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Sample records for dna adducts derived

  1. Fast repair of oxidizing OH adducts of DNA by hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. A pulse radiolytic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Jiang; Lin Weizhen; Yao Side; Lin Nianyun; Zhu Dayuan

    1999-01-01

    Using pulse radiolytic techniques, it has been demonstrated that the interactions of oxidizing OH adducts of DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA), polyA and polyG with hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives proceed via an electron transfer process (k=5-30x10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 ). In addition, the rates for fast repair of OH adducts of dAMP, polyA and DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA) are slower than the corresponding rates for the rest OH adducts of DNA constituents. The slower rates for repair of oxidizing OH adducts of dAMP may be the rate determining step during the interaction of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives with OH adducts of DNA containing the varieties of OH adducts of DNA constituents

  2. Detection of Riddelliine-Derived DNA Adducts in Blood of Rats Fed Riddelliine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming W. Chou

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We have previously shown that riddelliine, a naturally occurring genotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, induces liver tumors in rats and mice through a genotoxic mechanism mediated by the formation of a set of eight 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5Hpyrrolizine ( DHP-derived DNA adducts. In this study we report the formation of these DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood DNA of rats fed riddelliine. In an adduct formation and removal experiment, male and female F344 rats (8 weeks of age were administered riddelliine by gavage at a single dose of 10.0 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. At 8, 24, 48, and 168 hrs after dosing, the levels of DHP-derived DNA adduct in blood and liver were determined by 32P-postlabeling/HPLC. Maximum DNA adduct formation occurred at 48 hr after treatment. From 48 to 168 hours, the adduct levels in female rat blood were 4-fold greater than those in male rats. In a dose response experiment, female rats were gavaged 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg doses of riddelliine for three consecutive days and the DHPderived DNA adducts in blood DNA were assayed. The levels of the DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood of rats receiving 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg doses were 12.9 and 51.8 adducts/107 nucleotides. These results suggest that: (i leucocyte DNA can bind with DHP to form a set of DHP-derived DNA adducts generated in liver; (ii DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood can serve as a potential non-invasive biomarkers for assessing the exposure to riddelliine.

  3. Abundance of DNA adducts of 4-oxo-2-alkenals, lipid peroxidation-derived highly reactive genotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Yoshichika; Nuka, Erika

    2018-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species and their reaction products can damage DNA to form mutagenic lesions. Among the reactive species, lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes react with nucleobases and form bulky exocyclic adducts. Many types of aldehyde-derived DNA adducts have been characterized, identified and detected in vitro and in vivo , whereas relative quantitative and pathophysiological contributions of each adduct still remain unclear. In recent years, an abundant class of DNA adducts derived from 4-oxo-2-alkenals have been identified, in addition to classic aldehyde-derived adducts. The presence of 4-oxo-2-alkenal-derived DNA adducts associated with age-related diseases has been revealed in rodents and humans. In vitro studies have demonstrated that 4-oxo-2-alkenals, as compared with other classes of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes, are highly reactive with nucleobases. It has been generally recognized that 4-oxo-2-alkenals are generated through oxidative degradation of the corresponding 4-hydroperoxy-2-alkenals, homolytic degradation products of polyunsaturated fatty acid hydroperoxides. Our recent results have also shown an alternative pathway for the formation of 4-oxo-2-alkenals, in which 2-alkenals could undergo the metal-catalyzed autoxidation resulting in the formation of the corresponding 4-oxo-2-alkenals. This review summarizes the basis of the formation of lipid peroxidation-derived genotoxic aldehydes and their covalent adduction to nucleobases, especially focusing on the abundance of 4-oxo-2-alkenal-derived DNA adducts.

  4. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts are common toxicological biomarkers of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaobo; Xia, Qingsu; Woodling, Kellie; Lin, Ge; Fu, Peter P

    2017-10-01

    There are 660 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and PA N-oxides present in the plants, with approximately half being possible carcinogens. We previously reported that a set of four PA-derived DNA adducts is formed in the liver of rats administered a series of hepatocarcinogenic PAs and a PA N-oxide. Based on our findings, we hypothesized that this set of DNA adducts is a common biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. In this study, we determined that rat liver microsomal metabolism of five hepatocarcinogenic PAs (lasiocarpine, retrorsine, riddelliine, monocrotaline, and heliotrine) and their corresponding PA N-oxides produced the same set of DNA adducts. Among these compounds, lasiocarpine N-oxide, retrorsine N-oxide, monocrotaline N-oxide, and heliotrine N-oxide are for first time shown to be able to produce these DNA adducts. These results further support the role of these DNA adducts as potential common biomarkers of PA-induced liver tumor initiation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts are common toxicological biomarkers of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo He

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There are 660 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs and PA N-oxides present in the plants, with approximately half being possible carcinogens. We previously reported that a set of four PA-derived DNA adducts is formed in the liver of rats administered a series of hepatocarcinogenic PAs and a PA N-oxide. Based on our findings, we hypothesized that this set of DNA adducts is a common biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. In this study, we determined that rat liver microsomal metabolism of five hepatocarcinogenic PAs (lasiocarpine, retrorsine, riddelliine, monocrotaline, and heliotrine and their corresponding PA N-oxides produced the same set of DNA adducts. Among these compounds, lasiocarpine N-oxide, retrorsine N-oxide, monocrotaline N-oxide, and heliotrine N-oxide are for first time shown to be able to produce these DNA adducts. These results further support the role of these DNA adducts as potential common biomarkers of PA-induced liver tumor initiation.

  6. Translesion Synthesis Past Acrolein-derived DNA Adducts by Human Mitochondrial DNA Polymerase γ*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiviswanathan, Rajesh; Minko, Irina G.; Lloyd, R. Stephen; Copeland, William C.

    2013-01-01

    Acrolein, a mutagenic aldehyde, is produced endogenously by lipid peroxidation and exogenously by combustion of organic materials, including tobacco products. Acrolein reacts with DNA bases forming exocyclic DNA adducts, such as γ-hydroxy-1,N2-propano-2′-deoxyguanosine (γ-HOPdG) and γ-hydroxy-1,N6-propano-2′-deoxyadenosine (γ-HOPdA). The bulky γ-HOPdG adduct blocks DNA synthesis by replicative polymerases but can be bypassed by translesion synthesis polymerases in the nucleus. Although acrolein-induced adducts are likely to be formed and persist in mitochondrial DNA, animal cell mitochondria lack specialized translesion DNA synthesis polymerases to tolerate these lesions. Thus, it is important to understand how pol γ, the sole mitochondrial DNA polymerase in human cells, acts on acrolein-adducted DNA. To address this question, we investigated the ability of pol γ to bypass the minor groove γ-HOPdG and major groove γ-HOPdA adducts using single nucleotide incorporation and primer extension analyses. The efficiency of pol γ-catalyzed bypass of γ-HOPdG was low, and surprisingly, pol γ preferred to incorporate purine nucleotides opposite the adduct. Pol γ also exhibited ∼2-fold lower rates of excision of the misincorporated purine nucleotides opposite γ-HOPdG compared with the corresponding nucleotides opposite dG. Extension of primers from the termini opposite γ-HOPdG was accomplished only following error-prone purine nucleotide incorporation. However, pol γ preferentially incorporated dT opposite the γ-HOPdA adduct and efficiently extended primers from the correctly paired terminus, indicating that γ-HOPdA is probably nonmutagenic. In summary, our data suggest that acrolein-induced exocyclic DNA lesions can be bypassed by mitochondrial DNA polymerase but, in the case of the minor groove γ-HOPdG adduct, at the cost of unprecedented high mutation rates. PMID:23543747

  7. Exposure to meat-derived carcinogens and bulky DNA adduct levels in normal-appearing colon mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Vikki; Brunetti, Vanessa; Peacock, Sarah; Massey, Thomas E; Godschalk, Roger W L; van Schooten, Frederik J; Ashbury, Janet E; Vanner, Stephen J; King, Will D

    2017-09-01

    Meat consumption is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. This research investigated the relationship between meat-derived carcinogen exposure and bulky DNA adduct levels, a biomarker of DNA damage, in colon mucosa. Least squares regression was used to examine the relationship between meat-derived carcinogen exposure (PhIP and meat mutagenicity) and bulky DNA adduct levels in normal-appearing colon tissue measured using 32 P-postlabelling among 202 patients undergoing a screening colonoscopy. Gene-diet interactions between carcinogen exposure and genetic factors relevant to biotransformation and DNA repair were also examined. Genotyping was conducting using the MassARRAY ® iPLEX ® Gold SNP Genotyping assay. PhIP and higher meat mutagenicity exposures were not associated with levels of bulky DNA adducts in colon mucosa. The XPC polymorphism (rs2228001) was found to associate with bulky DNA adduct levels, whereby genotypes conferring lower DNA repair activity were associated with higher DNA adduct levels than the normal activity genotype. Among individuals with genotypes associated with lower DNA repair (XPD, rs13181 and rs1799179) or detoxification activity (GSTP1, rs1695), higher PhIP or meat mutagenicity exposures were associated with higher DNA adduct levels. Significant interactions between the XPC polymorphism (rs2228000) and both dietary PhIP and meat mutagenicity on DNA adduct levels was observed, but associations were inconsistent with the a priori hypothesized direction of effect. Exposure to meat-derived carcinogens may be associated with increased DNA damage occurring directly in the colon among genetically susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Formation of DHP-derived DNA adducts from metabolic activation of the prototype heliotridine-type pyrrolizidine alkaloid, heliotrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qingsu; Yan, Jian; Chou, Ming W; Fu, Peter P

    2008-05-05

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are widespread in the world and may be the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids require metabolism to exert their genotoxicity and tumorigenicity. Our mechanistic studies have determined that metabolism of the retronecine-type (riddelliine, retrorsine, and monocrotaline), heliotridine-type (lasiocarpine), and otonecine-type (clivorine) tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in vivo and/or in vitro all generates a common set of 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts responsible for tumor induction. All the pyrrolizidine alkaloids studied previously are diesters with an ester linkage at the C7 and C9 positions of the necine base. In this study, we report that F344 rat liver microsomal metabolism of heliotrine, a tumorigenic monoester bearing a hydroxyl group at the C7 of the necine base, resulted in the formation of the dehydroheliotridine (DHH) metabolite. When incubations of heliotrine were carried out in the presence of calf thymus DNA, the same set of DHP-derived DNA adducts was formed. These results support that DHP-derived DNA adducts are potential common biomarkers of pyrrolizidine alkaloid exposure and tumorigenicity. For comparison, the dehydroretronecine (DHR)-derived DNA adducts formed from metabolism of riddleiine, retrorsine, monocrotaline, riddelleiine N-oxide, and retrorsine N-oxide were measured in parallel; the levels of DHP-derived DNA adduct formation were in the order: riddelliine approximately retrorsine>monocrotaline>retrorsine N-oxide>or=riddelliine N-oxide>heliotrine.

  9. DNA adducts as molecular dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucier, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that DNA adducts play an important role in the actions of many pulmonary carcinogens. During the last ten years sensitive methods (antibodies and 32 P-postlabeling) have been developed that permit detection of DNA adducts in tissues of animals or humans exposed to low levels of some genotoxic carcinogens. This capability has led to approaches designed to more reliably estimate the shape of the dose-response curve in the low dose region for a few carcinogens. Moreover, dosimetry comparisions can, in some cases, be made between animals and humans which help in judging the adequacy of animal models for human risk assessments. There are several points that need to be considered in the evaluation of DNA adducts as a molecular dosimeter. For example, DNA adduct formation is only one of many events that are needed for tumor development and some potent carcinogens do not form DNA adducts; i.e., TCDD. Other issues that need to be considered are DNA adduct heterogeneity, DNA repair, relationship of DNA adducts to somatic mutation and cell specificity in DNA adduct formation and persistence. Molecular epidemiology studies often require quantitation of adducts in cells such as lymphocytes which may or may not be reliable surrogates for adduct concentrations in target issues. In summary, accurate quantitation of low levels of DNA adducts may provide data useful in species to species extrapolation of risk including the development of more meaningful human monitoring programs

  10. The long persistence of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts in vivo: kinetic study following single and multiple exposures in male ICR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Xue, Junyi; Xia, Qingsu; Fu, Peter P; Lin, Ge

    2017-02-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA)-containing plants are widespread in the world and the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Our previous studies demonstrated that PA-derived DNA adducts can potentially be a common biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. In order to validate the use of these PA-derived DNA adducts as a biomarker, it is necessary to understand the basic kinetics of the PA-derived DNA adducts formed in vivo. In this study, we studied the dose-dependent response and kinetics of PA-derived DNA adduct formation and removal in male ICR mice orally administered with a single dose (40 mg/kg) or multiple doses (10 mg/kg/day) of retrorsine, a representative carcinogenic PA. In the single-dose exposure, the PA-derived DNA adducts exhibited dose-dependent linearity and persisted for up to 4 weeks. The removal of the adducts following a single-dose exposure to retrorsine was biphasic with half-lives of 9 h (t 1/2α ) and 301 h (~12.5 days, t 1/2β ). In the 8-week multiple exposure study, a marked accumulation of PA-derived DNA adducts without attaining a steady state was observed. The removal of adducts after the multiple exposure also demonstrated a biphasic pattern but with much extended half-lives of 176 h (~7.33 days, t 1/2α ) and 1736 h (~72.3 days, t 1/2β ). The lifetime of PA-derived DNA adducts was more than 8 weeks following the multiple-dose treatment. The significant persistence of PA-derived DNA adducts in vivo supports their role in serving as a biomarker of PA exposure.

  11. Lipid peroxidation-derived etheno-DNA adducts in human atherosclerotic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Jagadeesan; De Flora, Silvio; Izzotti, Alberto; Bartsch, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and cancer are characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation and share common risk factors, such as cigarette smoking, dietary habits and ageing. Growth of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in atherosclerotic plaques may result from DNA damage, caused either by exogenous mutagens or by agents endogenously generated due to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a major LPO product, binds covalently to cellular DNA to form the exocyclic etheno-DNA-base adducts, 1,N 6 -ethenodeoxyadenine (εdA) and 3,N 4 -ethenodeoxycytosine (εdC). By applying an ultrasensitive 32 P-postlabeling-immunoaffinity method, εdA and εdC were quantified in abdominal aorta SMCs from 13 atherosclerotic patients and 3 non-smoking subjects without atherosclerotic lesions. The levels of etheno-adducts ranged for εdA from 2.3 to 39.6/10 8 dA and for εdC from 10.7 to 157.7/10 8 dC, with a high correlation between εdA and εdC (r = 0.84, P = 0.0001). Etheno-adduct levels were higher in atherosclerotic smokers than in ex-smokers for both εdA (means 15.2 versus 7.3, P = 0.06) and εdC (71.9 versus 51.6, not significant). εdC levels were higher in either ex-smokers (P = 0.03) or smokers (P = 0.07) than in non-smokers. There was a poor correlation between either εdA or εdC and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, whereas significant positive correlations were detected with the levels of several postlabeled bulky aromatic DNA adducts. In conclusion, two different types of DNA damage may be involved in atherosclerotic plaque formation and progression: (i) bulky aromatic compounds, to which aorta SMCs are chronically exposed in smokers, can either covalently bind to DNA, induce redox-cycling via quinone intermediates and/or activate local chronic inflammatory processes in the arterial wall; ii) this in turn leads to a self perpetuating generation of reactive oxygen species, LPO-products and increasing DNA-damage, as documented by the presence of high levels of

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of an N2-guanine adduct derived from the tumorigen dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in DNA: impact of adduct stereochemistry, size, and local DNA sequence on solution conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Fabián A; Liu, Zhi; Lin, Chin H; Ding, Shuang; Cai, Yuqin; Kolbanovskiy, Alexander; Kolbanovskiy, Marina; Amin, Shantu; Broyde, Suse; Geacintov, Nicholas E

    2014-03-25

    The dimensions and arrangements of aromatic rings (topology) in adducts derived from the reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) diol epoxide metabolites with DNA influence the distortions and stabilities of double-stranded DNA, and hence their recognition and processing by the human nucleotide excision repair (NER) system. Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) is a highly tumorigenic six-ring PAH, which contains a nonplanar and aromatic fjord region that is absent in the structurally related bay region five-ring PAH benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). The PAH diol epoxide-DNA adducts formed include the stereoisomeric 14S and 14R trans-anti-DB[a,l]P-N(2)-dG and the stereochemically analogous 10S- and 10R-B[a]P-N(2)-dG (B[a]P-dG) guanine adducts. However, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) solution studies of the 14S-DB[a,l]P-N(2)-dG adduct in DNA have not yet been presented. Here we have investigated the 14S-DB[a,l]P-N(2)-dG adduct in two different sequence contexts using NMR methods with distance-restrained molecular dynamics simulations. In duplexes with dC opposite the adduct deleted, a well-resolved base-displaced intercalative adduct conformation can be observed. In full duplexes, in contrast to the intercalated 14R stereoisomeric adduct, the bulky DB[a,l]P residue in the 14S adduct is positioned in a greatly widened and distorted minor groove, with significant disruptions and distortions of base pairing at the lesion site and two 5'-side adjacent base pairs. These unique structural features are significantly different from those of the stereochemically analogous but smaller B[a]P-dG adduct. The greater size and different topology of the DB[a,l]P aromatic ring system lead to greater structurally destabilizing DNA distortions that are partially compensated by stabilizing DB[a,l]P-DNA van der Waals interactions, whose combined effects impact the NER response to the adduct. These structural results broaden our understanding of the structure-function relationship in NER.

  13. Dose-dependent reduction of 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl-derived DNA adducts in colon and liver of rats administered celecoxib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravoori, Srivani; Feng Yi; Neale, Jason R.; Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Hein, David W.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2008-01-01

    Colon cancer is second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Western countries. Diet and smoking, which contain aromatic and heterocyclic amines, are major risk factors for colon cancer. Colorectal cancers have a natural history of long latency and therefore provide ample opportunities for effective chemoprevention. 3,2'-Dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl (DMABP) is an experimental aromatic amine that causes cancer in rat colon and serves as an experimental model for arylamine and heterocyclic amine mutagens derived from diet and smoking. In this study, we investigated the effects of celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor on DMABP-induced DNA adduct formation in rat liver and colon. Male F-344 rats (5-week old) were provided free access to modified AIN-76A rat chow containing 0 (control), 500, 1000, or 1500 ppm celecoxib. Two weeks later, the rats received a subcutaneous injection of 100 mg/kg DMABP in peanut oil. Two days after DMABP treatment, the rats were killed and DMABP-derived adducts were analyzed in colon and liver DNA by butanol extraction-mediated 32 P-postlabeling. Two major DNA adducts, identified as dG-C8-DMABP and dG-N 2 -DMABP, were detected in liver and colon of rats treated with DMABP. These DNA adducts were diminished approximately 35-40% with 500 ppm and 65-70% with 1,000 ppm celecoxib. In the colon, no further decline in DNA adducts was observed at 1500 ppm. The same DMABP-DNA adducts also were detected in the liver and were also diminished by celecoxib treatment. The reduction in DMABP-DNA adduct levels in celecoxib-treated animals provides further support for celecoxib as a chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer

  14. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts as a common biological biomarker of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced tumorigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qingsu; Zhao, Yuewei; Von Tungeln, Linda S; Doerge, Daniel R; Lin, Ge; Cai, Lining; Fu, Peter P

    2013-09-16

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) classified riddelliine, a tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" in the NTP 12th Report on Carcinogens in 2011. We previously determined that four DNA adducts were formed in rats dosed with riddelliine. The structures of the four DNA adducts were elucidated as (i) a pair of epimers of 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)dehydrosupinidine adducts (termed as DHP-dG-3 and DHP-dG-4) as the predominant adducts; and (ii) a pair of epimers of 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl)dehydrosupinidine adducts (termed as DHP-dA-3 and DHP-dA-4 adducts). In this study, we selected a nontumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, platyphylliine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide, riddelliine N-oxide, and nine tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (riddelliine, retrorsine, monocrotaline, lycopsamine, retronecine, lasiocarpine, heliotrine, clivorine, and senkirkine) for study in animals. Seven of the nine tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, with the exception of lycopsamine and retronecine, are liver carcinogens. At 8-10 weeks of age, female F344 rats were orally gavaged for 3 consecutive days with 4.5 and 24 μmol/kg body weight test article in 0.5 mL of 10% DMSO in water. Twenty-four hours after the last dose, the rats were sacrificed, livers were removed, and liver DNA was isolated for DNA adduct analysis. DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4 adducts were formed in the liver of rats treated with the individual seven hepatocarcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids and riddelliine N-oxide. These DNA adducts were not formed in the liver of rats administered retronecine, the nontumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, platyphylliine, or vehicle control. These results indicate that this set of DNA adducts, DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4, is a common biological biomarker of

  15. High-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for the detection and quantitation of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peter P; Chou, Ming W; Churchwell, Mona; Wang, Yuping; Zhao, Yuewei; Xia, Qingsu; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Marques, M Matilde; Beland, Frederick A; Doerge, Daniel R

    2010-03-15

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are widespread in the world and are probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids require metabolism to exert their genotoxicity and tumorigenicity. We have determined that the metabolism of a series of tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in vitro or in vivo generates a common set of (+/-)-6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts that are responsible for tumor induction. The identification and quantitation of the DHP-derived DNA adducts formed in vivo and in vitro were accomplished previously by (32)P-postlabeling/HPLC methodology. In this article, we report the development of a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ES-MS/MS) method to detect DHP-derived DNA adducts formed in vitro and in vivo. The method is used to quantify the levels of DHP-2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) and DHP-2'-deoxyadenosine (dA) adducts by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) analysis in the presence of known quantities of isotopically labeled DHP-dG and DHP-dA internal standards. This HPLC-ES-MS/MS method is accurate and precise. When applied to liver samples from rats treated with the pyrrolizidine alkaloids riddelliine and monocrotaline, the method provided significant new information regarding the mechanism of DNA adduct formation.

  16. Benzene-derived N2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-deoxyguanosine adduct: UvrABC incision and its conformation in DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, Bo; Rodriguez, Ben; Yang, Yanu; Guliaev, Anton B.; Chenna, Ahmed

    2010-06-14

    Benzene, a ubiquitous human carcinogen, forms DNA adducts through its metabolites such as p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) and hydroquinone (HQ). N(2)-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-4-HOPh-dG) is the principal adduct identified in vivo by (32)P-postlabeling in cells or animals treated with p-BQ or HQ. To study its effect on repair specificity and replication fidelity, we recently synthesized defined oligonucleotides containing a site-specific adduct using phosphoramidite chemistry. We here report the repair of this adduct by Escherichia coli UvrABC complex, which performs the initial damage recognition and incision steps in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. We first showed that the p-BQ-treated plasmid was efficiently cleaved by the complex, indicating the formation of DNA lesions that are substrates for NER. Using a 40-mer substrate, we found that UvrABC incises the DNA strand containing N(2)-4-HOPh-dG in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The specificity of such repair was also compared with that of DNA glycosylases and damage-specific endonucleases of E. coli, both of which were found to have no detectable activity toward N(2)-4-HOPh-dG. To understand why this adduct is specifically recognized and processed by UvrABC, molecular modeling studies were performed. Analysis of molecular dynamics trajectories showed that stable G:C-like hydrogen bonding patterns of all three Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds are present within the N(2)-4-HOPh-G:C base pair, with the hydroxyphenyl ring at an almost planar position. In addition, N(2)-4-HOPh-dG has a tendency to form more stable stacking interactions than a normal G in B-type DNA. These conformational properties may be critical in differential recognition of this adduct by specific repair enzymes.

  17. Accumulation and persistence of nicotine derived DNA and hemoglobin adducts in mice after multiple administration of {sup 14}C-nicotine at low dose level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hongfang; Li, Hongli; Zhu, Jiadan; Wang, Haifang; Liu, Yuanfang [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering; Liu, Kexin; Peng, Shixiang [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics

    2004-07-01

    The hypothetic role of nicotine in causing smoking related diseases has not been well established. Based on our early finding of the genotoxicity of nicotine, a sub-chronic study on the accumulation and persistence of nicotine derived DNA and hemoglobin (Hb) adducts in mice following multiple low dose exposures was carried out by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). AMS is a sophisticated ultrasensitive nuclear method, which facilitates the detection of adduction of DNA and other bio-macromolecules with xenobiotics at human relevant environmental dose levels. Briefly, in this study [N-{sup 14}CH{sub 3}]-nicotine (s.a. 16.2 {mu}Ci/{mu}mol) was administered to mice by gavage once daily at 3.0 {mu}g/kg b.w., which is equivalent to an estimated nicotine dose inhaled by a 70 kg person smoking 5 cigarettes, for 14 consecutive days. Lung DNA, liver DNA and Hb were isolated from tissues and blood samples which were collected at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 15, 17, 21 and 25 days time point, respectively. (orig.)

  18. Miscoding properties of 1,N{sup 6}-ethanoadenine, a DNA adduct derived from reaction with antitumor agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, Bo; Guliaev, Anton B.; Chenna, Ahmed; Singer, B.

    2003-03-05

    1,N{sup 6}-Ethanoadenine (EA) is an exocyclic adduct formed from DNA reaction with the antitumor agent, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). To understand the role of this adduct in the mechanism of mutagenicity or carcinogenicity by BCNU, an oligonucleotide with a site-specific EA was synthesized using phosphoramidite chemistry. We now report the in vitro miscoding properties of EA in translesion DNA synthesis catalyzed by mammalian DNA polymerases (pols) {alpha}, {beta}, {eta} and {iota}. These data were also compared with those obtained for the structurally related exocyclic adduct, 1,N{sup 6}-ethenoadenine ({var_epsilon}A). Using a primer extension assay, both pols {alpha} and {beta} were primarily blocked by EA or {var_epsilon}A with very minor extension. Pol {eta} a member of the Y family of polymerases, was capable of catalyzing a significant amount of bypass across both adducts. Pol {eta} incorporated all four nucleotides opposite EA and {var_epsilon}A, but with differential preferences and mainly in an error-prone manner. Human pol {iota}, a paralog of human pol {eta}, was blocked by both adducts with a very small amount of synthesis past {var_epsilon}A. It incorporated C and, to a much lesser extent, T, opposite either adduct. In addition, the presence of an A adduct, e.g. {var_epsilon}A, could affect the specificity of pol {iota} toward the template T immediately 3 feet to the adduct. In conclusion, the four polymerases assayed on templates containing an EA or {var_epsilon}A showed differential bypass capacity and nucleotide incorporation specificity, with the two adducts not completely identical in influencing these properties. Although there was a measurable extent of error-free nucleotide incorporation, all these polymerases primarily misincorporated opposite EA, indicating that the adduct, similar to {var_epsilon}A, is a miscoding lesion.

  19. DNA Adducts aand Human Atherosclerotis Lesions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strejc, Přemysl; Boubelík, O.; Stávková, Zdena; Chvátalová, Irena; Šrám, Radim

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2001), s. 662 ISSN 0008-5472. [Annual Meeting of Proceedings /92./. 24.03.2001-28.03.2001, New Orleans] R&D Projects: GA MZd NM10 Keywords : DNA adducts * LDL cholesterol Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  20. Theoretical investigations on the formation of nitrobenzanthrone-DNA adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Volker M; Phillips, David H; Reynisson, Jóhannes

    2011-09-07

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a potent mutagen and suspected human carcinogen identified in diesel exhaust. The thermochemical formation cascades were calculated for six 3-NBA-derived DNA adducts employing its arylnitrenium ion as precursor using density functional theory (DFT). Clear exothermic pathways were found for four adducts, i.e., 2-(2'-deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone, 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone, N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone and 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone. All four have been observed to be formed in cell-free experimental systems. The formation of N-(2'-deoxyadenosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone is predicted to be not thermochemically viable explaining its absence in either in vitro or in vivo model systems. However, 2-(2'-deoxyadenosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone, can be formed, albeit not as a major product, and is a viable candidate for an unknown adenine adduct observed experimentally. 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA), an isomer of 3-NBA, was also included in the calculations; it has a higher abundance in ambient air than 3-NBA, but a much lower genotoxic potency. Similar thermochemical profiles were obtained for the calculated 2-NBA-derived DNA adducts. This leads to the conclusion that enzymatic activation as well as the stability of its arylnitrenium ion are important determinants of 2-NBA genotoxicity.

  1. Chemistry and Biology of Aflatoxin-DNA Adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Michael P.; Banerjee, Surajit; Brown, Kyle L.; Egli, Martin (Vanderbilt)

    2012-03-27

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal contaminant of stored rice, wheat, corn, and other grainstuffs, and peanuts. This is of concern to human health because it produces the mycotoxin aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}), which is genotoxic and is implicated in the etiology of liver cancer. AFB{sub 1} is oxidized in vivo by cytochrome P450 to form aflatoxin B{sub 1} epoxide, which forms an N7-dG adduct (AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG) in DNA. The latter rearranges to a formamidopyrimidine (AFB{sub 1}-FAPY) derivative that equilibrates between {alpha} and {beta} anomers of the deoxyribose. In DNA, both the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adducts intercalate above the 5'-face of the damaged guanine. Each produces G {yields} T transversions in Escherichia coli, but the AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adduct is more mutagenic. The Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) provides a model for understanding error-prone bypass of the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adducts. It bypasses the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct, but it conducts error-prone replication past the AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adduct, including mis-insertion of dATP, consistent with the G {yields} T mutations characteristic of AFB{sub 1} mutagenesis in E. coli. Crystallographic analyses of a series of binary and ternary complexes with the Dpo4 polymerase revealed differing orientations of the N7-C8 bond of the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct as compared to the N{sup 5}-C8 bond in the AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adduct, and differential accommodation of the intercalated AFB{sub 1} moieties within the active site. These may modulate AFB{sub 1} lesion bypass by this polymerase.

  2. Breaking the dogma: PCB-derived semiquinone free radicals do not form covalent adducts with DNA, GSH, and amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangpradit, Orarat; Rahaman, Asif; Mariappan, S V Santhana; Buettner, Garry R; Robertson, Larry W; Luthe, Gregor

    2016-02-01

    Covalent bond formations of free radical metabolites with biomolecules like DNA and proteins are thought to constitute a major mechanism of toxicity and carcinogenesis. Glutathione (GSH) is generally accepted as a radical scavenger protecting the cell. In the present study, we investigated a semiquinone radical (SQ(●-)) metabolite of the semivolatile 4-chlorobiphenyl, using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and oxygen consumption. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were also employed to elucidate the radical interaction with DNA, amino acids, and GSH. We found that DNA and oligonucleotides stabilized SQ(●-) by electron delocalization in the π-stacking system, resulting in persistent radical intercalated, rather than forming a covalent bond with SQ(●-). This finding was strongly supported by the semiempirical calculation of the semioccupied molecular orbital and the linear combination of the atomic orbitals, indicating 9.8 kcal mol(-1) energy gain. The insertion of SQ(●-) into the DNA strand may result in DNA strand breaks and interruption of DNA replication process or even activate radical mediated secondary reactions. The presence of amino acids resulted in a decrease of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal of SQ(●-) and correlated with their isoelectric points. The pH shifts the equilibrium of the dianions of hydroquinone and influenced indirectly the formation of SQ(●-). Similar findings were observed with GSH and Cys. GSH and Cys functioned as indirect radical scavengers; their activities depend on their chemical equilibria with the corresponding quinones, and their further reaction via Michael addition. The generally accepted role of GSH as radical scavenger in biological systems should be reconsidered based upon these findings, questioning the generally accepted view of radical interaction of semiquinones with biologically active compounds, like DNA, amino acids

  3. DNA-nicotine adduction of lung and liver of mice exposed to passive smoking studied by AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Qin; Sun Hongfang; Shi Jingyuan; Liu Yuanfang; Wang Jianjun; Lu Xiangyang; Li Kun; Zhao Qiang

    1997-01-01

    The author presents the measurement of adduction of mice lung or liver DNA with nicotine by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Mice were exposed in a toxicity infecting chamber filled up with cigarette smoke for a period of time of simulate the exposure of mice to passive smoking. The dose of nicotine inhaled by mice was determined. The results of AMS showed, when the dose of inhaled nicotine ranged from 33 μg/kg to 330 μg/kg, the adducts number of lung DNA was 10 3 -10 4 adducts/10 12 nucleotides, and the adducts increased linearly with increasing dose of nicotine; the adducts number of liver DNA reached to 10 4 -10 5 adducts/10 12 nucleotides, when the dose of nicotine ranged from 99 μg/kg to 330 μg/kg, and the adducts increased vigorously as dose of nicotine increased. Comparing the DNA adducts levels of the same nicotine dose, liver DNA adducts were more than lung DNA adducts. This study also suggested that the other components of cigarette smoke have synergic effect on the formation of nicotine derived DNA adducts

  4. Mutagenicity of acrolein and acrolein-induced DNA adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing-yu; Zhu, Mao-xiang; Xie, Jian-ping

    2010-01-01

    Acrolein mutagenicity relies on DNA adduct formation. Reaction of acrolein with deoxyguanosine generates alpha-hydroxy-1, N(2)-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine (alpha-HOPdG) and gamma-hydroxy-1, N(2)-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine (gamma-HOPdG) adducts. These two DNA adducts behave differently in mutagenicity. gamma-HOPdG is the major DNA adduct and it can lead to interstrand DNA-DNA and DNA-peptide/protein cross-links, which may induce strong mutagenicity; however, gamma-HOPdG can be repaired by some DNA polymerases complex and lessen its mutagenic effects. alpha-HOPdG is formed much less than gamma-HOPdG, but difficult to be repaired, which contributes to accumulation in vivo. Results of acrolein mutagenicity studies haven't been confirmed, which is mainly due to the conflicting mutagenicity data of the major acrolein adduct (gamma-HOPdG). The minor alpha-HOPdG is mutagenic in both in vitro and in vivo test systems. The role of alpha-HOPdG in acrolein mutagenicity needs further investigation. The inconsistent result of acrolein mutagenicity can be attributed, at least partially, to a variety of acrolein-DNA adducts formation and their repair in diverse detection systems. Recent results of detection of acrolein-DNA adduct in human lung tissues and analysis of P53 mutation spectra in acrolein-treated cells may shed some light on mechanisms of acrolein mutagenicity. These aspects are covered in this mini review.

  5. Photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yun-bo

    1988-03-01

    This thesis consists of three main parts and totally eight chapters. In Part I, The author will present studies on the photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, specifically, the wavelength dependencies for the photoreversals of thymidine-HMT (4'-hydroxymethyl-4, 5', 8-trimenthylpsoralen) monoadducts and diadduct and the same adducts incorporated in DNA helices and the wavelength dependecies for the photocrossslinking of thymidine-HMT monoadducts in double-stranded helices. In Part II, The author will report some biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, i.e., the effects on double-stranded DNA stability, DNA structure, and transcription by E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases. Finally, The author will focus on the applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry to investigation of protein-DNA interaction during transcription, which includes the interaction of E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases with DNA in elongation complexes arrested at specific psoralen-DNA adduct sites as revealed by DNase I footprinting experiments. 123 refs., 52 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, J.; Gallois, J.; Pelhuet, L.; Devier, M.H.; Budzinski, H.; Pottier, D.; Andre, V.; Cachot, J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a 32 P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of 32 P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 μg g -1 dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 μg g -1 dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/10 8 nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 μg g -1 dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 μg g -1 dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/10 8 nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced 32 P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in zebra mussels could be a suitable biomarker to monitor

  7. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Goff, J. [GRECAN, UPRES EA-1772, University of Caen, Caen (France); Gallois, J. [Laboratory F. Duncombe, Conseil General du Calvados, Caen (France); Pelhuet, L. [LPTC, UMR-5472 CNRS, University Bordeaux I, Bordeaux (France); Devier, M.H. [LPTC, UMR-5472 CNRS, University Bordeaux I, Bordeaux (France); Budzinski, H. [LPTC, UMR-5472 CNRS, University Bordeaux I, Bordeaux (France); Pottier, D. [GRECAN, UPRES EA-1772, University of Caen, Caen (France); Andre, V. [GRECAN, UPRES EA-1772, University of Caen, Caen (France); Cachot, J. [LEMA, UPRES EA-3222, IFRMP 23, University of Le Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, B.P. 540, 76058 Le Havre Cedex (France)]. E-mail: jerome.cachot@univ-lehavre.fr

    2006-08-12

    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a {sup 32}P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of {sup 32}P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/10{sup 8} nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/10{sup 8} nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced {sup 32}P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in

  8. DNA adduct formation by the ubiquitous environmental pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone and its metabolites in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlt, Volker M.; Sorg, Bernd L.; Osborne, Martin; Hewer, Alan; Seidel, Albrecht; Schmeiser, Heinz H.; Phillips, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Diesel exhaust is known to induce tumours in animals and is suspected of being carcinogenic in humans. Of the compounds found in diesel exhaust, 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is an extremely potent mutagen and suspected human carcinogen forming multiple DNA adducts in vitro. 3-Aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA), 3-acetylaminobenzanthrone (3-Ac-ABA), and N-acetyl-N-hydroxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-Ac-N-OH-ABA) were identified as 3-NBA metabolites. In order to gain insight into the pathways of metabolic activation leading to 3-NBA-derived DNA adducts we treated Wistar rats intraperitoneally with 2 mg/kg body weight of 3-NBA, 3-ABA, 3-Ac-ABA, or N-Ac-N-OH-ABA and compared DNA adducts present in different organs. With each compound either four or five DNA adduct spots were detected by TLC in all tissues examined (lung, liver, kidney, heart, pancreas, and colon) using the nuclease P1 or butanol enrichment version of the 32 P-postlabelling method, respectively. Using HPLC co-chromatographic analysis we showed that all major 3-NBA-DNA adducts produced in vivo in rats are derived from reductive metabolites bound to purine bases and lack an N-acetyl group. Our results indicate that 3-NBA metabolites (3-ABA, 3-Ac-ABA and N-Ac-N-OH-ABA) undergo several biotransformations and that N-hydroxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-OH-ABA) appears to be the common intermediate in 3-NBA-derived DNA adduct formation. Therefore, 3-NBA-DNA adducts are useful biomarkers for exposure to 3-NBA and its metabolites and may help to identify enzymes involved in their metabolic activation

  9. Linking the generation of DNA adducts to lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppi, Marcello; Munnia, Armelle; Cellai, Filippo; Bruzzone, Marco; Peluso, Marco E M

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. DNA adducts are considered a reliable biomarker that reflects carcinogen exposure to tobacco smoke, but the central question is what is the relationship of DNA adducts and cancer? Therefore, we investigated this relationship by a meta-analysis of twenty-two studies with bronchial adducts for a total of 1091 subjects, 887 lung cancer cases and 204 apparently healthy individuals with no evidence of lung cancer. Our study shows that these adducts are significantly associated to increase lung cancer risk. The value of Mean Ratio lung-cancer (MR) of bronchial adducts resulting from the random effects model was 2.64, 95% C.I. 2.00-3.50, in overall lung cancer cases as compared to controls. The significant difference, with lung cancer patients having significant higher levels of bronchial adducts than controls, persisted after stratification for smoking habits. The MR lung-cancer value between lung cancer patients and controls for smokers was 2.03, 95% C.I. 1.42-2.91, for ex-smokers 3.27, 95% C.I. 1.49-7.18, and for non-smokers was 3.81, 95% C.I. 1.85-7.85. Next, we found that the generation of bronchial adducts is significantly related to inhalation exposure to tobacco smoke carcinogens confirming its association with volatile carcinogens. The MR smoking estimate of bronchial adducts resulting from meta-regression was 2.28, 95% Confidence Interval (C.I.) 1.10-4.73, in overall smokers in respect to non-smokers. The present work provides strengthening of the hypothesis that bronchial adducts are not simply relate to exposure, but are a cause of chemical-induced lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. DNA adducts: Mass spectrometry methods and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, P.B.; Brown, K.; Tompkins, E.; Emms, V.L.; Jones, D.J.L.; Singh, R.; Phillips, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    Detection of DNA adducts is widely used for the monitoring of exposure to genotoxic carcinogens. Knowledge of the nature and amounts of DNA adducts formed in vivo also gives valuable information regarding the mutational effects that may result from particular exposures. The power of mass spectrometry (MS) to achieve qualitative and quantitative analyses of human DNA adducts has increased greatly in recent years with the development of improved chromatographic interfaces and ionisation sources. Adducts have been detected on nucleic acid bases, 2'-deoxynucleosides or 2'-deoxynucleotides, with LC-MS/MS being the favoured technique for many of these analyses. Our current applications of this technique include the determination of N7-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-guanine, which was postulated to be found as a DNA repair product in urine following exposure to acrylamide, and of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyadenosine, as markers of oxidative damage in human lymphocyte DNA. Higher sensitivity (with a detection limit of 1-10 adducts/10 12 nucleotides) may be achieved by the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), although this requires the presence of certain isotopes, such as [ 14 C], in the material being analysed. In order to make this technique more amenable for studies of human exposure to environmental carcinogens, new postlabelling techniques, incorporating [ 14 C] into specific DNA adducts after formation, are being developed. It is expected that combining the use of advanced MS techniques with existing 32 P-postlabelling and immunochemical methodologies will contribute greatly to the understanding of the burden of human exposure to environmental carcinogens

  11. Quantitation of DNA Adducts Induced by 1,3-Butadiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaraju, Dewakar; Villalta, Peter W.; Wickramaratne, Susith; Swenberg, James; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2014-07-01

    Human exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) present in automobile exhaust, cigarette smoke, and forest fires is of great concern because of its potent carcinogenicity. The adverse health effects of BD are mediated by its epoxide metabolites such as 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), which covalently modify genomic DNA to form promutagenic nucleobase adducts. Because of their direct role in cancer, BD-DNA adducts can be used as mechanism-based biomarkers of BD exposure. In the present work, a mass spectrometry-based methodology was developed for accurate, sensitive, and precise quantification of EB-induced N-7-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl) guanine (EB-GII) DNA adducts in vivo. In our approach, EB-GII adducts are selectively released from DNA backbone by neutral thermal hydrolysis, followed by ultrafiltration, offline HPLC purification, and isotope dilution nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 analysis on an Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. Following method validation, EB-GII lesions were quantified in human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells treated with micromolar concentrations of EB and in liver tissues of rats exposed to sub-ppm concentrations of BD (0.5-1.5 ppm). EB-GII concentrations increased linearly from 1.15 ± 0.23 to 10.11 ± 0.45 adducts per 106 nucleotides in HT1080 cells treated with 0.5-10 μM DEB. EB-GII concentrations in DNA of laboratory rats exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm BD were 0.17 ± 0.05, 0.33 ± 0.08, and 0.50 ± 0.04 adducts per 106 nucleotides, respectively. We also used the new method to determine the in vivo half-life of EB-GII adducts in rat liver DNA (2.20 ± 0.12 d) and to detect EB-GII in human blood DNA. To our knowledge, this is the first application of nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 Orbitrap methodology to quantitative analysis of DNA adducts in vivo.

  12. MTHFR polymorphisms, folate intake and carcinogen DNA adducts in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Asomaning, Kofi; Su, Li; Wain, John C; Mark, Eugene J; Christiani, David C

    2012-09-01

    The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genes and folate in one-carbon metabolism are essential for DNA methylation and synthesis. However, their role in carcinogen DNA damage in target lung tissue, a dosimeter for cancer risk, is not known. Our study aimed to investigate the association between genetic and nutritional one-carbon metabolism factors and DNA adducts in target lung. Data on 135 lung cancer cases from the Massachusetts General Hospital were studied. Genotyping was completed for MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131). Information on dietary intake for one-carbon related micronutrients, folate and other B vitamin was derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire. DNA adducts in lung were measured by (32) P-postlabeling. After adjusting for potential confounders, DNA adduct levels in lung significantly increased by 69.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.5% to 171.5%] for the MTHFR 1298AC+CC genotype. The high risk group, combining the A1298C (AC+CC) plus C677T (CT+TT) genotypes, had significantly enhanced levels of lung adducts by 210.7% (95% CI, 21.4% to 695.2%) in contrast to the A1298C (AA) plus C677T (CC) genotypes. Elevation of DNA adduct was pronounced-111.3% (95% CI, -3.0 to 360.5%) among 1298AC+CC patients, who consumed the lowest level of folate intake as compared to 1298AA individuals with highest tertile of intake. These results indicate that DNA adducts levels are influenced by MTHFR polymorphisms and low folate consumption, suggesting an important role of genetic and nutritional factors in protecting DNA damage from lung carcinogen in at-risk populations. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  13. Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum)-induced DNA adducts in mouse tissues are different from the adduct induced by the activated form of the Bracken carcinogen ptaquiloside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, R N; O'Connor, P J; Prakash, A S; Shahin, M; Povey, A C

    2001-02-23

    Following treatment with bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) extract and bracken spores a number of DNA adducts were detected by (32)P-postlabeling. Three of these adducts have been described previously (Povey et al., Br. J. Cancer (1996) 74, 1342-1348) and in this study, using a slightly different protocol, four new adducts, with higher chromatographic mobility, were detected at levels ranging from 50 to 230% of those previously described. When DNA was treated in vitro with activated ptaquiloside (APT) and analysed by butanol extraction or nuclease P1 treatment, only one adduct was detected by (32)P-postlabeling. This adduct was not present in the DNA from mice treated with bracken fern or spores, suggesting either that bracken contains genotoxins other than ptaquiloside or that the metabolism of ptaquiloside produces genotoxins not reflected by activated ptaquiloside. However, as the ATP-derived adduct has been detected previously in ileal DNA of bracken-fed calves, species-specific differences in the metabolism of bracken genotoxins may exist, thereby leading to differences in their biological outcomes. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  14. Formation of 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz(a)anthracene-DNA adducts from 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in mouse epidermis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGiovanni, J.; Nebzydoski, A.P.; Decina, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    The formation of DNA adducts from [ 3 H]-7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz(a)anthracene (7-OHM-12-MBA) and [ 3 H]-7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in the epidermis of Sencar mice was analyzed. Comparison of Sephadex LH-20 chromatographic profiles of DNA samples isolated from mice treated with DMBA or 7-OHM-12-MBA suggested that the DMBA-treated animals contained DNA adduct(s) derived from the further metabolism of 7-OHM-12-MBA. Further analysis of DNA samples from DMBA-treated mice by high-pressure liquid chromatography demonstrated the presence of 5 DNA adducts which were chromatographically indistinguishable from the DNA adducts formed in 7-OHM-12-MBA-treated mice. Epidermal homogenates were utilized to catalyze the covalent binding of [ 3 H]DMBA and [ 3 H]-7-OHM-12-MBA to calf thymus DNA in vitro. Under conditions of limiting concentrations of [ 3 H]DMBA, the majority of the DNA adducts formed chromatographed in regions where 7-OHM-12-MBA-DNA adducts eluted. A major DMBA-DNA adduct formed in this in vitro system eluted with the same retention time as did the major 7-OHM-12-MBA-DNA adduct formed in mouse skin in vivo. These results when coupled with the in vivo data suggest that 7-OHM-12-MBA is an intermediate for at least some of the binding of DMBA to epidermal DNA in Sencar mice

  15. Detection of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid DNA Adducts in Livers of Cattle Poisoned with Heliotropium europaeum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peter P; Xia, Qingsu; He, Xiaobo; Barel, Shimon; Edery, Nir; Beland, Frederick A; Shimshoni, Jakob A

    2017-03-20

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are among the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Exposure of humans and livestock to toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids through the intake of contaminated food and feed may result in poisoning, leading to devastating epidemics. During February 2014, 73 mixed breed female beef cows from the Galilee region of Israel were accidently fed pyrrolizidine alkaloid contaminated hay for 42 days, resulting in the sudden death of 24 cows over a period of 63 days. The remaining cows were slaughtered 2.5 months after the last ingestion of the contaminated hay. In this study, we report the histopathological analysis of the livers from five of the slaughtered cows and quantitation of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts from their livers and three livers of control cows fed with feed free of weeds producing pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Histopathological examination revealed that the five cows suffered from varying degrees of bile duct proliferation, fibrosis, and megalocytosis. Selected reaction monitoring HPLC-ES-MS/MS analysis indicated that (±)-6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts were formed in all five livers. The livers from the three control cows did not have any liver damage nor any indication of DHP-DNA adduct formed. These results confirm that the toxicity observed in these cattle was caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning and that pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts could still be detected and quantified in the livers of the chronically poisoned cows 2.5 months after their last exposure to the contaminated feed, suggesting that DHP-derived DNA adducts can serve as biomarkers for pyrrolizidine alkaloid exposure and poisoning.

  16. Comprehensive DNA Adduct Analysis Reveals Pulmonary Inflammatory Response Contributes to Genotoxic Action of Magnetite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kousuke Ishino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized-magnetite (MGT is widely utilized in medicinal and industrial fields; however, its toxicological properties are not well documented. In our previous report, MGT showed genotoxicity in both in vitro and in vivo assay systems, and it was suggested that inflammatory responses exist behind the genotoxicity. To further clarify mechanisms underlying the genotoxicity, a comprehensive DNA adduct (DNA adductome analysis was conducted using DNA samples derived from the lungs of mice exposed to MGT. In total, 30 and 42 types of DNA adducts were detected in the vehicle control and MGT-treated groups, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA against a subset of DNA adducts was applied and several adducts, which are deduced to be formed by inflammation or oxidative stress, as the case of etheno-deoxycytidine (εdC, revealed higher contributions to MGT exposure. By quantitative-LC-MS/MS analysis, εdC levels were significantly higher in MGT-treated mice than those of the vehicle control. Taken together with our previous data, it is suggested that inflammatory responses might be involved in the genotoxicity induced by MGT in the lungs of mice.

  17. DNA adduct formation in B6C3F1 mice and Fischer-344 rats exposed to 1,2,3-trichloropropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, D K; Lilly, P D; Anderegg, R J; Swenberg, J A

    1995-06-01

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) is a multispecies, multisite carcinogen which has been found to be an environmental contaminant. In this study, we have characterized and measured DNA adducts formed in vivo following exposure to TCP. [14C]TCP was administered to male B6C3F1 mice and Fischer-344 rats by gavage at doses used in the NTP carcinogenesis bioassay. Both target and nontarget organs were examined for the formation of DNA adducts. Adducts were hydrolyzed from DNA by neutral thermal or mild acid hydrolysis, isolated by HPLC, and detected and quantitated by measurement of radioactivity. The HPLC elution profile of radioactivity suggested that one major DNA adduct was formed. To characterize this adduct, larger yields were induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of TCP (300 mg/kg). The DNA adduct was isolated by HPLC based on coelution with the radiolabeled adduct, and compared to previously identified adducts. The isolated adduct coeluted with S-[1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(N7-guanyl)-ethyl]glutathione, an adduct derived from the structurally related carcinogen 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP). Analysis by electrospray mass spectrometry suggested that the TCP-induced adduct and the DBCP-derived adduct were identical. The 14C-labeled DNA adduct was distributed widely among the organs examined. Adduct levels varied depending on species, organ, and dose. In rat organs, adduct concentrations for the low dose ranged from 0.8 to 6.6 mumol per mol guanine and from 7.1 to 47.6 mumol per mol guanine for the high dose. In the mouse, adduct yields ranged from 0.32 to 28.1 mumol per mol guanine for the low dose and from 12.2 to 208.1 mumol per mol guanine for the high dose. The relationship between DNA adduct formation and organ-specific tumorigenesis was unclear. Although relatively high concentrations of DNA adducts were detected in target organs, several nontarget sites also contained high adduct levels. Our data suggest that factors in addition to adduct formation

  18. Differential repair of platinum-DNA adducts in human bladder and testicular tumor continuous cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedford, P.; Fichtinger-Schepman, A.M.; Shellard, S.A.; Walker, M.C.; Masters, J.R.; Hill, B.T.

    1988-01-01

    The formation and removal of four platinum-DNA adducts were immunochemically quantitated in cultured cells derived from a human bladder carcinoma cell line (RT112) and from two lines derived from germ cell tumors of the testis (833K and SUSA), following exposure in vitro to 16.7 microM (5 micrograms/ml) cisplatin. RT112 cells were least sensitive to the drug and were proficient in the repair of all four adducts, whereas SUSA cells, which were 5-fold more sensitive, were deficient in the repair of DNA-DNA intrastrand cross-links in the sequences pApG and pGpG. Despite expressing a similar sensitivity to SUSA cells, 833K cells were proficient in the repair of all four adducts, although less so than the RT112 bladder tumor cells. In addition, SUSA cells were unable to repair DNA-DNA interstrand cross-links whereas 50-85% of these lesions were removed in RT112 and 833K cells 24 h following drug exposure. It is possible that the inability of SuSa cells to repair platinated DNA may account for their hypersensitivity to cisplatin

  19. Formation of DNA adducts in mouse tissues after 1-nitropyrene administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    DNA adducts were isolated and characterized in mouse lung, liver and kidney after intratracheal instillation of [ 3 H]-1-nitropyrene (1-NP). HPLC analysis of the enzymatically digested DNA indicated the presence of multiple DNA adducts in mouse lung, liver and kidney. These results indicate that DNA adducts of 1-NP are formed in mouse lung, liver and kidney after intratracheal instillation of 1-NP; the HPLC profiles of the multiple adducts suggests that adducts may be formed via metabolic pathways that involve both nitroreduction and ring-oxidation. 6 references, 1 figure

  20. Detection of Adriamycin-DNA adducts by accelerator mass spectrometry at clinically relevant Adriamycin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, Kate E; Cutts, Suzanne M; Ognibene, Ted J; Henderson, Paul T; Phillips, Don R

    2008-09-01

    Limited sensitivity of existing assays has prevented investigation of whether Adriamycin-DNA adducts are involved in the anti-tumour potential of Adriamycin. Previous detection has achieved a sensitivity of a few Adriamycin-DNA adducts/10(4) bp DNA, but has required the use of supra-clinical drug concentrations. This work sought to measure Adriamycin-DNA adducts at sub-micromolar doses using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a technique with origins in geochemistry for radiocarbon dating. We have used conditions previously validated (by less sensitive decay counting) to extract [(14)C]Adriamycin-DNA adducts from cells and adapted the methodology to AMS detection. Here we show the first direct evidence of Adriamycin-DNA adducts at clinically-relevant Adriamycin concentrations. [(14)C]Adriamycin treatment (25 nM) resulted in 4.4 +/- 1.0 adducts/10(7) bp ( approximately 1300 adducts/cell) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, representing the best sensitivity and precision reported to date for the covalent binding of Adriamycin to DNA. The exceedingly sensitive nature of AMS has enabled over three orders of magnitude increased sensitivity of Adriamycin-DNA adduct detection and revealed adduct formation within an hour of drug treatment. This method has been shown to be highly reproducible for the measurement of Adriamycin-DNA adducts in tumour cells in culture and can now be applied to the detection of these adducts in human tissues.

  1. Genotoxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids — Mechanisms Leading to DNA Adduct Formation and Tumorigenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming W. Chou

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Plants that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids are widely distributed in the world. Although pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been shown to be genotoxic and tumorigenic in experimental animals, the mechanisms of actions have not been fully understood. The results of our recent mechanistic studies suggest that pyrrolizidine alkaloids induce tumors via a genotoxic mechanism mediated by 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5Hpyrrolizine (DHP-derived DNA adduct formation. This mechanism may be general to most carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, including the retronecine-, heliotridine-, and otonecinetype pyrrolizidine alkaloids. It is hypothesized that these DHP-derived DNA adducts are potential biomarkers of pyrrolizidine alkaloid tumorigenicity. The mechanisms that involve the formation of DNA cross-linking and endogenous DNA adducts are also discussed.

  2. Line narrowing spectroscopic studies of DNA-carcinogen adducts and DNA-dye complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Myungkoo [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-12-06

    Laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing and non-line narrowing spectroscopic methods were applied to conformational studies of stable DNA adducts of the 7β, 8α-dihydoxy-9α, l0α-epoxy-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo[α]pyrene (anti-BPDE). Stereochemically distinct (+)-trans-, (-)-trans-, (+)-cis- and (-)-cis adducts of anti-BPDE bound to exocyclic amino group of the central guanine in an 11-mer oligonucleotide, exist in a mixture of conformations in frozen aqueous buffer matrices. The (+)-trans adduct adopts primarily an external conformation with a smaller fraction ( ~25 %) exists in a partially base-stacked conformation. Both cis adducts were found to be intercalated with significant π-π stacking interactions between the pyrenyl residues and the bases. Conformations of the trans-adduct of (+)-anti -BPDE in 11-mer oligonucleotides were studied as a function of flanking bases. In single stranded form the adduct at G2 or G3 (5 ft-flanking, base guanine) adopts a conformation with strong, interaction with the bases. In contrast, the adduct with a 5ft-flanking, thymine exists in a primarily helixexternal conformation. Similar differences were observed in the double stranded oligonucleotides. The nature of the 3ft-flanking base has little influence on the conformational equilibrium of the (+)-trans-anti BPDE-dG adduct. The formation and repair of BPDE-N2-dG in DNA isolated from the skin of mice treated topically with benzo[α]pyrene (BP) was studied. Low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy of the intact DNA identified the major adduct as (+)-trans-anti-BPDE-N-dG, and the minor adduct fraction consisted mainly of (+)-cis-anti-BPDE-N2-dG.

  3. Line narrowing spectroscopic studies of DNA-carcinogen adducts and DNA-dye complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Myungkoo.

    1995-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing and non-line narrowing spectroscopic methods were applied to conformational studies of stable DNA adducts of the 7β, 8α-dihydoxy-9α, l0α-epoxy-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo[α]pyrene (anti-BPDE). Stereochemically distinct (+)-trans-, (-)-trans-, (+)-cis- and (-)-cis adducts of anti-BPDE bound to exocyclic amino group of the central guanine in an 11-mer oligonucleotide, exist in a mixture of conformations in frozen aqueous buffer matrices. The (+)-trans adduct adopts primarily an external conformation with a smaller fraction ( ∼ 25 %) exists in a partially base-stacked conformation. Both cis adducts were found to be intercalated with significant π-π stacking interactions between the pyrenyl residues and the bases. Conformations of the trans-adduct of (+)-anti -BPDE in 11-mer oligonucleotides were studied as a function of flanking bases. In single stranded form the adduct at G 2 or G 3 (5 ft-flanking, base guanine) adopts a conformation with strong, interaction with the bases. In contrast, the adduct with a 5ft-flanking, thymine exists in a primarily helixexternal conformation. Similar differences were observed in the double stranded oligonucleotides. The nature of the 3ft-flanking base has little influence on the conformational equilibrium of the (+)-trans-anti BPDE-dG adduct. The formation and repair of BPDE-N 2 -dG in DNA isolated from the skin of mice treated topically with benzo[α]pyrene (BP) was studied. Low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy of the intact DNA identified the major adduct as (+)-trans-anti-BPDE-N-dG, and the minor adduct fraction consisted mainly of (+)-cis-anti-BPDE-N 2 -dG

  4. Effect of turmeric and curcumin on BP-DNA adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundan, M A; Chacko, M C; Annapurna, V V; Krishnaswamy, K

    1993-03-01

    Many human cancers that are widely prevalent today can be prevented through modifications in life-styles, of which diet appears to be an important agent. Several dietary constituents modulate the process of carcinogenesis and prevent genotoxicity. Many plant constituents including turmeric appear to be potent antimutagens and antioxidants. Therefore the modulatory effects of turmeric and curcumin on the levels of benzo[a]pyrene induced DNA adducts in the livers of rats were studied by the newly developed 32P-postlabelling assay method. Turmeric when fed at 0.1, 0.5 and 3% and the active principle of turmeric (curcumin) when fed at a level of 0.03% in the diet for 4 weeks significantly reduced the level of BP-DNA adducts including the major adduct dG-N2-BP, formed within 24 h in response to a single i.p. injection of benzo[a]pyrene. The significance of these effects in terms of the potential anticarcinogenic effects of turmeric is discussed. Further, these results strengthen the various other biological effects of turmeric which have direct relevance to anticarcinogenesis and chemoprevention.

  5. Decay kinetics of nicotine/NNK-DNA adducts in vivo studied by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, H.F.; He, L.; Liu, Y.F.; Liu, K.X.; Lu, X.Y.; Wang, J.J.; Ma, H.J.; Li, K.

    2000-01-01

    The decay kinetics of nicotine-DNA adducts and NNK-DNA adducts in mice liver after single dosing was studied by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The decay is characterized by a two-stage process. The half-lives of nicotine-DNA adducts are 1.3 d (4-24 h) and 7.0 d (1-21 d), while for NNK-DNA adducts are 0.7 d (4-24 h) and 18.0 d (1-21 d). The relatively faster decay of nicotine-DNA adducts suggests that the genotoxicity of nicotine is weaker than that of NNK. The in vitro study shows that the metabolization of nicotine is necessary for the final formation of nicotine-DNA adducts, and nicotine Δ1'(5') iminium ion is a probable metabolite species that binds to DNA molecule covalently

  6. Biomonitoring DNA Adducts of Cooked Meat Carcinogens in Human Prostate by Nano Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Identification of 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine DNA Adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shun; Guo, Jingshu; Yun, Byeong Hwa; Villalta, Peter W; Krishna, Suprita; Tejpaul, Resha; Murugan, Paari; Weight, Christopher J; Turesky, Robert J

    2016-12-20

    Epidemiologic studies have reported an association between frequent consumption of well-done cooked meats and prostate cancer risk. However, unambiguous physiochemical markers of DNA damage from carcinogens derived from cooked meats, such as DNA adducts, have not been identified in human samples to support this paradigm. We have developed a highly sensitive nano-LC-Orbitrap MS n method to measure DNA adducts of several carcinogens originating from well-done cooked meats, tobacco smoke, and environmental pollution, including 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP). The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the major deoxyguanosine (dG) adducts of these carcinogens ranged between 1.3 and 2.2 adducts per 10 9 nucleotides per 2.5 μg of DNA assayed. The DNA adduct of PhIP, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-PhIP (dG-C8-PhIP) was identified in 11 out of 35 patients, at levels ranging from 2 to 120 adducts per 10 9 nucleotides. The dG-C8 adducts of AαC and MeIQx, and the B[a]P adduct, 10-(deoxyguanosin-N 2 -yl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (dG-N 2 -B[a]PDE) were not detected in any specimen, whereas N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-ABP (dG-C8-4-ABP) was identified in one subject (30 adducts per 10 9 nucleotides). PhIP-DNA adducts also were recovered quantitatively from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues, signifying FFPE tissues can serve as biospecimens for carcinogen DNA adduct biomarker research. Our biomarker data provide support to the epidemiological observations implicating PhIP, one of the most mass-abundant heterocyclic aromatic amines formed in well-done cooked meats, as a DNA-damaging agent that may contribute to the etiology of prostate cancer.

  7. Mass spectrometric analysis of sulfur mustard-induced biomolecular adducts: Are DNA adducts suitable biomarkers of exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubel, Tabea; Bürkle, Alexander; Mangerich, Aswin

    2017-12-23

    The bi-functional chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM), whose release in asymmetric conflicts or terrorist attacks represents a realistic threat, induces several kinds of biomolecular adducts, including highly toxic DNA adducts. Isotope dilution liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) is considered the gold standard for highly accurate, precise, specific and sensitive quantification of DNA adducts in general. Recently, a number of LC-MS/MS approaches have been established to analyze SM-induced protein and DNA adducts in cell culture and rodent animal models. As DNA adducts are mechanism-based biomarkers for SM exposure, results from such studies provide a deeper understanding of the etiology of SM-induced pathologies, especially of long-term effects such as cancer formation. As a result, medical treatment of SM-exposed individuals might be improved. Yet, despite the progress that has been made during the last years, there is still a need for advanced methods of ID-LC-MS/MS for the detection and quantitation of SM adducts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolic Activation of the Tumorigenic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid, Retrorsine, Leading to DNA Adduct Formation In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming W. Chou

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are naturally occurring genotoxic chemicals produced by a large number of plants. The high toxicity of many pyrrolizidine alkaloids has caused considerable loss of free-ranging livestock due to liver and pulmonary lesions. Chronic exposure of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids to laboratory animals induces cancer. This investigation studies the metabolic activation of retrorsine, a representative naturally occurring tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, and shows that a genotoxic mechanism is correlated to the tumorigenicity of retrorsine. Metabolism of retrorsine by liver microsomes of F344 female rats produced two metabolites, 6, 7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP, at a rate of 4.8 ± 0.1 nmol/mg/min, and retrorsine-N-oxide, at a rate of 17.6±0.5 nmol/mg/min. Metabolism was enhanced 1.7-fold by using liver microsomes prepared from dexamethasone-treated rats. DHP formation was inhibited 77% and retrorsine N-oxide formation was inhibited 29% by troleandomycin, a P450 3A enzyme inhibitor. Metabolism of retrorsine with lung, kidney, and spleen microsomes from dexamethasone-treated rats also generated DHP and the N-oxide derivative. When rat liver microsomal metabolism of retrorsine occurred in the presence of calf thymus DNA, a set of DHP-derived DNA adducts was formed; these adducts were detected and quantified by using a previously developed 32P-postlabeling/HPLC method. These same DNA adducts were also found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine. Since DHP-derived DNA adducts are suggested to be potential biomarkers of riddelliine-induced tumorigenicity, our results indicate that (i similar to the metabolic activation of riddelliine, the mechanism of retrorsine-induced carcinogenicity in rats is also through a genotoxic mechanism involving DHP; and (ii the set of DHP-derived DNA adducts found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine or riddelliine can serve as biomarkers for the

  9. Metabolic Activation of the Tumorigenic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid, Retrorsine, Leading to DNA Adduct Formation In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Ping; Fu, Peter P.; Chou, Ming W.

    2005-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are naturally occurring genotoxic chemicals produced by a large number of plants. The high toxicity of many pyrrolizidine alkaloids has caused considerable loss of free-ranging livestock due to liver and pulmonary lesions. Chronic exposure of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids to laboratory animals induces cancer. This investigation studies the metabolic activation of retrorsine, a representative naturally occurring tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, and shows that a genotoxic mechanism is correlated to the tumorigenicity of retrorsine. Metabolism of retrorsine by liver microsomes of F344 female rats produced two metabolites, 6, 7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP), at a rate of 4.8 ± 0.1 nmol/mg/min, and retrorsine-N-oxide, at a rate of 17.6±0.5 nmol/mg/min. Metabolism was enhanced 1.7-fold by using liver microsomes prepared from dexamethasone-treated rats. DHP formation was inhibited 77% and retrorsine N-oxide formation was inhibited 29% by troleandomycin, a P450 3A enzyme inhibitor. Metabolism of retrorsine with lung, kidney, and spleen microsomes from dexamethasone-treated rats also generated DHP and the N-oxide derivative. When rat liver microsomal metabolism of retrorsine occurred in the presence of calf thymus DNA, a set of DHP-derived DNA adducts was formed; these adducts were detected and quantified by using a previously developed 32P-postlabeling/HPLC method. These same DNA adducts were also found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine. Since DHP-derived DNA adducts are suggested to be potential biomarkers of riddelliine-induced tumorigenicity, our results indicate that (i) similar to the metabolic activation of riddelliine, the mechanism of retrorsine-induced carcinogenicity in rats is also through a genotoxic mechanism involving DHP; and (ii) the set of DHP-derived DNA adducts found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine or riddelliine can serve as biomarkers for the tumorigenicity induced by

  10. Environmental, Dietary, Maternal, and Fetal Predictors of Bulky DNA Adducts in Cord Blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Mendez, Michelle A; Schoket, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bulky DNA adducts reflect genotoxic exposures, have been associated with lower birth weight, and may predict cancer risk. OBJECTIVE: We selected factors known or hypothesized to affect in utero adduct formation and repair and examined their associations with adduct levels in neonates....

  11. Tumors and DNA adducts in mice exposed to benzo(a)pyrene and coal tars: implications for risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.S.; Weyand, E.H.; Safe, S.; Steinberg, M.; Culp, S.J.; Gaylor, D.W.; Beland, F.A.; Rodriguez, L.V. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Current methods to estimate the quantitative cancer risk of complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as coal tar assume that overall potency can be derived from knowledge of the concentration of a few carcinogenic components such as benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P). Genotoxic damage, such as DNA adducts, is thought to be an essential aspect of PAH-induced tumorigenesis and could be a biomarker for exposure useful for estimating risk. However, the role of B(a)P and the relationship of adduct formation in tumorigenesis have not been tested rigorously in models appropriate for human health risk assessment. This paper compares tumor induction and adduct formation by B(a)P and coal tars in several experimental protocols, including one broadly accepted and used by regulators. It was found that B(a)P content did not account for tumor incidences after exposure to coal tars. DNA adducts were found in both tumors and tumor-free tissue and tumor outcomes were not predicted by either quantitation of total DNA adducts or by the DNA adduct formed by B(a)P. These data suggest that risk assessments based on B(a)P content may not predict accurately risk to human health posed by environmental PAH.

  12. Temporal and spatial features of the formation of DNA adducts in sulfur mustard-exposed skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batal, Mohamed; Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine; Bérard, Izabel; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that targets skin where it induces large blisters. DNA alkylation is a critical step to explain SM-induced cutaneous symptoms. We determined the kinetics of formation of main SM–DNA adducts and compare it with the development of the SM-induced pathogenesis in skin. SKH-1 mice were exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM and treated skin was biopsied between 6 h and 21 days. Formation of SM DNA adducts was dose-dependent with a maximum immediately after exposure. However, adducts were persistent and still detectable 21 days post-exposure. The time-dependent formation of DNA adducts was also found to be correlated with the appearance of apoptotic cells. This temporal correlation suggests that these two early events are responsible for the severity of the damage to the skin. Besides, SM–DNA adducts were also detected in areas located next to contaminated zone, thus suggesting that SM diffuses in skin. Altogether, this work provides for the first time a clear picture of SM-induced genotoxicity using DNA adducts as a marker. - Highlights: • Sulfur mustard adducts are formed in DNA after skin exposure. • DNA damage formation is an early event in the pathological process of skin burn. • The amount of SM–DNA adducts is maximal at the earliest time point investigated. • Adducts are still detected 3 weeks after exposure. • Sulfur mustard diffuses in skin especially when large doses are applied

  13. Temporal and spatial features of the formation of DNA adducts in sulfur mustard-exposed skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batal, Mohamed [Laboratoire «Lésions des Acides Nucléiques», Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1, CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); Bérard, Izabel [Laboratoire «Lésions des Acides Nucléiques», Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1, CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Cléry-Barraud, Cécile [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); and others

    2013-12-15

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that targets skin where it induces large blisters. DNA alkylation is a critical step to explain SM-induced cutaneous symptoms. We determined the kinetics of formation of main SM–DNA adducts and compare it with the development of the SM-induced pathogenesis in skin. SKH-1 mice were exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM and treated skin was biopsied between 6 h and 21 days. Formation of SM DNA adducts was dose-dependent with a maximum immediately after exposure. However, adducts were persistent and still detectable 21 days post-exposure. The time-dependent formation of DNA adducts was also found to be correlated with the appearance of apoptotic cells. This temporal correlation suggests that these two early events are responsible for the severity of the damage to the skin. Besides, SM–DNA adducts were also detected in areas located next to contaminated zone, thus suggesting that SM diffuses in skin. Altogether, this work provides for the first time a clear picture of SM-induced genotoxicity using DNA adducts as a marker. - Highlights: • Sulfur mustard adducts are formed in DNA after skin exposure. • DNA damage formation is an early event in the pathological process of skin burn. • The amount of SM–DNA adducts is maximal at the earliest time point investigated. • Adducts are still detected 3 weeks after exposure. • Sulfur mustard diffuses in skin especially when large doses are applied.

  14. Exposure of bus and taxi drivers to urban air pollutants as measured by DNA and protein adducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemminki, K.; Zhang, L.F.; Krüger, J.

    1994-01-01

    Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, lymphocyte DNA adducts, serum protein-bound PAH and hemoglobin-bound alkene adducts were analysed from 4 groups of non-smoking men: urban and suburban bus drivers, taxi drivers and suburban controls. The only differences between the groups were in DNA adducts between...... suburban bus drivers and controls, and in DNA adduct and plasma protein PAH-adducts between taxi drivers and controls....

  15. Bypass of Aflatoxin B[subscript 1] Adducts by the Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA Polymerase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Surajit; Brown, Kyle L.; Egli, Martin; Stone, Michael P. (Vanderbilt)

    2012-07-18

    Aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) is oxidized to an epoxide in vivo, which forms an N7-dG DNA adduct (AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG). The AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG can rearrange to a formamidopyrimidine (AFB{sub 1}-FAPY) derivative. Both AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and the {beta}-anomer of the AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adduct yield G {yields} T transversions in Escherichia coli, but the latter is more mutagenic. We show that the Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) bypasses AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG in an error-free manner but conducts error-prone replication past the AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adduct, including misinsertion of dATP, consistent with the G {yields} T mutations observed in E. coli. Three ternary (Dpo4-DNA-dNTP) structures with AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adducted template:primers have been solved. These demonstrate insertion of dCTP opposite the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct, and correct vs incorrect insertion of dATP vs dTTP opposite the 5'-template neighbor dT from a primed AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG:dC pair. The insertion of dTTP reveals hydrogen bonding between the template N3 imino proton and the O{sup 2} oxygen of dTTP, and between the template T O{sup 4} oxygen and the N3 imino proton of dTTP, perhaps explaining why this polymerase does not efficiently catalyze phosphodiester bond formation from this mispair. The AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG maintains the 5'-intercalation of the AFB{sub 1} moiety observed in DNA. The bond between N7-dG and C8 of the AFB{sub 1} moiety remains in plane with the alkylated guanine, creating a 16{sup o} inclination of the AFB{sub 1} moiety with respect to the guanine. A binary (Dpo4-DNA) structure with an AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adducted template:primer also maintains 5'-intercalation of the AFB{sub 1} moiety. The {beta}-deoxyribose anomer is observed. Rotation about the FAPY C5-N{sup 5} bond orients the bond between N{sup 5} and C8 of the AFB{sub 1} moiety out of plane in the 5'-direction, with respect to the FAPY base. The formamide group extends in the 3'-direction. This improves

  16. Etheno-DNA adduct formation in rats gavaged with linoleic acid, oleic acid and coconut oil is organ- and gender specific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Qingming; Nair, Jagadeesan; Sun Xin; Hadjiolov, Dimiter; Bartsch, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    Intake of linoleic acid (LA) increased etheno-DNA adducts induced by lipid peroxidation (LPO) in white blood cells (WBC) of female but not of male volunteers [J. Nair, C.E. Vaca, I. Velic, M. Mutanen, L.M. Valsta, H. Bartsch, High dietary ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids drastically increase the formation of etheno-DNA adducts in white blood cells of female subjects, Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 6 (1997) 597-601]. Etheno-adducts were measured in rats gavaged with LA, oleic acid (OA) and saturated fatty acid rich coconut oil for 30 days. DNA from organs and total WBC was analyzed for 1, N 6 -ethenodeoxyadenosine (εdA) and 3, N 4 -ethenodeoxycytidine (εdC) by immunoaffinity/ 32 P-postlabeling. Colon was the most affected target with LA-treatment, where etheno-adducts were significantly elevated in both sexes. In WBC both adducts were elevated only in LA-treated females. Unexpectedly, OA treatment enhanced etheno-adduct levels in prostate 3-9 fold. Our results in rodents confirm the gender-specific increase of etheno-adducts in WBC-DNA, likely due to LPO induced by redox-cycling of 4-hydroxyestradiol. Colon was a target for LPO-derived DNA-adducts in both LA-treated male and female rats, supporting their role in ω-6 PUFA induced colon carcinogenesis

  17. Quantification of 3-nitrobenzanthrone-DNA adducts using online column-switching HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Singh, Rajinder; Arlt, Volker M; Mirza, Amin; Richards, Meirion; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Farmer, Peter B; Phillips, David H

    2009-11-01

    The aromatic nitroketone 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-nitro-7H-benz[de]anthracen-7-one; 3-NBA) is an extremely potent mutagen and a suspected human carcinogen detected in the exhaust of diesel engines and in airborne particulate matter. 3-NBA is metabolically activated via reduction of the nitro group to the hydroxylamine (N-OH-3-ABA) to form covalent DNA adducts. Thus far, the detection and quantification of covalent 3-NBA-DNA adducts has relied solely on (32)P-postlabeling methodologies. In order to expand the range of available techniques for the detection and improved quantification of 3-NBA-DNA adducts, we have developed a method based upon online column-switching HPLC coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, with isotopic dilution of (15)N-labeled internal standards. This methodology was applied to the determination of three 3-NBA-derived adducts: 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dG-N(2)-3-ABA), N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dG-C8-N-3-ABA) and 2-(2'-deoxyguanosine-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dG-C8-C2-3-ABA). Dose-dependent increases were observed for all three adducts when salmon testis DNA was reacted with N-acetoxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-AcO-3-ABA). dG-C8-C2-3-ABA was detected at much lower levels (overall 1%) than the other two adducts. DNA samples isolated from tissues of rats treated either intratracheally with 3-NBA or intraperitoneally with N-OH-3-ABA were analyzed by mass spectrometry, and the results compared to those obtained by (32)P-postlabeling. The method required 50 microg of hydrolyzed animal DNA on column and the limit of detection was 2.0 fmol for each adduct. dG-C8-C2-3-ABA was not observed in any of the samples providing confirmation that it is not formed in vivo. Linear regression analysis of the levels of dG-N(2)-3-ABA and dG-C8-N-3-ABA in the rat DNA showed a reasonable correlation between the two methods (R(2) = 0.88 and 0.93, respectively). In summary, the mass spectrometric method is a faster, more

  18. Genetic polymorphisms in catalase and CYP1B1 determine DNA adduct formation by bento(a)pyrene ex vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schults, Marten A.; Chiu, Roland K.; Nagle, Peter; Kleinjans, J C; van Schooten, Frederik Jan; Godschalk, Roger W.

    Genetic polymorphisms can partially explain the large inter-individual variation in DNA adduct levels following exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Effects of genetic polymorphisms on DNA adduct formation are difficult to assess in human studies because exposure misclassification

  19. Immunochemical detection of sulfur mustard-adducts with DNA and proteins: Exploratory research on adducts with proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, G.P. van der; Noort, D.; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Dijk-Knijnenburg, H.C.M. van; Fidder, A.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed two modes of a standard operating procedure (SOP) for immunochemical detection of sulfur mustard adducts to DNA in human blood and skin. In the shortened mode data could be generated within 9 h after in vitro exposure of human blood to > 1 μM sulfur mustard. The sensitive mode

  20. Base-Resolution Analysis of Cisplatin–DNA Adducts at the Genome Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Xiaoting; Xiong, Xushen; Song, Jinghui; He, Chuan; Yi, Chengqi

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin, one of the most widely used anticancer drugs, crosslinks DNA and ultimately induces cell death. However, the genomic pattern of cisplatin–DNA adducts has remained unknown owing to the lack of a reliable and sensitive genome-wide method. Herein we present “cisplatin-seq” to identify genome-wide cisplatin crosslinking sites at base resolution. Cisplatin-seq reveals that mitochondrial DNA is a preferred target of cisplatin. For nuclear genomes, cisplatin–DNA adducts are enriched withi...

  1. Aromatic DNA adducts in human white blood cells and skin after dermal application of coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godschalk, R.W.L.; Ostertag, J.U.; Moonen, E.J.C.; Neumann, H.A.M.; Kleinjans, J.C.S.; Schooten, F.J. van [University of Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology

    1998-09-01

    A group of eczema patients topically treated with coal tar (CT) ointments was used as a model population to examine the applicability of DNA adducts in white blood cell (WBC) subpopulations as a measure of dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Aromatic DNA adducts were examined by {sup 32}P-postlabeling in exposed skin and WBC subsets, and urinary excretion of PAH metabolites was determined to assess the whole-body burden. The median urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene and 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene was 0.39 and 0.01 {mu}mol/mol creatinine respectively, before the dermal application of CT ointments. After treatment for 1 week, these levels increased to 139.7 and 1.18 {mu}mol/mol creatinine respectively, indicating that considerable amounts of PAHs were absorbed. Median aromatic DNA adduct levels were significantly increased in skin from 2.9 adduct/10{sup 8} nucleotides before treatment to 63.3 adducts/10{sup 8} nt after treatment with CT, in monocytes from 0.28 to 0.86 adducts/10{sup 8} nt, in lymphocytes from 0.33 to 0.89 adducts/10{sup 8} nt and in granulocytes from 0.28 to 0.54 adducts/10{sup 8} nt. A week after stopping the CT treatment, the DNA adduct levels in monocytes and granulocytes were reduced to 0.38 and 0.38 adducts/10{sup 8} nt respectively, whereas the adduct levels in lymphocytes remained enhanced. Total DNA adduct levels in skin correlated with the adduct levels in monocytes and lymphocytes. Excretion of urinary metabolites during the first week of treatment was correlated with the percentage of the skin surface treated with CT ointment and decreased within a week after the cessation of treatment. 3-Hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene excretion, correlated with the levels of DNA adducts in skin that comigrated with benzo(a)pyrene-diol-epoxide-DNA. This study indicates that the DNA adduct levels in mononuclear WBCs can possibly be used as a surrogate for skin DNA after dermal exposure to PAHs. 34 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Distribution of DNA adducts in the respiratory tract of rats exposed to diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, J.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Harkema, J.R.; Mauderly, J.L.; Henderson, R.F.; Griffith, W.C.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    Diesel exhaust, Inhaled chronically at high concentrations, induced tumors that were located exclusively In the peripheral lung of rats. The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in the level of DNA adducts among the regions of the respiratory tract paralleled the site of tumors. Groups of male F344/N rats were exposed 7 h/day, 5 day/wk for 12 wk to diesel engine exhaust at a soot concentration of 10 mg/m 3 or were sham-exposed to air. Respiratory tract tissues were dissected and DNA was isolated from the dissected samples and analyzed for the presence of adducts using the 32 P-postlabeling assay. The highest level of total DNA adducts occurred In peripheral lung tissue (∼ 18 adducts per 10 9 bases). About 1/4 to 1/5 the level of DNA adducts was detected in the nasal tissues as in peripheral lung. There were less than 3 adducts per 10 9 bases n each of the regions of the major conducting airways (.e., trachea, bronchi, axial airway). The data from this study indicate that higher levels of total DNA adducts were present In tissues where exhaust-induced tumors were located. These data suggest that DNA adduct levels in discrete locations of the respiratory tract may be good measures of the 'effective dose' of carcinogenic compounds. (author)

  3. Polymerase Bypass of N(6)-Deoxyadenosine Adducts Derived from Epoxide Metabolites of 1,3-Butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotapati, Srikanth; Wickramaratne, Susith; Esades, Amanda; Boldry, Emily J; Quirk Dorr, Danae; Pence, Matthew G; Guengerich, F Peter; Tretyakova, Natalia Y

    2015-07-20

    N(6)-(2-Hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)-2'-deoxyadenosine (N(6)-HB-dA I) and N(6),N(6)-(2,3-dihydroxybutan-1,4-diyl)-2'-deoxyadenosine (N(6),N(6)-DHB-dA) are exocyclic DNA adducts formed upon alkylation of the N(6) position of adenine in DNA by epoxide metabolites of 1,3-butadiene (BD), a common industrial and environmental chemical classified as a human and animal carcinogen. Since the N(6)-H atom of adenine is required for Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding with thymine, N(6)-alkylation can prevent adenine from normal pairing with thymine, potentially compromising the accuracy of DNA replication. To evaluate the ability of BD-derived N(6)-alkyladenine lesions to induce mutations, synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing site-specific (S)-N(6)-HB-dA I and (R,R)-N(6),N(6)-DHB-dA adducts were subjected to in vitro translesion synthesis in the presence of human DNA polymerases β, η, ι, and κ. While (S)-N(6)-HB-dA I was readily bypassed by all four enzymes, only polymerases η and κ were able to carry out DNA synthesis past (R,R)-N(6),N(6)-DHB-dA. Steady-state kinetic analyses indicated that all four DNA polymerases preferentially incorporated the correct base (T) opposite (S)-N(6)-HB-dA I. In contrast, hPol β was completely blocked by (R,R)-N(6),N(6)-DHB-dA, while hPol η and κ inserted A, G, C, or T opposite the adduct with similar frequency. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of primer extension products confirmed that while translesion synthesis past (S)-N(6)-HB-dA I was mostly error-free, replication of DNA containing (R,R)-N(6),N(6)-DHB-dA induced significant numbers of A, C, and G insertions and small deletions. These results indicate that singly substituted (S)-N(6)-HB-dA I lesions are not miscoding, but that exocyclic (R,R)-N(6),N(6)-DHB-dA adducts are strongly mispairing, probably due to their inability to form stable Watson-Crick pairs with dT.

  4. Polymerase Bypass of N6-Deoxyadenosine Adducts Derived from Epoxide Metabolites of 1,3-Butadiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotapati, Srikanth; Wickramaratne, Susith; Esades, Amanda; Boldry, Emily J.; Dorr, Danae Quirk; Pence, Matthew G.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Tretyakova, Natalia Y.

    2015-01-01

    N 6-(2-Hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)-2′-deoxyadenosine (N6-HB-dA I) and N6,N6-(2,3-dihydroxybutan-1,4-diyl)-2′-deoxyadenosine (N6,N6-DHB-dA) are exocyclic DNA adducts formed upon alkylation of the N6 position of adenine in DNA by epoxide metabolites of 1,3-butadiene (BD), a common industrial and environmental chemical classified as a human and animal carcinogen. Since the N6-H atom of adenine is required for Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding with thymine, N6-alkylation can prevent adenine from normal pairing with thymine, potentially compromising the accuracy of DNA replication. To evaluate the ability of BD-derived N6-alkyladenine lesions to induce mutations, synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing site-specific (S)-N6-HB-dA I and (R,R)-N6,N6-DHB-dA adducts were subjected to in vitro translesion synthesis in the presence of human DNA polymerases β, η, ι, and κ. While (S)-N6-HB-dA I was readily bypassed by all four enzymes, only polymerases η and κ were able to carry out DNA synthesis past (R,R)-N6,N6-DHB-dA. Steady-state kinetic analyses indicated that all four DNA polymerases preferentially incorporated the correct base (T) opposite (S)-N6-HB-dA I. In contrast, hPol β was completely blocked by (R,R)-N6,N6-DHB-dA, while hPol η and κ inserted A, G, C, or T opposite the adduct with similar frequency. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of primer extension products confirmed that while translesion synthesis past (S)-N6-HB-dA I was mostly error-free, replication of DNA containing (R,R)-N6,N6-DHB-dA induced significant numbers of A, C, and G insertions and small deletions. These results indicate that singly substituted (S)-N6-HB-dA I lesions are not miscoding, but exocyclic (R,R)-N6,N6-DHB-dA adducts are strongly mispairing, probably due to their inability to form stable Watson-Crick pairs with dT. PMID:26098310

  5. Measuring DNA nucleobase adducts using neutral hydrolysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarun, Maricar; Rusling, James F

    2005-01-01

    The detection and identification of DNA adducts is important for predicting human cancer risk posed by chemicals and for uncovering potential genotoxicity of new drug and agricultural chemical candidates. For compounds that react with DNA to form N7-guanine and/or N3-adenine adducts, neutral thermal hydrolysis provides a simple procedure for sample preparation. The N7-guanine and N3-adenine adducts are selectively ejected from the DNA chain, resulting in a clean sample matrix enriched in nucleobase adducts. Coupling neutral thermal hydrolysis with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) provides sensitive methods to detect and quantitate DNA adducts, and structural information is provided by MS. Combining these technologies with capillary liquid chromatography sample preconcentration systems can provide exquisitely sensitive detection. In this review, we first summarize the chemistry of nucleobase adduct formation, briefly summarize modern methods to detect DNA adducts, and then describe neutral thermal hydrolysis coupled to LC-MS/MS and some of its applications to DNA damage studies. Finally, we review recent applications of neutral thermal hydrolysis and LC-MS to toxicity screening of chemicals.

  6. Effects of thiourea and ammonium bicarbonate on the formation and stability of bifunctional cisplatin-DNA adducts : consequences for the accurate quantification of adducts in (cellular) DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fichtinger-Schepman, A.M.J.; Dijk-Knijnenburg, H.C.M. van; Dijt, F.J.; Velde-Visser, S.D. van der; Berends, F.; Baan, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Cisplatin reacts with DNA by forming mainly bifunctional adducts via reactive monofunctional intermediates. When freshly platinated DNA was postincubated with thiourea (10 mM, at 23 or 37°C) for periods of up to 24 h, followed by determination of mono- and diadducts, a rapid initial decrease was

  7. Formation and persistence of DNA adducts from the carcinogen N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene in rat mammary gland in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaben, W.T.; Weis, C.C.; Fullerton, N.F.; Beland, F.A.

    1983-01-01

    The rat mammary carcinogen, N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (N-hydroxy-2-AAF), has been proposed to be metabolically activated by mammary cytosolic N,O-acetyltransferase to a DNA binding species. To test this hypothesis, adult female Sprague-Dawley derived CD rats were treated, i.p., with 4.0 mg/kg [ring- 3 H]N-hydroxy-2-AAF. After 4 h, 1, 3, 14, and 28 days, the animals were killed, the mammary epithelium DNA was isolated and the carcinogen-deoxyribonucleoside adducts present were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography. At each time, only one adduct was detected and it was chromatographically identical to N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-aminofluorene. The level of the adduct was maximal at 4 h (1.5 adducts/10(6) nucleotides) and then decreased, following first order kinetics with a t1/2 of 14.2 days. The detection of a single non-acetylated aminofluorene adduct is consistent with N,O-acyltransferase being involved in the metabolic activation of N-hydroxy-2-AAF in the rat mammary gland

  8. Phosphoramide mustard exposure induces DNA adduct formation and the DNA damage repair response in rat ovarian granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, Shanthi, E-mail: shanthig@iastate.edu; Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: akeating@iastate.edu

    2015-02-01

    Phosphoramide mustard (PM), the ovotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer agent cyclophosphamide (CPA), destroys rapidly dividing cells by forming NOR-G-OH, NOR-G and G-NOR-G adducts with DNA, potentially leading to DNA damage. A previous study demonstrated that PM induces ovarian DNA damage in rat ovaries. To investigate whether PM induces DNA adduct formation, DNA damage and induction of the DNA repair response, rat spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) were treated with vehicle control (1% DMSO) or PM (3 or 6 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability was reduced (P < 0.05) after 48 h of exposure to 3 or 6 μM PM. The NOR-G-OH DNA adduct was detected after 24 h of 6 μM PM exposure, while the more cytotoxic G-NOR-G DNA adduct was formed after 48 h by exposure to both PM concentrations. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double stranded break occurrence, was also increased by PM exposure, coincident with DNA adduct formation. Additionally, induction of genes (Atm, Parp1, Prkdc, Xrcc6, and Brca1) and proteins (ATM, γH2AX, PARP-1, PRKDC, XRCC6, and BRCA1) involved in DNA repair were observed in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. These data support that PM induces DNA adduct formation in ovarian granulosa cells, induces DNA damage and elicits the ovarian DNA repair response. - Highlights: • PM forms ovarian DNA adducts. • DNA damage marker γH2AX increased by PM exposure. • PM induces ovarian DNA double strand break repair.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts and survival among women with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagiv, Sharon K.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Eng, Sybil M.; Abrahamson, Page E.; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Bell, Paula; Thomas, Joyce A.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Santella, Regina M.; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are mammary carcinogens in animal studies, and a few epidemiologic studies have suggested a link between elevated levels of PAH-DNA adducts and breast cancer incidence. An association between PAH-DNA adducts and survival among breast cancer cases has not been previously reported. We conducted a survival analysis among women with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer between 1996 and 1997, enrolled in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project. DNA was isolated from blood samples that were obtained from cases shortly after diagnosis and assayed for PAH-DNA adducts using ELISA. Among the 722 cases with PAH-DNA adduct measurements, 97 deaths (13.4%) from all causes and 54 deaths (7.5%) due to breast cancer were reported to National Death Index (NDI) by December 31, 2002. Using Cox proportional hazards models and controlling for age at diagnosis, we did not find evidence that all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR)=0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.37), or breast cancer mortality (HR=1.20; 95% CI: 0.63-2.28) was strongly associated with detectable PAH-DNA adduct levels compared with non-detectable adducts; additionally, no dose-response association was observed. Among a subgroup with treatment data (n=520), adducts were associated with over a two-fold higher mortality among those receiving radiation, but mortality for adducts was reduced among hormone therapy users. Results from this large population-based study do not provide strong support for an association between detectable PAH-DNA adducts and survival among women with breast cancer, except perhaps among those receiving radiation treatment

  10. Detection of carcinogenic etheno-DNA adducts in children and adolescents with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Ulrike; Peccerella, Teresa; Engelmann, Guido; Bruckner, Thomas; Flechtenmacher, Christa; Millonig, Gunda; Stickel, Felix; Hoffmann, Georg F; Schirmacher, Peter; Mueller, Sebastian; Bartsch, Helmut; Seitz, Helmut K

    2015-12-01

    Carcinogenic exocyclic-DNA adducts like 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (εdA) are formed through reactive intermediates of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) or other lipid peroxidation (LPO) products with the DNA bases A, C, methyl-C and G. High levels of hepatic etheno-DNA adducts have been detected in cancer prone liver diseases including alcoholic liver disease (ALD). In ALD εdA levels correlated significantly with cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression which is also induced in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We investigated the occurrence of εdA adducts in children with NASH as a DNA damage marker. Liver biopsies from 21 children/adolescents with histologically proven NASH were analysed for hepatic fat content, inflammation, and fibrosis. εdA levels in DNA, CYP2E1-expression and protein bound 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) were semi-quantitatively evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Among 21 NASH children, εdA levels in the liver were high in 3, moderate in 5, weak in 9 and not elevated in 4 patients. There was a positive correlation between CYP2E1 and protein-bound 4-HNE (r=0.60; P=0.008) and a trend for a positive relationship for CYP2E1 vs. staining intensity of εdA (r=0.45; P=0.06). Inflammatory activity and fibrosis correlated significantly (r=0.49, P=0.023). Our results demonstrate for the first time the presence of elevated carcinogenic etheno-DNA lesions (εdA) in the majority (17/21) of liver biopsies from young NASH patients. Our data suggest that LPO-derived etheno-adducts are implicated in NASH. Whether these adducts may serve as predictive risk markers in NASH children to develop hepatocellular cancer later in life remains to be investigated.

  11. DNA adduct profiling of in vitro colonic meat digests to map red vs. white meat genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemeryck, Lieselot Y; Rombouts, Caroline; De Paepe, Ellen; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2018-02-16

    The consumption of red meat has been linked to an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. One of the major hypotheses states that heme iron (present in red meat) stimulates the formation of genotoxic N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) and lipid peroxidation products (LPOs). By means of DNA adductomics, chemically induced DNA adduct formation can be mapped in relation to e.g. dietary exposures. In this study, this state-of-the-art methodology was used to investigate alkylation and (lipid per)oxidation induced DNA adduct formation in in vitro red vs. white meat digests. In doing so, 90 alkylation and (lipid per)oxidation induced DNA adduct types could be (tentatively) identified. Overall, 12 NOC- and/or LPO-related DNA adduct types, i.e. dimethyl-T (or ethyl-T), hydroxymethyl-T, tetramethyl-T, methylguanine (MeG), guanidinohydantoin, hydroxybutyl-C, hydroxymethylhydantoin, malondialdehyde-x3-C, O 6 -carboxymethylguanine, hydroxyethyl-T, carboxyethyl-T and 3,N 4 -etheno-C were singled out as potential heme-rich meat digestion markers. The retrieval of these DNA adduct markers is in support of the heme, NOC and LPO hypotheses, suggesting that DNA adduct formation may indeed contribute to red meat related CRC risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pulse radiolysis studies of the interaction of tea polyphenol derivatives with oxidizing OH adduct of thymine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yue; Li Hucheng; Yao Side; Zuo Zhihua; Wang Zailan; Zhang Jiashan; Lin Nianyun

    1996-01-01

    The electron transfer reactions between oxidizing OH adduct of thymine with tea polyphenol derivatives has been investigated by pulse radiolysis. The tea polyphenol derivatives are identified as good antioxidants for reduction of oxidizing OH adducts of thymine. From buildup kinetic analysis of radical phenoxyl product, the rate constants for reactions of the N 3 radical with tea polyphenol derivatives have been determined to be (8-9) x 10 9 dm 3 /mol s, while the rate constants of electron transfer from tea polyphenol derivatives to oxidizing OH adducts of thymine was obtained to be around 10 9 dm 3 /mol s. Copyright direct C 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd

  13. Genotoxicity induced by xenobiotics:the role of DNA adducts, individual susceptibility and DNA repair

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vodička, Pavel; Koskinen, M.; Štětina, R.; Vodičková, L.; Kuricová, M.; Hemminki, K.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2002), s. 322 ISSN 1107-3756. [World Congress on Advances in Oncology /7./ and International Symposium on Molecular Medicine /5./. Hersonissos, 10.10.2002-12.10.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/01/0802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : DNA adducts Subject RIV: FM - Hygiene Impact factor: 2.063, year: 2002

  14. DNA adduct quantification in Eisenia fetida after subchronic exposures to creosote contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charrois, J.W.A.; McGill, W.B. [Alberta Univ., Dept. of Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Within soil ecosystems contaminant toxicity can vary from acute and chronic, depending on the time of exposure. Due to the long times involved chronic toxicity is difficult to determine. DNA adducts fall into the category of biochemical markers that act as an early warning system in environmental monitoring. It has been proposed that they could be used as a sensitive method to determine environmental exposures to compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which can occur, although not exclusively, in creosote. In this connection, Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a PAH that can be transformed into an electrophilic metabolite, which ultimately results in DNA adduct formation. Use was made of a 32P postlabeling method to quantify the number of DNA adducts occurring in the earthworm Eisenia fetida after exposure to weathered creosote contaminated- and biotreated-soils with and without additions of extra BaP. DNA adducts can be measured in earthworms exposed to creosote contaminated- and biotreated-soils. E. fetida exposed to weathered creosote contaminated soils had significantly more DNA adducts than those exposed to a pristine control soil. Exposures to creosote contaminated soils with additional BaP (1000 mg/kg) or biotreatment did not yield statistically significant increases in DNA adducts compared to the pristine control. (Abstract only)

  15. Genetic modifiers of carcinogen DNA adducts in target lung and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Su, Li; Mark, Eugene J; Wain, John C; Christiani, David C

    2010-12-01

    Measurement of carcinogen DNA adducts in blood has been used as a surrogate for the target lung tissue. We aimed to examine whether genetic polymorphisms in several metabolic pathway genes modify the relation between DNA adducts in target lung and blood. One hundred and thirty-five early-stage lung cancer patients from the Massachusetts General Hospital were studied. DNA adducts were measured by the (32)P-postlabeling assay in lung and blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) in a subset of 53 who had paired blood samples. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed in genes involved in phase II (GSTs, NAT2, EPHX and NQO1), DNA repair (ERCC1, ERCC2 and XRCC1) and DNA methylation (MTHFR C677T and A1298C) pathways. There was a significant correlation between DNA adduct levels in lung and blood within the different genotypes, with one exception. Significant modifications in adducts were found by variants in genes for phase II metabolism [NAT2 (1.51 for rapid versus 0.76 for slow, P = 0.022)], DNA repair [ERCC1 C118T (P = 0.014), ERCC2 (P = 0.003) and XRCC1 (P = 0.025)] and MTHFR [C677T (P = 0.005) and A1298C (P = 0.005)]. The relation between DNA adducts in blood MNCs and target lung tissue was significantly modified by the single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the three main pathways. Despite the relatively small sample size, our results suggest that genetic factors may need to be considered when assessing the association of DNA adducts using surrogate tissue in studies of lung cancer. Further studies are needed to better understand their role and the mechanisms.

  16. Genotoxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids — Mechanisms Leading to DNA Adduct Formation and Tumorigenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ming W. Chou; Ge Lin; Qingsu Xia; Peter P. Fu

    2002-01-01

    Abstract: Plants that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids are widely distributed in the world. Although pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been shown to be genotoxic and tumorigenic in experimental animals, the mechanisms of actions have not been fully understood. The results of our recent mechanistic studies suggest that pyrrolizidine alkaloids induce tumors via a genotoxic mechanism mediated by 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5Hpyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adduct formation. This mechanism may ...

  17. Environmental air pollution and DNA adducts in Copenhagen bus drivers - effect of GSTM1 and NAT2 genotypes on adduct level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sabro; de Pater, Nettie; Okkels, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The lymphocyte bulky PAH-DNA adduct levels have been studied in persons occupationally exposed to ambient air pollution. The exposure group consisted of 90 healthy, nonsmoking bus drivers from the Copenhagen area, divided into three exposure groups according to driving area, and 60 rural controls...... (smokers and non-smokers). PAH-DNA adducts were determined by 32P-postlabelling with the butanol enrichment procedure. The bus drivers answered a comprehensive questionnaire on passive smoking, residential area, diet and other potential confounding variables. A significantly higher adduct level...... was observed in bus drivers working in central Copenhagen (1.214 fmol/microg DNA, n = 49) compared with both those driving in the dormitory (median: 0.507 fmol/microg DNA, P = 0.046, n = 16) and suburban (median: 0.585 fmol/microg DNA, P = 0.041, n = 25) areas. All three groups had higher adduct levels than...

  18. DNA Adducts Formed by Aristolochic Acid Are Unique Biomarkers of Exposure and Explain the Initiation Phase of Upper Urothelial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiborová, Marie; Arlt, Volker M; Schmeiser, Heinz H

    2017-10-14

    Aristolochic acid (AA) is a plant alkaloid that causes aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) and Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), unique renal diseases frequently associated with upper urothelial cancer (UUC). This review summarizes the significance of AA-derived DNA adducts in the aetiology of UUC leading to specific A:T to T:A transversion mutations (mutational signature) in AAN/BEN-associated tumours, which are otherwise rare in individuals with UCC not exposed to AA. Therefore, such DNA damage produced by AA-DNA adducts is one rare example of the direct association of exposure and cancer development (UUC) in humans, confirming that the covalent binding of carcinogens to DNA is causally related to tumourigenesis. Although aristolochic acid I (AAI), the major component of the natural plant extract AA, might directly cause interstitial nephropathy, enzymatic activation of AAI to reactive intermediates capable of binding to DNA is a necessary step leading to the formation of AA-DNA adducts and subsequently AA-induced malignant transformation. Therefore, AA-DNA adducts can not only be utilized as biomarkers for the assessment of AA exposure and markers of AA-induced UUC, but also be used for the mechanistic evaluation of its enzymatic activation and detoxification. Differences in AA metabolism might be one of the reasons for an individual's susceptibility in the multi-step process of AA carcinogenesis and studying associations between activities and/or polymorphisms of the enzymes metabolising AA is an important determinant to identify individuals having a high risk of developing AA-mediated UUC.

  19. SYNTHESIS OF THE FULLY PROTECTED PHOSPHORAMIDITE OF THE BENZENE-DNA ADDUCT, N2- (4-HYDROXYPHENYL)-2'-DEOXYGUANOSINE AND INCORPORATION OF THE LATER INTO DNA OLIGOMERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenna, Ahmed; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Bonala, Radha R.; Johnson, Francis; Huang, Bo

    2008-06-09

    N2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-O-DMT-3'-phosphoramidite has been synthesized and used to incorporate the N2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2'-dG (N2-4-HOPh-dG) into DNA, using solid-state synthesis technology. The key step to obtaining the xenonucleoside is a palladium (Xantphos-chelated) catalyzed N2-arylation (Buchwald-Hartwig reaction) of a fully protected 2'-deoxyguanosine derivative by 4-isobutyryloxybromobenzene. The reaction proceeded in good yield and the adduct was converted to the required 5'-O-DMT-3'-O-phosphoramidite by standard methods. The latter was used to synthesize oligodeoxynucleotides in which the N2-4-HOPh-dG adduct was incorporated site-specifically. The oligomers were purified by reverse-phase HPLC. Enzymatic hydrolysis and HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of this adduct in the oligomers.

  20. Mutagenic replication in human cell extracts of DNA containing site-specific N-2-acetylaminofluorene adducts.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, D C; Veaute, X; Kunkel, T A; Fuchs, R P

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed the effects of site-specific N-2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) adducts on the efficiency and frameshift fidelity of bidirectional replication of double-stranded DNA in a human cell extract. Plasmid vectors were constructed containing the simian virus 40 origin of replication and single AAF adducts at one of three guanines in the Nar I sequence GGCGCC in a lacZ reporter gene. The presence of an AAF adduct diminishes replication efficiency in HeLa cell extracts by 70-80%. Replicati...

  1. Activation of dihaloalkanes by glutathione conjugation and formation of DNA adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guengerich, F P; Peterson, L A; Cmarik, J L; Koga, N; Inskeep, P B

    1987-01-01

    Ethylene dibromide (1,2-dibromoethane, EDB) can be activated to electrophilic species by either oxidative metabolism or conjugation with glutathione. Although conjugation is generally a route of detoxication, in this case it leads to genetic damage. The major DNA adduct has been identified as S-[2-(N7-guanyl)ethyl]glutathione, which is believed to arise via half-mustard and episulfonium ion intermediates. The adduct has a half-life of about 70 to 100 hr and does not appear to migrate to other DNA sites. Glutathione-dependent DNA damage by EDB was also demonstrated in human hepatocyte preparations. The possible relevance of this DNA adduct to genetic damage is discussed. Images FIGURE 3. PMID:3329096

  2. Activation of dihaloalkanes by glutathione conjugation and formation of DNA adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guengerich, F.P.; Peterson, L.A.; Cmarik, J.L.; Koga, N.; Inskeep, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    Ethylene dibromide (1,2-dibromoethane, EDB) can be activated to electrophilic species by either oxidative metabolism or conjugation with glutathione. Although conjugation is generally a route of detoxication, in this case it leads to genetic damage. The major DNA adduct has been identified as S-[2-(N 7 -guanyl)ethyl]glutathione, which is believed to arise via half-mustard and episulfonium ion intermediates. The adduct has a half-life of about 70 to 100 hr and does not appear to migrate to other DNA sites. Glutathione-dependent DNA damage by EDB was also demonstrated in human hepatocyte preparations. The possible relevance of this DNA adduct to genetic damage is discussed

  3. RecBCD (Exonuclease V) is inhibited by DNA adducts produced by cisplatin and ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wai Y; Chung, Long H; Kava, Hieronimus W; Murray, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    The presence of adducts on the DNA double-helix can have major consequences for the efficient functioning of DNA repair enzymes. E. coli RecBCD (exonuclease V) is involved in recombinational repair of double-strand breaks that are caused by defective DNA replication, DNA damaging agents and other factors. The holoenzyme possesses a bipolar helicase activity which helps unwind DNA from both 3'- and 5'-directions and is coupled with a potent exonuclease activity that is also capable of digesting DNA from both 3'- and 5'-ends. In this study, DNA sequences were damaged with cisplatin or UV followed by RecBCD treatment. DNA damaging agents such as cisplatin and UV induce the formation of intrastrand adducts in the DNA template. It was demonstrated that RecBCD degradation was inhibited by either cisplatin-damaged or UV-damaged DNA sequences. This is the first occasion that RecBCD has been demonstrated to be inhibited by DNA adducts induced by cisplatin or UV. In addition, we quantified the amounts of DNA remaining after RecBCD treatment and observed that the level of inhibition was concentration and dose dependent. A DNA-targeted 9-aminoacridinecarboxamide cisplatin analogue was also found to inhibit RecBCD activity. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Repair capacity for platinum-DNA adducts determines the severity of cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzagnidze, Anna; Katsarava, Zaza; Makhalova, Julia; Liedert, Bernd; Yoon, Min-Suk; Kaube, Holger; Limmroth, Volker; Thomale, Juergen

    2007-08-29

    The pronounced neurotoxicity of the potent antitumor drug cisplatin frequently results in the onset of peripheral polyneuropathy (PNP), which is assumed to be initially triggered by platination products in the nuclear DNA of affected tissues. To further elucidate the molecular mechanisms, we analyzed in a mouse model the formation and processing of the main cisplatin-induced DNA adduct (guanine-guanine intrastrand cross-link) in distinct neuronal cell types by adduct-specific monoclonal antibodies. Comparison of the adduct kinetics in cisplatin-injected mice either proficient or deficient for nucleotide excision repair (NER) functions revealed the essential role of this DNA repair pathway in protecting differentiated cells of the nervous system from excessive formation of such lesions. Hence, chronic exposure to cisplatin resulted in an accelerated accumulation of unrepaired intrastrand cross-links in neuronal cells of mice with dysfunctional NER. The augmented adduct levels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells of those animals coincided with an earlier onset of PNP-like functional disturbance of their sensory nervous system. Independently from the respective repair phenotype, the amount of persisting DNA cross-links in DRG neurons at a given cumulative dose was significantly correlated to the degree of sensory impairment as measured by electroneurography. Collectively, these findings suggest a new model for the processing of cisplatin adducts in primary neuronal cells and accentuate the crucial role of effectual DNA repair capacity in the target cells for the individual risk of therapy-induced PNP.

  5. Cisplatin-DNA adduct formation in rat spermatozoa and its effect on fetal development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooser, S.T.; Dijk-Knijnenburg, C.M. van; Waalkens-Berendsen, I.D.H.; Smits-van Prooije, A.E.; Snoeij, N.J.; Baan, R.A.; Fichtinger-Schepman, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Exposure of males to some genotoxic chemicals causes DNA damage in spermatozoa resulting in embryotoxicity and developmental defects in their offspring. This study demonstrates that cisplatin-DNA adducts could be measured in spermatozoa following treatment with the antineoplastic drug, cisplatin.

  6. DNA bulky adducts in a Mediterranean population correlate with environmental ozone concentration, an indicator of photochemical smog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palli, Domenico; Saieva, Calogero; Grechi, Daniele; Masala, Giovanna; Zanna, Ines; Barbaro, Antongiulio; Decarli, Adriano; Munnia, Armelle; Peluso, Marco

    2004-03-01

    Ozone (O(3)), the major oxidant component in photochemical smog, mostly derives from photolysis of nitrogen dioxide. O(3) may have biologic effects directly and/or via free radicals reacting with other primary pollutants and has been reported to influence daily mortality and to increase lung cancer risk. Although DNA damage may be caused by ozone itself, only other photochemical reaction products (as oxidised polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) may form bulky DNA adducts, a reliable biomarker of genotoxic damage and cancer risk, showing a seasonal trend. In a large series consisting of 320 residents in the metropolitan area of Florence, Italy, enrolled in a prospective study for the period 1993-1998 (206 randomly sampled volunteers, 114 traffic-exposed workers), we investigated the correlation between individual levels of DNA bulky adducts and a cumulative O(3) exposure score. The average O(3) concentrations were calculated for different time windows (0-5 to 0-90 days) prior to blood drawing for each participant, based on daily measurements provided by the local monitoring system. Significant correlations between DNA adduct levels and O3 cumulative exposure scores in the last 2-8 weeks before enrollment emerged in never smokers. Correlations were highest in the subgroup of never smokers residing in the urban area and not occupationally exposed to vehicle traffic pollution, with peak values for average concentrations 4-6 weeks before enrollment (r = 0.34). Our current findings indicate that DNA adduct formation may be modulated by individual characteristics and by the cumulative exposure to environmental levels of ozone in the last 4-6 weeks, possibly through ozone-associated reactive pollutants. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Detection of malondialdehyde DNA adducts in human colorectal mucosa: relationship with diet and the presence of adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuratti, Chiara; Watson, Mark A; Deag, Eliot J; Welch, Ailsa; Singh, Rajinder; Gottschalg, Elke; Marnett, Lawrence J; Atkin, Wendy; Day, Nicholas E; Shuker, David E G; Bingham, Sheila A

    2002-03-01

    Colorectal biopsies from normal mucosa of participants in the United Kingdom Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Trial and European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC; n = 162) were analyzed for the presence of malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine (M(1)-dG), a DNA adduct derived from lipid peroxidation. The aim was to investigate whether dietary factors can modulate M(1)-dG levels and whether M(1)-dG in normal mucosa is a risk factor for colorectal adenomas. Samples were analyzed using a sensitive immunoblot blot assay. This study has shown for the first time that M(1)-dG is present in human colorectal tissue. M(1)-dG levels ranged from undetectable (n = 13) to 12.23 per 10(7) total bases. Mean levels were 4.3 +/- 3 and 4.6 +/- 2.9 per 10(7) total bases in men and women, respectively. In men, there were positive associations of adduct levels with height and age, and inverse associations with body mass index. Legumes, fruit, salad, and whole meal bread were inversely associated with M(1)-dG adducts, whereas consumption of offal, white meat, beer, and alcohol were positively associated with elevated levels. In women, there was an inverse association of the adduct with the ratio of polyunsaturated:saturated fatty acids (P = 0.019) and a weak positive correlation with saturated fat (P < 0.061). When levels of adducts were compared in individuals with and without adenomas, there was a trend for higher levels in individuals presenting with adenomas especially in the highest category of M(1)-dG adducts (P < 0.005).

  8. Formation, Repair, and Genotoxic Properties of Bulky DNA Adducts Formed from Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Peterson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 4-(Methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK and N′-nitrosonornicotine (NNN are tobacco-specific nitrosamines present in tobacco products and smoke. Both compounds are carcinogenic in laboratory animals, generating tumors at sites comparable to those observed in smokers. These Group 1 human carcinogens are metabolized to reactive intermediates that alkylate DNA. This paper focuses on the DNA pyridyloxobutylation pathway which is common to both compounds. This DNA route generates 7-[4-(3-pyridyl-4-oxobut-1-yl]-2′-deoxyguanosine, O2-[4-(3-pyridyl-4-oxobut-1-yl]-2′-deoxycytosine, O2-[4-(3-pyridyl-4-oxobut-1-yl]-2′-deoxythymidine, and O6-[4-(3-pyridyl-4-oxobut-1-yl]-2′-deoxyguanosine as well as unstable adducts which dealkylate to release 4-hydroxy-1-{3-pyridyl-1-butanone or depyriminidate/depurinate to generate abasic sites. There are multiple repair pathways responsible for protecting against the genotoxic effects of these adducts, including adduct reversal as well as base and nucleotide excision repair pathways. Data indicate that several DNA adducts contribute to the overall mutagenic properties of pyridyloxobutylating agents. Which adducts contribute to the carcinogenic properties of this pathway are likely to depend on the biochemistry of the target tissue.

  9. Mass spectrometry investigation of DNA adduct formation from bisphenol A quinone metabolite and MCF-7 cell DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongzhi; Wei, Juntong; Xiang, Li; Cai, Zongwei

    2018-05-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used additive in the plastic industry and has been reported to have genotoxicity. A hypothesis that BPA may enhance breast cancer risk through the formation of its metabolic intermediate or DNA adduct has been proposed. In this study, breast cancer cell MCF-7 was cultured and the cellular DNA was extracted from the cells. The adducts of bisphenol A 3,4-quinone (BPAQ) with 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG), calf thymus DNA and MCF-7 cell DNA were investigated. DNA adducts were characterized by using electrospray ionization Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. The BPA-DNA adducts of BPAQ with dG, calf thymus and MCF-7 cell DNA were identified as 3-hydroxy-bisphenol A-N7-guanine (3-OH-BPA-N7Gua). The MS/MS fragmentation pathway of 3-OH-BPA-N7Gua was proposed based on obtained accurate mass data. BPA quinone metabolites can react with MCF-7 cell DNA in vitro. The findings provide evidence that BPA might covalently bind to DNA in MCF-7 cells mediated by quinone metabolites, which may increase our understanding of health risk associated with BPA exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative measurement of DNA adducts using neutral hydrolysis and LC-MS. Validation of genotoxicity sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarun, Maricar; Rusling, James F

    2005-04-01

    Neutral hydrolysis and LC-MS/MS analysis of 6-nm-thick DNA-polyion films used in voltammetric genotoxicity screening sensors showed that concentrations of N7-guanine DNA adducts with methyl methanesulfonate and styrene oxide increased with incubation time with the same trends as found for sensor response. Results show that the genotoxicity sensors can be used to estimate relative DNA damage rates for chemical toxicity screening. Neutral thermal hydrolysis provided a relatively clean sample matrix allowing quantitative estimates of nucleobase adducts after several minutes of incubation with damage agents. In addition, an approximate standardization procedure for neutral thermal hydrolysis was developed and validated that avoids need for a pure standard and should be useful in cases where nucleobase adduct standards are unavailable or where their identities are unknown.

  11. O⁶-carboxymethylguanine DNA adduct formation and lipid peroxidation upon in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of haem-rich meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Bussche, Julie; Hemeryck, Lieselot Y; Van Hecke, Thomas; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Pasmans, Frank; Moore, Sharon A; Van de Wiele, Tom; De Smet, Stefaan; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated that the consumption of red haem-rich meat may contribute to the risk of colorectal cancer. Two hypotheses have been put forward to explain this causal relationship, i.e. N-nitroso compound (NOC) formation and lipid peroxidation (LPO). In this study, the NOC-derived DNA adduct O(6)-carboxymethylguanine (O(6)-CMG) and the LPO product malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in individual in vitro gastrointestinal digestions of meat types varying in haem content (beef, pork, chicken). While MDA formation peaked during the in vitro small intestinal digestion, alkylation and concomitant DNA adduct formation was observed in seven (out of 15) individual colonic digestions using separate faecal inocula. From those, two haem-rich meat digestions demonstrated a significantly higher O(6)-CMG formation (p meat. The addition of myoglobin, a haem-containing protein, to the digestive simulation showed a dose-response association with O(6)-CMG (p = 0.004) and MDA (p = 0.008) formation. The results suggest the haem-iron involvement for both the LPO and NOC pathway during meat digestion. Moreover, results unambiguously demonstrate that DNA adduct formation is very prone to inter-individual variation, suggesting a person-dependent susceptibility to colorectal cancer development following haem-rich meat consumption. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Whole body exposure of mice to secondhand smoke induces dose-dependent and persistent promutagenic DNA adducts in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-In; Arlt, Volker M.; Yoon, Jae-In; Cole, Kathleen J.; Pfeifer, Gerd P.; Phillips, David H.; Besaratinia, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a known risk factor for lung cancer in lifelong nonsmokers. However, the underlying mechanism of action of SHS in lung carcinogenesis remains elusive. We have investigated, using the 32 P-postlabeling assay, the genotoxic potential of SHS in vivo by determining the formation and kinetics of repair of DNA adducts in the lungs of mice exposed whole body to SHS for 2 or 4 months (5 h/day, 5 days/week), and an ensuing one-month recovery period. We demonstrate that exposure of mice to SHS elicits a significant genotoxic response as reflected by the elevation of DNA adduct levels in the lungs of SHS-exposed animals. The increases in DNA adduct levels in the lungs of SHS-exposed mice are dose-dependent as they are related to the intensity and duration of SHS exposure. After one month of recovery in clean air, the levels of lung DNA adducts in the mice exposed for 4 months remain significantly higher than those in the mice exposed for 2 months (P < 0.0005), levels in both groups being significantly elevated relative to controls (P < 0.00001). Our experimental findings accord with the epidemiological data showing that exposure to smoke-derived carcinogens is a risk factor for lung cancer; not only does the magnitude of risk depend upon carcinogen dose, but it also becomes more irreversible with prolonged exposure. The confirmation of epidemiologic data by our experimental findings is of significance because it strengthens the case for the etiologic involvement of SHS in nonsmokers' lung cancer. Identifying the etiologic factors involved in the pathogenesis of lung cancer can help define future strategies for prevention, early detection, and treatment of this highly lethal malignancy.

  13. DNA adduct formation and mutation induction by aristolochic acid in rat kidney and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Nan; Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H.; Heflich, Robert H.; Chen, Tao

    2006-01-01

    Aristolochic acid (AA) is a potent nephrotoxin and carcinogen and is the causative factor for Chinese herb nephropathy. AA has been associated with the development of urothelial cancer in humans, and kidney and forestomach tumors in rodents. To investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the tumorigenicity of AA, we determined the DNA adduct formation and mutagenicity of AA in the liver (nontarget tissue) and kidney (target tissue) of Big Blue rats. Groups of six male rats were gavaged with 0, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 mg AA/kg body weight five times/week for 3 months. The rats were sacrificed 1 day after the final treatment, and the livers and kidneys were isolated. DNA adduct formation was analyzed by 32 P-postlabeling and mutant frequency (MF) was determined using the λ Select-cII Mutation Detection System. Three major adducts (7-[deoxyadenosin-N 6 -yl]-aristolactam I, 7-[deoxyadenosin-N 6 -yl]-aristolactam II and 7-[deoxyguanosin-N 2 -yl]-aristolactam I) were identified. There were strong linear dose-responses for AA-induced DNA adducts in treated rats, ranging from 25 to 1967 adducts/10 8 nucleotides in liver and 95-4598 adducts/10 8 nucleotides in kidney. A similar trend of dose-responses for mutation induction also was found, the MFs ranging from 37 to 666 x 10 -6 in liver compared with the MFs of 78-1319 x 10 -6 that we previously reported for the kidneys of AA-treated rats. Overall, kidneys had at least two-fold higher levels of DNA adducts and MF than livers. Sequence analysis of the cII mutants revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between the mutation spectra in both kidney and liver of AA-treated and control rats, but there was no significant difference between the mutation spectra in AA-treated livers and kidneys. A:T → T:A transversion was the predominant mutation in AA-treated rats; whereas G:C → A:T transition was the main type of mutation in control rats. These results indicate that the AA treatment that eventually

  14. Dispersant additives derived from lactone modified amido-amine adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, A.; Lundberg, R.D.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a lactone modified dispersant additive. It comprises one adduct of a polyolefin of 300 to 10,000 number average molecular weight substituted with at least 0.8 (e.g., from about 1 to 4) dicarboxylic acid producing moieties (preferably acid or anhydride moieties) per polyolefin molecule, an amido-amine or thioamido-amine characterized by being a reaction product of at least a polyamine and an alpha, beta-unsaturated compound.

  15. Absolute configuration, stability, and interconversion of 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine valine adducts and their phenylthiohydantoin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao; Wang, Shuguang; Zhao, Yuewei; Xia, Qingsu; Cai, Lining; Sun, Xin; Fu, Peter P

    2015-06-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are widespread in the world and probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids require metabolic activation to form dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids that bind to cellular proteins and DNA leading to hepatotoxicity, genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity. At present, it is not clear how dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids bind to cellular amino acids and proteins to induced toxicity. We previously reported that reaction of dehydromonocrotaline with valine generated four highly unstable 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived valine (DHP-valine) adducts that upon reaction with phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) formed four DHP-valine-PITC adduct isomers. In this study, we report the absolute configuration and stability of DHP-valine and DHP-valine-PITC adducts, and the mechanism of interconversion between DHP-valine-PITC adducts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Absolute configuration, stability, and interconversion of 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine valine adducts and their phenylthiohydantoin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are widespread in the world and probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids require metabolic activation to form dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids that bind to cellular proteins and DNA leading to hepatotoxicity, genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity. At present, it is not clear how dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids bind to cellular amino acids and proteins to induced toxicity. We previously reported that reaction of dehydromonocrotaline with valine generated four highly unstable 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP-derived valine (DHP-valine adducts that upon reaction with phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC formed four DHP-valine-PITC adduct isomers. In this study, we report the absolute configuration and stability of DHP-valine and DHP-valine-PITC adducts, and the mechanism of interconversion between DHP-valine-PITC adducts.

  17. NanoLC/ESI+ HRMS3 quantitation of DNA adducts induced by 1,3-butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaraju, Dewakar; Villalta, Peter W; Wickramaratne, Susith; Swenberg, James; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2014-07-01

    Human exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) present in automobile exhaust, cigarette smoke, and forest fires is of great concern because of its potent carcinogenicity. The adverse health effects of BD are mediated by its epoxide metabolites such as 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), which covalently modify genomic DNA to form promutagenic nucleobase adducts. Because of their direct role in cancer, BD-DNA adducts can be used as mechanism-based biomarkers of BD exposure. In the present work, a mass spectrometry-based methodology was developed for accurate, sensitive, and precise quantification of EB-induced N-7-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl) guanine (EB-GII) DNA adducts in vivo. In our approach, EB-GII adducts are selectively released from DNA backbone by neutral thermal hydrolysis, followed by ultrafiltration, offline HPLC purification, and isotope dilution nanoLC/ESI(+)-HRMS(3) analysis on an Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. Following method validation, EB-GII lesions were quantified in human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells treated with micromolar concentrations of EB and in liver tissues of rats exposed to sub-ppm concentrations of BD (0.5-1.5 ppm). EB-GII concentrations increased linearly from 1.15 ± 0.23 to 10.11 ± 0.45 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides in HT1080 cells treated with 0.5-10 μM EB. EB-GII concentrations in DNA of laboratory rats exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm BD were 0.17 ± 0.05, 0.33 ± 0.08, and 0.50 ± 0.04 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides, respectively [corrected]. We also used the new method to determine the in vivo half-life of EB-GII adducts in rat liver DNA (2.20 ± 0.12 d) and to detect EB-GII in human blood DNA. To our knowledge, this is the first application of nanoLC/ESI(+)-HRMS(3) Orbitrap methodology to quantitative analysis of DNA adducts in vivo.

  18. Inhibition of nicotine-DNA adduct formation by polyphenolic compounds in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yan; Wang Haifang; Sun Hongfang; Li Hongli

    2004-01-01

    Nicotine[3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine], a major alkaloid in tobacco products, has proven to be a potential genotoxic compound. Some polyphenolic compounds can suppress the DNA adduction, and hence act as the potential inhibitors of carcinogenesis. In this study, the inhibitory effects of three polyphenolic compounds, curcumin (diferuloylmethane), resveratrol (trans-3, 5, 4-trihydroxystilbene) and tea polyphenols, on the nicotine-DNA adduction have been investigated in vitro using radiolabelled nicotine and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) technique. Also, the inhibition mechanism of these chemopreventive agents in regard to the activity of the biotransformation enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP450), cytochrome b 5 (CYb 5 ) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), has been studied. The results demonstrated that these three polyphenols induced marked dose-dependent decrease in nicotine-DNA adducts as compared with the controls. The elimination rate of adducts reached above 46% at the highest dose for all the three agents with 51.6% for resveratrol. Correspondingly, three polyphenols all suppressed CYP450 and CYb 5 , whereas curcumin and resveratrol induced GST. The authors may arrive at a point that the three polyphenols are beneficial to prevent the nicotine adduct formation, and thus may be used to block the potential carcinogenesis induced by nicotine. (authors)

  19. MTHFR Polymorphisms, Folate Intake, and Carcinogen DNA Adducts in the Lung

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Asomaning, Kofi; Su, Li; Wain, John C.; Mark, Eugene J.; Christiani, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genes and folate in one-carbon metabolism are essential for DNA methylation and synthesis. However, their role in carcinogen DNA damage in target lung tissue, a dosimeter for cancer risk, is not known. Our study aimed to investigate the association between genetic and nutritional one-carbon metabolism factors and DNA adducts in target lung. Data on 135 lung cancer cases from the Massachusetts General Hospital were studied. Genotyping was complet...

  20. Formation of Hydroxymethyl DNA Adducts in Rats Orally Exposed to Stable Isotope Labeled Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kun; Gul, Husamettin; Upton, Patricia B.; Moeller, Benjamin C.; Swenberg, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Methanol is a large volume industrial chemical and widely used solvent and fuel additive. Methanol’s well known toxicity and use in a wide spectrum of applications has raised long-standing environmental issues over its safety, including its carcinogenicity. Methanol has not been listed as a carcinogen by any regulatory agency; however, there are debates about its carcinogenic potential. Formaldehyde, a metabolite of methanol, has been proposed to be responsible for the carcinogenesis of methanol. Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen and actively targets DNA and protein, causing diverse DNA and protein damage. However, formaldehyde-induced DNA adducts arising from the metabolism of methanol have not been reported previously, largely due to the absence of suitable DNA biomarkers and the inability to differentiate what was due to methanol compared with the substantial background of endogenous formaldehyde. Recently, we developed a unique approach combining highly sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods and exposure to stable isotope labeled chemicals to simultaneously quantify formaldehyde-specific endogenous and exogenous DNA adducts. In this study, rats were exposed daily to 500 or 2000 mg/kg [13CD4]-methanol by gavage for 5 days. Our data demonstrate that labeled formaldehyde arising from [13CD4]-methanol induced hydroxymethyl DNA adducts in multiple tissues in a dose-dependent manner. The results also demonstrated that the number of exogenous DNA adducts was lower than the number of endogenous hydroxymethyl DNA adducts in all tissues of rats administered 500 mg/kg per day for 5 days, a lethal dose to humans, even after incorporating an average factor of 4 for reduced metabolism due to isotope effects of deuterium-labeled methanol into account. PMID:22157354

  1. Base-Displaced Intercalated Structure of the N-(2'-Deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone DNA Adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politica, Dustin A; Malik, Chanchal K; Basu, Ashis K; Stone, Michael P

    2015-12-21

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), an environmental mutagen found in diesel exhaust and a suspected carcinogen, undergoes metabolic reduction followed by reaction with DNA to form aminobenzanthrone (ABA) adducts, with the major alkylation product being N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (C8-dG-ABA). Site-specific synthesis of the C8-dG-ABA adduct in the oligodeoxynucleotide 5'-d(GTGCXTGTTTGT)-3':5'-d(ACAAACACGCAC)-3'; X = C8-dG-ABA adduct, including codons 272-275 of the p53 gene, has allowed for investigation into the structural and thermodynamic properties of this adduct. The conformation of the C8-dG-ABA adduct was determined using NMR spectroscopy and was refined using molecular dynamics (MD) calculations restrained by experimentally determined interproton distance restraints obtained from NOE experiments. The refined structure revealed that the C8-dG-ABA adduct formed a base-displaced intercalated conformation. The adducted guanine was shifted into the syn conformation about the glycosidic bond. The 5'- and 3'-neighboring base pairs remained intact. While this facilitated π-stacking interactions between the ABA moiety and neighboring bases, the thermal melting temperature (Tm) of the adduct-containing duplex showed a decrease of 11 °C as compared to the corresponding unmodified oligodeoxynucleotide duplex. Overall, in this sequence, the base-displaced intercalated conformation of the C8-dG-ABA lesion bears similarity to structures of other arylamine C8-dG adducts. However, in this sequence, the base-displaced intercalated conformation for the C8-dG-ABA adduct differs from the conformation of the N(2)-dG-ABA adduct reported by de los Santos and co-workers, in which it is oriented in the minor groove toward the 5' end of the duplex, with the modified guanine remaining in the anti conformation about the glyosidic torsion angle, and the complementary base remaining within the duplex. The results are discussed in relationship to differences between the C8-d

  2. Mutagenic replication in human cell extracts of DNA containing site-specific N-2-acetylaminofluorene adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D C; Veaute, X; Kunkel, T A; Fuchs, R P

    1994-08-02

    We have analyzed the effects of site-specific N-2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) adducts on the efficiency and frameshift fidelity of bidirectional replication of double-stranded DNA in a human cell extract. Plasmid vectors were constructed containing the simian virus 40 origin of replication and single AAF adducts at one of three guanines in the Nar I sequence GGCGCC in a lacZ reporter gene. The presence of an AAF adduct diminishes replication efficiency in HeLa cell extracts by 70-80%. Replication product analyses reveal unique termination sites with each damaged vector, suggesting that when the replication fork encounters an AAF adduct, it often stops before incorporation opposite the adduct. We also observed a higher proportion of products representing replication of the undamaged strand compared to the damaged strand. This suggests that the undamaged strand is replicated more readily, either by uncoupling the first fork to encounter the lesion or by replication using the fork arriving from the other direction. Also included among replication products are covalently closed monomer-length molecules resistant to cleavage at the AAF-modified Nar I site. This resistance is characteristic of substrates containing the AAF adduct, suggesting that translesion bypass had occurred. Transformation of Escherichia coli cells with the replicated damaged DNA yielded lacZ alpha revertant frequencies significantly above values obtained with undamaged DNA or with damaged DNA not replicated in vitro. This increase was only seen with the substrate modified at the third guanine position. Analysis of mutant DNA demonstrated the loss of a GC dinucleotide at the Nar I sequence. Generation of this position-dependent AAF-induced frameshift error in a human replication system is consistent with previous observations in E. coli suggesting that, after incorporation of dCMP opposite modified guanine in the third position, realignment of the template-primer occurs to form an intermediate with two

  3. DNA polymerase eta participates in the mutagenic bypass of adducts induced by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alden C Klarer

    Full Text Available Y-family DNA-polymerases have larger active sites that can accommodate bulky DNA adducts allowing them to bypass these lesions during replication. One member, polymerase eta (pol eta, is specialized for the bypass of UV-induced thymidine-thymidine dimers, correctly inserting two adenines. Loss of pol eta function is the molecular basis for xeroderma pigmentosum (XP variant where the accumulation of mutations results in a dramatic increase in UV-induced skin cancers. Less is known about the role of pol eta in the bypass of other DNA adducts. A commonly encountered DNA adduct is that caused by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE, the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of the environmental chemical benzo[a]pyrene. Here, treatment of pol eta-deficient fibroblasts from humans and mice with BPDE resulted in a significant decrease in Hprt gene mutations. These studies in mammalian cells support a number of in vitro reports that purified pol eta has error-prone activity on plasmids with site-directed BPDE adducts. Sequencing the Hprt gene from this work shows that the majority of mutations are G>T transversions. These data suggest that pol eta has error-prone activity when bypassing BPDE-adducts. Understanding the basis of environmental carcinogen-derived mutations may enable prevention strategies to reduce such mutations with the intent to reduce the number of environmentally relevant cancers.

  4. Correlation of tumors with DNA adducts from methyl eugenol and tamoxifen in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, William J; Crooks, Neil H; Carmichael, Paul L

    2004-05-01

    Data on percent tumors in male rats after administration of methyl eugenol, obtained from the National Toxicology Program, or tamoxifen were plotted on a linear scale for percent tumors against the dose on a logarithmic scale. Data on (32)P-postlabelled DNA adducts were plotted on the same graphs for each of these two compounds in order to correlate adduct formation and tumor incidence with dose. The resulting graph for methyl eugenol showed a linear response for both adduct formation and tumor incidence. The threshold dose of administered methyl eugenol for adduct formation (zero adducts) was 10(19.3) molecules of methyl eugenol/kg/day, which compared with a threshold of 10(20.1) molecules of methyl eugenol/kg/day for tumor formation; however, 30 adducts/10(8) nucleotides was the threshold for tumor formation. The dose of tamoxifen for adduct formation fit an exponential plot slightly better than a linear plot, but reached minimal values close to the threshold of 10(18.7) molecules of tamoxifen/kg/day for tumor formation. These data confirm that tumor formation coincides with adduct formation and that both have thresholds, or at least reach minimal values, above levels to which humans are exposed. Although the threshold dose for tumor formation from tamoxifen is only about 10x above the dose received by women at risk for breast cancer, this should be an adequate safety margin. The safety factor for methyl eugenol is several orders of magnitude; therefore, there should be no cause for concern for humans at current levels of exposure.

  5. Protective effects of selenium against DNA adducts formation in Inuit environmentally exposed to PCBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravoori, Srivani; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Pereg, Daria; Robertson, Larry W; Ayotte, Pierre; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2012-01-01

    Dietary habits that expose populations to potential toxicants as well as protective agents simultaneously is a realistic scenario where a meaningful assessment of the interactions and net benefit or damage can be made. A group of Inuit from Salluit, Northern Canada are exposed to high levels of PCBs and selenium, both present in the Inuit traditional foods such as blubber from sea mammals and fatty fish. Blood samples were collected from 83 Inuit, 22–70 years old. Blood selenium and PCB levels were determined previously and ranged from 227 to 2,069 µg/L and 1.7 to 143 µg/L, respectively. DNA isolated from white blood cells were analyzed by modified 32P-postlabeling adductomics technology that detects a multitude of highly polar to lipophilic adducts. The levels of 8-oxodG adducts ranged from 470 to 7,400 adducts/109 nucleotides. Other as yet unidentified polar adducts showed a 30 to 800–fold inter-individual variability. Adduct levels were negatively associated with PCB and selenium levels. The subjects were classified into high and low ratio groups, with respect to selenium/PCB. In the high ratio group, the coefficient of selenium is significantly negatively correlated with 8-oxodG (r = −0.38, p = 0.014) and total adducts (r = −0.41, p = 0.009) while there was no correlation within the low selenium/PCB group. This study suggests increasing selenium has mitigating effect in reducing DNA adducts and therefore, possible negative effects of PCB were not rendered. A protective effect of selenium is highlighted. PMID:19735942

  6. Full structure assignments of pyrrolizidine alkaloid DNA adducts and mechanism of tumor initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuewei; Xia, Qingsu; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Yu, Hongtao; Cai, Lining; Fu, Peter P

    2012-09-17

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are widespread in the world and are probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are among the first chemical carcinogens identified in plants. Previously, we determined that metabolism of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in vivo and in vitro generated a common set of DNA adducts that are responsible for tumor induction. Using LC-ESI/MS/MS analysis, we previously determined that four DNA adducts (DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4) were formed in rats dosed with riddelliine, a tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid. Because of the lack of an adequate amount of authentic standards, the structures of DHP-dA-3 and DHP-dA-4 were not elucidated, and the structural assignment for DHP-dG-4 warranted further validation. In this study, we developed an improved synthetic methodology for these DNA adducts, enabling their full structural elucidation by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We determined that DHP-dA-3 and DHP-dA-4 are a pair of epimers of 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl) dehydrosupinidine, while DHP-dG-4 is 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)dehydrosupinidine, an epimer of DHP-dG-3. With the structures of these DNA adducts unequivocally elucidated, we conclude that cellular DNA preferentially binds dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid, for example, dehydroriddelliine, at the C9 position of the necine base, rather than at the C7 position. We also determined that DHP-dA-3 and DHP-dA-4, as well as DHP-dG-3 and DHP-dG-4, are interconvertible. This study represents the first report with detailed structural assignments of the DNA adducts that are responsible for pyrrolizidine alkaloid tumor induction on the molecular level. A mechanism of tumor initiation by pyrrolizidine alkaloids is consequently fully determined.

  7. Role of CYP1B1 in PAH-DNA adduct formation and breast cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Russell, Marion L.; Muller, A.P.; Caleffi, M.; Eschiletti, J.; Graudenz, M.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that increased exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) increases breast cancer risk. PAHs are products of incomplete burning of organic matter and are present in cigarette smoke, ambient air, drinking water, and diet. PAHs require metabolic transformation to bind to DNA, causing DNA adducts, which can lead to mutations and are thought to be an important pre-cancer marker. In breast tissue, PAHs appear to be metabolized to their cancer-causing form primarily by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1B1. Because the genotoxic impact of PAH depends on their metabolism, we hypothesized that high CYP1B1 enzyme levels result in increased formation of PAH-DNA adducts in breast tissue, leading to increased development of breast cancer. We have investigated molecular mechanisms of the relationship between PAH exposure, CYP1B1 expression and breast cancer risk in a clinic-based case-control study. We collected histologically normal breast tissue from 56 women (43 cases and 13 controls) undergoing breast surgery and analyzed these specimens for CYP1B1 genotype, PAH-DNA adducts and CYP1B1 gene expression. We did not detect any difference in aromatic DNA adduct levels of cases and controls, only between smokers and non-smokers. CYP1B1 transcript levels were slightly lower in controls than cases, but the difference was not statistically significant. We found no correlation between the levels of CYP1B1 expression and DNA adducts. If CYP1B1 has any role in breast cancer etiology it might be through its metabolism of estrogen rather than its metabolism of PAHs. However, due to the lack of statistical power these results should be interpreted with caution.

  8. Role of CYP1B1 in PAH-DNA Adduct Formation and Breast Cancer Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goth-Goldstein, Regine

    2002-01-01

    ...) to reactive intermediates appears to be the cytochrome P45O enzyme CYPlB1. High CYPlB1 enzyme levels may result in increased formation of PAH-DNA adducts in breast tissue and lead to subsequent development of breast cancer...

  9. DNA adducts induced by in vitro activation of extracts of diesel and biodiesel exhaust particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractContext: Biodiesel and biodiesel-blend fuels offer a renewable alternative to petroleum diesel, but few data are available concerning the carcinogenic potential of biodiesel exhausts. Objectives: We compared the formation of covalent DNA adducts by the in vitro metabol...

  10. Kinetics of formation of specific styrene oxide adducts in double-stranded DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koskinen, M.; Vodičková, L.; Vodička, Pavel; Warner, S. C.; Hemminki, K.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 2 (2001), s. 111-124 ISSN 0009-2797 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA313/99/1460 Grant - others:EU(XC) QLK4-1999-01368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : biomonitoring * DNA adducts Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.706, year: 2001

  11. 32P-Postlabelling/HPLC analysis of various styrene-induced DNA adducts in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koskinen, M.; Vodička, Pavel; Vodičková, L.; Hemminki, K.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2001), s. 175-189 ISSN 1354-750X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA313/99/1460 Grant - others:GA-(EU) QLK4-1999-01368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : DNA adducts Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.118, year: 2001

  12. Bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells: a pooled analysis of 3600 subjects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ricceri, F.; Godschalk, R. W.; Peluso, M.; Philips, D. H.; Agudo, A.; Georgiadis, P.; Loft, S.; Tjonneland, A.; Raaschau-Nielsen, O.; Palli, D.; Perera, F.; Vermeulen, R.; Taioli, E.; Šrám, Radim; Munnia, A.; Rosa, F.; Allione, A.; Matullo, G.; Vineis, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2010), s. 3174-3181 ISSN 1055-9965 Grant - others:European Union ECNIS(XE) FOOD-CT-2005-513943 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : DNA adducts * biomarkers of exposure * air pollution Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.190, year: 2010

  13. DNA adducts and atherosclerotic: A study of accidental and sudden death males in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Binková, Blanka; Šmerhovský, Zdeněk; Strejc, P.; Boubelík, O.; Stávková, Zdena; Chvátalová, Irena; Šrám, Radim

    č. 501 (2002), s. 115-128 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/1/97 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : atherosclerosis * DNA-adducts * GSTM1 and CYP1A1 polymorphism Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.158, year: 2002

  14. Protein Recognition in Drug-Induced DNA Alkylation: When the Moonlight Protein GAPDH Meets S23906-1/DNA Minor Groove Adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savreux-Lenglet, Gaëlle; Depauw, Sabine; David-Cordonnier, Marie-Hélène

    2015-11-05

    DNA alkylating drugs have been used in clinics for more than seventy years. The diversity of their mechanism of action (major/minor groove; mono-/bis-alkylation; intra-/inter-strand crosslinks; DNA stabilization/destabilization, etc.) has undoubtedly major consequences on the cellular response to treatment. The aim of this review is to highlight the variety of established protein recognition of DNA adducts to then particularly focus on glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) function in DNA adduct interaction with illustration using original experiments performed with S23906-1/DNA adduct. The introduction of this review is a state of the art of protein/DNA adducts recognition, depending on the major or minor groove orientation of the DNA bonding as well as on the molecular consequences in terms of double-stranded DNA maintenance. It reviews the implication of proteins from both DNA repair, transcription, replication and chromatin maintenance in selective DNA adduct recognition. The main section of the manuscript is focusing on the implication of the moonlighting protein GAPDH in DNA adduct recognition with the model of the peculiar DNA minor groove alkylating and destabilizing drug S23906-1. The mechanism of action of S23906-1 alkylating drug and the large variety of GAPDH cellular functions are presented prior to focus on GAPDH direct binding to S23906-1 adducts.

  15. Low-dose DNA adduct dosimetry by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turteltaub, K.W.; Felton, J.S.; Vogel, J.S.; Gledhill, B.L.; Davis, J.C.; Snyderwine, E.G.; Thorgeirsson, S.S.; Adamson, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    DNA adduction was measured following exposure to low doses of [2- 14 C]-2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) [2- 14 C]-2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and [U- 14 C]-2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin by AMS, a technique used in the earth sciences but not previously in toxicological research. The ability to measure low concentrations of rare isotopes suggested that biomedical research was a potentially powerful application for this technology. Sensitivity of the method was found to be one adduct per 10 11 nucleotides. No DNA adduct formation could be detected in TCDD treated rodents. DNA adducts in cynomolgus monkey lymphocytes following exposure to 500 μg/kg IQ peaked between 6 and 18 hrs following exposure. Sensitivity was limited mainly by the abundance of 14 C in contemporary carbon. Hosts depleted in radiocarbon are being developed, potentially increasing sensitivity another 3 orders of magnitude. These results demonstrate the high sensitivity of AMS for tracing molecules following administration of low levels of isotopically-labeled xenobiotics. In addition to 14 C measurement, AMS offers potential to conduct studies with other isotopes, particularly 3 H and 41 Ca

  16. Targeted mutations induced by a single acetylaminofluorene DNA adduct in mammalian cells and bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moryia, M.; Takeshita, M.; Johnson, F.; Peden, K.; Will, S.; Grollman, A.P.

    1988-03-01

    Mutagenic specificity of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) has been established in mammalian cells and several strains of bacteria by using a shuttle plasmid vector containing a single N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)acetylaminofluorene (C8-dG-AAF) adduct. The nucleotide sequence of the gene conferring tetracycline resistance was modified by conservative codon replacement so as to accommodate the sequence d(CCTTCGCTAC) flanked by two restriction sites, Bsm I and Xho I. The corresponding synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide underwent reaction with 2-(N-acetoxy-N-acetylamino)-fluorene (AAAF), forming a single dG-AAF adduct. This modified oligodeoxynucleotide was hybridized to its complementary strand and ligated between the Bsm I and Xho I sites of the vector. Plasmids containing the C8-dG-AAF adduct were used to transfect simian virus 40-transformed simian kidney (COS-1) cells and to transform several AB strains of Escherichia coli. Colonies containing mutant plasmides were detected by hybridization to /sup 32/P-labeled oligodeoxynucleotides. Presence of the single DNA adduct increased the mutation frequency by 8-fold in both COS cells and E. coli. Over 80% of mutations detected in both systems were targeted and represented G x C ..-->.. C x G or G x C ..-->.. T x A transversions or single nucleotide deletions. The authors conclude that modification of a deoxyguanosine residue with AAF preferentially induces mutations targeted at this site when a plasmid containing a single C8-dG-AAF adduct is introduced into mammalian cells or bacteria.

  17. Differential repair of etheno-DNA adducts by bacterial and human AlkB proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdżalik, Daria; Domańska, Anna; Prorok, Paulina; Kosicki, Konrad; van den Born, Erwin; Falnes, Pål Ø; Rizzo, Carmelo J; Guengerich, F Peter; Tudek, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    AlkB proteins are evolutionary conserved Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, which remove alkyl and highly promutagenic etheno(ɛ)-DNA adducts, but their substrate specificity has not been fully determined. We developed a novel assay for the repair of ɛ-adducts by AlkB enzymes using oligodeoxynucleotides with a single lesion and specific DNA glycosylases and AP-endonuclease for identification of the repair products. We compared the repair of three ɛ-adducts, 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine (ɛA), 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine (ɛC) and 1,N(2)-ethenoguanine (1,N(2)-ɛG) by nine bacterial and two human AlkBs, representing four different structural groups defined on the basis of conserved amino acids in the nucleotide recognition lid, engaged in the enzyme binding to the substrate. Two bacterial AlkB proteins, MT-2B (from Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and SC-2B (Streptomyces coelicolor) did not repair these lesions in either double-stranded (ds) or single-stranded (ss) DNA. Three proteins, RE-2A (Rhizobium etli), SA-2B (Streptomyces avermitilis), and XC-2B (Xanthomonas campestris) efficiently removed all three lesions from the DNA substrates. Interestingly, XC-2B and RE-2A are the first AlkB proteins shown to be specialized for ɛ-adducts, since they do not repair methylated bases. Three other proteins, EcAlkB (Escherichia coli), SA-1A, and XC-1B removed ɛA and ɛC from ds and ssDNA but were inactive toward 1,N(2)-ɛG. SC-1A repaired only ɛA with the preference for dsDNA. The human enzyme ALKBH2 repaired all three ɛ-adducts in dsDNA, while only ɛA and ɛC in ssDNA and repair was less efficient in ssDNA. ALKBH3 repaired only ɛC in ssDNA. Altogether, we have shown for the first time that some AlkB proteins, namely ALKBH2, RE-2A, SA-2B and XC-2B can repair 1,N(2)-ɛG and that ALKBH3 removes only ɛC from ssDNA. Our results also suggest that the nucleotide recognition lid is not the sole determinant of the substrate specificity of AlkB proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  18. Maternal diet and dioxin-like activity, bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei in mother-newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Autrup, Herman

    2012-01-01

    dietary variables and the biomarkers measured in maternal and fetal samples were identified. The present study suggests that maternal intake of meats with dark surface contributes to the bulky DNA adduct levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relationship between food preparation and bulky DNA......Maternal diet can contribute to carcinogenic exposures and also modify effects of environmental exposures on maternal and fetal genetic stability. In this study, associations between maternal diet and the levels of dioxin-like plasma activity, bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells and micronuclei...... (MN) in lymphocytes from mother to newborns were examined. From 98 pregnant women living in the greater area of Copenhagen, Denmark in 2006-2007, maternal peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, together with information on health, environmental exposure and lifestyle. Maternal diet...

  19. Mechanism of Error-Free DNA Replication Past Lucidin-Derived DNA Damage by Human DNA Polymerase κ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yockey, Oliver P; Jha, Vikash; Ghodke, Pratibha P; Xu, Tianzuo; Xu, Wenyan; Ling, Hong; Pradeepkumar, P I; Zhao, Linlin

    2017-11-20

    DNA damage impinges on genetic information flow and has significant implications in human disease and aging. Lucidin-3-O-primeveroside (LuP) is an anthraquinone derivative present in madder root, which has been used as a coloring agent and food additive. LuP can be metabolically converted to genotoxic compound lucidin, which subsequently forms lucidin-specific N 2 -2'-deoxyguanosine (N 2 -dG) and N 6 -2'-deoxyadenosine (N 6 -dA) DNA adducts. Lucidin is mutagenic and carcinogenic in rodents but has low carcinogenic risks in humans. To understand the molecular mechanism of low carcinogenicity of lucidin in humans, we performed DNA replication assays using site-specifically modified oligodeoxynucleotides containing a structural analogue (LdG) of lucidin-N 2 -dG DNA adduct and determined the crystal structures of DNA polymerase (pol) κ in complex with LdG-bearing DNA and an incoming nucleotide. We examined four human pols (pol η, pol ι, pol κ, and Rev1) in their efficiency and accuracy during DNA replication with LdG; these pols are key players in translesion DNA synthesis. Our results demonstrate that pol κ efficiently and accurately replicates past the LdG adduct, whereas DNA replication by pol η, pol ι is compromised to different extents. Rev1 retains its ability to incorporate dCTP opposite the lesion albeit with decreased efficiency. Two ternary crystal structures of pol κ illustrate that the LdG adduct is accommodated by pol κ at the enzyme active site during insertion and postlesion-extension steps. The unique open active site of pol κ allows the adducted DNA to adopt a standard B-form for accurate DNA replication. Collectively, these biochemical and structural data provide mechanistic insights into the low carcinogenic risk of lucidin in humans.

  20. Deficient repair of chemical adducts in alpha DNA of monkey cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolan, M.E.; Cortopassi, G.A.; Smith, C.A.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1982-01-01

    Researchers have examined excision repair of DNA damage in the highly repeated alpha DNA sequence of cultured African green monkey cells. Irradiation of cells with 254 nm ultraviolet light resulted in the same frequency of pyrimidine dimers in alpha DNA and the bulk of the DNA. The rate and extent of pyrimidine dimer removal, as judged by measurement of repair synthesis, was also similar for alpha DNA and bulk DNA. In cells treated with furocoumarins and long-wave-length ultraviolet light, however, repair synthesis in alpha DNA was only 30% of that in bulk DNA, although it followed the same time course. Researchers found that this reduced repair was not caused by different initial amounts of furocoumarin damage or by different sizes of repair patches, as researchers found these to be similar in the two DNA species. Direct quantification demonstrated that fewer furocoumarin adducts were removed from alpha DNA than from bulk DNA. In cells treated with another chemical DNA-damaging agent, N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene, repair synthesis in alpha DNA was 60% of that in bulk DNA. These results show that the repair of different kinds of DNA damage can be affected to different extents by some property of this tandemly repeated heterochromatic DNA. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration in primate cells of differential repair of cellular DNA sequences

  1. PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood and fetal and child development in a Chinese cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, D.L.; Li, T.Y.; Liu, J.J.; Chen, Y.H.; Qu, L.R.; Perera, F. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States). Dept. for Environmental Health Science

    2006-08-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important class of toxic pollutants released by fossil fuel combustion. Other pollutants include metals and particulate matter. PAH-DNA adducts, or benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) adducts as their proxy, provide a chemical-specific measure of individual biologically effective doses that have been associated with increased risk of cancer and adverse birth outcomes. In the present study we examined the relationship between prenatal PAH exposure and fetal and child growth and development in Tongliang, China, where a seasonally operated coal-fired power plant was the major pollution source. In a cohort of 150 nonsmoking women and their newborns enrolled between 4 March 2002 and 19 June 2002, BaP-DNA adducts were measured in maternal and umbilical cord blood obtained at delivery. High PAH-DNA adduct levels (above the median of detectable adduct level) were associated with decreased birth head circumference (p = 0.057) and reduced children's weight at 18 months, 24 months, and 30 months of age (p {lt} 0.05), after controlling for potential confounders. In addition, in separate models, longer duration of prenatal exposure was associated with reduced birth length (p = 0.033) and reduced children's height at 18 (p = 0.001), 24 (p {lt} 0.001), and 30 months of age (p {lt} 0.001). The findings suggest that exposure to elevated levels of PAHS, with the Tongliang power plant being a significant source, is associated with reduced fetal and child growth in this population.

  2. Lifestyle, Environmental, and Genetic Predictors of Bulky DNA Adducts in a Study Population Nested within a Prospective Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, K. T.; Sørensen, M.; Autrup, H.

    2010-01-01

    Danish cohort. At enrollment, blood samples were collected and information on lifestyle, including dietary and smoking habits, obtained. Previously, bulky DNA adducts were measured in 245 individuals who developed lung cancer and 255 control members of the cohort. Of these 500 individuals, data on 375...... individuals were included in this study, excluding 125 cases, which developed lung cancer within the first 3 yr after blood sampling. Bulky DNA adduct levels were measured by 32P-postlabeling technique and polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism and DNA repair genes were determined. Potential predictors...... found between dietary factors or smoking and DNA adduct levels. Further, the results showed no prominent associations between any of 12 genetic polymorphisms and adduct levels. Overall, our study showed only few associations between dietary, environmental, and genetic factors and levels of bulky DNA...

  3. Comparative synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry and 32P-postlabeling analysis of PAH-DNA adducts in human lung and the relationship to TP53 mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Åshild; Kure, Elin H.; Nielsen, Per Sabro

    1996-01-01

    )-DNA adducts detected by SFS and the BPDE co-migrating spot detected by 32P-postlabeling. We have also analyzed the relationship between adduct levels and TP53 mutations. By postlabeling diagonal radioactive zone (DRZ) adducts were detected in 37 of 39 (95%) lung tissues from lung cancer patients......Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts were studied in human lung from 39 lung cancer patients by synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometric (SFS) and 32P-postlabeling assays. Regression analysis of the samples failed to detect any correlation between benzo[a]pyrene-diolepoxide (BPDE...... and the adduct level ranged from 6.81 to 108.50 adducts/10(8) nucleotide. Thirty-three of 39 (85%) had detectable levels of BPDE-DNA adducts (> 1 adduct/10(9) nucleotide). Current heavy smokers (> 20 cigarettes/day) have significantly higher DRZ adduct levels compared to individuals smoking less than 20...

  4. Synthesis of Cyclopropane Derivatives Starting from the Baylis-Hillman Adducts Using Sulfur Ylide Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ka Young; Kim, Seung Chan; Kim, Jae Nyoung [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    During the extensive studies on the chemical transformations of Baylis-Hillman adducts, we examined the introduction of cyclopropane moiety at the primary position of Baylis-Hillman adducts to form vinyl cyclopropane derivatives. Such vinyl cyclopropane backbone is an important entity in many naturally occurring and synthetic pyrethroidal insectides, and could be used for further chemical transformations. Our synthetic rationale is shown in Scheme 1. The starting cinnamyl bromide was prepared from the Baylis-Hillman adduct and HBr according to the reported method. The reaction of and dimethyl sulfide in CH{sub 3}CN generated the sulfonium salt, which was converted into the corresponding sulfur ylide by treatment with NaOH.

  5. Characterization of a mutagenic DNA adduct formed from 1,2-dibromoethane by O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liping; Hachey, David L; Valadez, Gerardo; Williams, Kevin M; Guengerich, F Peter; Loktionova, Natalia A; Kanugula, Sreenivas; Pegg, Anthony E

    2004-02-06

    It has been proposed that the DNA repair protein O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase increases the mutagenicity of 1,2-dibromoethane by reacting with it at its cysteine acceptor site to form a highly reactive half-mustard, which can then react with DNA (Liu, L., Pegg, A. E., Williams, K. M., and Guengerich, F. P. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 37920-37928). Incubation of Escherichia coli-expressed human alkyltransferase with 1,2-dibromoethane and single-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotides led to the formation of covalent transferaseoligo complexes. The order of reaction determined was Gua>Thy>Cyt>Ade. Mass spectrometry analysis of the tryptic digest of the reaction product indicated that some of the adducts led to depurination with the release of the Gly136-Arg147 peptide cross-linked to a Gua at the N7 position, with the site of reaction being the active site Cys145 as established by chromatographic retention time and the fragmentation pattern determined by tandem mass spectrometry of a synthetic peptide adduct. The alkyltransferase-mediated mutations produced by 1,2-dibromoethane were predominantly Gua to Ade transitions but, in the spectrum of such rifampicin-resistant mutations in the RpoB gene, 20% were Gua to Thy transversions. The latter are likely to have arisen from the apurinic site generated from the Gua-N7 adduct. Support exists for an additional adduct/mutagenic pathway because evidence was obtained for DNA adducts other than at the Gua N7 atom and for mutations other than those attributable to depurination. Thus, chemical and biological evidence supports the existence of at least two alkyltransferase-dependent pathways for 1,2-dibromoethane-induced mutagenicity, one involving Gua N7-alkylation by alkyltransferase-S-CH2CH2Br and depurination, plus another as yet uncharacterized system(s).

  6. Maternal diet and dioxin-like activity, bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei in mother-newborns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Marie, E-mail: mpedersen@creal.cat [Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, CSS, Oester Farimagsgade, Copenhagen K (Denmark); Halldorsson, Thorhallur I., E-mail: lur@ssi.dk [Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland Reykjavik (Iceland); Center for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology, Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Autrup, Herman, E-mail: ha@mil.au.dk [School of Public Health, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Brouwer, Abraham, E-mail: Bram.Brouwer@bds.nl [BioDetection Systems B.V., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Besselink, Harrie, E-mail: Harrie.Besselink@bds.nl [BioDetection Systems B.V., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Loft, Steffen, E-mail: stl@sund.ku.dk [Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, CSS, Oester Farimagsgade, Copenhagen K (Denmark); Knudsen, Lisbeth E., E-mail: liek@sund.ku.dk [Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, CSS, Oester Farimagsgade, Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2012-06-01

    Maternal diet can contribute to carcinogenic exposures and also modify effects of environmental exposures on maternal and fetal genetic stability. In this study, associations between maternal diet and the levels of dioxin-like plasma activity, bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells and micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes from mother to newborns were examined. From 98 pregnant women living in the greater area of Copenhagen, Denmark in 2006-2007, maternal peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, together with information on health, environmental exposure and lifestyle. Maternal diet was estimated on the basis of maternal food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) completed by the end of pregnancy. Biomarkers were detected in paired blood samples through the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX){sup Registered-Sign} bioassay, {sup 32}P-postlabelling technique and cytokinesis-block MN assay. Maternal preference for meats with dark surface were significantly associated with higher bulky DNA adducts in both maternal ({beta} 95%CI; 0.46 (0.08, 0.84)) and cord blood ({beta} 95%CI; 0.46 (0.05, 0.86)) before and after adjustment for potential confounders. No other significant associations between the 18 dietary variables and the biomarkers measured in maternal and fetal samples were identified. The present study suggests that maternal intake of meats with dark surface contributes to the bulky DNA adduct levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relationship between food preparation and bulky DNA adducts appear to be captured by a FFQ while potential associations for other biomarkers might be more complex or need larger sample size.

  7. Maternal diet and dioxin-like activity, bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei in mother–newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Marie; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Autrup, Herman; Brouwer, Abraham; Besselink, Harrie; Loft, Steffen; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal diet can contribute to carcinogenic exposures and also modify effects of environmental exposures on maternal and fetal genetic stability. In this study, associations between maternal diet and the levels of dioxin-like plasma activity, bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells and micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes from mother to newborns were examined. From 98 pregnant women living in the greater area of Copenhagen, Denmark in 2006–2007, maternal peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, together with information on health, environmental exposure and lifestyle. Maternal diet was estimated on the basis of maternal food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) completed by the end of pregnancy. Biomarkers were detected in paired blood samples through the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX) ® bioassay, 32 P-postlabelling technique and cytokinesis-block MN assay. Maternal preference for meats with dark surface were significantly associated with higher bulky DNA adducts in both maternal (β 95%CI; 0.46 (0.08, 0.84)) and cord blood (β 95%CI; 0.46 (0.05, 0.86)) before and after adjustment for potential confounders. No other significant associations between the 18 dietary variables and the biomarkers measured in maternal and fetal samples were identified. The present study suggests that maternal intake of meats with dark surface contributes to the bulky DNA adduct levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relationship between food preparation and bulky DNA adducts appear to be captured by a FFQ while potential associations for other biomarkers might be more complex or need larger sample size.

  8. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas. Potential use for genotoxicant biomonitoring of fresh water ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, J; Gallois, J; Pelhuet, L; Devier, M H; Budzinski, H; Pottier, D; André, V; Cachot, J

    2006-08-12

    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a 32P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of 32P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 microg g(-1) dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 microg g(-1) dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/10(8) nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 microg g(-1) dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 microg g(-1) dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/10(8) nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced 32P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in zebra mussels could be a suitable

  9. Adducts in sperm protamine and DNA (deoxyribonuclease) vs. mutation frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sega, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    In mammals, variability in the genetic sensitivity of different germ-cell stages to mutagens could be the result of how much chemical reaches the different stages, what molecular targets may be affected in the different stages and whether or not repair of lesions occurs. In the mouse, several mutagens have been found that cause their greatest genetic damage in late-spermatid and early-spermatozoa stages and that also bind very strongly to the protamine in these stages. Chemicals which are less genetically damaging to these stages have been found to have much less affinity for protamine. Furthermore, the level of chemical binding to DNA in late-spermatid and early-spermatozoa stages has not been correlated with the level of induced genetic damage, although DNA breakage in these sensitive stages has been shown to increase. This DNA damage is believed to indirectly result from chemical binding to sulfhydryl groups in protamine which prevents normal chromatin condensation within the sperm nucleus. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Circulating Covalent Protein Adducts Derived from a Drug Acyl Glucuronide Metabolite: Multiple Albumin Adductions in Diclofenac Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Thomas G.; Meng, Xiaoli; Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Maggs, James L.; Castelazo, Anahi Santoyo; Regan, Sophie L.; Bennett, Stuart N. L.; Earnshaw, Caroline J.; Aithal, Guruprasad P.; Pande, Ira; Kenna, J. Gerry; Stachulski, Andrew V.; Park, B. Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Covalent protein modifications by electrophilic acyl glucuronide (AG) metabolites are hypothetical causes of hypersensitivity reactions associated with certain carboxylate drugs. The complex rearrangements and reactivities of drug AG have been defined in great detail, and protein adducts of carboxylate drugs, such as diclofenac, have been found in liver and plasma of experimental animals and humans. However, in the absence of definitive molecular characterization, and specifically, identification of signature glycation conjugates retaining the glucuronyl and carboxyl residues, it cannot be assumed any of these adducts is derived uniquely or even fractionally from AG metabolites. We have therefore undertaken targeted mass spectrometric analyses of human serum albumin (HSA) isolated from diclofenac patients to characterize drug-derived structures and, thereby, for the first time, have deconstructed conclusively the pathways of adduct formation from a drug AG and its isomeric rearrangement products in vivo. These analyses were informed by a thorough understanding of the reactions of HSA with diclofenac AG in vitro. HSA from six patients without drug-related hypersensitivities had either a single drug-derived adduct or one of five combinations of 2–8 adducts from among seven diclofenac N-acylations and three AG glycations on seven of the protein’s 59 lysines. Only acylations were found in every patient. We present evidence that HSA modifications by diclofenac in vivo are complicated and variable, that at least a fraction of these modifications are derived from the drug’s AG metabolite, and that albumin adduction is not inevitably a causation of hypersensitivity to carboxylate drugs or a coincidental association. PMID:24902585

  11. Photochemical Reaction of 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA and Formation of DNA Covalent Adducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Fu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available DMBA, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, is a widely studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that has long been recognized as a probable human carcinogen. It has been found that DMBA is phototoxic in bacteria as well as in animal or human cells and photomutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA102. This article tempts to explain the photochemistry and photomutagenicity mechanism. Light irradiation converts DMBA into several photoproducts including benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione, 7-hydroxy-12-keto-7-methylbenz[a]anthracene, 7,12-epidioxy-7,12-dihydro-DMBA, 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-hydroxymethyl-7-methylbenz[a]anthracene. Structures of these photoproducts have been identified by either comparison with authentic samples or by NMR/MS. At least four other photoproducts need to be assigned. Photo-irradiation of DMBA in the presence of calf thymus DNA was similarly conducted and light-induced DMBA-DNA adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabeling/TLC, which indicates that multiple DNA adducts were formed. This indicates that formation of DNA adducts might be the source of photomutagenicity of DMBA. Metabolites obtained from the metabolism of DMBA by rat liver microsomes were reacted with calf thymus DNA and the resulting DNA adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabeling/TLC under identical conditions. Comparison of the DNA adduct profiles indicates that the DNA adducts formed from photo-irradiation are different from the DNA adducts formed due to the reaction of DMBA metabolites with DNA. These results suggest that photo-irradiation of DMBA can lead to genotoxicity through activation pathways different from those by microsomal metabolism of DMBA.

  12. Bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and exposure to environmental and occupational sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Influence of susceptibility genotypes on adduct level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabro Nielsen, P.

    1996-12-31

    PAH exposure, whether it is of occupational or environmental origin, is thought to result in an elevated risk of cancer especially in the lungs. DNA damage is considered an important step in the carcinogenic effect of PAH. Hence, methods that elucidate the steps in the carcinogenic process are important to understand the action of PAH. It may prove useful in the exposure assessment and in combination with classical epidemiological methods give better basis for risk estimation. The objective in this thesis was to evaluate the feasibility of the {sup 32}P-postlabeling method to detect carcinogen-DNA adducts for assessing exposure to DNA damaging compounds in different occupationally and environmentally exposed groups. The studies included groups, that have an elevated cancer risk due to occupational exposure to PAH. Exposure levels were supposed to be relatively low according to reports on occupational and environmental air quality programs. Another aim was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in metabolizing enzyme genes on DNA adduct levels. A third objective was to establish some kind of baseline DNA adduct level for individuals with supposed low exposure, and compare it to the more exposed groups. A fourth aim in these studies was to examine if biomarkers of genotoxic exposure could be useful in epidemiological studies to identify groups at risk and thereby contribute with better exposure estimates in the study of PAH related cancer risk. (EG).

  13. Bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and exposure to environmental and occupational sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Influence of susceptibility genotypes on adduct level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabro Nielsen, P.

    1996-01-01

    PAH exposure, whether it is of occupational or environmental origin, is thought to result in an elevated risk of cancer especially in the lungs. DNA damage is considered an important step in the carcinogenic effect of PAH. Hence, methods that elucidate the steps in the carcinogenic process are important to understand the action of PAH. It may prove useful in the exposure assessment and in combination with classical epidemiological methods give better basis for risk estimation. The objective in this thesis was to evaluate the feasibility of the 32 P-postlabeling method to detect carcinogen-DNA adducts for assessing exposure to DNA damaging compounds in different occupationally and environmentally exposed groups. The studies included groups, that have an elevated cancer risk due to occupational exposure to PAH. Exposure levels were supposed to be relatively low according to reports on occupational and environmental air quality programs. Another aim was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in metabolizing enzyme genes on DNA adduct levels. A third objective was to establish some kind of baseline DNA adduct level for individuals with supposed low exposure, and compare it to the more exposed groups. A fourth aim in these studies was to examine if biomarkers of genotoxic exposure could be useful in epidemiological studies to identify groups at risk and thereby contribute with better exposure estimates in the study of PAH related cancer risk. (EG)

  14. DNA adducts and oxidative DNA damage induced by organic extracts from PM2.5 in an acellular assay

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topinka, Jan; Rössner ml., Pavel; Milcová, Alena; Schmuczerová, Jana; Švecová, Vlasta; Šrám, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 202, č. 3 (2011), s. 186-192 ISSN 0378-4274 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08005; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution * genotoxicity * DNA adducts Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.230, year: 2011

  15. The relationship between prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A; Perera, Frederica P; Tang, Deliang; Rauh, Virginia; Majewska, Renata; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Stigter, Laura; Spengler, John; Camann, David; Jacek, Ryszard

    2013-07-01

    In a birth cohort study, we have assessed the dose-response relationship between individual measurements of prenatal airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and specific PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood adjusted for maternal blood adducts and season of birth. The study uses data from an earlier established birth cohort of children in Krakow. The final analysis included 362 pregnant women who gave birth to term babies and had complete data on personal exposure in the second trimester of pregnancy to eight airborne PAHs including benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), as well as DNA adducts, both in maternal and cord blood. The relation between cord blood PAH-DNA adducts and airborne prenatal PAH exposure was non-linear. Although cord blood PAH-DNA adducts were significantly associated with the B[a]P exposure categorized by tertiles (non-parametric trend z=3.50, P<0.001), the relationship between B[a]P and maternal blood adducts was insignificant (z=1.63, P=0.103). Based on the multivariable linear regression model, we estimated the effect of the prenatal airborne B[a]P on the level of cord blood adducts. In total, 14.8% of cord blood adducts variance was attributed to the level of maternal adducts and 3% to a higher prenatal B[a] exposure above 5.70 ng/m(3). The calculated fetal/maternal blood adduct ratio (FMR) linearly increased with B[a]P exposure (z=1.99, P=0.047) and was highest at B[a]P concentrations exceeding 5.70 ng/m(3). In conclusion, the results support other findings that transplacental exposure to B[a]P from maternal inhalation produces DNA damage in the developing fetus. It also confirms the heightened fetal susceptibility to prenatal PAH exposure that should be a matter of public health concern, particularly in the highly polluted areas, because DNA adducts represent a pro-carcinogenic alteration in DNA. The continuation of this birth cohort study will assess the possible health effects of fetal DNA damage on the health of children and help in

  16. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) AND PAH-DNA ADDUCTS IN CORD BLOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P.; Tang, Deliang; Rauh, Virginia; Majewska, Renata; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Stigter, Laura; Spengler, John; Camann, David; Jacek, Ryszard

    2013-01-01

    In a birth cohort study, we have assessed the dose-response relationship between individual measurements of prenatal airborne PAH exposure and specific PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood adjusted for maternal blood adducts and season of birth. The study uses data from an earlier established birth cohort of children in Krakow. The final analysis included 362 pregnant women who gave birth to term babies and had complete data on personal exposure in the second trimester of pregnancy to eight airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) including benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), as well as DNA adducts, both in maternal and cord blood. The relation between cord blood PAH-DNA adducts and airborne prenatal PAH exposure was non-linear. While cord blood PAH-DNA adducts were significantly associated with the B[a]P exposure categorized by tertiles (nonparametric trend z = 3.50, p < 0.001), the relationship between B[a]P and maternal blood adducts was insignificant (z = 1.63, p = 0.103). Based on the multivariable linear regression model we estimated the effect of the prenatal airborne B[a]P on the level of cord blood adducts. In total, 14.8% of cord blood adducts variance was attributed to the level of maternal adducts and 3% to a higher prenatal B[a] exposure above 5.70 ng/m3. The calculated fetal/maternal blood adducts ratio (FMR) linearly increased with the B[a]P exposure (z = 1.99, p = 0.047) and was highest at B[a]P concentrations exceeding 5.70 ng/m3. In conclusion, the results support other findings that transplacental exposure to B[a[P from maternal inhalation produces DNA damage in the developing fetus. It also confirms the heightened fetal susceptibility to prenatal PAH exposure that should be a matter of public health concern particularly in the highly polluted areas because DNA adducts represent a pro-carcinogenic alteration in DNA The continuation of this birth cohort study will assess the possible health effects of fetal DNA damage on health of children and help in

  17. Enzymology of repair of DNA adducts produced by N-nitroso compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, R.B.; Cao, E.H.; Delihas, N.C.

    1983-01-01

    The biological effects of DNA adducts depend on their nature, and on their half-lives relative to the rates of DNA replication and transcription. Their half-lives are determined by the rates of spontaneous decay, such as depurination, and the rates of enzymatic repair of the adducts or their decay products. The principle modes of repair of methylating and ethylating agents are by glycosylase catalyzed depurination of 7-alkylguanine and 3-alkyladenine and by the dealkalation of O/sup 6/-alkylguanine. Repair by dealkylation cannot be detected by the standard methods used to measure DNA repair, but it is easy to estimate the acceptor activity in cell extracts by measuring the transfer of radioactive O/sup 6/-alkyl groups in an exogenous DNA to protein. In extracts of cells treated with alkylating agents the activity is depressed because the endogenous DNA is rapidly dealkylated, using up the acceptor activity. In many cell types the decrease in activity is followed by an increase to the normal constitutive level. In other cells there is no such adaptive response. Differences in constitutive levels of methyl accepting activity in extracts of human lymphocytes and on the acceptor activity in lung macrophages from smokers (low activity) and non-smokers (high activity) have been observed. 46 references.

  18. Structure of the 1,N2-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct in duplex DNA at pH 8.6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Ganesh; Goodenough, Angela K; Kozekov, Ivan D; Guengerich, F Peter; Rizzo, Carmelo J; Stone, Michael P

    2007-11-01

    The structure of the 1,N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine (1,N(2)-epsilondG) adduct, arising from the reaction of vinyl chloride with dG, was determined in the oligonucleotide duplex 5'-d(CGCATXGAATCC)-3'.5'-d(GGATTCCATGCG)-3' (X=1,N(2)-epsilondG) at pH 8.6 using high resolution NMR spectroscopy. The exocyclic lesion prevented Watson-Crick base-pairing capability at the adduct site and resulted in an approximately 17 degrees C decrease in Tm of the oligodeoxynucleotide duplex. At neutral pH, conformational exchange resulted in spectral line broadening near the adducted site, and it was not possible to determine the structure. However, at pH 8.6, it was possible to obtain well-resolved (1)H NMR spectra. This enabled a total of 385 NOE-based distance restraints to be obtained, consisting of 245 intra- and 140 inter-nucleotide distances. The (31)P NMR spectra exhibited two downfield-shifted resonances, suggesting a localized perturbation of the DNA backbone. The two downfield (31)P resonances were assigned to G(7) and C(19). The solution structure was refined by molecular dynamics calculations restrained by NMR-derived distance and dihedral angle restraints, using a simulated annealing protocol. The generalized Born approximation was used to simulate solvent. The emergent structures indicated that the 1,N(2)-epsilondG-induced structural perturbation was localized at the X(6).C(19) base pair, and its 5'-neighbor T(5).A(20). Both 1,N(2)-epsilondG and the complementary dC adopted the anti conformation about the glycosyl bonds. The 1,N (2)-epsilondG adduct was inserted into the duplex but was shifted towards the minor groove as compared to dG in a normal Watson-Crick C.G base pair. The complementary cytosine was displaced toward the major groove. The 5'-neighbor T(5).A(20) base pair was destabilized with respect to Watson-Crick base pairing. The refined structure predicted a bend in the helical axis associated with the adduct site.

  19. Recognition and repair of the CC-1065-(N3-Adenine)-DNA adduct by the UVRABC nuclease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, M.; Lee, C.S.; Doisy, R.; Ross, L.; Needham-VanDevanter, D.R.; Hurley, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    The recognition and repair of the helix-stabilizing and relatively nondistortive CC-1065-(N3-adenine)-DNA adduct by UVRABC nuclease has been investigated both in vivo with phi X174RFI DNA by a transfection assay and in vitro by a site-directed adduct in a 117 base pair fragment from M13mp1. CC-1065 is a potent antitumor antibiotic produced by Streptomyces zelensis which binds within the minor groove of DNA through N3 of adenine. In contrast to the helix-destabilizing and distortive modifications of DNA caused by ultraviolet light or N-acetoxy-2-(acetylamino)fluorene, CC-1065 increases the melting point of DNA and decreases the S1 nuclease activity. Using a viral DNA-Escherichia coli transfection system, the authors have found that the uvrA, uvrB, and uvrC genes, which code for the major excision repair proteins for UV- and NAAAF-induced DNA damage, are also involved in the repair of CC-1065-DNA adducts. In contrast, the uvrD gene product, which has been found to be involved in the repair of UV damage, has no effect in repairing CC-1065-DNA adducts. Purified UVRA, UVRB, and UVRC proteins must work in concert to incise the drug-modified phi X174RFI DNA. Using a site-directed and multiple CC-1065 modified (MspI-BstNI) 117 base pair fragment from M13mp1, they have found that UVRABC nuclease incises at the eight phosphodiester bond on the 5' side of the CC-1065-DNA adduct on the drug-modified strand. The enzymes do not cut the noncovalently modified strand. The DNA sequence and/or helix-stabilizing effect of multiple adducts may determine the recognition and/or incision of the drug-DNA adduct by UVRABC nuclease. These results are discussed in relation to the structure of the CC-1065-DNA adduct and the effect of drug binding on local DNA structure

  20. Structural and chemical characterization of S-[2-(N7-guanyl)-ethyl]glutathione, the major DNA adduct formed from 1,2-dibromoethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inskeep, P.B.; Koga, N.; Cmarik, J.L.; Peterson, L.A.; Guengerich, F.P.

    1986-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) S-transferase catalyzes the reaction of the carcinogen 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE) with DNA, resulting in the formation of a major DNA adduct which can be released by thermal hydrolysis at neutral pH and purified by octadecylsilyl- and propylamino high performance liquid chromatography. This adduct was also the only major liver and kidney DNA adduct isolated from rats treated with [1,2- 14 C]-DBE. Administration of 1,2-dichloroethane to rats also led to the production of this and other DNA adducts. The DNA adduct was assigned the structure S-[2-(N'-guanyl)ethyl]GSH as determined by positive and negative ion mass spectrometry and two-dimensional NMR correlated spectroscopy (COSY). Consistently, the chromatographic characteristics of the adduct could be altered upon treatment with γ-glutamic transpeptidase or pronase. No evidence for in vitro or in vivo guanyl imidazole ring opening was observed under these experimental conditions. Additionally, S-[2-(N 7 -guanyl)ethyl]GSH was found to be stable to further reaction with DNA to generate new DNA adducts. The structure of the isolated adduct is consistent with a proposed bioactivation pathway of DBE which involves enzyme catalyzed conjugation of DBE with GSH followed by attack of the N 7 -position of DNA guanine residues to generate this major adduct. The chemical stability of the adduct suggests that it may be important to the carcinogenicity of this compound

  1. The potential of platinum-DNA adduct determination in ex vivo treated tumor fragments for the prediction of sensitivity to cisplatin chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welters, M.J.P.; Braakhuis, B.J.M.; Jacobs-Bergmans, A.J.; Kegel, A.; Baan, R.A.; Vijgh, W.J.F. van der; Fichtinger-Schepman, A.M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Response to cisplatin-therapy is assumed to be related to the formation of platinum (Pt)-DNA adducts. Measurement of these adducts prior to therapy could be of value to improve cisplatin based cancer therapy. Materials and methods: We determined Pt-GG and Pt-AG adduct levels by use of

  2. Intercalating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts poison DNA religation by Vaccinia topoisomerase and act as roadblocks to digestion by exonuclease III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovleva, Lyudmila; Handy, Christopher J; Yagi, Haruhiko; Sayer, Jane M; Jerina, Donald M; Shuman, Stewart

    2006-06-20

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts pervert the execution or fidelity of enzymatic DNA transactions and cause mutations and cancer. Here, we examine the effects of intercalating PAH-DNA adducts on the religation reaction of vaccinia DNA topoisomerase, a prototypal type IB topoisomerase (TopIB), and the 3' end-resection reaction of Escherichia coli exonuclease III (ExoIII), a DNA repair enzyme. Vaccinia TopIB forms a covalent DNA-(3'-phosphotyrosyl)-enzyme intermediate at a target site 5'-C(+5)C(+4)C(+3)T(+2)T(+1)p / N(-1) in duplex DNA. The rate of the forward cleavage reaction is suppressed to varying degrees by benzo[a]pyrene (BP) or benzo[c]phenanthrene (BPh) adducts at purine bases within the 3'-G(+5)G(+4)G(+3)A(+2)A(+1)T(-1)A(-2) sequence of the nonscissile strand. We report that BP adducts at the +1 and -2 N6-deoxyadenosine (dA) positions flanking the scissile phosphodiester slow the rate of DNA religation to a greater degree than they do the cleavage rate. By increasing the cleavage equilibrium constant > or = 10-fold, the BPdA adducts, which are intercalated via the major groove, act as TopIB poisons. With respect to ExoIII, we find that (i) single BPdA adducts act as durable roadblocks to ExoIII digestion, which is halted at sites 1 and 2 nucleotides prior to the modified base; (ii) single BPhdA adducts, which also intercalate via the major groove, elicit a transient pause prior to the lesion, which is eventually resected; and (iii) BPh adducts at N2-deoxyguanosine, which intercalate via the minor groove, are durable impediments to ExoIII digestion. These results highlight the sensitivity of repair outcomes to the structure of the PAH ring system and whether intercalation occurs via the major or minor groove.

  3. Gold Nanoparticles for the Detection of DNA Adducts as Biomarkers of Exposure to Acrylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larguinho, Miguel Angelo Rodrigues

    The main objective of this thesis was the development of a gold nanoparticle-based methodology for detection of DNA adducts as biomarkers, to try and overcome existing drawbacks in currently employed techniques. For this objective to be achieved, the experimental work was divided in three components: sample preparation, method of detection and development of a model for exposure to acrylamide. Different techniques were employed and combined for de-complexation and purification of DNA samples (including ultrasonic energy, nuclease digestion and chromatography), resulting in a complete protocol for sample treatment, prior to detection. The detection of alkylated nucleotides using gold nanoparticles was performed by two distinct methodologies: mass spectrometry and colorimetric detection. In mass spectrometry, gold nanoparticles were employed for laser desorption/ionisation instead of the organic matrix. Identification of nucleotides was possible by fingerprint, however no specific mass signals were denoted when using gold nanoparticles to analyse biological samples. An alternate method using the colorimetric properties of gold nanoparticles was employed for detection. This method inspired in the non-cross-linking assay allowed the identification of glycidamide-guanine adducts and DNA adducts generated in vitro. For the development of a model of exposure, two different aquatic organisms were studies: a goldfish and a mussel. Organisms were exposed to waterborne acrylamide, after which mortality was recorded and effect concentrations were estimated. In goldfish, both genotoxicity and metabolic alterations were assessed and revealed dose-effect relationships of acrylamide. Histopathological alterations were verified primarily in pancreatic cells, but also in hepatocytes. Mussels showed higher effect concentrations than goldfish. Biomarkers of oxidative stress, biotransformation and neurotoxicity were analysed after prolonged exposure, showing mild oxidative stress in

  4. Detection of benzo[a]pyrene-guanine adducts in single-stranded DNA using the α-hemolysin nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Rukshan T.; Fleming, Aaron M.; Johnson, Robert P.; Burrows, Cynthia J.; White, Henry S.

    2015-02-01

    The carcinogenic precursor benzo[a]pyrene (BP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is released into the environment through the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Metabolism of BP in the human body yields a potent alkylating agent (benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide, BPDE) that reacts with guanine (G) in DNA to form an adduct implicated in cancer initiation. We report that the α-hemolysin (αHL) nanopore platform can be used to detect a BPDE adduct to G in synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides. Translocation of a 41-mer poly-2‧-deoxycytidine strand with a centrally located BPDE adduct to G through αHL in 1 M KCl produces a unique multi-level current signature allowing the adduct to be detected. This readily distinguishable current modulation was observed when the BPDE-adducted DNA strand translocated from either the 5‧ or 3‧ directions. This study suggests that BPDE adducts and other large aromatic biomarkers can be detected with αHL, presenting opportunities for the monitoring, quantification, and sequencing of mutagenic compounds from cellular DNA samples.

  5. Two food-borne heterocyclic amines: Metabolism and DNA adduct formation of amino-alpha-carbolines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne

    2005-01-01

    or proteins of animal or vegetable origin, furthermore they are found in many cooked foods, such as fish, meat, and chicken. The specific mutagenicity of the amino-a-carbolines are lower in the Ames Salmonella assay than other heterocyclic amines, but in rodent studies the carcinogenicity of the aminoa, alpha......-carbolines are comparable to other heterocyclic amines. The metabolic pathways of the amino-alpha-carbolines have been studied in vitro and in vivo, and the detoxified phase I and phase II metabolites characterized and quantified. The metabolic activation of the amino-a-carbolines and the formation of DNA-adducts have also...

  6. Mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke-induced DNA adducts in C7Bl and DBA mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Gairola, C G; Wu, H; Gupta, R C; Diana, J N

    1993-01-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), which is largely composed of the sidestream cigarette smoke, has been implicated in increased incidence of cancer among nonsmokers. The present study was conducted to compare the potential of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke to induce DNA adducts in mice. Groups of female C57Bl and DBA mice were exposed twice daily for 65-70 weeks to mainstream or sidestream smoke from the University of Kentucky reference cigarettes (2R1) in a nose-only ...

  7. [Association of etheno-DNA adduct and DNA methylation level among workers exposed to diesel engine exhaust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, M L; He, Z N; Zhang, X; Duan, H W; Niu, Y; Bin, P; Ye, M; Meng, T; Dai, Y F; Yu, S F; Chen, W; Zheng, Y X

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To investigate the association between etheno-DNA adduct and the promoter of DNA methylation levels of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (P16), Ras association domain family 1 (RASSF1A) and O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in workers with occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE). Methods: We recruited 124 diesel engine testing workers as DEE exposure group and 112 water pump operator in the same area as control group in Henan province in 2012 using cluster sampling. The demographic data were obtained by questionnaire survey; urine after work and venous blood samples were collected from each subject. The urinary etheno-DNA adducts were detected using UPLC-MS/MS, including 1,N6-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (εdA) and 3,N4-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine(εdC). The DNA methylation levels of P16, RASSF1A, and MGMT were evaluated using bisulfite-pyrosequencing assay. The percentage of methylation was expressed as the 5-methylcytosine (5mC) over the sum of cytosines (%5mC). Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression were applied to analyze the association between etheno-DNA adducts and DNA methylation of P16, RASSF1A, and MGMT. Results: The median ( P (25)- P (75)) of urinary εdA level was 230.00 (98.04-470.91) pmol/g creatinine in DEE exposure group, and 102.10 (49.95-194.48) creatinine in control group. The level of εdA was higher in DEE exposure group than control group ( P 0.05) . Multiple linear regression confirmed the negative correlation between εdA and DNA methylation levels of P16, RASSF1A, and MGMT in non-smoking group (β (95 %CI ) was -0.068 (-0.132--0.003), -0.082 (-0.159--0.004) and -0.048 (-0.090--0.007), P values were 0.039, 0.039 and 0.024, respectively). Moreover, εdC was negative associated with DNA methylation level of MGMT in non-smoking group (β (95 %CI ) was -0.094 (-0.179--0.008), P= 0.032). Conclusion: DEE exposure could induce the increased of εdA and decreased of DNA methylation levels of P16, RASSF1A

  8. DNA adducts, mutant frequencies, and mutation spectra in various organs of λlacZ mice exposed to ethylating agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mientjes, E.J.; Luiten-Schuite, A.; Wolf, E. van der; Borsboom, Y.; Bergmans, A.; Berends, F.; Lohman, P.H.M.; Baan, R.A.; Delft, J.H.M. van

    1998-01-01

    To investigate tissue-specific relations between DNA adducts and mutagenesis in vivo, λlacZ transgenic mice were treated i.p. with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), diethylnitrosamine (DEN), and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS). In liver, bone marrow, and brain DNA from mice sacrificed at several time

  9. Protection by quercetin and quercetin-rich fruit juice against induction of oxidative DNA damage and formation of BPDE-DNA adducts in human lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilms, L.C.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Boots, A.W.; Kleinjans, J.C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Flavonoids are claimed to protect against cardiovascular disease, certain forms of cancer and ageing, possibly by preventing initial DNA damage. Therefore, we investigated the protective effects of the flavonoid quercetin against the formation of oxidative DNA damage and bulky DNA adducts in human

  10. Base sequence effects on DNA replication influenced by bulky adducts. Final report, March 1, 1995--February 28, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geacintov, N.E.

    1997-05-31

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are environmental pollutants that are present in air, food, and water. While PAH compounds are chemically inert and are sparingly soluble in aqueous solutions, in living cells they are metabolized to a variety of oxygenated derivatives, including the high mutagenic and tumorigenic diol epoxide derivatives. The diol epoxides of the sterically hindered fjord region compound benzo[c]phenanthrene (B[c]PhDE) are among the most powerful tumorigenic compounds in animal model test systems. In this project, site-specifically modified oligonucleotides containing single B[c]PhDE-N{sup 6}-dA lesions derived from the reactions of the 1S,2R,3R,4S and 1R,2S,3S,4R diol epoxides of B[c]PhDE with dA residues were synthesized. The replication of DNA catalyzed by a prokaryotic DNA polymerase (the exonuclease-free Klenow fragment E. Coli Po1 I) in the vicinity of the lesion at base-specific sites on B[c]PhDE-modified template strands was investigated in detail. The Michaelis-Menten parameters for the insertion of single deoxynucleotide triphosphates into growing DNA (primer) strands using the modified dA* and the bases just before and after the dA* residue as templates, depend markedly on the stereochemistry of the B[c]PhDE-modified dA residues. These observations provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which bulky PAH-DNA adducts affect normal DNA replication.

  11. Myeloperoxidase - 463A variant reduces benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide DNA adducts in skin of coal tar treated patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, M.; Godschalk, R.; Alexandrov, K.; Cascorbi, I.; Kriek, E.; Ostertag, J.; Van Schooten, F.J.; Bartsch, H. [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Div. of Toxicology & Cancer Risk Factors

    2001-07-01

    The skin of atopic dermatitis patients provides an excellent model to study the role of inflammation in benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) activation, since these individuals are often topically treated with ointments containing high concentrations of BaP. The authors determined, by HPLC with fluorescence detection, the BaP diol epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adduct levels in human skin after topical treatment with coal tar and their modulation by the -453G into A myeloperoxidase (MPO) polymorphism, which reduces MPO mRNA expression. The data show for the first time: (i) the in vivo formation of BPDE-DNA adducts in human skin treated with coal tar; (ii) that the MPO-463AA/AG genotype reduced BPDE-DNA adduct levels in human skin.

  12. Retardation of experimental tumorigenesis and reduction in DNA adducts by turmeric and curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, K; Goud, V K; Sesikeran, B; Mukundan, M A; Krishna, T P

    1998-01-01

    Turmeric and its active principle curcumin have been extensively investigated for their antimutagenic and antioxidant effects in bacterial and animal systems. Because oral cancers are common in India, an experimental model of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced buccal pouch tumors in Syrian Golden hamsters was used to evaluate the tumor retardation effects of turmeric and curcumin. Turmeric and/or curcumin was administered in the diet and/or applied locally for 14 weeks along with 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene. After the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and oral pouches were examined for tumor number and size. DNA adducts were estimated by 32P postlabel assay in the cheek pouches. Neoplastic changes were graded by histopathology. The results of the study suggest that turmeric or curcumin in the diet and/or applied locally significantly reduced DNA adducts at the target site. Tumor number and tumor burden were significantly lower (p curcumin (p curcumin administered in the diet or applied as paint may have a plausible chemopreventive effect on oral precancerous lesions.

  13. PAH-DNA adducts in environmentally exposed population in relation to metabolic and DNA repair genes polymorphisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Binková, Blanka; Chvátalová, Irena; Lněničková, Zdena; Milcová, Alena; Tulupová, Elena; Farmer, P. B.; Šrám, Radim

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 620, - (2007), s. 49-61 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/2/00; GA MŽP SL/740/5/03 Grant - others:EU(GB) 2000-00091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : DNA adducts * genetic polymorphisms * metabolic genes Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.159, year: 2007

  14. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) -463G->A reduces MPO activity and DNA adduct levels in bronchoalveolar lavages of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Schooten, Frederik J; Boots, Agnes W; Knaapen, Ad M; Godschalk, Roger W L; Maas, Lou M; Borm, Paul J A; Drent, Marjolein; Jacobs, Jan A

    2004-05-01

    The myeloperoxidase (MPO) -463G-->A genetic polymorphism is associated with a reduced risk for lung cancer, but the underlying mechanism is not yet elucidated. Therefore, the impact of this polymorphism on MPO activity and lipophilic DNA adducts was studied in respectively bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and cells, from 106 smoking Caucasian lung patients. MPO activity was determined spectrophotometrically, aromatic DNA adducts by (32)P-postlabeling and MPO genotypes by RFLP analysis. Frequencies of MPO -463AA (13%), MPO -463AG (36%), and MPO -463GG (51%) were in line with earlier observations. MPO activity/neutrophil was lower in MPO -463AA (median 0.04 pU/cell) than in MPO -463AG (median 0.07 pU/cell) and MPO -463GG (median 0.14 pU/cell; P = 0.059) individuals. DNA adducts in BAL cells were measured in 11 MPO -463AA subjects and equal numbers of MPO -463AG and MPO -463GG subjects matched for smoking, age, gender, and clinical diagnosis. DNA adduct levels in MPO -463AA individuals (median 0.62 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) were lower than in MPO -463AG (median 1.51 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) and MPO -463GG (median 3.26 adducts/10(8) nucleotides; P = 0.003) subjects. Overall, no significant correlation was observed between amount of inhaled tar/day and DNA adduct levels. However, correlations improved considerably on grouping according to the MPO genotype; MPO -463AA subjects were the least responsive (R(2) = 0.73, slope = 0.4, P = 0.01) followed by MPO -463AG subjects (R(2) = 0.70, slope = 1.3, P = 0.01) and MPO -463GG patients (R(2) = 0.67, slope = 2.8, P = 0.02). These data demonstrate that MPO -463AA/AG genotypes are associated with (a) reduced MPO activity in BAL fluid and (b) reduced smoking-related DNA adduct levels in BAL cells in a gene-dose manner. These data provide a plausible biological explanation for the reduced risk for lung cancer as observed in MPO -463AA/AG compared with MPO -463GG subjects.

  15. Oxidative DNA Adducts Following Cu2+-Mediated Activation of Dihydroxy PCBs: Role of Reactive Oxygen Species1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Wendy A.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Robertson, Larry W.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic industrial chemicals, complete carcinogens and efficacious tumor promoters. However, the mechanism(s) of PCB-mediated carcinogenicity remains largely undefined. One likely pathway by which these agents may play a role in carcinogenesis is the generation of oxidative DNA damage by redox cycling of dihydroxylated PCB metabolites. We have now employed a new 32P-postlabeling system to examine novel oxidative DNA lesions induced by Cu2+-mediated activation of PCB metabolites. 32P-Postlabeling of DNA incubated with various PCB metabolites resulted in over a dozen novel polar oxidative DNA adducts that were chromatographically similar for all active agents. The most potent metabolites tested were the hydroquinones (hydroxyl groups arranged para to each other) yielding polar oxidative adduct levels ranging from 55 to 142 adducts/106 nucleotides. PCB catechols, or ortho-dihydroxy metabolites, were up to 40% less active than their corresponding hydroquinone congeners while mono hydroxylated and quinone metabolites did not produce detectable oxidative damage over that of vehicle. With the exception of 2,4,5-Cl-2′,5′-dihydroxybiphenyl, this oxidative DNA damage appeared to be inversely related to chlorine content: no chlorine ≈ mono- > di- > tri-chlorinated metabolites. Importantly, copper, but not iron, was essential for activation of the PCB metabolites to these polar oxidative DNA adducts since in its absence or in the presence of the Cu+-specific scavenger, bathocuproine, no adducts were detected. Intervention studies with known reactive oxygen species (ROS) modifiers suggested that H2O2, singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical and superoxide may also be involved in this PCB-mediated oxidative DNA damage. These data indicate a mechanistic role of several ROS, in addition to copper, in PCB-induced DNA damage and provide further support for oxidative DNA damage in PCB-mediated carcinogenesis. PMID:19233261

  16. A physiologically based biodynamic (PBBD) model for estragole DNA binding in rat liver based on in vitro kinetic data and estragole DNA adduct formation in primary hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paini, Alicia; Punt, Ans; Viton, Florian; Scholz, Gabriele; Delatour, Thierry; Marin-Kuan, Maricel; Schilter, Benoit; Bladeren, Peter J. van; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Estragole has been shown to be hepatocarcinogenic in rodent species at high-dose levels. Translation of these results into the likelihood of formation of DNA adducts, mutation, and ultimately cancer upon more realistic low-dose exposures remains a challenge. Recently we have developed physiologically based biokinetic (PBBK) models for rat and human predicting bioactivation of estragole. These PBBK models, however, predict only kinetic characteristics. The present study describes the extension of the PBBK model to a so-called physiologically based biodynamic (PBBD) model predicting in vivo DNA adduct formation of estragole in rat liver. This PBBD model was developed using in vitro data on DNA adduct formation in rat primary hepatocytes exposed to 1'-hydroxyestragole. The model was extended by linking the area under the curve for 1'-hydroxyestragole formation predicted by the PBBK model to the area under the curve for 1'-hydroxyestragole in the in vitro experiments. The outcome of the PBBD model revealed a linear increase in DNA adduct formation with increasing estragole doses up to 100 mg/kg bw. Although DNA adduct formation of genotoxic carcinogens is generally seen as a biomarker of exposure rather than a biomarker of response, the PBBD model now developed is one step closer to the ultimate toxic effect of estragole than the PBBK model described previously. Comparison of the PBBD model outcome to available data showed that the model adequately predicts the dose-dependent level of DNA adduct formation. The PBBD model predicts DNA adduct formation at low levels of exposure up to a dose level showing to cause cancer in rodent bioassays, providing a proof of principle for modeling a toxicodynamic in vivo endpoint on the basis of solely in vitro experimental data.

  17. Lysine- and cysteine-based protein adductions derived from toxic metabolites of 8-epidiosbulbin E acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dongju; Wang, Kai; Guo, Xiucai; Gao, Huiyuan; Peng, Ying; Zheng, Jiang

    2016-12-15

    Furanoid 8-epidiosbulbin E acetate (EEA) is a major constituent of herbal medicine Dioscorea bulbifera L. (DB), a traditional herbal medicine widely used in Asian nations. Our early studies demonstrated that administration of EEA caused acute hepatotoxicity in mice and the observed toxicity required P450-mediated metabolic activation. Protein modification by reactive metabolites of EEA has been suggested to be an important mechanism of EEA-induced hepatotoxicity. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the interaction of the electrophilic reactive metabolites derived from EEA with lysine and cysteine residues of proteins and to define the correlation of protein adductions of EEA and the hepatotoxicity induced by EEA. EEA-derived cis-enedial was found to modify both lysine and cysteine residues of proteins. The observed modifications increased with the increase in doses administered in the animals. The formation of protein adductions derived from the reactive metabolites of EEA were potentiated by buthionine sulfoximine, but were attenuated by ketoconazole. This work facilitated better understanding of the mechanisms of toxic action of EEA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of DNA adducts formed in vivo in rats and mice from 1,2-dibromoethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, dibromomethane, and dichloromethane using HPLC/accelerator mass spectrometry and relevance to risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kengo; Liberman, Rosa G; Skipper, Paul L; Tannenbaum, Steven R; Guengerich, F Peter

    2007-11-01

    Dihaloalkanes are of toxicological interest because of their high-volume use in industry and their abilities to cause tumors in rodents, particularly dichloromethane and 1,2-dichloroethane. The brominated analogues are not used as extensively but are known to produce more toxicity in some systems. Rats and mice were treated i.p. with (14)C-dichloromethane, -dibromomethane, -1,2-dichloroethane, or -1,2-dibromoethane [5 mg (kg body weight)(-1)], and livers and kidneys were collected to rapidly isolate DNA. The DNA was digested using a procedure designed to minimize processing time, because some of the potential dihalomethane-derived DNA-glutathione (GSH) adducts are known to be unstable, and the HPLC fractions corresponding to major adduct standards were separated and analyzed for (14)C using accelerator mass spectrometry. The level of liver or kidney S-[2-(N(7)-guanyl)ethyl]GSH in rats treated with 1,2-dibromoethane was approximately 1 adduct/10(5) DNA bases; in male or female mice, the level was approximately one-half of this. The levels of 1,2-dichloroethane adducts were 10-50-fold lower. None of four known (in vitro) GSH-DNA adducts was detected at a level of >2/10(8) DNA bases from dibromomethane or dichloromethane. These results provide parameters for risk assessment of these compounds: DNA binding occurs with 1,2-dichloroethane but is considerably less than from 1,2-dibromoethane in vivo, and low exposure to dihalomethanes does not produce appreciable DNA adduct levels in rat or mouse liver and kidney of the doses used. The results may be used to address issues in human risk assessment.

  19. Probenecid, an inhibitor of transmembrane organic anion transporters, alters tissue distribution of DNA adducts in 1-hydroxymethylpyrene-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monien, Bernhard H; Müller, Carolin; Bakhiya, Nadiya; Donath, Claudia; Frank, Heinz; Seidel, Albrecht; Glatt, Hansruedi

    2009-07-28

    1-Methylpyrene (1-MP), an abundant alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is activated by side-chain hydroxylation to 1-hydroxymethylpyrene (1-HMP) and subsequent sulfo-conjugation to electrophilic 1-sulfooxymethylpyrene (1-SMP). In rats, this activation mainly occurs in liver. 1-SMP may react with hepatic DNA or be exported into the blood circulation to reach other tissues, in particular kidneys. Findings with recombinant cell lines suggest that renal 1-SMP uptake proceeds via organic anion transporters (OATs). Here, we tested the hypothesis that probenecid, a characteristic OAT inhibitor, interferes with kidney damage brought about by 1-SMP formed in rats. 1-HMP was administered intraperitoneally to 30 rats, half of which were co-treated with probenecid. The tissue distribution of DNA adducts was analyzed using (32)P-postlabeling and isotope dilution LC-MS/MS for the detection of the adducts N(2)-(1-methylpyrenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine and N(6)-(1-methylpyrenyl)-2'-deoxyadenosine. In rats treated solely with 1-HMP, adduct levels in kidney tissue were about 3-fold and 8-fold higher than those in liver and lung, respectively. After co-treatment with probenecid, hepatic and pulmonary adduct levels were 12-fold and 4-fold elevated, respectively, whereas renal adduct levels were slightly lower compared to those of rats receiving 1-HMP alone. Moreover, serum levels of 1-SMP were increased 23-fold in animals pre-treated with probenecid. The differential effects on hepatic and pulmonary adduct levels suggest that not only renal OATs, but also additional anion transporters, e.g. those mediating the hepatic export of 1-SMP into the bile, were inhibited. Thus, transmembrane transport proteins play a crucial role in the distribution of reactive phase II metabolites, and thereby in tissue allocation of DNA adducts.

  20. Base-Displaced Intercalated Structure of the N-(2′-Deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone DNA Adduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politica, Dustin A.; Malik, Chanchal K.; Basu, Ashis K.; Stone, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), an environmental mutagen found in diesel exhaust and a suspected carcinogen, undergoes metabolic reduction followed by reaction with DNA to form aminobenzanthrone (ABA) adducts, with the major alkylation product being N-(2′-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (C8-dG-ABA). Site-specific synthesis of the C8-dG-ABA adduct in the oligodeoxynucleotide 5'-d(GTGCXTGTTTGT)-3':5'-d(ACAAACACGCAC)-3'; X = C8-dG-ABA adduct, including codons 272-275 of the p53 gene, has allowed for investigation into the structural and thermodynamic properties of this adduct. The conformation of the C8-dG-ABA adduct was determined using NMR spectroscopy and was refined using molecular dynamics (MD) calculations restrained by experimentally determined interproton distance restraints obtained from NOE experiments. The refined structure revealed that the C8-dG-ABA adduct formed a base-displaced intercalated conformation. The adducted guanine was shifted into the syn conformation about the glycosidic bond. The 5'- and 3'-neighboring base pairs remained intact. While this facilitated π-stacking interactions between the ABA moiety and neighboring bases, the thermal melting temperature (Tm) of the adduct-containing duplex showed a decrease of 11 °C as compared to the corresponding unmodified oligodeoxynucleotide duplex. Overall, in this sequence, the base-displaced intercalated conformation of the C8-dG-ABA lesion bears similarity to structures of other arylamine C8-dG adducts. However, in this sequence, the base-displaced intercalated conformation for the C8-dG-ABA adduct differs from the conformation of the N2-dG-ABA adduct reported by de los Santos and co-workers, which oriented in the minor groove towards the 5' end of the duplex, with the modified guanine remaining in the anti conformation about the glyosidic torsion angle, and the complementary base remaining within the duplex. The results are discussed in relationship to differences between the C8-dG-ABA and

  1. Recognition and repair of 2-aminofluorene- and 2-(acetylamino)fluorene-DNA adducts by UVRABC nuclease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, J.R.; Case, R.; Tang, Moonshong

    1989-01-01

    Recognition of damage induced by N-hydroxy-2-aminofluorene (N-OH-AF) and N-acetoxy-2-(acetylamino)fluorene (NAAAF) in both φX174 RFI supercoiled DNA and a linear DNA fragment by purified UVRA, UVRB, and UVRC proteins was investigated. The authors have previously demonstrated that N-OH-AF and NAAAF treatments produce N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-aminofluorene (dG-C8-AF) and N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-(acetylamino)fluorene (dG-C8-AAF), respectively, in DNA. Using a piperidine cleavage method and DNA sequence analysis, they have found that all guanine residues can be modified by N-OH-AF and NAAAF. These two kinds of adducts have different impacts on the DNA helix structure; while dG-C8-AF maintains the anti configuration, dG-C8-AAF is in the syn form. φX174 RF DNA-Escherichia coli transfection results indicate that while the uvrA, uvrB, and uvrC gene products are needed to repair dG-C8-AAF, the uvrC, but not the uvrA or uvrB gene products, is needed for repair of dG-C8-Af. However, they have found that in vitro the UVRA, UVRB, and UVRC proteins must work in concert to nick both dG-C8-AF and dG-C8-AAF. In general, the reactions of UVRABC nuclease toward dG-C8-AF are similar to those toward dG-C8-AAF; it incises seven to eight nucleotides from the 5' side and three to four nucleotides from the 3' side of the DNA adduct. Evidence is presented to suggest that hydrolysis on the 3' and 5' sides of the damaged base by UVRABC nuclease is not simultaneous and that at least occasionally hydrolysis occurs only on the 3' side or on the 5' side of the damage site. The possible mechanisms of UVRABC nuclease incision for AF-DNA are discussed

  2. Formation of tamoxifen-DNA adducts via O-sulfonation, not O-acetylation, of alpha-hydroxytamoxifen in rat and human livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Yeon; Laxmi, Y R Santosh; Suzuki, Naomi; Ogura, Kenichiro; Watabe, Tadashi; Duffel, Michael W; Shibutani, Shinya

    2005-11-01

    Tamoxifen (TAM) is used as the standard endocrine therapy for breast cancer patients and as a chemopreventive agent for women at high risk for this disease. Unfortunately, treatment of TAM increases the incidence of endometrial cancer; this may be due to the genotoxic damage induced by TAM metabolites. Formation of TAM-DNA adducts in rat liver correlates with the development of hepatocarcinoma. TAM-DNA adducts are proposed to be formed through O-sulfonation and/or O-acetylation of alpha-hydroxylated TAM and its metabolites. However, the role of O-sulfonation and O-acetylation in the formation of TAM-DNA adducts has not been extensively investigated. Rat or human hydroxysteroid sulfotransferases (HST), acetyltransferases, and liver cytosol were incubated with calf thymus DNA, alpha-OHTAM, and either 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) or acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) as a cofactor and analyzed for TAM-DNA adduct formation, using 32P postlableling/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. TAM-DNA adduct was formed when PAPS, not acetyl-CoA, was used. No TAM-DNA adducts were produced using human N-acetyltransferase I and II. HST antibody inhibited approximately 90% of TAM-DNA adduct formation generated by the cytosol or HST, suggesting that HST is primarily involved in the formation of TAM-DNA adducts. The formation of TAM-DNA adducts with rat liver cytosol and HST was much higher than that of human liver cytosol and HST. Our results indicate that TAM-DNA adducts are formed via O-sulfonation, not O-acetylation, of alpha-hydroxylated TAM and its metabolites.

  3. {sup 32}P-postlabeling determination of DNA adducts in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris exposed to PAH-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, P. [Laval Univ. Research Center, Quebec (Canada)]|[Ministere de l`Environnement et de la Faune du Quebec (Canada); El Adlouni, C.; Mukhopadhyay, M.J.; Nadeau, D.; Poirier, G.G. [Laval Univ. Research Center, Quebec (Canada); Viel, G. [CreaLab., Quebec (Canada)

    1995-05-01

    The importance of the search for reliable biomarkers of DNA damage in environmental health assessment is well recognized by the scientific community and regulatory agencies. Among the major biomarkers of DNA damage is the measurement of DNA adducts in target cells or tissues. Up to now, DNA adduct determinations have been directed mostly toward human exposure to toxic substances from the workplace and environment. Moreover, techniques for measuring DNA adducts, and in particular the {sup 32}P-postlabelling technique, presented also the possibility of determining DNA adduct levels in endogenous animal populations exposed to polluted environments as early warning monitors of ecotoxicity. Soil contamination is becoming a major environmental issue. Therefore, numerous contaminated sites must now be remediated to protect human health and to permit new uses of these sites as agricultural, residential, or industrial areas. Fulfillment of this task requires standardized and sensitive bioassays to carry out site evaluations and to establish scientifically defensible soil quality criteria. To that effect, the earthworm appears to be one of the best organisms for use in soil toxicity evaluation. Earthworms are probably the most relevant soil species, representing 60 to 80% of the total animal biomass in soil. Present soil bioassays focus mostly on plant species with end points like seed germination, root elongation, seedling growth and seedling emergence, and on acute toxicity evaluation (re: LC 50) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida. As yet, a standardized soil invertebrate test for teratogenic or mutagenic end points has not been developed. In this paper, we report the feasibility of DNA adduct determination by {sup 32}P-postlabelling in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris as a way to detect the presence of genotoxic substances in soils. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Increased micronuclei and bulky DNA adducts in cord blood after maternal exposures to traffic-related air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M.; Wichmann, J.; Autrup, H.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollution in urban environment is common and has been associated with adverse human health effects. In utero exposures that result in DNA damage may affect health later in life. Early effects of maternal and in utero exposures to traffic-related air pollution were...... for potential confounders and effect modifiers. For the first time increased bulky DNA adducts and MN in cord blood after maternal exposures to traffic-related air pollution are found, demonstrating that these transplacental environmental exposures induce DNA damage in newborns. Given that increased DNA damage...... umbilical cords, concurrently collected at the time of planned Caesarean section. Modeled residential traffic density, a proxy measure of traffic-related air pollution exposures, was validated by indoor levels of nitrogen dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 42 non-smoking homes. DNA adduct...

  5. Identification of stable benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dione-DNA adducts in human lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng; Blair, Ian A; Penning, Trevor M

    2013-05-20

    Metabolic activation of the proximate carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-trans-dihydrodiol (B[a]P-7,8-trans-dihydrodiol) by aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) leads to B[a]P-7,8-dione that is both electrophilic and redox-active. B[a]P-7,8-dione generates reactive oxygen species resulting in oxidative DNA damage in human lung cells. However, information on the formation of stable B[a]P-7,8-dione-DNA adducts in these cells is lacking. We studied stable DNA adduct formation of B[a]P-7,8-dione in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, human bronchoalveolar H358 cells, and immortalized human bronchial epithelial HBEC-KT cells. After treatment with 2 μM B[a]P-7,8-dione, the cellular DNA was extracted from the cell pellets subjected to enzyme hydrolysis and subsequent analysis by LC-MS/MS. Several stable DNA adducts of B[a]P-7,8-dione were only detected in A549 and HBEC-KT cells. In A549 cells, the structures of stable B[a]P-7,8-dione-DNA adducts were identified as hydrated-B[a]P-7,8-dione-N(2)-2'-deoxyguanosine and hydrated-B[a]P-7,8-dione-N1-2'-deoxyguanosine. In HBEC-KT cells, the structures of stable B[a]P-7,8-dione-DNA adducts were identified as hydrated-B[a]P-7,8-dione-2'-deoxyadenosine, hydrated-B[a]P-7,8-dione-N1- or N3-2'-deoxyadenosine, and B[a]P-7,8-dione-N1- or N3-2'-deoxyadenosine. In each case, adduct structures were characterized by MS(n) spectra. Adduct structures were also compared to those synthesized from reactions of B[a]P-7,8-dione with either deoxyribonucleosides or salmon testis DNA in vitro but were found to be different.

  6. Highly enantioselective [3 + 2]-annulation of isatin-derived morita-baylis-hillman adducts with cyclic sulfonimines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Feng; Huang, Hong-Yan; Zhong, Neng-Jun; Gu, Chun-Ling; Wang, Dong; Liu, Li

    2015-04-03

    An organocatalytic [3 + 2]-annulation between isatin-derived Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts and cyclic sulfonimines has been developed in high yields with excellent enantio- and diastereoselectivities via an allylic nitrogen-ylide intermediate. The reaction provides access to heavily substituted aza-spirooxindole derivatives, which also contain ring fused cyclic sultams.

  7. The effects of exposure route on DNA adduct formation and cellular proliferation by 1,2,3-trichloropropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, D K; Schoonhoven, R; Ito, N; Swenberg, J A

    1996-09-01

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) induces high incidences of tumors at multiple sites in mice and rats when administered chronically by gavage. The animal tumor data are being used to predict human risk from potential exposure to TCP in drinking water. Risk assessment may be affected by differences in the route of exposure. Gavage administration, which results in high bolus concentrations compared to drinking water exposure, may quantitatively affect toxicokinetics, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity. We have examined the effects of TCP exposure by the two routes on the formation of DNA adducts and the induction of cellular proliferation. Male B6C3F1 mice were administered [14C]TCP for 1 week by gavage or in drinking water at the low dose (6 mg/kg) used in the NTP carcinogenesis bioassay. Two target organs (forestomach and liver) and two nontarget organs (glandular stomach and kidney) were examined for DNA adduct formation. Adducts were hydrolyzed from DNA, isolated by HPLC, and quantitated by measuring HPLC fractions for radioactivity. In the forestomach, liver, and kidney, gavage administration of TCP resulted in 1.4-to 2.4-fold greater yields of the major DNA adduct, previously identified as S-[1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(N7-guanyl)ethyl]glutathione. Significant differences in cell proliferation, as determined by incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into DNA, were also observed for the two routes. Gavage administration of TCP for 2 weeks resulted in up to a threefold greater cell proliferation rate relative to administration in drinking water. Our findings of exposure-related differences in TCP-induced DNA adduct formation and cell proliferation suggest that a risk assessment based on the existing gavage study may overestimate human risk.

  8. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) -463G->A reduces MPO activity and DNA adduct levels in bronchoalveolar lavages of smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schooten, F.J.; Boots, A.W.; Knaapen, A.M.; Godschalk, R.W.; Maas, L.M.; Borm, P.J.A.; Drent, M.; Jacobs, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The myeloperoxidase (MPO) -463G-->A genetic polymorphism is associated with a reduced risk for lung cancer, but the underlying mechanism is not yet elucidated. Therefore, the impact of this polymorphism on MPO activity and lipophilic DNA adducts was studied in respectively bronchoalveolar lavage

  9. Intravenous toxicokinetics of sulfur mustard and its DNA-adducts in the hairless guinea pig and marmoset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, J.P.; Spruit, W.E.T.; Kuijpers, W.C.; Mars, R.H.; Helden, H.P.M. van; Schans, G.P. van der; Benschop, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    ln order to provide a quantitative basis for pretreatment and therapy of intoxications with sulfur mustard the toxicokinetics of this agent as well as its major DNA-adducts are being studied in male hairless guinea pigs for the intravenous, respiratory and percutaneous routes. A highly sensitive

  10. Spectrum of styrene-induced DNA adducts: the relationship to other biomarkers and prospects in human biomonitoring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vodička, Pavel; Koskinen, M.; Arand, M.; Hemminki, K.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 511, - (2002), s. 239-254 ISSN 1383-5742 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA313/99/1460 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : styrene * DNA adducts Subject RIV: FM - Hygiene Impact factor: 7.085, year: 2002

  11. Inhibition of azoxymethane-induced DNA adduct formation by Aloe arborescens var. natalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpo, Kan; Chihara, Takeshi; Beppu, Hidehiko; Ida, Chikako; Kaneko, Takaaki; Hoshino, Motoyuki; Kuzuya, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    To clarify the possible mechanisms of inhibition of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the rat colorectum by freeze-dried whole leaves of Aloe arborescens var. natalensis (Kidachi aloe) (hereinafter referred to as ALOE) and commercial crude aloin (Sigma A-0451; from Curacao aloe) (hereinafter ALOIN), we studied the effects of ALOE and ALOIN on the formation of AOM-induced DNA adducts (O6-methylguanine; O6-MeG) in rats. Male F344 rats (4 weeks old) were fed a basal diet, or experimental diets containing 5%ALOE or 0.25%ALOIN for 5 weeks. All rats were injected s.c. twice with 15 mg/kg AOM, once at the end of week 1, and once at the end of week 2. The animals were sacrificed 6 hours after the second injection to analyze DNA adducts (O6-MeG) in the colorectum. Dietary administration of ALOE significantly inhibited the O6-MeG levels (50% reduction) compared with controls, whereas the O6-MeG levels in the ALOIN-fed rats showed a tendency to decrease (by 30%), although not significantly. In this study, we also measured the enzyme activity and mRNA level of cytochrome (CYP) 2E1, known to be responsible for the activation of AOM, in rat liver. ALOE-fed rats showed significantly reduced CYP2E1 enzymatic activity (27% reduction) compared with controls. On the other hand, the activity in ALOIN-fed rats tended to decrease by 11%, although not significantly. The CYP2E1 mRNA levels in ALOE- and ALOIN-fed rats were slightly reduced (9.7% and 5.2%, respectively). These results may explain, at least in part, the previously observed inhibitory effects of ALOE and ALOIN, especially ALOE on AOM-induced ACF formation in the rat colorectum.

  12. Cysteine-Based Protein Adduction by Epoxide-Derived Metabolite(s) of Benzbromarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Feng, Yukun; Wang, Qian; Guo, Xiucai; Huang, Wenlin; Peng, Ying; Zheng, Jiang

    2016-12-19

    Benzbromarone (BBR) is a therapeutically useful uricosuric agent but can also cause acute liver injury. The hepatotoxicity of BBR is suggested to be associated with its metabolic activation. Our recent metabolic study demonstrated that BBR was metabolized to epoxide intermediate(s) by cytochrome P450 3A, and the intermediate(s) was reactive to N-acetylcysteine. The objectives of the present study were to determine the chemical identity of the interaction of protein with the epoxide intermediate(s) of BBR and to define the association of the protein modification with hepatotoxicity induced by BBR. Microsomal incubation study showed that the reactive intermediate(s) covalently modified microsomal protein at cysteine residues. Such adduction was also observed in hepatic protein obtained from liver of mice given BBR. The protein covalent binding occurred in time- and dose-dependent manners. Pretreatment with ketoconazole attenuated BBR-induced protein modification and hepatotoxicity, while pretreatment with dexamethasone or buthionine sulfoximine potentiated the protein adduction and hepatotoxicity induced by BBR. A good correlation was observed between BBR-induced hepatotoxicity and the epoxide-derived hepatic protein modification in mice. The present study provided in-depth mechanistic insight into BBR-induced hepatotoxicity.

  13. Formation of S-[2-(N6-Deoxyadenosinyl)ethyl]glutathione in DNA and Replication Past the Adduct by Translesion DNA Polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgeman, Carl A; Su, Yan; Guengerich, F Peter

    2017-05-15

    1,2-Dibromoethane (DBE, ethylene dibromide) is a potent carcinogen due at least in part to its DNA cross-linking effects. DBE cross-links glutathione (GSH) to DNA, notably to sites on 2'-deoxyadenosine and 2'-deoxyguanosine ( Cmarik , J. L. , et al. ( 1991 ) J. Biol. Chem. 267 , 6672 - 6679 ). Adduction at the N6 position of 2'-deoxyadenosine (dA) had not been detected, but this is a site for the linkage of O 6 -alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase ( Chowdhury , G. , et al. ( 2013 ) Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 52 , 12879 - 12882 ). We identified and quantified a new adduct, S-[2-(N 6 -deoxyadenosinyl)ethyl]GSH, in calf thymus DNA using LC-MS/MS. Replication studies were performed in duplex oligonucleotides containing this adduct with human DNA polymerases (hPols) η, ι, and κ, as well as with Sulfolobus solfataricus Dpo4, Escherichia coli polymerase I Klenow fragment, and bacteriophage T7 polymerase. hPols η and ι, Dpo4, and Klenow fragment were able to bypass the adduct with only slight impedance; hPol η and ι showed increased misincorporation opposite the adduct compared to that of unmodified 2'-deoxyadenosine. LC-MS/MS analysis of full-length primer extension products by hPol η confirmed the incorporation of dC opposite S-[2-(N 6 -deoxyadenosinyl)ethyl]GSH and also showed the production of a -1 frameshift. These results reveal the significance of N 6 -dA GSH-DBE adducts in blocking replication, as well as producing mutations, by human translesion synthesis DNA polymerases.

  14. Molecular dosimetry of DNA adducts in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to benzo(a)pyrene by different routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, D.; Clarius, T.M.; Wright, A.S.; Watson, W.P.

    1994-01-01

    Farm raised rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed by various routes to benzo(a)pyrene (BP) as a representative carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Following exposure of fish to the chemical by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, 32 P-postlabelling studies indicated that non-feral trout were relatively resistant to the formation of BP-DNA adducts in liver. No adducts were detected in fish exposed to single doses (20 mg/kg) of BP. Multiple exposures (e.g. 2 x 25 mg/kg) were necessary in order for adducts to be detected, indicating that induction of the metabolising enzymes required for the bioactivation of BP is necessary. These studies provided reference information on DNA adducts for comparison with data from subsequent experiments at environmentally realistic low level exposures. Two types of low level aquatic exposure were carried out. The first procedure exposed fish for 30 days to a nominally constant low level (1.2 and 0.4 μg/l) of a homogeneous dispersion of BP in water, to simulate low level aquatic environmental exposures. Following 32 P-postlabelling analysis of the liver DNA of exposed fish, BP-DNA adducts were not detected. In the second procedure, fish were exposed to a constant low level of BP (ca. 0.5 μg/l) for 15 days then to a pulse (60 μg/l) which was allowed to naturally decline (to ca. 2 μg/l) during a further 15 days. Following this exposure, significant levels of BP-DNA adducts were detected in livers of trout. The effect of dietary exposures was investigated by feeding trout a diet containing either 58 μg or 288 μg BP per day for 6 days, equivalent to total doses of 43 mg/kg and 216 mg/kg. In both cases BP-DNA adducts were detected in livers of exposed fish. The results provide useful information on the types of exposures to PAHs which may pose a genotoxic risk to fish in the environment. (orig.)

  15. Modulation of the effect of prenatal PAH exposure on PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood by plasma antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Edwards, Susan; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Schleicher, Rosemary L; Camann, David; Tang, Deliang; Perera, Frederica P

    2009-08-01

    The fetus is more susceptible than the adult to the effects of certain carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Nutritional factors, including antioxidants, have been shown to have a protective effect on carcinogen-DNA adducts and cancer risk in adults. We investigated whether the effect of prenatal airborne PAH exposure, measured by personal air monitoring during pregnancy, on the level of PAH-DNA adducts in a baby's cord blood is modified by the concentration of micronutrients in maternal and cord blood. The micronutrients examined were: retinol (vitamin A), alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol (vitamin E), and carotenoids. With the use of multiple linear regression, we found a significant interaction between prenatal PAH exposure and cord blood concentration of alpha-tocopherol and carotenoids in predicting the concentration of PAH adducts in cord blood. The association between PAH exposure and PAH adducts was much stronger among those with low alpha-tocopherol (beta = 0.15; P = 0.001) and among those with low carotenoids (beta = 0.16; P < 0.001) compared with babies with high levels of these micronutrients (among those with high alpha-tocopherol: beta = 0.05; P = 0.165; among those with high carotenoids: beta = 0.06; P = 0.111). These results suggest a protective effect of micronutrients on the DNA damage and potential cancer risk associated with prenatal PAH exposure.

  16. Separation and identification of DNA-carcinogen adduct conformers by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsch, G.A.; Jankowiak, R.; Farhat, J.H.; Small, G.J. (Ames Lab., IA (United States) Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The authors have developed a separation protocol utilizing high-resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to isolate stable anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide adducts of oligodeoxynucleotides. Both enantiomers produced multiple adduct species. The distribution of adduct types could be quantitated by densitometry of autoradiograms or Cerenkov counting of eluted oligomers modified by anti-BPDE isomers. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of eluted adducts at 4.2 K (fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy) and 77 K revealed that bands corresponded to pure conformers of pyrene chromophore. Carcinogen-modified oligodeoxynucleotides were single-stranded, but there were often considerable stacking interactions between the pyrenyl residues and the oligonucleotide bases, indicating that electrophoresed oligomers were single-stranded but in a native, versus random-coil conformation. The ability to identify and quantitate adducts by PAGE-LIF, coupled with the high resolution and sensitivity of both techniques, makes PAGE and LIF in tandem a potentially powerful tool in the study of chemical carcinogenesis or other ligand-DNA interactions. 43 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Insights into the error bypass of 1-Nitropyrene DNA adduct by DNA polymerase ι: A QM/MM study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanwei; Bao, Lei; Zhang, Ruiming; Tang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Wenxing

    2017-10-01

    The error bypass mechanism of DNA polymerase ι toward N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-1-aminopyrene adduction was studied by using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method. The most favorable mechanism highlights three elementary steps: proton transfer from dC to dATP, phosphoryl transfer, and deprotonation of dAMP. The phosphoryl transfer step was found to be rate-determining. The calculated average barrier (23.8 kcal mol-1) is in accordance with the experimental value (21.5 kcal mol-1). Electrostatic influence analysis indicates that residues Asp126 and Lys207 significantly suppress the error bypass while Glu127 facilitates the process. These results highlight the origins of the mutagenicity of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in molecular detail.

  18. Red wine consumption is inversely associated with 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-DNA adduct levels in prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, Benjamin A; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Bock, Cathryn H; Nock, Nora L; Rundle, Andrew; Jankowski, Michelle; Levin, Albert M; Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer; Savera, Adnan T; Takahashi, Satoru; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Tang, Deliang

    2011-10-01

    In humans, genetic variation and dietary factors may alter the biological effects of exposure to 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), one of the major heterocyclic amines generated from cooking meats at high temperatures that has carcinogenic potential through the formation of DNA adducts. Previously, we reported grilled red meat consumption associated with PhIP-DNA adduct levels in human prostate. In this study, we expanded our investigation to estimate the associations between beverage consumption and PhIP-DNA adduct levels in prostate for 391 prostate cancer cases. Of the 15 beverages analyzed, red wine consumption had the strongest association with PhIP-DNA adduct levels showing an inverse correlation in both tumor (P = 0.006) and nontumor (P = 0.002) prostate cells. Red wine consumption was significantly lower in African American compared with white cases, but PhIP-DNA adduct levels in prostate did not vary by race. In African Americans compared with whites, however, associations between red wine consumption and PhIP-DNA adduct levels were not as strong as associations with specific (e.g., SULT1A1 and UGT1A10 genotypes) and nonspecific (e.g., African ancestry) genetic variation. In a multivariable model, the covariate for red wine consumption explained a comparable percentage (13%-16%) of the variation in PhIP-DNA adduct levels in prostate across the two racial groups, but the aforementioned genetic factors explained 33% of the PhIP-DNA adduct variation in African American cases, whereas only 19% of the PhIP-DNA adduct variation in whites. We conclude that red wine consumption may counteract biological effects of PhIP exposure in human prostate, but genetic factors may play an even larger role, particularly in African Americans.

  19. Selective hydrogenation of indolizines: an expeditious approach to derive tetrahydroindolizines and indolizidines from morita-baylis-hillman adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Bruno V M; Correia, José Tiago M; Coelho, Fernando

    2015-03-06

    In this study, we describe the hydrogenation of indolizines derived from Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts. We demonstrate that functionalized tetrahydroindolizines and indolizidines can be prepared selectively, at low pressure, by simply adjusting the acidity of the medium. Using this simple and straightforward strategy, substituted tetrahydroindolizines and indolizidines were obtained diastereoselectively in high yield.

  20. Red Wine Consumption is inversely associated with 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-DNA Adduct Levels in Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Bock, Cathryn H.; Nock, Nora L.; Rundle, Andrew; Jankowski, Michelle; Levin, Albert M.; Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer; Savera, Adnan T.; Takahashi, Satoru; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Tang, Deliang

    2011-01-01

    In humans, genetic variation and dietary factors may alter the biologic effects of exposure to 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), one of the major heterocyclic amines generated from cooking meats at high temperatures that has carcinogenic potential through the formation of DNA adducts. Previously, we reported grilled red meat consumption associated with PhIP-DNA adduct levels in human prostate. In the present study, we expanded our investigation to estimate the associations between beverage consumption and PhIP-DNA adduct levels in prostate for 391 prostate cancer cases. Of the 15 beverages analyzed, red wine consumption had the strongest association with PhIP-DNA adduct levels showing an inverse correlation in both tumor (p=0.006) and non-tumor (p=0.002) prostate cells. Red wine consumption differed significantly between African-American and white cases, but PhIP-DNA adduct levels in prostate did not vary by race. In African Americans compared with whites, however, associations between red wine consumption and PhIP-DNA adduct levels were not as strong as associations with specific (e.g., SULT1A1 and UGT1A10 genotypes) and non-specific (e.g., African ancestry) genetic variation. In a multivariable model, the covariate for red wine consumption explained a comparable percentage (13-16%) of the variation in PhIP-DNA adduct levels in prostate across the two racial groups, but the aforementioned genetic factors explained 33% of the PhIP-DNA adduct variation in African-American cases, while only 19% of the PhIPDNA adduct variation in whites. We conclude that red wine consumption may counteract biologic effects of PhIP exposure in human prostate, but genetic factors may play an even larger role, particularly in African Americans. PMID:21846795

  1. Increased levels of etheno-DNA adducts and genotoxicity biomarkers of long-term exposure to pure diesel engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Meili; Bin, Ping; Li, Haibin; Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Xin; Duan, Huawei; Niu, Yong; Meng, Tao; Dai, Yufei; Gao, Weimin; Yu, Shanfa; Gu, Guizhen; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-02-01

    Etheno-DNA adducts are biomarkers for assessing oxidative stress. In this study, the aim was to detect the level of etheno-DNA adducts and explore the relationship between the etheno-DNA adducts and genotoxicity biomarkers of the diesel engine exhaust (DEE)-exposed workers. We recruited 86 diesel engine testing workers with long-term exposure to DEE and 99 non-DEE-exposed workers. The urinary mono-hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and etheno-DNA adducts (εdA and εdC) were detected by HPLC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS, respectively. Genotoxicity biomarkers were also evaluated by comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The results showed that urinary εdA was significantly higher in the DEE-exposed workers (p<0.001), exhibited 2.1-fold increase compared with the non-DEE-exposed workers. The levels of urinary OH-PAHs were positively correlated with the level of εdA among all the study subjects (p<0.001). Moreover, we found that the increasing level of εdA was significantly associated with the increased olive tail moment, percentage of tail DNA, or frequency of micronucleus in the study subjects (p<0.01). No significant association was observed between the εdC level and any measured genotoxicity biomarkers. In summary, εdA could serve as an indicator for DEE exposure in the human population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biomonitoring of diesel exhaust-exposed workers. DNA and hemoglobin adducts and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as markers of exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sabro; Andreassen, Åshild; Farmer, Peter B.

    1996-01-01

    Diesel exhaust-exposed workers have been shown to have an increased risk of lung cancer. A battery of biomarkers were evaluated for their ability to assess differences in exposure to genotoxic compounds in bus garage workers and mechanics and controls. Lymphocyte DNA adducts were analyzed using...... correlated with HPU but not with DNA adducts. The levels of HPU in urine were 0.11 micromol/mol creatinine compared to 0.05 in controls. All three assays applied were sensitive enough to evaluate a low level of exposure to environmental pollutants, with postlabelling and GC-MS as the most sensitive assays....... The study indicated that skin absorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) might be an important factor to consider when studying PAH exposure from air pollution sources....

  3. Analysis of biomarkers in a Czech population exposed to heavy air pollution. Part I. Bulky DNA adducts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Švecová, Vlasta; Schmuczerová, Jana; Milcová, Alena; Tabashidze, Nana; Topinka, Jan; Pastorková, Anna; Šrám, Radim

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2013), s. 89-95 ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08; GA MŠk 2B08005; GA ČR GAP503/11/0084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : Air pollution * biomarkers * DNA adducts Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.497, year: 2013

  4. Mechanisms of the different DNA adduct forming potentials of the urban air pollutants 2-nitrobenzanthrone and carcinogenic 3-nitrobenzanthrone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiborová, Marie; Martínek, Václav; Svobodová, Martina; Sístková, Jana; Dvorák, Zdenek; Ulrichová, Jitka; Simánek, Vilím; Frei, Eva; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Phillips, David H; Arlt, Volker M

    2010-07-19

    2-Nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA) has recently been detected in ambient air particulate matter. Its isomer 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a potent mutagen and suspected human carcinogen identified in diesel exhaust. We compared the efficiencies of human enzymatic systems [hepatic microsomes and cytosols, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), xanthine oxidase, NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase, N,O-acetyltransferases, and sulfotransferases] and human primary hepatocytes to activate 2-NBA and its isomer 3-NBA to species forming DNA adducts. In contrast to 3-NBA, 2-NBA was not metabolized at detectable levels by the tested human enzymatic systems and enzymes expressed in human hepatocytes, and no DNA adducts detectable by (32)P-postlabeling were generated by 2-NBA. Even NQO1, the most efficient human enzyme to bioactive 3-NBA, did not activate 2-NBA. Molecular docking of 2-NBA and 3-NBA to the active site of NQO1 showed similar binding affinities; however, the binding orientation of 2-NBA does not favor the reduction of the nitro group. This was in line with the inhibition of 3-NBA-DNA adduct formation by 2-NBA, indicating that 2-NBA can compete with 3-NBA for binding to NQO1, thereby decreasing the metabolic activation of 3-NBA. In addition, the predicted equilibrium conditions favor a 3 orders of magnitude higher dissociation of N-OH-3-ABA in comparison to N-OH-2-ABA. These findings explain the very different genotoxicity, mutagenicity, and DNA adduct forming potential of the two compounds. Collectively, our results suggest that 2-NBA possesses a relatively lower risk to humans than 3-NBA.

  5. Formation, Persistence, and Identification of DNA Adducts Formed by the Carcinogenic Environmental Pollutant o-Anisidine in Rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Naiman, K.; Dračínský, Martin; Hodek, P.; Martínková, M.; Schmeiser, H. H.; Frei, E.; Stiborová, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 2 (2012), s. 348-359 ISSN 1096-6080 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/G163 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : o-anisidine * persistence * carcinogen * structure of DNA adducts * 32P-postlabeling Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.328, year: 2012

  6. Typical signature of DNA damage in white blood cells: a pilot study on etheno adducts in Danish mother-newborn child pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arab, K; Pedersen, Marie; Nair, J

    2009-01-01

    in mother and newborn shows a similar pattern. Two adducts 1,N(6)-ethenodeoxyadenosine (epsilondA) and 3,N(4)-ethenodeoxycytidine (epsilondC) were measured by our ultrasensitive immunoaffinity (32)P-post-labeling method. These miscoding etheno-DNA adducts are generated by the reaction of lipid peroxidation...... (LPO) end products such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal with DNA bases. Mean epsilondA and epsilondC levels when expressed per 10(9) parent nucleotides in WBC-DNA from cord blood were 138 and 354, respectively; in maternal WBC-DNA, the respective values were 317 and 916. Thus, the DNA-etheno adduct levels were......The impact of DNA damage commonly thought to be involved in chronic degenerative disease causation is particularly detrimental during fetal development. Within a multicenter study, we analyzed 77 white blood cell (WBC) samples from mother-newborn child pairs to see if imprinting of DNA damage...

  7. Association between mutation spectra and stable and unstable DNA adduct profiles in Salmonella for benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMarini, David M., E-mail: demarini.david@epa.gov [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hanley, Nancy M.; Warren, Sarah H.; Adams, Linda D.; King, Leon C. [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Highlights: {yields} Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) induces stable DNA adducts and mutations primarily at guanine. {yields} Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) induces them primarily at adenine. {yields} BP induces abasic sites, but DBP does not in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. {yields} Stable DNA adducts alone appear to account for the mutation spectrum of DBP. {yields} Stable DNA adducts and possibly abasic sites account for the mutation spectrum of BP. - Abstract: Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) are two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that exhibit distinctly different mutagenicity and carcinogenicity profiles. Although some studies show that these PAHs produce unstable DNA adducts, conflicting data and arguments have been presented regarding the relative roles of these unstable adducts versus stable adducts, as well as oxidative damage, in the mutagenesis and tumor-mutation spectra of these PAHs. However, no study has determined the mutation spectra along with the stable and unstable DNA adducts in the same system with both PAHs. Thus, we determined the mutagenic potencies and mutation spectra of BP and DBP in strains TA98, TA100 and TA104 of Salmonella, and we also measured the levels of abasic sites (aldehydic-site assay) and characterized the stable DNA adducts ({sup 32}P-postlabeling/HPLC) induced by these PAHs in TA104. Our results for the mutation spectra and site specificity of stable adducts were consistent with those from other systems, showing that DBP was more mutagenic than BP in TA98 and TA100. The mutation spectra of DBP and BP were significantly different in TA98 and TA104, with 24% of the mutations induced by BP in TA98 being complex frameshifts, whereas DBP produced hardly any of these mutations. In TA104, BP produced primarily GC to TA transversions, whereas DBP produced primarily AT to TA transversions. The majority (96%) of stable adducts induced by BP were at guanine, whereas the majority (80%) induced by DBP were at adenine

  8. Replication past a trans-4-Hydroxynonenal Minor-Groove Adduct by the Sequential Action of Human DNA Polymerases ι and κ

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfle, William T.; Johnson, Robert E.; Minko, Irina G.; Lloyd, R. Stephen; Prakash, Satya; Prakash, Louise

    2006-01-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of human DNA polymerase ι (Polι) has shown that it differs from all known Pols in its dependence upon Hoogsteen base pairing for synthesizing DNA. Hoogsteen base pairing provides an elegant mechanism for synthesizing DNA opposite minor-groove adducts that present a severe block to synthesis by replicative DNA polymerases. Germane to this problem, a variety of DNA adducts form at the N2 minor-groove position of guanine. Previously, we have shown that proficient and ...

  9. Persistence and Repair of Bifunctional DNA Adducts in Tissues of Laboratory Animals Exposed to 1,3-Butadiene by Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, Melissa; Sangaraju, Dewakar; Walker, Vernon E.; Wickliffe, Jeffrey; Swenberg, James A.; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    1,3-butadiene (BD) is an important industrial and environmental chemical classified as a human carcinogen. The mechanism of BD-mediated cancer is of significant interest because of the widespread exposure of humans to BD from cigarette smoke and urban air. BD is metabolically activated to 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB), which is a highly genotoxic and mutagenic bis-alkylating agent believed to be the ultimate carcinogenic species of BD. We have previously identified several types of DEB-specific DNA adducts, including bis-N7-guanine cross-links (bis-N7-BD), N6-adenine-N7-guanine cross-links (N6A-N7G-BD), and 1,N6-dA exocyclic adducts. These lesions were detected in tissues of laboratory rodents exposed to BD by inhalation (Goggin et al. Cancer Res. 2009;69:2479–2486). In the present work, persistence and repair of bifunctional DEB-DNA adducts in tissues of mice and rats exposed to BD by inhalation were investigated. The half-lives of the most abundant cross-links, bis-N7G-BD, in mouse liver, kidney, and lungs were 2.3–2.4 days, 4.6–5.7 days, and 4.9 days, respectively. The in vitro half-lives of bis-N7G-BD were 3.5 days (S,S isomer) and 4.0 days (meso isomer) due to their spontaneous depurination. In contrast, tissue concentrations of the minor DEB adducts, N7G-N1A-BD and 1,N6-HMHP-dA, remained essentially unchanged during the course of the experiment, with an estimated t 1/2 of 36–42 days. No differences were observed between DEB-DNA adduct levels in BD-treated wild type mice and the corresponding animals deficient in methyl purine glycosylase or the Xpa gene. Our results indicate that DEB-induced N7G-N1A-BD and 1,N6-HMHP-dA adducts persist in vivo, potentially contributing to mutations and cancer observed as a result of BD exposure. PMID:21452897

  10. Molecular Modeling of the Major DNA Adduct Formed from Food Mutagen Ochratoxin A in NarI Two-Base Deletion Duplexes: Impact of Sequence Context and Adduct Ionization on Conformational Preference and Mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathuria, Preetleen; Sharma, Purshotam; Manderville, Richard A; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2017-08-21

    Exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA), a possible human carcinogen, leads to many different DNA mutations. As a first step toward understanding the structural basis of OTA-induced mutagenicity, the present work uses a robust computational approach and a slipped mutagenic intermediate model previously studied for C 8 -dG aromatic amine adducts to analyze the conformational features of postreplication two-base deletion DNA duplexes containing OT-dG, the major OTA lesion at the C 8 position of guanine. Specifically, a total of 960 ns of molecular dynamics simulations (excluding trial simulations) were carried out on four OT-dG ionization states in three sequence contexts within oligomers containing the NarI recognition sequence, a known hotspot for deletion mutations induced by related adducts formed from known carcinogens. Our results indicate that the structural properties and relative stability of the competing "major groove" and "stacked" conformations of OTA adducted two-base deletion duplexes depend on both the OTA ionization state and the sequence context, mainly due to conformation-dependent deviations in discrete local (hydrogen-bonding and stacking) interactions at the lesion site, as well as DNA bending. When the structural characteristics of the OT-dG adducted two-base deletion duplexes are compared to those associated with previously studied C 8 -dG adducts, a greater understanding of the effects of the nucleobase-carcinogen linkage, and size of the carcinogenic moiety on the conformational preferences of damaged DNA is obtained. Most importantly, our work predicts key structural features for OT-dG-adducted deletion DNA duplexes, which in turn allow us to develop hypotheses regarding OT-dG replication outcomes. Thus, our computational results are valuable for the design and interpretation of future biochemical studies on the potentially carcinogenic OT-dG lesion.

  11. The distribution of benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts in mammalian chromatin.

    OpenAIRE

    Jack, P L; Brookes, P

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the distribution of DNA-lesions generated by the potent carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BP) or its ultimate metabolic derivative 7 alpha, 8 8 beta, di-hydroxy-9 beta, 10 beta-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene (BPDE) within mammalian chromatin using the enzymic probe micrococcal nuclease. We have shown that the progress of the nuclease on naked DNA is unaffected by the presence of the hydrocarbon lesion at moderate extents of digestion. Digestion of nuclei isolated from m...

  12. Isolevuglandin adducts in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Robert G; Bi, Wenzhao

    2015-06-20

    A diverse family of lipid-derived levulinaldehydes, isolevuglandins (isoLGs), is produced by rearrangement of endoperoxide intermediates generated through both cyclooxygenase (COX) and free radical-induced cyclooxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their phospholipid esters. The formation and reactions of isoLGs with other biomolecules has been linked to alcoholic liver disease, Alzheimer's disease, age-related macular degeneration, atherosclerosis, cardiac arythmias, cancer, end-stage renal disease, glaucoma, inflammation of allergies and infection, mitochondrial dysfunction, multiple sclerosis, and thrombosis. This review chronicles progress in understanding the chemistry of isoLGs, detecting their production in vivo and understanding their biological consequences. IsoLGs have never been isolated from biological sources, because they form adducts with primary amino groups of other biomolecules within seconds. Chemical synthesis enabled investigation of isoLG chemistry and detection of isoLG adducts present in vivo. The first peptide mapping and sequencing of an isoLG-modified protein present in human retina identified the modification of a specific lysyl residue of the sterol C27-hydroxylase Cyp27A1. This residue is preferentially modified by iso[4]LGE2 in vitro, causing loss of function. Adduction of less than one equivalent of isoLG can induce COX-associated oligomerization of the amyloid peptide Aβ1-42. Adduction of isoLGE2 to phosphatidylethanolamines causes gain of function, converting them into proinflammatory isoLGE2-PE agonists that foster monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Among the remaining questions on the biochemistry of isoLGs are the dependence of biological activity on isoLG isomer structure, the structures and mechanism of isoLG-derived protein-protein and DNA-protein cross-link formation, and its biological consequences.

  13. Selective electrolytic removal of bis(alkoxycarbonyl)methano addends from C60 bis-adducts and electrochemical stability of C70 derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessinger; Fender; Echegoyen; Thilgen; Echegoyen; Diederich

    2000-06-16

    The novel mixed bis-adducts of C60, (+/-)-4-(+/-)-8 and 9, with a bis(ethoxycarbonyl)methano addend (Bingel addend) and a second addend ([1,2]benzeno, but[2]eno, methaniminomethano, or diarylmethano) bridging 6,6-closed bonds of the carbon sphere were synthesized in two-step reactions. Each bis-adduct was exhaustively electrolyzed at the potential of the second fullerene-centered reduction step, resulting in the selective removal of the Bingel addend (retro-Bingel reaction) to produce the corresponding mono-adducts, which were isolated in yields of over 60%. These results open up the possibility of using the Bingel addend as a temporary protecting and directing group in the construction of multiple adducts of C60 with unusual addition patterns. The Bingel-type mono-adduct of C70 10 and the constitutionally isomeric bis-adducts 11, (+/-)-12, and (+/-)-13 were also included in this investigation. A large difference in the electrochemical behavior between C70 bis-adducts and the corresponding C60 derivatives was observed. Thus, the intramolecular "walk-on-the-sphere" isomerization which occurs readily with Bingel-type bis-adducts of C60 under the conditions of two-electron controlled potential electrolysis (CPE) is only a minor reaction pathway in the series of C70 derivatives. The latter preferentially undergo retro-Bingel reaction.

  14. Protonation reactions of electron adducts of acrylamide derivatives. A pulse radiolytic-kinetic spectrophotometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavan, V.; Lichtin, N.N.; Hayon, E.

    1974-01-01

    The absorption spectra of electron adducts of a number of α,β-unsaturated carboxamides and of methyl methacrylate, as well as of two isomeric types of protonated electron adducts, have been characterized by means of the technique of pulse radiolysis-kinetic absorption spectrophotometry. Spectra of the electron adducts are characterized by bands in the uv (epsilon/sub max/ approximately 10 4 M -1 cm -1 ) and in the visible (epsilon/sub max/ approximately 10 3 M -1 cm -1 ). The position of the uv band shifts 10--30 nm to shorter wavelength upon reversible protonation. Fast reversible protonation of electron adducts takes place at the carbonyl oxygen. The pK/sub a/ values of the electron adducts vary linearly with the pK/sub a/ values of the corresponding carboxylic acids: for acrylamide, 7.9; methacrylamide, 8.0; trans-crotonamide, 8.5; β,β-dimethylacrylamide, 9.5; N,N-dimethylacrylamide, 8.5; trans-cinnamamide, 7.2; methyl methacrylate, approximately7. Slower irreversible protonation of the electron adducts takes place at the β-carbon atom and is subject to general acid catalysis which obeys the Bronsted catalysis law. Uncatalyzed specific rates of β protonation of anion radicals (in units of 10 5 sec -1 ) are: for acrylamide, 1.4; for methacrylamide, 13; for trans-crotonamide, 0.22; for β,β-dimethylacrylamide, 0.21; for N,N-dimethylacrylamide, 3.7; for trans-cinnamamide, less than or equal to approximately .01; for methyl methacrylate, 4.5. The second-order decay of reversibly protonated electron adducts competes with irreversible β protonation. (U.S.)

  15. Dna adduct formation and oxidative stress in colon and liver of Big Blue rats after dietary exposure to diesel particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybdahl, M; Risom, Lotte; Møller, Peter

    2003-01-01

    in liver accompanied by enhanced vitamin C levels. In plasma, we found no significant effects on oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, antioxidant enzymes or vitamin C levels. Our data indicate that gastrointestinal exposure to DEP induces DNA adducts and oxidative stress resulting in DNA strand breaks......Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) via the gastrointestinal route may impose risk of cancer in the colon and liver. We investigated the effects of DEP given in the diet to Big Blue rats by quantifying a panel of markers of DNA damage and repair, mutation, oxidative damage to proteins...... and lipids, and antioxidative defence mechanisms in colon mucosa cells, liver tissue and the blood compartment. Seven groups of rats were fed a diet with 0, 0.2, 0.8, 2, 8, 20 or 80 mg DEP/kg feed for 21 days. DEP induced a significant increase in DNA strand breaks in colon and liver. There was no effect...

  16. Tamoxifen Forms DNA Adducts In Human Colon After Administration Of A Single [14C]-Labeled Therapeutic Dose.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K; Tompkins, E M; Boocock, D J; Martin, E A; Farmer, P B; Turteltaub, K W; Ubick, E; Hemingway, D; Horner-Glister, E; White, I H

    2007-05-23

    Tamoxifen is widely prescribed for the treatment of breast cancer and is also licensed in the U.S. for the prevention of this disease. However, tamoxifen therapy is associated with an increased occurrence of endometrial cancer in women and there is also evidence that it may elevate the risk of colorectal cancer. The underlying mechanisms responsible for tamoxifen-induced carcinogenesis in women have not yet been elucidated but much interest has focussed on the role of DNA adduct formation. We investigated the propensity of tamoxifen to bind irreversibly to colorectal DNA when given to ten women as a single [{sup 14}C]-labeled therapeutic (20 mg) dose, {approx}18 h prior to undergoing colon resections. Using the sensitive technique of accelerator mass spectrometry, coupled with HPLC separation of enzymatically digested DNA, a peak corresponding to authentic dG-N{sup 2}-tamoxifen adduct was detected in samples from three patients, at levels ranging from 1-7 adducts/10{sup 9} nucleotides. No [{sup 14}C]-radiolabel associated with tamoxifen or its major metabolites was detected. The presence of detectable CYP3A4 protein in all colon samples suggests this tissue has the potential to activate tamoxifen to {alpha}-hydroxytamoxifen, in addition to that occurring in the systemic circulation, and direct interaction of this metabolite with DNA could account for the binding observed. Although the level of tamoxifeninduced damage displayed a degree of inter-individual variability, when present it was {approx}10-100 times higher than that reported for other suspect human colon carcinogens such as PhIP. These findings provide a mechanistic basis through which tamoxifen could increase the incidence of colon cancers in women.

  17. Quantification of DNA adducts in lungs, liver and brain of rats exposed to acetaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Camila C M; Batista, Guilherme L; Freitas, Florêncio P; Lopes, Fernando S; Sanchez, Angélica B; Gutz, Ivano G R; Di Mascio, Paolo; Medeiros, Marisa H G

    2014-10-01

    Air pollution is a major risk for human health. Acetaldehyde is an environmental pollutant present in tobacco smoke, vehicle exhaust and several food products. Formation of DNA adducts has been regarded as a critical factor in the mechanisms of acetaldehyde mutagenicity and carcinogenesis. Acetaldehyde reacts with 2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA to primarily form N(2)-ethylidene-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-ethylidene-dGuo). The subsequent reaction of N(2)-ethylidene-dGuo with another molecule of acetaldehyde gives rise to 1,N(2)-propano-2´-deoxyguanosine (1,N(2)-propanodGuo). In this study, on-line reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation with tandem mass spectrometry detection was utilized for the accurate quantification of 1,N(2)-propanodGuo and 1,N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine (1,N(2)-edGuo) in tissues of rats exposed to 12 ppb, 33 ppb and 96 ppb acetaldehyde in atmospheric air for 50 days. A significant increase in the levels of 1,N(2)-propanodGuo was observed in lung tissues of rats exposed to 12 ppb (7.8/10(8) dGuo); 33 ppb (8.9/10(8) dGuo) and 96 ppb (11.6/10(8) dGuo) compared to controls (4.2/10(8) dGuo). For comparative purposes, the levels of 1,N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine (1,N(2)-edGuo), which is produced from a,b-unsaturated aldehydes formed during the lipid peroxidation process were also measured. Elevated levels of 1,N(2)-edGuo were observed only in lung tissues of animals exposed to 96 ppb acetaldehyde. 1,N(2)-propanodGuo also differed quantitatively in liver but not in brain. The monitoring of 1,N(2)-propanodGuo levels in tissues provides important information on acetaldehyde genotoxicity and may contribute to the elucidation of the mechanisms associated with acetaldehyde exposure and cancer risk. Supported byFAPESP:2011/10048-5, CAPES, INCT Redoxoma:573530/2008-4,NAP Redoxoma: 2011.1.9352.1.8, CEPID Redoxoma:2013/07937-8. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Diversely substituted sugar-linked alpha,beta-unsaturated gamma-lactones from sugar-derived Baylis-Hillman adducts via a RCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Palakodety Radha; Narsingam, M

    2007-01-01

    A versatile protocol for the production of sugar-linked alpha,beta-unsaturated gamma-lactones with stereochemical and functional group diversity is described starting from sugar-derived Baylis-Hillman adducts via ring-closing metathesis.

  19. An integrated QSAR-PBK/D modelling approach for predicting detoxification and DNA adduct formation of 18 acyclic food-borne α,β-unsaturated aldehydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiwamoto, R., E-mail: reiko.kiwamoto@wur.nl; Spenkelink, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Punt, A.

    2015-01-01

    Acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes present in food raise a concern because the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety is considered a structural alert for genotoxicity. However, controversy remains on whether in vivo at realistic dietary exposure DNA adduct formation is significant. The aim of the present study was to develop physiologically based kinetic/dynamic (PBK/D) models to examine dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation of a group of 18 food-borne acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes without 2- or 3-alkylation, and with no more than one conjugated double bond. Parameters for the PBK/D models were obtained using quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) defined with a training set of six selected aldehydes. Using the QSARs, PBK/D models for the other 12 aldehydes were defined. Results revealed that DNA adduct formation in the liver increases with decreasing bulkiness of the molecule especially due to less efficient detoxification. 2-Propenal (acrolein) was identified to induce the highest DNA adduct levels. At realistic dietary intake, the predicted DNA adduct levels for all aldehydes were two orders of magnitude lower than endogenous background levels observed in disease free human liver, suggesting that for all 18 aldehydes DNA adduct formation is negligible at the relevant levels of dietary intake. The present study provides a proof of principle for the use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling to facilitate group evaluations and read-across in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Physiologically based in silico models were made for 18 α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. • Kinetic parameters were determined by in vitro incubations and a QSAR approach. • DNA adduct formation was negligible at levels relevant for dietary intake. • The use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling facilitates group evaluations and read-across.

  20. Acrolein- and 4-Aminobiphenyl-DNA adducts in human bladder mucosa and tumor tissue and their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Weng, Mao-wen; Hu, Yu; Chen, Wei-sheng; Chou, David; Liu, Yan; Donin, Nicholas; Huang, William C; Lepor, Herbert; Wu, Xue-Ru; Wang, Hailin; Beland, Frederick A; Tang, Moon-shong

    2014-06-15

    Tobacco smoke (TS) is a major cause of human bladder cancer (BC). Two components in TS, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and acrolein, which also are environmental contaminants, can cause bladder tumor in rat models. Their role in TS related BC has not been forthcoming. To establish the relationship between acrolein and 4-ABP exposure and BC, we analyzed acrolein-deoxyguanosine (dG) and 4-ABP-DNA adducts in normal human urothelial mucosa (NHUM) and bladder tumor tissues (BTT), and measured their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells. We found that the acrolein-dG levels in NHUM and BTT are 10-30 fold higher than 4-ABP-DNA adduct levels and that the acrolein-dG levels in BTT are 2 fold higher than in NHUM. Both acrolein-dG and 4-ABP-DNA adducts are mutagenic; however, the former are 5 fold more mutagenic than the latter. These two types of DNA adducts induce different mutational signatures and spectra. We found that acrolein inhibits nucleotide excision and base excision repair and induces repair protein degradation in urothelial cells. Since acrolein is abundant in TS, inhaled acrolein is excreted into urine and accumulates in the bladder and because acrolein inhibits DNA repair and acrolein-dG DNA adducts are mutagenic, we propose that acrolein is a major bladder carcinogen in TS.

  1. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS and cytochrome P-450 2E1 in the generation of carcinogenic etheno-DNA adducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Linhart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exocyclic etheno-DNA adducts are mutagenic and carcinogenic and are formed by the reaction of lipidperoxidation (LPO products such as 4-hydoxynonenal or malondialdehyde with DNA bases. LPO products are generated either via inflammation driven oxidative stress or via the induction of cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1. In the liver CYP2E1 is induced by various compounds including free fatty acids, acetone and ethanol. Increased levels of CYP2E1 and thus, oxidative stress are observed in the liver of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH as well as in the chronic alcoholic. In addition, chronic ethanol ingestion also increases CYP2E1 in the mucosa of the oesophagus and colon. In all these tissues CYP2E1 correlates significantly with the levels of carcinogenic etheno-DNA adducts. In contrast, in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH hepatic etheno-DNA adducts do not correlate with CYP2E1 indicating that in NASH etheno-DNA adducts formation is predominately driven by inflammation rather than by CYP2E1 induction. Since etheno-DNA adducts are strong mutagens producing various types of base pair substitution mutations as well as other types of genetic damage, it is strongly believed that they are involved in ethanol mediated carcinogenesis primarily driven by the induction of CYP2E1.

  2. The distribution of benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts in mammalian chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, P L; Brookes, P

    1981-11-11

    This paper describes the distribution of DNA-lesions generated by the potent carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BP) or its ultimate metabolic derivative 7 alpha, 8 8 beta, di-hydroxy-9 beta, 10 beta-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene (BPDE) within mammalian chromatin using the enzymic probe micrococcal nuclease. We have shown that the progress of the nuclease on naked DNA is unaffected by the presence of the hydrocarbon lesion at moderate extents of digestion. Digestion of nuclei isolated from murine erythroleukaemic cells immediately following BPDE treatment, and analysis of micrococcal nuclease resistant DNA by TCA precipitation, hydroxyapatite chromatography and gel electrophoresis demonstrates a non-random distribution of lesions. Approximately three times more binding occurs on the linker DNA regions between nucleosome cores than on the nucleosome core DNA itself. A similar result was obtained with BPDE treated primary mouse embryo cells; however nuclei isolated from these cells after prolonged treatment with BP (to allow metabolic activation) showed no such preferential binding. Post-treatment incubation of BPDE-treated cells shows that this difference can be accounted for by the loss of preferential localisation with time.

  3. Complex relationships between occupation, environment, DNA adducts, genetic polymorphisms and bladder cancer in a case-control study using a structural equation modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Porru

    Full Text Available DNA adducts are considered an integrate measure of carcinogen exposure and the initial step of carcinogenesis. Their levels in more accessible peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs mirror that in the bladder tissue. In this study we explore whether the formation of PBL DNA adducts may be associated with bladder cancer (BC risk, and how this relationship is modulated by genetic polymorphisms, environmental and occupational risk factors for BC. These complex interrelationships, including direct and indirect effects of each variable, were appraised using the structural equation modeling (SEM analysis. Within the framework of a hospital-based case/control study, study population included 199 BC cases and 213 non-cancer controls, all Caucasian males. Data were collected on lifetime smoking, coffee drinking, dietary habits and lifetime occupation, with particular reference to exposure to aromatic amines (AAs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. No indirect paths were found, disproving hypothesis on association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk. DNA adducts were instead positively associated with occupational cumulative exposure to AAs (p = 0.028, whereas XRCC1 Arg 399 (p<0.006 was related with a decreased adduct levels, but with no impact on BC risk. Previous findings on increased BC risk by packyears (p<0.001, coffee (p<0.001, cumulative AAs exposure (p = 0.041 and MnSOD (p = 0.009 and a decreased risk by MPO (p<0.008 were also confirmed by SEM analysis. Our results for the first time make evident an association between occupational cumulative exposure to AAs with DNA adducts and BC risk, strengthening the central role of AAs in bladder carcinogenesis. However the lack of an association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk advises that these snapshot measurements are not representative of relevant exposures. This would envisage new scenarios for biomarker discovery and new challenges such as repeated measurements at different

  4. DNA adducts and cancer risk in prospective studies: a pooled analysis and a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veglia, Fabrizio; Loft, Steffen; Matullo, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    . In the pooled analysis, a weakly statistically significant increase in the risk of lung cancer was apparent (14% per unit standard deviation change in adduct levels, 95% confidence interval 1-28%; using the weighted mean difference method, 0.15 SD, units higher adducts in cases than in controls......). The association was evident only in current smokers and was absent in former smokers. Also the meta-analysis, which included both lung and bladder cancers, showed a statistically significant association in current smokers, whereas the results in never smokers were equivocal; in former smokers, no association...

  5. Highly mutagenic exocyclic DNA adducts are substrates for the human nucleotide incision repair pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Prorok

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxygen free radicals induce lipid peroxidation (LPO that damages and breaks polyunsaturated fatty acids in cell membranes. LPO-derived aldehydes and hydroxyalkenals react with DNA leading to the formation of etheno(ε-bases including 1,N(6-ethenoadenine (εA and 3,N(4-ethenocytosine (εC. The εA and εC residues are highly mutagenic in mammalian cells and eliminated in the base excision repair (BER pathway and/or by AlkB family proteins in the direct damage reversal process. BER initiated by DNA glycosylases is thought to be the major pathway for the removal of non-bulky endogenous base damage. Alternatively, in the nucleotide incision repair (NIR pathway, the apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP endonucleases can directly incise DNA duplex 5' to a damaged base in a DNA glycosylase-independent manner. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we have characterized the substrate specificity of human major AP endonuclease 1, APE1, towards εA, εC, thymine glycol (Tg and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8oxoG residues when present in duplex DNA. APE1 cleaves oligonucleotide duplexes containing εA, εC and Tg, but not those containing 8oxoG. Activity depends strongly on sequence context. The apparent kinetic parameters of the reactions suggest that APE1 has a high affinity for DNA containing ε-bases but cleaves DNA duplexes at an extremely slow rate. Consistent with this observation, oligonucleotide duplexes containing an ε-base strongly inhibit AP site nicking activity of APE1 with IC(50 values in the range of 5-10 nM. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of the reaction products demonstrated that APE1-catalyzed cleavage of εA•T and εC•G duplexes generates, as expected, DNA fragments containing 5'-terminal ε-base residue. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The fact that ε-bases and Tg in duplex DNA are recognized and cleaved by APE1 in vitro, suggests that NIR may act as a backup pathway to BER to remove a large variety of genotoxic base lesions in human cells.

  6. Mutagenicity of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in V79 cells expressing human SULT1A1: identification and mass spectrometric quantification of DNA adducts formed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monien, Bernhard H; Engst, Wolfram; Barknowitz, Gitte; Seidel, Albrecht; Glatt, Hansruedi

    2012-07-16

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a heterocyclic product of the Maillard reaction, is a ubiquitous food contaminant. It has demonstrated hepatocarcinogenic activity in female mice. This effect may originate from sulfo conjugation of the benzylic alcohol yielding 5-sulfooxymethylfurfural (SMF), which is prone to react with DNA via nucleophilic substitution. Indeed, we showed that HMF induces gene mutations in Chinese hamster V79 cells engineered for the expression of human (h) sulfotransferase (SULT)1A1 but not in parental V79 cells. In order to identify potential DNA adducts, we incubated DNA samples with SMF or HMF in aqueous solution. Modified DNA was digested and surveyed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for adducts that may be formed by nucleosides either via nucleophilic substitution at the electrophilic carbon atom of SMF or via imine formation with the aldehyde group present in HMF and SMF. The most abundant adducts formed from SMF, N(6)-((2-formylfuran-5-yl)methyl)-2'-deoxyadenosine (N(6)-FFM-dAdo) and N(2)-((2-formylfuran-5-yl)methyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-FFM-dGuo), were synthesized, purified, and characterized by (1)H NMR. Imine adducts were only detected when DNA was incubated with very high levels of HMF following reduction of the imines to corresponding secondary amines by NaBH(3)CN. Sensitive techniques based on LC-MS/MS multiple reaction monitoring for the quantification of the adducts in DNA samples were devised using isotope-labeled [(15)N(5)]N(6)-FFM-dAdo and [(13)C(10),(15)N(5)]N(2)-FFM-dGuo as internal standards. Both 5-methylfurfuryl adducts were detected in DNA from V79-hSULT1A1 treated with HMF but not in DNA from V79 control cells. Considering the lack of other known mutagenic metabolites, we hypothesize that the hepatocarcinogenic potential of HMF originates from the formation of mutagenic SMF.

  7. Evaluation of Interindividual Human Variation in Bioactivation and DNA Adduct Formation of Estragole in Liver Predicted by Physiologically Based Kinetic/Dynamic and Monte Carlo Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, Ans; Paini, Alicia; Spenkelink, Bert; Scholz, Gabriele; Schilter, Benoit; Bladeren, Van Peter J.; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Estragole is a known hepatocarcinogen in rodents at high doses following metabolic conversion to the DNA-reactive metabolite 1′-sulfooxyestragole. The aim of the present study was to model possible levels of DNA adduct formation in (individual) humans upon exposure to estragole. This was done by

  8. ACCUMULATION OF M1DG DNA ADDUCTS AFTER CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO PCBS, BUT NOT FROM ACUTE EXPOSURE TO DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: Oxidative DNA damage is one of the key events leading to mutation and cancer. The present study examined the accumulation of M1dG DNA adducts, 3-(2’-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-pyrimido[1,2-a]-purin-10(3H)-one, after single or yearly exposur...

  9. Translesion DNA synthesis and mutation induced in a plasmid with a single adduct of the environmental contaminant 3-nitrobenzanthrone in SOS-induced Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, M.; Kanno, T.; Yagi, T.; Enya-Takamura, T.; Fuchs, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: 3-Nitrobenzanthrone (NBA) is a powerfully mutagenic nitrated aromatic hydrocarbon found in diesel exhaust and in airborne particulate matters. NBA forms an unusual DNA adduct in vitro that has a C-C bond between the C-8 position of deoxyguanosine and the C-2 position of NBA. We previously found that this adduct is also present in the human cells treated with NBA, and induces mutations in supF shuttle vector system. In this study, we analyzed translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) over a single adduct in lacZ' gene in a plasmid in uvrAmutS Escherichia coli. The result showed that the adduct blocked DNA replication and an observed TLS frequency was 5.4% in non-SOS-induced E. coli. All progenies after the TLS had no mutation. On the other hand, TLS increased to 11.3%, and 4.8% of them had mostly G to T mutations in SOS-induced E. coli. These results suggest that this unusual adduct would be one of causes of lung cancer that is increasing in the urban areas polluted with diesel exhaust. It must be interesting to reveal which DNA polymerase is involved in this TLS

  10. Levels of PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood and cord tissue and the risk of fetal neural tube defects in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Deqing; Yuan, Yue; Jin, Lei; Zhou, Guodong; Zhu, Huiping; Finnell, Richard H; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Maternal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been shown to be associated with an elevated risk for neural tube defects (NTDs). In the human body, PAHs are bioactivated and the resultant reactive epoxides can covalently bind to DNA to form PAH-DNA adducts, which may, in turn, cause transcription errors, changes in gene expression or altered patterns of apoptosis. During critical developmental phases, these changes can result in abnormal morphogenesis. We aimed to examine the relationship between the levels of PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood and cord tissue and the risk of NTDs. From 2010 to 2012, 60 NTD cases and 60 healthy controls were recruited from a population-based birth defects surveillance system in five counties of Shanxi Province in Northern China, where the emission of PAHs remains one of the highest in the country and PAHs exposure is highly prevalent. PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood of 15 NTD cases and 15 control infants, and in cord tissue of 60 NTD cases and 60 control infants were measured using the (32)P-postlabeling method. PAH-DNA adduct levels in cord blood tend to be higher in the NTD group (28.5 per 10(8) nucleotides) compared with controls (19.7 per 10(8) nucleotides), although the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.377). PAH-DNA adducts in cord tissue were significantly higher in the NTD group (24.6 per 10(6) nucleotides) than in the control group (15.3 per 10(6) nucleotides), P=0.010. A positive dose-response relationship was found between levels of PAH-DNA adducts in cord tissue and the risk of NTDs (P=0.009). When the lowest tertile was used as the referent and potential confounding factors were adjusted for, a 1.03-fold (95% CI, 0.37-2.89) and 2.96-fold (95% CI, 1.16-7.58) increase in the risk of NTDs was observed for fetuses whose cord tissue PAH-DNA adduct levels were in the second and highest tertile, respectively. High levels of PAH-DNA adducts in fetal tissues were associated with increased risks of

  11. Formation of cyclic 1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine and thymidine adducts in the reaction of the mutagen 2-bromoacrolein with calf thymus DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerman, J.H.; Smith, T.R.; Pearson, P.G.; Meier, G.P.; Nelson, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The interaction of the mutagen 2-bromoacrolein (2BA) with DNA and thymidine was studied in vitro by reaction of [3-3H]2BA with thymidine, RNA, single-stranded DNA, and double-stranded DNA in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). After purification of the nucleic acids, they were incubated at alkaline pH to convert any (hydroxybromo)propano(deoxy)-guanosine adducts to their dihydroxy analogues. After acid or enzymatic hydrolysis, the hydrolysates were analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. At a concentration of 1.6 mM, the fraction of 2BA that became covalently bound to DNA was 2.3% of the amount added. Only 3% of the radioactivity bound to DNA after extensive purification could be accounted for as cyclic 1,N2-(6,7-dihydroxy)-propanoguanine adducts. More 2BA became covalently bound to single-stranded DNA and RNA as compared with double-stranded DNA. However, high-performance liquid chromatographic analyses showed that formation of cyclic 1,N2-(6,7-dihydroxy)propanoguanine adducts was also a minor reaction with these macromolecules. Because these data showed that other type(s) of reaction(s) are more important in the reaction of 2BA with nucleic acids, we have investigated the reaction of 2BA with other nucleosides. It was found that 2BA reacted well with thymidine in vitro, and the major product was identified by 500 MHz 1H and 75.43 MHz 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and thermospray mass spectrometry as 3-(2-bromo-3-oxopropyl)thymidine. This adduct was unstable and decomposed upon storage. After enzymatic hydrolysis of [3H]2BA-modified double-stranded DNA and subsequent analysis of the hydrolysate by high-performance liquid chromatography, 22% of the covalently bound radioactivity to DNA coeluted with decomposition products of the 3-(bromooxypropyl)thymidine adduct

  12. Study of DNA adduct 8 hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation through fenton reaction with tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and butyl hydroxy toluene (BHT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, S.; Dani, I. C.; Budiawan; Pakuanisa, D.

    2017-05-01

    The research of DNA adduct formation 8-hydroxy-2’-Deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a biomarker of DNA damage due to oxidative stress was carried out by reacting the DNA base 2’-deoxyguanosine-5’-monophosphate with TBHQ and BHT. The formationof 8-OHdG was carried out in various conditions, at temperature of 37° C and 60° C, pH 7.4 and pH 8.4, within 5 hours of incubation time and in the addition of FeSO4. The formation of DNA adducts profile were analyzed using reversed phase HPLC with UV detector at a wavelength of 254 nm. The results of the study showed that TBHQ and BHT can trigger the formation of 8-OHdG from the reaction of 2’-hydroxy Deoxyguanosine-5’-monophosphate in the presence of Fe (II). Meanwhile, in the addition of hydrogen peroxide, the formation of DNA adducts only occur in the test substance TBHQ. The results showed that the condition of higher temperature at 60°C and pH 8,4 affects the higher formation of DNA adducts.

  13. Bulky DNA Adducts in Cord Blood, Maternal Fruit-and-Vegetable Consumption, and Birth Weight in a European Mother-Child Study (NewGeneris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Schoket, Bernadette; Godschalk, Roger W

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tobacco-smoke, airborne, and dietary exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been associated with reduced prenatal growth. Evidence from biomarker-based studies of low-exposed populations is limited. Bulky DNA adducts in cord blood reflect the prenatal effective dose......, Kleinjans JC, Segerbäck D, Kogevinas M. 2013. Bulky DNA adducts in cord blood, maternal fruit-and-vegetable consumption, and birth weight in a European mother-child study (NewGeneris). Environ Health Perspect 121:1200-1206; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206333....

  14. Interactive effects of ultraviolet-B radiation and pesticide exposure on DNA photo-adduct accumulation and expression of DNA damage and repair genes in Xenopus laevis embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Shuangying; Tang, Song; Mayer, Gregory D.; Cobb, George P.; Maul, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Interactive effects of UVB radiation-pesticide co-exposures were examined in frogs. • Responses included induction of DNA photo-adducts and DNA damage and repair genes. • Elevated DNA adduct levels occurred for co-exposures compared to UVB alone. • One mechanism is that pesticides may alter nuclear excision repair gene expression. - Abstract: Pesticide use and ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation have both been suggested to adversely affect amphibians; however, little is known about their interactive effects. One potential adverse interaction could involve pesticide-induced dysregulation of DNA repair pathways, resulting in greater numbers of DNA photo-adducts from UVB exposure. In the present study, we investigated the interactive effects of UVB radiation and two common pesticides (endosulfan and α-cypermethrin) on induction of DNA photo-adducts and expression of DNA damage and repair related genes in African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) embryos. We examined 13 genes that are, collectively, involved in stress defense, cell cycle arrest, nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair, mismatch repair, DNA repair regulation, and apoptosis. We exposed X. laevis embryos to 0, 25, and 50 μg/L endosulfan or 0, 2.5, and 5.0 μg/L α-cypermethrin for 96 h, with environmentally relevant exposures of UVB radiation during the last 7 h of the 96 h exposure. We measured the amount of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and mRNA abundance of the 13 genes among treatments including control, pesticide only, UVB only, and UVB and pesticide co-exposures. Each of the co-exposure scenarios resulted in elevated CPD levels compared to UVB exposure alone, suggesting an inhibitory effect of endosulfan and α-cypermethrin on CPD repair. This is attributed to results indicating that α-cypermethrin and endosulfan reduced mRNA abundance of XPA and HR23B, respectively, to levels that may affect the initial recognition of DNA lesions. In contrast, both pesticides

  15. Interactive effects of ultraviolet-B radiation and pesticide exposure on DNA photo-adduct accumulation and expression of DNA damage and repair genes in Xenopus laevis embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Shuangying, E-mail: shuangying.yu@ttu.edu [Department of Environmental Toxicology, The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, 1207 S. Gilbert Dr., Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States); Tang, Song, E-mail: song.tang@usask.ca [Department of Environmental Toxicology, The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, 1207 S. Gilbert Dr., Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States); Mayer, Gregory D., E-mail: greg.mayer@ttu.edu [Department of Environmental Toxicology, The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, 1207 S. Gilbert Dr., Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States); Cobb, George P., E-mail: george_cobb@baylor.edu [Department of Environmental Science, Baylor University, One Bear Place #97266, Waco, TX 76798 (United States); Maul, Jonathan D., E-mail: jonathan.maul@ttu.edu [Department of Environmental Toxicology, The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, 1207 S. Gilbert Dr., Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Interactive effects of UVB radiation-pesticide co-exposures were examined in frogs. • Responses included induction of DNA photo-adducts and DNA damage and repair genes. • Elevated DNA adduct levels occurred for co-exposures compared to UVB alone. • One mechanism is that pesticides may alter nuclear excision repair gene expression. - Abstract: Pesticide use and ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation have both been suggested to adversely affect amphibians; however, little is known about their interactive effects. One potential adverse interaction could involve pesticide-induced dysregulation of DNA repair pathways, resulting in greater numbers of DNA photo-adducts from UVB exposure. In the present study, we investigated the interactive effects of UVB radiation and two common pesticides (endosulfan and α-cypermethrin) on induction of DNA photo-adducts and expression of DNA damage and repair related genes in African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) embryos. We examined 13 genes that are, collectively, involved in stress defense, cell cycle arrest, nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair, mismatch repair, DNA repair regulation, and apoptosis. We exposed X. laevis embryos to 0, 25, and 50 μg/L endosulfan or 0, 2.5, and 5.0 μg/L α-cypermethrin for 96 h, with environmentally relevant exposures of UVB radiation during the last 7 h of the 96 h exposure. We measured the amount of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and mRNA abundance of the 13 genes among treatments including control, pesticide only, UVB only, and UVB and pesticide co-exposures. Each of the co-exposure scenarios resulted in elevated CPD levels compared to UVB exposure alone, suggesting an inhibitory effect of endosulfan and α-cypermethrin on CPD repair. This is attributed to results indicating that α-cypermethrin and endosulfan reduced mRNA abundance of XPA and HR23B, respectively, to levels that may affect the initial recognition of DNA lesions. In contrast, both pesticides

  16. Mutations Induced by Benzo[a]pyrene and Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in lacI Transgenic B6C3F1 Mouse Lung Result from Stable DNA Adducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) are carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that are each capable of forming a variety of covalent adducts with DNA. Some of the DNA adducts formed by these PAHs have been demonstrated to spontaneously depurina...

  17. Drug-DNA adducts as biomarkers for metabolic activation of the nitro-aromatic nitrogen mustard prodrug PR-104A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stornetta, Alessia; Deng, Kai-Cheng Kieren; Danielli, Sara; Liyanage, H D Sarath; Sturla, Shana J; Wilson, William R; Gu, Yongchuan

    2018-04-07

    PR-104A is a clinical-stage nitrogen mustard prodrug that is activated for DNA alkylation by reduction of a nitro group to the corresponding hydroxylamine (PR-104H) or amine (PR-104M). Metabolic reduction is catalysed by flavoreductases such as cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) under hypoxia, or by aldo-ketoreductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) independently of hypoxia. The unstable reduced metabolites are challenging to measure in biological samples, and biomarkers of the metabolic activation of PR-104A have not been used in the clinical evaluation of PR-104 to date. Here, we employ a selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry assay for DNA crosslinks to assess the capacity of human cancer cells to bioactivate PR-104A. We also test whether the more abundant DNA monoadducts could be used for the same purpose. DNA monoadducts and crosslinks from PR-104A itself, and from its reduced metabolites, accumulated over 4 h in AKR1C3-expressing TF1 erythroleukaemia cells under hypoxia, whereas intracellular concentrations of unstable PR-104H and PR-104M reached steady state within 1 h. We then varied rates of PR-104A reduction by manipulating hypoxia or reductase expression in a panel of cell lines, in which AKR1C3 and POR were quantified by targeted proteomics. Hypoxia or reductase overexpression induced large increases in PR-104A sensitivity (inhibition of proliferation), DNA damage response (γH2AX formation), steady-state concentrations of PR-104H/M and formation of reduced drug-DNA adducts but not DNA adducts retaining the dinitro groups of PR-104A. The fold-change in the sum of PR-104H and PR-104M correlated with the fold-change in reduced crosslinks or monoadducts (R 2  = 0.87 for both), demonstrating their potential for assessing the capacity of cancer cells to bioactivate PR-104A. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Carcinogen derived biomarkers: applications in studies of human exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Hecht, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on carcinogen derived biomarkers of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). These biomarkers are specifically related to known carcinogens in tobacco smoke and include urinary metabolites, DNA adducts, and blood protein adducts.

  19. Persistence of DNA adducts, hypermutation and acquisition of cellular resistance to alkylating agents in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, R J; Fay, M F; Cosgrove, L; Y C Fung, K; Rundle-Thiele, D; Martin, J H

    2017-12-02

    Glioblastoma is a lethal form of brain tumour usually treated by surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and an alkylating chemotherapeutic agent. Key to the success of this multimodal approach is maintaining apoptotic sensitivity of tumour cells to the alkylating agent. This initial treatment likely establishes conditions contributing to development of drug resistance as alkylating agents form the O 6 -methylguanine adduct. This activates the mismatch repair (MMR) process inducing apoptosis and mutagenesis. This review describes key juxtaposed drivers in the balance between alkylation induced mutagenesis and apoptosis. Mutations in MMR genes are the probable drivers for alkylation based drug resistance. Critical to this interaction are the dose-response and temporal interactions between adduct formation and MMR mutations. The precision in dose interval, dose-responses and temporal relationships dictate a role for alkylating agents in either promoting experimental tumour formation or inducing tumour cell death with chemotherapy. Importantly, this resultant loss of chemotherapeutic selective pressure provides opportunity to explore novel therapeutics and appropriate combinations to minimise alkylation based drug resistance and tumour relapse.

  20. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke and environmental pollutants in mothers and their transplacental transfer to the foetus. Part I: Bulky DNA adducts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topinka, Jan; Milcová, Alena; Líbalová, Helena; Nováková, Zuzana; Rössner ml., Pavel; Balascak, I.; Šrám, Radim

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 669, 1-2 (2009), s. 13-19 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : DNA adducts * PAHs * complex mixtures Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.556, year: 2009

  1. Association between Mutation Spectra and Stable and Unstable DNA Adduct Profiles in Salmonella for Benzo[a]pyrene and Dibenzo[a.l]pyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) are two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that exhibit distinctly different mutagenicity and carcinogenicity profiles. Although some studies show that these PAHs produce unstable DNA adducts, conflicting data and arguments ha...

  2. Biomarkers for exposure to ambient air pollution--comparison of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels with other exposure markers and markers for oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, H; Daneshvar, B; Dragsted, L O

    1999-01-01

    Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adduc...

  3. Pharmacodynamics of cisplatin in human head and neck cancer : correlation between platinum content, DNA adduct levels and drug sensitivity in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welters, M.J.P.; Fichtinger-Schepman, A.M.J.; Baan, R.A.; Jacobs-Bergmans, A.J.; Kegel, A.; Vijgh, W.J.F. van der; Braakhuis, B.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Total platinum contents and cisplatin-DNA adduct levels were determined in vivo in xenografted tumour tissues in mice and in vitro in cultured tumour cells of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and correlated with sensitivity to cisplatin. In vivo, a panel of five HNSCC tumour lines

  4. DNA Adduct Formation from Quaternary Benzo[c]phenanthridine Alkaloids Sanguinarine and Chelerythrine as Revealed by the 32P-postlabeling Technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stiborová, M.; Šimánek, V.; Frei, E.; Hobza, Pavel; Ulrichová, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 140, - (2002), s. 231-242 ISSN 0009-2797 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/01/0996; GA ČR GA203/00/0633 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : DNA adduct formation * chelerythrine * sanquinarine Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.261, year: 2002

  5. THE EFFECT OF ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ON DNA ADDUCTION AND CYTOGENETIC DAMAGE IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES OF MICE AND RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were designed to investigate how the route of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mice and rats affects the induction of cytogenetic endpoints and DNA adduction. Both mice and rats were exposed to 100 mg/kg of benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A), benzo[b]fl...

  6. INDUCTION OF DNA ADDUCTS, TUMORS, AND KI-RAS ONCOGENE MUTATIONS IN STRAIN A/J MOUSE LUNG BY IP. ADMINISTRATION OF DIBENZ[A,H]ANTHRACENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induction of DNA adducts, tumors, and Ki-ras oncogene mutations in strain AlJ mouse lung by ip. administration of dibenz[a,h]anthracene Previous studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (P AH) induced lung tumors in the strain NJ mouse model system have demonstrated qua...

  7. Interaction between CYP1A1 polymorphisms and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the modulation of lymphocyte bulky DNA adducts and chromosomal aberrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Georgiadis, P.; Topinka, Jan; Vlachodimitropoulos, D.; Stoikidou, M.; Gioka, M.; Stephanou, G.; Autrup, H.; Demopoulos, N. A.; Katsouyanni, K.; Šrám, Radim; Kyrtopoulos, S. A.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2005), s. 93-101 ISSN 0143-3334 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : DNA adducts * aberrant cells Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 5.108, year: 2005

  8. Impact of phase I or phase II enzyme polymorphisms on lymphocyte DNA adducts in subjects exposed to urban air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Georgiadis, P.; Demopoulos, N. A.; Topinka, Jan; Stephanou, G.; Stoikidou, M.; Bekyrou, M.; Katsouyianni, K.; Šrám, Radim; Autrup, H.; Kyrtopoulos, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 149, 1-3 (2004), s. 269-280 ISSN 0378-4274 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : DNA adducts Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.571, year: 2004

  9. Replication of acetylaminofluorene-adducted plasmids in human cells: Spectrum of base substitutions and evidence of excision repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mah, M.C.; Boldt, J.; Maher, V.M.; McCormick, J.J. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States)); Culp, S.J. (National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States))

    1991-11-15

    In rats fed the liver carcinogen 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), the two most abundant types of DNA adduct are N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-acetylaminofluorene and its deacetylated derivative. When plasmids carrying AAF adducts replicate in bacteria, the predominant mutations are frameshifts, whereas with deacetylated (AF) adducts, they are mainly base substitutions, just as the authors found when plasmids carrying AF adducts replicated in human cells. The authors have investigated the frequency and spectrum of mutations induced when a shuttle vector carrying AAF adducts (85% bound to the C8 position of guanine, 15% to the N{sup 2} position) replicated in human cells. The frequency induced per initial AAF adduct was higher than with AF adducts, but the kinds of mutations were similar - i.e., 85% base substitutions, principally G {center dot} C {yields} T {center dot} A transversions. There was good correlation between the hot spots for mutations and hot spots for AAF adduct formation, suggesting that mutational hot spots reflect preferential binding of the carcinogen to DNA. {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of the adducts before and after the DNA was transfected of AAF adducts and that 85% of both types of adducts were removed within 3.5 hours, most probably by excision repair.

  10. Alcohol, Aldehydes, Adducts and Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Sapkota

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes results in the formation of reactive aldehydes in the lung, which are capable of forming adducts with several proteins and DNA. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use disorder who smoke cigarettes. In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected in the lung due to exposure to toxic gases, vapors and chemicals. These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable adducts. This adduction may disturb cellular functions as well as damage proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Among several adducts formed in the lung, malondialdehyde DNA (MDA-DNA adduct and hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA protein adducts have been shown to initiate several pathological conditions in the lung. MDA-DNA adducts are pre-mutagenic in mammalian cells and induce frame shift and base-pair substitution mutations, whereas MAA protein adducts have been shown to induce inflammation and inhibit wound healing. This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease.

  11. Ellipticine oxidation and DNA adduct formation in human hepatocytes is catalyzed by human cytochromes P450 and enhanced by cytochrome b5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiborová, Marie; Poljaková, Jitka; Martínková, Eva; Ulrichová, Jitka; Simánek, Vilím; Dvořák, Zdeněk; Frei, Eva

    2012-12-16

    Ellipticine is an antineoplastic agent considered a pro-drug, the pharmacological and genotoxic effects of which are dependent on cytochrome P450 (CYP)- and/or peroxidase-mediated activation to covalent DNA adducts. We investigated whether ellipticine-DNA adducts are formed in human hepatic microsomes and human hepatocytes. We then identified which human CYPs oxidize ellipticine to metabolites forming DNA adducts and the effect of cytochrome b(5) on this oxidation. 13-Hydroxyellipticine, the metabolite forming the major ellipticine-DNA adduct, was generated mainly by CYP3A4 and 1A1, followed by CYP2D6>2C19>1B1>1A2>2E1 and >2C9. Cytochrome b(5) increased formation of this metabolite by human CYPs, predominantly by CYP1A1, 3A4, 1A2 and 2C19. Formation of 12-hydroxyellipticine is generated mainly by CYP2C19, followed by CYP2C9>3A4>2D6>2E1 and >2A6. Other CYPs were less active (CYP2C8 and 2B6) or did not oxidize ellipticine to this metabolite (CYP1A1, 1A2 and 1B1). CYP2D6 was the most efficient enzyme generating ellipticine N(2)-oxide. CYP3A4 and 1A1 in the presence of cytochrome b(5) are mainly responsible for bioactivation of ellipticine to DNA adduct 1 (formed by ellipticine-13-ylium from 13-hydroxyellipticine), while 12-hydroxyellipticine generated during the CYP2C19-mediated ellipticine oxidation is the predominant metabolite forming ellipticine-12-ylium that generates ellipticine-DNA adduct 2. These ellipticine-DNA adducts were also generated by human hepatic microsomes and in primary human hepatocytes exposed to ellipticine. Ellipticine is toxic to these hepatocytes, decreasing their viability; the IC(50) value of ellipticine in these cells was 0.7 μM. In liver CYP3A4 is the predominant ellipticine activating CYP species, which is expected to result in efficient metabolism after oral ingestion of ellipticine in humans. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. In vitro study of DNA Adduct 8-OHdG Formation by using Bisphenol A in Calf Thymus DNA and 2’-Deoxyguanosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiawan; Cahaya Dani, Intan; Bakri, Ridla; Handayani, Sri; Ratna Dewi, Evi

    2018-01-01

    The in vitro study of DNA Adduct 8-OHdG Formation due to BisphenolA (BPA) as xenobiotics has been conducted by using calf thymus DNA and 2’deoxyguanosine. The method of study was conducted by incubating calf thymus DNA and 2’dG with compounds trigger to radicals in the variation of pH (7.4 and 8.4), temperature (37°C and 60°C), and BPA concentrations (2 ppm and 10 ppm). To represent the work of CYP 450 enzyme in metabolic process of xenobiotics in the body and the effect of metal presence to the formation of radicals that can lead to 8-OHdG formation, we used iron(II) solution and also fenton reagent (Fe(II) and H2O2). The DNA used has 1.8 purity ratio (checked at λ260/λ280 by using Spectrophotometry UV-Vis). The results by using HPLC method showed that BPA could interact with DNA and DNA base (represent as calf thymus and 2’dG) and potentially induced 8-OHdG formation. The presence of iron(II) metal and Fenton reagent also induced the higher 8-OHdG formation. The higher of pH, temperature and concentrations also lead to 8-OHdG formation (ranger between 4 - 70 ppb).

  13. Biomarkers for exposure to ambient air pollution - Comparison of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels with other exposure markers and markers for oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Daneshvar, Bahram; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    1999-01-01

    Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts....../10(8) nucleotides) and of 2-amino-apidic semialdehyde (AAS) in plasma proteins (56.7 pmol/mg protein) were observed in bus drivers working in the central part of Copenhagen, Denmark. In contrast, significantly higher levels of AAS in hemoglobin (55.8 pmol/mg protein), malondialdehyde in plasma (0.......96 nmol/ml plasma), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-albumin adduct (3.38 fmol/mu g albumin) were observed in the suburban group. The biomarker levels in postal workers were similar to the levels in suburban bus drivers. In the combined group of bus drivers and postal workers, negative...

  14. Biomarkers for Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution - Comparison of Carcinogen-DNA Adduct Levels with Other Exposure Markers and Markers for Oxidative Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Daneshvar, Bahram; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    1999-01-01

    Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts....../10(8) nucleotides) and of 2-amino-apidic semialdehyde (AAS) in plasma proteins (56.7 pmol/mg protein) were observed in bus drivers working in the central part of Copenhagen, Denmark. In contrast, significantly higher levels of AAS in hemoglobin (55.8 pmol/mg protein), malondialdehyde in plasma (0. 96...... nmol/ml plasma), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-albumin adduct (3.38 fmol/ microg albumin) were observed in the suburban group. The biomarker levels in postal workers were similar to the levels in suburban bus drivers. In the combined group of bus drivers and postal workers, negative...

  15. An ammonium bicarbonate-enhanced stable isotope dilution UHPLC-MS/MS method for sensitive and accurate quantification of acrolein-DNA adducts in human leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ruichuan; Liu, Shengquan; Zhao, Chao; Lu, Meiling; Tang, Moon-shong; Wang, Hailin

    2013-03-19

    Acrolein (Acr), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, can react directly with genomic DNA to form mutagenic adducts without undergoing metabolic activation. To sensitively and accurately quantify Acr-DNA adducts (including structural isomers and stereoisomers) in human leukocytes, we developed an enhanced stable isotope dilution ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method using ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3), which is thermally unstable and degrades readily to carbon dioxide and ammonia in heated gas phase. Interestingly, ammonium bicarbonate (as an additive to the mobile phase) not only improves the protonation of AcrdG adducts but also suppresses the formation of MS signal-deteriorating metal-AcrdG complexes during electrospray ionization, leading to the enhancement of their MS detection by 2.3-8.7 times. In contrast, routinely used ammonium salts (ammonium acetate and ammonium formate) and formic acid do not show similar enhancement. The developed method is potentially useful for enhancing ESI-MS detection of other modified 2'-deoxyribonucleosides that have difficulty in protonation and may form excess metal complexes during electrospray ionization. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) are estimated to be about 40-80 amol. By the use of the developed method, we found that the Acr adducts of three nucleotides (dG, dA, and dC) can be detected in human leukocytes. In addition to the known γ-AcrdG, α-AcrdA is also identified as an Acr-adduct of high abundance (2.5-20 adducts per10(8) nts).

  16. Elucidating Latent Mechanistic Complexity in Competing Acid-Catalyzed Reactions of Salicylaldehyde-Derived Baylis-Hillman Adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olomola, Temitope O; Klein, Rosalyn; Caira, Mino R; Kaye, Perry T

    2016-01-04

    (1)H NMR-based kinetic studies have revealed the latent mechanistic complexity of deceptively simple hydrochloric acid-catalyzed reactions of salicylaldehyde-derived Baylis-Hillman adducts. Reactions conducted at 0 °C afforded 2-(chloromethyl)cinnamic acid derivatives as the major products and the corresponding 3-(chloromethyl)coumarin derivatives as the minor products. In reactions conducted in refluxing acetic acid, however, the 3-(chloromethyl)coumarin derivatives are the sole products. Variable-temperature (1)H NMR analysis permitted the determination of the rate constants and kinetic parameters involved in the pseudo-first-order formation of (Z)-2-(chloromethyl)-3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid. The kinetic data clearly preclude the operation of classical kinetic versus thermodynamic control and indicate the operation of three independent reaction pathways. Theoretical studies of these pathways undertaken at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level permitted rationalization of the experimental data and provided insights into the possible mechanism of the enzymic E-Z isomerization and cyclization of (E)-cinnamic acid analogues to afford coumarins.

  17. Cisplatin adducts on a GGG sequence within a DNA duplex studied by NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téletchéa, Stéphane; Skauge, Tormod; Sletten, Einar; Kozelka, Jirí

    2009-11-16

    The antitumor drug cisplatin(cis-[PtCl2(NH3)2]) reacts with cellular DNA to form GG intrastrand adducts between adjacent guanines as predominant lesions. GGG sites have been shown to be hotspots of platination. To study the structural perturbation induced by binding of cisplatin to two adjacent guanines of a GGG trinucleotide,we examined here the decanucleotide duplex d[(G1C2C3G*4 G*5 G6T7-C8G9C10).d(G11C12G13A14C15C16C17G18-G19C20)] (dsCG*G*G) intrastrand cross-linked at the G* guanines by cis-{Pt(NH3)2}2+ using NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations.The NMR spectra of dsCG*G*G were found to be similar to those of previously characterized DNA duplexes cross-linked by cisplatin at apyG*G*X site (py=pyrimidine; X=C,T, A). This similarity of NMR spectra indicates that the base at the 3'-side of the G*G*-Pt cross-link does not affect the structure to a large extent. An unprecedented reversible isomerization between the duplex dsCG*G*G (bearing a G*4 G*5 -Pt chelate) and duplex dsGG*G*T (bearing a G*5 G*6 -Pt chelate)was observed, which yielded a 40:60 equilibrium between the two intrastrand GG-Pt cross-links. No formation of interstrand cross-links was observed.NMR spectroscopic data of dsCG*G*G indicated that the deoxyribose of the 5'-G* adopts an N-type conformation, and the cytidines C3, C15,and C16 have average phase angles intermediate between S and N. The NMR spectroscopic chemical shifts of dsGG*G*T showed some fundamental differences to those of pyG*G*-platinum adducts but were in agreement with the NMR spectra reported previously for the DNA duplexes crosslinked at an AG*G*C sequence by cisplatin or oxaliplatin. The presence of apurine instead of a pyrimidine at the 5'-side of the G*G* cross-link seems therefore to affect the structure of the XG* step significantly.

  18. APE1, the DNA base excision repair protein, regulates the removal of platinum adducts in sensory neuronal cultures by NER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Suk [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Guo, Chunlu; Thompson, Eric L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Jiang, Yanlin [Department of Pediatrics and Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Kelley, Mark R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Pediatrics and Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Vasko, Michael R. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Lee, Suk-Hee, E-mail: slee@iu.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the major side effects of treatment with the anticancer drug, cisplatin. One proposed mechanism for this neurotoxicity is the formation of platinum adducts in sensory neurons that could contribute to DNA damage. Although this damage is largely repaired by nuclear excision repair (NER), our previous findings suggest that augmenting the base excision repair pathway (BER) by overexpressing the repair protein APE1 protects sensory neurons from cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. The question remains whether APE1 contributes to the ability of the NER pathway to repair platinum-damage in neuronal cells. To examine this, we manipulated APE1 expression in sensory neuronal cultures and measured Pt-removal after exposure to cisplatin. When neuronal cultures were treated with increasing concentrations of cisplatin for two or three hours, there was a concentration-dependent increase in Pt-damage that peaked at four hours and returned to near baseline levels after 24 h. In cultures where APE1 expression was reduced by ∼80% using siRNA directed at APE1, there was a significant inhibition of Pt-removal over eight hours which was reversed by overexpressing APE1 using a lentiviral construct for human wtAPE1. Overexpressing a mutant APE1 (C65 APE1), which only has DNA repair activity, but not its other significant redox-signaling function, mimicked the effects of wtAPE1. Overexpressing DNA repair activity mutant APE1 (226 + 177APE1), with only redox activity was ineffective suggesting it is the DNA repair function of APE1 and not its redox-signaling, that restores the Pt-damage removal. Together, these data provide the first evidence that a critical BER enzyme, APE1, helps regulate the NER pathway in the repair of cisplatin damage in sensory neurons.

  19. APE1, the DNA base excision repair protein, regulates the removal of platinum adducts in sensory neuronal cultures by NER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Guo, Chunlu; Thompson, Eric L.; Jiang, Yanlin; Kelley, Mark R.; Vasko, Michael R.; Lee, Suk-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the major side effects of treatment with the anticancer drug, cisplatin. One proposed mechanism for this neurotoxicity is the formation of platinum adducts in sensory neurons that could contribute to DNA damage. Although this damage is largely repaired by nuclear excision repair (NER), our previous findings suggest that augmenting the base excision repair pathway (BER) by overexpressing the repair protein APE1 protects sensory neurons from cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. The question remains whether APE1 contributes to the ability of the NER pathway to repair platinum-damage in neuronal cells. To examine this, we manipulated APE1 expression in sensory neuronal cultures and measured Pt-removal after exposure to cisplatin. When neuronal cultures were treated with increasing concentrations of cisplatin for two or three hours, there was a concentration-dependent increase in Pt-damage that peaked at four hours and returned to near baseline levels after 24 h. In cultures where APE1 expression was reduced by ∼80% using siRNA directed at APE1, there was a significant inhibition of Pt-removal over eight hours which was reversed by overexpressing APE1 using a lentiviral construct for human wtAPE1. Overexpressing a mutant APE1 (C65 APE1), which only has DNA repair activity, but not its other significant redox-signaling function, mimicked the effects of wtAPE1. Overexpressing DNA repair activity mutant APE1 (226 + 177APE1), with only redox activity was ineffective suggesting it is the DNA repair function of APE1 and not its redox-signaling, that restores the Pt-damage removal. Together, these data provide the first evidence that a critical BER enzyme, APE1, helps regulate the NER pathway in the repair of cisplatin damage in sensory neurons

  20. Serum Level of Antibody against Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA Adducts in People Dermally Exposed to PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Borska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some specific antibodies indicate the presence of antigenic structures on DNA (DNA adducts that can play an important role in the process of mutagenesis and/or carcinogenesis. They indicate the presence of increased genotoxic potential (hazard prior to the formation of disease (primary prevention. The present study was focused on the serum level of benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA adducts antibodies (anti-BPDE-DNA in psoriatic patients (n=55 dermally exposed to different levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The general goal of the study was to contribute to better understanding of the value of the assumed biomarker (anti-BPDE-DNA for evaluation of the organism's answer to genotoxic exposure to PAHs. Elevated level of exposure to PAHs resulted in the increased level of anti-BPDE-DNA. However, almost all levels of anti-BPDE-DNA ranged within the field of low values. Both variants of GT (CCT-3% and CCT-5% induced higher expression of anti-BPDE-DNA in the group of nonsmokers. Significant relations between the level of anti-BPDE-DNA and PASI score, total duration of the therapy, or time of UVR exposure were not found. Further studies are needed to reduce interpretation uncertainty of this promising bioindicator.

  1. Correlation between base-excision repair gene polymorphisms and levels of in-vitro BPDE-induced DNA adducts in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongping Yu

    Full Text Available In vitro benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE-induced DNA adducts in cultured peripheral lymphocytes have been shown to be a phenotypic biomarker of individual's DNA repair phenotype that is associated with cancer risk. In this study, we explored associations between genotypes of base-excision repair genes (PARP1 Val762Ala, APEX1 Asp148Glu, and XRCC1 Arg399Gln and in vitro BPDE-induced DNA adducts in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes in 706 cancer-free non-Hispanic white subjects. We found that levels of BPDE-induced DNA adducts were significantly higher in ever smokers than in never smokers and that individuals with the Glu variant genotypes (i.e., Asp/Glu and Glu/Glu exhibited lower levels of BPDE-induced DNA adducts than did individuals with the common Asp/Asp homozygous genotype (median RAL levels: 32.0 for Asp/Asp, 27.0 for Asp/Glu, and 17.0 for Glu/Glu, respectively; P(trend = 0.030. Further stratified analysis showed that compared with individuals with the common APEX1-148 homozygous Asp/Asp genotype, individuals with the APEX1-148Asp/Glu genotype or the Glu/Glu genotype had a lower risk of having higher-level adducts (adjusted OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.36-0.98 and adjusted OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.26-0.86, respectively; P(trend = 0.012 among smokers. Such an effect was not observed in non-smokers. However, there was no significant interaction between the APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism and smoking exposure in this study population (P = 0.512. Additional genotype-phenotype analysis found that the APEX1-148Glu allele had significantly increased expression of APEX1 mRNA in 270 Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines, which is likely associated with more active repair activity. Our findings suggest that the functional APEX1-148Glu allele is associated with reduced risk of having high levels of BPDE-induced DNA adducts mediated with high levels of mRNA expression.

  2. Radicals derived from histone hydroperoxides damage nucleobases in RNA and DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luxford, C; Dean, R T; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    ; this is in accord with previous studies with other proteins. These histone hydroperoxides are stable in the absence of exogenous catalysts (e.g., heat, light, and transition metal ions), but in the presence of these agents decompose rapidly to give a variety of radicals which have been identified by EPR spin...... cross-linked adduct species which have been identified by EPR spectroscopy. HPLC analysis of the products generated on reaction of histone hydroperoxide-derived radicals with 2'-deoxyguanosine, or intact calf thymus DNA, has shown that significant levels of the mutagenic oxidized DNA base 8-oxo-7...... in the transfer of oxidative damage to associated DNA via the formation and subsequent decomposition of protein hydroperoxides to reactive radicals, and provide a novel route for the formation of mutagenic lesions in DNA....

  3. Effect of increased intake of dietary animal fat and fat energy on oxidative damage, mutation frequency, DNA adduct level and DNA repair in rat colon and liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla; Daneshvar, Bahram; Autrup, Herman

    2003-01-01

    supplemented with 0, 3, 10 or 30% w/w lard. After 3 weeks, the mutation frequency, DNA repair gene expression, DNA damage and oxidative markers were determined in liver, colon and plasma. The mutation frequency of the lambda gene cII did not increase with increased fat or energy intake in colon or liver......, colon, or urine. Thus, lard intake at the expense of other nutrients and a large increase in the fat energy consumption affects the redox state locally in the liver cytosol, but does not induce DNA-damage, systemic oxidative stress or a dose-dependent increase in mutation frequency in rat colon or liver........ The DNA-adduct level measured by 32P-postlabelling decreased in both liver and colon with increased fat intake. In liver, this was accompanied by a 2-fold increase of the mRNA level of nucleotide excision repair (NER) gene ERCC1. In colon, a non-statistically significant increase in the ERCC1 mRNA levels...

  4. Effect of increased intake of dietary animal fat and fat energy on oxidative damage, mutation frequency, DNA adduct level and DNA repair in rat colon and liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Danesvar, B.; Autrup, H.

    2003-01-01

    supplemented with 0, 3, 10 or 30% w/w lard. After 3 weeks, the mutation frequency, DNA repair gene expression, DNA damage and oxidative markers were determined in liver, colon and plasma. The mutation frequency of the lambda gene cII did not increase with increased fat or energy intake in colon or liver......, colon, or urine. Thus, lard intake at the expense of other nutrients and a large increase in the fat energy consumption affects the redox state locally in the liver cytosol, but does not induce DNA-damage, systemic oxidative stress or a dose-dependent increase in mutation frequency in rat colon or liver........ The DNA-adduct level measured by P-32-postlabelling decreased in both liver and colon with increased fat intake. In liver, this was accompanied by a 2-fold increase of the mRNA level of nucleotide excision repair (NER) gene ERCC1. In colon, a non-statistically significant increase in the ERCC1 mRNA levels...

  5. Direct reduction of N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols: a possible mechanism for chemoprevention against PhIP-DNA adduct formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Dongxin; Thompson, Patricia A.; Teitel, Candee; Chen Junshi; Kadlubar, Fred F.

    2003-01-01

    The chemopreventive effect of tea against 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-DNA adduct formation and its mechanism were studied. Rats were exposed to freshly prepared aqueous extracts of green tea (3% (w/v)) as the sole source of drinking water for 10 days prior to administration with a single dose of PhIP (10 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage. PhIP-DNA adducts in the liver, colon, heart, and lung were measured using the 32 P-postlabelling technique. Rats pre-treated with tea and given PhIP 20 h before sacrifice had significantly reduced levels of PhIP-DNA adducts as compared with controls given PhIP alone. The possible mechanism of protective effect of tea on PhIP-DNA adduct formation was then examined in vitro. It was found that an aqueous extract of green and black tea, mixtures of green and black tea polyphenols, as well as purified polyphenols could strongly inhibit the DNA binding of N-acetoxy-PhIP, a putative ultimate carcinogen of PhIP formed in vivo via metabolic activation. Among these, epigallocatechin gallate was exceptionally potent. HPLC analyses of these incubation mixtures containing N-acetoxy-PhIP and the tea polyphenols each revealed the production of the parent amine, PhIP, indicating the involvement of a redox mechanism. In view of the presence of relatively high levels of tea polyphenols in rat and human plasma after ingestion of tea, this study suggests that direct reduction of the ultimate carcinogen N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols is likely to be involved in the mechanism of chemoprotection of tea against this carcinogen

  6. 1,3-Butadiene-Induced Adenine DNA Adducts Are Genotoxic but Only Weakly Mutagenic When Replicated in Escherichia coli of Various Repair and Replication Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shiou-Chi; Seneviratne, Uthpala I; Wu, Jie; Tretyakova, Natalia; Essigmann, John M

    2017-05-15

    The adverse effects of the human carcinogen 1,3-butadiene (BD) are believed to be mediated by its DNA-reactive metabolites such as 3,4-epoxybut-1-ene (EB) and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB). The specific DNA adducts responsible for toxic and mutagenic effects of BD, however, have yet to be identified. Recent in vitro polymerase bypass studies of BD-induced adenine (BD-dA) adducts show that DEB-induced N 6 ,N 6 -DHB-dA (DHB = 2,3-dihydroxybutan-1,4-diyl) and 1,N 6 -γ-HMHP-dA (HMHP = 2-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethylpropan-1,3-diyl) adducts block replicative DNA polymerases but are bypassed by human polymerases η and κ, leading to point mutations and deletions. In contrast, EB-induced N 6 -HB-dA (HB = 2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl) does not block DNA synthesis and is nonmutagenic. In the present study, we employed a newly established in vivo lesion-induced mutagenesis/genotoxicity assay via next-generation sequencing to evaluate the in vivo biological consequences of S-N 6 -HB-dA, R,R-N 6 ,N 6 -DHB-dA, S,S-N 6 ,N 6 -DHB-dA, and R,S-1,N 6 -γ-HMHP-dA. In addition, the effects of AlkB-mediated direct reversal repair, MutM and MutY catalyzed base excision repair, and DinB translesion synthesis on the BD-dA adducts in bacterial cells were investigated. BD-dA adducts showed the expected inhibition of DNA replication in vivo but were not substantively mutagenic in any of the genetic environments investigated. This result is in contrast with previous in vitro observations and opens the possibility that E. coli repair and bypass systems other than the ones studied here are able to minimize the mutagenic properties of BD-dA adducts.

  7. In vitro study of DNA adduct 8-OHDG formation from 2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-monophosphate with benzene through Fenton reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiawan, Erlindah, R.; Handayani, S.; Dani, I. C.

    2017-07-01

    Carcinogenic compounds from air pollution such as benzene could tend to generate free radicals and lead to DNA-radicals interaction producing 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage. This research was conducted by reacting DNA base 2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-monophosphate (dGMP) with benzene in the variation of temperature 37 °C and 60 °C, variation of pH 7.4 and 8.4 during 5 hours of incubation time, and in the variation of Fe(II) and H2O2 as reagent of Fenton reaction. The result of adduct was analyzed by using HPLC reversed phase with UV detector at a wavelength 254 nm. In this research, the retention time of dGMP standard was measured at 7.3 minutes and 8-OHdG was measured at 9.0 minutes. The formation of 8-OHdG from dGMP and benzene interaction in addition of Fe(II) at pH 8.4 and temperature 60 °C were higher than their interaction in the condition of pH 7.4 and temperature 37 °C. The presence of hydrogen peroxide under incubation condition at pH 8.4 and at temperature 60 °C can trigger the higher formation of 8-OHdG compared to the incubation condition at pH 7.4 and temperature 37 °C.

  8. Effects of ethylene oxide and ethylene inhalation on DNA adducts, apurinic/apyrimidinic sites and expression of base excision DNA repair genes in rat brain, spleen, and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyn, Ivan; Asakura, Shoji; Li, Yutai; Kosyk, Oksana; Koc, Hasan; Nakamura, Jun; Upton, Patricia B; Swenberg, James A

    2005-09-28

    Ethylene oxide (EO) is an important industrial chemical that is classified as a known human carcinogen (IARC, Group 1). It is also a metabolite of ethylene (ET), a compound that is ubiquitous in the environment and is the most used petrochemical. ET has not produced evidence of cancer in laboratory animals and is "not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans" (IARC, Group 3). The mechanism of carcinogenicity of EO is not well characterized, but is thought to involve the formation of DNA adducts. EO is mutagenic in a variety of in vitro and in vivo systems, whereas ET is not. Apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP) that result from chemical or glycosylase-mediated depurination of EO-induced DNA adducts could be an additional mechanism leading to mutations and chromosomal aberrations. This study tested the hypothesis that EO exposure results in the accumulation of AP sites and induces changes in expression of genes for base excision DNA repair (BER). Male Fisher 344 rats were exposed to EO (100 ppm) or ET (40 or 3000 ppm) by inhalation for 1, 3 or 20 days (6h/day, 5 days a week). Animals were sacrificed 2h after exposure for 1, 3 or 20 days as well as 6, 24 and 72 h after a single-day exposure. Experiments were performed with tissues from brain and spleen, target sites for EO-induced carcinogenesis, and liver, a non-target organ. Exposure to EO resulted in time-dependent increases in N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine (7-HEG) in brain, spleen, and liver and N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)valine (7-HEVal) in globin. Ethylene exposure also induced 7-HEG and 7-HEVal, but the numbers of adducts were much lower. No increase in the number of aldehydic DNA lesions, an indicator of AP sites, was detected in any of the tissues between controls and EO-, or ET-exposed animals, regardless of the duration or strength of exposure. EO exposure led to a 3-7-fold decrease in expression of 3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase (Mpg) in brain and spleen in rats exposed to EO for 1 day. Expression of 8

  9. Mutagenic Replication of N2-Deoxyguanosine Benzo[a]pyrene Adducts by Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase I and Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA Polymerase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, A S Prakasha; Krzeminski, Jacek; Amin, Shantu; Suo, Zucai; Spratt, Thomas E

    2017-05-15

    Benzo[a]pyrene, a potent human carcinogen, is metabolized in vivo to a diol epoxide that reacts with the N 2 -position of guanine to produce N 2 -BP-dG adducts. These adducts are mutagenic causing G to T transversions. These adducts block replicative polymerases but can be bypassed by the Y-family translesion synthesis polymerases. The mechanisms by which mutagenic bypass occurs is not well-known. We have evaluated base pairing structures using atomic substitution of the dNTP with two stereoisomers, 2'-deoxy-N-[(7R,8S,9R,10S)-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-7,8,9-trihydroxybenzo[a]pyren-10-yl]guanosine and 2'-deoxy-N-[(7S,8R,9S,10R)-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-7,8,9-trihydroxybenzo[a]pyren-10-yl]guanosine. We have examined the kinetics of incorporation of 1-deaza-dATP, 7-deaza-dATP, 2'-deoxyinosine triphosphate, and 7-deaza-dGTP, analogues of dATP and dGTP in which single atoms are changed. Changes in rate will occur if that atom provided a critical interaction in the transition state of the reaction. We examined two polymerases, Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (Kf) and Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4), as models of a high fidelity and TLS polymerase, respectively. We found that with Kf, substitution of the nitrogens on the Watson-Crick face of the dNTPs resulted in decreased rate of reactions. This result is consistent with a Hoogsteen base pair in which the template N 2 -BP-dG flipped from the anti to syn conformation. With Dpo4, while the substitution did not affect the rate of reaction, the amplitude of the reaction decreased with all substitutions. This result suggests that Dpo4 bypasses N 2 -BP-dG via Hoogsteen base pairs but that the flipped nucleotide can be either the dNTP or the template.

  10. Cytochrome P450 system expression and DNA adduct formation in the liver of Zacco platypus following waterborne benzo(a)pyrene exposure: implications for biomarker determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wuk; Kim, Yong Hwa; Yoon, Seokjoo; Lee, Sung Kyu

    2014-09-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that causes mutations and tumor formation. Zacco platypus is a sentinel species that is suitable for monitoring aquatic environments. We studied cytochrome P450 system (CYP system) expression and DNA adduct formation in the liver of Z. platypus following waterborne exposure to BaP. The results showed both dose and time dependency. The significant induction levels of CYP system mRNA and protein reached maximums at 2 days and 14 days, respectively, and hepatosomatic index was maximally induced at 4 days during 14 days BaP exposure. DNA adduct formation was significantly induced compared to corresponding controls (t-test, p platypus is a useful species for assessing the risk of waterborne BaP exposure. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  11. The thermodynamics of translesion DNA synthesis past major adducts of enantiomeric analogues of antitumor cisplatin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malina, Jaroslav; Nováková, Olga; Natile, G.; Brabec, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5 (2012), s. 1026-1031 ISSN 1861-4728 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/0856; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/10/0598 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : thermodynamics * DNA * translesion Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.572, year: 2012

  12. Identification of novel disulfide adducts between the thiol containing leaving group of the nerve agent VX and cysteine containing tripeptides derived from human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranawetvogl, Andreas; Küppers, Jim; Gütschow, Michael; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Elsinghorst, Paul W; John, Harald

    2017-08-01

    Chemical warfare agents represent a continuous and considerable threat to military personnel and the civilian population. Such compounds are prohibited by the Chemical Weapons Convention, to which adherence by the member states is strictly controlled. Therefore, reliable analytical methods for verification of an alleged use of banned substances are required. Accordingly, current research focuses on long-term biomarkers derived from covalent adducts with biomolecules such as proteins. Recently, we have introduced a microbore liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry method allowing for the investigation of two different classes of adducts of the nerve agent VX with human serum albumin (HSA). Phosphonylated tyrosine residues and novel disulfide adducts at cysteine residues of HSA were produced by enzymatic cleavage with pronase and detected simultaneously. Notably, the thiol containing leaving group of VX (2-(diisopropylamino)ethanethiol, DPAET) formed disulfide adducts that were released as cysteine and proline containing dipeptides originating from at least two different sites of HSA. Aim of this study was to identify assumed and novel adducts of DPAET with HSA using synthetic peptide reference compounds. Two novel tripeptides were identified representing disulfide adducts with DPAET (Met-Pro-Cys-DPAET, MPC-DPAET and Asp-Ile-Cys-DPAET, DIC-DPAET). MPC-DPAET was shown to undergo partial in-source decay during electrospray ionization for MS detection thereby losing the N-terminal Met residue. This results in the more stable Pro-Cys-DPAET (PC-DPAET) dipeptide detectable as protonated ion. The limit of detection for MPC-DPAET was evaluated, revealing toxicologically relevant VX plasma concentrations. The results provide novel insights into the reactivity of VX and its endogenous targets. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and DNA cleavage activity of nickel(II adducts with aromatic heterocyclic bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. PHILIP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed ligand complexes of nickel(II with 2,4-dihydroxyaceto-phenone oxime (DAPO and 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone oxime (DBPO as primary ligands, and pyridine (Py and imidazole (Im as secondary ligands were synthesized and characterized by molar conductivity, magnetic moments measurements, as well as by electronic, IR, and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Electrochemical studies were performed by cyclic voltammetry. The active signals are assignable to the NiIII/II and NiII/I redox couples. The binding interactions between the metal complexes and calf thymus DNA were investigated by absorption and thermal denaturation. The cleavage activity of the complexes was determined using double-stranded pBR322 circular plasmid DNA by gel electrophoresis. All complexes showed increased nuclease activity in the presence of the oxidant H2O2. The nuclease activities of mixed ligand complexes were compared with those of the parent copper(II complexes.

  14. Thermodynamics of translesion synthesis across a major DNA adduct of antitumor oxaliplatin: Differential scanning calorimetric study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Florian, Jakub; Brabec, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2012), s. 1634-1639 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD301/09/H004; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/10/0598 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : antitumor platinum * DNA * calorimetry Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.831, year: 2012

  15. Chiral differentiation of DNA adducts formed by enantiomeric analogues of antitumor cisplatin is sequence-dependent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Delalande, O.; Malina, Jaroslav; Brabec, Viktor; Kozelka, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 6 (2005), s. 4159-4169 ISSN 0006-3495 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/05/2030; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5004101; GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5004107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : DNA * platinum * cancer Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.507, year: 2005

  16. Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and identification of the major aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts formed in cultured human bronchus and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Essigmann, John M.; Croy, Robert G.

    1979-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 and benzo(a)pyrene were activated by both cultured human bronchus and human colon as measured by binding to cellular DNA and protein. The binding of aflatoxin B1 to DNA was dose dependent, and the level of binding was higher in cultured human bronchus than it was in the colon. When...... compared to aflatoxin B1, the binding level of benzo(a)pyrene to both bronchial and colonic DNA was generally higher. The major adducts formed in both tissues by the interaction of aflatoxin B1 and DNA were chromatographically identical to 2,3-dihydro-2-(N7-guanyl)-3-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (Structure 1...... in these two peaks, and the ratio of radioactivity between the peaks was nearly 1. In colonic DNA, the ratio between Structures 1 and 11 was approximately 2. These observations add aflatoxin B1 to the list of chemical procarcinogens metabolized by cultured human tissues and in which the carcinogen-DNA adducts...

  17. DNA adducts of antitumor cisplatin preclude telomeric sequences from forming G quadruplexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heringová, Pavla; Kašpárková, Jana; Brabec, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2009), s. 959-968 ISSN 0949-8257 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR8562; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06030; GA MŠk(CZ) ME08017; GA MŠk(CZ) OC08003; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040581; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200200651; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400040803 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) OC09018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : cisplatin * DNA quadruplex * telomere Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.415, year: 2009

  18. Bifunctional amine-tethered ruthenium(II) arene complexes form monofunctional adducts on DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melchart, M.; Habtemariam, A.; Nováková, Olga; Moggach, S.A.; Fabbiani, F.P.A.; Parsons, S.; Brabec, Viktor; Sadler, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 21 (2007), s. 8950-8962 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/05/2030; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/06/1239; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040581; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200200651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : DNA * ruthenium * cancer Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.123, year: 2007

  19. Synthesis of Ene-ynamide Derivatives Starting from Baylis-Hillman Adducts: Isomerization with the Aid of π-Cation Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowrisankar, Saravanan; Lee, Ka Young; Kim, Seung Chan; Kim, Jae Nyoung [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    We prepared some ene-ynamides starting from the Baylis-Hillman adducts. During the investigations, we found that π-cation interactions could increase the acidity of the nearby protons of triple bond of non-conjugated ene-ynamide and could make come true the isomerization into a more stable conjugated ene-ynamide form. Recently, we have developed a facile synthetic method of 9-phenyl-7H-benzocycloheptene derivatives from the alkynyl moiety-containing Baylis-Hillman adducts, which involved intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkenylation reaction of triple bond-tethered methyl cinnamates. We also reported the synthesis of iodoenol lactones from the same substrates via the typical iodolactonization protocol. During the investigation we envisaged that we could prepare the corresponding lactam derivatives from the acetates of the Baylis-Hillman adducts by using similar strategy as shown in Scheme 1. However, during the investigation for the synthesis of lactam derivatives from, we found the formation of isomerized conjugated ene-ynamide derivatives unexpectedly and wish to report herein the results.

  20. Assessment of interactions between PAH exposure and genetic polymorphisms on PAH-DNA adducts in African American, Dominican, and Caucasian mothers and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Chanock, Stephen; Tang, Deliang; Li, Zhigang; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P

    2008-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are widespread pollutants commonly found in air, food, and drinking water. Benzo[a]pyrene is a well-studied representative PAH found in air from fossil fuel combustion and a transplacental carcinogen experimentally. PAHs bind covalently to DNA to form DNA adducts, an indicator of DNA damage, and an informative biomarker of potential cancer risk. Associations between PAH-DNA adduct levels and both cancer risk and developmental deficits have been seen in previous experimental and epidemiologic studies. Several genes have been shown to play an important role in the metabolic activation or detoxification of PAHs, including the cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and the glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes GSTM1, and GSTT2. Genetic variation in these genes could influence susceptibility to adverse effects of PAHs in polluted air. Here, we have explored interactions between prenatal PAH exposure and 17 polymorphisms in these genes (rs2198843, rs1456432, rs4646903, rs4646421, rs2606345, rs7495708, rs2472299, rs162549, rs1056837, rs1056836, rs162560, rs10012, rs2617266, rs2719, rs1622002, rs140194, and gene deletion GSTM1-02) and haplotypes on PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood of 547 newborns and in maternal blood of 806 mothers from three different self-described ethnic groups: African Americans, Dominicans, and Caucasians. PAHs were measured by personal air monitoring of mothers during pregnancy. Significant interactions (p < 0.05) were observed between certain genetic polymorphisms and CYP1A1 haplotype and PAHs in mothers and their newborns in the three ethnic groups. However, with our limited sample size, the current findings are suggestive only, warranting further study.

  1. Tetraphenylphosphonium allyldithiocarbimates derived from Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and antifungal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Eder C.; Rubinger, Mayura M. M.; Filho, Eclair V.; Oliveira, Marcelo R. L.; Piló-Veloso, Dorila; Ellena, Javier; Guilardi, Silvana; Souza, Rafael A. C.; Zambolim, Laércio

    2016-02-01

    Botrytis blight is a very destructive disease caused by Botrytis spp., infecting flowers, trees, vegetables and fruits. Twelve new compounds were prepared by the reaction of potassium N-aryl-sulfonyldithiocarbimates with Morita-Baylis-Hillman derivatives bearing phenyl and furyl groups. These are the first examples of allyldithiocarbimate anions and were isolated as tetraphenylphosphonium salts. The new compounds were characterized by HRMS, NMR and Infrared spectroscopy. Further, the structures of three allyldithiocarbimates were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compounds are isostructural and crystallize in the space group P21/c of the monoclinic system, and the allyldithiocarbimate anions present Z configuration. All the compounds were active against Botrytis cinerea. The best results were achieved with the tetraphenylphosphonium (Z)-3-(furan-2-yl)-2-(methoxycarbonyl)allyl-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl)dithiocarbimate (IC50 38 μM).

  2. DNA adducts of acrolein: site-specific synthesis of an oligodeoxynucleotide containing 6-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropyrimido[1,2-a]purin-10(3H)-one, an acrolein adduct of guanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechev, Lubomir V; Kozekov, Ivan D; Brock, Angela K; Rizzo, Carmelo J; Harris, Thomas M

    2002-05-01

    3-(2-Deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-6-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropyrimido[1,2-a]purin-10(3H)-one is formed in low yield by the reaction of acrolein with 2'-deoxyguanosine. The nucleoside and an oligodeoxynucleotide containing it have been synthesized. For preparation of the nucleoside 2'-deoxyguanosine was alkylated at the N1 position using 1-bromo-3-butene to give 1-(3-butenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine. Oxidation with OsO(4) and N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide to give the 3,4-dihydroxybutyl adduct followed by oxidation with NaIO(4) gave the 1-(3-oxopropyl) adduct which cyclized spontaneously to yield the title compound as a rapidly epimerizing mixture of two diastereomers. Reduction of the nucleoside with NaBH(4) gave the unfunctionalized compound plus 1-(3-hydroxypropyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine showing that epimerization was occurring via both the imine and the 1-(3-oxopropyl) adduct. Reduction with NaCNBH(3) gave exclusively unfunctionalized 3-(2-deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropyrimido[1,2-a]purin-10(3H)-one. The phosphoramidite reagent needed for preparation of oligonucleotides was prepared from 1-(3-butenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine by glycolation after protection of the 3' and 5' hydroxyl groups as silyl derivatives. Acetylation of the vicinal hydroxyl groups and the exocyclic amino group followed by removal of silyl protection gave the protected nucleoside. Protection of the 5' hydroxyl group as the 4,4'-dimethoxytrityl ether followed by phosphitylation with 2-cyanoethyl-N,N,N',N'-tetraisopropylphosphorodiamidite gave the prosphoramidite reagent which was used to prepare a 12-mer oligodeoxynucleotide.

  3. Variation in Presentation and Presence of DNA Adducts and p53 Mutations in Patients with Endemic Nephropathy - an Environmental Form of the Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Karanović

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endemic nephropathy (EN and associated urothelial cell cancers (UUC are an environmental form of aristolochic acid nephropathy where the most probable rout of ingestion of aristolochic acid (AA was made by bread contaminated with AA, leading to chronic dietary intoxication. Clinical courses of three members of the same family, similarly exposed to toxin, who exhibited different clinical courses of the disease are presented. Methods: Questionnaires on AA exposure were taken. Tissue samples were obtained during therapeutic nephrouretectomies. Histopathology, immunohistochemical detection of p53, p53 mutation screening in tumor DNA and analysis on the presence of aristolactam (AL-DNA adducts were performed. Results: Case 1 had UUC with typical EN histopathological signs, whereas Case 2 had bilateral UUCs with typical EN histopathological signs. In contrast, the patient in Case 3 initially showed renal insufficiency, complicated afterwards by right UUC, and later on by left UUC with histopathological end-stage chronic changes but without typical EN changes. AA-DNA adducts and specific p53 mutational spectra (A:T→ T:A transversion were found in tissues of cases 1 and 2. Conclusion: Diverse clinical courses seem to be related not to differences in exposure but to differences in metabolic activation or detoxification of AA and/or DNA repair resulting from different genetic polymorphisms.

  4. Mechanism of Error-Free Bypass of the Environmental Carcinogen N-(2'-Deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone Adduct by Human DNA Polymerase η.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Amritraj; Politica, Dustin A; Chatterjee, Arindom; Tokarsky, E John; Suo, Zucai; Basu, Ashis K; Stone, Michael P; Egli, Martin

    2016-11-03

    The environmental pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone produces bulky aminobenzanthrone (ABA) DNA adducts with both guanine and adenine nucleobases. A major product occurs at the C8 position of guanine (C8-dG-ABA). These adducts present a strong block to replicative polymerases but, remarkably, can be bypassed in a largely error-free manner by the human Y-family polymerase η (hPol η). Here, we report the crystal structure of a ternary Pol⋅DNA⋅dCTP complex between a C8-dG-ABA-containing template:primer duplex and hPol η. The complex was captured at the insertion stage and provides crucial insight into the mechanism of error-free bypass of this bulky lesion. Specifically, bypass involves accommodation of the ABA moiety inside a hydrophobic cleft to the side of the enzyme active site and formation of an intra-nucleotide hydrogen bond between the phosphate and ABA amino moiety, allowing the adducted guanine to form a standard Watson-Crick pair with the incoming dCTP. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Mutagenicity, stable DNA adducts, and abasic sites induced in Salmonella by phenanthro[3,4-b]- and phenanthro[4,3-b]thiophenes, sulfur analogs of benzo[c]phenanthrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, Carol D. [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); King, Leon C.; Nesnow, Stephen [Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711 (United States); Umbach, David M. [Biostatistics Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Kumar, Subodh [Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Laboratory, Great Lakes Center, State University of New York College at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14222 (United States); DeMarini, David M. [Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711 (United States)], E-mail: demarini.david@epa.gov

    2009-02-10

    Sulfur-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (thia-PAHs or thiaarenes) are common constituents of air pollution and cigarette smoke, but only a few have been studied for health effects. We evaluated the mutagenicity in Salmonella TA98, TA100, and TA104 of two sulfur-containing derivatives of benzo[c]phenanthrene, phenanthro[3,4-b]thiophene (P[3,4-b]T), and phenanthro[4,3-b]thiophene (P[4,3-b]T) as well as their dihydrodiol and sulfone derivatives. In addition, we assessed levels of stable DNA adducts (by {sup 32}P-postlabeling) as well as abasic sites (by an aldehydic-site assay) produced by six of these compounds in TA100. P[3,4-b]T and its 6,7- and 8,9-diols, P[3,4-b]T sulfone, P[4,3-b]T, and its 8,9-diol were mutagenic in TA100. P[3,4-b]T sulfone, the most potent mutagen, was approximately twice as potent as benzo[a]pyrene in both TA98 and TA100. Benzo-ring dihydrodiols were much more potent than K-region dihydrodiols, which had little or no mutagenic activity in any strain. P[3,4-b]T sulfone produced abasic sites and not stable DNA adducts; the other five compounds examined, B[c]P, B[c]P 3,4-diol, P[3,4-b]T, P[3,4-b]T 8,9-diol, and P[4,3-b]T 8,9-diol, produced only stable DNA adducts. P[3,4-b]T sulfone was the only compound that produced significant levels of frameshift mutagenicity and induced mutations primarily at GC sites. In contrast, B[c]P, its 3,4-diol, and the 8,9 diols of the phenanthrothiophenes induced mutations primarily at AT sites. P[3,4-b]T was not mutagenic in TA104, whereas P[3,4-b]T sulfone was. The two isomeric forms (P[3,4-b]T and P[4,3-b]T) are apparently activated differently, with the latter, but not the former, involving a diol pathway. This study is the first illustrating the potential importance of abasic sites in the mutagenicity of thia-PAHs.

  6. Apiaceous Vegetable Consumption Decreases PhIP-Induced DNA Adducts and Increases Methylated PhIP Metabolites in the Urine Metabolome in Rats123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Gallaher, Daniel D; Chen, Chi; Yao, Dan; Trudo, Sabrina P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Heterocyclic aromatic amines, such as 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), are carcinogenic compounds produced during heating of protein-containing foods. Apiaceous vegetables inhibit PhIP-activating enzymes, whereas cruciferous vegetables induce both PhIP-activating and -detoxifying enzymes. Objective: We investigated the effects of these vegetables, either alone or combined, on PhIP metabolism and colonic DNA adduct formation in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were fed cruciferous vegetables (21%, wt:wt), apiaceous vegetables (21%, wt:wt), or a combination of both vegetables (10.5% wt:wt of each). Negative and positive control groups were fed an AIN-93G diet. After 6 d, all groups received an intraperitoneal injection of PhIP (10 mg · kg body weight−1) except for the negative control group, which received only vehicle. Urine was collected for 24 h after the injection for LC–tandem mass spectrometry metabolomic analyses. On day 7, rats were killed and tissues processed. Results: Compared with the positive control, cruciferous vegetables increased the activity of hepatic PhIP-activating enzymes [39.5% and 45.1% for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 (P = 0.0006) and CYP1A2 (P vegetables did not inhibit PhIP-activating enzymes, yet reduced colonic PhIP-DNA adducts by 20.4% (P = 0.0496). Metabolomic analyses indicated that apiaceous vegetables increased the relative abundance of urinary methylated PhIP metabolites. The sum of these methylated metabolites inversely correlated with colonic PhIP-DNA adducts (r = −0.43, P = 0.01). We detected a novel methylated urinary PhIP metabolite and demonstrated that methylated metabolites are produced in the human liver S9 fraction. Conclusions: Apiaceous vegetables did not inhibit the activity of PhIP-activating enzymes in rats, suggesting that the reduction in PhIP-DNA adducts may involve other pathways. Further investigation of the importance of PhIP methylation in carcinogen metabolism is warranted

  7. Apiaceous vegetable consumption decreases PhIP-induced DNA adducts and increases methylated PhIP metabolites in the urine metabolome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Gallaher, Daniel D; Chen, Chi; Yao, Dan; Trudo, Sabrina P

    2015-03-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines, such as 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), are carcinogenic compounds produced during heating of protein-containing foods. Apiaceous vegetables inhibit PhIP-activating enzymes, whereas cruciferous vegetables induce both PhIP-activating and -detoxifying enzymes. We investigated the effects of these vegetables, either alone or combined, on PhIP metabolism and colonic DNA adduct formation in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed cruciferous vegetables (21%, wt:wt), apiaceous vegetables (21%, wt:wt), or a combination of both vegetables (10.5% wt:wt of each). Negative and positive control groups were fed an AIN-93G diet. After 6 d, all groups received an intraperitoneal injection of PhIP (10 mg · kg body weight(-1)) except for the negative control group, which received only vehicle. Urine was collected for 24 h after the injection for LC-tandem mass spectrometry metabolomic analyses. On day 7, rats were killed and tissues processed. Compared with the positive control, cruciferous vegetables increased the activity of hepatic PhIP-activating enzymes [39.5% and 45.1% for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 (P = 0.0006) and CYP1A2 (P vegetables did not inhibit PhIP-activating enzymes, yet reduced colonic PhIP-DNA adducts by 20.4% (P = 0.0496). Metabolomic analyses indicated that apiaceous vegetables increased the relative abundance of urinary methylated PhIP metabolites. The sum of these methylated metabolites inversely correlated with colonic PhIP-DNA adducts (r = -0.43, P = 0.01). We detected a novel methylated urinary PhIP metabolite and demonstrated that methylated metabolites are produced in the human liver S9 fraction. Apiaceous vegetables did not inhibit the activity of PhIP-activating enzymes in rats, suggesting that the reduction in PhIP-DNA adducts may involve other pathways. Further investigation of the importance of PhIP methylation in carcinogen metabolism is warranted, given the inverse correlation of methylated Ph

  8. [Hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of human exposure to selected xenobiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Bożena

    2015-06-12

    In the living and working environments more and more new substances of anthropogenic origin exerting toxic properties appear. Simultaneously, the evaluation of human exposure is assessed. For many years adducts of hemoglobin (Hb) have been useful markers of the exposure of humans to various xenobiotics. These adducts are also termed biologically effective dose biomarkers. This paper focuses on a review of literature, mainly from the years 2010-2014, which refers to the hemoglobin adducts of toxic compounds with electrophilic properties. In the interactions of xenobiotics with hemoglobin, groups such as thiol, amino, carboxyl and hydroxyl of this hemoprotein are involved. These combinations occur most often in the reaction of xenobiotics with an N-terminal amino group of valine in Hb, imidazole nitrogen of histidine and cysteine sulfhydryl β93. Hb adducts are characterized by high availability, a long period of occurrence (up to 120 days) in the circulatory system, and high durability, and they have contact with all cells of the body. The measurement of hemoglobin adducts can be potentially used in the assessment of exposure to many xenobiotics such as acrylamide; substances present in tobacco smoke, e.g. benzo(α)pyrene and benzanthracene, ethylene oxide, aryl amines; and substances used on a large scale in industry such as glycidol and naphthalene and its derivatives. Recently the possibility of determination of hemoglobin adducts with estrogen metabolites has been postulated as indicators informing about heightened risk of breast cancer. Protein adducts are used as an alternative to DNA adducts for different classes of electrophilic substances.

  9. Microwave-assisted convenient syntheses of 2-indolizine derivatives from Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts: new in silico potential ion channel modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Saraghina M.D.; Oliveira, Ramon G. de; Vasconcellos, Mario L.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a microwave-assisted synthesis study by microwave irradiation to produce indolizine-2-carbonitrile and indolizine-2-carboxylate in good to high yields (70 and 81%, respectively) in one step from Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts (MBHA) is presented. These compounds were subsequently transformed to high yields (94 to 100%, respectively) in three 2-indolizine derivatives. The five synthesized compounds were designed in silico aiming to present potential selective activities as ion channel modulators. These activities were suggested by the score values using Molinspiration Cheminformatics program. (author)

  10. Microwave-assisted convenient syntheses of 2-indolizine derivatives from Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts: new in silico potential ion channel modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Saraghina M.D.; Oliveira, Ramon G. de; Vasconcellos, Mario L.A.A., E-mail: mlaav@quimica.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2013-03-15

    In this work, a microwave-assisted synthesis study by microwave irradiation to produce indolizine-2-carbonitrile and indolizine-2-carboxylate in good to high yields (70 and 81%, respectively) in one step from Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts (MBHA) is presented. These compounds were subsequently transformed to high yields (94 to 100%, respectively) in three 2-indolizine derivatives. The five synthesized compounds were designed in silico aiming to present potential selective activities as ion channel modulators. These activities were suggested by the score values using Molinspiration Cheminformatics program. (author)

  11. Enantiopure Derivatives of Aza-Baylis-Hillman Adducts by Subsequent SN′-SN′ Reactions of Acylcarbamates Bearing a Chiral Auxiliary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuele Rinaldi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Reactions of(4S,5R-1-(3,4-Dimethyl-2-oxo-5-phenylimidazolidinecarbonyl-isocyanate (4 with appropriate Baylis-Hillman adducts 5 gave the corresponding acyl carbamates 6,7 as equimolar diastereomeric mixtures. These mixtures were treated with DABCO, to afford with moderate diastereoselection easily separable [2-(3",4"-dimethyl-2"-oxo-5"-phenylimidazolidine-1-carboxamido(arylmethyl]acrylates 8 and 9.

  12. Detection of Emodin Derived Glutathione Adduct in Normal Rats Administered with Large Dosage of Polygoni Multiflori Radix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Long Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR has been commonly used as a tonic in China for centuries. PMR-associated hepatotoxicity has been drawing increasingly more attention in recent years in parallel with its wide utilization. Anthraquinones (AQs are recognized as the main hepatotoxic components in PMR. However, the exact underlying mechanism of AQs poisoning is still not fully understood. Herein, we proposed a hypothesis that metabolic activation of AQs such as emodin was involved in PMR-induced liver injury, AQs followed to generate the electrophilic reactive metabolites and subsequently formed covalent adduct with cellular nucleophiles in the liver to exert hepatotoxicity. In the present study, the link of cytotoxicity of PMR in primary human hepatocytes and the depletion of glutathione (GSH was investigated by MTT assay and UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS analysis. The results showed that PMR depleted GSH and therefore induced cytotoxicity. Then, emodin-GSH adduct was identified in bile of liver injured rats after intragastric administration of PMR or emodin with the aid of UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS method. Our findings not only provided confirmative evidence that the mechanism of hepatotoxicity induced by AQs in PMR involved key metabolic steps, but also revealed that emodin-GSH adduct had potential to be further developed as a sensitive and traceable biomarker for the assessment of PMR-induced liver injury.

  13. DNA polymerases κ and ζ cooperatively perform mutagenic translesion synthesis of the C8–2′-deoxyguanosine adduct of the dietary mutagen IQ in human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Arindam; Pande, Paritosh; Jasti, Vijay P.; Millsap, Amy D.; Hawkins, Edward K.; Rizzo, Carmelo J.; Basu, Ashis K.

    2015-01-01

    The roles of translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases in bypassing the C8–2′-deoxyguanosine adduct (dG-C8-IQ) formed by 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), a highly mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amine found in cooked meats, were investigated. Three plasmid vectors containing the dG-C8-IQ adduct at the G1-, G2- or G3-positions of the NarI site (5′-G1G2CG3CC-3′) were replicated in HEK293T cells. Fifty percent of the progeny from the G3 construct were mutants, largely G→T, compared to 18% and 24% from the G1 and G2 constructs, respectively. Mutation frequency (MF) of dG-C8-IQ was reduced by 38–67% upon siRNA knockdown of pol κ, whereas it was increased by 10–24% in pol η knockdown cells. When pol κ and pol ζ were simultaneously knocked down, MF of the G1 and G3 constructs was reduced from 18% and 50%, respectively, to IQ. We conclude that pol κ and pol ζ cooperatively carry out the majority of the error-prone TLS of dG-C8-IQ, whereas pol η is involved primarily in its error-free bypass. PMID:26220181

  14. Verification, Dosimetry and Biomonitoring of Mustard Gas Exposure via Immunochemical Detection of Mustard Gas Adducts to DNA and Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    mustard gas in aqueous solution, pH 7.5, 25 °C. 149 Figure 48: Proposed reaction scheme for the tentative formation of 4-( isopropyl -N-methylcarbamoyl...at 37 °C with 1 and 5 N of, respectively, NaOH, methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and HCI. Treatment of Hb with the 5 N solutions led to precipitation of the...mthylamide. The latter product is the obvious intermediate needed for the subsequent formation of the di-adduct bis[2-( isopropyl -N-methylcarbamoylmthyl

  15. Basil extract inhibits the sulfotransferase mediated formation of DNA adducts of the procarcinogen 1′-hydroxyestragole by rat and human liver S9 homogenates and in HepG2 human hepatoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, S.M.F.; Punt, A.; Delatour, T.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a basil extract on the sulfation and concomitant DNA adduct formation of the proximate carcinogen 1′-hydroxyestragole were studied using rat and human liver S9 homogenates and the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Basil was chosen since it contains the procarcinogen estragole that can

  16. JM216-, JM118-, and cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in relation to platinum-DNA adduct formation, glutathione levels and p53 status in human tumour cell lines with different sensitivities to cisplatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, E; Groen, HJM; Helder, MN; de Vries, EGE; Meijer, C

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish anti-tumour potency of the new oral platinum drug JM216 and its metabolite JM118 in relation to the platinum (Pt)-DNA adduct formation, glutathione (GSH)-levels, and p53 status in human cancer cell lines with different sensitivities to cisplatin (CDDP). These

  17. The relevance of monitoring of antibodies against the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and PAH-DNA adducts in serum in relation to lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pauk, N.; Klimešová, Š.; Kára, J.; Topinka, Jan; Lábaj, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2013), s. 182-187 ISSN 0028-2685 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06150 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons * anti-PAH antibodies * DNA adducts Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 1.642, year: 2013

  18. Monitoring of dimethyl sulphate-induced N3-methyladenine, N7-methylguanine and O6-methylguanine DNA adducts using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chadt, J.; Sýkora, D.; Nilsson, R.; Vodička, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 867, č. 1 (2008), s. 43-48 ISSN 1570-0232 Grant - others:EU(SE) 505609 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : DNA adducts Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.500, year: 2008

  19. Mitochondrial DNA genotypes in nuclear transfer-derived cloned sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M J; Gurer, C; Loike, J D; Wilmut, I; Schnieke, A E; Schon, E A

    1999-09-01

    Eukaryotic cells contain two distinct genomes. One is located in the nucleus (nDNA) and is transmitted in a mendelian fashion, whereas the other is located in mitochondria (mtDNA) and is transmitted by maternal inheritance. Cloning of mammals typically has been achieved via nuclear transfer, in which a donor somatic cell is fused by electoporation with a recipient enucleated oocyte. During this whole-cell electrofusion, nDNA as well as mtDNA ought to be transferred to the oocyte. Thus, the cloned progeny should harbour mtDNAs from both the donor and recipient cytoplasms, resulting in heteroplasmy. Although the confirmation of nuclear transfer has been established using somatic cell-specific nDNA markers, no similar analysis of the mtDNA genotype has been reported. We report here the origin of the mtDNA in Dolly, the first animal cloned from an established adult somatic cell line, and in nine other nuclear transfer-derived sheep generated from fetal cells. The mtDNA of each of the ten nuclear-transfer sheep was derived exclusively from recipient enucleated oocytes, with no detectable contribution from the respective somatic donor cells. Thus, although these ten sheep are authentic nuclear clones, they are in fact genetic chimaeras, containing somatic cell-derived nuclear DNA but oocyte-derived mtDNA.

  20. Capillary HPLC-accurate mass MS/MS quantitation of N7-(2,3,4-trihydroxybut-1-yl)-guanine adducts of 1,3-butadiene in human leukocyte DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaraju, Dewakar; Villalta, Peter; Goggin, Melissa; Agunsoye, Maria O; Campbell, Colin; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2013-10-21

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a high volume industrial chemical commonly used in polymer and rubber production. It is also present in cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust, and urban air, leading to widespread exposure of human populations. Upon entering the body, BD is metabolized to electrophilic epoxides, 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), diepoxybutane (DEB), and 3,4-epoxy-1,2-diol (EBD), which can alkylate DNA nucleobases. The most abundant BD epoxide, EBD, modifies the N7-guanine positions in DNA to form N7-(2, 3, 4-trihydroxybut-1-yl) guanine (N7-THBG) adducts, which can be useful as biomarkers of BD exposure and metabolic activation to DNA-reactive epoxides. In the present work, a capillary HPLC-high resolution ESI⁺-MS/MS (HPLC-ESI⁺-HRMS/MS) methodology was developed for accurate, sensitive, and reproducible quantification of N7-THBG in cell culture and in human white blood cells. In our approach, DNA is subjected to neutral thermal hydrolysis to release N7-guanine adducts from the DNA backbone, followed by ultrafiltration, solid-phase extraction, and isotope dilution HPLC-ESI⁺-HRMS/MS analysis on an Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. Following method validation, N7-THBG was quantified in human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells treated with micromolar concentrations of DEB and in DNA isolated from blood of smokers, nonsmokers, individuals participating in a smoking cessation program, and occupationally exposed workers. N7-THBG concentrations increased linearly from 31.4 ± 4.84 to 966.55 ± 128.05 adducts per 10⁹ nucleotides in HT1080 cells treated with 1-100 μM DEB. N7-THBG amounts in leukocyte DNA of nonsmokers, smokers, and occupationally exposed workers were 7.08 ± 5.29, 8.20 ± 5.12, and 9.72 ± 3.80 adducts per 10⁹ nucleotides, respectively, suggesting the presence of an endogenous or environmental source for this adduct. The availability of sensitive HPLC-ESI⁺-HRMS/MS methodology for BD-induced DNA adducts in humans will enable future population studies of

  1. Limonene protects osteoblasts against methylglyoxal-derived adduct formation by regulating glyoxalase, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kwang Sik; Chon, Suk; Choi, Eun Mi

    2017-12-25

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is a potent protein glycating agent and an important precursor of advanced glycation end products, which are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic osteopathy. In this study, we investigated the effects of limonene on MG-induced damage in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Pretreating cells with limonene prevented MG-induced protein adduct formation, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 release, mitochondrial superoxide production, and cardiolipin peroxidation. In addition, limonene increased glyoxalase I activity, and glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 levels in the presence of MG. Pretreatment with limonene prior to MG exposure reduced MG-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by preventing mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation and adenosine triphosphate loss, and reduced the levels of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator 1α, and nitric oxide. These results demonstrate that limonene may prevent the development of diabetic osteopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Probing for DNA damage with β-hairpins: Similarities in incision efficiencies of bulky DNA adducts by prokaryotic and human nucleotide excision repair systems in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Reeves, Dara; Kropachev, Konstantin; Cai, Yuqin; Ding, Shuang; Kolbanovskiy, Marina; Kolbanovskiy, Alexander; Bolton, Judith L.; Broyde, Suse; Van Houten, Bennett; Geacintov, Nicholas E.

    2011-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an important prokaryotic and eukaryotic defense mechanism that removes a large variety of structurally distinct lesions in cellular DNA. While the proteins involved are completely different, the mode of action of these two repair systems is similar, involving a cut-and-patch mechanism in which an oligonucleotide sequence containing the lesion is excised. The prokaryotic and eukaryotic NER damage-recognition factors have common structural features of β-hairpin intrusion between the two DNA strands at the site of the lesion. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that this common β-hairpin intrusion motif is mirrored in parallel NER incision efficiencies in the two systems. We have utilized human HeLa cell extracts and the prokaryotic UvrABC proteins to determine their relative NER incision efficiencies. We report here comparisons of relative NER efficiencies with a set of stereoisomeric DNA lesions derived from metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene and equine estrogens in different sequence contexts, utilizing 21 samples. We found a general qualitative trend towards similar relative NER incision efficiencies for ~ 65% of these substrates; the other cases deviate mostly by ~ 30% or less from a perfect correlation, although several more distant outliers are also evident. This resemblance is consistent with the hypothesis that lesion recognition through β-hairpin insertion, a common feature of the two systems, is facilitated by local thermodynamic destabilization induced by the lesions in both cases. In the case of the UvrABC system, varying the nature of the UvrC endonuclease, while maintaining the same UvrA/B proteins, can markedly affect the relative incision efficiencies. These observations suggest that, in addition to recognition involving the initial modified duplexes, downstream events involving UvrC can also play a role in distinguishing and processing different lesions in prokaryotic NER. PMID:21741328

  3. Abundance of four sulfur mustard-DNA adducts ex vivo and in vivo revealed by simultaneous quantification in stable isotope dilution-ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lijun; Wei, Yuxia; Chen, Jia; Shi, Huiqin; Liu, Qin; Zhang, Yajiao; He, Jun; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Tingfen; Xie, Jianwei; Peng, Shuangqing

    2014-04-21

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a highly reactive alkylating vesicant and causes blisters upon contact with skin, eyes, and respiratory organs. It covalently links with DNAs by forming four mono- or cross-link adducts. In this article, the reference standards of SM-DNA adducts and deuterated analogues were first synthesized with simplified procedures containing only one or two steps and using less toxic chemical 2-(2-chloroethylthio)ethanol or nontoxic chemical thiodiglycol as starting materials. A sensitive and high-throughput simultaneous quantification method of N(7)-[2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)thio]-ethyl]guanine (N(7)-HETEG), O(6)-[2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)thio]-ethyl]guanine (O(6)-HETEG), N(3)-[2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)thio]-ethyl]adenine (N(3)-HETEA), and bis[2-(guanin-7-yl)ethyl]sulfide (Bis-G) in the Sprague-Dawley rat derma samples was developed by stable isotope dilution-ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-UPLC-MS/MS) with the aim of revealing the real metabolic behaviors of four adducts. The method was validated, the limit of detection (S/N ratio greater than 10) was 0.01, 0.002, 0.04, and 0.11 fmol on column for N(7)-HETEG, O(6)-HETEG, Bis-G, and N(3)-HETEA, respectively, and the lower limit of quantification (S/N ratio greater than 20) was 0.04, 0.01, 0.12, and 0.33 fmol on column for N(7)-HETEG, O(6)-HETEG, Bis-G, and N(3)-HETEA, respectively. The accuracy of this method was determined to be 76% to 129% (n = 3), and both the interday (n = 6) and intraday (n = 7) precisions were less than 10%. The method was further applied for the quantifications of four adducts in the derma of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to SM ex vivo and in vivo, and all adducts had time- and dose-effect relationships. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the real presented status of four DNA adducts was simultaneously revealed by the MS-based method, in which Bis-G showed much higher abundance than the result previously reported and N(3

  4. Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation induces oxidative DNA base damage in a mouse spermatocyte-derived cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan; Duan, Weixia; Xu, Shangcheng; Chen, Chunhai; He, Mindi; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2013-03-27

    Whether exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted from mobile phones can induce DNA damage in male germ cells remains unclear. In this study, we conducted a 24h intermittent exposure (5 min on and 10 min off) of a mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cell line to 1800 MHz Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) signals in GSM-Talk mode at specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1 W/kg, 2 W/kg or 4 W/kg. Subsequently, through the use of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) in a modified comet assay, we determined that the extent of DNA migration was significantly increased at a SAR of 4 W/kg. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that levels of the DNA adduct 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) were also increased at a SAR of 4 W/kg. These increases were concomitant with similar increases in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); these phenomena were mitigated by co-treatment with the antioxidant α-tocopherol. However, no detectable DNA strand breakage was observed by the alkaline comet assay. Taking together, these findings may imply the novel possibility that RF-EMR with insufficient energy for the direct induction of DNA strand breaks may produce genotoxicity through oxidative DNA base damage in male germ cells. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. DNA adducts, mutant frequencies and mutation spectra in λlacZ transgenic mice treated with N-nitrosodimethylamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souliotis, V.L.; Delft, J.H.M. van; Steenwinkel, M.-J.S.T.; Baan, R.A.; Kyrtopoulos, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    Groups of λlacZ transgenic mice were treated i.p. with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) as single doses of 5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg or as 10 daily doses of 1 mg/kg and changes in DNA N7- or O6-methylguanine or the repair enzyme O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) were followed for up to 14 days in

  6. Identification of human and murine sulfotransferases able to activate hydroxylated metabolites of methyleugenol to mutagens in Salmonella typhimurium and detection of associated DNA adducts using UPLC-MS/MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Kristin; Engst, Wolfram; Appel, Klaus E; Monien, Bernhard H; Glatt, Hansruedi

    2012-07-01

    Methyleugenol, a secondary metabolite present in many herbal spices, is carcinogenic in various tissues of mice and rats but negative in standard in vitro mutagenicity tests. Several observations indicate that hydroxylation followed by sulfation is an important activation pathway in the carcinogenicity and DNA adduct formation by methyleugenol and other alkenylbenzenes in animal models. However, sulfation is not taken into account in standard in vitro tests. Therefore, we have studied whether expression of murine or human sulfotransferases (SULTs) in the target strain, Salmonella typhimurium TA100, leads to the activation of hydroxylated metabolites of methyleugenol [(+)-1'-hydroxymethyleugenol, (-)-1'-hydroxymethyleugenol and (E)-3'-hydroxymethylisoeugenol]. Human SULT1A1 (a form expressed at high levels in many tissues) and SULT1C2 (expressed primarily in foetal tissues) activated all three compounds even at very low substrate concentrations. At higher concentrations, activation was also observed with human SULT1A2 and SULT1E1. Murine Sult1a1 required higher substrate concentrations than its human orthologue. Other SULT forms (human 1A3, 1C1, 1C3, 2A1 and 2B1b as well as murine 1d1) did not activate any methyleugenol metabolites studied. Furthermore, we developed isotope-dilution mass-spectrometric methods for the sensitive and specific detection of DNA adducts formed by methyleugenol metabolites. All three hydroxylated metabolites formed the same DNA adducts in S. typhimurium TA100-hSULT1A1: high levels of N (2)-(trans-methylisoeugenol-3'-yl)-2'-deoxyguanosine and modest levels of N (6)-(trans-methylisoeugenol-3'-yl)-2'-deoxyadenosine. Adduct levels correlated with the mutagenic effects induced. No adducts were formed by the test compounds in the SULT-deficient standard strain TA100. In conclusion, several methyleugenol metabolites are activated to DNA-reactive mutagens in S. typhimurium upon incorporation of appropriate sulfation capacity. We have identified

  7. Kin3 protein, a NIMA-related kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is involved in DNA adduct damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Dinara J; Castilhos, Bruna; Immich, Bruna F; Cañedo, Andrés D; Henriques, João A P; Lenz, Guido; Saffi, Jenifer

    2010-06-01

    Kin3 is a nonessential serine/threonine protein kinase of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with unknown cellular role. It is an ortholog of the Aspergillus nidulans protein kinase NIMA (Never-In Mitosis, gene A), which is involved in the regulation of G2/M phase progression, DNA damage response and mitosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether Kin3 is required for proper checkpoint activation and DNA repair. Here we show that KIN3 gene deficient cells present sensitivity and fail to arrest properly at G2/M-phase checkpoint in response to the DNA damage inducing agents MMS, cisplatin, doxorubicin and nitrogen mustard, suggesting that Kin3 can be involved in DNA strand breaks recognition or signaling. In addition, there is an increase in KIN3 gene expression in response to the mutagenic treatment, which was confirmed by the increase of Kin3 protein. We also showed that co-treatment with caffeine induces a slight increase in the susceptibility to genotoxic agents in kin3 cells and abolishes KIN3 gene expression in wild-type strain, suggesting that Kin3p can play a role in Tel1/Mec1-dependent pathway activation induced after genotoxic stress. These data provide the first evidence of the involvement of S. cerevisiae Kin3 in the DNA damage response.

  8. Statistical analysis of post mortem DNA damage-derived miscoding lesions in Neandertal mitochondrial DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vives, Sergi; Gilbert, M Thomas; Arenas, Conchita

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We have analysed the distribution of post mortem DNA damage derived miscoding lesions from the datasets of seven published Neandertal specimens that have extensive cloned sequence coverage over the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region 1 (HVS1). The analysis......-->A miscoding lesions (observed ratio of 67:2 compared to an expected ratio of 7:2), implying that the mtDNA Light strand molecule suffers proportionally more damage-derived miscoding lesions than the Heavy strand. CONCLUSION: The clustering of Cs in the Light strand as opposed to the singleton pattern of Cs...

  9. Mass spectrometric (HPLC/ESI--MS/MS) quantification of pyrimido[1,3-a]purin-10(3H)-one, a guanine adduct formed by reaction of malondialdehyde with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, K; Auriola, S; Koivisto, A; Lönnberg, H

    1999-12-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric (HPLC/ESI MS/MS) method has been developed for quantification of pyrimido[1,2-a]purin-10(3H)-one adducts from DNA. The method is based on acid-catalyzed cleavage of the adducts from DNA and the use of [2,3a,10-13C3]pyrimido[1,2-a]purin-10(3H)-one as an internal standard in the analysis. For this purpose the latter compound was prepared. Rate constants for the acid-catalyzed cleavage of pyrimido[1,2-a]purin-10(3H)-one from the corresponding 2'-deoxyribonucleoside were determined, and its hydrolytic stability and possible formation by a cross reaction between guanine and [2,3a,10]pyrimido[1,2-a]purin-10(3H)-one were studied.

  10. Diazido Mixed-Amine Platinum(IV) Anticancer Complexes Activatable by Visible-Light Form Novel DNA Adducts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhao, Y.; Woods, J.; Farrer, N.J.; Robinson, K.S.; Prachařová, J.; Kašpárková, J.; Nováková, Olga; Li, H.L.; Salassa, L.; Pizarro, A.M.; Clarkson, G.J.; Song, L.J.; Brabec, Viktor; Sadler, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 29 (2013), s. 9578-9591 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/10/0598 Grant - others:GA AV(CZ) M200041201 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : antitumor agents * DNA binding * medicinal chemistry Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.696, year: 2013

  11. Metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene, N-nitrosomethylamine, and N-nitrosopyrrolidine and identification of the major carcinogen-DNA adducts formed in cultured human esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Curtis C.; Autrup, Herman; Stoner, Gary D.

    1979-01-01

    The wide variation in the world-wide incidence of esophageal carcinoma suggests that environmental agents including chemicals cause this cancer. Since the interaction between chemical procarcinogens and human esophagus has not been studied previously, we examined the metabolic fate of benzo......(a)pyrene (BP), N-nitrosodimethylamine (DMN), and A/-nitrosopyrrolidine in cultured nontumorous esophagus from two patients with and six patients without esophageal carcinoma. Esophageal explants were cultured in a chemically defined medium for 7 days prior to adding [3H]BP (1.5 JUM),[14C]DMN (100 /IM), or [14C......]Nnitrosopyrrolidine (100 /¿M)for 24 hr. Radioactivity was found bound to both mucosal protein (BP, DMN, and A/-nitrosopyrrolidine) and DMA (BP and DMN). The major carcinogen-DNA adducts were: (a) with BP, N2-[10/?-(7/?,8a,9a-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrenyl)]deoxyguanosine; and (fa) with DMN, 7-methylguanine...

  12. A biomarker model of sublethal genotoxicity (DNA single-strand breaks and adducts) using the sentinel organism Aporrectodea longa in spiked soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Francis L.; Piearce, Trevor G.; Hewer, Alan; Phillips, David H.; Semple, Kirk T.

    2005-01-01

    There is a need to develop risk biomarkers during the remediation of contaminated land. We employed the earthworm, Aporrectodea longa (Ude), to determine whether genotoxicity measures could be applied to this organism's intestinal tissues. Earthworms were added, for 24 h or 7 days, to soil samples spiked with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and/or lindane. After exposure, intestinal tissues (crop/gizzard or intestine) were removed prior to the measurement in disaggregated cells of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) by the alkaline comet assay. Damage was quantified by comet tail length (CTL, μm). B[a]P 24-h exposure induced dose-related increases (P 32 P-postlabelling, showed a two-adduct-spot pattern. This preliminary investigation suggests that earthworm tissues may be incorporated into genotoxicity assays to facilitate hazard identification within terrestrial ecosystems. - Sublethal genotoxicity in the sentinel organism A. longa can be used to monitor the effects of contaminants in soil

  13. Fat content and nitrite-curing influence the formation of oxidation products and NOC-specific DNA adducts during in vitro digestion of meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Thomas; Vossen, Els; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Raes, Katleen; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    The effects of fat content and nitrite-curing of pork were investigated on the formation of cytotoxic and genotoxic lipid oxidation products (malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, volatile simple aldehydes), protein oxidation products (protein carbonyl compounds) and NOC-specific DNA adducts (O6-carboxy-methylguanine) during in vitro digestion. The formation of these products during digestion is suggested to be responsible for the association between red meat and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk. Digestion of uncured pork to which fat was added (total fat content 5 or 20%), resulted in significantly higher lipid and protein oxidation in the mimicked duodenal and colonic fluids, compared to digestion of pork without added fat (1% fat). A higher fat content also significantly favored the formation of O6-carboxy-methylguanine in the colon. Nitrite-curing of meat resulted in significantly lower lipid and protein oxidation before and after digestion, while an inconsistent effect on the formation of O6-carboxy-methylguanine was observed. The presented results demonstrate that haem-Fe is not solely responsible for oxidation and nitrosation reactions throughout an in vitro digestion approach but its effect is promoted by a higher fat content in meat.

  14. Fat content and nitrite-curing influence the formation of oxidation products and NOC-specific DNA adducts during in vitro digestion of meat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Van Hecke

    Full Text Available The effects of fat content and nitrite-curing of pork were investigated on the formation of cytotoxic and genotoxic lipid oxidation products (malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, volatile simple aldehydes, protein oxidation products (protein carbonyl compounds and NOC-specific DNA adducts (O6-carboxy-methylguanine during in vitro digestion. The formation of these products during digestion is suggested to be responsible for the association between red meat and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk. Digestion of uncured pork to which fat was added (total fat content 5 or 20%, resulted in significantly higher lipid and protein oxidation in the mimicked duodenal and colonic fluids, compared to digestion of pork without added fat (1% fat. A higher fat content also significantly favored the formation of O6-carboxy-methylguanine in the colon. Nitrite-curing of meat resulted in significantly lower lipid and protein oxidation before and after digestion, while an inconsistent effect on the formation of O6-carboxy-methylguanine was observed. The presented results demonstrate that haem-Fe is not solely responsible for oxidation and nitrosation reactions throughout an in vitro digestion approach but its effect is promoted by a higher fat content in meat.

  15. Fat Content and Nitrite-Curing Influence the Formation of Oxidation Products and NOC-Specific DNA Adducts during In Vitro Digestion of Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Thomas; Vossen, Els; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Raes, Katleen; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    The effects of fat content and nitrite-curing of pork were investigated on the formation of cytotoxic and genotoxic lipid oxidation products (malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, volatile simple aldehydes), protein oxidation products (protein carbonyl compounds) and NOC-specific DNA adducts (O6-carboxy-methylguanine) during in vitro digestion. The formation of these products during digestion is suggested to be responsible for the association between red meat and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk. Digestion of uncured pork to which fat was added (total fat content 5 or 20%), resulted in significantly higher lipid and protein oxidation in the mimicked duodenal and colonic fluids, compared to digestion of pork without added fat (1% fat). A higher fat content also significantly favored the formation of O6-carboxy-methylguanine in the colon. Nitrite-curing of meat resulted in significantly lower lipid and protein oxidation before and after digestion, while an inconsistent effect on the formation of O6-carboxy-methylguanine was observed. The presented results demonstrate that haem-Fe is not solely responsible for oxidation and nitrosation reactions throughout an in vitro digestion approach but its effect is promoted by a higher fat content in meat. PMID:24978825

  16. Voltammetric microanalysis of DNA adducts with osmium tetroxide,2,2'-bipyridine using a pyrolytic graphite electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojta, Miroslav; Havran, Luděk; Kizek, René; Billová, Sabina

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 5 (2002), s. 867-874 ISSN 0039-9140 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4004108; GA ČR GV204/97/K084; GA ČR GA204/00/D049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : chemically modified DNA * osmium tetroxide * voltammetry Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.054, year: 2002

  17. Translesion Synthesis of the N(2)-2'-Deoxyguanosine Adduct of the Dietary Mutagen IQ in Human Cells: Error-Free Replication by DNA Polymerase κ and Mutagenic Bypass by DNA Polymerases η, ζ, and Rev1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Arindam; Millsap, Amy D; DeLeon, Arnie; Rizzo, Carmelo J; Basu, Ashis K

    2016-09-19

    Translesion synthesis (TLS) of the N(2)-2'-deoxyguanosine (dG-N(2)-IQ) adduct of the carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) was investigated in human embryonic kidney 293T cells by replicating plasmid constructs in which the adduct was individually placed at each guanine (G1, G2, or G3) of the NarI sequence (5'-CG1G2CG3CC-3'). TLS efficiency was 38%, 29%, and 25% for the dG-N(2)-IQ located at G1, G2, and G3, respectively, which suggests that dG-N(2)-IQ is bypassed more efficiently by one or more DNA polymerases at G1 than at either G2 or G3. TLS efficiency was decreased 8-35% in cells with knockdown of pol η, pol κ, pol ι, pol ζ, or Rev1. Up to 75% reduction in TLS occurred when pol η, pol ζ, and Rev1 were simultaneously knocked down, suggesting that these three polymerases play important roles in dG-N(2)-IQ bypass. Mutation frequencies (MFs) of dG-N(2)-IQ at G1, G2, and G3 were 23%, 17%, and 11%, respectively, exhibiting a completely reverse trend of the previously reported MF of the C8-dG adduct of IQ (dG-C8-IQ), which is most mutagenic at G3 ( ( 2015 ) Nucleic Acids Res. 43 , 8340 - 8351 ). The major type of mutation induced by dG-N(2)-IQ was targeted G → T, as was reported for dG-C8-IQ. In each site, knockdown of pol κ resulted in an increase in MF, whereas MF was reduced when pol η, pol ι, pol ζ, or Rev1 was knocked down. The reduction in MF was most pronounced when pol η, pol ζ, and Rev1 were simultaneously knocked down and especially when the adduct was located at G3, where MF was reduced by 90%. We conclude that pol κ predominantly performs error-free TLS of the dG-N(2)-IQ adduct, whereas pols η, pol ζ, and Rev1 cooperatively carry out the error-prone TLS. However, in vitro experiments using yeast pol ζ and κ showed that the former was inefficient in full-length primer extension on dG-N(2)-IQ templates, whereas the latter was efficient in both error-free and error-prone extensions. We believe that the observed differences

  18. Translesion Synthesis of the N2-2′-Deoxyguanosine Adduct of the Dietary Mutagen IQ in Human Cells: Error-Free Replication by DNA Polymerase κ and Mutagenic Bypass by DNA Polymerases η, ζ, and Rev1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Translesion synthesis (TLS) of the N2-2′-deoxyguanosine (dG-N2-IQ) adduct of the carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) was investigated in human embryonic kidney 293T cells by replicating plasmid constructs in which the adduct was individually placed at each guanine (G1, G2, or G3) of the NarI sequence (5′-CG1G2CG3CC-3′). TLS efficiency was 38%, 29%, and 25% for the dG-N2-IQ located at G1, G2, and G3, respectively, which suggests that dG-N2-IQ is bypassed more efficiently by one or more DNA polymerases at G1 than at either G2 or G3. TLS efficiency was decreased 8–35% in cells with knockdown of pol η, pol κ, pol ι, pol ζ, or Rev1. Up to 75% reduction in TLS occurred when pol η, pol ζ, and Rev1 were simultaneously knocked down, suggesting that these three polymerases play important roles in dG-N2-IQ bypass. Mutation frequencies (MFs) of dG-N2-IQ at G1, G2, and G3 were 23%, 17%, and 11%, respectively, exhibiting a completely reverse trend of the previously reported MF of the C8-dG adduct of IQ (dG-C8-IQ), which is most mutagenic at G3 ((2015) Nucleic Acids Res.43, 8340−835126220181). The major type of mutation induced by dG-N2-IQ was targeted G → T, as was reported for dG-C8-IQ. In each site, knockdown of pol κ resulted in an increase in MF, whereas MF was reduced when pol η, pol ι, pol ζ, or Rev1 was knocked down. The reduction in MF was most pronounced when pol η, pol ζ, and Rev1 were simultaneously knocked down and especially when the adduct was located at G3, where MF was reduced by 90%. We conclude that pol κ predominantly performs error-free TLS of the dG-N2-IQ adduct, whereas pols η, pol ζ, and Rev1 cooperatively carry out the error-prone TLS. However, in vitro experiments using yeast pol ζ and κ showed that the former was inefficient in full-length primer extension on dG-N2-IQ templates, whereas the latter was efficient in both error-free and error-prone extensions. We believe that the observed differences between

  19. DNA alterations photosensitized by tetracycline and some of its derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piette, J.; Decuyper, J.; Van de Vorst, A.

    1986-01-01

    Bacteriophage M13 mp10 DNA were irradiated with near-UV light in the presence of tetracycline derivatives and primed with synthetic oligonucleotide to be used for DNA synthesis using Escherichia coli DNA polymerase. Chain terminations were observed by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mapped precisely. All the synthesis stops occurred before or at the level of guanine residues, showing that the photoreaction mediated by tetracycline derivatives led to a preferential alteration of guanine residues. These lesions were demonstrated to be induced in DNA through a pathway involving singlet oxygen. Tetracycline derivatives also photoinduced the breakage of the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone monitored by the conversion of supercoiled phi X174 DNA to a relaxed form. This lesion was shown to be initiated by hydroxyl radicals. The production of this free radical has been confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping experiments using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide as spin trap. In addition to the EPR signal due to OH radicals trapping another unassigned signal has been detected

  20. Photochromic switching of the DNA helicity induced by azobenzene derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiana, Marco; Pokladek, Ziemowit; Olesiak-Banska, Joanna; Młynarz, Piotr; Samoc, Marek; Matczyszyn, Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    The photochromic properties of azobenzene, involving conformational changes occurring upon interaction with light, provide an excellent tool to establish new ways of selective regulation applied to biosystems. We report here on the binding of two water-soluble 4-(phenylazo)benzoic acid derivatives (Azo-2N and Azo-3N) with double stranded DNA and demonstrate that the photoisomerization of Azo-3N leads to changes in DNA structure. In particular, we show that stabilization and destabilization of the B-DNA secondary structure can be photochemically induced in situ by light. This photo-triggered process is fully reversible and could be an alternative pathway to control a broad range of biological processes. Moreover, we found that the bicationic Azo-3N exhibited a higher DNA-binding constant than the monocationic Azo-2N pointing out that the number of positive charges along the photosensitive polyamines chain plays a pivotal role in stabilizing the photochrome-DNA complex.

  1. Photochromic switching of the DNA helicity induced by azobenzene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiana, Marco; Pokladek, Ziemowit; Olesiak-Banska, Joanna; Młynarz, Piotr; Samoc, Marek; Matczyszyn, Katarzyna

    2016-06-24

    The photochromic properties of azobenzene, involving conformational changes occurring upon interaction with light, provide an excellent tool to establish new ways of selective regulation applied to biosystems. We report here on the binding of two water-soluble 4-(phenylazo)benzoic acid derivatives (Azo-2N and Azo-3N) with double stranded DNA and demonstrate that the photoisomerization of Azo-3N leads to changes in DNA structure. In particular, we show that stabilization and destabilization of the B-DNA secondary structure can be photochemically induced in situ by light. This photo-triggered process is fully reversible and could be an alternative pathway to control a broad range of biological processes. Moreover, we found that the bicationic Azo-3N exhibited a higher DNA-binding constant than the monocationic Azo-2N pointing out that the number of positive charges along the photosensitive polyamines chain plays a pivotal role in stabilizing the photochrome-DNA complex.

  2. Binding of mismatch repair protein MutS to mispaired DNA adducts of intercalating ruthenium(II) arene complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Castellano-Castillo, M.; Kostrhunová, Hana; Marini, Victoria; Kašpárková, Jana; Sadler, P.J.; Malinge, J.-M.; Brabec, Viktor

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2008), s. 993-999 ISSN 0949-8257 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200200651; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040581; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06030 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ME08017 Program:ME Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : DNA * ruthenium * mismatch repair Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.600, year: 2008

  3. Repair of furocoumarin adducts in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolan, M.E.; Smith, C.A.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    DNA repair was studied in cultured mammalian cells treated with the furocoumarins 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), aminomethyl trioxsalen, or angelicin and irradiated with near UV light. The amount of DNA cross-linked by 8-MOP in normal human cells decreased by about one-half in 24 hours after treatment; no decrease was observed in xeroderma pigmentosum cells, group A. At present, it is not known to what extent this decrease represents complete repair events at the sites of cross-links. Furocoumarin adducts elicited excision repair in normal human and monkey cells but not in xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells. This excision repair resembled in several aspects that elicited by pyrimidine dimers, formed in DNA by irradiation with 254-nm UV light; however, it appeared that for at least 8-MOP and aminomethyl trioxsalen, removal of adducts was not as efficient as was the removal of pyrimidine dimers. A comparison was also made of repair in the 172-base-pair repetitive alpha-DNA component of monkey cells to repair in the bulk of the genome. Although repair elicited by pyrimidine dimers in alpha-DNA was the same as in the bulk DNA, that following treatment of cells with either aminomethyl trioxsalen or angelicin and near UV was markedly deficient in alpha-DNA. This deficiency reflected the removal of fewer adducts from alpha-DNA after the same initial adduct frequencies. These results could mean that each furocoumarin may produce several structurally distinct adducts to DNA in cells and that the capacity of cellular repair systems to remove these various adducts may vary greatly

  4. Significant interactions between maternal PAH exposure and single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes on B[ a ]P-DNA adducts in a cohort of non-smoking Polish mothers and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Shoba; Wang, Ya; Xiong, Wei; Tang, Deliang; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Chanock, Stephen; Wang, Shuang; Stigter, Laura; Mróz, Elzbieta; Perera, Frederica

    2016-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a class of chemicals common in the environment. Certain PAH are carcinogenic, although the degree to which genetic variation influences susceptibility to carcinogenic PAH remains unclear. Also unknown is the influence of genetic variation on the procarcinogenic effect of in utero exposures to PAH. Benzo[ a ]pyrene (B[ a ]P) is a well-studied PAH that is classified as a known human carcinogen. Within our Polish cohort, we explored interactions between maternal exposure to airborne PAH during pregnancy and maternal and newborn single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in plausible B[ a ]P metabolism genes on B[ a ]P-DNA adducts in paired cord blood samples. The study subjects included non-smoking women ( n = 368) with available data on maternal PAH exposure, paired cord adducts, and genetic data who resided in Krakow, Poland. We selected eight common variants in maternal and newborn candidate genes related to B[ a ]P metabolism, detoxification, and repair for our analyses: CYP1A1 , CYP1A2 , CYP1B1 , GSTM1 , GSTT2 , NQO1 , and XRCC1 . We observed significant interactions between maternal PAH exposure and SNPs on cord B[ a ]P-DNA adducts in the following genes: maternal CYP1A1 and GSTT2 , and newborn CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 . These novel findings highlight differences in maternal and newborn genetic contributions to B[ a ]P-DNA adduct formation and have the potential to identify at-risk subpopulations who are susceptible to the carcinogenic potential of B[ a ]P. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Investigation of tautomeric transformations of adducts of 7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborana(11) with derivatives of pyridine by 11B NMR spectroscopy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, O.V.; Il'inchik, E.A.; Volkov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    Tautomeric transformations are investigated in solutions of o-carborane(12) derivatives 7,8-C 2 B 9 H 11 ·Py(X), where Py(X)=4-picoline (4-CH 3 -C 5 H 4 N), 3-picoline (3-CH 3 -C 5 H 4 N), 4-stilbazol (4-C 6 H 5 -C 2 H 2 -C 5 H 4 N), 3-bromopyridine (3-Br-C 5 H 4 N) and 7,8-C 2 B 9 H 10 I·C 5 H 5 N. Uncovered tautomeric transformations are bound with migration of bridge hydrogen of C 2 B 9 H 11 cluster assisting in structure of these compounds. Signal of boron nuclei in 11 B NMR spectra is observed in the region of high field of spectrum if the nearest two atoms of boron are bounded by bridge hydrogen additionally. That permits to fix happening dynamic structural transformations of adducts investigated. The dependence of tautomeric equilibrium on nature of substituents introduced in heterocyclic ligand and carborane cluster. Increase of electron-acceptor properties of substituent induces displacement of equilibrium in the direction of tautomer bridge hydrogen in which is removed from boron atom bounded with substituent [ru

  6. Synthesis of oxa-bridged derivatives from Diels–Alder bis-adducts of butadiene and 1,2,3,4-tetrahalo-5,5-dimethoxycyclopentadiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz Ahmed Khan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bis-adducts of 1,2,3,4-tetrahalo-5,5-dimethoxycyclopentadiene and 1,3-butadiene, generated in situ from 3-sulfolene, have been synthesized in excellent yield. Ruthenium catalyzed oxidation of the bis-adducts followed by a one-pot transformation of the resulting α-diketone furnished oxa-bridged compounds. Unambiguous stereochemical assignments of both diastereomeric series are reported.

  7. 32P-postlabeling assay for carcinogen-DNA adducts: description of beta shielding apparatus and semi-automatic spotting and washing devices that facilitate the handling of multiple samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, M.V.; Blackburn, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    The utilization of the 32 P-postlabeling assay in combination with TLC for the sensitive detection and estimation of aromatic DNA adducts has been increasing. The procedure consists of 32 P-labeling of carcinogen-adducted 3'-nucleotides in the DNA digests using γ- 32 P ATP and polynucleotide kinase, separation of 32 P-labeled adducts by TLC, and their detection by autoradiography. During both 32 P-labeling and initial phases of TLC, a relatively high amount of γ- 32 P ATP is handled when 30 samples are processed simultaneously. We describe the design of acrylic shielding apparatus, semi-automatic TLC spotting devices, and devices for development and washing of multiple TLC plates, which not only provide substantial protection from exposure to 32 P beta radiation, but also allow quick and easy handling of a large number of samples. Specifically, the equipment includes: (i) a multi-tube carousel rack having 15 wells to hold capless Eppendorf tubes and a rotatable lid with an aperture to access individual tubes; (ii) a pipette shielder; (iii) two semi-automatic spotting devices to apply radioactive solutions to TLC plates; (iv) a multi-plate holder for TLC plates; and (v) a mechanical device for washing multiple TLC plates. Item (i) is small enough to be held in one-hand, vortexed, and centrifuged to mix the solutions in each tube while beta radiation is shielded. Items (iii) to (iv) aid in the automation of the assay. (author)

  8. Biomarkers of genotoxicity of air pollution (the AULIS project): bulky DNA adducts in subjects with moderate to low exposures to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their relationship to environmental tobacco smoke and other parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, P.; Topinka, J.; Stoikidou, M.

    2001-01-01

    The levels of bulky DNA adducts were measured by (32)P-post-labelling in lymphocytes of 194 non-smoking students living in the city of Athens and the region of Halkida, Greece, once in the winter and again in the following summer. Personal exposures to particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydroc...... with an enhancement of adduct levels and the effect was strengthened when only individuals unexposed to ETS were taken into consideration. No significant effects were observed for other dietary parameters or factors reflecting exposure to air pollution....... surroundings with a minimal burden of urban air pollution. The remaining Halkida subjects had intermediate levels, while Athens subjects showed the lowest levels. This trend, which was observed over both monitoring seasons, consistently paralleled the variation in three markers of exposure to environmental......) positive correlations were observed between DNA adducts and (i) measured personal exposures to chrysene or benzo[a]pyrene, (ii) time of declared ETS exposure and (iii) chrysene/benzo[g,h,i] perylene ratios. These correlations suggest that, for a group suffering minimal exposure to urban air pollution...

  9. Metabolic fate of endogenous molecular damage: Urinary glutathione conjugates of DNA-derived base propenals as markers of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumpathong, Watthanachai; Chan, Wan; Taghizadeh, Koli; Babu, I Ramesh; Dedon, Peter C

    2015-09-01

    Although mechanistically linked to disease, cellular molecules damaged by endogenous processes have not emerged as significant biomarkers of inflammation and disease risk, due in part to poor understanding of their pharmacokinetic fate from tissue to excretion. Here, we use systematic metabolite profiling to define the fate of a common DNA oxidation product, base propenals, to discover such a biomarker. Based on known chemical reactivity and metabolism in liver cell extracts, 15 candidate metabolites were identified for liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) quantification in urine and bile of rats treated with thymine propenal (Tp). Analysis of urine revealed three metabolites (6% of Tp dose): thymine propenoate and two mercapturate derivatives of glutathione conjugates. Bile contained an additional four metabolites (22% of Tp dose): cysteinylglycine and cysteine derivatives of glutathione adducts. A bis-mercapturate was observed in urine of untreated rats and increased approximately three- to fourfold following CCl4-induced oxidative stress or treatment with the DNA-cleaving antitumor agent, bleomycin. Systematic metabolite profiling thus provides evidence for a metabolized DNA damage product as a candidate biomarker of inflammation and oxidative stress in humans.

  10. Effect of increased intake of dietary animal fat and fat energy on oxidative damage, mutation frequency, DNA adduct level and DNA repair in rat colon and liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Danesvar, B.; Autrup, H.

    2003-01-01

    supplemented with 0, 3, 10 or 30% w/w lard. After 3 weeks, the mutation frequency, DNA repair gene expression, DNA damage and oxidative markers were determined in liver, colon and plasma. The mutation frequency of the lambda gene cII did not increase with increased fat or energy intake in colon or liver......, colon, or urine. Thus, lard intake at the expense of other nutrients and a large increase in the fat energy consumption affects the redox state locally in the liver cytosol, but does not induce DNA-damage, systemic oxidative stress or a dose-dependent increase in mutation frequency in rat colon or liver.......The effect of high dietary intake of animal fat and an increased fat energy intake on colon and liver genotoxicity and on markers of oxidative damage and antioxidative defence in colon, liver and plasma was investigated in Big Blue rats. The rats were fed ad libitum with semi-synthetic feed...

  11. Chemical and biological studies of the major DNA adduct of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II), cis-[Pt(NH3)2/d(GpG)/], built into a specific site in a viral genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, L.J.; Pinto, A.L.; Lippard, S.J.; Essigmann, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A duplex Escherichia coli bacteriophage M13 genome was constructed containing a single cis-[Pt(NH 3 ) 2 /d(GpG)/] intrastrand cross-link, the major DNA adduct of the anticancer drug cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II). The duplex dodecamer d(AGAAGGCCTAGA) x d(TCTAGGCCTTCT) was ligated into the HincII site of M13mp18 to produce an insertion mutant containing a unique StuI restriction enzyme cleavage site. A genome with a 12-base gap in the minus strand was created by hybridizing HincII-linearized M13mp18 duplex DNA with the single-stranded circular DNA of the 12-base insertion mutant. Characterization by pH-dependent 1 H NMR spectroscopy established that platinum binds to the N7 positions of the adjacent guanosines. The platinated oligonucleotide was phosphorylated in the presence of [γ- 32 P]ATP with bacteriophage T4 polynucleotide kinase and incorporated into the 12-base gap of the heteroduplex, thus situating the adduct specifically within the StuI site in the minus strand of the genome. The site of incorporation of the dodecamer was mapped to the expected 36-base region delimited by the recognition sites of XbaI and HindIII. Gradient denaturing gel electrophoresis of a 289-base-pair fragment encompassing the site of adduction revealed that the presence of the cis-[Pt(NH 3 ) 2 /d)GpG)/] cross-link induces localized weakening of the DNA double helix. Comparative studies revealed no difference in survival between platinated and unmodified double-stranded genomes. In contrast, survival of the single-stranded platinated genome was only 10-12% that of the corresponding unmodified single-stranded genome, indicating that the solitary cis-[Pt(NH 3 ) 2 /d(GpG)/] cross-link is lethal to the single-stranded bacteriophage

  12. Bioanalytical verification of V-type nerve agent exposure: simultaneous detection of phosphonylated tyrosines and cysteine-containing disulfide-adducts derived from human albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranawetvogl, Andreas; Küppers, Jim; Siegert, Markus; Gütschow, Michael; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Elsinghorst, Paul W; John, Harald

    2018-02-01

    Nerve agents still represent a serious threat to civilian and military personnel as demonstrated by the violent conflict in the Middle East. For verification of poisoning, covalent adducts with endogenous proteins (e.g., human serum albumin, HSA) are valuable long-term biomarkers. Accordingly, we developed a microbore liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry/high-resolution mass spectrometry (μLC-ESI MS/HR MS) method for simultaneous detection of HSA-adducts with the V-type nerve agents VX, Chinese VX (CVX), and Russian VX (RVX). Following Pronase-catalyzed proteolysis, novel disulfide-adducts were detected in addition to phosphonylated tyrosine residues. Dipeptide disulfide-adducts were formed between the thiol-containing leaving group of the V-type nerve agents (2-(diisopropylamino)ethanethiol, DPAET, for VX and 2-(diethylamino)ethanethiol, DEAET, for CVX and RVX) and the free thiol group of Cys 34 in HSA (DPAET-CysPro, DEAET-CysPro). We also identified tripeptide disulfide-adducts containing Cys 448 (MetProCys-DPAET, MetProCys-DEAET) and to a lesser extent Cys 514 (AspIleCys-DPAET, AspIleCys-DEAET). Synthetic tripeptide references were used for confirmation of the postulated structures by μLC-ESI MS/HR MS. Lower limits of detection were determined in human plasma, being nearly identical for the three V-type nerve agents, and corresponded to 1-6 μM nerve agent for tyrosine-adducts, 1-3 μM nerve agent for CysPro-adducts, and 6 μM nerve agent for MetProCys-adducts, thus covering concentrations of toxicological relevance. Characterization of proteolysis kinetics revealed stable plateaus for all adducts being reached between 60 and 90 min at 37 °C. Adduct formation kinetics were characterized by simultaneously monitoring the V-type nerve agent, its leaving group, and the corresponding disulfide dimer. Furthermore, adduct formation patterns were investigated as a function of the molar ratio of HSA to V-type nerve agent. Graphical abstract

  13. The relationship between biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon DNA adducts, antioxidant status and genetic susceptibility following exposure to environmental air pollution in humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shing, R.; Šrám, Radim; Binková, Blanka; Kalina, I.; Popov, T. A.; Georgieva, T.; Garte, S.; Taioli, E.; Farmer, P. B.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 620, - (2007), s. 83-92 ISSN 0027-5107 Grant - others:EU(GB) 2000-00091; EU(GB) G0100873 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK ; R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : air pollution * PAHs * oxidative DNA damage Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.159, year: 2007

  14. Effect of hairpin loop structure on reactivity, sequence preference and adduct orientation of a DNA-interactive pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBD) antitumour agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, David E; Vassoler, Higia; Jackson, Paul J M; James, Colin H; Rahman, Khondaker M

    2015-04-07

    The pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) are a family of covalent-binding DNA-interactive minor-groove binding agents with a thermodynamic preference for binding to 5'-Pu-G-Pu-3' sequences (Pu = Purine) but a kinetic preference for 5'-Py-G-Py-3' (Py = Pyrimidine). Using HPLC/MS methodology and a range of designed hairpin-forming oligonucleotides, the kinetics of reaction of a C8-bis-pyrrole pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) conjugate (GWL-78, 2) with sixteen isomeric oligonucleotides has been evaluated, each containing a single PBD binding site in one of two locations. The PBD-binding base-pair triplets were designed to include every possible combination of A and T bases adjacent to the covalently-reacting guanine, with the set of hairpins consisting of isomeric pairs containing the same sequence in the hairpin stem but with either hexaethylene glycol (HEG) or TTT loops. The PBD 2 reacted most rapidly with TGT and TGA sequences, with the possibility that adducts might form in both the 3'- and 5'-directions with some sequences according to modelling studies. A faster reaction rate was observed for all hairpins containing the HEG loop except one (Seq 10) when the PBD binding triplets were located either near the loop or adjacent to the 5'-end. Modelling studies have suggested that this difference in reactivity could be due to the structural flexibility of the HEG loop allowing both A-ring-3' and A-ring-5' adducts to form, while a TTT loop should favour only A-ring-5' adducts due to steric considerations. These findings contrast with the results reported by Nguyen and Wilson for the interaction of non-covalent DNA-binding molecules with DNA hairpins, where the loop structure was found to have little effect on interaction in the main stem of the hairpin.

  15. Implication of the E. coli K12 uvrA and recA genes in the repair of 8-methoxypsoralen-induced mono adducts and crosslinks on plasmid DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramio, J.M.; Bauluz, C.; Vidania, R. de

    1986-01-01

    Genotoxicity of psoralen damages on plasmid DNA has been studied. pBR322 DNA was randomly modified with several concentrations of 8-methoxypsoralen plus 365 nm-UV light. After transformation into E. coli strains (wild-type, uvrA and recA) plasmid survival and mutagenesis were analyzed. To study the influence of the SOS response on plasmid recovery, preirradiation of the cells was performed. In absence of cell preirradiation, crosslinks were not repaired in any strain. Mono adducts were also lethal but in part removed by the excision-repair pathway. Preirradiation of the cells significantly. increased plasmid recovery in recA+ celia. In uvrA- only the mutagenic pathway seemed to be involved in the repair of the damaged DNA. Wild type strain showed the highest increase in plasmid survival, involving the repair of mono adducts and some fraction of crosslinks mainly through an error-free repair pathway. This suggests an enhancement of the excision repair promoted by the induction of SOS functions. (Author) 32 refs

  16. A highly efficient and general method for the preparation of (Z)-allylic bromides derived from Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Misael; Fernandes, Luciano; Sa, Marcus M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: msa@qmc.ufsc.br

    2009-07-01

    Representative (Z)-2-(bromomethyl)-2-alkenoates were easily prepared in high yield by treating {alpha}-methylene-{beta}-hydroxyesters (Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts) with LiBr/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in acetonitrile at room temperature. Besides the tolerance to many diverse functional groups, this new methodology employs inexpensive reagents and avoids the use of HBr. (author)

  17. Cytotoxic and DNA-topoisomerase effects of lapachol amine derivatives and interactions with DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esteves-Souza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxic activity of amino (3a-e, aza-1-antraquinone (4a-e lapachol derivatives against Ehrlich carcinoma and human K562 leukemia cells was investigated. Cell viability was determined using MTT assay, after 48 (Ehrlich or 96 h (K562 of culture, and vincristine (for K562 leukemia and quercetin (for Ehrlich carcinoma were used as positive controls. The results showed dose-dependent growth-inhibiting activities and that the amino derivatives were active against the assayed cells, whereas the 4a-e derivatives were not. The allylamine derivative 3a was the most active against Ehrlich carcinoma, with IC50 = 16.94 ± 1.25 µM, and against K562 leukemia, with IC50 = 14.11 ± 1.39 µM. The analogous lawsone derivative, 5a, was also active against Ehrlich carcinoma (IC50 = 23.89 ± 2.3 µM, although the 5d and 5e derivatives showed lower activity. The interaction between 3a-d and calf thymus DNA was investigated by fluorimetric titration and the results showed a hyperchromic effect indicating binding to DNA as presented of ethidium bromide, used as positive control. The inhibitory action on DNA-topoisomerase II-a was also evaluated by a relaxation assay of supercoiled DNA plasmid, and the etoposide (200 µM was used as positive control. Significant inhibitory activities were observed for 3a-d at 200 µM and a partial inhibitory action was observed for lapachol and methoxylapachol.

  18. Cytotoxic and DNA-topoisomerase effects of lapachol amine derivatives and interactions with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves-Souza, A; Figueiredo, D V; Esteves, A; Câmara, C A; Vargas, M D; Pinto, A C; Echevarria, A

    2007-10-01

    The cytotoxic activity of amino (3a-e), aza-1-antraquinone (4a-e) lapachol derivatives against Ehrlich carcinoma and human K562 leukemia cells was investigated. Cell viability was determined using MTT assay, after 48 (Ehrlich) or 96 h (K562) of culture, and vincristine (for K562 leukemia) and quercetin (for Ehrlich carcinoma) were used as positive controls. The results showed dose-dependent growth-inhibiting activities and that the amino derivatives were active against the assayed cells, whereas the 4a-e derivatives were not. The allylamine derivative 3a was the most active against Ehrlich carcinoma, with IC50 = 16.94 +/- 1.25 microM, and against K562 leukemia, with IC50 = 14.11 +/- 1.39 microM. The analogous lawsone derivative, 5a, was also active against Ehrlich carcinoma (IC50 = 23.89 +/- 2.3 microM), although the 5d and 5e derivatives showed lower activity. The interaction between 3a-d and calf thymus DNA was investigated by fluorimetric titration and the results showed a hyperchromic effect indicating binding to DNA as presented of ethidium bromide, used as positive control. The inhibitory action on DNA-topoisomerase II-a was also evaluated by a relaxation assay of supercoiled DNA plasmid, and the etoposide (200 microM) was used as positive control. Significant inhibitory activities were observed for 3a-d at 200 microM and a partial inhibitory action was observed for lapachol and methoxylapachol.

  19. The study of DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-2‧deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and its metabolite ter-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) through in vitro reaction with Calf Thymus DNA and 2‧deoxyguanosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiawan; Purwaningsih, S. S.; Cahaya, D. I.

    2017-04-01

    Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) and its metabolite Tert-Butyl Hydroquinone (TBHQ) are synthetic antioxidants, commonly used as food and beverage preservatives. Although WHO declared their safety, the use of these preservatives are still controversial because some studies showed that BHA induced proliferative effects in animal testing and TBHQ is considered as carcinogenic and causes DNA cleavage. This study is aimed to analyze the interaction between Calf Thymus DNA with BHA and TBHQ which are mediated with Copper (II) Chloride. The result of the study in spectrophotometric showed there was bathochromic shift as much as 2-3 nm in DNA treated with TBHQ. The next analysis used HPLC method in stationary phase of ODS, mobile phase of 10mM Natrium Hydrogen Phosphate Buffer and Methanol (85 : 15) for DNA adduct formation, 8-Hydroxy-2-Deoxyguanosine (8-OHDG) as biomarker of risk cancer. The resultof the study showed the formation of DNA adduct 8-OHDG in the interaction between DNA and 20-500 ppm of TBHQ. The 8-OHdG formation was greatly increased by the higher concentration of TBHQ. The relative amount of 8 OHDG which formed was reached 946/105 deoxyguanosine in DNA bases. Confirmation test by LCMS/MS was characterized with the detection of mother ion peak (m/z 284); fragment ion peaks at m/z 167.9, and 139.9; at retention time 3.52 min. Meanwhile the interaction between DNA and 50-250 ppm BHA did not induce 8-OHDG.

  20. Chemical repair activity of free radical scavenger edaravone: reduction reactions with dGMP hydroxyl radical adducts and suppression of base lesions and AP sites on irradiated plasmid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Kuniki; Urushibara, Ayumi; Yamashita, Shinichi; Lin, Mingzhang; Muroya, Yusa; Shikazono, Naoya; Yokoya, Akinari; Fu, Haiying; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2015-01-01

    Reactions of edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) with deoxyguanosine monophosphate (dGMP) hydroxyl radical adducts were investigated by pulse radiolysis technique. Edaravone was found to reduce the dGMP hydroxyl radical adducts through electron transfer reactions. The rate constants of the reactions were greater than 4 × 10(8) dm(3) mol(-1) s(-1) and similar to those of the reactions of ascorbic acid, which is a representative antioxidant. Yields of single-strand breaks, base lesions, and abasic sites produced in pUC18 plasmid DNA by gamma ray irradiation in the presence of low concentrations (10-1000 μmol dm(-3)) of edaravone were also quantified, and the chemical repair activity of edaravone was estimated by a method recently developed by the authors. By comparing suppression efficiencies to the induction of each DNA lesion, it was found that base lesions and abasic sites were suppressed by the chemical repair activity of edaravone, although the suppression of single-strand breaks was not very effective. This phenomenon was attributed to the chemical repair activity of edaravone toward base lesions and abasic sites. However, the chemical repair activity of edaravone for base lesions was lower than that of ascorbic acid. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  1. Benzoquinazoline derivatives as new agents affecting DNA processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzaro, Giovanni; Dalla Via, Lisa; Toninello, Antonio; Guiotto, Adriano; Chilin, Adriana

    2011-02-01

    A new series of benzo[h]quinazoline and benzo[f]quinazoline derivatives was prepared and studied for the biological activity. The compounds carrying a dimethylaminoethyl side chain (6c, 8c and 12) inhibit cell growth. The ability to form a molecular complex with DNA and to interfere with topoII and topoI relaxation activity was evidenced for the most active 6c and 8c, along with the capacity to induce apoptosis on HeLa cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanism of formation of (deoxy)guanosine adducts derived from peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of the carcinogenic nonaminoazo dye 1-phenylazo-2-hydroxynaphthalene (Sudan I)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dračínský, Martin; Cvačka, Josef; Semanská, M.; Martínek, V.; Frei, E.; Stiborová, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 11 (2009), s. 1765-1773 ISSN 0893-228X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400550903 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA303/09/0472; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/0812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Sudan I * peroxidase * NMR spectroscopy * (deoxy)guanosin adducts Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.740, year: 2009

  3. DNA adducts of 2,3-epoxy-4-hydroxynonanal: detection of 7-(1', 2'-dihydroxyheptyl)-3H-imidazo[2,1-i]purine and 1,N6-ethenoadenine by gas chromatography/negative ion chemical ionization/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H J; Zhang, L; Cox, J; Cunningham, J A; Chung, F L

    1998-12-01

    2,3-Epoxy-4-hydroxynonanal (EH) is a bifunctional aldehyde formed by epoxidation of trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, a peroxidation product of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. EH is mutagenic and tumorigenic and capable of modifying DNA bases forming etheno adducts in vitro. Recent studies showed that etheno adducts are present in tissue DNA of humans and untreated rodents, suggesting a potential endogenous role of EH in their formation. A sensitive assay is needed so we can determine whether EH is involved in etheno adduct formation in vivo and study the biological significance of the etheno adducts in DNA. In this study, we developed a gas chromatography/negative ion chemical ionization/mass spectrometry assay for the analysis of 1, N6-ethenoadenine (epsilonAde) and 7-(1', 2'-dihydroxyheptyl)-3H-imidazo[2,1-i]purine (DHH-epsilonAde) in DNA; both are products from the reaction of adenine with EH. The assay entails the following sequence of steps: (1) addition of [15N5]epsilonAde and [15N5]DHH-epsilonAde to DNA as internal standards, (2) acid hydrolysis of DNA, (3) adduct enrichment by C18 solid phase extraction (SPE), (4) derivatization by pentafluorobenzylation (PFB), (5) separation of PFB-epsilonAde and PFB-DHH-epsilonAde on a Si SPE column, (6) acetonide (ACT) formation of PFB-DHH-epsilonAde, and (7) GC/MS analysis with selective ion monitoring (SIM). The limit of detection by on-column injection for PFB-epsilonAde monitoring of the (M - PFB)- ion at m/z 158 was 30 amol and for ACT-PFB-DHH-epsilonAde monitoring of the (M - PFB)- ion at m/z 328 was 0.4 fmol; the detection limits for the entire assay were 6.3 fmol for epsilonAde and 36 fmol for DHH-epsilonAde. In calf thymus DNA modified with EH at 37 degreesC for 50 h, both epsilonAde and DHH-epsilonAde were detected at high levels by this method, 4.5 +/- 0.7 and 90.8 +/- 8.7 adducts/10(3) adenine, respectively. These levels were also verified by HPLC fluorescence analysis, indicating that EH extensively reacts

  4. Sustained induction of cytochrome P4501A1 in human hepatoma cells by co-exposure to benzo[a]pyrene and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole underlies the synergistic effects on DNA adduct formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gábelová, Alena, E-mail: alena.gabelova@savba.sk [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Poláková, Veronika [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Prochazka, Gabriela [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Kretová, Miroslava; Poloncová, Katarína; Regendová, Eva; Luciaková, Katarína [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Segerbäck, Dan [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    To gain a deeper insight into the potential interactions between individual aromatic hydrocarbons in a mixture, several benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) binary mixtures were studied. The biological activity of the binary mixtures was investigated in the HepG2 and WB-F344 liver cell lines and the Chinese hamster V79 cell line that stably expresses the human cytochrome P4501A1 (hCYP1A1). In the V79 cells, binary mixtures, in contrast to individual carcinogens, caused a significant decrease in the levels of micronuclei, DNA adducts and gene mutations, but not in cell survival. Similarly, a lower frequency of micronuclei and levels of DNA adducts were found in rat liver WB-F344 cells treated with a binary mixture, regardless of the exposure time. The observed antagonism between B[a]P and DBC may be due to an inhibition of Cyp1a1 expression because cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC showed a decrease in Cyp1a1 mRNA levels. In human liver HepG2 cells exposed to binary mixtures for 2 h, a reduction in micronuclei frequency was also found. However, after a 24 h treatment, synergism between B[a]P and DBC was determined based on DNA adduct formation. Accordingly, the up-regulation of CYP1A1 expression was detected in HepG2 cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC. Our results show significant differences in the response of human and rat cells to B[a]P:DBC mixtures and stress the need to use multiple experimental systems when evaluating the potential risk of environmental pollutants. Our data also indicate that an increased expression of CYP1A1 results in a synergistic effect of B[a]P and DBC in human cells. As humans are exposed to a plethora of noxious chemicals, our results have important implications for human carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • B[a]P:DBC mixtures were less genotoxic in V79MZh1A1 cells than B[a]P and DBC alone. • An antagonism between B[a]P and DBC was determined in rat liver WB-F344 cells. • The inhibition of CYP1a1 expression by B[a]P:DBC mixture

  5. 78 FR 46260 - Sorbitan Monooleate Ethylene Oxide Adduct; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Monooleate Ethylene Oxide Adduct; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance AGENCY: Environmental...-ethanediyl) derivs., (Z)- (CAS Reg. No 9005-65-6) (also known as ``sorbitan monooleate ethylene oxide adduct... residues of sorbitan monooleate ethylene oxide adduct. DATES: This regulation is effective July 31, 2013...

  6. Genotoxicity study on nicotine and nicotine-derived nitrosamine by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.S.; Wang, H.F.; Shi, J.Y.; Wang, X.Y.; Liu, Y.F.; Li, K.; Lu, X.Y.; Wang, J.J.; Liu, K.X.; Guo, Z.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have studied DNA adduction with 14 C-labelled nicotine and nicotine-derived nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in mouse liver at doses equivalent to low-level exposure of humans. The dose ranges of nicotine and NNK administered were from 0.4 μg to 4.0 x 10 2 μg·kg -1 , and from 0.1 μg to 2.0 x 10 4 μg·kg -1 , respectively. In the exposure of mice to either nicotine or NNK, the number of DNA adducts increased linearly with increasing dose. The detection limit of DNA adducts was 1 adduct per 10 11 nucleotide molecules. This limit is 1-4 orders of magnitude lower than that of other techniques used for quantification of DNA adducts. The results of the animal experiments enabled us to speculate that nicotine is a potential carcinogen. According to the procedure for 14 C-labelled-NNK synthesis, the authors discuss the ultimate chemical speciation of NNK bound to DNA. From the animal tests the authors derived a directly perceivable relation between tobacco consumption and DNA adduction as the carcinogenic risk assessment

  7. Synthesis of 16 New Hybrids from Tetrahydropyrans Derivatives and Morita˗Baylis˗Hillman Adducts: In Vitro Screening against Leishmania donovani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suervy Canuto de Oliveira Sousa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniases are a group of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs caused by protozoan parasites from >20 Leishmania species. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, also known as kala‐aza, is the most severe form of leishmaniasis, usually fatal in the absence of treatment in 95% of cases. The Morita‐Baylis‐Hillman adducts (MBHAs are being explored as drug candidates against several diseases, one of them being leishmaniasis. We present here the design, synthesis and in vitro screening against Leishmania donovani of sixteen new molecular hybrids from analgesic/antiinflammatory tetrahydropyrans derivatives and Morita˗Baylis˗Hillman adducts. First, acrylates were synthesized from analgesic/anti‐inflammatory tetrahydropyrans using acrylic acid under TsOH as a catalyst (70–75% yields. After the 16 new MBHAs were prepared in moderate to good yields (60–95% promoted by microwave irradiation or low temperature (0 °C in protic and aprotic medium. The hybrids were evaluated in vitro on the promastigote stage of Leishmania donovani by determining their inhibitory concentrations 50% (IC50, 50% hemolysis concentration (HC50, selectivity index (HC50/IC50,, and comparing to Amphotericin B, chosen as the anti‐leishmanial reference drug. The hybrid which presents the bromine atom in its chemical structure presents high leishmanicide activity and the high selectivity index in red blood cells (SIrb > 180.19, compared with the highly‐toxic reference drug (SIrb = 33.05, indicating that the bromine hybrid is a promising compound for further biological studies.

  8. Synthesis of 16 New Hybrids from Tetrahydropyrans Derivatives and Morita-Baylis-Hillman Adducts: In Vitro Screening against Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Suervy Canuto de Oliveira; Rocha, Juliana da Câmara; Keesen, Tatjana de Souza Lima; Silva, Everton da Paz; de Assis, Priscilla Anne Castro; de Oliveira, João Paulo Gomes; Capim, Saulo Luís; Xavier, Francisco José Seixas; Marinho, Bruno Guimarães; Silva, Fábio Pedrosa Lins; Lima-Junior, Claudio Gabriel; Vasconcellos, Mário Luiz Araújo de Almeida

    2017-01-30

    Leishmaniases are a group of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) caused by protozoan parasites from >20 Leishmania species. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-aza, is the most severe form of leishmaniasis, usually fatal in the absence of treatment in 95% of cases. The Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts (MBHAs) are being explored as drug candidates against several diseases, one of them being leishmaniasis. We present here the design, synthesis and in vitro screening against Leishmania donovani of sixteen new molecular hybrids from analgesic/antiinflammatory tetrahydropyrans derivatives and Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts. First, acrylates were synthesized from analgesic/anti-inflammatory tetrahydropyrans using acrylic acid under TsOH as a catalyst (70-75% yields). After the 16 new MBHAs were prepared in moderate to good yields (60-95%) promoted by microwave irradiation or low temperature (0 °C) in protic and aprotic medium. The hybrids were evaluated in vitro on the promastigote stage of Leishmania donovani by determining their inhibitory concentrations 50% (IC 50 ), 50% hemolysis concentration (HC 50 ), selectivity index (HC 50 /IC 50 ,), and comparing to Amphotericin B, chosen as the anti-leishmanial reference drug. The hybrid which presents the bromine atom in its chemical structure presents high leishmanicide activity and the high selectivity index in red blood cells (SI rb > 180.19), compared with the highly-toxic reference drug (SI rb = 33.05), indicating that the bromine hybrid is a promising compound for further biological studies.

  9. Monitoring in vivo metabolism and elimination of the endogenous DNA adduct, M1dG (3-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-α]purin-10(3H)-one), by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Charles G.; Skipper, Paul L.; Liberman, Rosa G.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Marnett, Lawrence J.

    2011-01-01

    Our laboratory is investigating the in vitro and in vivo metabolic processing of endogenously formed DNA adducts as a means of evaluating candidate urinary biomarkers. In particular, we have focused our studies on the metabolism and disposition of the peroxidation-derived pyrimidopurinone deoxyguanosine (dG) adduct, 3-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-α]purin-10(3H)-one (M1dG) and its principal metabolite, 6-oxo-M1dG. We now report the metabolic processing of M1dG at concentrations 4 to 8 orders of magnitude lower in concentration than previously analyzed, by the use of accelerator mass spectrometry analysis. Administration of 2.0 nCi/kg [14C]M1dG resulted in 49% of the 14C recovered in urine whereas 51% was recovered in feces. In urine samples, approximately 40% of the 14C corresponded to the metabolite, 6-oxo-M1dG. Following iv administration of 0.5 and 54 pCi/kg [14C]M1dG, approximately 25% of the urinary recovery corresponded to the metabolite, 6-oxo-M1dG. Thus, upon administration of trace amounts of M1dG, a significant percentage of 6-oxo-M1dG was produced suggesting that 6-oxo-M1dG maybe a useful urinary marker of exposure to endogenous oxidative damage. PMID:18461974

  10. Monitoring in vivo metabolism and elimination of the endogenous DNA adduct, M1dG {3-(2-deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-alpha]purin-10(3H)-one}, by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Charles G; Skipper, Paul L; Liberman, Rosa G; Tannenbaum, Steven R; Marnett, Lawrence J

    2008-06-01

    Our laboratory is investigating the in vitro and in vivo metabolic processing of endogenously formed DNA adducts as a means of evaluating candidate urinary biomarkers. In particular, we have focused our studies on the metabolism and disposition of the peroxidation-derived pyrimidopurinone deoxyguanosine (dG) adduct, 3-(2-deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-R]purin-10(3H)-one (M1dG), and its principal metabolite, 6-oxo-M1dG. We now report the metabolic processing of M1dG at concentrations 4-8 orders of magnitude lower in concentration than previously analyzed, by the use of accelerator mass spectrometry analysis. Administration of 2.0 nCi/kg [14C]M1dG resulted in 49% of the 14C recovered in urine, whereas 51% was recovered in feces. In urine samples, approximately 40% of the 14C corresponded to the metabolite, 6-oxo-M1dG. Following iv administration of 0.5 and 54 pCi/kg [14C]M1dG, approximately 25% of the urinary recovery corresponded to the metabolite, 6-oxo-M1dG. Thus, upon administration of trace amounts of M1dG, a significant percentage of 6-oxo-M1dG was produced, suggesting that 6-oxo-M1dG maybe a useful urinary marker of exposure to endogenous oxidative damage.

  11. Evidence for formation of an S-[2-(N7-guanyl)ethyl]glutathione adduct in glutathione-mediated binding of the carcinogen 1,2-dibromoethane to DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, N; Guengerich, F P

    1983-01-01

    The carcinogen 1,2-dibromoethane and reduced glutathione (GSH) were irreversibly bound to calf thymus DNA in equimolar amounts when in vitro incubations were carried out in the presence of GSH S-transferase. In studies carried out with isolated hepatocytes, equimolar amounts of 1,2-dibromoethane and endogenous GSH were also bound to intracellular DNA and RNA and extracellular DNA. These findings support the hypothesis that the major interaction of 1,2-dibromoethane with DNA involves covalent ...

  12. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2000-10-03

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

  13. Differences in DNA damage and repair produced by systemic, hepatocarcinogenic and sarcomagenic dibenzocarbazole derivatives in a model of rat liver progenitor cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valovičová, Z.; Marvanová, S.; Mészárosová, M.; Srančíková, A.; Trilecová, L.; Milcová, A.; Líbalová, H.; Vondráček, Jan; Machala, M.; Topinka, J.; Gábelová, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 665, 1-2 (2009), s. 51-60 ISSN 0027-5107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : DNA adducts * DNA strand breaks * oxidative stress Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.556, year: 2009

  14. Biotransformation of a cage-like diels-alder adduct and derivatives by Mucor ramosissimus samutsevitsch Biotransformação de um aduto de diels-alder cage-like e derivados por Mucor ramosissimus samutsevitsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Megumi Ito

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the ability for biotransformation of the Diels-Alder adduct tricyclo[6.2.1.0(2,7]undeca-4,9-dien-3,6-dione (1 and two synthetic derivatives by the saprobe fungus Mucor ramosissimus Samutsevitsch. Products from oxidation, isomerization and, regioselective and enantioselective reduction were achieved.Neste trabalho avaliou-se a capacidade de biotransformação do aduto de Diels-Alder triciclo[6.2.1.0(2-7]undeca-4,9-dien-3,6-diona (1 e dois derivados sintéticos pelo fungo sapróbio Mucor ramosissimus Samutsevitsch. Produtos de oxidação, isomerização e redução regiosseletiva e enantiosseletiva foram obtidos.

  15. Cytochrome P450 1b1 in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced skin carcinogenesis: Tumorigenicity of individual PAHs and coal-tar extract, DNA adduction and expression of select genes in the Cyp1b1 knockout mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddens, Lisbeth K. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Bunde, Kristi L. [College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Harper, Tod A. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); McQuistan, Tammie J. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Löhr, Christiane V. [Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Applied Statistics and Computational Modeling, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Waters, Katrina M. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Tilton, Susan C. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Krueger, Sharon K. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); and others

    2015-09-01

    FVB/N mice wild-type, heterozygous or null for Cyp 1b1 were used in a two-stage skin tumor study comparing PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), and coal tar extract (CTE, SRM 1597a). Following 20 weeks of promotion with TPA the Cyp 1b1 null mice, initiated with DBC, exhibited reductions in incidence, multiplicity, and progression. None of these effects were observed with BaP or CTE. The mechanism of Cyp 1b1-dependent alteration of DBC skin carcinogenesis was further investigated by determining expression of select genes in skin from DBC-treated mice 2, 4 and 8 h post-initiation. A significant reduction in levels of Cyp 1a1, Nqo1 at 8 h and Akr 1c14 mRNA was observed in Cyp 1b1 null (but not wt or het) mice, whereas no impact was observed in Gst a1, Nqo 1 at 2 and 4 h or Akr 1c19 at any time point. Cyp 1b1 mRNA was not elevated by DBC. The major covalent DNA adducts, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-(±)-11,12-dihydrodiol-cis and trans-13,14-epoxide-deoxyadenosine (DBCDE-dA) were quantified by UHPLC-MS/MS 8 h post-initiation. Loss of Cyp1 b1 expression reduced DBCDE-dA adducts in the skin but not to a statistically significant degree. The ratio of cis- to trans-DBCDE-dA adducts was higher in the skin than other target tissues such as the spleen, lung and liver (oral dosing). These results document that Cyp 1b1 plays a significant role in bioactivation and carcinogenesis of DBC in a two-stage mouse skin tumor model and that loss of Cyp 1b1 has little impact on tumor response with BaP or CTE as initiators. - Highlights: • Cyp1b1 null mice exhibit lower skin cancer sensitivity to DBC but not BaP or CTE. • Cyp1b1 expression impacts expression of other PAH metabolizing enzymes. • cis/trans-DBCDE-dA ratio significantly higher in the skin than the spleen, lung or liver • Potency of DBC and CTE in mouse skin is higher than predicted by RPFs.

  16. Energetics, conformation, and recognition of DNA duplexes containing a major adduct of an anticancer azolato-bridged dinuclear PtII complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mlčoušková, J.; Malina, Jaroslav; Novohradský, V.; Kašpárková, J.; Komeda, S.; Brabec, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1820, č. 10 (2012), s. 1502-1511 ISSN 0304-4165 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/0856 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : DNA * platinum * DNA repair Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.848, year: 2012

  17. Implication of the E. coli K12 uvrA and recA genes in the repair of 8-methoxypsoralen-induced mono adducts and crosslinks on plasmid DNA; Implicacion de los genes uvrA de E. coli K12 en la reparacion de monoaductos y entrecruzamien tos inducidos en DNA plasmidico por 8-metoxipso raleno mas luz ultravioleta A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramio, J.M.; Bauluz, C.; Vidania, R. de

    1986-07-01

    Genotoxicity of psoralen damages on plasmid DNA has been studied. pBR322 DNA was randomly modified with several concentrations of 8-methoxypsoralen plus 365 nm-UV light. After transformation into E. coli strains (wild-type, uvrA and recA) plasmid survival and mutagenesis were analyzed. To study the influence of the SOS response on plasmid recovery, preirradiation of the cells was performed. In absence of cell preirradiation, crosslinks were not repaired in any strain. Mono adducts were also lethal but in part removed by the excision-repair pathway. Preirradiation of the cells significantly. increased plasmid recovery in recA+ celia. In uvrA- only the mutagenic pathway seemed to be involved in the repair of the damaged DNA. Wild type strain showed the highest increase in plasmid survival, involving the repair of mono adducts and some fraction of crosslinks mainly through an error-free repair pathway. This suggests an enhancement of the excision repair promoted by the induction of SOS functions. (Author) 32 refs.

  18. Inhibition of Taq DNA polymerase by iridoid aglycone derivates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pungitore, C R; García, C; Sotero Martín, V; Tonn, C E

    2012-11-08

    Faithful replication of DNA molecules by DNA polymerases is essential for genome integrity and correct transmission of genetic information in all living organisms. DNA polymerases have recently emerged as important cellular targets for chemical intervention in the development of anti--cancer agents. Herein we report additional synthesis of simplified bicyclic aglycones of iridoids and their biological activity against Taq DNA polymerase with the object to find out some of the likely molecular targets implicated in the biological activity showed for this kind of compounds. The compounds 14, 33 and 34 showed inhibitory activity against Taq DNA polymerase with IC(50) values of 13.47, 17.65 and 18.31 μM, respectively. These results would allow proposing to DNA polymerases as the molecular targets implicated in this bioactivity and enhance the iridoid aglycones as leader molecule to develop new drugs for cancer therapy.

  19. Protective effects of vanadium against DMH-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenesis in rat colon: removal of O(6)-methylguanine DNA adducts, p53 expression, inducible nitric oxide synthase downregulation and apoptotic induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Shaonly; Swamy, Viswanath; Suresh, D; Rajkumar, M; Rana, Basabi; Rana, Ajay; Chatterjee, Malay

    2008-02-29

    Previous studies have shown that dietary micronutrient vanadium can protect neoplastic development induced by chemical carcinogens. Current investigation is an attempt to evaluate the role of vanadium (4.27 micro mol/l) in inhibiting 1,2 dimethyhydrazine (DMH) (20 mg/kg body weight) induced rat colon carcinogenesis. We investigated the effect of vanadium against the formation of DMH-induced O(6)-methylguanine (O(6)-Meg) DNA adduct, a potent cytotoxic and mutagenic agent for colon cancer. Supplementation of vanadium significantly reduced the hepatic (Pvanadium's potency in limiting the initiation event of colon carcinogenesis. Removal of initiated and damaged precancerous cells by apoptosis can prevent tumorigenesis and further malignancy. DNA fragmentation study revealed the vanadium-mediated apoptotic induction in colon tumors. The increased value of apoptotic index (AI) (62.27%; Pvanadium. This paralleled the nuclear immunoexpression of p53. A significant positive correlation between p53 immunoexpression and AI (P=0.0026, r=0.83, r(2)=0.69) links its association with vanadium-mediated apoptotic induction. Vanadium treatment also abated the mRNA expression of iNOS (54.03%), reflecting its protective effect against nitric oxide-mediated genotoxicity and colon tumorigenesis. These studies cumulatively provide strong evidence for the inhibitory actions of vanadium against DMH-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenesis in rat colon.

  20. Ruthenium—Arene Complexes Derived from NHC•CO2 and NHC•CS2 Zwitterionic Adducts and Their Use in Olefin Metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaude, Lionel; Demonceau, Albert

    A range of imidazol(in)ium-2-carboxylates and -dithiocarboxylates bearing alkyl or aryl groups on their nitrogen atoms were prepared by reacting the corresponding N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) with either carbon dioxide or carbon disulfide. All the zwitterionic products were characterized by various analytical techniques, including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Their ability to act as NHC ligand precursors for in situ catalytic applications was investigated in the ruthenium-promoted ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of cyclo-octene. Upon exposure to the [RuCl2(p-cymene)]2 dimer, the NHC CO2 adducts readily dissociated to generate [RuCl2(p-cymene)(NHC)] complexes that were highly active catalyst precursors for olefin metathesis. Conversely, the NHC CS2 betaines retained their zwitterionic nature and led to new cationic complexes of the [RuCl(p-cymene)(NHC CS2)]+PF6 - type that were devoid of any significant catalytic activity in the reaction under consideration

  1. Phylogenetic Analysis of Shewanella Strains by DNA Relatedness Derived from Whole Genome Microarray DNA-DNA Hybridization and Comparison with Other Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Liyou; Yi, T. Y.; Van Nostrand, Joy; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17

    Phylogenetic analyses were done for the Shewanella strains isolated from Baltic Sea (38 strains), US DOE Hanford Uranium bioremediation site [Hanford Reach of the Columbia River (HRCR), 11 strains], Pacific Ocean and Hawaiian sediments (8 strains), and strains from other resources (16 strains) with three out group strains, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Clostridium cellulolyticum, and Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus X514, using DNA relatedness derived from WCGA-based DNA-DNA hybridizations, sequence similarities of 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene, and sequence similarities of 6 loci of Shewanella genome selected from a shared gene list of the Shewanella strains with whole genome sequenced based on the average nucleotide identity of them (ANI). The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences, and DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations of the tested Shewanella strains share exactly the same sub-clusters with very few exceptions, in which the strains were basically grouped by species. However, the phylogenetic analysis based on DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations dramatically increased the differentiation resolution at species and strains level within Shewanella genus. When the tree based on DNA relatedness derived from WCGA hybridizations was compared to the tree based on the combined sequences of the selected functional genes (6 loci), we found that the resolutions of both methods are similar, but the clustering of the tree based on DNA relatedness derived from WMGA hybridizations was clearer. These results indicate that WCGA-based DNA-DNA hybridization is an idea alternative of conventional DNA-DNA hybridization methods and it is superior to the phylogenetics methods based on sequence similarities of single genes. Detailed analysis is being performed for the re-classification of the strains examined.

  2. 7-cysteine-pyrrole conjugate: A new potential DNA reactive metabolite of pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaobo; Xia, Qingsu; Ma, Liang; Fu, Peter P

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) require metabolic activation to exert cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity. We previously reported that (±)-6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts are responsible for PA-induced liver tumor formation in rats. In this study, we determined that metabolism of riddelliine and monocrotaline by human or rat liver microsomes produced 7-cysteine-DHP and DHP. The metabolism of 7-glutathionyl-DHP by human and rat liver microsomes also generated 7-cysteine-DHP. Further, reaction of 7-cysteine-DHP with calf thymus DNA in aqueous solution yielded the described DHP-derived DNA adducts. This study represents the first report that 7-cysteine-DHP is a new PA metabolite that can lead to DNA adduct formation.

  3. Acetaldehyde Adducts in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashiko Setshedi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol abuse causes liver disease that progresses from simple steatosis through stages of steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually hepatic failure. In addition, chronic alcoholic liver disease (ALD, with or without cirrhosis, increases risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Acetaldehyde, a major toxic metabolite, is one of the principal culprits mediating fibrogenic and mutagenic effects of alcohol in the liver. Mechanistically, acetaldehyde promotes adduct formation, leading to functional impairments of key proteins, including enzymes, as well as DNA damage, which promotes mutagenesis. Why certain individuals who heavily abuse alcohol, develop HCC (7.2–15% versus cirrhosis (15–20% is not known, but genetics and co-existing viral infection are considered pathogenic factors. Moreover, adverse effects of acetaldehyde on the cardiovascular and hematologic systems leading to ischemia, heart failure, and coagulation disorders, can exacerbate hepatic injury and increase risk for liver failure. Herein, we review the role of acetaldehyde adducts in the pathogenesis of chronic ALD and HCC.

  4. How Y-Family DNA polymerase IV is more accurate than Dpo4 at dCTP insertion opposite an N2-dG adduct of benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholder, Gabriel; Creech, Amanda; Loechler, Edward L

    2015-11-01

    To bypass DNA damage, cells have Y-Family DNA polymerases (DNAPs). One Y-Family-class includes DNAP κ and DNAP IV, which accurately insert dCTP opposite N(2)-dG adducts, including from the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BP). Another class includes DNAP η and DNAP V, which insert accurately opposite UV-damage, but inaccurately opposite BP-N(2)-dG. To investigate structural differences between Y-Family-classes, regions are swapped between DNAP IV (a κ/IV-class-member) and Dpo4 (a η/V-class-member); the kinetic consequences are evaluated via primer-extension studies with a BP-N(2)-dG-containing template. Four key structural elements are revealed. (1) Y-Family DNAPs have discreet non-covalent contacts between their little finger-domain (LF-Domain) and their catalytic core-domain (CC-Domain), which we call "non-covalent bridges" (NCBs). Arg37 and Arg38 in DNAP IV's CC-Domain near the active site form a non-covalent bridge (AS-NCB) by interacting with Glu251 and Asp252, respectively, in DNAP IV's LF-Domain. Without these interactions dATP/dGTP/dTTP misinsertions increase. DNAP IV's AS-NCB suppresses misinsertions better than Dpo4's equivalent AS-NCB. (2) DNAP IV also suppresses dATP/dGTP/dTTP misinsertions via a second non-covalent bridge, which is ∼8Å from the active site (Distal-NCB). Dpo4 has no Distal-NCB, rendering it inferior at dATP/dGTP/dTTP suppression. (3) dCTP insertion is facilitated by the larger minor groove opening near the active site in DNAP IV versus Dpo4, which is sensible given that Watson/Crick-like [dCTP:BP-N(2)-dG] pairing requires the BP-moiety to be in the minor groove. (4) Compared to Dpo4, DNAP IV has a smaller major groove opening, which suppresses dGTP misinsertion, implying BP-N(2)-dG bulk in the major groove during Hoogsteen syn-adduct-dG:dGTP pairing. In summary, DNAP IV has a large minor groove opening to enhance dCTP insertion, a plugged major groove opening to suppress dGTP misinsertion, and two non-covalent bridges (near and distal

  5. Increased N7-methyldeoxyguanosine DNA adducts after occupational exposure to pesticides and influence of genetic polymorphisms of paraoxonase-1 and glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martín, Antonio; Altakroni, Bashar; Lozano-Paniagua, David; Margison, Geoffrey P; de Vocht, Frank; Povey, Andrew C; Hernández, Antonio F

    2015-06-01

    There are concerns about genetic risks associated with long-term exposure to pesticides as these compounds may damage DNA, resulting in mutations that eventually lead to cancer, neurological, and reproductive adverse health effects. This study assessed DNA damage in intensive agricultural workers exposed to pesticides by determining the levels of N7-methyldeoxyguanosine (N7-MedG), an adduct known to be a robust biomarker of recent exposure to chemical methylating agents. A cohort of 39 plastic greenhouse workers was assessed for changes in lymphocyte DNA N7-MedG levels between low level and high level exposures during the course of a spraying season. The contributions of genetic polymorphisms of the pesticide-metabolizing enzymes paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and the glutathione S-transferases, GSTM1 and GSTT1, on N7-MedG levels and other potential confounders were also assessed. N7-MedG increased in the period of high pesticide exposure as compared to the low exposure period (0.23 and 0.18 µmol N7-MedG/mol dG for the unadjusted and adjusted linear mixed models, P = 0.02 and 0.08, respectively). Significant decreased levels of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase and plasma cholinesterase were observed in the high versus low exposure period in both the unadjusted (2.85 U/g hemoglobin and 213.13 U/L, respectively) and adjusted linear mixed models (2.99 U/g hemoglobin and 230.77 U/L, respectively), indicating pesticide intake. In intensive agriculture workers, higher pesticide exposure increased DNA alkylation levels, further demonstrating the genotoxicity of pesticides in man. In addition, pesticide-exposed individuals with inherited susceptible metabolic genotypes (particularly, null genotype for GSTM1 and the PON1 192R allele) appear to have an increased risk of genotoxic DNA damage. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 56:437-445, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Absolute configuration, stability, and interconversion of 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine valine adducts and their phenylthiohydantoin derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Xiao; Wang, Shuguang; Zhao, Yuewei; Xia, Qingsu; Cai, Lining; Sun, Xin; Fu, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are widespread in the world and probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids require metabolic activation to form dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids that bind to cellular proteins and DNA leading to hepatotoxicity, genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity. At present, it is not clear how dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids bind to cellular amino acids and proteins to induced toxicity. We previously reporte...

  7. Sequence-selective topoisomerase II inhibition by anthracycline derivatives in SV40 DNA: Relationship with DNA binding affinity and cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capranico, G.; Kohn, K.W.; Pommier, Y.; Zunino, F.

    1990-01-01

    Topoisomerase II mediated double-strand breaks produced by anthracycline analogues were studied in SV40 DNA. The compounds included doxorubicin, daunorubicin, two doxorubicin stereoisomers (4'-epimer and β-anomer), and five chromophore-modified derivatives, with a wide range of cytotoxic activity and DNA binding affinity. Cleavage of 32 P-end-labeled DNA fragments was visualized by autoradiography of agarose and polyacrylamide gels. Structure-activity relationships indicated that alterations in the chromophore structure greatly affected drug action on topoisomerase II. In particular, removal of substituents on position 4 of the D ring resulted in more active inducers of cleavage with lower DNA binding affinity. The stereochemistry between the sugar and the chromophore was also essential for activity. All the active anthracyclines induced a single region of prominent cleavage in the entire SV40 DNA, which resulted from a cluster of sites between nucleotides 4237 and 4294. DNA cleavage intensity patterns exhibited differences among analogues and were also dependent upon drug concentration. Intensity at a given site dependent on both stimulatory and suppressive effects depending upon drug concentration and DNA sequence. A good correlation was found between cytotoxicity and intensity of topoisomerase II mediated DNA breakage

  8. Optimal Fixation Conditions and DNA Extraction Methods for MLPA Analysis on FFPE Tissue-Derived DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanesyan, Lilit; Steenkamer, Maryvonne J; Horstman, Anja; Moelans, Cathy B; Schouten, Jan P; Savola, Suvi P

    2017-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is of great importance both for research and diagnostics. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a widely used technique for gene copy number determination, and it has been successfully used for FFPE tissue-extracted DNA analysis. However, there have been no studies addressing the effect of tissue fixation procedures and DNA extraction methods on MLPA. This study therefore focuses on selecting optimal preanalytic conditions such as FFPE tissue preparation conditions and DNA extraction methods. Healthy tissues were fixed in buffered or nonbuffered formalin for 1 hour, 12 to 24 hours, or 48 to 60 hours at 4 °C or at room temperature. DNA extracted from differently fixed and subsequently paraffin-embedded tissues was used for MLPA. Four commercial DNA extraction kits and one in-house method were compared. Tissues fixed for 12 to 24 hours in buffered formalin at room temperature produced DNA with the most optimal quality for MLPA. The in-house FFPE DNA extraction method was shown to perform as efficient as or even superior to other methods in terms of suitability for MLPA, time and cost-efficiency, and ease of performance. FFPE-extracted DNA is well suitable for MLPA analysis, given that optimal tissue fixation and DNA extraction methods are chosen. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017.

  9. DNA damage induced in mouse tissues by organic wood preserving waste extracts as assayed by 32P-postlabeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randerath, E.; Zhou, G.D.; Donnelly, K.C.; Safe, S.H.; Randerath, K.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, a mouse bioassay was used in combination with 32 P-postlabeling to determine DNA adduct formation induced by hexane/acetone extracts of two samples from a WPW site. Female ICR mice were treated dermally with extract corresponding to 3 mg residue or vehicle control once per day for 2 days and killed 24 h later. Skin, lung, liver, kidney, and heart DNA preparations were assayed by nuclease P1-enhanced postlabeling. Adduct profiles were tissue-specific and displayed a multitude of non-polar DNA adducts with levels amounting to one adduct in 1.6 x 10 6 DNA nucleotides in skin (both extracts) and one adduct in 3.2 x 10 7 or 1.2 x 10 7 DNA nucleotides in liver (extract 1 or extract 2). Based on their chromatographic properties, these adducts appeared largely derived from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the extracts. One of the major adducts was identified as the 32 P-labeled derivative of the reaction product of 7β, 8α-dihydroxy-9α, 10α-epoxy-7, 8, 9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE I) with N 2 of deoxyguanosine. Total non-polar DNA adduct levels were highest in skin and lung, amounting to 17.4 and 24.0% of the skin values for extracts 1 and 2, respectively, in lung while the corresponding levels in liver were 5.0 and 12.6%. These results were in accord with the carcinogenic potencies of PAHs in these organs. Extract 2 induced higher adduct levels in internal organs, although its PAH concentrations were lower than those of extract 1, i.e. lung, liver, kidney, and heart had 1.4, 2.5, 1.9, and 1.7 times higher total adduct levels and 1.6, 3.3, 1.6, and 1.9 times higher benzo[a]pyrene adduct levels. With the exception of total adducts in lung, the differences between the two extracts were all significant, suggestive of compound interactions. (orig.) (orig.). With 5 figs., 6 tabs

  10. DNA-binding, DNA cleavage and cytotoxicity studies of two anthraquinone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, M B; Kashanian, S; Peyman, H

    2012-02-15

    The interaction of native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with two anthraquinones including quinizarin (1,4-dihydroxy anthraquinone) and danthron (1,8-dihydroxy anthraquinone) in a mixture of 0.04M Brittone-Robinson buffer and 50% of ethanol were studied at physiological pH by spectrofluorometric and cyclic voltammetry techniques. The former technique was used to calculate the binding constants of anthraquinones-DNA complexes at different temperatures. Thermodynamic study indicated that the reactions of both anthraquinone-DNA systems are predominantly entropically driven. Furthermore, the binding mechanisms on the reaction of the two anthraquinones with DNA and the effect of ionic strength on the fluorescence property of the system have also been investigated. The results of the experiments indicated that the binding modes of quinizarin and danthron with DNA were evaluated to be groove binding. Moreover, the cytotoxic activity of both compounds against human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cell line and DNA cleavage were investigated. The results indicated that these compounds slightly cleavage pUC18 plasmid DNA and showed minor antitumor activity against K562 (human chronic myeloid leukemia) cell line. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantification of transplant-derived circulating cell-free DNA in absence of a donor genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Eilon; Shi, Hao; Kharbanda, Sandhya; Koh, Winston; Martin, Lance R; Khush, Kiran K; Valantine, Hannah; Pritchard, Jonathan K; De Vlaminck, Iwijn

    2017-08-01

    Quantification of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in circulating blood derived from a transplanted organ is a powerful approach to monitoring post-transplant injury. Genome transplant dynamics (GTD) quantifies donor-derived cfDNA (dd-cfDNA) by taking advantage of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across the genome to discriminate donor and recipient DNA molecules. In its current implementation, GTD requires genotyping of both the transplant recipient and donor. However, in practice, donor genotype information is often unavailable. Here, we address this issue by developing an algorithm that estimates dd-cfDNA levels in the absence of a donor genotype. Our algorithm predicts heart and lung allograft rejection with an accuracy that is similar to conventional GTD. We furthermore refined the algorithm to handle closely related recipients and donors, a scenario that is common in bone marrow and kidney transplantation. We show that it is possible to estimate dd-cfDNA in bone marrow transplant patients that are unrelated or that are siblings of the donors, using a hidden Markov model (HMM) of identity-by-descent (IBD) states along the genome. Last, we demonstrate that comparing dd-cfDNA to the proportion of donor DNA in white blood cells can differentiate between relapse and the onset of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). These methods alleviate some of the barriers to the implementation of GTD, which will further widen its clinical application.

  12. Quantification of transplant-derived circulating cell-free DNA in absence of a donor genotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilon Sharon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of cell-free DNA (cfDNA in circulating blood derived from a transplanted organ is a powerful approach to monitoring post-transplant injury. Genome transplant dynamics (GTD quantifies donor-derived cfDNA (dd-cfDNA by taking advantage of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs distributed across the genome to discriminate donor and recipient DNA molecules. In its current implementation, GTD requires genotyping of both the transplant recipient and donor. However, in practice, donor genotype information is often unavailable. Here, we address this issue by developing an algorithm that estimates dd-cfDNA levels in the absence of a donor genotype. Our algorithm predicts heart and lung allograft rejection with an accuracy that is similar to conventional GTD. We furthermore refined the algorithm to handle closely related recipients and donors, a scenario that is common in bone marrow and kidney transplantation. We show that it is possible to estimate dd-cfDNA in bone marrow transplant patients that are unrelated or that are siblings of the donors, using a hidden Markov model (HMM of identity-by-descent (IBD states along the genome. Last, we demonstrate that comparing dd-cfDNA to the proportion of donor DNA in white blood cells can differentiate between relapse and the onset of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD. These methods alleviate some of the barriers to the implementation of GTD, which will further widen its clinical application.

  13. Equilibrium and ab initio computational studies on the adduct formation of 1,3-diketonato-lithium(I), -sodium(I) and -potassium(I) with 1,10-phenanthroline and its 2,9-dimethyl derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimori, Ken-ichiro; Mori, Seiji; Ito, Yuji; Ohashi, Kousaburo; Imura, Hisanori

    2009-06-15

    Highly effective and selective synergistic extraction of Li+ has been found using 2-naphthoyltrifluoroacetone (Hnta) as an acidic chelating agent and 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmp) or 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmdpp) as a neutral ligand (denoted as L) in toluene. The synergism was ascribed to the adduct formation in the organic phase, and the composition and the formation constants of the adducts for alkali metal ions (M+) were determined by the extraction equilibrium analysis. The adducts found were M(nta)L for Li+ and Na+, while M(nta)L and M(nta)L2 for K+. To understand thermodynamics of the adduct formation with the bidentate amines, quantum chemical calculations of the 1:1 and 1:2 adduct formations with dmp and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) were performed. The electronic and steric effects of the methyl groups at 2,9-positions of phen on the thermodynamic functions of adduct formation as well as the high lithium selectivity were quantitatively elucidated.

  14. Conformations of stereoisomeric base adducts to 4-hydroxyequilenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shuang; Shapiro, Robert; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Broyde, Suse

    2003-06-01

    Exposure to estrogen through estrogen replacement therapy increases the risk of women developing cancer in hormone sensitive tissues. Premarin (Wyeth), which has been the most frequent choice for estrogen replacement therapy in the United States, contains the equine estrogens equilin and equilenin as major components. 4-Hydroxyequilenin (4-OHEN) is a phase I metabolite of both of these substances. This catechol estrogen autoxidizes to potent cytotoxic quinoids that can react with dG, dA, and dC to form unusual stereoisomeric cyclic adducts (Bolton, J. L., et al. (1998) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 11, 1113-1127). Like other bulky DNA adducts, these lesions may exhibit different susceptibilities to DNA repair and mutagenic potential, if not repaired in a structure-dependent manner. To ultimately gain insights into structure-function relationships, we computed conformations of stereoisomeric guanine, adenine, and cytosine base adducts using density functional theory. We find near mirror image conformations in stereoisomer adduct pairs for each modified base, suggesting opposite orientations with respect to the 5' --> 3' direction of the modified strand when the stereoisomer pairs are incorporated into duplex DNA. Such opposite orientations could cause stereoisomer pairs of lesions to respond differently to DNA replication and repair enzymes.

  15. Differences in DNA damage and repair produced by systemic, hepatocarcinogenic and sarcomagenic dibenzocarbazole derivatives in a model of rat liver progenitor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valovičová, Z.; Marvanová, S.; Mészárosová, M.; Strančíková, A.; Trilecová, L.; Milcová, Alena; Líbalová, Helena; Vondráček, J.; Machala, M.; Topinka, Jan; Gábelová, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 665, 1-2 (2009), s. 51-60 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08005; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : DNA adducts * DNA strand breaks * oxidative stress Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.556, year: 2009

  16. Alien DNA introgression and wheat DNA rearrangements in a stable wheat line derived from the early generation of distant hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianquan; Liu, Dengcai; Yan, Zehong; Zheng, Youliang

    2005-10-01

    Polyploidy has been found to be common in plants. Bread or common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n=42) is a good example of allopolyploid made up of three diploid genomes A, B and D. In recent years, by the study of mimicking the origination of common wheat, it was found that changes of DNA sequence and gene expression occurred at the early stages of artificial allohexaploid between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii, which was probably favorable to genetic diploidization of new synthetic hexaploid wheat. Common wheat 99L2 is a new line stable in genetic, which was derived from the early self-pollinated generation of wide hybrids between common wheat and rye. In this study, it was found that at least two rye DNA segments had been introgressed into 99L2. This result suggested that a mechanism of alien DNA introgression may exist, which was different from the traditional mechanism of chromosome pairing and DNA recombination between wheat and alien species. Meanwhile, during the introgression process of alien rye DNA segments, the changes in DNA sequences of wheat itself occurred.

  17. DNA-binding studies of AV-153, an antimutagenic and DNA repair-stimulating derivative of 1,4-dihydropiridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buraka, E; Chen, C Yu-Chian; Gavare, M; Grube, M; Makarenkova, G; Nikolajeva, V; Bisenieks, I; Brūvere, I; Bisenieks, E; Duburs, G; Sjakste, N

    2014-09-05

    The ability to intercalate between DNA strands determines the cytotoxic activity of numerous anticancer drugs. Strikingly, intercalating activity was also reported for some compounds considered to be antimutagenic. The aim of this study was to determine the mode of interaction of DNA with the antimutagenic and DNA repair-stimulating dihydropyridine (DHP) AV-153. DNA and AV-153 interactions were studied by means of UV/VIS spectroscopy, fluorimetry and infrared spectroscopy. Compound AV-153 is a 1,4 dihydropyridine with ethoxycarbonyl groups in positions 3 and 5. Computer modeling of AV-153 and DNA interactions suggested an ability of the compound to dock between DNA strands at a single strand break site in the vicinity of two pyrimidines, which was confirmed in the present study. AV-153 evidently interacted with DNA, as addition of DNA to AV-153 solutions resulted in pronounced hyperchromic and bathochromic effects on the spectra. Base modification in a plasmid by peroxynitrite only minimally changed binding affinity of the compound; however, induction of single-strand breaks using Fenton's reaction greatly increased binding affinity. The affinity did not change when the ionic strength of the solution was changed from 5 to 150 mM NaCl, although it increased somewhat at 300 mM. Neither was it influenced by temperature changes from 25 to 40°C, however, it decreased when the pH of the solution was changed from 7.4 to 4.7. AV-153 competed with EBr for intercalation sites in DNA: 116 mM of the compound caused a two-fold decrease in fluorescence intensity. FT-IR spectral data analyses indicated formation of complexes between DNA and AV-153. The second derivative spectra analyses indicated interaction of AV-153 with guanine, cytosine and thymine bases, but no interaction with adenine was detected. The antimutagenic substance AV-153 appears to intercalate between the DNA strands at the site of a DNA nick in the vicinity of two pyrimidines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  18. Comparison of several methods for the extraction of DNA from potatoes and potato-derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donna S; Maxwell, Philip W; De Boer, Solke H

    2005-12-28

    Eight methods were compared for the extraction of DNA from raw potato tubers, and nine methods were evaluated for the extraction of DNA from dehydrated potato slices, potato flakes, potato flour, potato starch, and two ready-to-eat potato snack foods. Extracts were assessed for yield using a fluorescence-based DNA quantification assay. Real-time amplification of an endogenous gene, sucrose synthase (sus), was used to assess extract and template quality. A CTAB-based method extracted the highest DNA yields from the tuber material. An in-house method, which utilized the Kingfisher magnetic particle processor, yielded the highest template quality from the tubers. For most of the tuber samples, the Kingfisher and CTAB methods recovered the highest levels of amplifiable sus. DNA yields for potato-derived foods generally decreased with the extent that the product had been processed. The methods that utilized the magnetic particle processor delivered the highest template quality from one of the snack products that was particularly high in fat. For most of the remaining processed products, the levels of amplifiable target DNA recovered were roughly correlated with total DNA recovery, indicating that overall yield had greater influence over sus amplification than template quality. The Wizard method was generally the best method for the extraction of DNA from most of the potato-derived foods.

  19. Enantiopure copper(II) complex of natural product rosin derivative: DNA binding, DNA cleavage and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Bao-Li; Yin, Bin; Li, Dong-Dong; Xu, Wu-Shuang; Lu, Yang

    2016-12-01

    To develop chiral anticancer drug candidates for molecular target DNA, the synthesis and characterization of a novel enantiomerically pure copper(II) complex [Cu 1 Cl 2 ] (2) of an optically pure ligand N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene) dehydroabietylamine (1) was carried out. The coordination geometry of the copper center is a distorted square-planar arrangement. The interactions of 1 and 2 with salmon sperm DNA were investigated by viscosity measurements, UV, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques. All the results reveal that 1 and 2 interacted with DNA through intercalation and 2 exhibited a higher DNA binding ability. Further, 1 and 2 could cleave supercoiled pBR322 DNA by single strand and 2 displayed stronger cleavage ability in the presence of ascorbic acid. In vitro cytotoxicity of 1 and 2 against HeLa, SiHa, HepG-2 and A431 cancer cell lines was studied using CCK-8 assay. The results indicate that 2 had a superior cytotoxicity than 1 and the widely used drug cisplatin under identical conditions. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrates 2 produced death of HeLa cancer cells through an apoptotic pathway. Cell cycle analysis shows that 2 mainly arrested HeLa cells at the S phase. A novel enantiomerically pure copper(II) complex [Cu 1 Cl 2 ] (2) of an optically pure ligand N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene) dehydroabietylamine (1), based on natural product rosin has been synthesized. 2 has the potential to act as effective anticancer drug.

  20. 50 CFR 23.16 - What are the U.S. CITES requirements for urine, feces, and synthetically derived DNA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the U.S. CITES requirements for... Requirements § 23.16 What are the U.S. CITES requirements for urine, feces, and synthetically derived DNA? (a...) DNA. We differentiate between DNA directly extracted from blood and tissue and DNA synthetically...

  1. Regiochemically Controlled Synthesis of a β-4-β' [70]Fullerene Bis-Adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón, Maira R; Castro, Edison; Neti, Venkata S Pavan K; Dunk, Paul W; Echegoyen, Luis A

    2017-01-20

    A β-4-β' C 70 bis-adduct regioisomer and an uncommon mono-adduct β-malonate C 70 derivative were synthesized by using a Diels-Alder cycloaddition followed by an addition-elimination of bromo-ethylmalonate and a retro-Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction. We also report the regioselective synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of C s -symmetric tris- and C 2v -symmetric tetra-adducts of C 70 , which are the precursors of the mono- and bis-adduct final products.

  2. Field calibration of blowfly-derived DNA against traditional methods for assessing mammal diversity in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ping-Shin; Gan, Han Ming; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Wilson, John-James

    2016-11-01

    Mammal diversity assessments based on DNA derived from invertebrates have been suggested as alternatives to assessments based on traditional methods; however, no study has field-tested both approaches simultaneously. In Peninsular Malaysia, we calibrated the performance of mammal DNA derived from blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) against traditional methods used to detect species. We first compared five methods (cage trapping, mist netting, hair trapping, scat collection, and blowfly-derived DNA) in a forest reserve with no recent reports of megafauna. Blowfly-derived DNA and mist netting detected the joint highest number of species (n = 6). Only one species was detected by multiple methods. Compared to the other methods, blowfly-derived DNA detected both volant and non-volant species. In another forest reserve, rich in megafauna, we calibrated blowfly-derived DNA against camera traps. Blowfly-derived DNA detected more species (n = 11) than camera traps (n = 9), with only one species detected by both methods. The rarefaction curve indicated that blowfly-derived DNA would continue to detect more species with greater sampling effort. With further calibration, blowfly-derived DNA may join the list of traditional field methods. Areas for further investigation include blowfly feeding and dispersal biology, primer biases, and the assembly of a comprehensive and taxonomically-consistent DNA barcode reference library.

  3. Plantago lagopus B Chromosome Is Enriched in 5S rDNA-Derived Satellite DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumke, K.; Macas, Jiří; Fuchs, J.; Altschmied, L.; Kour, J.; Dhar, M.K.; Houben, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 1 (2016), s. 68-73 ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Polymorhpic A chromosome segment * Satellite repeat * Supernumerary chromosome * 5S rDNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.354, year: 2016

  4. Nucleotide Excision Repair Lesion-Recognition Protein Rad4 Captures a Pre-Flipped Partner Base in a Benzo[a]pyrene-Derived DNA Lesion: How Structure Impacts the Binding Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The xeroderma pigmentosum C protein complex (XPC) recognizes a variety of environmentally induced DNA lesions and is the key in initiating their repair by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. When bound to a lesion, XPC flips two nucleotide pairs that include the lesion out of the DNA duplex, yielding a productively bound complex that can lead to successful lesion excision. Interestingly, the efficiencies of NER vary greatly among different lesions, influencing their toxicity and mutagenicity in cells. Though differences in XPC binding may influence NER efficiency, it is not understood whether XPC utilizes different mechanisms to achieve productive binding with different lesions. Here, we investigated the well-repaired 10R-(+)-cis-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-N2-dG (cis-B[a]P-dG) DNA adduct in a duplex containing normal partner C opposite the lesion. This adduct is derived from the environmental pro-carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene and is likely to be encountered by NER in the cell. We have extensively investigated its binding to the yeast XPC orthologue, Rad4, using umbrella sampling with restrained molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations. The NMR solution structure of this lesion in duplex DNA has shown that the dC complementary to the adducted dG is flipped out of the DNA duplex in the absence of XPC. However, it is not known whether the “pre-flipped” base would play a role in its recognition by XPC. Our results show that Rad4 first captures the displaced dC, which is followed by a tightly coupled lesion-extruding pathway for productive binding. This binding path differs significantly from the one deduced for the small cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer lesion opposite mismatched thymines [MuH., (2015) Biochemistry, 54(34), 5263−726270861]. The possibility of multiple paths that lead to productive binding to XPC is consistent with the versatile lesion recognition by XPC that is required for successful NER. PMID:28460163

  5. Translesion DNA Synthesis by Human DNA Polymerase η on Templates Containing a Pyrimidopurinone Deoxyguanosine Adduct, 3-(2′-Deoxy-β-d-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido-[1,2-a]purin-10(3H)-one†

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    M1dG (3-(2′-deoxy-β-d-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-a]purin-10(3H)-one) lesions are mutagenic in bacterial and mammalian cells, leading to base substitutions (mostly M1dG to dT and M1dG to dA) and frameshift mutations. M1dG is produced endogenously through the reaction of peroxidation products, base propenal or malondialdehyde, with deoxyguanosine residues in DNA. The mutagenicity of M1dG in Escherichia coli is dependent on the SOS response, specifically the umuC and umuD gene products, suggesting that mutagenic lesion bypass occurs by the action of translesion DNA polymerases, like DNA polymerase V. Bypass of DNA lesions by translesion DNA polymerases is conserved in bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. The ability of recombinant human DNA polymerase η to synthesize DNA across from M1dG was studied. M1dG partially blocked DNA synthesis by polymerase η. Using steady-state kinetics, we found that insertion of dCTP was the least favored insertion product opposite the M1dG lesion (800-fold less efficient than opposite dG). Extension from M1dG·dC was equally as efficient as from control primer-templates (dG·dC). dATP insertion opposite M1dG was the most favored insertion product (8-fold less efficient than opposite dG), but extension from M1dG·dA was 20-fold less efficient than dG·dC. The sequences of full-length human DNA polymerase η bypass products of M1dG were determined by LC-ESI/MS/MS. Bypass products contained incorporation of dA (52%) or dC (16%) opposite M1dG or −1 frameshifts at the lesion site (31%). Human DNA polymerase η bypass may lead to M1dG to dT and frameshift but likely not M1dG to dA mutations during DNA replication. PMID:19108641

  6. Translesion DNA synthesis by human DNA polymerase eta on templates containing a pyrimidopurinone deoxyguanosine adduct, 3-(2'-deoxy-beta-d-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido-[1,2-a]purin-10(3H)-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Jennifer B; Eoff, Robert L; Kozekova, Albena; Rizzo, Carmelo J; Guengerich, F Peter; Marnett, Lawrence J

    2009-01-20

    M(1)dG (3-(2'-deoxy-beta-d-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-a]purin-10(3H)-one) lesions are mutagenic in bacterial and mammalian cells, leading to base substitutions (mostly M(1)dG to dT and M(1)dG to dA) and frameshift mutations. M(1)dG is produced endogenously through the reaction of peroxidation products, base propenal or malondialdehyde, with deoxyguanosine residues in DNA. The mutagenicity of M(1)dG in Escherichia coli is dependent on the SOS response, specifically the umuC and umuD gene products, suggesting that mutagenic lesion bypass occurs by the action of translesion DNA polymerases, like DNA polymerase V. Bypass of DNA lesions by translesion DNA polymerases is conserved in bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. The ability of recombinant human DNA polymerase eta to synthesize DNA across from M(1)dG was studied. M(1)dG partially blocked DNA synthesis by polymerase eta. Using steady-state kinetics, we found that insertion of dCTP was the least favored insertion product opposite the M(1)dG lesion (800-fold less efficient than opposite dG). Extension from M(1)dG.dC was equally as efficient as from control primer-templates (dG.dC). dATP insertion opposite M(1)dG was the most favored insertion product (8-fold less efficient than opposite dG), but extension from M(1)dG.dA was 20-fold less efficient than dG.dC. The sequences of full-length human DNA polymerase eta bypass products of M(1)dG were determined by LC-ESI/MS/MS. Bypass products contained incorporation of dA (52%) or dC (16%) opposite M(1)dG or -1 frameshifts at the lesion site (31%). Human DNA polymerase eta bypass may lead to M(1)dG to dT and frameshift but likely not M(1)dG to dA mutations during DNA replication.

  7. Crystal Structure of the Human Hsmar1-Derived Transposase Domain in the DNA Repair Enzyme Metnase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, Kristie D.; He, Hongzhen; Imasaki, Tsuyoshi; Lee, Suk-Hee; Georgiadis, Millie M. (Indiana-Med)

    2010-08-12

    Although the human genome is littered with sequences derived from the Hsmar1 transposon, the only intact Hsmar1 transposase gene exists within a chimeric SET-transposase fusion protein referred to as Metnase or SETMAR. Metnase retains many of the transposase activities including terminal inverted repeat (TIR) specific DNA-binding activity, DNA cleavage activity, albeit uncoupled from TIR-specific binding, and the ability to form a synaptic complex. However, Metnase has evolved as a DNA repair protein that is specifically involved in nonhomologous end joining. Here, we present two crystal structures of the transposase catalytic domain of Metnase revealing a dimeric enzyme with unusual active site plasticity that may be involved in modulating metal binding. We show through characterization of a dimerization mutant, F460K, that the dimeric form of the enzyme is required for its DNA cleavage, DNA-binding, and nonhomologous end joining activities. Of significance is the conservation of F460 along with residues that we propose may be involved in the modulation of metal binding in both the predicted ancestral Hsmar1 transposase sequence as well as in the modern enzyme. The Metnase transposase has been remarkably conserved through evolution; however, there is a clustering of substitutions located in alpha helices 4 and 5 within the putative DNA-binding site, consistent with loss of transposition specific DNA cleavage activity and acquisition of DNA repair specific cleavage activity.

  8. Exploring encapsulation mechanism of DNA and mononucleotides in sol-gel derived silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusuz, Derya; Durucan, Caner

    2017-07-01

    The encapsulation mechanism of DNA in sol-gel derived silica has been explored in order to elucidate the effect of DNA conformation on encapsulation and to identify the nature of chemical/physical interaction of DNA with silica during and after sol-gel transition. In this respect, double stranded DNA and dAMP (2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-monophosphate) were encapsulated in silica using an alkoxide-based sol-gel route. Biomolecule-encapsulating gels have been characterized using UV-Vis, 29 Si NMR, FTIR spectroscopy and gas adsorption (BET) to investigate chemical interactions of biomolecules with the porous silica network and to examine the extent of sol-gel reactions upon encapsulation. Ethidium bromide intercalation and leach out tests showed that helix conformation of DNA was preserved after encapsulation. For both biomolecules, high water-to-alkoxide ratio promoted water-producing condensation and prevented alcoholic denaturation. NMR and FTIR analyses confirmed high hydraulic reactivity (water adsorption) for more silanol groups-containing DNA and dAMP encapsulated gels than plain silica gel. No chemical binding/interaction occurred between biomolecules and silica network. DNA and dAMP encapsulated silica gelled faster than plain silica due to basic nature of DNA or dAMP containing buffer solutions. DNA was not released from silica gels to aqueous environment up to 9 days. The chemical association between DNA/dAMP and silica host was through phosphate groups and molecular water attached to silanols, acting as a barrier around biomolecules. The helix morphology was found not to be essential for such interaction. BET analyses showed that interconnected, inkbottle-shaped mesoporous silica network was condensed around DNA and dAMP molecules.

  9. Characterization of a DNA damage-recognition protein mammalian cells that binds specifically to intrastrand d(GpG) and d(ApG) DNA adducts of the anticancer drug cisplatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahue, B.A.; Augot, M.; Bellon, S.F.; Treiber, D.K.; Toney, J.H.; Lippard, S.J.; Essigmann, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    A factor has been identified in extracts from human HeLa and hamster V79 cells that retards the electrophoretic mobility of several DNA restriction fragments modified with the antitumor drug cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin). Binding of the factor to cisplatin-modified DNA was sensitive to pretreatment with proteinase K, establishing that the factor is a protein. Gel mobility shifts were observed with probes containing as few as seven Pt atoms per kilobase of duplex DNA. By competition experiments the dissociation constant, K d , of the protein from cisplatin-modified DNA was estimated to be (1-20) x 10 -10 M. Protein binding is selective for DNA modified with cisplatin, [Pt(en)Cl 2 ] (en, ethylenediamine), and [Pt(dach)Cl 2 ] (dach, 1,2-diaminocyclohexane) but not with chemotherapeutically inactive trans-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) or monofunctionally coordinating [Pt(dien)Cl]Cl (dien, diethylenetriamine) complexes. The protein binds specifically to 1,2-intrastrand d(GpG) and d(ApG) cross-links formed by cisplatin. The apparent molecular weight of the protein is 91,000, as determined by sucrose gradient centrifugation of a preparation partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation. Binding of the protein to platinum-modified DNA does not require cofactors but is sensitive to treatment with 5 mM MnCl 2 , CdCl 2 , CoCl 2 , or ZnCl 2 and with 1 mM HgCl 2 . This protein, alone or in conjunction with other cellular constituents, could be of general importance in the initial stages of processing of mammalian DNA damaged by cisplatin or other genotoxic agents and may belong to a wider class of such cellular damage-recognition proteins (DRPs)

  10. Specific binding of a dihydropyrimidinone derivative with DNA: Spectroscopic, calorimetric and modeling investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Gongke, E-mail: wanggongke@126.com [School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Yan Changling; Wang Dongchao; Li Dan [School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Lu Yan, E-mail: yanlu2001@sohu.com [School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China)

    2012-07-15

    One of the dihydropyrimidinone derivative 5-(ethoxycarbonyl)-6-methyl-4-(4-methoxyphenyl) -3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one (EMMD) was synthesized, and its binding properties with calf-thymus DNA (ctDNA) were investigated using spectroscopic, viscometric, isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) and molecular modeling techniques. Fluorescence spectra suggested that the fluorescence enhancement of the binding interaction of EMMD to ctDNA was a static process with ground state complex formation. The binding constant determined with spectroscopic titration and ITC was found to be in the same order of 10{sup 4} M{sup -1}. According to the results of the viscosity analysis, fluorescence competitive binding experiment, fluorescence quenching studies, absorption spectral and ITC investigations, it can be concluded that EMMD is intercalative binding to ctDNA. Furthermore, the results of molecular modeling confirmed those obtained from spectroscopic, viscosimetric and ITC investigations. Additionally, ITC studies also indicated that the binding interaction is predominantly enthalpy driven. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Medically important dihydropyrimidinones derivative EMMD is synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EMMD is intercalative binding into ctDNA helix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen bonding may play an essential role in the binding of EMCD with ctDNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This binding interaction is predominantly enthalpy driven.

  11. Removing residual DNA from Vero-cell culture-derived human rabies vaccine by using nuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Ming; Bai, Fu-Liang; Xu, Wen-Juan; Yang, Yong-Bi; An, Ying; Li, Tian-He; Yu, Yin-Hang; Li, De-Shan; Wang, Wen-Fei

    2014-09-01

    The clearance of host cell DNA is a critical indicator for Vero-cell culture-derived rabies vaccine. In this study, we evaluated the clearance of DNA in Vero-cell culture-derived rabies vaccine by purification process utilizing ultrafiltration, nuclease digestion, and gel filtration chromatography. The results showed that the bioprocess of using nuclease decreased residual DNA. Dot-blot hybridization analysis showed that the residual host cell DNA was rabies vaccine was less than 0.1 ng/ml protein. The residual nuclease could not paly the biologically active role of digestion of DNA. Experiments of stability showed that the freeze-drying rabies virus vaccine was stable and titers were >5.0 IU/ml. Immunogenicity test and protection experiments indicated mice were greatly induced generation of neutralizing antibodies and invoked protective effects immunized with intraperitoneal injections of the rabies vaccine. These results demonstrated that the residual DNA was removed from virus particles and nuclease was removed by gel filtration chromatography. The date indicated that technology was an efficient method to produce rabies vaccine for human use by using nuclease. Copyright © 2014 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Annonalide and derivatives: Semisynthesis, cytotoxic activities and studies on interaction of annonalide with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ricardo A; Gomes, Akenaton O C V; de Brito, Maria V; Dos Santos, Ana L P; da Silva, Gladyane S; de Lima, Leandro B; Nunes, Fátima M; de Mattos, Marcos C; de Oliveira, Fátima C E; do Ó Pessoa, Cláudia; de Moraes, Manoel O; de Fátima, Ângelo; Franco, Lucas L; Silva, Marina de M; Dantas, Maria Dayanne de A; Santos, Josué C C; Figueiredo, Isis M; da Silva-Júnior, Edeíldo F; de Aquino, Thiago M; de Araújo-Júnior, João X; de Oliveira, Maria C F; Leslie Gunatilaka, A A

    2018-02-01

    The cytotoxic activity of the pimarane diterpene annonalide (1) and nine of its semisynthetic derivatives (2-10) was investigated against the human tumor cell lines HL-60 (leukemia), PC-3 (prostate adenocarcinoma), HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma), SF-295 (glioblastoma) and HCT-116 (colon cancer), and normal mouse fibroblast (L929) cells. The preparation of 2-10 involved derivatization of the side chain of 1 at C-13. Except for 2, all derivatives are being reported for the first time. Most of the tested compounds presented IC 50 s below 4.0 μM, being considered potential antitumor agents. The structures of all new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses including 2D NMR and HRMS. Additionally, the interaction of annonalide (1) with ctDNA was evaluated using spectroscopic techniques, and the formation of a supramolecular complex with the macromolecule was confirmed. Competition assays with fluorescent probes (Hoechst and ethidium bromide) and theoretical studies confirmed that 1 interacts preferentially via DNA intercalation with stoichiometric ratio of 1:1 (1:ctDNA). The ΔG value was calculated as -28.24 kJ mol -1 , and indicated that the interaction process occurs spontaneously. Docking studies revealed that van der Walls is the most important interaction in 1-DNA and EB-DNA complexes, and that both ligands (1 and EB) interact with the same DNA residues (DA6, DA17 and DT19). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Experimental and computational evidence for hydrogen bonding interaction between 2′-deoxyadenosine conjugate adduct and amino-terminated organic film on Si(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szwajca, A., E-mail: Anna.Szwajca@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, A" . Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89 b, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Krzywiecki, M. [Institute of Physics-CSE, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 22B, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Pluskota-Karwatka, D. [Faculty of Chemistry, A" . Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89 b, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2015-08-03

    A simple method for immobilization of malonaldehyde-acetaldehyde conjugate adduct with DNA base onto an amino-terminated surface of silicon from water solution is proposed. The Si(001) surface which contains OH groups was modified with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) to serve as a linker between the silica surface and the organic adduct. The 2′-deoxyadenosine adduct was adsorbed on the APTMS/Si surface from acetonitrile/water solution. This nucleoside derivative is stable under laboratory conditions and emits a natural fluorescence, allowing for its adsorption on the APTMS/Si surface to be easily verified by fluorescence microscopy, non-contact atomic force microscopy and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The degree of surface coverage by the adduct was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Analysis of the XPS spectra revealed bands at 400.2 eV and 533.1 eV which are characteristic of a hydrogen bonded –NH{sub 2} and –OH group. This observation implies that the free electron donating –NH{sub 2} groups from the APTMS layer makes hydrogen bonds with the fluorescent adduct and immobilize it on the surface. The wetting angle of the APTMS/Si surface before and after adsorption of the nucleoside derivative does not differ significantly, which points to the involvement of an – OH group from 2′-deoxyadenosine to be involved in hydrogen bonding. These experimental results were further supported using quantum chemical calculations to demonstrate that the 2′deoxyadenosine adduct makes hydrogen bonds with the APTMS molecule. Furthermore, this hydrogen bond involves the –NH{sub 2} group from APTMS and –OH group at carbon atoms C3 and C6 from the deoxyribose ring of 2′deoxyadenosine. - Highlights: • DNA base adduct was immobilized onto amino-terminated silicon surface. • Hydrogen bonds were observed between aminosilane molecules and deoxyribose ring. • Fluorescent film was characterized by

  14. Carrion fly-derived DNA metabarcoding is an effective tool for mammal surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodgers, Torrey W.; Xu, Charles C.Y.; Giacalone, Jacalyn; Kapheim, Karen M.; Saltonstall, Kristin; Vargas, Marta; Yu, Douglas W.; Somervuo, Panu; McMillan, W.O.; Jansen, Patrick A.

    2017-01-01

    Metabarcoding of vertebrate DNA derived from carrion flies has been proposed as a promising tool for biodiversity monitoring. To evaluate its efficacy, we conducted metabarcoding surveys of carrion flies on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, which has a well-known mammal community, and compared

  15. A powerful selection assay for mixture libraries of DNA alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Young-Wan; Boger, Dale L

    2004-08-04

    A simple and powerful selection assay that permits the separation (rpHPLC), quantitation (ELSD), and identification (ESI-MS) of thermally released adenine adducts derived from duocarmycin analogues is detailed that can establish the most effective DNA alkylating agents in synthetic combinatorial mixtures.

  16. NMR studies of the exocyclic 1,N6-ethenodeoxyadenosine adduct (εdA) opposite thymidine in a DNA duplex. Nonplanar alignment of εdA(anti) and dT(anti) at the lesion site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchakdjian, M.; Patel, D.J.; Eisenberg, M.; Yarema, K.; Basu, A.; Essigmann, J.

    1991-01-01

    Two-dimensional proton NMR studies are reported on the complementary d(C-A-T-G-T-G-T-A-C)·d(G-T-A-C-εA-C-A-T-G) nonanucleotide duplex (designated εdA·dT 9-mer duplex) containing 1,N 6 -ethenodeoxyadenosine (εdA), a carcinogen-DNA adduct, positioned opposite thymidine in the center of the helix. The authors NMR studies have focused on the conformation of the εdA·dT 9-mer duplex at neutral pH with emphasis on defining the alignment at the dT5·εdA14 lesion site. The through-space NOE distance connectivities establish that both dT5 and εdA14 adopt anti glycosidic torsion angles, are directed into the interior of the helix, and stack with flanking Watson-Crick dG4·dC15 and dG6·dC13 pairs. Furthermore, the d(G4-T5-G6)·d(C13-εA14-C15) trinucleotide segment centered about the dT5·εdA14 lesion site adopts a right-handed helical conformation in solution. Energy minimization computations were undertaken starting from six different alignments of dT5(anti) and εdA14(anti) at the lesion site and were guided by distance constraints defined by lower and upper bounds estimated from NOESY data sets on the εdA·dT 9-mer duplex. The NMR data are consistent with a nonplanar alignment of εdA14(anti) and dT5(anti) with dT5 displaced toward the flanking dG4·dC15 base pair within the d(G4-T5-G6)·d(C13-εA14-C15) segment of the εdA·dT 9-mer duplex

  17. DNA repair ability of cultured cells derived from mouse embryos in comparison with human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaki, T.

    1982-01-01

    DNA repair in mouse cells derived from embryos of 3 inbred strains were investigated in comparison with that in human cells. The levels of unscheduled DNA synthesis after UV irradiation appeared to change at different passages, but capacities of host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus were always reduced to the same levels as those in xeroderma pigmentosum cells. This implied that mouse cells are reduced in excision-repair capacities and that the apparently high levels of unscheduled DNA synthesis at certain passages are not quantitatively related to high levels of cell survival. Essentially no differences in DNA repair were noted among 3 strains - BALB/c, C3H/He and C57BL/10. (orig.)

  18. DNA adducts and human atherosclerotic lesions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Binková, Blanka; Strejc, P.; Boubelík, O.; Stávková, Zdena; Chvátalová, Irena; Šrám, Radim

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 204, - (2001), s. 49-54 ISSN 1438-4639 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : atherosclerosis * autopsy thoracic aortas Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.480, year: 2001

  19. The mechanism of formation of (deoxy)guanosine adducts derived from peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of the carcinogenic non-aminoazo dye 1-phenylazo-2-hydroxynaphthalene (SudanI)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínek, V.; Dračínský, Martin; Cvačka, Josef; Semanská, M.; Frei, E.; Stiborová, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 276, Suppl. 1 (2009), s. 20-20 ISSN 1742-464X. [FEBS Congress /34/. 04.07.2009-09.07.2009, Praha] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400550903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : carcinogen * Sudan I metabolites * adducts Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  20. (DHQ)2AQN-catalyzed asymmetric substitution of isatin-derived hydrazones with O-Boc-protected Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts: A strategy for synthesizing enantioenriched azo compounds incorporating an oxindole scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai-Bin; Zhao, Yun-Zhou; Sang, Rui; Shi, Min

    2014-04-18

    The first example for the preparation of enantioenriched azo compounds from hydrazones and Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts has been developed, affording azo compounds incorporating an oxindole scaffold in up to 91% yield along with a 93% ee value under the catalysis of (DHQ)2AQN.

  1. 2'-Deoxythymidine Adducts from the Anti-HIV Drug Nevirapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matilde Marques

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nevirapine (NVP is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI used against HIV-1. Currently, NVP is the most widely used anti-HIV drug in developing countries, both in combination therapy and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Despite its efficacy against HIV, NVP produces a variety of toxic responses, including hepatotoxicity and skin rash. It is also associated with increased incidences of hepatoneoplasias in rodents. In addition, epidemiological data suggest that NNRTI use is a risk factor for non-AIDS-defining cancers in HIV-positive patients. Current evidence supports the involvement of metabolic activation to reactive electrophiles in NVP toxicity. NVP metabolism includes oxidation to 12-hydroxy-NVP; subsequent Phase II sulfonation produces an electrophilic metabolite, 12-sulfoxy-NVP, capable of reacting with DNA to yield covalent adducts. Since 2’-deoxythymidine (dT adducts from several alkylating agents are regarded as having significant mutagenic/carcinogenic potential, we investigated the formation of NVP-dT adducts under biomimetic conditions. Toward this goal, we initially prepared and characterized synthetic NVP-dT adduct standards using a palladium-mediated Buchwald-Hartwig coupling strategy. The synthetic standards enabled the identification, by LC-ESI-MS, of 12-(2'-deoxythymidin-N3-yl-nevirapine (N3-NVP-dT in the enzymatic hydrolysate of salmon testis DNA reacted with 12-mesyloxy-NVP, a synthetic surrogate for 12-sulfoxy-NVP. N3-NVP-dT, a potentially cytotoxic and mutagenic DNA lesion, was also the only dT-specific adduct detected upon reaction of dT with 12-mesyloxy-NVP. Our data suggest that N3-NVP-dT may be formed in vivo and play a role in the hepatotoxicity and/or putative hepatocarcinogenicity of NVP.

  2. Nontargeted Identification of Reactive Metabolite Protein Adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeming, Michael G; Donald, William A; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2017-06-06

    Metabolic bioactivation of many different chemicals results in the formation of highly reactive compounds (chemically reactive metabolites, CRMs) that can lead to toxicity via binding to macromolecular targets (e.g., proteins or DNA). There is a need to develop robust, rapid, and nontargeted analytical techniques to determine the identity of the protein targets of CRMs and their sites of modification. Here, we introduce a nontargeted methodology capable of determining both the identity of a CRM formed from an administered compound as well as the protein targets modified by the reactive metabolite in a single experiment without prior information. Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, APAP) and 13 C 6 -APAP were incubated with rat liver microsomes, which are known to bioactivate APAP to the reactive metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI). Global tryptic digestion followed by liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric (LC/MS) analysis was used to locate "twin" ion peaks of peptides adducted by NAPQI and for shotgun proteomics via tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). By the development of blended data analytics software called Xenophile, the identity of the amino acid residue that was adducted can be established, which eliminates the need for specific parametrization of protein database search algorithms. This combination of experimental design and data analysis software allows the identity of a CRM, the protein target, and the amino acid residues that are modified to be rapidly established directly from experimental data. Xenophile is freely available from https://github.com/mgleeming/Xenophile .

  3. Mutagenicity of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline in colon and liver of Big Blue rats: role of DNA adducts, strand breaks, DNA repair and oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, P.; Wallin, H.; Vogel, U.

    2002-01-01

    The contribution of oxidative stress, different types of DNA damage and expression of DNA repair enzymes in colon and liver mutagenesis induced by 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) was investigated in four groups of six Big Blue rats fed diets with 0, 20, 70, and 200 mg IQ/kg for 3......, and the same IQ dose produced two-fold more cII mutations in the liver compared with the colon. The IQ-induced mutation spectrum in the colon was not significantly different to that of control rats. The expression of ERCC1 and OGG1 was higher in the colon than liver, and was unaffected by the IQ diet....... Investigations of oxidative stress biomarkers produced inconclusive results. Oxidative DNA damage detected by the endonuclease III enzyme and 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine in colon, liver and/or urine was unaltered by IQ. However, there was increased level of gamma-glutamyl semialdehyde in liver proteins...

  4. Optimising restriction enzyme cleavage of DNA derived from archival histopathological samples: an improved HUMARA assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Lidija; Delahunt, Brett; McIver, Bryan; Eberhardt, Norman L; Grebe, Stefan K G

    2003-02-01

    Our aim was to evaluate and optimise methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme assays for use in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET) samples, in order to improve the application of the HUMARA X-chromosome inactivation assay to FFPET samples. We extracted DNA from normal male colon and thyroid FFPET. Several DNA clean-up procedures and restriction enzyme buffer compositions were tested for two methylation-sensitive enzymes, HhaI and HpaII and a non-methylation-sensitive isoschizomere, MspI. By including both a non-methylation-sensitive control enzyme and DNA from male archival specimens in our experiments, we were able to detect even subtle degrees of incomplete digestion. We showed that FFPET-derived DNA is a poor substrate for restriction enzymes, especially for methylation-sensitive restriction endonucleases. An optimised DNA clean-up protocol and restriction enzyme buffer-mix allowed us to achieve complete digestion. The combination of multiple, rigorous controls, DNA clean-up and restriction buffer optimisation increases the reliability of HUMARA-based X-chromosome inactivation analysis of FFPET samples. Analogous approaches are likely to allow optimisation of other restriction enzyme-based assays of FFPET samples.

  5. RNA:DNA Ratio and Other Nucleic Acid Derived Indices in Marine Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Chícharo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Some of most used indicators in marine ecology are nucleic acid-derived indices. They can be divided by target levels in three groups: 1 at the organism level as ecophysiologic indicators, indicators such as RNA:DNA ratios, DNA:dry weight and RNA:protein, 2 at the population level, indicators such as growth rate, starvation incidence or fisheries impact indicators, and 3 at the community level, indicators such as trophic interactions, exergy indices and prey identification. The nucleic acids derived indices, especially RNA:DNA ratio, have been applied with success as indicators of nutritional condition, well been and growth in marine organisms. They are also useful as indicators of natural or anthropogenic impacts in marine population and communities, such as upwelling or dredge fisheries, respectively. They can help in understanding important issues of marine ecology such as trophic interactions in marine environment, fish and invertebrate recruitment failure and biodiversity changes, without laborious work of counting, measuring and identification of small marine organisms. Besides the objective of integrate nucleic acid derived indices across levels of organization, the paper will also include a general characterization of most used nucleic acid derived indices in marine ecology and also advantages and limitations of them. We can conclude that using indicators, such RNA:DNA ratios and other nucleic acids derived indices concomitantly with organism and ecosystems measures of responses to climate change (distribution, abundance, activity, metabolic rate, survival will allow for the development of more rigorous and realistic predictions of the effects of anthropogenic climate change on marine systems.

  6. RNA:DNA ratio and other nucleic acid derived indices in marine ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chícharo, Maria A; Chícharo, Luis

    2008-08-01

    Some of most used indicators in marine ecology are nucleic acid-derived indices. They can be divided by target levels in three groups: 1) at the organism level as ecophysiologic indicators, indicators such as RNA:DNA ratios, DNA:dry weight and RNA:protein, 2) at the population level, indicators such as growth rate, starvation incidence or fisheries impact indicators, and 3) at the community level, indicators such as trophic interactions, exergy indices and prey identification. The nucleic acids derived indices, especially RNA:DNA ratio, have been applied with success as indicators of nutritional condition, well been and growth in marine organisms. They are also useful as indicators of natural or anthropogenic impacts in marine population and communities, such as upwelling or dredge fisheries, respectively. They can help in understanding important issues of marine ecology such as trophic interactions in marine environment, fish and invertebrate recruitment failure and biodiversity changes, without laborious work of counting, measuring and identification of small marine organisms. Besides the objective of integrate nucleic acid derived indices across levels of organization, the paper will also include a general characterization of most used nucleic acid derived indices in marine ecology and also advantages and limitations of them. We can conclude that using indicators, such RNA:DNA ratios and other nucleic acids derived indices concomitantly with organism and ecosystems measures of responses to climate change (distribution, abundance, activity, metabolic rate, survival) will allow for the development of more rigorous and realistic predictions of the effects of anthropogenic climate change on marine systems.

  7. The DNA damage response pathway contributes to the stability of chromosome III derivatives lacking efficient replicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Theis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic chromosomes, DNA replication initiates at multiple origins. Large inter-origin gaps arise when several adjacent origins fail to fire. Little is known about how cells cope with this situation. We created a derivative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome III lacking all efficient origins, the 5ORIΔ-ΔR fragment, as a model for chromosomes with large inter-origin gaps. We used this construct in a modified synthetic genetic array screen to identify genes whose products facilitate replication of long inter-origin gaps. Genes identified are enriched in components of the DNA damage and replication stress signaling pathways. Mrc1p is activated by replication stress and mediates transduction of the replication stress signal to downstream proteins; however, the response-defective mrc1(AQ allele did not affect 5ORIΔ-ΔR fragment maintenance, indicating that this pathway does not contribute to its stability. Deletions of genes encoding the DNA-damage-specific mediator, Rad9p, and several components shared between the two signaling pathways preferentially destabilized the 5ORIΔ-ΔR fragment, implicating the DNA damage response pathway in its maintenance. We found unexpected differences between contributions of components of the DNA damage response pathway to maintenance of ORIΔ chromosome derivatives and their contributions to DNA repair. Of the effector kinases encoded by RAD53 and CHK1, Chk1p appears to be more important in wild-type cells for reducing chromosomal instability caused by origin depletion, while Rad53p becomes important in the absence of Chk1p. In contrast, RAD53 plays a more important role than CHK1 in cell survival and replication fork stability following treatment with DNA damaging agents and hydroxyurea. Maintenance of ORIΔ chromosomes does not depend on homologous recombination. These observations suggest that a DNA-damage-independent mechanism enhances ORIΔ chromosome stability. Thus, components of the DNA damage

  8. CC-1065 and the duocarmycins: unraveling the keys to a new class of naturally derived DNA alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, D L; Johnson, D S

    1995-01-01

    Key studies defining the DNA alkylation properties and selectivity of a new class of exceptionally potent, naturally occurring antitumor antibiotics including CC-1065, duocarmycin A, and duocarmycin SA are reviewed. Recent studies conducted with synthetic agents containing deep-seated structural changes and the unnatural enantiomers of the natural products and related analogs have defined the structural basis for the sequence-selective alkylation of duplex DNA and fundamental relationships between chemical structure, functional reactivity, and biological properties. The agents undergo a reversible, stereoelectronically controlled adenine-N3 addition to the least substituted carbon of the activated cyclopropane within selected AT-rich sites. The preferential AT-rich non-covalent binding selectivity of the agents within the narrower, deeper AT-rich minor groove and the steric accessibility to the alkylation site that accompanies deep AT-rich minor groove penetration control the sequence-selective DNA alkylation reaction and stabilize the resulting adduct. For the agents that possess sufficient reactivity to alkylate DNA, a direct relationship between chemical or functional stability and biological potency has been defined. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7731958

  9. Sol-Gel-Derived Biohybrid Materials Incorporating Long-Chain DNA Aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquilla, Carmen; Kapteyn, Emily; Li, Yingfu; Brennan, John D

    2017-08-28

    Sol-gel-derived bio/inorganic hybrid materials have been examined for diverse applications, including biosensing, affinity chromatography and drug discovery. However, such materials have mostly been restricted to the interaction between entrapped biorecognition elements and small molecules, owing to the requirement for nanometer-scale mesopores in the matrix to retain entrapped biorecognition elements. Herein, we report on a new class of macroporous bio/inorganic hybrids, engineered through a high-throughput materials screening approach, that entrap micron-sized concatemeric DNA aptamers. We demonstrate that the entrapment of these long-chain DNA aptamers allows their retention within the macropores of the silica material, so that aptamers can interact with high molecular weight targets such as proteins. Our approach overcomes the major limitation of previous sol-gel-derived biohybrid materials by enabling molecular recognition for targets beyond small molecules. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Determination of Catechol Estrogen Adducts by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Establishing Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stack, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    In order to better understand the role of estrogen metabolism as it relates to breast cancer etiology, a new analytical technique that can measure CE and CE-DNA adducts at low endogenous levels is being developed...

  11. Determination of Catechol Estrogen Adducts by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Establishing Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stack, Douglas

    2001-01-01

    In order to better understand the role of estrogen metabolism as it relates to breast cancer etiology, a new analytical technique that can measure CE and CE-DNA adducts at low endogenous levels is being developed...

  12. Voreloxin is an anticancer quinolone derivative that intercalates DNA and poisons topoisomerase II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael E Hawtin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Topoisomerase II is critical for DNA replication, transcription and chromosome segregation and is a well validated target of anti-neoplastic drugs including the anthracyclines and epipodophyllotoxins. However, these drugs are limited by common tumor resistance mechanisms and side-effect profiles. Novel topoisomerase II-targeting agents may benefit patients who prove resistant to currently available topoisomerase II-targeting drugs or encounter unacceptable toxicities. Voreloxin is an anticancer quinolone derivative, a chemical scaffold not used previously for cancer treatment. Voreloxin is completing Phase 2 clinical trials in acute myeloid leukemia and platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. This study defined voreloxin's anticancer mechanism of action as a critical component of rational clinical development informed by translational research.Biochemical and cell-based studies established that voreloxin intercalates DNA and poisons topoisomerase II, causing DNA double-strand breaks, G2 arrest, and apoptosis. Voreloxin is differentiated both structurally and mechanistically from other topoisomerase II poisons currently in use as chemotherapeutics. In cell-based studies, voreloxin poisoned topoisomerase II and caused dose-dependent, site-selective DNA fragmentation analogous to that of quinolone antibacterials in prokaryotes; in contrast etoposide, the nonintercalating epipodophyllotoxin topoisomerase II poison, caused extensive DNA fragmentation. Etoposide's activity was highly dependent on topoisomerase II while voreloxin and the intercalating anthracycline topoisomerase II poison, doxorubicin, had comparable dependence on this enzyme for inducing G2 arrest. Mechanistic interrogation with voreloxin analogs revealed that intercalation is required for voreloxin's activity; a nonintercalating analog did not inhibit proliferation or induce G2 arrest, while an analog with enhanced intercalation was 9.5-fold more potent.As a first-in-class anticancer

  13. Spectroscopic profiling and computational study of the binding of tschimgine: A natural monoterpene derivative, with calf thymus DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajeh, Masoumeh Ashrafi; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Dastmalchi, Siavoush; Shaghaghi, Masoomeh; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2018-03-01

    DNA is a major target for a number of anticancer substances. Interaction studies between small molecules and DNA are essential for rational drug designing to influence main biological processes and also introducing new probes for the assay of DNA. Tschimgine (TMG) is a monoterpene derivative with anticancer properties. In the present study we tried to elucidate the interaction of TMG with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) using different spectroscopic methods. UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies as well as molecular docking study revealed formation of complex between TMG and CT-DNA. Binding constant (Kb) between TMG and DNA was 2.27 × 104 M- 1, that is comparable to groove binding agents. The fluorescence spectroscopic data revealed that the quenching mechanism of fluorescence of TMG by CT-DNA is static quenching. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH analysis, viscosity measurements and molecular docking.

  14. Donor-derived metastatic melanoma in a liver transplant recipient established by DNA fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Eason, James D; Das, Kanak; Sylvestre, Pamela B; Dean, Amanda G; Vanatta, Jason M

    2013-10-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a donor-derived malignancy that has rarely been reported in liver allograft recipients. We present a case of a transmitted donor-derived melanoma to a liver allograft recipient in whom the diagnosis was established by polymerase chain reaction-based DNA fingerprinting. A 52-year-old African-American man underwent a successful orthotropic liver transplant for alcohol-induced cirrhosis. One year after the orthotropic liver transplant, he presented at our institution with diffuse abdominal pain, and a computed tomography scan of the abdomen and chest showed innumerable masses diffusely involving the liver and multiple subcutaneous nodules in the abdominal and chest wall. A liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic melanoma. The origin of melanoma was traced to the donor by DNA fingerprinting of the native liver, the donor liver, and the donor gallbladder. Chemotherapy was initiated with temozolomide (75 mg/m² daily) and thalidomide (50 mg daily), to which he responded within 8 weeks with radiologic improvement in metastatic lesions. Tacrolimus was switched to sirolimus because of renal insufficiency as well as reported effectiveness against melanoma. Our patient survived for 9 months after the diagnosis of metastatic melanoma. He ultimately died of brain metastases. Donor-derived metastatic melanoma is a rare cancer with the highest transmission and mortality rates, which requires better recognition. Prompt diagnosis of donor-derived melanoma is critical and can be achieved reliably with polymerase chain reaction-based DNA analysis. Management options after diagnosis include de-escalation of immunosuppression, with or without urgent organ removal or retransplant. The roles of chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and radiotherapy require further study.

  15. Sirt6 Promotes DNA End Joining in iPSCs Derived from Old Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have great potential for treating age-related diseases, but the genome integrity of iPSCs is critically important. Here, we demonstrate that non-homologous end joining (NHEJ, rather than homologous recombination (HR, is less efficient in iPSCs from old mice than young mice. We further find that Sirt6 is downregulated in iPSCs from old mice. Sirt6 directly binds to Ku80 and facilitates the Ku80/DNA-PKcs interaction, thus promoting DNA-PKcs phosphorylation at residue S2056, leading to efficient NHEJ. Rescue experiments show that introducing a combination of Sirt6 and the Yamanaka factors during reprogramming significantly promotes DNA double-strand break (DSB repair by activating NHEJ in iPSCs derived from old mice. Thus, our study suggests a strategy to improve the quality of iPSCs derived from old donors by activating NHEJ and stabilizing the genome.

  16. Synthesis of DNA Oligodeoxynucleotides Containing Site-Specific 1,3-Butadiene-Deoxyadenosine Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaratne, Susith; Seiler, Christopher L; Tretyakova, Natalia Y

    2015-06-03

    Post-oligomerization synthesis is a useful technique for preparing site-specifically modified DNA oligomers. This approach involves site-specific incorporation of inherently reactive halogenated nucleobases into DNA strands using standard solid-phase synthesis, followed by post-oligomerization nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) reactions with carcinogen-derived synthons. In these reactions, the inherent reactivities of DNA and carcinogen-derived species are reversed: the modified DNA nucleobase acts as an electrophile, while the carcinogen-derived species acts as a nucleophile. In the present protocol, we describe the use of the post-oligomerization approach to prepare DNA strands containing site- and stereospecific N6-adenine and N1,N6-adenine adducts induced by epoxide metabolites of the known human and animal carcinogen 1,3-butadiene (BD). The resulting oligomers containing site-specific, structurally defined DNA adducts can be used in structural and biological studies to reveal the roles of specific BD adducts in carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary flavonoid derivatives enhance chemotherapeutic effect by inhibiting the DNA damage response pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Ching-Ying; Zupkó, István; Chang, Fang-Rong; Hunyadi, Attila; Wu, Chin-Chung; Weng, Teng-Song; Wang, Hui-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are the most common group of polyphenolic compounds and abundant in dietary fruits and vegetables. Diet high in vegetables or dietary flavonoid supplements is associated with reduced mortality rate for patients with breast cancer. Many studies have been proposed for mechanisms linking flavonoids to improving chemotherapy efficacy in many types of cancers, but data on this issue is still limited. Herein, we report on a new mechanism through which dietary flavonoids inhibit DNA damage checkpoints and repair pathways. We found that dietary flavonoids could inhibit Chk1 phosphorylation and decrease clonogenic cell growth once breast cancer cells receive ultraviolet irradiation, cisplatin, or etoposide treatment. Since the ATR-Chk1 pathway mainly involves response to DNA replication stress, we propose that flavonoid derivatives reduce the side effect of chemotherapy by improving the sensitivity of cycling cells. Therefore, we propose that increasing intake of common dietary flavonoids is beneficial to breast cancer patients who are receiving DNA-damaging chemotherapy, such as cisplatin or etoposide-based therapy. - Highlights: • First report on inhibition of both DNA damage and repair by dietary flavonoids • Dietary flavonoids inhibit cisplatin- and UV-induced Chk1 phosphorylation. • Flavonoids combined with cisplatin or UV treatment show notable growth inhibition. • Promising treatment proposal for patients who are receiving adjuvant chemotherapy

  18. Synthesis, DNA Binding and Topoisomerase I Inhibition Activity of Thiazacridine and Imidazacridine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Almeida Lafayette

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thiazacridine and imidazacridine derivatives have shown promising results as tumors suppressors in some cancer cell lines. For a better understanding of the mechanism of action of these compounds, binding studies of 5-acridin-9-ylmethylidene-3-amino-2-thioxo-thiazolidin-4-one, 5-acridin-9-ylmethylidene-2-thioxo-thiazolidin-4-one, 5-acridin-9-ylmethylidene-2-thioxo-imidazolidin-4-one and 3-acridin-9-ylmethyl-thiazolidin-2,4-dione with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy were performed. The binding constants ranged from 1.46 × 104 to 6.01 × 104 M−1. UV-Vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism measurements indicated that the compounds interact effectively with ctDNA, both by intercalation or external binding. They demonstrated inhibitory activities to human topoisomerase I, except for 5-acridin-9-ylmethylidene-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one. These results provide insight into the DNA binding mechanism of imidazacridines and thiazacridines.

  19. The fate of H atom adducts to 3'-uridine monophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Zhang, Ru Bo; Eriksson, Leif A

    2010-07-29

    The stabilities of the adducts deriving from H free radical addition to the O2, O4, and C5 positions of 3'-uridine monophosphate (3'UMP) are studied by the hybrid density functional B3LYP approach. Upon H atom addition at the O2 position, a concerted low-barrier proton-transfer process will initially occur, followed by the potential ruptures of the N-glycosidic or beta-phosphate bonds. The rupture barriers are strongly influenced by the rotational configuration of the phosphate group at the 3' terminal, and are influenced by bulk solvation effects. The O4-H adduct has the highest thermal stability, as the localization of the unpaired electron does not enable cleavage of either the C1'-N1 or the C3'-O(P) bonds. For the most stable adduct, with H atom added to the C5 position, the rate-controlled step is the H2'a abstraction by the C6 radical site, after which the subsequent strand rupture reactions proceed with low barriers. The main unpaired electron densities are presented for the transient species. Combined with previous results, it is concluded that the H atom adducts are more facile to drive the strand scission rather than N-glycosidic bond ruptures within the nucleic acid bases.

  20. Comparison of the Protective Efficacy of DNA and Baculovirus-Derived Protein Vaccines for EBOLA Virus in Guinea Pigs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mellquist-Riemenschneider, Jenny L; Garrison, Aura R; Geisbert, Joan B; Saikh, Kamal U; Heidebrink, Kelli D

    2003-01-01

    .... Previously, a priming dose of a DNA vaccine expressing the glycoprotein (GP) gene of MARV followed by boosting with recombinant baculovirus-derived GP protein was found to confer protective immunity to guinea pigs (Hevey et al., 2001...

  1. Cell kinetics, DNA integrity, differentiation, and lipid fingerprinting analysis of rabbit adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barretto, Letícia Siqueira de Sá; Lessio, Camila; Sawaki e Nakamura, Ahy Natally; Lo Turco, Edson Guimarães; da Silva, Camila Gonzaga; Zambon, João Paulo; Gozzo, Fábio César; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; de Almeida, Fernando Gonçalves

    2014-10-01

    Human adipose tissue has been described as a potential alternative reservoir for stem cells. Although studies have been performed in rabbits using autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC), these cells have not been well characterized. The primary objectives of this study were to demonstrate the presence of adipose-derived stem cells isolated from rabbit inguinal fat pads and to characterize them through osteogenic and adipogenic in vitro differentiation and lipid fingerprinting analysis. The secondary objective was to evaluate cell behavior through growth kinetics, cell viability, and DNA integrity. Rabbit ADSCs were isolated to determine the in vitro growth kinetics and cell viability. DNA integrity was assessed by an alkaline Comet assay in passages 0 and 5. The osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by Von Kossa, and Alizarin Red S staining and adipogenic differentiation were assessed by Oil Red O staining. Lipid fingerprinting analyses of control, adipogenic, and osteogenic differentiated cells were performed by MALDI-TOF/MS. We demonstrate that rabbit ADSC have a constant growth rate at the early passages, with increased DNA fragmentation at or after passage 5. Rabbit ADSC viability was similar in passages 2 and 5 (90.7% and 86.6%, respectively), but there was a tendency to decreased cellular growth rate after passage 3. The ADSC were characterized by the expression of surface markers such as CD29 (67.4%) and CD44 (89.4%), using CD 45 (0.77%) as a negative control. ADSC from rabbits were successfully isolated form the inguinal region. These cells were capable to differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic tissue when they were placed in inductive media. After each passage, there was a trend towards decreased cell growth. On the other hand, DNA fragmentation increased at each passage. ADSC had a different lipid profile when placed in control, adipogenic, or osteogenic media.

  2. Magnetic porous carbon nanocomposites derived from metal-organic frameworks as a sensing platform for DNA fluorescent detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Hongliang, E-mail: hltan@jxnu.edu.cn; Tang, Gonge; Wang, Zhixiong; Li, Qian; Gao, Jie; Wu, Shimeng

    2016-10-12

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as very fascinating functional materials due to their tunable nature and diverse applications. In this work, we prepared a magnetic porous carbon (MPC) nanocomposite by employing iron-containing MOFs (MIL-88A) as precursors through a one-pot thermolysis method. It was found that the MPC can absorb selectively single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probe to form MPC/ssDNA complex and subsequently quench the labelled fluorescent dye of the ssDNA probe, which is resulted from the synergetic effect of magnetic nanoparticles and carbon matrix. Upon the addition of complementary target DNA, however, the absorbed ssDNA probe could be released from MPC surface by forming double-stranded DNA with target DNA, and accompanied by the recovery of the fluorescence of ssDNA probe. Based on these findings, a sensing platform with low background signal for DNA fluorescent detection was developed. The proposed sensing platform exhibits high sensitivity with detection limit of 1 nM and excellent selectivity to specific target DNA, even single-base mismatched nucleotide can be distinguished. We envision that the presented study would provide a new perspective on the potential applications of MOF-derived nanocomposites in biomedical fields. - Highlights: • A MOF-derived magnetic porous carbon-based DNA fluorescent sensor was developed. • The MPC can absorb selectively single-stranded DNA probe and subsequently quench its labelled fluorescent dye. • The DNA fluorescent sensor showed excellent selectivity and high sensitivity.

  3. The presence of aflatoxin B₁-FAPY adduct and human papilloma virus in cervical smears from cancer patients in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Magda; Berumen, Jaime; Guardado-Estrada, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    The carcinogenic biomarker aflatoxin B(1)-formamidopyrimidine 2,3-dihydro-2-(N-formyl)-2',5',6'-triamino-4'-4'-oxy-N-pyrimidyl-3-hydroxy-AFB(1) called AFB(1)-FAPY adduct, and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 were quantified from DNA cervical scrapes from 40 women with cervical cancer (CC) and 14 healthy women as controls. The relationship between the AFB(1)-FAPY adduct and HPV types 16 and 18 was determined. Competitive inhibitory indirect ELISA was validated with 94% inhibition to quantify the AFB(1)-FAPY adducts in picograms per milligram of DNA (limit of detection = 0.1 pg/mg, and limit of quantification = 10 pg/mg), polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing to identify HPV types. The average concentration of AFB(1)-FAPY adducts/mg DNA in the CC cases was 1025 pg, 1420 pg with HPV16 and 630 pg sharing HPV18 (p = 0.03). In comparison, healthy controls had ≤ 2.6 pg/mg DNA, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.00006). The presence of AFB(1)-FAPY adduct increased six-fold the risk for CC between cases and controls, the odds ratio was 6.1 (95% CI = 1.4-25.4). There was a close relationship between the AFB(1)-FAPY adducts and HPV16 in CC samples.

  4. Redshift or adduct stabilization -- a computational study of hydrogen bonding in adducts of protonated carboxylic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Solveig Gaarn; Hammerum, Steen

    2009-01-01

    changes and the redshift favor the Z OH group, matching the results of NBO and AIM calculations. This reflects that the thermochemistry of adduct formation is not a good measure of the hydrogen bond strength in charged adducts, and that the ionic interactions in the E and Z adducts of protonated...

  5. Somatic mosaicism for DNA repair capacity in fibroblasts derived from a group A xeroderma pigmentosum patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.R.; Ishizaki, K.; Sasaki, M.S.; Toguchida, J.; Kato, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Kawamura, S.; Moriguchi, T.; Ikenaga, M.

    1989-01-01

    A female Japanese xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patient with severe skin lesions and various neurologic abnormalities was assigned to complementation group A by conventional cell fusion studies. Ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated skin fibroblasts showed a biphasic survival curve, as measured by colony-forming ability. The surviving fraction decreased rapidly up to 2 J/m2 of UV, with a steep slope of D(O) (mean lethal dose) = 0.95 J/m2. At much higher doses it decreased more slowly, with D(O) = 3.5 J/m2. To elucidate the cause of this unique survival response, we isolated a large number of independent clones from single colonies and measured their responses to UV. Of 81 clones analyzed, ten showed a marked resistance to killing by UV, which was only slightly more sensitive than normal cells, and these clones had a rate of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) that was about 45% of normal cells. By contrast, the remaining 71 clones were extremely sensitive to UV, typical of XP group A strains, and had a UDS level 1%-3% of normals. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism using seven polymorphic DNA probes indicated that the UV-resistant clones were derived from the same individual as the UV-sensitive clones. These results clearly demonstrate that this patient's fibroblast cells consist of two types with differing responses to UV, and provide direct evidence of somatic mosaicism for DNA repair capacity in an XP patient

  6. Glycoprotein is enough for sindbis virus-derived DNA vector to express heterogenous genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Juanjuan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To investigate the necessity and potential application of structural genes for expressing heterogenous genes from Sindbis virus-derived vector, the DNA-based expression vector pVaXJ was constructed by placing the recombinant genome of sindbis-like virus XJ-160 under the control of the human cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter of the plasmid pVAX1, in which viral structural genes were replaced by a polylinker cassette to allow for insertion of heterologous genes. The defect helper plasmids pVaE or pVaC were developed by cloning the gene of glycoprotein E3E26KE1 or capsid protein of XJ-160 virus into pVAX1, respectively. The report gene cassette pVaXJ-EGFP or pV-Gluc expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP or Gaussia luciferase (G.luc were constructed by cloning EGFP or G.luc gene into pVaXJ. EGFP or G.luc was expressed in the BHK-21 cells co-transfected with report gene cassettes and pVaE at levels that were comparable to those produced by report gene cassettes, pVaC and pVaE and were much higher than the levels produced by report gene cassette and pVaC, suggesting that glycoprotein is enough for Sindbis virus-derived DNA vector to express heterogenous genes in host cells. The method of gene expression from Sindbis virus-based DNA vector only co-transfected with envelop E gene increase the conveniency and the utility of alphavirus-based vector systems in general.

  7. Classification of plant associated bacteria using RIF, a computationally derived DNA marker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin L Schneider

    Full Text Available A DNA marker that distinguishes plant associated bacteria at the species level and below was derived by comparing six sequenced genomes of Xanthomonas, a genus that contains many important phytopathogens. This DNA marker comprises a portion of the dnaA replication initiation factor (RIF. Unlike the rRNA genes, dnaA is a single copy gene in the vast majority of sequenced bacterial genomes, and amplification of RIF requires genus-specific primers. In silico analysis revealed that RIF has equal or greater ability to differentiate closely related species of Xanthomonas than the widely used ribosomal intergenic spacer region (ITS. Furthermore, in a set of 263 Xanthomonas, Ralstonia and Clavibacter strains, the RIF marker was directly sequenced in both directions with a success rate approximately 16% higher than that for ITS. RIF frameworks for Xanthomonas, Ralstonia and Clavibacter were constructed using 682 reference strains representing different species, subspecies, pathovars, races, hosts and geographic regions, and contain a total of 109 different RIF sequences. RIF sequences showed subspecific groupings but did not place strains of X. campestris or X. axonopodis into currently named pathovars nor R. solanacearum strains into their respective races, confirming previous conclusions that pathovar and race designations do not necessarily reflect genetic relationships. The RIF marker also was sequenced for 24 reference strains from three genera in the Enterobacteriaceae: Pectobacterium, Pantoea and Dickeya. RIF sequences of 70 previously uncharacterized strains of Ralstonia, Clavibacter, Pectobacterium and Dickeya matched, or were similar to, those of known reference strains, illustrating the utility of the frameworks to classify bacteria below the species level and rapidly match unknown isolates to reference strains. The RIF sequence frameworks are available at the online RIF database, RIFdb, and can be queried for diagnostic purposes with RIF

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and antifungal activity of novel (Z)-N-(2-cyano-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl)-alkyl/aryl-sulfonamides derived from a Morita-Baylis-Hillman adduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Eder C.; Rubinger, Mayura M. M.; Zacchi, Carlos H. C.; Silva, Simone A.; Oliveira, Marcelo R. L.; Guilardi, Silvana; Alcântara, Antônio F. de C.; Piló-Veloso, Dorila; Zambolim, Laércio

    2014-06-01

    A series of allyl sulfonamides prepared from the reaction of the Morita-Baylis-Hillman adduct 2-[hydroxy(phenyl)methyl]acrylonitrile with primary sulfonamides (RSO2NH2), where R = C6H5 (1), 4-Fsbnd C6H4 (2), 4-Clsbnd C6H4 (3), 4-Brsbnd C6H4 (4), 4-NO2sbnd C6H4 (5), CH3 (6), CH3CH2 (7), CH3(CH2)3 (8), and CH3(CH2)7 (9), were characterized by IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies, mass spectrometry and elemental analyses. BLYP/6-31G* calculations suggested stereoselective reactions, resulting in the exclusive formation of the thermodynamically more stable Z-products. The Z-configuration of the products was confirmed by NOE difference spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. The allyl sulfonamides were active against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, an important agent of anthracnose in plants.

  9. Acetaminophen protein adducts: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, G Randall

    2009-01-01

    Significant controversy surrounds the clinical and legal implications of 3-para cysteinyl acetaminophen, the protein degradation product of acetaminophen protein adducts. Versions of this test have been used for several years in animal research to help understand acetaminophen toxicity. As human research papers have appeared, the allegation has been made that the presence of 3-para cysteinyl acetaminophen in a patient with hepatic injury proves causal association of acetaminophen with the injury. It has also been suggested that quantitative adduct assays can guide the management of acute overdose or repeated supra-therapeutic use of acetaminophen by determining the need for initiating therapy and the timing of the end of therapy. The purpose of this review is to discuss the nature of this molecule and the detection assay, the animal research linking it with injury, and to evaluate the human research--specifically the evidence regarding causality and clinical utility. At the current time there is inadequate evidence for the test alone to prove causal association between acetaminophen and hepatic injury. Also, since quantitative 3-para cysteinyl acetaminophen assays parallel other markers of liver injury, it is not clear that assays alone will guide therapy unless quantitative assay markers can be shown to precede other markers (in elevation or decline) or provide more specificity than the Rumack-Matthew risk categorization nomogram. These advantages have not been demonstrated.

  10. Differences in Butadiene Adduct Formation between Rats and Mice Not Due to Selective Inhibition of CYP2E1 by Butadiene Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianalto, Kaila M.; Hartman, Jessica H.; Boysen, Gunnar; Miller, Grover P.

    2013-01-01

    CYP2E1 metabolizes 1,3-butadiene (BD) into genotoxic and possibly carcinogenic 1,2-epoxy-3-butene (EB), 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB), and 1,2-epoxy-3,4-butanediol (EB-diol). The dose response of DNA and protein adducts derived from BD metabolites increase linearly at low BD exposures and then saturate at higher exposures in rats, but not mice. It was hypothesized that differences in adduct formation between rodents reflect more efficient BD oxidation in mice than rats. Herein, we assessed whether BD-derived metabolites selectively inhibit rat but not mouse CYP2E1 activity using B6C3F1 mouse and Fisher 344 rat liver microsomes. Basal CYP2E1 activities toward 4-nitrophenol were similar between rodents. Through IC50 studies, EB was the strongest inhibitor (IC50 54 μM, mouse; 98 μM, rat), BD-diol considerably weaker (IC50 1200 μM, mouse; 1000 μM, rat), and DEB inhibition nonexistent (IC50 >25 mM). Kinetic studies showed that in both species EB and BD-diol inhibited 4-nitrophenol oxidation through two-site mechanisms in which inhibition constants reflected trends observed in IC50 studies. None of the reactive epoxide metabolites inactivated CYP2E1 irreversibly. Thus, there was no selective inhibition or inactivation of rat CYP2E1 by BD metabolites relative to mouse Cyp2e1, and it can be inferred that CYP2E1 activity toward BD between rodent species would similarly not be impacted by the presence of BD metabolites. Inhibition of CYP2E1 by BD metabolites is then not responsible for the reported species difference in BD metabolism, formation of BD-derived DNA and protein adducts, mutagenicity and tumorigenesis. PMID:24021170

  11. Evaluation of Acridine Orange Derivatives as DNA-Targeted Radiopharmaceuticals for Auger Therapy: Influence of the Radionuclide and Distance to DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Edgar; Do Quental, Letícia; Palma, Elisa; Oliveira, Maria Cristina; Mendes, Filipa; Raposinho, Paula; Correia, Isabel; Lavrado, João; di Maria, Salvatore; Belchior, Ana; Vaz, Pedro; Santos, Isabel; Paulo, António

    2017-02-01

    A new family of 99mTc(I)- tricarbonyl complexes and 125I-heteroaromatic compounds bearing an acridine orange (AO) DNA targeting unit was evaluated for Auger therapy. Characterization of the DNA interaction, performed with the non-radioactive Re and 127I congeners, confirmed that all compounds act as DNA intercalators. Both classes of compounds induce double strand breaks (DSB) in plasmid DNA but the extent of DNA damage is strongly dependent on the linker between the Auger emitter (99mTc or 125I) and the AO moiety. The in vitro evaluation was complemented with molecular docking studies and Monte Carlo simulations of the energy deposited at the nanometric scale, which corroborated the experimental data. Two of the tested compounds, 125I-C5 and 99mTc-C3, place the corresponding radionuclide at similar distances to DNA and produce comparable DSB yields in plasmid and cellular DNA. These results provide the first evidence that 99mTc can induce DNA damage with similar efficiency to that of 125I, when both are positioned at comparable distances to the double helix. Furthermore, the high nuclear retention of 99mTc-C3 in tumoral cells suggests that 99mTc-labelled AO derivatives are more promising for the design of Auger-emitting radiopharmaceuticals than the 125I-labelled congeners.

  12. DNA methylation alterations in iPSC- and hESC-derived neurons: potential implications for neurological disease modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boni, Laura; Gasparoni, Gilles; Haubenreich, Carolin; Tierling, Sascha; Schmitt, Ina; Peitz, Michael; Koch, Philipp; Walter, Jörn; Wüllner, Ullrich; Brüstle, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Genetic predisposition and epigenetic alterations are both considered to contribute to sporadic neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Since cell reprogramming and the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are themselves associated with major epigenetic remodeling, it remains unclear to what extent iPSC-derived neurons lend themselves to model epigenetic disease-associated changes. A key question to be addressed in this context is whether iPSC-derived neurons exhibit epigenetic signatures typically observed in neurons derived from non-reprogrammed human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Here, we compare mature neurons derived from hESC and isogenic human iPSC generated from hESC-derived neural stem cells. Genome-wide 450 K-based DNA methylation and HT12v4 gene array expression analyses were complemented by a deep analysis of selected genes known to be involved in NDD. Our studies show that DNA methylation and gene expression patterns of isogenic hESC- and iPSC-derived neurons are markedly preserved on a genome-wide and single gene level. Overall, iPSC-derived neurons exhibit similar DNA methylation patterns compared to isogenic hESC-derived neurons. Further studies will be required to explore whether the epigenetic patterns observed in iPSC-derived neurons correspond to those detectable in native brain neurons.

  13. Detection and characterization of 1,2-dibromoethane-derived DNA crosslinks formed with O(6) -alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Goutam; Cho, Sung-Hee; Pegg, Anthony E; Guengerich, F Peter

    2013-12-02

    A combination of chemical modifications and LC-tandem MS was used for the structure elucidation of various ethylene crosslinks of DNA with O(6) -alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT, see picture). The elucidation of the chemical structures of such DNA-protein crosslinks is necessary to understand mechanisms of mutagenesis. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Synthesis, antimicrobial, DNA cleavage and antioxidant activities of tricyclic sultams derived from saccharin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghamry, Ibrahim; Youssef, Magdy M; Al-Omair, Mohammed A; Elsawy, Hany

    2017-10-20

    Two series of fused tricyclic sultams (carboxylates, 3a, b and 5a, f, g and anilides 5b-e) were synthesized from saccharin and their chemical structures were confirmed by spectroscopic tools. Then, their antibacterial activities and MIC were evaluated against two strains of gram positive and gram-negative bacteria. The MIC values of the tested compounds are in the of range 8-33 μg/ml. In addition, their DNA cleavage ability, binding affinity and their anticancer activities against hepatic cancer cell were tested. And their antioxidant activities were also measured. Four carboxylate derivatives (3a, 5a, 5f and 5g) and one anilide (5d) of the tested compounds proved to be the highest activity all over the study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. QSAR and docking studies on xanthone derivatives for anticancer activity targeting DNA topoisomerase IIα

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarfaraz Alam, Feroz KhanMetabolic and Structural Biology Department, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaAbstract: Due to the high mortality rate in India, the identification of novel molecules is important in the development of novel and potent anticancer drugs. Xanthones are natural constituents of plants in the families Bonnetiaceae and Clusiaceae, and comprise oxygenated heterocycles with a variety of biological activities along with an anticancer effect. To explore the anticancer compounds from xanthone derivatives, a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR model was developed by the multiple linear regression method. The structure–activity relationship represented by the QSAR model yielded a high activity–descriptors relationship accuracy (84% referred by regression coefficient (r2=0.84 and a high activity prediction accuracy (82%. Five molecular descriptors – dielectric energy, group count (hydroxyl, LogP (the logarithm of the partition coefficient between n-octanol and water, shape index basic (order 3, and the solvent-accessible surface area – were significantly correlated with anticancer activity. Using this QSAR model, a set of virtually designed xanthone derivatives was screened out. A molecular docking study was also carried out to predict the molecular interaction between proposed compounds and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA topoisomerase IIα. The pharmacokinetics parameters, such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity, were also calculated, and later an appraisal of synthetic accessibility of organic compounds was carried out. The strategy used in this study may provide understanding in designing novel DNA topoisomerase IIα inhibitors, as well as for other cancer targets.Keywords: drug likeness, ADMET, regression model, HeLa cell line

  16. Hybridization characteristics of biomolecular adaptors, covalent DNA streptavidin conjugates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemeyer, CM; Burger, W; Hoedemakers, RMJ

    1998-01-01

    Semisynthetic, covalent streptavidin-DNA adducts are versatile molecular connectors for the fabrication of both nano-and microstructured protein arrays by use of DNA hybridization. In this study, the hybridization characteristics of six adduct species, each containing a different DNA sequence of 21

  17. Imidazolidinone adducts of peptides and hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San George, R.C.; Hoberman, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    Acetaldehyde reacts selectively with the terminal amino groups of the α and β chains of hemoglobin to form stable adducts, the structures of which, based on 13 C NMR studies, are proposed to be diastereomeric 2-methyl imidazolidin-4-ones. In this scheme, acetaldelhyde forms a reversible Schiff base with the α-amino groups of the polypeptide chains which cyclize with the amide nitrogen of the first peptide bond to form the stable imidazolidinone adducts. In support of this mechanism, the authors found that in following the reaction of the peptide val-gly-gly with [1,2- 13 C] acetaldehyde, 13 C NMR resonances attributed to a Schiff base (δ = 170 ppm) were observed which slowly disappeared prior to appearance of resonances from a pair of stable adducts (δ = 70 and 71 ppm) believed to be the diastereomeric imidazolidinones. Schiff base formation appeared to limit the overall rate. Tetraglycine reacted in a similar manner but with a resonance from a single stable adduct observed representing the enantiomeric imidazolidinone adducts of this peptide. Peptides with proline in position 2 should be incapable of forming imidazolidinones, and the authors found that ala-pro-gly did in fact fail to form a stable adduct with acetaldehyde. The 2-methyl imidazolidin-4-one adducts of hemoglobin may be useful in determining the contribution of the amino terminal groups to the structure and functional properties of hemoglobins

  18. Hydrogen abstraction reactions by amide electron adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, M.D.; Sevilla, C.L.; Swarts, S.

    1982-01-01

    Electron reactions with a number of peptide model compounds (amides and N-acetylamino acids) in aqueous glasses at low temperature have been investigated using ESR spectroscopy. The radicals produced by electron attachment to amides, RC(OD)NDR', are found to act as hydrogen abstracting agents. For example, the propionamide electron adduct is found to abstract from its parent propionamide. Electron adducts of other amides investigated show similar behavior except for acetamide electron adduct which does not abstract from its parent compound, but does abstract from other amides. The tendency toward abstraction for amide electron adducts are compared to electron adducts of several carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes and esters. The comparison suggests the hydrogen abstraction tendency of the various deuterated electron adducts (DEAs) to be in the following order: aldehyde DEA > acid DEA = approximately ester DEA > ketone DEA > amide DEA. In basic glasses the hydrogen abstraction ability of the amide electron adducts is maintained until the concentration of base is increased sufficiently to convert the DEA to its anionic form, RC(O - )ND 2 . In this form the hydrogen abstracting ability of the radical is greatly diminished. Similar results were found for the ester and carboxylic acid DEA's tested. (author)

  19. Adjustment of Cell-Type Composition Minimizes Systematic Bias in Blood DNA Methylation Profiles Derived by DNA Collection Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiwa, Yuh; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Ryohei; Ohmomo, Hideki; Ono, Kanako; Kudo, Hisaaki; Hata, Jun; Hozawa, Atsushi; Iwasaki, Motoki; Matsuda, Koichi; Minegishi, Naoko; Satoh, Mamoru; Tanno, Kozo; Yamaji, Taiki; Wakai, Kenji; Hitomi, Jiro; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Sobue, Kenji; Shimizu, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Differences in DNA collection protocols may be a potential confounder in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) using a large number of blood specimens from multiple biobanks and/or cohorts. Here we show that pre-analytical procedures involved in DNA collection can induce systematic bias in the DNA methylation profiles of blood cells that can be adjusted by cell-type composition variables. In Experiment 1, whole blood from 16 volunteers was collected to examine the effect of a 24 h storage period at 4°C on DNA methylation profiles as measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Our statistical analysis showed that the P-value distribution of more than 450,000 CpG sites was similar to the theoretical distribution (in quantile-quantile plot, λ = 1.03) when comparing two control replicates, which was remarkably deviated from the theoretical distribution (λ = 1.50) when comparing control and storage conditions. We then considered cell-type composition as a possible cause of the observed bias in DNA methylation profiles and found that the bias associated with the cold storage condition was largely decreased (λ adjusted = 1.14) by taking into account a cell-type composition variable. As such, we compared four respective sample collection protocols used in large-scale Japanese biobanks or cohorts as well as two control replicates. Systematic biases in DNA methylation profiles were observed between control and three of four protocols without adjustment of cell-type composition (λ = 1.12-1.45) and no remarkable biases were seen after adjusting for cell-type composition in all four protocols (λ adjusted = 1.00-1.17). These results revealed important implications for comparing DNA methylation profiles between blood specimens from different sources and may lead to discovery of disease-associated DNA methylation markers and the development of DNA methylation profile-based predictive risk models.

  20. Adjustment of Cell-Type Composition Minimizes Systematic Bias in Blood DNA Methylation Profiles Derived by DNA Collection Protocols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh Shiwa

    Full Text Available Differences in DNA collection protocols may be a potential confounder in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS using a large number of blood specimens from multiple biobanks and/or cohorts. Here we show that pre-analytical procedures involved in DNA collection can induce systematic bias in the DNA methylation profiles of blood cells that can be adjusted by cell-type composition variables. In Experiment 1, whole blood from 16 volunteers was collected to examine the effect of a 24 h storage period at 4°C on DNA methylation profiles as measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Our statistical analysis showed that the P-value distribution of more than 450,000 CpG sites was similar to the theoretical distribution (in quantile-quantile plot, λ = 1.03 when comparing two control replicates, which was remarkably deviated from the theoretical distribution (λ = 1.50 when comparing control and storage conditions. We then considered cell-type composition as a possible cause of the observed bias in DNA methylation profiles and found that the bias associated with the cold storage condition was largely decreased (λ adjusted = 1.14 by taking into account a cell-type composition variable. As such, we compared four respective sample collection protocols used in large-scale Japanese biobanks or cohorts as well as two control replicates. Systematic biases in DNA methylation profiles were observed between control and three of four protocols without adjustment of cell-type composition (λ = 1.12-1.45 and no remarkable biases were seen after adjusting for cell-type composition in all four protocols (λ adjusted = 1.00-1.17. These results revealed important implications for comparing DNA methylation profiles between blood specimens from different sources and may lead to discovery of disease-associated DNA methylation markers and the development of DNA methylation profile-based predictive risk models.

  1. Diversity of Marine-Derived Fungal Cultures Exposed by DNA Barcodes: The Algorithm Matters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Andreakis

    Full Text Available Marine fungi are an understudied group of eukaryotic microorganisms characterized by unresolved genealogies and unstable classification. Whereas DNA barcoding via the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS provides a robust and rapid tool for fungal species delineation, accurate classification of fungi is often arduous given the large number of partial or unknown barcodes and misidentified isolates deposited in public databases. This situation is perpetuated by a paucity of cultivable fungal strains available for phylogenetic research linked to these data sets. We analyze ITS barcodes produced from a subsample (290 of 1781 cultured isolates of marine-derived fungi in the Bioresources Library located at the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS. Our analysis revealed high levels of under-explored fungal diversity. The majority of isolates were ascomycetes including representatives of the subclasses Eurotiomycetidae, Hypocreomycetidae, Sordariomycetidae, Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetidae, Xylariomycetidae and Saccharomycetidae. The phylum Basidiomycota was represented by isolates affiliated with the genera Tritirachium and Tilletiopsis. BLAST searches revealed 26 unknown OTUs and 50 isolates corresponding to previously uncultured, unidentified fungal clones. This study makes a significant addition to the availability of barcoded, culturable marine-derived fungi for detailed future genomic and physiological studies. We also demonstrate the influence of commonly used alignment algorithms and genetic distance measures on the accuracy and comparability of estimating Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs by the automatic barcode gap finder (ABGD method. Large scale biodiversity screening programs that combine datasets using algorithmic OTU delineation pipelines need to ensure compatible algorithms have been used because the algorithm matters.

  2. Effects of radiation on DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braddock, M.

    1985-07-01

    The hydroxyl radical (OH radical) is the most damaging radical produced by the effect of ionizing radiation in water. The rate of reaction of the OH radical with purified, native and isodisperse DNA has been determined as compared with calf thymus DNA. This has been achieved by direct observation of the rate of formation of the DNA-OH radical adduct, and by competition with SCN - . Results obtained from direct observation are consistent with calculations which have been performed using the encounter frequency model of Braams and Ebert. However, results obtained for OH radical with DNA derived from competition plots suggest a rate constant somewhat lower than that obtained from direct observation. The relative merits of both techniques are discussed. In order to study the effect of energy deposited directly in the DNA, dry films of purified plasmid DNA have been irradiated in a system where the indirect effects of radical interaction have been minimized. The present results indicate that with different molecular lengths of plasmid DNA, non-random breakage may occur, and that additional damage may be brought about at sites of previously existing damage. Differences in the sensitivity of plasmid DNA molecules of varying lengths to radiation induced double strand breaks have been demonstrated. (author)

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid-derived circulating tumour DNA better represents the genomic alterations of brain tumours than plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mattos-Arruda, Leticia; Mayor, Regina; Ng, Charlotte K. Y.; Weigelt, Britta; Martínez-Ricarte, Francisco; Torrejon, Davis; Oliveira, Mafalda; Arias, Alexandra; Raventos, Carolina; Tang, Jiabin; Guerini-Rocco, Elena; Martínez-Sáez, Elena; Lois, Sergio; Marín, Oscar; de la Cruz, Xavier; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Towers, Russel; Vivancos, Ana; Peg, Vicente; Cajal, Santiago Ramon y; Carles, Joan; Rodon, Jordi; González-Cao, María; Tabernero, Josep; Felip, Enriqueta; Sahuquillo, Joan; Berger, Michael F.; Cortes, Javier; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.; Seoane, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Cell-free circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) in plasma has been shown to be informative of the genomic alterations present in tumours and has been used to monitor tumour progression and response to treatments. However, patients with brain tumours do not present with or present with low amounts of ctDNA in plasma precluding the genomic characterization of brain cancer through plasma ctDNA. Here we show that ctDNA derived from central nervous system tumours is more abundantly present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) than in plasma. Massively parallel sequencing of CSF ctDNA more comprehensively characterizes the genomic alterations of brain tumours than plasma, allowing the identification of actionable brain tumour somatic mutations. We show that CSF ctDNA levels longitudinally fluctuate in time and follow the changes in brain tumour burden providing biomarkers to monitor brain malignancies. Moreover, CSF ctDNA is shown to facilitate and complement the diagnosis of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. PMID:26554728

  4. Spectroscopic studies on the interactions of 5-ethyl-6-phenyl-3,8-bis((3-aminoalkyl)propanamido)phenanthridin-5-ium derivatives with G-quadruplex DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçın, Ergin; Duyar, Halil; Ihmels, Heiko; Seferoğlu, Zeynel

    2018-05-01

    An improved microwave-induced synthesis of five ethidium derivatives (Ethidium derivatives, 2a-d) is presented. As the derivatives 2a-d have been proposed previously to be telomerase inhibitors, the binding interactions of these ethidium derivatives with G-quadruplex DNA were evaluated by means of photometric and fluorimetric titration, thermal DNA denaturation, CD and 1H NMR spectroscopy. In particular, the compound bearing 3,8-bis(pyrrolidin-1-yl)propanamido substituent 2a exhibits high selectivity for G-quadruplex DNA relative to duplex DNA.

  5. Diagnosing human exposure to sulfur mustard by measuring human serum albumin adducts via isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (Poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andacht, T.M.; Blake, T.A.; Noort, D.; Johnson, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard agent (HD) (2,2’-dichloroethyl sulfide) is a reactive electrophile that readily alkylates aromatic nitrogen atoms, carboxyl groups, sulfides, and sulfhydryl groups on DNA and protein. Adducts to both DNA and specific proteins have been used to assess human exposure to HD. Human serum

  6. Bisbenzamidine derivative, pentamidine represses DNA damage response through inhibition of histone H2A acetylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohba Reiko

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MRE11 is an important nuclease which functions in the end-resection step of homologous recombination (HR repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. As MRE11-deficient ATLD cells exhibit hyper radio-sensitivity and impaired DSB repair, MRE11 inhibitors could possibly function as potent radio-sensitizers. Therefore, we investigated whether a bisbenzamidine derivative, pentamidine, which can inhibit endoexonuclease activity, might influence DSB-induced damage responses via inhibition of MRE11. Results We first clarified that pentamidine inhibited MRE11 nuclease activity and also reduced ATM kinase activity in vitro. Pentamidine increased the radio-sensitivity of HeLa cells, suggesting that this compound could possibly influence DNA damage response factors in vivo. Indeed, we found that pentamidine reduced the accumulation of γ-H2AX, NBS1 and phospho-ATM at the sites of DSBs. Furthermore, pentamidine decreased HR activity in vivo. Pentamidine was found to inhibit the acetylation of histone H2A which could contribute both to inhibition of IR-induced focus formation and HR repair. These results suggest that pentamidine might exert its effects by inhibiting histone acetyltransferases. We found that pentamidine repressed the activity of Tip60 acetyltransferase which is known to acetylate histone H2A and that knockdown of Tip60 by siRNA reduced HR activity. Conclusion These results indicate that inhibition of Tip60 as well as hMRE11 nuclease by pentamidine underlies the radiosensitizing effects of this compound making it an excellent sensitizer for radiotherapy or chemotherapy.

  7. Data on internal cDNA amplification and color changes of the proteins derived from Pacific white leg shrimp shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Pan; Shoichiro, Ishizaki; Yuji, Nagashima; Jialong, Gao; Shugo, Watabe

    2018-02-01

    In this article, we report original data on the designation of the primers for full-length cDNA amplification and the internal cDNA amplification of red color-related pigment-binding protein derived from shrimp shell. Data on the color shifts of different soluble proteins under 100 °C 10 min heat treatment and the effects of heating temperatures (from 30 to 100 °C) on the color changes of crude water-soluble proteins are also included in this report. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article "Isolation and cDNA cloning of a novel red color-related pigment-binding protein derived from the shell of shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei " (Chuang et al., 2017) [1].

  8. Data on internal cDNA amplification and color changes of the proteins derived from Pacific white leg shrimp shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Chuang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we report original data on the designation of the primers for full-length cDNA amplification and the internal cDNA amplification of red color-related pigment-binding protein derived from shrimp shell. Data on the color shifts of different soluble proteins under 100 °C 10 min heat treatment and the effects of heating temperatures (from 30 to 100 °C on the color changes of crude water-soluble proteins are also included in this report. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article “Isolation and cDNA cloning of a novel red color-related pigment-binding protein derived from the shell of shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei” (Chuang et al., 2017 [1].

  9. The application of psoralens to the study of DNA structure, function and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielmann, Peter Hans [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1991-04-01

    A series of six nitroxide spin-labeled psoralens were designed, synthesized and tested as probes for DNA dynamics. The synthesis of these spin-labeled psoralen derivatives and their photoreactivity with double-stranded DNA fragments is described. The spin labels (nitroxides) were demonstrated to survive the uv irradiation required to bind the probe to the target DNA. EPR spectra of the photobound spin-labels indicate that they do not wobble with respect to the DNA on the time-scales investigated. The author has used psoralen modified DNA as a model for the study of DNA repair enzyme systems in human cell free extracts. He has shown that damage-induced DNA synthesis is associated with removal of psoralen adducts and therefore is "repair synthesis" and not an aberrant DNA synthesis reaction potentiated by deformation of the DNA by adducts. He has found that all DNA synthesis induced by psoralen monoadducts is the consequence of removal of these adducts. By the same approach he has obtained evidence that this in vitro system is capable of removing psoralen cross-links as well. Reported here are synthetic methods that make use of high intensity lasers coupled with HPLC purification to make homogeneous and very pure micromole quantities of furan-side monoadducted, cross-linked, and pyrone-side monoadducted DNA oligonucleotide. These molecules are currently being studied by NMR and X-ray crystallography. The application of the site-specifically psoralen modified oligonucleotide synthesized by these methods to the construction of substrates for the investigation of DNA repair is also discussed.

  10. Molar ratios of therapeutic water-soluble phenothiazine⋅water-insoluble phospholipid adducts reveal a Fibonacci correlation and a putative link for structure–activity relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyzer, Hendrik; Fey, S. J.; Thornton, Barry

    2015-01-01

    larger than that of the self-associated pure PTH. In summary, the reproducibility and similarity of the measurements using different PTH derivatives and PL suggests that similar adducts are formed in all the cases. We propose that the PTH$PL adduct has a “helical shape” showing Fibonacci properties...

  11. Oxidative stress generated damage to DNA by gastrointestinal exposure to insoluble particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Folkmann, J K; Danielsen, P H

    2012-01-01

    There is growing concern that gastrointestinal exposure to particles is associated with increased risk of toxicity to internal organs and carcinogenicity. The mechanism of action is related to particle-induced oxidative stress and oxidation of DNA. Observations from animal models indicate...... level of lipid peroxidation derived exocyclic DNA adducts in the liver, suggesting multiple pathways of oxidative stress for particle-generated damage to DNA. At equal dose, diesel exhaust particles (SRM2975) generated larger levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine in rat liver than carbon black...

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of human papilloma virus DNA derived from a laryngeal papilloma.

    OpenAIRE

    Gissmann, L; Diehl, V; Schultz-Coulon, H J; zur Hausen, H

    1982-01-01

    Papilloma virus DNA from a laryngeal papilloma was cloned in phage lambda L 47 and characterized after cleavage with different restriction enzymes. Hybridization with the DNAs of human papilloma virus types 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 showed no homology under stringent hybridization conditions. Human papilloma virus type 6 DNA, however, was partially identical to laryngeal papilloma virus DNA; different restriction enzyme fragments hybridizing with the other DNA were identified on each genome. The d...

  13. Simple synthesis of carbon-11-labeled chromen-4-one derivatives as new potential PET agents for imaging of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Mingzhang; Wang, Min; Miller, Kathy D.; Zheng, Qi-Huang

    2012-01-01

    Carbon-11-labeled chromen-4-one derivatives were synthesized as new potential PET agents for imaging of DNA repair enzyme DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) in cancer. The target tracers, X-[ 11 C]methoxy-2-morpholino-4H-chromen-4-ones (X=8, 7, 6, 5; [ 11 C]4a–d), were prepared from their corresponding precursors, X-hydroxy-2-morpholino-4H-chromen-4-ones (X=8, 7, 6, 5; 5a–d), with [ 11 C]CH 3 OTf through O-[ 11 C]methylation and isolated by a simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) method using a C-18 Sep-Pak Plus cartridge. The radiochemical yields decay corrected to end of bombardment (EOB), from [ 11 C]CO 2 , were 40–60%. The specific activity at end of synthesis (EOS) was 185–370 GBq/μmol. - Highlights: ► New chromen-4-one derivatives were synthesized. ► New carbon-11-labeled chromen-4-one derivatives were synthesized. ► Simple solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was employed in radiosynthesis.

  14. Novel vanillin derivatives: Synthesis, anti-oxidant, DNA and cellular protection properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipioni, Matteo; Kay, Graeme; Megson, Ian; Kong Thoo Lin, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Antioxidants have been the subject of intense research interest mainly due to their beneficial properties associated with human health and wellbeing. Phenolic molecules, such as naturally occurring Resveratrol and Vanillin, are well known for their anti-oxidant properties, providing a starting point for the development of new antioxidants. Here we report, for the first time, the synthesis of a number of new vanillin through the reductive amination reaction between vanillin and a selection of amines. All the compounds synthesised, exhibited strong antioxidant properties in DPPH, FRAP and ORAC assays, with compounds 1b and 2c being the most active. The latter also demonstrated the ability to protect plasmid DNA from oxidative damage in the presence of the radical initiator AAPH. At cellular level, neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were protected from oxidative damage (H 2 O 2 , 400 μM) with both 1b and 2c. The presence of a tertiary amino group, along with the number of vanillin moieties in the molecule contribute for the antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the delocalization of the electron pair of the nitrogen and the presence of an electron donating substituent to enhance the antioxidant properties of this new class of compounds. In our opinion, vanillin derivatives 1b and 2c described in this work can provide a viable platform for the development of antioxidant based therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. High prevalence of mutant KRAS in circulating exosome-derived DNA from early-stage pancreatic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allenson, K; Castillo, J; San Lucas, F A; Scelo, G; Kim, D U; Bernard, V; Davis, G; Kumar, T; Katz, M; Overman, M J; Foretova, L; Fabianova, E; Holcatova, I; Janout, V; Meric-Bernstam, F; Gascoyne, P; Wistuba, I; Varadhachary, G; Brennan, P; Hanash, S; Li, D; Maitra, A; Alvarez, H

    2017-04-01

    Exosomes arise from viable cancer cells and may reflect a different biology than circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) shed from dying tissues. We compare exosome-derived DNA (exoDNA) to cfDNA in liquid biopsies of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Patient samples were obtained between 2003 and 2010, with clinically annotated follow up to 2015. Droplet digital PCR was performed on exoDNA and cfDNA for sensitive detection of KRAS mutants at codons 12/13. A cumulative series of 263 individuals were studied, including a discovery cohort of 142 individuals: 68 PDAC patients of all stages; 20 PDAC patients initially staged with localized disease, with blood drawn after resection for curative intent; and 54 age-matched healthy controls. A validation cohort of 121 individuals (39 cancer patients and 82 healthy controls) was studied to validate KRAS detection rates in early-stage PDAC patients. Primary outcome was circulating KRAS status as detected by droplet digital PCR. Secondary outcomes were disease-free and overall survival. KRAS mutations in exoDNA, were identified in 7.4%, 66.7%, 80%, and 85% of age-matched controls, localized, locally advanced, and metastatic PDAC patients, respectively. Comparatively, mutant KRAS cfDNA was detected in 14.8%, 45.5%, 30.8%, and 57.9% of these individuals. Higher exoKRAS MAFs were associated with decreased disease-free survival in patients with localized disease. In the validation cohort, mutant KRAS exoDNA was detected in 43.6% of early-stage PDAC patients and 20% of healthy controls. Exosomes are a distinct source of tumor DNA that may be complementary to other liquid biopsy DNA sources. A higher percentage of patients with localized PDAC exhibited detectable KRAS mutations in exoDNA than previously reported for cfDNA. A substantial minority of healthy samples demonstrated mutant KRAS in circulation, dictating careful consideration and application of liquid biopsy findings, which may limit its utility as a broad

  16. Role of DNA lesions and DNA repair in mutagenesis by carcinogens in diploid human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, V.M.; McCormick, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigated the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, and transforming activity of carcinogens and radiation in diploid human fibroblasts, using cells which differ in their DNA repair capacity. The results indicate that cell killing and induction of mutations are correlated with the number of specific lesions remaining unrepaired in the cells at a particular time posttreatment. DNA excision repair acts to eliminate potentially cytotoxic and mutagenic (and transforming) damage from DNA before these can be converted into permanent cellular effects. Normal human fibroblasts were derived from skin biopsies or circumcision material. Skin fibroblasts from xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients provided cells deficient in nucleotide excision repair of pyrimidine dimers or DNA adducts formed by bulky ring structures. Cytotoxicity was determined from loss of ability to form a colony. The genetic marker used was resistance to 6-thioguanine (TG). Transformation was measured by determining the frequency of anchorage-independent cells

  17. Influence of vinyl chloride monomer and vinyl chloride monomer derivatives on hepatic DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is used extensively in the chemical industry, mainly in the production of polyvinyl chloride. It has recently been found to cause hepatic angiosarcoma. As VCM has also been shown to be mutagenic after metabolic activation the effect of VCM on DNA synthesis was investigated. [ 3 H]Thymidine incorporation into DNA was used to measure the rate of DNA synthesis in regenerating rat liver. A possible direct toxic effect of VCM or its metabolites on liver cell metabolism was examined by two unrelated techniques, viz. the measurement of adenine nucleotide concentrations in regenerating livers and the influence on transmembrane potentials in hepatocytes. The distribution of radioactivity in subcellular fractions following [ 14 C]VCM administration suggested microsomal conversion of VCM to an active form which was selectively retained in the nuclear fraction. Measurement of the activities of thymidine kinase and DNA polymerase in regenerating liver indicated that the induction of these enzymes which normally occurs after partial hepatectomy was not prevented by VCM treatment. Three techniques were used to test the hypothesis that the retardation in DNA synthesis was due to DNA damage: the prophage lambda induction test for DNA damage, autoradiographic detection of unscheduled thymidine incorporation into DNA, and detection of DNA strand breaks in alkaline sucrose gradients. All three provided evidence of DNA damage and led to the development of a novel technique to confirm these findings. This involved centrifugation in neutral sucrose gradients on intact double-stranded DNA contained in hepatocyte nucleoids and showed conclusively that VCM administration causes DNA strand breaks. Subsequent repair of DNA was also assessed by this technique. The site of the VCM/metabolite: DNA reaction was characterized by DNA thermal denaturation and renaturation studies

  18. Disruption of Maternal DNA Repair Increases Sperm-DerivedChromosomal Aberrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Essers, Jeroun; Kanaar, Roland; Wyrobek,Andrew J.

    2007-02-07

    The final weeks of male germ cell differentiation occur in aDNA repair-deficient environment and normal development depends on theability of the egg to repair DNA damage in the fertilizing sperm. Geneticdisruption of maternal DNA double-strand break repair pathways in micesignificantly increased the frequency of zygotes with chromosomalstructural aberrations after paternal exposure to ionizing radiation.These findings demonstrate that radiation-induced DNA sperm lesions arerepaired after fertilization by maternal factors and suggest that geneticvariation in maternal DNA repair can modulate the risk of early pregnancylosses and of children with chromosomal aberrations of paternalorigin.

  19. Base Excision Repair of N6-Deoxyadenosine Adducts of 1,3-Butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaratne, Susith; Banda, Douglas M; Ji, Shaofei; Manlove, Amelia H; Malayappan, Bhaskar; Nuñez, Nicole N; Samson, Leona; Campbell, Colin; David, Sheila S; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2016-11-01

    The important industrial and environmental carcinogen 1,3-butadiene (BD) forms a range of adenine adducts in DNA, including N 6 -(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)-2'-deoxyadenosine (N 6 -HB-dA), 1,N 6 -(2-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethylpropan-1,3-diyl)-2'-deoxyadenosine (1,N 6 -HMHP-dA), and N 6 ,N 6 -(2,3-dihydroxybutan-1,4-diyl)-2'-deoxyadenosine (N 6 ,N 6 -DHB-dA). If not removed prior to DNA replication, these lesions can contribute to A → T and A → G mutations commonly observed following exposure to BD and its metabolites. In this study, base excision repair of BD-induced 2'-deoxyadenosine (BD-dA) lesions was investigated. Synthetic DNA duplexes containing site-specific and stereospecific (S)-N 6 -HB-dA, (R,S)-1,N 6 -HMHP-dA, and (R,R)-N 6 ,N 6 -DHB-dA adducts were prepared by a postoligomerization strategy. Incision assays with nuclear extracts from human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells have revealed that BD-dA adducts were recognized and cleaved by a BER mechanism, with the relative excision efficiency decreasing in the following order: (S)-N 6 -HB-dA > (R,R)-N 6 ,N 6 -DHB-dA > (R,S)-1,N 6 -HMHP-dA. The extent of strand cleavage at the adduct site was decreased in the presence of BER inhibitor methoxyamine and by competitor duplexes containing known BER substrates. Similar strand cleavage assays conducted using several eukaryotic DNA glycosylases/lyases (AAG, Mutyh, hNEIL1, and hOGG1) have failed to observe correct incision products at the BD-dA lesion sites, suggesting that a different BER enzyme may be involved in the removal of BD-dA adducts in human cells.

  20. D-glucose derived novel gemini surfactants: synthesis and study of their surface properties, interaction with DNA, and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikash; Chatterjee, Amrita; Kumar, Nupur; Ganguly, Anasuya; Chakraborty, Indranil; Banerjee, Mainak

    2014-10-09

    Four new D-glucose derived m-s-m type gemini surfactants with variable spacer and tail length have been synthesized by a simple and efficient synthetic methodology utilizing the free C-3 hydroxy group of diisopropylidene glucose. The synthetic route to these gemini surfactants with a quaternary ammonium group as polar head group involves a sequence of simple reactions including alkylation, imine formation, quaternization of amine etc. The surface properties of the new geminis were evaluated by surface tension and conductivity measurements. These gemini surfactants showed low cytotoxicity by MTT assay on HeLa cell line. The DNA binding capabilities of these surfactants were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis, fluorescence titration, and DLS experiments. The preliminary studies by agarose gel electrophoresis indicated chain length dependent DNA binding abilities, further supported by ethidium bromide exclusion experiments. Two of the D-glucose derived gemini surfactants showed effective binding with pET-28a plasmid DNA (pDNA) at relatively low N/P ratio (i.e., cationic nitrogen/DNA phosphate molar ratio). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluorescent labelling of DNA on superparamagnetic nanoparticles by a perylene bisimide derivative for cell imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltas, Esra, E-mail: maltasesra@gmail.com [Selcuk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Malkondu, Sait [Selcuk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Uyar, Pembegul [Selcuk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Selcuk University, Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Konya (Turkey); Ozmen, Mustafa [Selcuk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 42075 Konya (Turkey)

    2015-03-01

    N,N′-Bis[tris-(2-aminoethyl) amine]-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PBI-TRIS), nonfluorescent dye was used to fluorescent labelling of DNA. For this aim, (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTS) modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were synthesized to provide a suitable surface for binding of DNA. Amine functionalized nanoparticles showed a high immobilization capacity (82.70%) at 25 mg of nanoparticle concentration for Calf thymus DNA. Binding capacity of PBI-TRIS to DNA-SPION was also found as 1.93 μM on 25 mg of nanoparticles by using UV–vis spectroscopy. Binding of PBI-TRIS to DNA onto nanoparticles was also characterized by scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The confocal images of PBI-TRIS labelled DNA-SPION and breast cells were taken at 488 and 561.7 nm of excitation wavelengths. Cell image was also compared with a commercial dye, DAPI at 403.7 nm of excitation wavelength. Results showed that PBI-TRIS can be used for cell staining. - Highlights: • Functionalized SPIONs were synthesized and treated with DNA. • The binding of PBI-TRIS with DNA was studied. • The image of PBI-TRIS labelled DNA-SPION was detected by a confocal microscope.

  2. Fluorescent labelling of DNA on superparamagnetic nanoparticles by a perylene bisimide derivative for cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltas, Esra; Malkondu, Sait; Uyar, Pembegul; Ozmen, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    N,N′-Bis[tris-(2-aminoethyl) amine]-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PBI-TRIS), nonfluorescent dye was used to fluorescent labelling of DNA. For this aim, (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTS) modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were synthesized to provide a suitable surface for binding of DNA. Amine functionalized nanoparticles showed a high immobilization capacity (82.70%) at 25 mg of nanoparticle concentration for Calf thymus DNA. Binding capacity of PBI-TRIS to DNA-SPION was also found as 1.93 μM on 25 mg of nanoparticles by using UV–vis spectroscopy. Binding of PBI-TRIS to DNA onto nanoparticles was also characterized by scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The confocal images of PBI-TRIS labelled DNA-SPION and breast cells were taken at 488 and 561.7 nm of excitation wavelengths. Cell image was also compared with a commercial dye, DAPI at 403.7 nm of excitation wavelength. Results showed that PBI-TRIS can be used for cell staining. - Highlights: • Functionalized SPIONs were synthesized and treated with DNA. • The binding of PBI-TRIS with DNA was studied. • The image of PBI-TRIS labelled DNA-SPION was detected by a confocal microscope

  3. Facile Synthesis of 5-Hydroxy-3-pyrrolin-2-ones from Morita-Baylis-Hillman Adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Cheol Hee; Kim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jae Nyoung [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    An efficient synthetic method of various 5-hydroxy-3-pyrrolin-2-one derivatives has been developed starting from the MBH adducts. In addition, some synthetic applicability of the prepared 5-hydroxy-3-pyrrolin-2-ones was demonstrated including the synthesis of lactam-fused tetrahydroisoquinolines.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup variation of contemporary mixed South Americans reveals prehistoric displacements linked to archaeologically-derived culture history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhammer, Francisco; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Puddu, Giannina; Capriles, José

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine South American population structure and prehistoric population displacements prior to the Spanish conquest, utilizing mitochondrial DNA haplogroups of extant mixed populations from Mexico, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile. Relative frequencies of four pan-American haplogroups, obtained from published databases, were analyzed to evaluate patterns of variations, population structure and possible prehistoric migration pathways. Patterns of mtDNA variation verify biogeographic drift processes and possible migratory pathways. We propose an updated model of South American colonization that is fully compatible with previous studies based on autosomal, mtDNA, and Y chromosome variation and with archaeologically-derived culture history. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Modeling techniques and fluorescence imaging investigation of the interactions of an anthraquinone derivative with HSA and ctDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zheng; Cui, Yanrui; Cui, Fengling; Zhang, Guisheng

    2016-01-01

    A new anthraquinone derivative (AORha) was synthesized. Its interactions with human serum albumin (HSA) and calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and molecular modeling. Cell viability assay and cell imaging experiment were performed using cervical cancer cells (HepG2 cells). The fluorescence results revealed that the quenching mechanism was static quenching. At different temperatures (290, 300, 310 K), the binding constants (K) and the number of binding sites (n) were determined, respectively. The positive ΔH and ΔS values showed that the binding of AORha with HSA was hydrophobic force, which was identical with the molecular docking result. Studying the fluorescence spectra, UV spectra and molecular modeling also verified that the binding mode of AORha and ctDNA might be intercalative. When HepG2 cells were treated with AORha, the fluorescence became brighter and turned green, which could be used for bioimaging.

  6. O6-pyridyloxobutylguanine adducts contribute to the mutagenic properties of pyridyloxobutylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijal, Renée S; Loktionova, Natalia A; Vu, Choua C; Pegg, Anthony E; Peterson, Lisa A

    2005-10-01

    The tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) are potent carcinogens in animal models and likely human carcinogens. Both NNK and NNN can be activated to a pyridyloxobutylating agent. This alkylating agent contributes to the carcinogenic effects of NNK and NNN via the formation of miscoding DNA adducts. One of these adducts, O6-[4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)butyl]guanine (O6-pobG) has been characterized as a mutagenic adduct which is a substrate for the repair protein O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT). Repair of O6-alkylguanine adducts by AGT protects cells from the mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of alkylating agents and is likely to play a similar role in shielding cells from the adverse effects of pyridyloxobutylating agents. Therefore, we examined the mutagenicity of the model pyridyloxobutylating agent, 4-(acetoxymethylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNKOAc), in Salmonella typhimurium YG7108 expressing hAGT. Expression of hAGT protected cells from NNKOAc-induced mutagenicity. Interestingly, hAGT did not shield cells from the toxicity of this agent. To confirm that the repair of O6-pobG was increased in the bacteria expressing hAGT, we measured levels of this adduct in NNKOAc-treated cultures. The levels of O6-pobG were lower in DNA from bacteria expressing hAGT. This work establishes an important role for O6-pobG in mediating the mutagenic, and possibly carcinogenic, effects of pyridyloxobutylating compounds.

  7. Overexpression of Human-Derived DNMT3A Induced Intergenerational Inheritance of Active DNA Methylation Changes in Rat Sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguo Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is the major focus of studies on paternal epigenetic inheritance in mammals, but most previous studies about inheritable DNA methylation changes are passively induced by environmental factors. However, it is unclear whether the active changes mediated by variations in DNA methyltransferase activity are heritable. Here, we established human-derived DNMT3A (hDNMT3A transgenic rats to study the effect of hDNMT3A overexpression on the DNA methylation pattern of rat sperm and to investigate whether this actively altered DNA methylation status is inheritable. Our results revealed that hDNMT3A was overexpressed in the testis of transgenic rats and induced genome-wide alterations in the DNA methylation pattern of rat sperm. Among 5438 reliable loci identified with 64 primer-pair combinations using a methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism method, 28.01% showed altered amplified band types. Among these amplicons altered loci, 68.42% showed an altered DNA methylation status in the offspring of transgenic rats compared with wild-type rats. Further analysis based on loci which had identical DNA methylation status in all three biological replicates revealed that overexpression of hDNMT3A in paternal testis induced hypermethylation in sperm of both genotype-negative and genotype-positive offspring. Among the differentially methylated loci, 34.26% occurred in both positive and negative offspring of transgenic rats, indicating intergenerational inheritance of active DNA methylation changes in the absence of hDNM3A transmission. Furthermore, 75.07% of the inheritable loci were hyper-methylated while the remaining were hypomethylated. Distribution analysis revealed that the DNA methylation variations mainly occurred in introns and intergenic regions. Functional analysis revealed that genes related to differentially methylated loci were involved in a wide range of functions. Finally, this study demonstrated that active DNA methylation

  8. Construction and characterization of yeast two-hybrid cDNA library derived from LFBK cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Sonalika; Sharma, Gaurav Kumar; Matura, Rakesh; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Mohapatra, Jajati Keshari; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2015-05-01

    The cDNA libraries are indispensable and critical tools for performing protein-protein interaction studies. In this study, a high quality yeast two-hybrid cDNA library from the LFBK cell line was constructed and characterized. LFBK cell line was originally derived from the swine kidney cells and is highly susceptible to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection. The total RNA was extracted from the LFBK cells and the switching mechanism at the 5' end of RNA template (SMART) technique was employed for the cDNA synthesis. Subsequently, double stranded cDNA was amplified by long-distance PCR, purified and co-transformed with pGADT7-rec vector in yeast strain Y187. The quality parameters of the constructed library were evaluated to qualify the constructed library. Nucleotide sequencing of the randomly selected clones from the library confirmed the swine genotype of LFBK cell line. The LFBK cDNA library was mated with the 2C protein of FMDV in yeast two-hybrid (YTH) system and several putative interaction partners were identified in the preliminary screening. The LFBK library was observed to be of high quality and could potentially be applied to protein interaction studies between FMDV and the host cells using YTH system. Copyright © 2015 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An electron microscopic study of the photochemical cross-linking of DNA in guinea pig epidermis by psoralen derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cech, T.; Pathak, M.A.; Biswas, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    Albino guinea pigs were treated with psoralen derivatives plus 320-400 nm ultraviolet radiation, and DNA was extracted from their epidermis. The DNA was assayed for the presence of interstrand cross-links by standard denaturation-renaturation assays and by a new technique, electron microscopy of the DNA under totally denaturing conditions. The latter method allows individual cross-links to be directly observed and counted. When either 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen or 8-methoxypsoralen was applied topically to the skin (8-20 μg/cm 2 ) or administered orally (10-12 mg/kg body weight), followed by exposure to 320-400 nm ultraviolet radiation, most of the epidermal DNA was found to contain a high frequency of cross-links. For example, oral or topical trimethylpsoralen treatment gave an average of one cross-link per 250 nucleotide pairs or about 3 . 10 5 cross-links per guinea pig chromosome. When the dose of either drug was decreased 20-fold to the level used in the clinical treatment of psoriasis, however, no cross-links could be detected in the epidermal DNA. The electron microscopic assay is sensitive enough that one can put an upper limit of 1 cross-link per 10 6 nucleotide pairs (80 cross-links per chromosome) for the low dose studies. The significance of these findings to the understanding of the effectiveness of psoralens in psoriasis therapy is discussed. (Auth.)

  10. [Effect of cobalamin derivatives on DNA synthesis in cells of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordan, E P; Petukhova, N I; Vorob'eva, L I

    1987-01-01

    The increase of DNA-synthesis rate (according incorporation [8-14C]adenine) in B12-deficient cells Propionibacterium shermanii as a result of different cobalamines adding into the cell suspension including metoxyethyladenile analog of adenozilcobalamin and some components of vitamin B12 molecule has been found. The DNA-synthesis rate in B12-deficient cells is nearly twice lower as compared with one in B12-normal cells. Considerable stimulative effect (80-100%) was provided with coenzyme forms of cobalamin. The data confirm the participation of vitamin B12 in DNA-synthesis in Propionibacterium cells.

  11. Hip adduction and abduction strength profiles in elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Serner, Andreas; Petersen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    An ipsilateral hip adduction/abduction strength ratio of more than 90%, and hip adduction strength equal to that of the contralateral side have been suggested to clinically represent adequate strength recovery of hip adduction strength in athletes after groin injury. However, to what extent side-......-to-side symmetry in isometric hip adduction and abduction strength can be assumed in soccer players remains uncertain....

  12. Aflatoxin metabolism in humans: detection of metabolites and nucleic acid adducts in urine by affinity chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groopman, J.D.; Donahue, P.R.; Zhu, J.Q.; Chen, J.S.; Wogan, G.N.

    1985-01-01

    A high-affinity IgM monoclonal antibody specific for aflatoxins was covalently bound to Sepharose 4B and used as a preparative column to isolate aflatoxin derivatives from the urine of people and experimental animals who had been exposed to the carcinogen environmentally or under laboratory conditions. Aflatoxin levels were quantified by radioimmunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatography after elution from the affinity column. In studies on rats injected with [ 14 C]aflatoxin B1, the authors identified the major aflatoxin-DNA adduct, 2,3-dihydro-2-(N7-guanyl)-3-hydroxy-aflatoxin B1 (AFB1-N7-Gua), and the oxidative metabolites M1 and P1 as the major aflatoxin species present in the urine. When this methodology was applied to human urine samples obtained from people from the Guangxi Province of China exposed to aflatoxin B1 through dietary contaminati