A8, resulting in mental retardation associated with a complete absence of creatine within the brain and cellular energy perturbation of neuronal cells. One of the therapeutic hypotheses was to administer lipophilic creatine derivatives which are (1) thought to have better permeability through the cell membrane and (2) would not rely on the activity of SLC6A8 to penetrate the brain. Here, we synthesized creatine fatty esters through original organic chemistry process. A screening on an in vitro rat primary cell-based blood-brain barrier model and on a rat primary neuronal cells model demonstrated interesting properties of these prodrugs to incorporate into endothelial, astroglial, and neuronal cells according to a structure-activity relationship. Dodecyl creatine ester showed then a 20-fold increase in creatine content in pathological human fibroblasts compared with the endogenous creatine content, stating that it could be a promising drug candidate.

  20. Effects of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on Electroless Nickel Plating%十二烷基硫酸钠对化学镀镍的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    线东升; 李喜太; 李艳玲

    2012-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate is an indispensable pinhole preventive in the electroless nickel plating. During the electroless nickel plating process, white attachments can be easily produced on the surface of larger solid steel parts, which affects the quality of electroless nickel plating. But no white attachments were found on the surface of test pieces in the same plating bath. The producing reasons and solving methods of the produced white attachments have been found after years of exploration and analysis.%十二烷基硫酸钠是化学镀镍不可缺少的防针孔剂,较大实心钢铁零件化学镀镍过程中,很容易在零件表面产生白色附着物,影响化学镀镍的质量,而在同一镀槽的化学镀镍试片表面不产生白色附着物;经过多年的探索和分析,找到了白色附着物产生的原因和解决方法.

  1. Effects of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate on the crystal structures and photocatalytic performance of ZnO powders prepared by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Limin; Dong, Shuying; Li, Qilu; Li, Yifan; Pi, Yunqing; Liu, Menglin; Han, Xiao; Sun, Jianhui, E-mail: sunjh@htu.cn

    2015-11-15

    A facile and efficient route for the controllable synthesis of ZnO nanostructures by hydrothermal method using sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant was reported. The obtained products were well characterized with the aid of various techniques to probe their crystallographic, morphological, chemical, electrochemical and optical properties. The prepared products were used as photocatalysts in the application of the degradation of metronidazole (MNZ)-contained wastewater under visible light irradiation. A 4.5-fold augmentation of degradation efficiency was in turn observed for optimal ZnO (ZO-0.75) photocatalyst compared with that of sample without SDBS addition (ZO) under the visible light irradiation. The effects of SDBS dosage on the crystal structures of prepared samples as well as the crystal growth mechanism were also probed. - Graphical abstract: ZnO photocatalysts were fabricated through a facile and efficient hydrothermal method using SDBS as structure-directing surfactant in a controllable manner. In particular, the sample with different SDBS dosage exhibited distinct crystal structure and photocatalytic performance. - Highlights: • A rod-like ZnO photocatalyst was facilely synthesized by using SDBS as surfactant. • The effect of SDBS dosage on the crystal structure of photocatalyst was probed. • The probably crystal growth mechanism of prepared photocatalyst was explored. • The optimal ZnO with 0.75 g SDBS dosage displayed the best photocatalytic activity.

  2. ADSORPTION STUDY OF RHODAMIN B DYE ON IRAQI BENTONITE AND MODIFIED BENTONITE BY NANOCOMPOUNDS TIO2, ZNO, AL2O3 AND SODIUM DODECYL SULFATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Salman AL-Jobouri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Rhodamin B on Iraqi bentonite at the concentration range from 50 to 250 μg mL-1 was studied, Nano compounds; ZnO, TiO2, Al2O3 m and SDS in different amounts 0.01-0.1 g 10-1 g of Bentonite were used to modified the adsorption capacity of bentonite to remove the Rhodamin B from aqueous solutions. The study indicated that using 0.05 g and 0.1 of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS lead to increase the percentage removal (%R from 79.3% for pure bentonite to 99.3%. While using 0.05 g TiO2 lead to increase the %R to 98.9%, 0.05 of ZnO to 98.6%. The other amount additives and Al2O3 using was not success to increase the %R for the Rhodamin B on bentonite surface. SEM measurement was achieved to discover the Nanoparticl exists in the bentonite surfaces.

  3. Temperature-dependent phase transition and desorption free energy of sodium dodecyl sulfate at the water/vapor interface: approaches from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Lu, Xiancai; Liu, Xiandong; Hou, Qingfeng; Zhu, Youyi; Zhou, Huiqun

    2014-09-09

    Adsorption of surfactants at the water/vapor interface depends upon their chemical potential at the interface, which is generally temperature-dependent. Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to reveal temperature influences on the microstructure of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) molecule adsorption layer. At room temperature, SDS molecules aggregate at the interface, being in a liquid-expanded phase, whereas they tend to spread out and probably transit to a gaseous phase as the temperature increases to above 318 K. This phase transition has been confirmed by the temperature-dependent changes in two-dimensional array, tilt angles, and immersion depths to the aqueous phase of SDS molecules. The aggregation of SDS molecules accompanies with larger immersion depths, more coordination of Na(+) ions, and less coordination of water. Desorption free energy profiles show that higher desorption free energy appears for SDS molecules at the aggregate state at low temperatures, but no energy barrier is observed. The shapes of desorption free energy profiles depend upon the distribution of SDS at the interface, which, in turn, is related to the phase state of SDS. Our study sheds light on the development of adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics theories.

  4. Restraining Na-Montmorillonite Delamination in Water by Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate or Octadecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride on the Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The delamination of montmorillonite in water leads to sliming in ore slurry, which is detrimental to mineral flotation and solid/water separation. In this work, the delamination of Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT has been restrained by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS or octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (1831 through the adsorption on the edge of the mineral. The experimental results have shown that the pretreatment by adding SDS and 1831 could greatly reduce the Stokes size percentage of −1.1 µm particles in the aqueous Na-MMT suspension. From the X-ray diffractometer (XRD results, the interlayer spacing of the MMT pre-treated by SDS and 1831 is smaller than that of original MMT particles. Adsorption position of SDS and 1831 on MMT surfaces was analyzed by the measurements of adsorption capacity of SDS and 1831, inductively-coupled plasma spectra, and zeta potential before and after the plane surface of MMT was covered with tetraethylenepentaminecopper ([Cu(tetren]2+. The results indicated that SDS and 1831 are adsorbed on the edge and the whole surface of Na-MMT, respectively. Delamination of MMT could be well restrained by the adsorption of SDS and 1831 on the edges of MMT.

  5. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance studies on enzymatic specific activity and direct electrochemistry of immobilized glucose oxidase in the presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate and multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuhua; Xie, Qingji; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Qingfang; Ma, Ming; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) technique was utilized to monitor in situ the adsorption of glucose oxidase (GOD) and the mixture of GOD and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) onto Au electrodes with and without modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or SDBS/MWCNTs composite, and the relationship between enzymatic specific activity (ESA) and direct electrochemistry of the immobilized GOD was quantitatively evaluated for the first time. Compared with the bare gold electrode at which a little GOD was adsorbed and the direct electrochemistry of the adsorbed GOD was negligible, the amount and electroactivity of adsorbed GOD were greatly enhanced when the GOD was mixed with SDBS and then adsorbed onto the SDBS/MWCNTs modified Au electrode. However, the ESA of the adsorbed GOD was fiercely decreased to only 16.1% of the value obtained on the bare gold electrode, and the portion of adsorbed GOD showing electrochemical activity exhibited very low enzymatic activity, demonstrating that the electroactivity and ESA of immobilized GOD responded oppositely to the presence of MWCNTs and SDBS. The ESA results obtained from the EQCM method were well supported by conventional UV-vis spectrophotometry. The direct electrochemistry of redox proteins including enzymes as a function of their biological activities is an important concern in biotechnology, and this work may have presented a new and useful protocol to quantitatively evaluate both the electroactivity and ESA of trace immobilized enzymes, which is expected to find wider applications in biocatalysis and biosensing fields.

  6. Synergistic effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide on the corrosion inhibition behavior of l-methionine on mild steel in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mobin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition behavior of amino acid l-methionine (LMT separately and in combination with very low concentration of surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB on mild steel in 0.1 M H2SO4 solution was studied, using weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization measurement techniques. The studies were carried out in the temperature range of 30–60 °C. The surface morphology of the corroded steel samples was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM.The results show that LMT is an effective inhibitor for mild steel corrosion in 0.1 M H2SO4 which is synergistically improved in the presence of SDS and CTAB. The mixed LMT and CTAB is more effective as an inhibitor than mixture of LMT and SDS. The SEM and AFM photographs show a clearly different surface morphology in the presence of additives. LMT alone and in combination with surfactants obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm from the fit of the experimental data of all concentrations and temperatures studied. Phenomenon of physical adsorption is proposed from the trend of the IE with temperature and also the values of activation energy (Ea, standard enthalpy of adsorption (ΔHads, and standard free energy of adsorption (ΔGads obtained. The results obtained by potentiodynamic polarization measurements are consistent with the results of the weight loss measurements. LMT acts as a mixed type inhibitor.

  7. Effect of Sodium Sulfite, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate, and Urea on the Molecular Interactions and Properties of Whey Protein Isolate-Based Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Markus; Prinz, Tobias K.; Stäbler, Andreas; Sängerlaub, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Whey protein coatings and cast films are promising for use as food packaging materials. Ongoing research is endeavoring to reduce their permeability. The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of the reactive additives sodium sulfite, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and urea on the oxygen barrier, water vapor barrier, and protein solubility of whey protein cast films. The concentration of the reactive additives was 1 to 20 wt.-%. Dried whey protein cast films were used as substrate materials. The water vapor transmission rate, the oxygen permeability, and the protein solubility were measured. Effective diffusion coefficients and effective sorption coefficients were calculated from the results of the water vapor sorption experiments. The presence of sodium sulfite resulted in an increased number of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds and a slightly decreased number of disulfide bonds. The oxygen permeability decreased from 68 to 46 cm3 (STP/standard temperature and pressure) 100 μm (m2 d bar)−1 for 1 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The water vapor transmission rate decreased from 165 to 44 g 100 μm (m2 d)−1 measured at 50 to 0% r. h. for 20 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The reduction in the water vapor transmission rate correlated with the lower effective diffusion coefficient. PMID:28149835

  8. Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on stress response in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus Galloprovincialis): regulatory volume decrease (Rvd) and modulation of biochemical markers related to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Concetta Maria; Faggio, Caterina; Laudicella, Vincenzo Alessandro; Sanfilippo, Marilena; Trischitta, Francesca; Santulli, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    In this study the effects of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), are assessed on the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), exposed for 18 days at a concentration ranging from 0.1 mg/l to 1 mg/l. The effects are monitored using biomarkers related to stress response, such as regulatory volume decrease (RVD), and to oxidative stress, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), endogenous antioxidant systems and Hsp70 levels. The results demonstrate that cells from the digestive gland of M. galloprovincialis, exposed to SDS were not able to perform the RVD owing to osmotic stress. Further, SDS causes oxidative stress in treated organisms, as demonstrated by the increased ROS production, in comparison to the controls (p<0.05). Consequently, two enzymes involved in ROS scavenging, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) have higher activities and the proportion of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) is higher in hepatopancreas and mantle of treated animals, compared to untreated animals (p<0.05). Furthermore Hsp70 demonstrates an up-regulation in all the analyzed tissues of exposed animals, attesting the stress status induced by the surfactant with respect to the unexposed animals. The results highlight that SDS, under the tested concentrations, exerts a toxic effect in mussels in which the disruption of the osmotic balance follows the induction of oxidative stress.

  9. Inhibition of cytotoxicity by the Nhe cytotoxin of Bacillus cereus through the interaction of dodecyl maltoside with the NheB component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Danh; Granum, Per Einar; Dietrich, Richard; Märtlbauer, Erwin; Hardy, Simon P

    2012-05-01

    Nhe ('nonhaemolytic enterotoxin') is a three-component cytotoxin implicated in the pathogenesis of diarrhoea by Bacillus cereus. Nhe forms pores in pure lipid bilayers, but the function of the individual components (NheA, NheB and NheC) remains unclear. NheB and NheC are structural homologues of ClyA, a pore-forming cytotoxin of Escherichia coli. The non-ionic detergent dodecyl maltoside (DDM) has been shown to inhibit haemolysis of ClyA. We used DDM as a probe to examine the response of the Nhe proteins to DDM micelles. At its critical micellar concentration (0.2 mM), DDM inhibited propidium uptake by the native Nhe complex in Vero and HT29 cell suspensions. Pre-incubation of NheC with DDM did not inhibit cytotoxicity. NheB exhibited marked changes in 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonic acid (ANS) fluorescence after pre-exposure to DDM. Pre-incubation of NheB with DDM resulted in large molecular weight complexes as detected by size exclusion chromatography and diffusion through sized dialysis membranes and prevented binding of NheB to Vero cell monolayers. These data support a model in which conformational changes and oligomerization of NheB are prerequisite events in the process of pore formation.

  10. Self-aggregation of synthesized novel bolaforms and their mixtures with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Kajari; Mitra, Debolina; Mitra, Rajendra N; Panda, Amiya K; Das, Prasanta K; Rakshit, Animesh K; Moulik, Satya P

    2010-06-10

    Bolaforms B(1), B(2), and B(3) of the formulas, Br(-)Me(3)N(+)(CH(2))(10)N(+)Me(3)Br(-), Br(-)Me(3)N(+)(CH(2))(10)OH, and Br(-)Me(3)N(+)(CH(2))(10)COO(-)Na(+), respectively, were synthesized, and their properties in the bulk as well as at the air/aqueous NaBr (10 mM) solution interface have been studied. Their interactions with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) also have been investigated. Tensiometry, conductometry, spectrophotometry, and microcalorimetry techniques were used for characterization and estimation. Both pure bolaforms and their mixtures with SDS and CTAB have been found to self-aggregate, forming micelles in solution. The mixed systems of bolaform and SDS have been observed to form both micelles and vesicles. Their mutual interactions were synergistic, which at the interface was more spontaneous than in the bulk. The interfacial and bulk compositions of the mixed binary systems (bolaform and SDS or CTAB) with their associated interaction parameters have been estimated from the Rosen interaction model and the regular solution theory of Rubingh, respectively. The formed vesicles have been found to entrap the water-soluble dye, bromophenol blue, and the dye solubilized vesicles of B(1)-SDS and B(2)-SDS completely eluted out of the sephadex column proving their formation. A rough estimation of the size and polydispersity index of the formed micelles and vesicles has been made from DLS measurements.

  11. An Investigation of Structure Transition in Sodium Dodecyl Trioxyethylene Sulfate/n-Butanol/n-Octane/Water System by Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Jian-hai; ZHAO Kong-shuang; WEI Su-xiang; LI Ying; LI Gan-zuo

    2004-01-01

    The phase diagram of the quaternary system of sodium dodecyl trioxyethylene sulfate(SDES)/n-butanol/n-octane/water was obtained at (30.0±0.1) ℃. There exists a clear, isotropic, and low-viscosity L phase, which can be divided into W/O, bi-continuous(B.C.) and O/W microemulsions by conductivity measurement results. Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy(DRS) measurements, including permittivity, conductivity, relaxation strength, characteristic relaxation time, dielectric parameters, phase parameters, etc., were applied to investigating the microstructures of the system mentioned above. For the samples with a fixed SDES/n-butanol mass ratio of 4/6 including 20%(mass fraction) of n-octane, DRS indicated a structure transition from a W/O to an O/W via a B.C. microemulsion with the increase of the water content. For the samples with a fixed (SDES/20%n-octane)/H2O mass ratio of 5/5, DRS presented that there only exists a onefold structure of a W/O microemulsion as the (n-butanol/20%n-octane) content increases. The results obtained from DRS are in good agreement with those from the phase diagram.

  12. Comparison of microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in the presence of inorganic and organic salts: a time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, G B

    2005-11-08

    Microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles was examined in the presence of additives such as sodium chloride and p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) by monitoring the fluorescence anisotropy decays of two hydrophobic probes, 2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dioxo-3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (DMDPP) and coumarin 6 (C6). It has been well-established that SDS micelles undergo a sphere-to-rod transition and that their mean hydrodynamic radius increases from 19 to 100 A upon the addition of 0.0-0.7 M NaCl at 298 K. A similar size and shape transition is induced by PTHC at concentrations that are 20 times lower compared to that of NaCl. This study was undertaken to find out how the microviscosity of the micelles is influenced under these circumstances. It was noticed that the microviscosity of the SDS/NaCl system increased by approximately 45%, whereas there was a less than 10% variation in the microviscosity of the SDS/PTHC system. The large increase in the microviscosity of the former system with salt concentration has been rationalized on the basis of the high concentration of sodium ions in the headgroup region of the micelles and their ability to strongly coordinate with the water present in this region, which decreases the mobility of the probe molecules.

  13. Effect of sodium sulfite, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and urea on the molecular interactions and properties of whey protein isolate-based films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Markus; Prinz, Tobias K.; Stäbler, Andreas; Sängerlaub, Sven

    2016-12-01

    Whey protein coatings and cast films are promising for use as food packaging materials. Ongoing research is endeavoring to reduce their permeability. The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of the reactive additives sodium sulfite, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and urea on the oxygen barrier, water vapor barrier, and protein solubility of whey protein cast films. The concentration of the reactive additives was 1 to 20 wt.-%. Dried whey protein cast films were used as substrate materials. The water vapor transmission rate, the oxygen permeability, and the protein solubility were measured. Effective diffusion coefficients and effective sorption coefficients were calculated from the results of the water vapor sorption experiments. The presence of sodium sulfite resulted in an increased number of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds and a slightly decreased number of disulfide bonds. The oxygen permeability decreased from 68 to 46 cm³ (STP / standard temperature and pressure) 100 µm (m² d bar)-1 for 1 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The water vapor transmission rate decreased from 165 to 44 g 100 µm (m² d)-1 measured at 50 to 0 % r. h. for 20 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The reduction in the water vapor transmission rate correlated with the lower effective diffusion coefficient.

  14. Thermodynamic characteristics of the dissolution of glycine, glycylglycine, and glycylglycylglycine in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate at T = 298.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V. I.; Badelin, V. G.

    2017-09-01

    the enthalpies of dissolution of glycine (Gly), glycylglycine (GlyGly), and glycylglycylglycine (GlyGlyGly) are measured in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at SDS concentrations m = 0-0.7 mol kg-1 and T = 298.15 K by means of calorimetry. The obtained data are used to calculate the standard values of enthalpies of dissolution (Δsol H m ) and enthalpies of transfer (Δtr H m ) of glycine and its oligomers from water to SDS aqueous solutions. The dependences of Δsol H m and Δtr H m on SDS concentration in an aqueous solution at a constant concentration of glycine and its oligomers are determined. A comparative analysis of the thermodynamic characteristics of Gly, GlyGly, and GlyGlyGly transfer within the studied range of SDS concentrations is performed. The results are interpreted in terms of ion-ion, ion-polar, and hydrophobic interactions between SDS and molecules of glycine and its oligomers.

  15. Evaluation of DLVO theory with disjoining-pressure and film-conductance measurements of common-black films stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaros, Heather D; Newman, John; Radke, C J

    2003-06-15

    We develop a unique film holder combining a thin-film balance with AC impedance spectroscopy to measure disjoining pressure, film conductance, and film thickness simultaneously. Foam films stabilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) are investigated with and without added sodium chloride (NaCl) electrolyte. Classical colloidal theory, Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO) theory, is tested rigorously over a wide range of solution conditions by comparing the surface charge densities fit to disjoining-pressure isotherms with those estimated independently from film-conductance and surface-tension data. Film-conductance measurements strongly suggest that the adsorbed anionic surfactant is partially complexed with counterions. Therefore, to reconcile the different values of charge densities calculated from surface tension and film conductance with those from disjoining pressure, we propose a simple ion-binding electrostatic model. The ion-complexation framework predicts increased ion complexing with increasing solution ionic strength, in agreement with surface-tension and film-conductance data. Unfortunately, it is not possible to describe similarly the trends of the measured disjoining-pressure isotherms because the diffuse-layer charge density increases, or equivalently, the ion complexation decreases with increasing ionic strength. Accordingly, the ion-binding extension of classical DLVO theory does not permit agreement between theory and independent experimental data from surface tension, disjoining pressure, and film conductance.

  16. Petal-shaped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/sodium dodecyl sulfate-graphene oxide intercalation composites for high-performance electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haihan; Han, Gaoyi; Fu, Dongying; Chang, Yunzhen; Xiao, Yaoming; Zhai, Hua-Jin

    2014-12-01

    A facile and one-step electrochemical codeposition method is introduced for incorporating graphene oxide (GO) into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The as-prepared PEDOT/SDS-GO composites are characterized using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results show that PEDOT/SDS-GO composites possessing a unique petal-shaped morphology have been prepared successfully and exhibit an intercalated microstructure. With the purpose of electrochemical energy storage, the properties of electrochemical capacitance for composites have also been investigated with cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests. The electrochemical test results manifest the PEDOT/SDS-GO composites have superior capacitive behaviors and cyclic stability, and a high areal capacitance of 79.6 mF cm-2 is achieved at 10 mV s-1 cyclic voltammetry scan. Furthermore, the PEDOT/SDS-GO composites exhibit more superior capacitive performance than that of PEDOT/SDS, indicating the incorporation of GO into the composites effectively boosts the capacitive performance of PEDOT-based supercapacitor electrodes. We consider that this research further extends the application of GO and the composites prepared can be developed as the candidate for the fabrication of low-cost, high-performance supercapacitors for energy storage.

  17. In vitro OECD test methods applied to screen the estrogenic effect of chemicals, used in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Seok; Park, Eun-Jung; Han, Songyi; Oh, Gyeong-Yong; Kim, Min-Hee; Kang, Hui-Seung; Suh, Jin-Hyang; Oh, Jae-Ho; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Moon, Guiim; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Hwang, In-Gyun

    2016-09-01

    In this study, 27 chemicals found in household products, which became an issue in Korea were screened for the agonistoc and antagonistic effects against human estrogen receptor using official Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in vitro assays, STTA assay using ERα-HeLa-9903 cell line and BG1Luc ER TA assay. In the case of human ER agonist screening by two assays, all tested chemicals did not show agonist effect against ER. In ER antagonist test by BG1Luc ER TA assay, five surfactants α-dodecyl-ω-hydroxypoly(oxyethylene), alcohols C16-18 ethoxylated, nonylphenol, ethoxylated, 3,6,9,12,15,18,21-heptaoxatritriacontan-1-ol, and α-dodecyl-ω-hydroxypoly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl)) were found to exhibit weak antagonistic activities. The agonist/antagonist effects against human estrogen receptor of various chemicals, used in Korea by OECD test guideline are reported in this study. These results indicated that two OECD in vitro assays will can be applied in Korea by screening of agonistic/antagonistic effects against human ER of various chemicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alcohol-specific parenting, adolescent alcohol use and the mediating effect of adolescent alcohol-related cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : Previous research indicated that alcohol-specific parenting is an important precursor of adolescent alcohol use, but failed to define the underlying mechanism. Based on social cognitive theory, alcohol-related cognitions such as alcohol refusal self-efficacy and alcohol-related

  19. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  20. Deracemization of Secondary Alcohols by using a Single Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    KAUST Repository

    Karume, Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. We developed a single-enzyme-mediated two-step approach for deracemization of secondary alcohols. A single mutant of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus secondary alcohol dehydrogenase enables the nonstereoselective oxidation of racemic alcohols to ketones, followed by a stereoselective reduction process. Varying the amounts of acetone and 2-propanol cosubstrates controls the stereoselectivities of the consecutive oxidation and reduction reactions, respectively. We used one enzyme to accomplish the deracemization of secondary alcohols with up to >99% ee and >99.5% recovery in one pot and without the need to isolate the prochiral ketone intermediate.