WorldWideScience

Sample records for dmba induced cutaneous

  1. Chemopreventive effect of Annona muricata on DMBA-induced cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.B. Minari

    2014-05-24

    May 24, 2014 ... Terpenoid. +. 3. Steroid. +. 4. Flavonoids. +. 5. Cardiac glycoside. +. 6. Tannin. +. 7. Phenol. +. 8. Phlobatannin. А. 9. Alkaloid. +. 10. Reducing sugar. +. Key: (+), Presence of phytochemical; (А), Absence of phytochemical. Chemopreventive effect of Annona muricata on DMBA-induced cell proliferation. 329 ...

  2. Azadirachta indica mitigates DMBA-induced hepatotoxicity- a biochemical and radiometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, Ashwani; Mohan, Vandana; Bharati, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The hepatoprotective potential of aqueous Azadirachta indica leaf extract (AAILE) was assessed against DMBA-induced hepatotoxicity. DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene) treatment (40 mg/kg body weight, ip) to male Balb/c mice resulted in the derailment of liver function as revealed by extremely slow clearance of 99m Tc-mebrofenin from liver, elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine transaminase (ALT), compared to control group. In addition, elevated micronuclei score and high apoptotic index indicated hepatogenotoxicity in DMBA-treated mice. DMBA treatment also upregulated cytochrome P450 (CYP), cytochrome b 5 (Cyt b 5 ) and decreased glutathione-S-transferase activity in hepatic tissue, compared to control group. Enhanced lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels along with decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) level were also observed in DMBA group, compared to control group. AAILE co-treatment (200 mg/kg body weight, po, thrice a week) for 8 weeks followed by DMBA injection showed significant improvement in hepatic status, as revealed by normalization of 99m Tc-mebrofenin clearance rate, decreased ALP and ALT levels, reduced genotoxicity in terms of micronuclei score and apoptotic index. Levels of LPO were significantly decreased along with increased hepatic GST and GSH levels in AAILE + DMBA group, compared to DMBA group. However, no significant change was observed in hepatic CYP and Cyt b 5 levels, compared to DMBA group. The results indicated that AAILE effectively ameliorated DMBA-induced hepatotoxicity. (author)

  3. Protective Effect of Piper aduncum Capsule on DMBA-induced Breast Cancer in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Acevedo, J; Chávez-Asmat, R J; Anampa-Guzmán, A; Donaires, R; Ráez-Gonzáles, José

    2015-01-01

    The possible protective effect of Piper aduncum capsule on DMBA (dimethylbenz[α]anthracene)-induced breast cancer in rats was assessed by monitoring the tumor and lung metastases incidence and recording hematological and biochemical parameters and frequency of micronuclei. Mammary carcinogenesis was induced in 36 female Holtzman rats by providing a single subcutaneous injection of DMBA. Oral administration of P. aduncum capsule lowered adenocarcinoma and lymph node metastases incidence. Pulmonary metastasis was significantly lowered (P < 0.05). Hematological indicators showed that the triglyceride level was significantly lowered (P < 0.01) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level was significantly increased (P < 0.01). Also, P. aduncum capsule significantly lowered the C reactive protein (CRP) level (P < 0.01) and malondialdehyde level (P < 0.05). There was a significant decrease in the frequency of DMBA-induced micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (P < 0.01). Considering the antitumorigenic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antigenotoxic properties of P. aduncum capsule, we conclude that it has a protective effect on DMBA-induced breast cancer in rats.

  4. Protective effects of Nigella sativa against 7,12-dimethylbenz [á] anthracene (DMBA induced carcinogenesis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Fatmi Alisah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Liver cancer is the third most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. Recently, natural products have been widely used as an alternative therapy for liver cancer. Previous studies have reported that Nigella sativa has chemopreventive activity in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a chloroform extract of Nigella sativa seeds (NSS on female rat hepatocytes after administration of 7,12-dimethylbenz [á] anthracene (DMBA. Methods The experimental design comprised five groups of rats. Group I (DBMA control group received oral DMBA at a dosage of 20 mg/kgBW twice weekly for five weeks, while group V (solvent control group was given corn oil only. The other three groups received DMBA + NSS at dosages of 250 mg/kgBW, 500 mg/kgBW, and 750 mg/kgBW, respectively. Each group consisted 12 rats. The NSS extract dissolved in corn oil was administered daily by the oral route for 2 weeks before and subsequenyly during DMBA tumor induction. At the end of the study, rat livers were collected and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and silver staining by the the AgNOR method. Results There was a difference in liver tissue histopathological profile between the NSS, DMBA control, and the solvent control group. AgNOR counts in the DMBA control group, the DMBA+NSS 250 mg/kgBW group, DMBA+NSS 500 mg/kgBW group, and DMBA+NSS 750 mg/kgBW group were 1.79, 1.51, 1.41, and 1.35, respectively. Conclusion Nigella sativa seed extract was able to reduce the liver damage and proliferation in rats induced by DMBA administration.

  5. Protective and Curative Effects of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra Extract against DMBA-Induced Hepatorenal Diseases in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed I. Dakrory

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing to the initiation and progression of hepatic damage. Hence there is a great demand for the development of agents with potent antioxidant effect. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of Holothuria atra extract (HaE as an antioxidant against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene- (DMBA- induced hepatorenal dysfunction. Experimental animals were divided into two main groups: protective and curative. Each group was then divided into five subgroups pre- or posttreated either with distilled water (DMBA subgroups or with HaE (200 mg/kg body weight for seven and fourteen days. Single oral administration of DMBA (15 mg/kg body weight to Wistar rats resulted in a significant increase in the serum liver enzymes and kidney function’s parameters. DMBA increased level of liver malondialdehyde (MDA, decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT in the liver tissue, and induced liver histopathological alterations. Pre- or posttreatment with HaE orally for 14 days significantly reversed the hepatorenal alterations induced following DMBA administration. In conclusion, HaE exhibits good hepatoprotective, curative, and antioxidant potential against DMBA-induced hepatorenal dysfunction in rats that might be due to decreased free radical generation.

  6. Pro-Oxidant Role of Silibinin in DMBA/TPA Induced Skin Cancer: 1H NMR Metabolomic and Biochemical Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Sati

    Full Text Available Silibinin, a major bioactive flavonolignan in Silybum marianum, has received considerable attention in view of its anticarcinogenic activity. The present study examines its anticancer potential against 7, 12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA induced skin cancer. Male LACA mice were randomly segregated into 4 groups: Control, DMBA/TPA, Silibinin and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA. Tumors in DMBA/TPA and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA groups were histologically graded as squamous cell carcinoma. In the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group, significant reduction in tumor incidence (23%, tumor volume (64.4%, and tumor burden (84.8% was observed when compared to the DMBA/TPA group. The underlying protective mechanism of Silibinin action was studied at pre-initiation (2 weeks, post-initiation (10 weeks and promotion (22 weeks stages of the skin carcinogenesis. The antioxidant nature of Silibinin was evident at the end of 2 weeks of its treatment. However, towards the end of 10 and 22 weeks, elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO levels indicate the pro-oxidative nature of Silibinin in the cancerous tissue. TUNEL assay revealed enhanced apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group with respect to the DMBA/TPA group. Therefore, it may be suggested that raised LPO could be responsible for triggering apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the metabolic profile of the skin /skin tumors. Dimethylamine (DMA, glycerophosphocholine (GPC, glucose, lactic acid, taurine and guanine were identified as the major contributors for separation between the groups from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA of the metabolite data. Enhanced DMA levels with no alteration in GPC, glucose and lactate levels reflect altered choline metabolism with no marked Warburg effect in skin tumors. However, elevated guanine levels with potent suppression of taurine and glucose levels in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group

  7. Pro-Oxidant Role of Silibinin in DMBA/TPA Induced Skin Cancer: 1H NMR Metabolomic and Biochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sati, Jasmine; Mohanty, Biraja Prasad; Garg, Mohan Lal; Koul, Ashwani

    2016-01-01

    Silibinin, a major bioactive flavonolignan in Silybum marianum, has received considerable attention in view of its anticarcinogenic activity. The present study examines its anticancer potential against 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced skin cancer. Male LACA mice were randomly segregated into 4 groups: Control, DMBA/TPA, Silibinin and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA. Tumors in DMBA/TPA and Silibinin+DMBA/TPA groups were histologically graded as squamous cell carcinoma. In the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group, significant reduction in tumor incidence (23%), tumor volume (64.4%), and tumor burden (84.8%) was observed when compared to the DMBA/TPA group. The underlying protective mechanism of Silibinin action was studied at pre-initiation (2 weeks), post-initiation (10 weeks) and promotion (22 weeks) stages of the skin carcinogenesis. The antioxidant nature of Silibinin was evident at the end of 2 weeks of its treatment. However, towards the end of 10 and 22 weeks, elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels indicate the pro-oxidative nature of Silibinin in the cancerous tissue. TUNEL assay revealed enhanced apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group with respect to the DMBA/TPA group. Therefore, it may be suggested that raised LPO could be responsible for triggering apoptosis in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the metabolic profile of the skin /skin tumors. Dimethylamine (DMA), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glucose, lactic acid, taurine and guanine were identified as the major contributors for separation between the groups from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the metabolite data. Enhanced DMA levels with no alteration in GPC, glucose and lactate levels reflect altered choline metabolism with no marked Warburg effect in skin tumors. However, elevated guanine levels with potent suppression of taurine and glucose levels in the Silibinin+DMBA/TPA group are

  8. Tumor-associated proteins in rat submandibular gland induced by DMBA and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sung Ook; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; You, Dong Soo

    1997-01-01

    This study was performed in order to identify changes of the plasma membrane proteins in rat submandibular gland tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene [DMBA] and X-irradiation. Two kinds of tumor associated membrane proteins (protein A and B) were isolated with 3 M KCl extraction from rat submandibular gland tumors induced by DMBA and X-irradiation. To identify their antigenicities, immunoelectrophoresis and double immunodiffusion was carried out with various proteins extracted from liver, heart, skin and pancreas of adult rats and from embryonic liver, heart and skin. The rabbit antisera against the protein A did not cross-react with any of the proteins extracted from the above mentioned tissues, suggesting that protein A might be tumor specific antigen. However, the rabbit antisera against protein B was precipitated with proteins extracted from the liver of adult and embryonic rats. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of these two proteins (A and B) showed that protein A was a dimer with molecular weights of 69,000 and 35,000 dalton, whereas protein B was a monomer with molecular weight of 50,000 dalton.

  9. Charles River Sprague Dawley rats lack early age-dependent susceptibility to DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, R B; Yan, M; Schneider, J; Succop, P; Heffelfinger, S C; Clegg, D J

    2007-10-04

    Developmental stages of mammary glands influence their susceptibility to initiating events related to carcinogenesis. The "window of susceptibility" to mammary carcinogenesis is classically defined as the time in early puberty when the mammary gland morphology is most sensitive to initiation events. Administration of the polyaromatic hydrocarbon, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), in a single oral dose yields maximal mammary tumor formation when administered in this "window". We examined the DMBA treated mammary glands, precursor lesions, and morphology of the uninvolved mammary epithelium for the first 100 days of life for Charles River Sprague Dawley CD(R) IGS. Our goal was to determine the DMBA dose at which 50% of the rats (IC50) developed carcinoma in situ (CIS) within three months of dosing. Here we demonstrate, rather than the classical U-shaped dose curve in which there is maximum sensitivity for DMBA at 50 days, there is an increasing degree of sensitivity with age in the CD(R) IGS rat. Additionally, we report that vehicle-treated animals developed mammary CIS without any known initiator, and 100 day virgin animals demonstrated lactational changes, independent of DMBA exposure or dose. Lastly, we demonstrate this strain of virgin female rats has elevated pituitary prolactin immunoreactivity independent of the level of mammary differentiation. We conclude this strain of Charles River Sprague Dawley rats has prolactin-induced pituitary stimulation, and therefore, the window of susceptibility for mammary tumorigenesis is absent.

  10. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  11. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

  12. Comparsion of light dose on topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Tseng, Meng-Ke; Liu, Chung-Ji; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent male cancer disease due to the local betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle. In order to minimize the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA -mediated PDT. We found that ALA reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 75 and 100 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm Wonderlight device. It is suggesting that optimization of the given light dose is critical to the success of PDT results.

  13. Annona muricata leaves extracts prevent DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumorigenesis via modulating antioxidants enzymes system in ICR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Roduan, Mohd Rohaizad; Hamid, Roslida Abd; Sulaiman, Hamizah; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah

    2017-10-01

    Annona muricata, locally known as soursop has been reported to exhibit antiproliferative activities against various cancer cell lines. In this current study, we have investigated the antitumor promotion of various fractions of Annona muricata leaves (AML); hexane (AMLH), dichloromethane (AMLD) and methanol (AMLM) fraction respectively on 7, 12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene (DMBA) induced and 12-0-tetradecaboylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promoted skin tumorigenesis in mice via morphological assessment, biochemical analysis and histopathological evaluation. The results of the study revealed significant inhibition in tumor incidence, tumor burden and tumor volume in the groups received AMLH and AMLD, respectively, and suppressive effects in group received AMLM compared with carcinogen control group at week 21. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation levels were returned to near normal by administration of AML to DMBA/TPA-induced mice. The above findings were supported by histopathological studies, in which the extensive epidermal hyperplasia in carcinogen control group was restored to normal in AML treated groups. Whilst, annonacin, a major annaonaceous acetogenin was found to be the highest in AMLH and AMLD. From the present study, it can be inferred that AML supressed DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumor and this antitumor-promoting activity may be linked to the antioxidant/free radical-scavenging constituents of the extract and annonacin contained in the extracts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Raman spectroscopic investigation of the chemopreventive response of naringenin and its nanoparticles in DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, N.; Sulfikkarali, N. K.; Manoharan, S.; Venkatachalam, P.

    2013-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopic technique that can be used to optically probe the biomolecular changes associated with tumor progression. The aim of the present study is to investigate the biomolecular changes in chemopreventive response of prepared naringenin-loaded nanoparticles (NARNPs) relative to efficacy of free naringenin (NAR) during 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral carcinogenesis by Fourier Transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was developed in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. Raman spectra differed significantly between the control and tumor tissues, with tumors showing higher percentage signals for nucleic acids, phenylalanine and tryptophan and a lower in the percentage of phospholipids. Moreover, oral administration of free NAR and NARNPs significantly increased phospholipids and decreased the levels of tryptophan, phenylalanine and nucleic acid contents. On a comparative basis, NARNPs was found to have a more potent antitumor effect than free NAR in completely preventing the formation of squamous cell carcinoma and in improving the biochemical status to a normal range in DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis. The present study further suggest that Raman spectroscopy could be a valuable tool for rapid and sensitive detection of specific biomolecular changes in response to chemopreventive agents.

  15. Dietary turmeric modulates DMBA-induced p21ras, MAP kinases and AP-1/NF-κB pathway to alter cellular responses during hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Rachana; Ingle, Arvind; Maru, Girish

    2008-01-01

    The chemopreventive efficacy of turmeric has been established in experimental systems. However, its mechanism(s) of action are not fully elucidated in vivo. The present study investigates the mechanism of turmeric-mediated chemoprevention in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis at 2, 4, 6, 10 and 12 weeks. Dietary turmeric (1%) led to decrease in DMBA-induced tumor burden and multiplicity, and enhanced the latency period in parallel, to its modulatory effects on oncogene products and various cellular responses during HBP tumorigenesis. DMBA-induced expression of ras oncogene product, p21 and downstream target, the mitogen-activated protein kinases were significantly decreased by turmeric during HBP carcinogenesis. Turmeric also diminished the DMBA-induced mRNA expression of proto-oncogenes (c-jun, c-fos) and NF-κB, leading to decreased protein levels and in further attenuation of DMBA-induced AP-1/NF-κB DNA-binding in the buccal pouch nuclear extracts. Besides, buccal pouch of hamsters receiving turmeric diet showed significant alterations in DMBA-induced effects: (a) decrease in cell proliferation (diminished PCNA and Bcl2 expression), (b) enhanced apoptosis (increased expression of Bax, caspase-3 and apoptotic index), (c) decrease in inflammation (levels of Cox-2, the downstream target of AP-1/NF-κB, and PGE2) and (d) aberrant expression of differentiation markers, the cytokeratins (1, 5, 8, and 18). Together, the protective effects of dietary turmeric converge on augmenting apoptosis of the initiated cells and decreasing cell proliferation in DMBA-treated animals, which in turn, is reflected in decreased tumor burden, multiplicity and enhanced latency period. Some of these biomarkers are likely to be helpful in monitoring clinical trials and evaluating drug effect measurements

  16. Azadirachta indica acts as a pro-oxidant and modulates cell cycle associated proteins during DMBA/TPA induced skin carcinogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, N; Bansal, M P; Koul, A

    2013-07-01

    The present study was designed to determine the modulatory effect of aqueous Azadirachta indica leaf extract (AAILE) on cell cycle-associated proteins during two-stage skin carcinogenesis in mice. Considering the dual role of reactive oxygen species in cancer and its chemoprevention, the levels of lipid peroxidation (index of peroxidative damage) were also determined. Skin tumours were induced by topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) as a carcinogen followed by the repetitive application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as a promoter. Skin tumours obtained in the DMBA/TPA group exhibited enhanced expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, index of proliferation), p21 and cyclin D1, with no alterations in p53 expression in comparison to the control group. Tumours in AAILE + DMBA/TPA group exhibited low PCNA and cyclin D1 expression and enhanced expression of p53 and p21 in comparison to the DMBA/TPA group. The skin tumours obtained in the AAILE + DMBA/TPA group exhibited high lipid peroxidation levels in comparison to the tumours obtained in the DMBA/TPA group. The observations of the present study suggest that AAILE behaves as a pro-oxidant in the tumours, thereby rendering them susceptible to damage, which eventually culminates into its anti-neoplastic action. Also, cell cycle regulatory proteins may be modulated by AAILE and could affect the progression of cells through the cell cycle. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Chemomodulatory Potential of Bartogenic Acid Against DMBA/Croton Oil Induced Two-Step Skin Carcinogenesis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Chandragouda R; Sonara, Bhavin M; Mahajan, Umesh B; Patil, Kalpesh R; Patil, Dipak D; Jadhav, Ramchandra B; Goyal, Sameer N; Ojha, Shreesh

    2016-01-01

    Barringtonia racemosa fruits are believed to be useful in cancer treatment in Ayurveda, the Indian system of medicine. In present study, bartogenic acid (BA), a triterpenoid constituent of Barringtonia fruits was evaluated for its cytotoxicity property using the human skin carcinoma cell line (SCC-13) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The chemopreventive efficacy of BA was evaluated against the DMBA/Croton oil-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice.BA was orally administered at the doses of 1, 2 or 4 mg/kg/day or applied topically every day for 12 weeks following DMBA application. The in vitro data from cell lines revealed that BA induces cytotoxicity against the SCC-13 cells (IC 50 =7.5 µM). It was found 4.05 times more selective to exert cytotoxicity against SCC-13 as compared to the PBMC (IC 50 =30.4 µM). The in vivo datacollected from mice model of DMBA/Croton oil-induced skin carcinogenesis revealed that BA administered orally or applied topically, both reduced the precancerous skin lesions andthe incidence of tumor bearing. The oral doses of BA (2 and 4 mg/kg) and topical treatment significantly reduced the incidence and number of skin papillomas. At these doses, BA also increased the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase and induced an increase in glutathionecontent and inhibited lipid peroxidation in the skin. These findings reveal the chemopreventive efficacy of BA and also demonstrate that it contributes to the cytotoxic and antioxidative effects of Barringtonia racemosa fruits. The study also validates the traditional claims of Barringtonia fruits and provides a scientific basis of its chemopreventive property.

  18. Resveratrol, but not EGCG, in the diet suppresses DMBA-induced mammary cancer in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitsett Timothy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the advent of new and aggressive therapeutics, breast cancer remains a leading killer among women; hence there is a need for the prevention of this disease. Several naturally occurring polyphenols have received much attention for their health benefits, including anti-carcinogenic properties. Two of these are resveratrol, a component of red grapes, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the major catechin found in green tea. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that these two polyphenols protect against chemically-induced mammary cancer by modulating mammary gland architecture, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Female Sprague-Dawley CD rats were exposed to either resveratrol (1 g/kg AIN-76A diet, EGCG (0.065% in the drinking water, or control diet (AIN-76A for the entirety of their life starting at birth. At 50 days postpartum, rats were treated with 60 mg dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA/kg body weight to induce mammary cancer. Resveratrol, but not EGCG, suppressed mammary carcinogenesis (fewer tumors per rat and longer tumor latency. Analysis of mammary whole mounts from 50-day-old rats revealed that resveratrol, but not EGCG, treatment resulted in more differentiated lobular structures. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation studies showed that resveratrol treatment caused a significant reduction in proliferative cells in mammary terminal ductal structures at 50 days postpartum, making them less susceptible to carcinogen insult. The epithelial cells of terminal end buds in the mammary glands of resveratrol-treated rats also showed an increase in apoptotic cells compared to the control or EGCG-treated rats as measured by a DNA fragmentation assay. At the given doses, resveratrol treatment resulted in a serum resveratrol concentration of 2.00 μM, while treatment with EGCG resulted in a serum EGCG concentration of 31.06 nM. 17β-Estradiol, progesterone, and prolactin concentrations in the serum were not significantly affected

  19. Promoting Effects of Milk on the Development of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced Mammary Tumors in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, De-Fu; Katoh, Ryohei; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Pei-Yu

    2007-01-01

    To assess the effect of milk on the development of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors, 48 female Sprague-Dawley rats treated with DMBA were divided into 3 groups and given 1 of 3 test solutions for 20 weeks as their drinking liquid: milk, estrone sulfate solution or tap water. The milk group showed a significantly great incidence (75%) in tumor development compared with the water group (38%) and was comparable to the estrone sulfate group (69%). Mean tumor number per rat in the milk group was significantly higher than that in the water group (p=0.009). We classified the mammary tumors into three histological types: intraductal papilloma, fibroadenoma, and adenocarcinoma. Although the percent of intraductal papilloma and fibroadenoma was almost same among the three groups, malignant tumor was found only in the milk and estrone sulfate groups. In conclusion, our results indicate that milk as well as estrone sulfate promotes the development of DMBA-induced mammary tumors in rat and could be associated with the occurrence of adenocarcinoma

  20. A synthetic coumarin (4-methyl-7 hydroxy coumarin) has anti-cancer potentials against DMBA-induced skin cancer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Soumya S; Paul, Saili; Mandal, Sushil K; Banerjee, Antara; Boujedaini, Naoual; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur R

    2009-07-01

    Scopoletin, an alkaloid separated from ethanolic extract of the medicinal plant, Gelsemium sempervirens (Fam: Loganiaceae) has been reported to have anti-cancer potentials. The synthetic coumarin (4-Methyl-7 hydroxy coumarin) derived from resorcinol and ethyl aceto-acetate in presence of concentrated sulphuric acid is structurally close to scopoletin, being a coumarin derivative. Whether this synthetic compound also has anti-cancer potentials has been evaluated in vivo on DMBA (7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene) induced skin cancer in mice by analyzing results of several cytogenetic endpoints, Comet assay, and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Further, expressions of signal proteins like Aryl hydrocarbon receptor , p53, PCNA, Akt, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bad, Bax, NF-kappaB Apaf, IL-6, Cytochrome-c, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 were studied by immunoblot analysis along with histology of skin and immuno-histochemical localization of Aryl hydrocarbon receptor and PCNA in DMBA treated mice vis-a-vis carcinogen treated synthetic coumarin fed mice. Feeding of this synthetic coumarin induced positive modulations in expression of all biomarkers in DMBA administered mice, giving clues on its possible signaling pathway(s) - primarily through down-regulation of Aryl hydrocarbon receptor and PCNA and up-regulation of apoptotic proteins like Bax, Bad, Cytochrome c, Apaf, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9, resulting in an appreciable reduction in growth of papilloma in mice. Therefore, this synthetic coumarin shows promise for use in cancer therapy, particularly in skin cancer.

  1. Rosiglitazone synergizes anticancer activity of cisplatin and reduces its nephrotoxicity in 7, 12-dimethyl benz{a}anthracene (DMBA) induced breast cancer rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikoo, Kulbhushan; Kumar, Parveen; Gupta, Jeena

    2009-01-01

    Antineoplastic drug cisplatin remains the drug of choice for various solid tumours including breast cancer. But dose dependent nephrotoxicity is the major drawback in majority of platinum based chemotherapy regimens. Recent reports have shown that inflammatory pathways are the main offender for cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist and an anti-inflammatory agent, on cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity, and its anticancer activity in DMBA induced breast cancer rats. Mammary tumours were induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding orally with dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA) (60 mg/kg). Cisplatin induced nephropathy was assessed by measurements of blood urea nitrogen, albumin and creatinine levels. Posttranslational modifications of histone H3, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase p38 expression and PPAR-γ expression were examined by western blotting. Our data shows involvement of TNF-α in preventing cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity by rosiglitazone. Rosiglitazone pre-treatment to cisplatin increases the expression of p38, PPAR-γ in mammary tumours and shows maximum tumour reduction. Furthermore, cisplatin induced changes in histone acetylation, phosphorylation and methylation of histone H3 in mammary tumours was ameliorated by pre-treatment of rosiglitazone. Suggesting, PPAR-γ directly or indirectly alters aberrant gene expression in mammary tumours by changing histone modifications. To best of our knowledge this is the first report which shows that pre-treatment of rosiglitazone synergizes the anticancer activity of cisplatin and minimizes cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in DMBA induced breast cancer

  2. Proton pump inhibitor-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholdt, L H; Laurinaviciene, R; Bygum, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) has been known in the literature since 1985 and is increasingly recognized.......Drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) has been known in the literature since 1985 and is increasingly recognized....

  3. Effect of primrose oil and corn oil diets on eicosanoid synthesis by rat mammary tumor induced by dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ela, S.H.A.; Bunce, O.R.

    1986-03-01

    Evening primrose oil (PO) contains 9% gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and 75% linoleic acid (LA) each of which are prostaglandin precursors. Corn oil (CO) contains 60% linoleic acid. Fifty day old virgin female rats were given DMBA (5 mg, intragastric). Three weeks post DMBA the rats were separated into two dietary groups of 20% PO and 20% CO, respectively. At 16 weeks post DMBA the rats were killed and mammary tumors analyzed by RIA for PGE/sub 1/, PGE/sub 2/, and 6-keto F/sub 1..cap alpha... PGE/sub 1/ levels in PO fed animals were increased two fold over those fed CO indicating that it is possible to shunt GLA toward monoenoic eicosanoid synthesis. However PGE/sub 2/ and 6 keto F/sub 1..cap alpha../ levels were 5x higher in PO compared to CO. Although this could be attributed to higher cis linoleic acid content of PO, more subtle mechanisms may be responsible.

  4. Drug-induced cutaneous lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurinaviciene, Rasa; Holm Sandholdt, Linda; Bygum, Anette

    2017-01-01

    : To determine the proportion of patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) whose drugs are an inducing or aggravating factor. MATERIALS & METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with CLE at a dermatological department over a 21-year period. We registered clinical......BACKGROUND: An increasing number of drugs have been linked to drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (DI-SCLE). The recognition and management of DI-SCLE can be challenging, as the condition may be triggered by different classes of drugs after variable lengths of time. OBJECTIVES......, serological, and histological data with a focus on drug intake. RESULTS: Of 775 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of lupus erythematosus (LE) or suspected LE, a diagnosis of CLE could be confirmed in 448 patients. A total of 130 patients had a drug intake that could suggest DI-SCLE. In 88 cases, a drug...

  5. Activation of P2X7-mediated apoptosis Inhibits DMBA/TPA-induced formation of skin papillomas and cancer in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Wen; Gorodeski, George I; McCormick, Tom; Qi, Xiaoping; Luo, Liping; Zhou, Lingyin; Li, Xin; Wang, Bing-Cheng; Gibbons, Heidi E; Abdul-Karim, Fadi W

    2009-01-01

    The study tested the hypothesis that apoptosis can prevent and control growth of neoplastic cells. Previous studies in-vitro have shown that the pro-apoptotic P2X 7 receptor regulates growth of epithelial cells. The specific objective of the present study was to understand to what degree the P2X 7 system controls development and growth of skin cancer in vivo, and what cellular and molecular mechanisms are involved in the P2X 7 action. Skin neoplasias in mice (papillomas, followed by squamous spindle-cell carcinomas) were induced by local application of DMBA/TPA. Experiments in-vitro utilized cultured epidermal keratinocytes generated from wild-type or from P2X 7 -null mice. Assays involved protein immunostaining and Western blots; mRNA real-time qPCR; and apoptosis (evaluated in situ by TUNEL and quantified in cultured keratinocytes as solubilized DNA or by ELISA). Changes in cytosolic calcium or in ethidium bromide influx (P2X 7 pore formation) were determined by confocal laser microscopy. (a) Co-application on the skin of the P2X 7 specific agonist BzATP inhibited formation of DMBA/TPA-induced skin papillomas and carcinomas. At the completion of study (week 28) the proportion of living animals with cancers in the DMBA/TPA group was 100% compared to 43% in the DMBA/TPA+BzATP group. (b) In the normal skin BzATP affected mainly P2X 7 -receptor – expressing proliferating keratinocytes, where it augmented apoptosis without evoking inflammatory changes. (c) In BzATP-treated mice the degree of apoptosis was lesser in cancer than in normal or papilloma keratinocytes. (d) Levels of P2X 7 receptor, protein and mRNA were 4–5 fold lower in cancer tissues than in normal mouse tissues. (e) In cultured mouse keratinocytes BzATP induced apoptosis, formation of pores in the plasma membrane, and facilitated prolonged calcium influx. (f) The BzATP-induced apoptosis, pore-formation and augmented calcium influx had similar dose-dependence for BzATP. (g) Pore formation and the

  6. Activation of P2X7-mediated apoptosis Inhibits DMBA/TPA-induced formation of skin papillomas and cancer in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Wen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study tested the hypothesis that apoptosis can prevent and control growth of neoplastic cells. Previous studies in-vitro have shown that the pro-apoptotic P2X7 receptor regulates growth of epithelial cells. The specific objective of the present study was to understand to what degree the P2X7 system controls development and growth of skin cancer in vivo, and what cellular and molecular mechanisms are involved in the P2X7 action. Methods Skin neoplasias in mice (papillomas, followed by squamous spindle-cell carcinomas were induced by local application of DMBA/TPA. Experiments in-vitro utilized cultured epidermal keratinocytes generated from wild-type or from P2X7-null mice. Assays involved protein immunostaining and Western blots; mRNA real-time qPCR; and apoptosis (evaluated in situ by TUNEL and quantified in cultured keratinocytes as solubilized DNA or by ELISA. Changes in cytosolic calcium or in ethidium bromide influx (P2X7 pore formation were determined by confocal laser microscopy. Results (a Co-application on the skin of the P2X7 specific agonist BzATP inhibited formation of DMBA/TPA-induced skin papillomas and carcinomas. At the completion of study (week 28 the proportion of living animals with cancers in the DMBA/TPA group was 100% compared to 43% in the DMBA/TPA+BzATP group. (b In the normal skin BzATP affected mainly P2X7-receptor – expressing proliferating keratinocytes, where it augmented apoptosis without evoking inflammatory changes. (c In BzATP-treated mice the degree of apoptosis was lesser in cancer than in normal or papilloma keratinocytes. (d Levels of P2X7 receptor, protein and mRNA were 4–5 fold lower in cancer tissues than in normal mouse tissues. (e In cultured mouse keratinocytes BzATP induced apoptosis, formation of pores in the plasma membrane, and facilitated prolonged calcium influx. (f The BzATP-induced apoptosis, pore-formation and augmented calcium influx had similar dose-dependence for

  7. Radiation-induced carcinogenesis: mechanistically based differences between gamma-rays and neutrons, and interactions with DMBA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Shuryak

    Full Text Available Different types of ionizing radiation produce different dependences of cancer risk on radiation dose/dose rate. Sparsely ionizing radiation (e.g. γ-rays generally produces linear or upwardly curving dose responses at low doses, and the risk decreases when the dose rate is reduced (direct dose rate effect. Densely ionizing radiation (e.g. neutrons often produces downwardly curving dose responses, where the risk initially grows with dose, but eventually stabilizes or decreases. When the dose rate is reduced, the risk increases (inverse dose rate effect. These qualitative differences suggest qualitative differences in carcinogenesis mechanisms. We hypothesize that the dominant mechanism for induction of many solid cancers by sparsely ionizing radiation is initiation of stem cells to a pre-malignant state, but for densely ionizing radiation the dominant mechanism is radiation-bystander-effect mediated promotion of already pre-malignant cell clone growth. Here we present a mathematical model based on these assumptions and test it using data on the incidence of dysplastic growths and tumors in the mammary glands of mice exposed to high or low dose rates of γ-rays and neutrons, either with or without pre-treatment with the chemical carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz-alpha-anthracene (DMBA. The model provides a mechanistic and quantitative explanation which is consistent with the data and may provide useful insight into human carcinogenesis.

  8. Influence of diet enriched with conjugated linoleic acids on their distribution in tissues of rats with DMBA induced tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierska Weronika

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid with proven beneficial influence on health. They show e.g. anticarcinogenic, antiobesity, and antiatherogenic effect. Milk, dairy products and meat of poligastric animals are their most valuable dietary sources, with cis-9, trans-11 CLA (RA - rumenic acid being the predominant isomer. Dietary supplements with CLA became very popular, mainly among the overweight and bodybuilders. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the food supplements with conjugated linoleic acid on carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats and evaluation of CLA and other fatty acids distribution in their bodies. Animals were divided into four groups depending on the diet supplementation (oil or Bio-C.L.A. (Pharma Nord Denmark given intragastrically and presence or absence of carcinogenic agent (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]antharcene. Animals were decapitated at 21st week of experiment and serum and microsomes were extracted. Results and conclusions The mammary tumours (adenocarcinoma occurred in groups treated with DMBA. Diet enriched with CLA decreased the cancer morbidity (67% in Bio-C.L.A. compared to 88% in oil and delayed the cancer induction (p = 0.0018. There were no differences in body and organs weight. The supplement used in the study was a mixture of several fatty acids with the greatest proportion of CLA isomers: trans-10, cis-12 (33% and cis-9, trans-11 (31%. Both of them were present in tissues but the content of rumenic acid was greater. Dietary supplementation had also significant impact on other fatty acids content, both in serum and in microsomes.

  9. The potential of shark bone powder in breast cancer inhibition (pre-clinical study in DMBA-Induced Sprague Dawly Rats)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintari, S. H.; Parman, S.; Dafip, M.

    2018-03-01

    Breast cancer is a malignant disease, which lead to second cause of that after cervical cancer in women. To date, lots of drugs and supplement have been developed and consumed by patients. Shark bone is one of the supplements that might inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells. The application of shark bone powder for supplementation in breast cancer cases still becomes controversy; but until now people are still many who consume as a supplement. This study aimed to prove the potency of shark bone powder in the inhibition of breast cancer proliferation and to propose the possibility of its biological mechanism. The pre-clinical experimental study used a controlled posttest controlled design with 25 white rats strains of DML-induced Sprague-Dawley strains. The cancer markers observed were p53, AgNORs, VEGF, Bcl-2, and Cas-3. The test subjects were divided into 3 groups: control group and 2 treatment groups fed modified with 60% and 90% respectively. A pre-clinical trial of shark bone powder showed that there was significant inhibition for the DMBA-induced anti proliferation and breast cell cancer (p bone powder to inhibit breast cancer proliferation lies in concentration 30mg/BB/day.

  10. Supplementing vitamin B6 to a low vitamin B6 diet exaggerates UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis in DMBA-treated hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Xu, Yonghui; Monttinen, Elise Saiz; Kato, Norihisa

    2008-06-01

    7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-treated hairless mice exposed to UVB radiation were used to examine the effect of graded levels of vitamin B(6) [1, 7 or 35 mg pyridoxine (PN) HCl/kg] on skin tumorigenesis for 18 wk. Compared to the 1 mg PN HCl/kg diet, the 35 mg PN HCl/kg diet significantly elevated the incidence and multiplicity of skin tumors, while there was no difference in skin tumorigenesis between the 7 and 35 mg PN HCl/kg diets. Skin levels of oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls) were unaffected by dietary treatment. Compared to the 1 mg PN HCl/kg diet, the 7 and 35 mg PN HCl/kg diets significantly elevated serum pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) without affecting the skin level of PLP. The results suggest that dietary supplemental vitamin B(6) exaggerates UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis in hairless mice without affecting oxidative stress in the skin.

  11. Mechanism and treatment of sulfur mustard-induced cutaneous injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Tianyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin is the fi rst organ exposed to sulfur mustard (SM. The mechanism of SM-induced cutaneous injury has not been fully clarifi ed so far, which is a major obstacle to the development of effective treatments for SM-induced injury. So far, there is no satisfactory therapy for acute symptoms and long-term complications. This review summarized recent researches on the mechanisms of SM-induced cutaneous injuries and the therapies for acute symptoms and long-term complications. Key words: Sulfur mustard; Injury mechanism; Therapy

  12. Ofloxacin Induced Cutaneous Reactions in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Yerramalli Roja; Mishra, Sailen Kumar; Rath, Bandana; Rath, Saroj Sekhar

    2015-06-01

    Cutaneous adverse effects to antimicrobials are a major health problem. Though majority of them are mild and self-limiting, severe variants like Steven Johnson Syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are not uncommon. Ofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone widely used for the treatment of urinary tract infections, acute bacterial diarrheas, enteric fever, STDs and other soft tissue infections either as a single drug or in combination with other drugs. Earlier a case of mucocutaneous maculopapular rash with oral ofloxacin and was reported in an adult. In the present hospital set up there were few reports of such reactions to adults. Here we report three different variants of reactions associated with oral ofloxacin in chlidren. Early detection of cutaneous lesions and immediate withdrawal of the offending drug can prevent progression of such reactions to their severe variants as well as morbidity and mortality.

  13. Photochemical Reaction of 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA and Formation of DNA Covalent Adducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Fu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available DMBA, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, is a widely studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that has long been recognized as a probable human carcinogen. It has been found that DMBA is phototoxic in bacteria as well as in animal or human cells and photomutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA102. This article tempts to explain the photochemistry and photomutagenicity mechanism. Light irradiation converts DMBA into several photoproducts including benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione, 7-hydroxy-12-keto-7-methylbenz[a]anthracene, 7,12-epidioxy-7,12-dihydro-DMBA, 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-hydroxymethyl-7-methylbenz[a]anthracene. Structures of these photoproducts have been identified by either comparison with authentic samples or by NMR/MS. At least four other photoproducts need to be assigned. Photo-irradiation of DMBA in the presence of calf thymus DNA was similarly conducted and light-induced DMBA-DNA adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabeling/TLC, which indicates that multiple DNA adducts were formed. This indicates that formation of DNA adducts might be the source of photomutagenicity of DMBA. Metabolites obtained from the metabolism of DMBA by rat liver microsomes were reacted with calf thymus DNA and the resulting DNA adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabeling/TLC under identical conditions. Comparison of the DNA adduct profiles indicates that the DNA adducts formed from photo-irradiation are different from the DNA adducts formed due to the reaction of DMBA metabolites with DNA. These results suggest that photo-irradiation of DMBA can lead to genotoxicity through activation pathways different from those by microsomal metabolism of DMBA.

  14. EFEK EKSTRAK SAMBILOTO (ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NEES PADA EKSPRESI TELOMERASE DARI KANKER PAYUDARA TIKUS YANG DIINDUKSI DENGAN DMBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurika Sastyarina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   It has been well documented that chemical carcinogen, 7.12 dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA,  plays a role in the incidence and growth of mammary cancer. Present study was designed to investigate the influence of Andrographis paniculata extract on telomerase activities on DMBA induced breast cancer in the female rat Sprague Dawley strain. DMBA-induced mammary cancer is a useful model to investigate the changes of epithelial cells that occur during mammary cancer progression. Mammary cancer model was induced 10 times twice a week by oral DMBA 20 mg/kg body weight. Mammary cancer occurred in 75 % animals nine weeks after oral administration of DMBA, it was represented with nodule on the mammary gland and the increasing of mammary gland volume compare with normal control F(1.8 = 731.711; p < 0.001. This study was also designed to investigate the effect of Andrographis paniculata extract mammary carcinoma induced by DMBA. Administration of three different dose of Andrographis paniculata (100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg had statistically different with mammary gland volume of DMBA treated rat F (4.17 = 92.777; p<0.05. So, Andrographis paniculata has significant effect on the treatment of DMBA-induced mammary carcinoma. The Epithelial cells were harvested on day 90 and stained with routine histology staining, hematoxylineosin, for morphological qualitative analysis, immunohistochemical examination. The lesions observed from the removed samples ranged widely from benign to malignant. The results showed that DMBA induce cell proliferation, nuclear irregularities, and numerous mitoses and induced cell necrosis. The effect of Andrographis paniculata inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. On immunohistochemical examination, it shows that Andrographis paniculata can stimulate of telomerase enzyme.   Key word: Andrographis paniculata, DMBA, mammary cancer, cell proliferation     ABSTRAK   Telah dilakukan

  15. Signaling Molecules in Sulfur Mustard-Induced Cutaneous Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Albert L.; Dillman, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent alkylating agent that can induce severe cutaneous injury. Though much is known regarding the gross pathology of SM injury, the molecular and cellular basis for this pathology is not well understood. General cellular processes such as inflammation, DNA damage response, and apoptosis have been hypothesized to be involved in SM injury. However, the specific molecules, signaling pathways, and gene products involved in the pathogenesis of SM injury have not been elucidated. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms observed in in vivo and in vitro models of cutaneous SM injury. Methods: The historical literature on the clinical pathology of SM-induced cutaneous injury is summarized, and recent work elucidating molecular signaling pathways involved in SM toxicity is extensively reviewed. In addition, this review focuses the discussion of SM-induced molecular mechanisms on those that have been experimentally validated in models of SM injury. Results: Recent work has uncovered potential roles for a number of signaling molecules. In particular, molecules in inflammatory signaling, DNA damage response, apoptosis signaling, and calcium signaling have been implicated in SM injury. These include signaling molecules involved in inflammation (e.g. p38 MAP kinase), apoptosis (e.g. p53, NF-κ B, caspases, Fas), and cell stress responses (e.g. calcium, calmodulin). Conclusions: Many of the molecules and mechanisms implicated in SM injury are now being experimentally validated. Critical questions are proposed that remain to be answered to increase our understanding of SM toxicity and accelerate the development of vesicant therapeutics. PMID:18213398

  16. EFEK EKSTRAK SAMBILOTO (ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NEES. PADA EKSPRESI P53 DARI KANKER PAYUDARA TIKUS YANG DIINDUKSI DMBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurika Sastyarina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   It has been well documented that chemical carcinogen, 7.12 dimethylbenz-(aanthracene (DMBA,  plays a role in the incidence and growth of mammary cancer. Present study was designed to investigate the influence of Andrographis paniculata extract on telomerase activities on DMBA induced breast cancer in the female rat Sprague Dawley strain. DMBA-induced mammary cancer is a useful model to investigate the changes of epithelial cells that occur during mammary cancer progression. Mammary cancer model was induced 10 times twice a week by oral DMBA 20 mg/kg body weight. Mammary cancer occurred in 75 % animals nine weeks after oral administration of DMBA, it was represented with nodule on the mammary gland and the increasing of mammary gland volume compare with normal control F(1.8 = 731.711; p < 0.001. This study was also designed to investigate the effect of Andrographis paniculata extract mammary carcinoma induced by DMBA. Administration of three different dose of Andrographis paniculata (100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg had statistically different with mammary gland volume of DMBA treated rat F (4.17 = 92.777; p<0.05. So, Andrographis paniculata has significant effect on the treatment of DMBA-induced mammary carcinoma. The Epithelial cells were harvested on day 90 and stained with routine histology staining, hematoxylineosin, for morphological qualitative analysis, immunohistochemical examination. The lesions observed from the removed samples ranged widely from benign to malignant. The results showed that DMBA induce cell proliferation, nuclear irregularities, and numerous mitoses and induced cell necrosis. On immunohistochemical examination, it shows that Andrographis paniculata can stimulate of expression of p53 protein and increase the number of epithelial cells experience apoptosis.   Key words: Sambiloto (Andrographis Paniculata Ness, DMBA, mammary cancer, p53     ABSTRAK   Telah terdokumentasi dengan baik bahwa karsinogen

  17. Blueberry inhibits invasion and angiogenesis in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral squamous cell carcinogenesis in hamsters via suppression of TGF-β and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Abdul Basit; Kowshik, Jaganathan; Krishnaraj, Jayaraman; Sophia, Josephraj; Dixit, Madhulika; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2016-09-01

    Aberrant activation of oncogenic signaling pathways plays a pivotal role in tumor initiation and progression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the chemopreventive and therapeutic efficacy of blueberry in the hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model based on its ability to target TGF-β, PI3K/Akt, MAPK and NF-κB signaling and its impact on invasion and angiogenesis. Squamous cell carcinomas were induced in the HBP by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). The effect of blueberry on the oncogenic signaling pathways and downstream events was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Experiments with the ECV304 cell line were performed to explore the mechanism by which blueberry regulates angiogenesis. Blueberry supplementation inhibited the development and progression of HBP carcinomas by abrogating TGF-β and PI3K/Akt pathways. Although blueberry failed to influence MAPK, it suppressed NF-κB activation by preventing nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. Blueberry also modulated the expression of the oncomiR miR-21 and the tumor suppressor let-7. Collectively, these changes induced a shift to an anti-invasive and anti-angiogenic phenotype as evidenced by downregulating matrix metalloproteinases and vascular endothelial growth factor. Blueberry also inhibited angiogenesis in ECV304 cells by suppressing migration and tube formation. The results of the present study suggest that targeting oncogenic signaling pathways that influence acquisition of cancer hallmarks is an effective strategy for chemointervention. Identification of modulatory effects on phosphorylation, intracellular localization of oncogenic transcription factors and microRNAs unraveled by the present study as key mechanisms of action of blueberry is critical from a therapeutic perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibition of DMBA carcinogenesis of hamster buccal pouch by phenanthrene and dimethylnaphthalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malament, D S; Shklar, G

    1981-01-01

    Phenanthrene (Phe) and to a lesser degree 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene (DMeN) were each found to retard the development of epidermoid carcinomas in hamster buccal pouch induced by the thrice weekly application of a 0.5 per cent solution of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in heavy mineral oil.

  19. Lateral Antebrachial Cutaneous Nerve injury induced by phlebotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadi Arezoo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phlebotomy is one of the routine procedures done in medical labs daily. Case presentation A 52 yr woman noted shooting pain and dysesthesia over her right side anterolateral aspect of forearm, clinical examination and electrodiagnostic studies showed severe involvement of right side lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve. Conclusion Phlebotomy around lateral aspect of antecubital fossa may cause lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve injury, electrodiagnostic studies are needed for definite diagnosis.

  20. The change on the cell proliferation kinetics of the central and peripheral regions of DMBA induced hamster tongue cancer following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Toyoaki; Nasu, Masanori; Kai, Yasumasa; Furumoto, Keiichi

    1989-01-01

    A single Co-60 irradiation of 20 Gy was delivered to the tongue with carcinoma induced by 1%9, 10-dimethyl, 2-benzanthracene acetone solution in hamsters. One and 3 days after irradiation, cell kinetics of the central and peripheral regions was investigated by H-3 thymidine labelling method. Both initial labelling (L) and mitosis (M) indices were high in the central region and low in the peripheral region before irradiation. One and 3 days after irradiation, the L index was decreased by 43% in the central region; however, this was slight in the peripheral region. The M index after irradiation was decreased for the entire tumor--it was slightly decreased in the central region, and increased twofold in the peripheral region. Regarding cell cycle time (Tc), G-2 phase (TG-2), and mitosis phase (Tm), there was no difference between the central and peripheral regions before irradiation. In both the central and peripheral regions, Tc was delayed by 3 hours on Day one, but shortened by 6.5 hours on Day 3. The TG-2 in both regions were delayed by 2 hours on Day one and by 3 days on Day 3. The Tm increased 1.6-fold in the central region and 2.1-fold in the peripheral region on Day one. Similar tendency was seen on Day 3. DNA synthesis phase before and after irradiation did not differ in either the central or peripheral region. Similarly, no difference in G-1 phase (TG-1) in either region was observed before and one day after irradiation. However, the TG-1 in both regions was decreased by as much as 90% on Day 3. (N.K.)

  1. Dietary soy protein induces hepatic lipogenic enzyme gene expression while suppressing hepatosteatosis in obese female Zucker rats bearing DMBA-initiated mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkak, Reza; Al-Dwairi, Ahmed; Fuchs, George J; Korourian, Soheila; Simmen, Frank A

    2012-10-01

    Fatty liver is associated with obesity and breast cancer. We used an obese rat model of mammary cancer to examine whether hepatosteatosis is modifiable by diet and associated with altered expression of hepatic lipogenic enzyme genes, thyroid hormone system genes and cholesterol metabolism-related genes. Beginning at the age of 5 weeks, lean and obese female Zucker rats were fed high-isoflavone soy protein- or casein (control protein)-containing diets. Rats were euthanized at 200 days of age [corresponding to 147 days after administration of carcinogen to induce mammary tumors; (Hakkak et al. in, Oncol Lett 2:29-36, 2011)]. Obese rats had a greater degree of liver steatosis than lean rats. Obese casein-fed rats had marked steatosis with small foci of mononuclear infiltration, whereas obese soy protein-fed rats had a significantly lower steatosis index. Comparisons between lean and obese casein-fed rats showed that obesity was associated with significant reductions in hepatic mRNA abundance for Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD), 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase (6PGD), Thyroid Receptor Alpha 1 (TRα1), Thyroid Receptor Beta 1 (TRβ1) and Iodothyronine Deiodinase 1 (DIO1). The soy protein diet was associated with increased expression of Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN), Malic Enzyme 1 (ME1), 6PGD, Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and SREBP-2 genes in the livers of obese but not lean rats. Western blot analysis showed a significant induction of ME1 protein expression in the livers of obese, soy protein-fed rats, which paralleled the increased serum insulin level in this group. Long-term soy protein consumption can counter hepatic steatosis while coincidently promoting hepatic lipogenic gene expression, the latter likely a consequence of elevated serum insulin. We suggest that elevations in serum insulin, hepatic lipogenesis and cholesterol synthesis all contributed to the increased tumorigenesis previously observed for the obese, soy protein

  2. Radiation recall cutaneous induced by chlorambucil. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dei-Cas, Ignacio; Wright, Dolores; Rigo, Bettina; Cohen Sabban, Emilia; Lacasagne, Jorgelina; Pietropaolo, Nelida; Cabo, Horacio; Molina, Malena

    2005-01-01

    Radiation recall refers to a tissue reaction produced by the use of certain drugs, usually chemotherapeutic agents, in a previously irradiated area. We report a patient with cutaneous radiation recall associated with chlorambucil, drug previously unreported as a causative agent in the literature. (author) [es

  3. A new long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is induced in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and down-regulates several anticancer and cell differentiation genes in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzio, Gilles; Rezzonico, Roger; Bourget, Isabelle; Allan, Richard; Nottet, Nicolas; Popa, Alexandra; Magnone, Virginie; Rios, Géraldine; Mari, Bernard; Barbry, Pascal

    2017-07-28

    Keratinocyte-derived cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the most common metastatic skin cancer. Although some of the early events involved in this pathology have been identified, the subsequent steps leading to tumor development are poorly defined. We demonstrate here that the development of mouse tumors induced by the concomitant application of a carcinogen and a tumor promoter (7,12-dimethylbenz[ a ]anthracene (DMBA) and 12- O -tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), respectively) is associated with the up-regulation of a previously uncharacterized long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), termed AK144841. We found that AK144841 expression was absent from normal skin and was specifically stimulated in tumors and highly tumorigenic cells. We also found that AK144841 exists in two variants, one consisting of a large 2-kb transcript composed of four exons and one consisting of a 1.8-kb transcript lacking the second exon. Gain- and loss-of-function studies indicated that AK144841 mainly inhibited gene expression, specifically down-regulating the expression of genes of the late cornified envelope-1 ( Lce1 ) family involved in epidermal terminal differentiation and of anticancer genes such as Cgref1 , Brsk1 , Basp1 , Dusp5 , Btg2 , Anpep , Dhrs9 , Stfa2 , Tpm1 , SerpinB2 , Cpa4 , Crct1 , Cryab , Il24 , Csf2 , and Rgs16 Interestingly, the lack of the second exon significantly decreased AK144841's inhibitory effect on gene expression. We also noted that high AK144841 expression correlated with a low expression of the aforementioned genes and with the tumorigenic potential of cell lines. These findings suggest that AK144841 could contribute to the dedifferentiation program of tumor-forming keratinocytes and to molecular cascades leading to tumor development. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Target cells for cytochrome p450-catalysed irreversible binding of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in rodent adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhe, Orjan; Granberg, Lizette; Brandt, Ingvar

    2002-08-01

    7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) is an adrenocorticolytic agent that causes apoplexy (haemorrhage) and massive necrosis in the adrenal cortex in rat. Several explanations regarding the origin of toxicity have been proposed. Huggins and Morii (J Exp Med 114:741-60, 1961) suggested that the cells of the inner adrenal cortex are the primary target, whereas Horváth and Kovács (Pathol Eur 8:43-59, 1973) suggested the vascular endothelium as being the origin of toxicity. In the present study, cultured precision-cut tissue slices were used to localize target cells for irreversible [(3)H]DMBA binding in rat and mouse adrenal cortex. The sites of binding were confirmed by autoradiography in vivo. Irreversible [(3)H]DMBA binding was confined to zona fasciculata/reticularis cells in rat (but not in mouse) adrenal cortex. Pronounced binding was observed in clusters of cells (focal binding), localized predominantly in zona reticularis of rat. [(3)H]DMBA binding in zona fasciculata/reticularis cells was inhibited by the cytochrome p450 1A/B (CYP1A/B) inhibitors ellipticine, alpha-naphthoflavone, and 1-ethynylpyrene. The CYP11B1-inhibitor metyrapone did not reduce [(3)H]DMBA binding. In CYP1-induced (PCB 126-treated) rats and mice, intense irreversible [(3)H]DMBA binding was found also in endothelial cells of the adrenal cortex. The endothelial binding was abolished by the CYP1 inhibitors but remained unaffected by metyrapone. We conclude that the metabolic activation in adrenal parenchymal cells is presumably catalysed by CYP1B1, whereas CYP1A1 presumably catalyses the activation in endothelial cells. We suggest that the adrenocorticolytic effect of DMBA is the result of a dual mode of action, targeting both endothelial and parenchymal cells in the rat adrenal cortex.

  5. Valproic acid induces cutaneous wound healing in vivo and enhances keratinocyte motility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soung-Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cutaneous wound healing is a complex process involving several signaling pathways such as the Wnt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling pathways. Valproic acid (VPA is a commonly used antiepileptic drug that acts on these signaling pathways; however, the effect of VPA on cutaneous wound healing is unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We created full-thickness wounds on the backs of C3H mice and then applied VPA. After 7 d, we observed marked healing and reduced wound size in VPA-treated mice. In the neo-epidermis of the wounds, β-catenin and markers for keratinocyte terminal differentiation were increased after VPA treatment. In addition, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, collagen I and collagen III in the wounds were significantly increased. VPA induced proliferation and suppressed apoptosis of cells in the wounds, as determined by Ki67 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL staining analyses, respectively. In vitro, VPA enhanced the motility of HaCaT keratinocytes by activating Wnt/β-catenin, ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase/Akt signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: VPA enhances cutaneous wound healing in a murine model and induces migration of HaCaT keratinocytes.

  6. Changing incidence of nevirapine-induced cutaneous drug reactions: After revised guideline Nov 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhande, Archana J; Sutaria, Amita; Shah, Bela J; Shah, Asha N

    2013-07-01

    To study the change in the incidence and pattern of nevirapine (NVP)-induced adverse cutaneous reactions (ADR) after commencement of revised National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) guidelines for initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) since Nov 2011. The study was conducted on patients who developed cutaneous reactions after starting NVP based regimen. According to the revised NACO ART initiation guidelines Nov 2011, ART should be started if CD4 count is < 350 cells/mm(3) in stages 1, and 2 and irrespective of CD4 count in stages 3, and 4. Patients were divided in groups A and B. Group A consisted of patients enrolled on NVP-based regimen during Jan 2011 to Oct 2011, whereas, in Group B patients from Nov 2011 to Aug 2012 were included. Grading of rash, appropriate investigations and management was done. In Group A, out of 645 patients 30 (4.66%) patients developed cutaneous reactions, where as in Group B out of 720, 65 (9.03%) patients presented with drug reaction. In Group A (n = 30) developed reaction as Grade 1 in 1.55% (n = 10), Grade 2 in 1.86% (n = 12), grades 3 and 4 in 0.76% (n = 5) and 0.47% (n = 3), respectively. In Group B (n = 65) developed reaction, out of which Grade 1 reaction was seen in 1.39% (n = 10), Grade 2 was seen in 2.78% (n = 20), grades 3 and 4 was seen in 3.33% (n = 24) and, 1.53% (n = 11), respectively. There is a striking increase in the incidence of NVP-induced cutaneous reactions of all forms and considerable increase in frequency of severe kind of reactions with the revised guidelines.

  7. Syndrome of cocaine-levamisole-induced cutaneous vasculitis and immune-mediated leukopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Samuel H; Baliog, Crisostomo R; Sams, Ralph N; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie; Telang, Gladys H; Reginato, Anthony M

    2011-12-01

    We describe 4 patients who presented with palpable purpura, arthralgia or arthritis, leukopenia, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antigen (ANCA) positivity most likely as a result of a hypersensitivity reaction to cocaine-levamisole induced vasculopathy. Cases were seen and reviewed in both the inpatient consult service and the outpatient clinics at Rhode Island Hospital from August 2009 to August 2010. Clinical characteristics as well as pertinent laboratory parameters were also reviewed and corroborated with a review of the present literature. We describe 3 cases of cocaine-levamisole-related cutaneous vasculitis with or without associated neutropenia, and 1 case of severe neutropenia with oral mucosal ulceration. Further serologic studies revealed maximum titers of ANCA mostly in a perinuclear pattern. Antimyeloperoxidase tested negative or mildly elevated in our cohort. Three patients with neutropenia had positive antigranulocyte IgM antibody. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were effective as first-line treatment for joint pain. The use of colchicine and systemic corticosteroid was employed to manage severe and persistent skin lesions. Cocaine-levamisole-related cutaneous vasculitis with leukopenia is a diagnosis of exclusion, but this diagnosis should be strongly considered in patients with a history of cocaine abuse who present with a tetrad of cutaneous manifestations consisting of palpable purpura or bullae with ear involvement, arthralgias, leukopenia, and positive ANCA in high titers and negative Antimyeloperoxidase, when other infectious or idiopathic vasculitic entities have been excluded. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Psychological stress-induced catecholamines accelerates cutaneous aging in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romana-Souza, Bruna; Santos Lima-Cezar, Gracineide; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa

    2015-12-01

    Psychological stress may be an important extrinsic factor which influences aging process. However, neither study demonstrated the mechanism by which chronic stress participates in skin aging. Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic psychological stress on mice skin. Mice were daily submitted to rotational stress, for 28 days, until euthanasia. After 28 days, mice were killed and normal skin was analyzed. Macroscopically, dorsum skin of chronically stressed mice presented more wrinkled when compared to that of nonstressed mice. In mice skin, chronic stress increased lipid peroxidation, carbonyl protein content, nitrotyrosine levels, neutrophil infiltration, neutrophil elastase, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and metalloproteinase-8 levels. Nevertheless, chronic stress reduced dermis thickness, collagen type I, fibrilin-1 and elastin protein levels in mice skin. In in vitro assays, murine skin fibroblasts were exposed to elevated epinephrine levels plus inhibitors of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), fibroblast activity was evaluated in a short time. In skin fibroblast culture, treatment with inhibitors of ROS and RNS synthesis abolished the increase in carbonyl protein content and lipid peroxide accumulation induced by epinephrine. In conclusion, chronic psychological stress may be an important extrinsic factor, which contributes to skin aging in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of the HLA-B(*)58:01 Allele and Renal Impairment on Allopurinol-Induced Cutaneous Adverse Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chau Yee; Yeh, Yu-Ting; Wang, Chuang-Wei; Hung, Shuen-Iu; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chang, Ya-Ching; Chang, Wan-Chun; Lin, Yu-Jr; Chang, Chee-Jen; Su, Shih-Chi; Fan, Wen-Lang; Chen, Der-Yuan; Wu, Yeong-Jian Jan; Tian, Ya-Chung; Hui, Rosaline Chung-Yee; Chung, Wen-Hung

    2016-07-01

    Allopurinol, a common drug for treating hyperuricemia, is associated with cutaneous adverse drug reactions ranging from mild maculopapular exanthema to life-threatening severe cutaneous adverse reactions, including drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. We have previously reported that HLA-B*58:01 is strongly associated with allopurinol-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions in Han Chinese, but the associations of the HLA-B*58:01 genotype in an allopurinol-induced hypersensitivity phenotype remain unclear. To investigate the comprehensive associations of HLA-B*58:01, we enrolled 146 patients with allopurinol-induced cutaneous adverse drug reactions (severe cutaneous adverse reactions, n = 106; maculopapular exanthema, n = 40) and 285 allopurinol-tolerant control subjects. Among these allopurinol-induced cutaneous adverse drug reactions, HLA-B*58:01 was strongly associated with severe cutaneous adverse reactions (odds ratio [OR] = 44.0; 95% confidence interval = 21.5-90.3; P = 2.6 × 10(-41)), and the association was correlated with disease severity (OR = 44.0 for severe cutaneous adverse reactions, OR = 8.5 for maculopapular exanthema). The gene dosage effect of HLA-B*58:01 also influenced the development of allopurinol-induced cutaneous adverse drug reactions (OR = 15.25 for HLA-B*58:01 heterozygotes and OR = 72.45 for homozygotes). Furthermore, coexistence of HLA-B*58:01 and renal impairment increased the risk and predictive accuracy of allopurinol-induced cutaneous adverse drug reactions (heterozygous HLA-B*58:01 and normal renal function: OR = 15.25, specificity = 82%; homozygous HLA-B*58:01 and severe renal impairment: OR = 1269.45, specificity = 100%). This HLA-B*58:01 correlation study suggests that patients with coexisting HLA-B*58:01 and renal impairment (especially estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30ml/minute/1.73 m(2)) should be cautious and avoid using

  10. CD48-deficient T-lymphocytes from DMBA-treated rats have de novo mutations in the endogenous Pig-a gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; Revollo, Javier; Pearce, Mason G; Pacheco-Martinez, M Monserrat; Lin, Haixia

    2015-10-01

    A major question concerning the scientific and regulatory acceptance of the rodent red blood cell-based Pig-a gene mutation assay is the extent to which mutants identified by their phenotype in the assay are caused by mutations in the Pig-a gene. In this study, we identified T-lymphocytes deficient for the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored surface marker, CD48, in control and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-treated rats using a flow cytometric assay and determined the spectra of mutations in the endogenous Pig-a gene in these cells. CD48-deficient T-cells were seeded by sorting at one cell per well into 96-well plates, expanded into clones, and exons of their genomic Pig-a were sequenced. The majority (78%) of CD48-deficient T-cell clones from DMBA-treated rats had mutations in the Pig-a gene. The spectrum of DMBA-induced Pig-a mutations was dominated by mutations at A:T, with the mutated A being on the nontranscribed strand and A → T transversion being the most frequent change. The spectrum of Pig-a mutations in DMBA-treated rats was different from the spectrum of Pig-a mutations in N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-treated rats, but similar to the spectrum of DMBA mutations for another endogenous X-linked gene, Hprt. Only 15% of CD48-deficient mutants from control animals contained Pig-a mutations; T-cell biology may be responsible for a relatively large fraction of false Pig-a mutant lymphocytes in control animals. Among the verified mutants from control rats, the most common were frameshifts and deletions. The differences in the spectra of spontaneous, DMBA-, and ENU-induced Pig-a mutations suggest that the flow cytometric Pig-a assay detects de novo mutation in the endogenous Pig-a gene. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cryotherapy-Induced Persistent Vasoconstriction After Cutaneous Cooling: Hysteresis Between Skin Temperature and Blood Perfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnevis, Sepideh; Craik, Natalie K.; Matthew Brothers, R.; Diller, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the persistence of cold-induced vasoconstriction following cessation of active skin-surface cooling. This study demonstrates a hysteresis effect that develops between skin temperature and blood perfusion during the cooling and subsequent rewarming period. An Arctic Ice cryotherapy unit (CTU) was applied to the knee region of six healthy subjects for 60 min of active cooling followed by 120 min of passive rewarming. Multiple laser Doppler flowmetry perfusion probes were used to measure skin blood flow (expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC)). Skin surface cooling produced a significant reduction in CVC (P cryotherapy. PMID:26632263

  12. Ultrasonographic assessment of the cutaneous changes induced by topical flavonoid therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, Diana; Crisan, Maria; Moldovan, Mirela; Lupsor, Monica; Badea, Radu

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasonography allows the quantification of dermal density and echogenicity changes during the physiological senescence process. Some active ingredients are able to slow down the tissular degeneration and disorganization process. The purpose of this study was to assess the cutaneous changes induced by the topical use of products containing Viniferol® as active ingredient, using high-frequency ultrasound. The study was performed over 12 weeks and included 80 healthy Caucasian female subjects, aged 22–75 years, divided into two groups: the study group and the control group. The product was applied according to a predetermined protocol. The measurements performed for each subject were: the thickness of the epidermis and dermis (mm), the number of low, medium, and high echogenic pixels, and the number of low echogenic pixels in the upper dermis/number of low echogenic pixels in the lower dermis. All the parameters showed a significant improvement. Ultrasound measurements showed an increase of the mean thickness of the epidermis (P < 0.0001) and dermis (P < 0.0001) following the application of the Viniferol product as compared to the control group. The changes in the dermal echogenicity confirm the efficacy and direct action of Viniferol upon the cutaneous fibroblasts. No side effects related to the treatment were recorded. The study proves the efficacy of this active ingredient in the cutaneous senescence process as well, as the fact that anti-aging prophylaxis should be initiated in the 20–40 year critical age group. This interval involves specific changes in dermal echogenicity that quantify intense molecular, biochemical and structural changes, being thus mostly and highly responsive to the anti-aging therapy. PMID:22291475

  13. Cocaine-induced vasculitis with cutaneous manifestation: A recurrent episode after 2 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thein Swe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is a popular recreational drug in the United States, and up to 70% of the seized cocaine contains levamisole which is an antihelminthic that can cause cutaneous vasculitis with necrosis and positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs. Here, we report a unique case of recurrent cocaine-induced vasculitis in a patient who smokes cocaine for more than 20 years. A 38-year-old woman complained of painful erythematous rash in her right arm and right thigh which appeared some hours after smoking cocaine. Physical examination revealed tender, erythematous base, retiform purpura with necrosis and bullae. Serological test showed high atypical perinuclear ANCA titer of 1:320 and antimyeloperoxidase antibody level of 20.4 U/mL. Cocaine-induced vasculitis should be one of the differential diagnoses in cocaine abusers who present with painful rash and areas of necrosis. Early diagnosis is important since it is an emerging public health concern.

  14. Prolonged ultraviolet light-induced erythema and the cutaneous carcinoma phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanenbaum, L.; Parrish, J.A.; Haynes, H.A.; Fitzpatrick, T.B.; Pathak, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    A considerable amount of evidence exists in support of the role of ultraviolet radiation as a major etiologic factor in human skin cancer, both melanoma and carcinoma types. On the basis of epidemiologic studies a phenotype has been described which helps to identify the persons who are more susceptible to skin cancer. In an attempt to further define this population, patients with cutaneous carcinoma and a normal control group were exposed to artificial ultraviolet light (UVL) and the erythema and tanning responses of each group were measured over a 21-day period. UVL-induced erythema was prolonged in a significantly higher percentage of patients with skin cancer than in control patients, lasting two to three weeks after single exposures to 6 and 8 times the patient's minimal erythema dose. The presence of prolonged erythema correlated with this history of previous skin cancer but did not correlate with other established risk factors for cutaneous carcinoma, i.e., fair skin, light hair and light eyes, easy sunburning and poor tanning, and Celtic ancestry. Prolonged erythema following UVL radiation may therefore represent an additional risk factor and help to identify the skin cancer-susceptible population

  15. Impaired Healing of a Cutaneous Wound in an Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase-Knockout Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kitano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated the effects of loss of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS on the healing process of cutaneous excisional injury by using iNOS-null (KO mice. Population of granulation tissue-related cell types, that is, myofibroblasts and macrophages, growth factor expression, and reepithelialization were evaluated. Methods. KO and wild type (WT mice of C57BL/6 background were used. Under general anesthesia two round full-thickness excision wounds of 5.0 mm in diameter were produced in dorsal skin. After specific intervals of healing, macroscopic observation, histology, immunohistochemistry, and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR were employed to evaluate the healing process. Results. The loss of iNOS retards granulation tissue formation and reepithelialization in excision wound model in mice. Detailed analyses showed that myofibroblast appearance, macrophage infiltration, and mRNA expression of transforming growth factor b and of collagen 1α2 were all suppressed by lacking iNOS. Conclusions. iNOS is required in the process of cutaneous wound healing. Lacking iNOS retards macrophage invasion and its expression of fibrogenic components that might further impair fibrogenic behaviors of fibroblasts.

  16. Quantification of epithelial cell differentiation in mammary glands and carcinomas from DMBA- and MNU-exposed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma

    Full Text Available Rat mammary carcinogenesis models have been used extensively to study breast cancer initiation, progression, prevention, and intervention. Nevertheless, quantitative molecular data on epithelial cell differentiation in mammary glands of untreated and carcinogen-exposed rats is limited. Here, we describe the characterization of rat mammary epithelial cells (RMECs by multicolor flow cytometry using antibodies against cell surface proteins CD24, CD29, CD31, CD45, CD49f, CD61, Peanut Lectin, and Thy-1, intracellular proteins CK14, CK19, and FAK, along with phalloidin and Hoechst staining. We identified the luminal and basal/myoepithelial populations and actively dividing RMECs. In inbred rats susceptible to mammary carcinoma development, we quantified the changes in differentiation of the RMEC populations at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after exposure to mammary carcinogens DMBA and MNU. DMBA exposure did not alter the percentage of basal or luminal cells, but upregulated CD49f (Integrin α6 expression and increased cell cycle activity. MNU exposure resulted in a temporary disruption of the luminal/basal ratio and no CD49f upregulation. When comparing DMBA- or MNU-induced mammary carcinomas, the RMEC differentiation profiles are indistinguishable. The carcinomas compared with mammary glands from untreated rats, showed upregulation of CD29 (Integrin β1 and CD49f expression, increased FAK (focal adhesion kinase activation especially in the CD29hi population, and decreased CD61 (Integrin β3 expression. This study provides quantitative insight into the protein expression phenotypes underlying RMEC differentiation. The results highlight distinct RMEC differentiation etiologies of DMBA and MNU exposure, while the resulting carcinomas have similar RMEC differentiation profiles. The methodology and data will enhance rat mammary carcinogenesis models in the study of the role of epithelial cell differentiation in breast cancer.

  17. Histopathological characterization of experimentally induced cutaneous loxoscelism in rabbits inoculated with Loxosceles similis venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NB Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Envenomation by Loxosceles bites is characterized by dermonecrotic and/or systemic features that lead to several clinical signs and symptoms called loxoscelism. Dermonecrotic lesions are preceded by thrombosis of the dermal plexus. Recent studies show that atheromatous plaque is prone to thrombosis due to endothelial cell apoptosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of microscopic dermal lesion and endothelial cell apoptosis induced by Loxosceles similis venom in the literature. Thus, the aim of the present study is to describe histological lesions induced by L. similis venom in rabbit skin and to elucidate whether apoptosis of endothelial cells is involved in the pathogenesis of loxoscelism. Forty male rabbits were split into two groups: the control group (intradermally injected with 50 µL of PBS and the experimental group (intradermally injected with 0.5 µg of L. similis crude venom diluted in 50 µL of PBS. After 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours of injection, skin fragments were collected and processed for paraffin or methacrylate embedding. Sections of 5 µm thick were stained by HE, PAS or submitted to TUNEL reaction. Microscopically, severe edema, diffuse heterophilic inflammatory infiltrate, perivascular heterophilic infiltrate, thrombosis, fibrinoid necrosis of arteriolar wall and cutaneous muscle necrosis were observed. Two hours after venom injection, endothelial cells with apoptosis morphology were evidenced in the dermal plexus. Apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL reaction. It seems that endothelial cell apoptosis and its consequent desquamation is an important factor that induces thrombosis and culminates in dermonecrosis, which is characteristic of cutaneous loxoscelism.

  18. Diagnosis and therapy of cutaneous radiation syndrome. Individual radiosensitivity assessment in patients undergoing medical exposures presenting severe cutaneous radiation induced lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Perez, Maria R.; Portas, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Burn Center) is one of the reference hospitals of the Medical Radiological Emergency Response Network of Argentina. In the frame of an agreement between the Burn Center and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina, a research project for an approach based on diagnosis and therapy of cutaneous radiation induced lesions is in progress. Individual radiosensitivity assessment was conducted in patients included in this research protocol that showed acute and/or late cutaneous reactions with grades 3 and 4 of the Toxicity criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) and the European organization for research and treatment of cancer (EORTC). DNA repair capacity and its kinetics were evaluated in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using alkaline comet assay and micronucleus test. In this paper, two representative cases, in which the research protocol was applied, are presented. Therapeutic response and its correlation with radiosensitivity test results are described. Case 1: female patient undergoing external radiotherapy for invasive ductal breast cancer that presented acute cutaneous radiotoxicity, grade 3 (confluent moist epithelitis, )that led to treatment break. Case 2: male patient undergoing coronary angioplasty (interventional radiology), which developed late cutaneous radiotoxicity, grade 4 (ulceration at the dorsal region). Patients were treated with: topic administration of trolamine and silver sulfadiazine with lidocaine, associated with systemic administration of pentoxiphiline and anti-oxidants. The therapeutic response was evaluated through clinical follow-up, serial photographic record and complementary tests (tele thermography and high frequency ultrasonography). Case 1 response was positive (favorable) with early local recovery and complete remission of signs and symptoms after 5 months. Both MN frequencies and comet assay showed values compatible with normal radiosensitivity

  19. Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Skin Lesions of Patients with American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadoumi, Muna; Becker, Inge; Donhauser, Norbert; Röllinghoff, Martin; Bogdan, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Cytokine-inducible (or type 2) nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is indispensable for the resolution of Leishmania major or Leishmania donovani infections in mice. In contrast, little is known about the expression and function of iNOS in human leishmaniasis. Here, we show by immunohistological analysis of skin biopsies from Mexican patients with local (LCL) or diffuse (DCL) cutaneous leishmaniasis that the expression of iNOS was most prominent in LCL lesions with small numbers of parasites whereas lesions with a high parasite burden (LCL or DCL) contained considerably fewer iNOS-positive cells. This is the first study to suggest an antileishmanial function of iNOS in human Leishmania infections in vivo. PMID:12117977

  20. The cross-sectional relationships among hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation, peak oxygen consumption, and the cutaneous vasodilatory response during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Keiji; Honda, Yasushi; Ogawa, Takeshi; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2009-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that the hyperthermia-induced ventilatory response relates to aerobic power and/or the cutaneous vasodilatory response during exercise, we asked 18 subjects to perform 3 kinds of exercise: an incremental exercise to determine peak oxygen consumption (V(O)(2peak)), a steady state exercise at 50% of V(O)(2peak) to determine the ventilatory response to increasing body temperature, and a steady state exercise at 60% of V(O)(2peak) to determine the cutaneous vasodilatory response to increasing body temperature. The ventilatory and cutaneous vasodilatory responses were evaluated by plotting the increase in minute ventilation or in forearm vascular conductance against the increase in oesophageal temperature. Regression analysis revealed that: (1) there was a negative relationship between the hyperthermic ventilatory response and cutaneous vasodilatory response, (2) there was a negative relationship between the hyperthermic ventilatory response and V(O)(2peak), and (3) there was a positive relationship between the cutaneous vasodilatory response and V(O)(2peak). These results support our hypothesis and suggest that exercise training suppresses the hyperthermic ventilatory response and improves the thermoregulatory response.

  1. Drug-induced Liver Injury is Frequently Associated with Severe Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions: Experience from Two Australian Tertiary Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wendy C; Adler, Nikki R; Graudins, Linda V; Goldblatt, Caitlin; Goh, Michelle Sy; Roberts, Stuart K; Trubiano, Jason A; Aung, Ar Kar

    2018-01-08

    Drug-induced liver injury can be associated with certain cutaneous adverse drug reactions. We aim to demonstrate the prevalence of drug-induced liver injury in patients with cutaneous adverse drug reactions. Severity and patterns of liver injury, risk factors, causal medications and outcomes are also examined. A retrospective cohort study of patients with cutaneous adverse drug reactions was conducted across two hospitals in Australia. Patients were identified through cross-linkage of multiple databases. 104 patients with cutaneous adverse drug reactions were identified. Of these, 33 (31.7%) had liver injury, representing 50% of patients with drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, and 30.2% of patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. Most cases of liver injury (69.7%) were of a cholestatic/mixed pattern with severe disease in 18.2%. No significant risk factors for development of liver injury were noted, but peripheral lymphocytosis may represent a risk in patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (OR=6.0, 95% CI:1.8-19.7, p=0.003). Antimicrobials were the most common class to be implicated in drug-induced liver injury. The median length of inpatient stay was longer in patients with liver injury compared to those without (19 vs. 11 days, p=0.002). The mortality rate in those with liver injury was 15.2% and 9.9% in those without. No patients required liver transplantation. Drug-induced liver injury commonly occurs in patients with cutaneous adverse drug reactions and is associated with longer inpatient stay. Patients with Stevens-Johnson/toxic epidermal necrolysis and peripheral lymphocytosis appear to be at higher risk for developing associated liver injury. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Virus como inductores de neoplasias cutáneas Viruses as agents inducing cutaneous neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bravo Puccio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El rol oncogénico de los virus en las neoplasias cutáneas es conocido por el hombre desde hace más de un siglo, cuando se atribuía el origen de la verruga vulgar al virus papiloma humano (VPH. En la actualidad, las neoplasias inducidas por virus pueden agruparse en tumores sólidos y procesos linfoproliferativos. Destacan entre los primeros el VPH, del cual ahora conocemos numerosos serotipos, cada uno vinculado a una neoplasia específica, el herpesvirus humano tipo 8 que produce el sarcoma de Kaposi y el poliomavirus vinculado al carcinoma de Merkel. Entre los procesos linfoproliferativos debemos mencionar al virus linfotrópico de células T humanas tipo 1 (HTLV-1 responsable de los linfomas de células T, en los cuales el compromiso cutáneo es inespecífico, con un amplio espectro de presentaciones clínicas y, que por consiguiente, plantean un reto para el diagnóstico diferencial. En este grupo también se encuentra el virus Epstein Barr vinculado a los linfomas nasales de Células NK/T y a los linfomas tipo Hidroa, de reciente descripción. En esta era en la que lo genético y lo molecular priman en las investigaciones en cáncer, no podemos dejar de lado el concepto de neoplasia como resultado de la infección por un agente viral, lo que abre una nueva veta de posibilidades de tratamiento anticanceroso basado en medicamentos antiviralesThe oncogenic role of viruses in cutaneous neoplasms has been known by humankind for more than a century, when the origin of the common wart, or verruca vulgaris, was attributed to the human papilloma virus (HPV. Currently, virus-induced cutaneous neoplasms may be grouped into solid tumors and lymphoproliferative disorders. HPV, from which various serotypes are now known, each being linked to a specific neoplasm, the human herpes virus type 8 producing Kaposi sarcoma, and the Merkel cell polyomavirus, highlight among the first group. Regarding the lymphoproliferative disorders, we should mention the

  3. Cellular therapy to treat ionizing radiation-induced cutaneous radiation syndrome: 2 cases report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benderitter, M.; Chapel, A.; Trompier, F.; Clairand, I.; Bottolier-Depois, J.F.; Gourmelon, P.; Bey, E.; Lataillade, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text: Localized irradiation at high dose exposition could induce severe radiation burns characterized by the occurrence of unpredictable successive inflammatory waves leading to the extension in surface and depth of necrotic processes. The medical management of these severe radiation burns remains today a challenging issue unresolved by the classical therapeutical approach. For the first time, two victims (accident of Chile, 2006 and accident of Senegal, 2007) accidentally exposed to an iridium gammagraphy radioactive source experienced a new and innovative therapeutic strategy combining dosimetry-guided surgery lesion excision and injection of MSC. The clinical evolution was remarkable. The clinical transfer of this therapeutic option was possible based on the research perform in the Institute and the IRSN/Percy hospital cooperation. Our data suggested that cellular therapy based on Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) injection could be used to repair numerous injured tissues. We have studied the potential use of human MSC (hMSC) in order to limit radiation-induced skin lesions. Our pre-clinical data suggest a possible use of hMSC for the treatment of the early phase of the cutaneous radiation syndrome. The understanding of the precise healing mechanisms of hMSC in animal model is under investigation. These results will be helpful to generalize this innovative therapy to the treatment of other radiological complications. (author)

  4. Molecular mechanisms of cis-urocanic acid and permethrin-induced alterations in cutaneous immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, M R; Blaylock, B L; Holladay, S D

    2003-12-01

    Cutaneous cis-urocanic acid (cUCA) or ultraviolet B exposure has been shown to cause diminished cutaneous contact hypersensitivity (CH) and to induce systemic tolerance (increased regulatory T lymphocytes) in mice. Permethrin is also a known CH inhibitor, but the molecular mechanisms are currently poorly understood. In this study, CH was evaluated in four strains of mice: an immunosensitive strain (C57BL/6N), an immunoresistant strain (SvImJ), a strain developed from C57BL/6N mice but genetically altered at both the tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptors (TNFalphap55R and p75R), and a strain developed from C57BL/6N but genetically deleted at the interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) locus. CH was evaluated in each group via oxazolone challenge following a 5-day exposure to intradermal (ID) cUCA or a single exposure to topical permethrin, or co-exposure to both chemicals in 5-week-old female C57BL/6N, SvImJ, and C57BL/6N mice genetically altered at the TNFalpha or IFNgamma locus. A 5-day exposure to ID cUCA or a single exposure to topical permethrin resulted in diminished CH response in C57BL/6N mice, and this effect was exacerbated with concurrent exposure to both chemicals. CH in SvImJ was both cUCA- and permethrin-resistant relative to C57BL/6N mice, as 5-day cUCA or a single exposure to permethrin did not diminish CH, nor did concurrent exposure to cUCA and permethrin. Mice deleted at both TNFalphaR loci displayed similar but somewhat blunted diminished CH responses to cUCA or permethrin. This trend became significant with combined chemical exposure. IFNgamma knockout mice displayed similar diminished CH responses to cUCA or permethrin alone. Unlike C57BL/6N mice, the IFNgamma knockout mice did not show a further reduction in CH with combined chemical exposure. These results suggest the following: (1)Mouse strains show variable susceptibility to permethrin- and cUCA-induced immunomodulation. (2)TNFalpha may be involved in the immunomodulatory effects of cUCA and permethrin

  5. Antimonial Therapy Induces Circulating Proinflammatory Cytokines in Patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Gur, Selahaddin; Gurel, Mehmet S.; Bulut, Vedat; Ulukanligil, Mustafa

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between antimonial therapy and circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Patients were treated with conventional chemotherapy by using pentavalent antimonium salts (Glucantime) for 3 weeks. Circulating plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were determined for CL patients and healthy subjects before and 3 weeks after the treatment was started. Plasma IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels were significantly higher for pretreatment CL patients than for healthy subjects. Proinflammatory cytokines significantly increased after 21 days postinfection compared to levels for the pretreatment patients. These increments were approximately 3-fold for IL-1β and TNF-α levels, 10-fold for IL-6 levels, and 20-fold for IL-8 levels in patients with CL. Taken together these results indicate that circulating proinflammatory cytokine levels were increased in patients with CL as a consequence of host defense strategies, and antimonial therapy may induce these cytokines by affecting the macrophage or other components of the host defense system. PMID:12438329

  6. Experience-induced plasticity of cutaneous maps in the primary somatosensory cortex of adult monkeys and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xerri, C; Coq, J O; Merzenich, M M; Jenkins, W M

    1996-01-01

    In a first study, the representations of skin surfaces of the hand in the primary somatosensory cortex, area 3b, were reconstructed in owl monkeys and squirrel monkeys trained to pick up food pellets from small, shallow wells, a task which required skilled use of the digits. Training sessions included limited manual exercise over a total period of a few hours of practice. From an early clumsy performance in which many retrieval attempts were required for each successful pellet retrieval, the monkeys exhibited a gradual improvement. Typically, the animals used various combinations of digits before developing a successful retrieval strategy. As the behavior came to be stereotyped, monkeys consistently engaged surfaces of the distal phalanges of one or two digits in the palpation and capture of food pellets from the smallest wells. Microelectrode mapping of the hand surfaces revealed that the glabrous skin of the fingertips predominantly involved in the dexterity task was represented over topographically expanded cortical sectors. Furthermore, cutaneous receptive fields which covered the most frequently stimulated digital tip surfaces were less than half as large as were those representing the corresponding surfaces of control digits. In a second series of experiments, Long-Evans rats were assigned to environments promoting differential tactile experience (standard, enriched, and impoverished) for 80 to 115 days from the time of weaning. A fourth group of young adult rat experienced a severe restriction of forepaw exploratory movement for either 7 or 15 days. Cortical maps derived in the primary somatosensory cortex showed that environmental enrichment induced a substantial enlargement of the cutaneous forepaw representation, and improved its spatial resolution (smaller glabrous receptive fields). In contrast, tactile impoverishment resulted in a degradation of the forepaw representation that was characterized by larger cutaneous receptive fields and the emergence of

  7. Protection against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Induced by Recombinant Antigens in Murine and Nonhuman Primate Models of the Human Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Neto, Antonio; Porrozzi, Renato; Greeson, Kay; Coler, Rhea N.; Webb, John R.; Seiky, Yasir A. W.; Reed, Steven G.; Grimaldi, Gabriel

    2001-01-01

    Leishmaniasis affects approximately 2 million people each year throughout the world. This high incidence is due in part to the lack of an efficacious vaccine. We present evidence that the recombinant leishmanial antigens LmSTI1 and TSA, which we identified and characterized previously, induce excellent protection in both murine and nonhuman primate (rhesus monkey) models of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. The remarkable protection induced by LmSTI1 and TSA in an animal model that is evolutionarily close to humans qualifies this antigen combination as a promising candidate subunit vaccine against human leishmaniasis. PMID:11349082

  8. 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene induces apoptosis in RL95-2 human endometrial cancer cells: Ligand-selective activation of cytochrome P450 1B1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Young [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Science Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Gee [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin-Yong [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Science Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon-Jae [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji-Eun [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Science Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seunghoon [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se Yong [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Busan Medical Center, Busan 611-072 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hong Jo [Department of General Surgery, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young Hyun, E-mail: yhyoo@dau.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Science Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-04-15

    7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, exhibits mutagenic, carcinogenic, immunosuppressive, and apoptogenic properties in various cell types. To achieve these functions effectively, DMBA is modified to its active form by cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1). Exposure to DMBA causes cytotoxicity-mediated apoptosis in bone marrow B cells and ovarian cells. Although uterine endometrium constitutively expresses CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, their apoptotic role after exposure to DMBA remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we chose RL95-2 endometrial cancer cells as a model system for studying DMBA-induced cytotoxicity and cell death and hypothesized that exposure to DMBA causes apoptosis in this cell type following CYP1A1 and/or CYP1B1 activation. We showed that DMBA-induced apoptosis in RL95-2 cells is associated with activation of caspases. In addition, mitochondrial changes, including decrease in mitochondrial potential and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytosol, support the hypothesis that a mitochondrial pathway is involved in DMBA-induced apoptosis. Exposure to DMBA upregulated the expression of AhR, Arnt, CYP1A1, and CYP1B1 significantly; this may be necessary for the conversion of DMBA to DMBA-3,4-diol-1,2-epoxide (DMBA-DE). Although both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 were significantly upregulated by DMBA, only CYP1B1 exhibited activity. Moreover, knockdown of CYP1B1 abolished DMBA-induced apoptosis in RL95-2 cells. Our data show that RL95-2 cells are susceptible to apoptosis by exposure to DMBA and that CYP1B1 plays a pivotal role in DMBA-induced apoptosis in this system. -- Highlights: ► Cytotoxicity-mediated apoptogenic action of DMBA in human endometrial cancer cells. ► Mitochondrial pathway in DMBA-induced apoptosis of RL95-2 endometrial cancer cells. ► Requirement of ligand-selective activation of CYP1B1 in DMBA-induced apoptosis.

  9. Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Cytogenetic Damage in White, Hispanic and Black Skin Melanocytes: A Risk for Cutaneous Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Amrita [Hampton University Skin of Color Research Institute, Hampton, VA 23668 (United States); Katdare, Meena, E-mail: mkatdare@gmail.com [Hampton University Skin of Color Research Institute, Hampton, VA 23668 (United States); Department of Dermatology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA 23507 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    Cutaneous Melanoma (CM) is a leading cause of cancer deaths, with reports indicating a rising trend in the incidence rate of melanoma among Hispanics in certain U.S. states. The level of melanin pigmentation in the skin is suggested to render photoprotection from the DNA-damaging effects of Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR). UVR-induced DNA damage leads to cytogenetic defects visualized as the formation of micronuclei, multinuclei and polymorphic nuclei in cells, and a hallmark of cancer risk. The causative relationship between Sun exposure and CM is controversial, especially in Hispanics and needs further evaluation. This study was initiated with melanocytes from White, Hispanic and Black neonatal foreskins which were exposed to UVR to assess their susceptibility to UVR-induced modulation of cellular growth, cytogenetic damage, intracellular and released melanin. Our results show that White and Hispanic skin melanocytes with similar levels of constitutive melanin are susceptible to UVR-induced cytogenetic damage, whereas Black skin melanocytes are not. Our data suggest that the risk of developing UVR-induced CM in a skin type is correlated with the level of cutaneous pigmentation and its ethnic background. This study provides a benchmark for further investigation on the damaging effects of UVR as risk for CM in Hispanics.

  10. Chemopreventive effect of Annona muricata on DMBA-induced cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and leading cause of cancer death in women. Breast cancer and cancer related diseases have been treated using surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Despite these therapeutic options, cancer remains associated with high ...

  11. Preservation of pressure-induced cutaneous vasodilation by limiting oxidative stress in short-term diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiot, Claire; Fromy, Bérengère; Saumet, Jean Louis; Sigaudo-Roussel, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Pressure-induced vasodilation (PIV) allows skin blood flow to increase in response to locally applied pressure and may be protective against pressure ulcers. We previously showed that PIV was absent in 1-week diabetic mice exhibiting no neuropathy. Our aim was to determine whether the diabetes-induced PIV alteration could be prevented. Diabetic mice received no treatment or a daily treatment with either sorbinil, alagebrium or alpha-lipoic acid (LPA) for 1 week. Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to evaluate PIV as well as endothelium-dependent vasodilation following iontophoretic delivery of acetylcholine (ACh). The effect of each treatment on oxidative stress was examined by plasma 8-isoprostane assay. LPA was the sole treatment to prevent both PIV and ACh vasodilation alterations, with a significant reduction of oxidative stress in diabetic mice. Both PIV and ACh-vasodilation were abolished in LPA-treated diabetic mice following injection of Nomega-nitro-L-arginine (ptreatment significantly reduced the oxidative stress and was able to preserve endothelial nitric oxide availability in the cutaneous microcirculation and then to preserve the PIV response in diabetic mice. LPA treatment could play a key role in limiting the risk of pressure-induced cutaneous ulcer during diabetes.

  12. Ultraviolet-induced formation of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange in cultured fibroblasts of patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, M.; Boehm, A.O.; Oldigs, M.; Weichenthal, M.; Reimers, U.; Schmidt-Preuss, U.; Breitbart, E.W.; Ruediger, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    Genetically enhanced sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) radiation may play an important role in the development of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). This was studied in cultured fibroblasts of 26 CMM patients and controls by micronucleus (MN) test and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) after UV irradiation (375 J/m2). Sister chromatid exchange and MN formation were used as parameters to detect the UV-induced genotoxic damage in the individual cell strains. We found that the UV-induced level of MN was significantly increased in CMM patients (p = 0.0005), being most pronounced in the familial cases (p = 0.0001). Ultraviolet-induced SCE was also elevated in CMM patients (p = 0.001), but there was no difference between familial and nonfamilial cases. The present findings indicate that genetic predisposition contributes to the development of CMM in a subset of CMM patients and may be due to an enhanced susceptibility to UV light

  13. Nickel-induced allergy and contact dermatitis: does it induce autoimmunity and cutaneous sclerosis? An experimental study in Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mogairen, Sultan M; Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Al-Arfaj, Abdurhman S; Hamdani, Muhammad; Husain, Sufia; Al-Mohimed, Bandar; Adam, M; Al-Hammad, A; El Rab, Mohammed O Gad

    2010-07-01

    Nickel sensitization is a growing problem and the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether nickel chloride can induce autoimmunity and cutaneous sclerosis in immunosensitive rats. Nickel chloride, in a dose of 4.5 mg in 0.2 ml NS, was administered by the oral and subcutaneous routes to 20 Brown Norway rats. Autoantibodies (ANA, anti-RNP, anti-SCL70 and anti-centromere) were measured and compared in pre- and post-challenge serum samples. Histological studies were also performed in skin biopsies obtained from six positively responding rats and compared with an equal number of control rats at the 14th week post-challenge. Serum ANA was high in a significant number of rats in both the oral (P nickel-treated groups (P = 0.02), while the anti-SCL70 was high in a significant number of rats in only the orally nickel-treated group (P = 0.04). Histologically, subcutaneous and oral nickel-treated groups showed sclerodermic features of the skin (P = 0.22, P = 0.5), respectively. It may be concluded that nickel chloride can induce scleroderma-related autoantibodies and cutaneous sclerosis. More prolonged duration of exposure is probably associated with greater risk. This is the first study showing the potential risk of nickel in triggering the development of cutaneous sclerosis in susceptible hosts.

  14. Atypical Opioid Mechanisms of Control of Injury-Induced Cutaneous Pain by Delta Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    of completion: 20% Estimated time for completing Milestone #1 Demonstration that DOR agonists inhibit action potential firing in cutaneous... action . Furthermore, we found that in two models of injuries, namely skin incision and nerve trauma, a single injection of deltorphin II eliminates the...a first step towards understanding the analgesic mechanism of action of DOR agonists. We are currently extending these findings by performing the

  15. Acute Thermotherapy Prevents Impairments in Cutaneous Microvascular Function Induced by a High Fat Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Harvey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that a high fat meal (HFM would impair cutaneous vasodilation, while thermotherapy (TT would reverse the detrimental effects. Eight participants were instrumented with skin heaters and laser-Doppler (LD probes and tested in three trials: control, HFM, and HFM + TT. Participants wore a water-perfused suit perfused with 33°C (control and HFM or 50°C (HFM + TT water. Participants consumed 1 g fat/kg body weight. Blood samples were taken at baseline and two hours post-HFM. Blood pressure was measured every 5–10 minutes. Microvascular function was assessed via skin local heating from 33°C to 39°C two hours after HFM. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC was calculated and normalized to maximal vasodilation (%CVCmax. HFM had no effect on initial peak (48 ± 4 %CVCmax compared to control (49 ± 4 %CVCmax but attenuated the plateau (51 ± 4 %CVCmax compared to control (63 ± 4 %CVCmax, P < 0.001. Initial peak was augmented in HFM + TT (66 ± 4 %CVCmax compared to control and HFM (P < 0.05, while plateau (73 ± 3 % CVCmax was augmented only compared to the HFM trial (P < 0.001. These data suggest that HFM negatively affects cutaneous vasodilation but can be minimized by TT.

  16. Assessment of laser photobiomodulation and polarized light on the healing of cutaneous wounds on euthyroid and hypothyroid induced rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; Weyll, Barbara Mayoral Pedroso; da Costa Lino, Maíra Dória M.; Ramalho, Maria Jose Pedreira; Barbosa Pinheiro, Antonio Luis

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) or polarized light (PL) in cutaneous wound healing of hypothyroid rats at dosages of 20 or 40J/cm2. Bioestimulatory effects of Laser radiation and Polarized light are recognized alternative therapies to improve healing on systemic disease patients, but their usefulness in the improvement of hypothyroidism healing impairment is uncertain till date. Forty Wistar rats were used in this study. Hypothyroidism was propylthiouracil- induced. Standard excisional cutaneous wounds were created without suturing and LLLT (λ660nm, 30mW, φ 3mm) or PL (λ 400-2000nm, 40mW, φ 10mm) was applied every 48 hours up to seven days on experimental groups. The rats were killed on the eighth day when wound contraction was assessed. The healing features were evaluated by light microscopy (H/E and Sirius Red). The cutaneous wounds of hypothyroid rats showed delayed healing process characterized by reduced thickness of epithelial layers, incipient formation of disorganized collagen fibers and wound contraction to a lesser extent (FISHER, p=0.0276), when compared to the euthyroid group. The use of both the Laser and Polarized Light on hypothyroid rats increased the amount of fibroblasts and the thickness of collagen fibers, especially on the L 20J/cm2 group. Euthyroid rats have still demonstrated more regular collagen fibers pattern than hypothyroid rats. It was therefore concluded that hypothyroidism delays wound healing and both Laser photobiomodulation and Polarized Light at 20j/cm2 dosages had improved the healing process in hypothyroid rats.

  17. Cutaneous leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh V; Kumar Joginder

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACTLeishmaniasis is considered to be zoonotic disease, caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by a bite of infected female sandfly. Primary cutaneous leishmaniasis is not common disease in Nepal, however, there were cases reported from Terai region of Nepal. The patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis present with a papule or nodule at the site of inoculation, followed by formation of crusts. Differential diagnoses of cutaneous leishmaniasis include variety...

  18. Carcinogenese quimica por DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene em camundongos femeas BALB/c: novos fatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Duro de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are known carcinogens used in rodent experimental models. In this study, the carcinogen DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene was administered by gavage, diluted in corn oil, to female BALB / c mice at hebdomadary doses of 1 mg per animal for 1, 3, 6 or 9 weeks. Animals were weighed and monitored weekly until death. Remaining animals were euthanized at the age of 53 weeks. At necropsy, representative fragments of neoplasms were collected and routinely processed for histopathological analysis. Of all mice that received DMBA, 68.57% developed some type of tumor. Of the 70 mice treated with various doses of DMBA, 22 (31.43% developed mammary tumors. The adenoacanthoma was the most commonly (18.75% diagnosed histological type of breast cancer. Lung (15.71%, lymphoid tissue (11.43%, stomach (7.14% and skin (2.86% were also primary sites of tumor development. One third (33.33% of the mice receiving 1 mg of DMBA developed lung cancer. Therefore, the administration of DMBA was shown to be an efficient model of carcinogenesis in mice, especially for the study of breast cancer, when using the highest dose, and lung, when using the lowest dose. Carcinogenesis models have been used for several purposes in cancer research. These results represent new facts for a classic carcinogenesis model.

  19. Evaluation of Topical Tocopherol Cream on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Teoh Seong; Abd Latiff, Azian; Abd Hamid, Noor Aini; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah bt; Mazlan, Musalmah

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a common cause of delayed wound healing. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of topical administration of tocopherol cream on the wound healing process in diabetic rats. The study was conducted using 18 male Sprague Dawley rats which were divided into three groups: (I) diabetic rats receiving control cream (n = 6), (II) diabetic rats receiving 0.06% tocopherol cream (n = 6), and (III) diabetic rats receiving 0.29% tocopherol cream (n = 6). Four cutaneous wounds were c...

  20. Identification and quantification of 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA) from Camellia sinensis tea leaves and dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1, 3-Dimethylbutylamine (DMBA), is a CNS stimulant which has recently been identified in multiple dietary supplements and sometimes labeled as a natural constituent of Pouchung tea. DMBA is an homologue of 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) which the US Food and Drug Administration has attempted to remov...

  1. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Induces a Transmissible Dysbiotic Skin Microbiota that Promotes Skin Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimblet, Ciara; Meisel, Jacquelyn S; Loesche, Michael A; Cole, Stephen D; Horwinski, Joseph; Novais, Fernanda O; Misic, Ana M; Bradley, Charles W; Beiting, Daniel P; Rankin, Shelley C; Carvalho, Lucas P; Carvalho, Edgar M; Scott, Phillip; Grice, Elizabeth A

    2017-07-12

    Skin microbiota can impact allergic and autoimmune responses, wound healing, and anti-microbial defense. We investigated the role of skin microbiota in cutaneous leishmaniasis and found that human patients infected with Leishmania braziliensis develop dysbiotic skin microbiota, characterized by increases in the abundance of Staphylococcus and/or Streptococcus. Mice infected with L. major exhibit similar changes depending upon disease severity. Importantly, this dysbiosis is not limited to the lesion site, but is transmissible to normal skin distant from the infection site and to skin from co-housed naive mice. This observation allowed us to test whether a pre-existing dysbiotic skin microbiota influences disease, and we found that challenging dysbiotic naive mice with L. major or testing for contact hypersensitivity results in exacerbated skin inflammatory responses. These findings demonstrate that a dysbiotic skin microbiota is not only a consequence of tissue stress, but also enhances inflammation, which has implications for many inflammatory cutaneous diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces cell-surface Ro/SSA antigen expression by human keratinocytes in vitro: a possible mechanism for the UVR induction of cutaneous lupus lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    Antinuclear antibodies are useful markers of connective tissue disease. In this study, UVB but not UVA induced the expression of Ro/SSA antigen on keratinocyte surfaces in vitro. This expression was also found with the extractable nuclear antigens RnP and Sm, but not with single or double-stranded DNA. The expression was prevented by blocking protein synthesis, suggesting that it was an active process. The results suggest that UVB exposure may result in the expression of Ro/SSA antigen on the surfaces of basal keratinocytes in vivo. This antigen could then bind circulating antibody leading to the cutaneous lesions in neonatal and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. (Author)

  3. New approach to carbon monoxide poisoning treatment by laser-induced photodissociation of carboxyhemoglobin of cutaneous blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimov, Mustafo M.; Asimov, Rustam M.; Gisbrecht, Alexander

    2005-04-01

    A new approach to carbon monoxide poisoning treatment based on laser-induced photodissociation of the carboxyhemoglobin is proposed. Using the simple model of laser tissue interaction the action spectra of laser radiation on carboxyhemoglobin of cutaneous blood vessels has been calculated. The results of the calculatoins indicate that there is a relatively narrow spectral range in the visible region where one could effectively irradiate carboxyhemoglobin through the tissue not in a deep distances. In the case of deeper penetration, the action spectra of laser radiation shifts toward the longer wavelength region. Despite the similarity of the carboxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin action spectra, the significant difference in quantum yields of photodissociation makes possible to develop an effective method of carbon monoxide poisoning treatment.

  4. Cutaneous Porphyrias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Christiansen, Anne; Aagaard, Lise; Krag, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    and a flowchart for the diagnosis of cutaneous porphyrias, with recommendations for monitoring and an update of treatment options. From the Danish Porphyria Register, we present the incidences and approximate prevalences of cutaneous porphyrias within the last 25 years. A total of 650 patients with porphyria...

  5. Fibroblast-Specific Deletion of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 Critically Impairs Murine Cutaneous Neovascularization and Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscher, Dominik; Maan, Zeshaan N; Whittam, Alexander J; Sorkin, Michael; Hu, Michael S; Walmsley, Graham G; Baker, Hutton; Fischer, Lauren H; Januszyk, Michael; Wong, Victor W; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes and aging are known risk factors for impaired neovascularization in response to ischemic insult, resulting in chronic wounds, and poor outcomes following myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular injury. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, has been identified as a critical regulator of the response to ischemic injury and is dysfunctional in diabetic and elderly patients. To better understand the role of this master hypoxia regulator within cutaneous tissue, the authors generated and evaluated a fibroblast-specific HIF-1α knockout mouse model. The authors generated floxed HIF-1 mice (HIF-1) by introducing loxP sites around exon 1 of the HIF-1 allele in C57BL/6J mice. Fibroblast-restricted HIF-1α knockout (FbKO) mice were generated by breeding our HIF-1 with tamoxifen-inducible Col1a2-Cre mice (Col1a2-CreER). HIF-1α knockout was evaluated on a DNA, RNA, and protein level. Knockout and wild-type mice were subjected to ischemic flap and wound healing models, and CD31 immunohistochemistry was performed to assess vascularity of healed wounds. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of FbKO skin demonstrated significantly reduced Hif1 and Vegfa expression compared with wild-type. This finding was confirmed at the protein level (p wound closure and vascularity (p wound healing, reduced wound vascularity, and significant impairment in the ischemic neovascular response. These findings provide new insight into the importance of cell-specific responses to hypoxia during cutaneous neovascularization.

  6. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CARBAMAZEPINE INDUCED SEVERE CUTANEOUS ADVERSE DRUG REACTION AND HLA POLIMORPHISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safrina Dewi Ratnaningrum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbamazepine as an antiepileptic drug that is used widely and was known can cause severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions like SJS-TEN. These adverse drug reactions is known to be associated with some specific HLA polymorphism in European populations (HLA-A*31: 01, China (HLA-A*31: 01; HLA-B*15:02, Japan (HLA-A*31 : 01; HLA-B*15: 11, Korea HLA-A*31: 01; HLA-B*15: 02; HLA-B*15: 11, India (HLA-B*15:02, Thailand (HLA-B*15: 02, and Malaysia (HLA-B*15: 02. Information related to certain HLA polymorphism is important to prevent adverse drug reaction but there is no sufficient data on the population of Indonesia.

  7. Estrogen increases smooth muscle expression of alpha2C-adrenoceptors and cold-induced constriction of cutaneous arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, A H; Maiti, K; Mitra, S; Chotani, M A; Flavahan, S; Bailey, S R; Thompson-Torgerson, C S; Flavahan, N A

    2007-09-01

    Raynaud's phenomenon, which is characterized by intense cold-induced constriction of cutaneous arteries, is more common in women compared with men. Cold-induced constriction is mediated in part by enhanced activity of alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors (alpha(2C)-ARs) located on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMs). Experiments were therefore performed to determine whether 17beta-estradiol regulates alpha(2C)-AR expression and function in cutaneous VSMs. 17beta-Estradiol (0.01-10 nmol/l) increased expression of the alpha(2C)-AR protein and the activity of the alpha(2C)-AR gene promoter in human cultured dermal VSMs, which was assessed following transient transfection of the cells with a promoter-reporter construct. The effect of 17beta-estradiol was associated with increased accumulation of cAMP and activation of the cAMP-responsive Rap2 GTP-binding protein. Transient transfection of VSMs with a dominant-negative mutant of Rap2 inhibited the 17beta-estradiol-induced activation of the alpha(2C)-AR gene promoter, whereas a constitutively active mutant of Rap2 increased alpha(2C)-AR promoter activity. The effects of 17beta-estradiol were inhibited by the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, ICI-182780 (1 micromol/l), and were mimicked by a cell-impermeable form of the hormone (estrogen:BSA) or by the selective ER-alpha receptor agonist 4,4',4'''-(4-propyl-[(1)H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)tris-phenol (PPT; 10 nmol/l) or the selective ER-beta receptor agonist 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN; 10 nmol/l). Therefore, 17beta-estradiol increased expression of alpha(2C)-ARs by interacting with cell surface receptors to cause a cAMP/Rap2-dependent increase in alpha(2C)-AR transcription. In mouse tail arteries, 17beta-estradiol (10 nmol/l) increased alpha(2C)-AR expression and selectively increased the cold-induced amplification of alpha(2)-AR constriction, which is mediated by alpha(2C)-ARs. An estrogen-dependent increase in expression of cold-sensitive alpha(2C)-ARs may contribute

  8. The Contribution of the Fas/FasL Apoptotic Pathway in Ulcer Formation during Leishmania major-Induced Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsmo, Liv; Nylen, Susanne; Khamesipour, Ali; Hedblad, Mari-Anne; Chiodi, Francesca; Akuffo, Hannah

    2005-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), caused by the intracellular protozoan Leishmania major, is characterized by lesion formation and ulceration at the site of infection. The mechanism of ulcer formation during CL is not fully understood. The expression of Fas and FasL and the levels of apoptosis in skin biopsies and in restimulated blood mononuclear cells from patients with 1 to 7 months of L. major-induced CL were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. The levels of soluble Fas and FasL were also analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A substantial number of apoptotic keratinocytes were observed mainly in the superficial epidermis of morphologically active and healing CL skin samples. Fas expression was increased on epidermis in active CL, whereas Fas expression was similar in healing and healthy epidermis. FasL-expressing macrophages and T cells were found in subepidermal infiltrate, mainly in active disease. When CL peripheral blood mononuclear cells were restimulated with L. major, Fas was up-regulated on effector T cells, and high levels of sFasL were secreted. Supernatants from restimulated cultures induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes (HaCaT), possibly through Fas/FasL interactions. Our results indicate that FasL-expressing effector T cells and macrophages may act to induce apoptosis and ulcer formation in Fas-expressing keratinocytes during L. major infection. PMID:15793290

  9. Cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Chandra Adhikari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTLeishmaniasis is considered to be zoonotic disease, caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by a bite of infected female sandfly. Primary cutaneous leishmaniasis is not common disease in Nepal, however, there were cases reported from Terai region of Nepal. The patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis present with a papule or nodule at the site of inoculation, followed by formation of crusts. Differential diagnoses of cutaneous leishmaniasis include variety of skin diseases, inflammatory like impetigo, eczema, or granulomatous like sarcoidosis, lupus vulgaris, to skin tumor like basal cell carcinoma & squamous cell carcinoma. There are various procedures and laboratory techniques used to diagnose leishmaniasis. Punch skin biopsy is widely used & popular technique to diagnose cutaneous leishmaniasis. Different drugs like sodium stibogluconate, sodium antimony gluconate, Amphotericin B and Miltefosine: are used for its treatment. No vaccines are available for prevention. 

  10. Cutaneous Angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Rampinelli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous angiosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor showing blood or lymphatic vessel differentiation, corresponding to < 2% of all sarcomas. It preferably affects elderly, with predilection for the head and neck. Diagnosis is frequently late due to the early interpretation by the patient as a benign lesion similar to ecchymosis, which explains its aggressiveness with high metastasis and recurrence rates. We report the case of an elderly man whose histopathologic diagnosis confirmed the clinical suspicion of cutaneous angiosarcoma.

  11. Evaluation of Topical Tocopherol Cream on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teoh Seong Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a common cause of delayed wound healing. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of topical administration of tocopherol cream on the wound healing process in diabetic rats. The study was conducted using 18 male Sprague Dawley rats which were divided into three groups: (I diabetic rats receiving control cream , (II diabetic rats receiving 0.06% tocopherol cream , and (III diabetic rats receiving 0.29% tocopherol cream . Four cutaneous wounds were created at the dorsal region of the rats. Wound healing was assessed by total protein content, rate of wound closure estimation, and histological studies on the tenth day after wounding. Tocopherol treatment enhanced the wound healing process by increasing rate of wound closure and total protein content significantly compared to the control group. Histological observation also showed better organized epithelium and more collagen fibers in the tocopherol treated groups. Application of tocopherol cream enhances wound healing process in diabetic condition which is known to cause delay in wound healing.

  12. Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis-induced cutaneous leishmaniasis in Balb/c mice: pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, J. I.; Tani, E.; Orn, A.; Sánchez, C.; Goto, H.

    1993-01-01

    Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis infected Balb/c mice developed a progressive swelling in the injected footpad that grew to a tumour-like lesion from day 80 onwards. We did not observe any typical ulcera, necrosis or metastasis to other parts of the skin. Neither did we observe any histopathological changes in liver or spleen during the experiment. At the site of injection, we observed progressive changes ranging from a moderate, mixed inflammatory infiltrate with few leishmania amastigotes in the macrophages to an extensive inflammation composed of monomorphic vacuolated macrophages containing large numbers of parasites. A granulomatous pattern with presence of epithelioid cells and a few multinucleated giant cells was observed at the initial phase of the infection. During later stages, focal necrosis with polymorphonuclear neutrophils was seen. Lymph nodes presented granulomatous lesions in the subcapsular area, numerous plasma cells in the medullary cords and macrophages with leishmania organisms in dilated cortical sinuses at the 4th and the 6th months of infection. This Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis infected Balb/c mice seems to be a good model for continued studies of the pathogenesis of cutaneous leishmaniasis and also for drug trials in the development of new therapeutic tools. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8217783

  13. Antioxidant Sol-Gel Improves Cutaneous Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yen-Hsien; Chang, Jung-Jhih; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Yang, Ming-Chien; Chien, Hsiung-Fei

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of vitamin C in Pluronic F127 on diabetic wound healing. Full-thickness excision skin wounds were made in normal and diabetic Wistar rats to evaluate the effect of saline, saline plus vitamin C (antioxidant sol), Pluronic F127, or Pluronic F127 plus vitamin C (antioxidant sol-gel). The rate of wound contraction, the levels of epidermal and dermal maturation, collagen synthesis, and apoptosis production in the wound tissue were determined. In vitro data showed that after 6 hours of air exposure, the order of the scavenging abilities for HOCl, H2O2, and O2  − was antioxidant sol-gel > antioxidant saline > Pluronic F127 = saline. After 7 and 14 days of wound injury, the antioxidant sol-gel improved wound healing significantly by accelerated epidermal and dermal maturation, an increase in collagen content, and a decrease in apoptosis formation. However, the wounds of all treatments healed mostly at 3 weeks. Vitamin C in Pluronic F127 hastened cutaneous wound healing by its antioxidant and antiapoptotic mechanisms through a good drug delivery system. This study showed that Pluronic F127 plus vitamin C could potentially be employed as a novel wound-healing enhancer. PMID:22919368

  14. Synthesis, characterization and thermal decomposition of [Pd2 (C2-dmba (µ-SO4 (SO22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caires Antonio Carlos Fávero

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The bridged sulphate complex [Pd2 (C²,dmba (µ-SO4 (SO22] has been obtained by reacting a saturated solution of SO2 in methanol and the cyclometallated compound [Pd(C²,N-dmba(µ-N3] 2; (dmba = N,N-dimethylbenzylamine, at room temperature for 24 h. Reaction product was characterized by elemental analysis, NMR comprising 13C{¹H} and ¹H nuclei and I.R. spectrum's measurements. Thermal behavior has been investigated and residual products identified by X-ray powder diffraction.

  15. Study protocol for an approach based on diagnosis and therapy of cutaneous radiation induced lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Radl, Analia; Portas, Mercedes

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In the frame of an agreement between the 'Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires'-Burn Center- (a reference hospital of the Medical Radiological Emergency Response Network of Argentina) and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority, a research project for diagnostic and therapeutic approach of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) is in progress. Sixty seven persons, which developed acute and/or late CRS, were included in this protocol from 1997 to 2007, treated with an equivalent therapeutic scheme and evaluated through clinical follow-up, serial photographic record and complementary tests (tele-thermography and high frequency ultrasonography). There exist individual variations that could condition the response to ionizing radiation (IR) in not only accidental but also planned exposures (such as radiotherapy and interventional radiology). Deficiencies in DNA repair mechanisms would be involved on hypersensitivity to deterministic effects of IR. Consequently, the characterization of DNA repair capacity in lymphocytes through cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) and alkaline single-cell microgel electrophoresis (comet) assays could be suitable approaches to evaluate in vitro individual radiosensitivity. Under this context, individual radiosensitivity assessment was conducted in patients included in this research protocol that showed acute and/or late cutaneous reactions with grades 3 and 4 of the Toxicity Criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. DNA repair capacity was evaluated through MN and comet assay for initial damage and after specific times of repair (0-120 minutes). DNA damage and repair capacity were quantified by the Olive tail moment. Previous own studies have identified three subpopulations, characterized by the mean values of their repair mean half-time: healthy controls (2.6 ± 0.3 minutes), average-reactor cancer patients (4.7 ± 2.9 minutes) and over

  16. "I Lost My Image, the Image Others Know Me By": Findings From a Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study of Patients Living With Treatment-Induced Cutaneous Toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Andreas; Charalambous, Melanie

    2016-06-01

    Cancer patients receiving targeted therapies often develop persistent cutaneous adverse effects, such as papulopustular eruption (rash), xerosis cutis (dry skin), pruritus (itch), and hair and nail changes. These can be dose-limiting or a cause for therapy discontinuation but also can be wearing on patients, negatively influencing their self-image and relationships with others. In a Ricoeurian hermeneutic phenomenological study, we aimed to explore the lived experiences of colorectal, pancreatic, and non-small cell lung cancer patients living with cutaneous toxicities following treatment with targeted agents. Narratives were used to elicit the experiences of 22 cancer patients. Data were analyzed in three steps informed by Ricoeur's interpretation theory: naïve understanding, structural analyses, and comprehensive understanding. Three themes were identified: "Ashamed of what I have become," "Surrender to cancer," and "Mourning for the loss of my body," with nine sub-themes revealing the multidimensional impact of the adverse effects on the patients' lives. The comprehensive understanding produced in analysis revealed a new contextualized interpretation of being in the world while living with cutaneous toxicities. Treatment-induced cutaneous toxicities distorted patients' daily living in ways that led to negative manifestations and effects on their self-image, social engagement, and intimate relationships. Although the dose-limiting and treatment-interrupting effects of these toxicities have been reported, this study sheds light on their existential impact, touching on physical, psychological, and social issues. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Mutation analysis with random DNA identifiers (MARDI) catalogs Pig-a mutations in heterogeneous pools of CD48-deficient T cells derived from DMBA-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revollo, Javier R; Crabtree, Nathaniel M; Pearce, Mason G; Pacheco-Martinez, M Monserrat; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N

    2016-03-01

    Identification of mutations induced by xenotoxins is a common task in the field of genetic toxicology. Mutations are often detected by clonally expanding potential mutant cells and genotyping each viable clone by Sanger sequencing. Such a "clone-by-clone" approach requires significant time and effort, and sometimes is even impossible to implement. Alternative techniques for efficient mutation identification would greatly benefit both basic and regulatory genetic toxicology research. Here, we report the development of Mutation Analysis with Random DNA Identifiers (MARDI), a novel high-fidelity Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) approach that circumvents clonal expansion and directly catalogs mutations in pools of mutant cells. MARDI uses oligonucleotides carrying Random DNA Identifiers (RDIs) to tag progenitor DNA molecules before PCR amplification, enabling clustering of descendant DNA molecules and eliminating NGS- and PCR-induced sequencing artifacts. When applied to the Pig-a cDNA analysis of heterogeneous pools of CD48-deficient T cells derived from DMBA-treated rats, MARDI detected nearly all Pig-a mutations that were previously identified by conventional clone-by-clone analysis and discovered many additional ones consistent with DMBA exposure: mostly A to T transversions, with the mutated A located on the non-transcribed DNA strand. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Arsenic-induced cutaneous hyperplastic lesions are associated with the dysregulation of Yap, a Hippo signaling-related protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Changzhao; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Elmets, Craig A.; Afaq, Farrukh; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Arsenic activates canonical Hippo signaling pathway and up-regulates αCatenin in the skin. •Arsenic activates transcriptional activity of Yap by its nuclear translocation. •Yap is involved in the disruption of tight/adherens junctions in arsenic-exposed animals. -- Abstract: Arsenic exposure in humans causes a number of toxic manifestations in the skin including cutaneous neoplasm. However, the mechanism of these alterations remains elusive. Here, we provide novel observations that arsenic induced Hippo signaling pathway in the murine skin. This pathway plays crucial roles in determining organ size during the embryonic development and if aberrantly activated in adults, contributes to the pathogenesis of epithelial neoplasm. Arsenic treatment enhanced phosphorylation-dependent activation of LATS1 kinase and other Hippo signaling regulatory proteins Sav1 and MOB1. Phospho-LATS kinase is known to catalyze the inactivation of a transcriptional co-activator, Yap. However, in arsenic-treated epidermis, we did not observed its inactivation. Thus, as expected, unphosphorylated-Yap was translocated to the nucleus in arsenic-treated epidermis. Yap by binding to the transcription factors TEADs induces transcription of its target genes. Consistently, an up-regulation of Yap-dependent target genes Cyr61, Gli2, Ankrd1 and Ctgf was observed in the skin of arsenic-treated mice. Phosphorylated Yap is important in regulating tight and adherens junctions through its binding to αCatenin. We found disruption of these junctions in the arsenic-treated mouse skin despite an increase in αCatenin. These data provide evidence that arsenic-induced canonical Hippo signaling pathway and Yap-mediated disruption of tight and adherens junctions are independently regulated. These effects together may contribute to the carcinogenic effects of arsenic in the skin

  19. Arsenic-induced cutaneous hyperplastic lesions are associated with the dysregulation of Yap, a Hippo signaling-related protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Changzhao; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Elmets, Craig A.; Afaq, Farrukh; Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Arsenic activates canonical Hippo signaling pathway and up-regulates αCatenin in the skin. •Arsenic activates transcriptional activity of Yap by its nuclear translocation. •Yap is involved in the disruption of tight/adherens junctions in arsenic-exposed animals. -- Abstract: Arsenic exposure in humans causes a number of toxic manifestations in the skin including cutaneous neoplasm. However, the mechanism of these alterations remains elusive. Here, we provide novel observations that arsenic induced Hippo signaling pathway in the murine skin. This pathway plays crucial roles in determining organ size during the embryonic development and if aberrantly activated in adults, contributes to the pathogenesis of epithelial neoplasm. Arsenic treatment enhanced phosphorylation-dependent activation of LATS1 kinase and other Hippo signaling regulatory proteins Sav1 and MOB1. Phospho-LATS kinase is known to catalyze the inactivation of a transcriptional co-activator, Yap. However, in arsenic-treated epidermis, we did not observed its inactivation. Thus, as expected, unphosphorylated-Yap was translocated to the nucleus in arsenic-treated epidermis. Yap by binding to the transcription factors TEADs induces transcription of its target genes. Consistently, an up-regulation of Yap-dependent target genes Cyr61, Gli2, Ankrd1 and Ctgf was observed in the skin of arsenic-treated mice. Phosphorylated Yap is important in regulating tight and adherens junctions through its binding to αCatenin. We found disruption of these junctions in the arsenic-treated mouse skin despite an increase in αCatenin. These data provide evidence that arsenic-induced canonical Hippo signaling pathway and Yap-mediated disruption of tight and adherens junctions are independently regulated. These effects together may contribute to the carcinogenic effects of arsenic in the skin.

  20. Artocarpin Induces Apoptosis in Human Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma HSC-1 Cells and Its Cytotoxic Activity Is Dependent on Protein-Nutrient Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chu-Sung Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Artocarpin, a natural prenylated flavonoid, has been shown to have various biological properties. However, its effects on human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC have not been previously investigated. We set out to determine whether artocarpin has cytotoxic effects on SCC cells and whether its pharmacological activity is dependent on protein-nutrient concentration. Our results showed that treatment of HSC-1 cells (a human cutaneous SCC cell line with artocarpin decreased cell viability and induced cell apoptosis by increasing caspase 3/7 activity. These effects were more pronounced at low fetal bovine serum (FBS concentrations. Artocarpin induced an increase in the level of phospho-p38 and a decrease in the levels of phospho-ERK, phospho-JNK, phospho-Akt, phospho-mTOR, and phospho-S6K. High FBS concentrations in the culture media inhibited and delayed the uptake of artocarpin from the extracellular compartment (culture media into the intracellular compartment, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. In conclusion, artocarpin induces apoptosis in HSC-1 cells through modulation of MAPK and Akt/mTOR pathways. Binding of artocarpin to proteins in the FBS may inhibit cellular uptake and reduce the cytotoxic activity of artocarpin on HSC-1 cells. Therefore, artocarpin may have potential use in the future as a form of treatment for cutaneous SCC.

  1. Pomegranate (Punica granatum Juice Shows Antioxidant Activity against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis-Induced Oxidative Stress in Female BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badriah Alkathiri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania species are parasites that multiply within phagocytes and cause several clinical diseases characterized by single or multiple ulcerations. One of the complications that can induce tissue damage and the resulting scars is caused by secondary bacterial infections. Studies to find new, effective, and safe oral drugs for treating leishmaniasis are being conducted since several decades, owing to the problems associated with the use of antimonials available. Previously, the antiparasitic and antioxidant properties of Punica granatum (pomegranate, P. granatum have been reported. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the antileishmanial activity of pomegranate aqueous juice in vitro and in female BALB/c mice. A 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay in Leishmania major promastigotes and alterations in the antioxidant status, liver function, and skin histological changes in L. major-infected mice orally treated with pomegranate juice alone and in combination with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, were used to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activity of pomegranate juice, respectively. Oral P. granatum juice treatment significantly reduced the average size of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions compared with that of the untreated mice. This antileishmanial activity of P. granatum was associated with enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities. Histopathological evaluation proved the antileishmanial activity of P. granatum, but did not reveal changes in the treated animals, compared to the positive control. In conclusion, P. granatum shows high and fast antileishmanial activity probably by boosting the endogenous antioxidant activity.

  2. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Juice Shows Antioxidant Activity against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis-Induced Oxidative Stress in Female BALB/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkathiri, Badriah; El-Khadragy, Manal F; Metwally, Dina M; Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; Bakhrebah, Muhammed A; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2017-12-18

    Leishmania species are parasites that multiply within phagocytes and cause several clinical diseases characterized by single or multiple ulcerations. One of the complications that can induce tissue damage and the resulting scars is caused by secondary bacterial infections. Studies to find new, effective, and safe oral drugs for treating leishmaniasis are being conducted since several decades, owing to the problems associated with the use of antimonials available. Previously, the antiparasitic and antioxidant properties of Punica granatum (pomegranate, P. granatum ) have been reported. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the antileishmanial activity of pomegranate aqueous juice in vitro and in female BALB/c mice. A 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in Leishmania major promastigotes and alterations in the antioxidant status, liver function, and skin histological changes in L. major -infected mice orally treated with pomegranate juice alone and in combination with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, were used to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activity of pomegranate juice, respectively. Oral P. granatum juice treatment significantly reduced the average size of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions compared with that of the untreated mice. This antileishmanial activity of P. granatum was associated with enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities. Histopathological evaluation proved the antileishmanial activity of P. granatum , but did not reveal changes in the treated animals, compared to the positive control. In conclusion, P. granatum shows high and fast antileishmanial activity probably by boosting the endogenous antioxidant activity.

  3. Antiproliferative effect of gynura procumbens (lour. Merr. Leaves etanolic extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz(aantracene induced male rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Meiyanto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The leaves of Gynura procumbens (Lour. Merr. has been traditionally used as anticancer. Ethanolic extract of G. procumbens leaves (EGP showed cytotoxic activity and anticancer activity in animal cancer model. This study was conducted to observe antiproliferative effect using male rat's liver cells induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(aantracene (DMBA. Methods: Forty days old Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into 4 groups, (1 0.5 % CMC Na, (2 20 mg/kg BW DMBA p.o ten times in three weeks, (3 DMBA+300 mg/kg BW of EGP, and (4 DMBA+750 mg/kg BW of EGP. The extract was dissolved into 0.5 % CMC-and administered daily per oral one week before, during and terminated 1 week after the DMBA induction. After sixthteen week experiment, rat livers were sectioned and stained with Haematoxyllene and Eosin (H&E and AgNOR. Results: Histopatology profile showed no primary liver tumor on DMBA group. mAgNOR value of DMBA+300 mg/kg BW EGP showed significant antiproliferative effect compared to DMBA group. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of G. procumbens leaves showed antiproliferative activity on male rats liver induced by DMBA.

  4. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Harman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is used to describe a spectrum of diseases caused by the parasitic protozoa leishmania spp. and transmitted by infected female sandflies. There are three main forms of the disease; cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral. According to the World Health Organization, almost 12 million people from 98 countries worldwide are currently infected with leishmaniasis, while 350 million people are at risk. It was reported that 2 million new cases are diagnosed every year, with three-fourth are cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL cases. The scientific and medical communities have learnt a lot about CL during the 20th and early 21st centuries. However, the management and control of the disease remains a difficult task. This article was focused on the most common form of the disease, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and especially its epidemiological aspects and treatment.

  5. Characterization of cutaneous vascular permeability induced by platelet-activating factor in guinea pigs and rats and its inhibition by a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, S.B.; Li, C.L.; Lam, M.H.; Shen, T.Y.

    1985-06-01

    Mechanisms of platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced increases of cutaneous vascular permeability in guinea pigs and in rats were further explored. PAF so far is the most potent vasoactive mediator, being more than 1000-fold more potent than histamine and bradykinin in both species. In guinea pigs, there is a time delay of 5 to 10 minutes before PAF action, whereas, in the rat, the increased vasopermeability occurs immediately following the intradermal PAF injection. Relative vasoactive potencies of PAF and several structure-related analogues in both species correlate very well with their relative inhibition of the binding of /sup 3/H-PAF to specific receptor sites on isolated rabbit platelet plasma membranes and their aggregatory abilities of rabbit platelets. Furthermore, the PAF-induced cutaneous vascular permeability is inhibitable by a competitive specific PAF receptor antagonist, kadsurenone, suggesting that binding of PAF to its specific receptor site is the first step to initiate its action of increased cutaneous vascular permeability. Several pure cyclooxygenase inhibitors, including indomethacin, diflunisal, and flurbiprofen, and the dual cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase inhibitor, BW755C, but not the histamine antagonists, inhibit the PAF-induced vasopermeability in guinea pigs. The inhibition by indomethacin or BW755C can be fully reversed by coinjection intradermally with PAF and prostaglandin E1 but not leukotriene B4. Also, prostaglandin E1 but not leukotriene B4 enhances the guinea pig in vivo response to PAF in this model. However, in rats, none of the cyclooxygenase inhibitors, histamine antagonists, or BW755C inhibit the PAF effect of cutaneous phenomena.

  6. Characterization of cutaneous vascular permeability induced by platelet-activating factor in guinea pigs and rats and its inhibition by a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.B.; Li, C.L.; Lam, M.H.; Shen, T.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanisms of platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced increases of cutaneous vascular permeability in guinea pigs and in rats were further explored. PAF so far is the most potent vasoactive mediator, being more than 1000-fold more potent than histamine and bradykinin in both species. In guinea pigs, there is a time delay of 5 to 10 minutes before PAF action, whereas, in the rat, the increased vasopermeability occurs immediately following the intradermal PAF injection. Relative vasoactive potencies of PAF and several structure-related analogues in both species correlate very well with their relative inhibition of the binding of 3 H-PAF to specific receptor sites on isolated rabbit platelet plasma membranes and their aggregatory abilities of rabbit platelets. Furthermore, the PAF-induced cutaneous vascular permeability is inhibitable by a competitive specific PAF receptor antagonist, kadsurenone, suggesting that binding of PAF to its specific receptor site is the first step to initiate its action of increased cutaneous vascular permeability. Several pure cyclooxygenase inhibitors, including indomethacin, diflunisal, and flurbiprofen, and the dual cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase inhibitor, BW755C, but not the histamine antagonists, inhibit the PAF-induced vasopermeability in guinea pigs. The inhibition by indomethacin or BW755C can be fully reversed by coinjection intradermally with PAF and prostaglandin E1 but not leukotriene B4. Also, prostaglandin E1 but not leukotriene B4 enhances the guinea pig in vivo response to PAF in this model. However, in rats, none of the cyclooxygenase inhibitors, histamine antagonists, or BW755C inhibit the PAF effect of cutaneous phenomena

  7. Enhanced susceptibility of ovaries from obese mice to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, Shanthi, E-mail: shanthig@iastate.edu; Nteeba, Jackson, E-mail: nteeba@iastate.edu; Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: akeating@iastate.edu

    2014-12-01

    7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) depletes ovarian follicles and induces DNA damage in extra-ovarian tissues, thus, we investigated ovarian DMBA-induced DNA damage. Additionally, since obesity is associated with increased offspring birth defect incidence, we hypothesized that a DMBA-induced DNA damage response (DDR) is compromised in ovaries from obese females. Wild type (lean) non agouti (a/a) and KK.Cg-Ay/J heterozygote (obese) mice were dosed with sesame oil or DMBA (1 mg/kg; intraperitoneal injection) at 18 weeks of age, for 14 days. Total ovarian RNA and protein were isolated and abundance of Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm), X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 6 (Xrcc6), breast cancer type 1 (Brca1), Rad 51 homolog (Rad51), poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (Parp1) and protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic polypeptide (Prkdc) were quantified by RT-PCR or Western blot. Phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) level was determined by Western blotting. Obesity decreased (P < 0.05) basal protein abundance of PRKDC and BRCA1 proteins but increased (P < 0.05) γH2AX and PARP1 proteins. Ovarian ATM, XRCC6, PRKDC, RAD51 and PARP1 proteins were increased (P < 0.05) by DMBA exposure in lean mice. A blunted DMBA-induced increase (P < 0.05) in XRCC6, PRKDC, RAD51 and BRCA1 was observed in ovaries from obese mice, relative to lean counterparts. Taken together, DMBA exposure induced γH2AX as well as the ovarian DDR, supporting that DMBA causes ovarian DNA damage. Additionally, ovarian DDR was partially attenuated in obese females raising concern that obesity may be an additive factor during chemical-induced ovotoxicity. - Highlights: • DMBA induces markers of ovarian DNA damage. • Obesity induces low level ovarian DNA damage. • DMBA-induced DNA repair response is altered by obesity.

  8. Enhanced susceptibility of ovaries from obese mice to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, Shanthi; Nteeba, Jackson; Keating, Aileen F.

    2014-01-01

    7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) depletes ovarian follicles and induces DNA damage in extra-ovarian tissues, thus, we investigated ovarian DMBA-induced DNA damage. Additionally, since obesity is associated with increased offspring birth defect incidence, we hypothesized that a DMBA-induced DNA damage response (DDR) is compromised in ovaries from obese females. Wild type (lean) non agouti (a/a) and KK.Cg-Ay/J heterozygote (obese) mice were dosed with sesame oil or DMBA (1 mg/kg; intraperitoneal injection) at 18 weeks of age, for 14 days. Total ovarian RNA and protein were isolated and abundance of Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm), X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 6 (Xrcc6), breast cancer type 1 (Brca1), Rad 51 homolog (Rad51), poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (Parp1) and protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic polypeptide (Prkdc) were quantified by RT-PCR or Western blot. Phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) level was determined by Western blotting. Obesity decreased (P < 0.05) basal protein abundance of PRKDC and BRCA1 proteins but increased (P < 0.05) γH2AX and PARP1 proteins. Ovarian ATM, XRCC6, PRKDC, RAD51 and PARP1 proteins were increased (P < 0.05) by DMBA exposure in lean mice. A blunted DMBA-induced increase (P < 0.05) in XRCC6, PRKDC, RAD51 and BRCA1 was observed in ovaries from obese mice, relative to lean counterparts. Taken together, DMBA exposure induced γH2AX as well as the ovarian DDR, supporting that DMBA causes ovarian DNA damage. Additionally, ovarian DDR was partially attenuated in obese females raising concern that obesity may be an additive factor during chemical-induced ovotoxicity. - Highlights: • DMBA induces markers of ovarian DNA damage. • Obesity induces low level ovarian DNA damage. • DMBA-induced DNA repair response is altered by obesity

  9. Molecular toxicology of sulfur mustard-induced cutaneous inflammation and blistering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehe, K.; Balszuweit, F.; Steinritz, D.; Thiermann, H.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a strong alkylating agent, which produces subepidermal blisters, erythema and inflammation after skin contact. Despite the well-described SM-induced gross and histopathological changes, the exact underlying molecular mechanisms of these events are still a matter of research. As part of an international effort to elucidate the components of cellular signal transduction pathways, a large body of data has been accumulated in the last decade of SM research, revealing deeper insight into SM-induced inflammation, DNA damage response, cell death signaling, and wound healing. SM potentially alkylates nearly every constituent of the cell, leading to impaired cellular functions. However, SM-induced DNA alkylation has been identified as a major trigger of apoptosis. This includes monofunctional SM-DNA adducts as well as DNA crosslinks. As a consequence, DNA replication is blocked, which leads to cell cycle arrest and DNA single and double strand breaks. The SM-induced DNA damage results in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation. High SM concentrations induce PARP overactivation, thus depleting cellular NAD + and ATP levels, which in consequence results in necrotic cell death. Mild PARP activation does not disturb cellular energy levels and allows apoptotic cell death or recovery to occur. SM-induced apoptosis has been linked both to the extrinsic (death receptor, Fas) and intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway. Additionally, SM upregulates many inflammatory mediators including interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and others. Recently, several investigators linked NF-κB activation to this inflammatory response. This review briefly summarizes the skin toxicity of SM, its proposed toxicodynamic actions and strategies for the development of improved medical therapy.

  10. Topical calcitriol protects from UV-induced genetic damage but suppresses cutaneous immunity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Diona L; Kim, Young Jin; Dixon, Katie M; Halliday, Gary M; Javeri, Arash; Mason, Rebecca S

    2010-08-01

    Calcitriol, the biologically active form of vitamin D, has been reported to cause both suppressive and protective immune effects in mice. Its immune effects in vivo in humans are unclear. We investigated the in vivo effects of topical calcitriol on minimal erythema dose and skin immune responses in healthy volunteers. We found that calcitriol did not protect from ultraviolet (UV)-induced erythema (sunburn) when applied either 24 h before or immediately after irradiation, although it decreased the density of sunburn cells and thymine dimers seen on biopsy when applied 24 h before and again immediately after irradiation. Using the Mantoux reaction as a model of skin immunity, we found that topical calcitriol applied at high total doses reduced the Mantoux responses of nearby untreated, unirradiated skin, suggesting a para-local or systemic immunosuppressive effect not observed with lower calcitriol doses. We then measured UV-induced suppression of Mantoux reactions at vehicle-treated sites and sites treated with low-dose calcitriol, and found that calcitriol neither reduced nor enhanced UV-induced immunosuppression. Despite calcitriol reducing UV-induced DNA damage, which should protect the immune system, it has immunosuppressive effects in our model which may help to explain the efficacy of analogues such as calcipotriol in the treatment of psoriasis.

  11. SHP2 regulates IL-2 induced MAPK activation, but not Stat3 or Stat5 tyrosine phosphorylation, in cutaneous T cell lymphoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin Brockdorff, Johannes; Woetmann, Anders; Mustelin, Tomas

    2002-01-01

    The phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP2 has been suggested to regulate activation of MAPK, Stat3, and Stat5 in several experimental models. In this study we investigated the role of SHP2 in IL-2 induced activation of MAPK and the Stat proteins using the human CTCL cell line MyLa2059 derived from...... a cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL). For this purpose, MyLa2059 cells were stably transfected with wild-type SHP2 or inactive SHP2. The cells transfected with inactive SHP2 showed reduced MAPK activation upon IL-2 stimulation, suggesting that SHP2 upregulates IL-2 induced MAPK activation in T cells. However...

  12. Topical Administration of Manuka Oil Prevents UV-B Irradiation-Induced Cutaneous Photoaging in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Sook Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Manuka tree is indigenous to New Zealand, and its essential oil has been used as a traditional medicine to treat wounds, fever, and pain. Although there is a growing interest in the use of manuka oil for antiaging skin care products, little is known about its bioactivity. Solar ultraviolet (UV radiation is the primary environmental factor causing skin damage and consequently premature aging. Therefore, we evaluated manuka oil for its effects against photoaging in UV-B-irradiated hairless mice. Topical application of manuka oil suppressed the UV-B-induced increase in skin thickness and wrinkle grading in a dose-dependent manner. Application of 10% manuka oil reduced the average length, depth, and % area of wrinkles significantly, and this was correlated with inhibition of loss of collagen fiber content and epidermal hyperplasia. Furthermore, we observed that manuka oil could suppress UV-B-induced skin inflammation by inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, this study provides evidence that manuka oil indeed possesses antiphotoaging activity, and this is associated with its inhibitory activity against skin inflammation induced by UV irradiation.

  13. Curcumin protects against radiation-induced acute and chronic cutaneous toxicity in mice and decreases mRNA expression of inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunieff, Paul; Xu Jianhua; Hu Dongping; Liu Weimin; Zhang Lurong; Morrow, Gary; Pentland, Alice; Ryan, Julie L.; Ding, Ivan M.D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether curcumin ameliorates acute and chronic radiation skin toxicity and to examine the expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6, IL-18, IL-1Ra, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, and lymphotoxin-β) or fibrogenic cytokines (transforming growth factor [TGF]-β) during the same acute and chronic phases. Methods and Materials: Curcumin was given intragastrically or intraperitoneally to C3H/HeN mice either: 5 days before radiation; 5 days after radiation; or both 5 days before and 5 days after radiation. The cutaneous damage was assessed at 15-21 days (acute) and 90 days (chronic) after a single 50 Gy radiation dose was given to the hind leg. Skin and muscle tissues were collected for measurement of cytokine mRNA. Results: Curcumin, administered before or after radiation, markedly reduced acute and chronic skin toxicity in mice (p < 0.05). Additionally, curcumin significantly decreased mRNA expression of early responding cytokines (IL-1 IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α, and lymphotoxin-β) and the fibrogenic cytokine, TGF-β, in cutaneous tissues at 21 days postradiation. Conclusion: Curcumin has a protective effect on radiation-induced cutaneous damage in mice, which is characterized by a downregulation of both inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines in irradiated skin and muscle, particularly in the early phase after radiation. These results may provide the molecular basis for the application of curcumin in clinical radiation therapy

  14. Protective effects of new medicinal mushroom, Grifola gargal singer (higher Basidiomycetes), on induced DNA damage in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postemsky, Pablo Daniel; Palermo, Ana Maria; Curvetto, Néstor Raúl

    2011-01-01

    Grifola gargal is an edible mushroom with attributed antioxidant properties. Different sources of G. gargal materials, i.e., fruit bodies and mycelia grown in liquid or solid media, were used to study its potential protective capacity when somatic mutation and recombination is induced in Drosophila melanogaster using DMBA (7-12-dimethyl-benz(α)anthracene) as promutagen. Heterozygote larvae (white/white+) were grown in media with different concentrations of DMBA. Grifola gargal fruit bodies (GgFB) or mycelia from liquid culture (GgLC) or from solid culture (GgWG), i.e., biotransformed wheat kernel flour, were added to the culture media in combined treatments with DMBA. Water, DMBA solvent, or wheat flour (WF) plus DMBA solvent were used as negative controls. Larval mortality increased from 9% to 11% in negative controls to 31% to 36% in DMBA treatments. The addition of GgFB, GgLC, or GgWG materials produced a protective effect on 25 μmol/vial DMBA-induced mortality. Mutations observed in SMART, as light spots per 100 eyes (LS/100 eyes), increased with increasing doses of DMBA; this was also true when considering the mutation incidence expressed as percentage of eyes exhibiting light spots (% eyes with LS). Interestingly, mycelia from GgFB, GgLC, or GgWG, in the presence of 25 μmol/vial DMBA, showed lower values in SMART of both the total LS/100 eyes and the percentage of eyes with LS. Thus, Grifola gargal materials were not only nontoxic, but in combination with 25 μmol/vial DMBA lowered the mortality induced by the promutagen and showed antimutagenic effects. Protective effects of G. gargal against DMBA are discussed in terms of the onset of desmutagenic and/or bioantimutagenic mechanisms of detoxification in the host organism, probably due to some bioactive compounds known to occur in higher mushrooms.

  15. Histopathologic features seen in sulfur mustard induced cutaneous lesions in hairless guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K J; Graham, J S; Moeller, R B; Okerberg, C V; Skelton, H; Hurst, C G

    1995-06-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM), a chemical warfare agent first used early in the 20th century, has re-emerged in the past decade as a major threat around the world. At present, there are no effective therapeutic measures for SM exposure. Because the skin as well as other interface epithelial surfaces are the first tissues effected as this agent is absorbed, reactions within the skin are an area of active research into the mechanism of action of this alkylating agent. The euthymic hairless guinea pig has been used as the animal model for the study of SM induced injuries because of morphologic similarity of its skin to human skin, with a multiple layer epidermis, and because this animal has a normal immune system. We reviewed 102 biopsy specimens from 51 animals exposed to three different dose times of saturated SM vapor. Histopathologic evidence exists for increased programmed cell death as well as cellular necrosis, subepidermal blister formation, and delayed re-epithelialization secondary to problems with adhesion. Information obtained from this study adds to the body of information important in the investigation of the mechanisms of action of SM.

  16. Real-world efficiency of pharmacogenetic screening for carbamazepine-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the cost and efficiency of routine HLA-B*15 ∶ 02 screening to prevent carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (CBZ-SJS/TEN in Hong Kong. METHODS: Data were extracted from patients who commenced CBZ as the first-ever AED treatment or tested for HLA-B*15 ∶ 02 allele in three years before policy implementation (pre-policy: 16 September 2005 to 15 September 2008 and three years after (post-policy: 16 September 2008 to 15 September 2011. Using published unit costs, we estimated the cost of screening by comparing the costs to prevent and treat CBZ-SJS/TEN. We compared the number of person-tests needed and the cost to prevent resultant death with cancer screening programs. RESULTS: The number of screening tests needed to prevent one case of CBZ-SJS/TEN was 442, and to prevent one resultant death was 1,474 to 8,840. The screening cost was $332 per person, of which 42% was attributed to an additional consultation to review result and prescribe appropriate medication. HLA-B*15 ∶ 02 screening expended $146,749 to prevent a case of CBZ-SJS/TEN, and $489,386- $2,934,986 to prevent a resultant death. The corresponding numbers of tests and costs for mammography and Pap smear to prevent death due to breast and cervical cancers were 7,150 and 7,000, and $614,900 and $273,000, respectively. Comparing to the SJS/TEN treatment cost, HLA-B*15 ∶ 02 screening would become cost saving if a point-of-care test of less than $37 was available. CONCLUSIONS: HLA-B*15 ∶ 02 screening is as efficient as mammography and Pap smear in preventing death. Development of point-of-care testing will vastly improve efficiency.

  17. MDM2 inhibitor nutlin-3a induces apoptosis and senescence in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: Role of p53

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfé, Valentina; Biskup, Edyta Urszula; Johansen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    P53 is rarely mutated in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and is therefore a promising target for innovative therapeutic approaches. Nutlin-3a is an inhibitor of MDM2 (human homolog of murine double minute 2), which disrupts its interaction with p53, leading to the stabilization and activation of...

  18. Selenium-loaded cellulose film derived from Styela clava tunic accelerates the healing process of cutaneous wounds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sung Hwa; Kim, Ji Eun; Koh, Eun Kyoung; Sung, Ji Eun; Lee, Hyun Ah; Yun, Woo Bin; Hong, Jin Tae; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2018-02-07

    Aims of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effects and toxicity of Se-loaded cellulose film originated from Styela clava tunic (SeSCTF) on cutaneous wounds during diabetic conditions. Alterations in skin regeneration, angiogenesis and toxicity were examined using streptozotocine (STZ)-induced diabetic Sprague Dawley ® (SD) rats with surgical skin wounds after application of SeSCTF for 12 days. SCTF showed high tensile strength (1.64 MPa), low elongation (28.59%), low water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and outstanding porous structure. Although SeSCTF application did not induce any significant alterations in glucose concentration or toxicity, wound morphology was rapidly recovered in the SeSCTF treated group relative to the gauze (GZ) and SCTF treated group. Moreover, recovery of re-epithelization, wound contraction and number of blood vessel was observed in SeSCTF treated groups when compared with all other groups. Furthermore, the SeSCTF treated group showed complete recovery of key protein expressions of the downstream signaling pathway of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-2/1 (Ang-2/1), the signaling pathway of insulin receptors and anti-oxidative status. Overall, the results of this study suggest that SeSCTF accelerates the healing process of cutaneous wounds in STZ-induced diabetic SD rats through stimulation of angiogenesis and the glucose receptor signaling pathway.

  19. Carcinogenesis of cutaneous malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzell, R A

    1996-03-01

    Over the past several years significant progress has been made in identifying the cellular and biochemical mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis. This review summarizes recent advances that have helped clarify the process of malignant transformation in cutaneous tumors. Ultraviolet radiation-induced mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene and human papilloma virus inhibition of the p53 and retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene products appear to play significant roles in the development of many cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. Studies of patients with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome suggest the existence of an additional regulatory gene that may be involved in the development of basal cell carcinomas. Carcinogenesis is multistep process involving genetic and epigenetic alterations to specific proto-oncogene and tumor suppressor gene products that progressively release the cell from normal controlled growth and replication.

  20. Effects of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Therapy in Experimental Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in BALB/c Mice Induced by Leishmania amazonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Carvalho Pereira

    2017-08-01

    intravenously administered. As a conclusion, in the current murine model of L. amazonensis-induced cutaneous disease, MSCs did not control the damage of cutaneous disease and, depending on the administration route, it could result in deleterious effects.

  1. Cutaneous Manifestations of Human and Murine Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Breanna M; Carvalho, Edgar M; Wilson, Mary E

    2017-06-18

    The leishmaniases are diseases caused by pathogenic protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Infections are initiated when a sand fly vector inoculates Leishmania parasites into the skin of a mammalian host. Leishmania causes a spectrum of inflammatory cutaneous disease manifestations. The type of cutaneous pathology is determined in part by the infecting Leishmania species, but also by a combination of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory host immune response factors resulting in different clinical outcomes. This review discusses the distinct cutaneous syndromes described in humans, and current knowledge of the inflammatory responses associated with divergent cutaneous pathologic responses to different Leishmania species. The contribution of key hematopoietic cells in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in mouse models are also reviewed and compared with those observed during human infection. We hypothesize that local skin events influence the ensuing adaptive immune response to Leishmania spp. infections, and that the balance between inflammatory and regulatory factors induced by infection are critical for determining cutaneous pathology and outcome of infection.

  2. Induction of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation in the absence of soluble inducer for cutaneous wound regeneration by a chitin nanofiber-based hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Kangquan; Huang, Yao; Qi, Baiwen; Hu, Xiang; Ma, Zhanjun; Lu, Ang; Jian, Chao; Zhang, Lina; Yu, Aixi

    2018-02-01

    Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has been considered to be a promising strategy for wound healing. However, poor viability of engrafted BMSCs and limited capabilities of differentiation into the desired cell types in wounds often hinder its application. Few studies report the induction of BMSC differentiation into the skin regeneration-related cell types using natural biopolymer, e.g. chitin and its derivative. Here we utilized a chitin nanofiber (CNF) hydrogel as a directive cue to induce BMSC differentiation for enhancing cutaneous wound regeneration in the absence of cell-differentiating factors. First, a 'green' fabrication of CNF hydrogels encapsulating green fluorescence protein (GFP)-transfected rat BMSCs was performed via in-situ physical gelation without chemical cross-linking. Without soluble differentiation inducers, CNF hydrogels decreased the expression of BMSC transcription factors (Oct4 and Klf4) and concomitantly induced their differentiation into the angiogenic cells and fibroblasts, which are indispensable for wound regeneration. In vivo, rat full-thickness cutaneous wounds treated with BMSC hydrogel exhibited better viability of the cells than did local BMSC injection-treated wounds. Similar to that of the in vitro result, CNF hydrogels induced BMSCs to differentiate into beneficial cell types, resulting in accelerated wound repair characterized by granulation tissue formation. Our data suggest that three-dimensional CNF hydrogel may not only serve as a 'protection' to improve the viability of exogenous BMSCs, but also provide a functional scaffold capable of enhancing BMSC regenerative potential to promote wound healing. This may help to overcome the current limitations to stem cell therapy that are faced in the field of wound regeneration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Association of HLA-A and HLA-B Alleles with Lamotrigine-Induced Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions in the Thai Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napatrupron Koomdee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lamotrigine (LTG is commonly used for treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. It is one of the common cause of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR. Clinical symptoms of LTG-induced CADR range from maculopapular exanthema (MPE to severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR. This study aimed to determine the association of the LTG-induced CADR with human leukocyte antigen (HLA alleles in Thai patients.Methods: Fifteen patients with LTG-induced CADR [10 MPE; 4 Stevens–Johnson syndrome; and 1 drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms] and 50 LTG-tolerant controls were included in the study. HLA-A and HLA-B genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotides probes.Results: The proportion of HLA-A∗02:07 and HLA-B∗15:02 allele carriers were significantly higher in the LTG-induced CADR group than in the tolerant controls [odds ratio (OR: 7.83; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.60–38.25; P = 0.013, and OR: 4.89; 95% CI: 1.28–18.67; P = 0.014]. In addition, subjects with HLA-A∗33:03, HLA-B∗15:02, and HLA-B∗44:03 were significantly higher in the LTG-induced MPE group than in the tolerant controls (OR: 8.27; 95% CI: 1.83–37.41; P = 0.005, OR: 7.33; 95% CI: 1.63–33.02; P = 0.005; and OR: 10.29; 95% CI: 1.45–72.81; P = 0.029. In contrast to the LTG-induced MPE group, there were no significant differences between HLA alleles and LTG-induced SCAR group.Conclusion:HLA-A∗02:07 and HLA-B∗15:02 were associated with LTG-induced CADR in Thai patients. We also identified an association between HLA-A∗33:03, HLA-B∗15:02, and HLA-B∗44:03 and LTG-induced MPE in this population. These results suggest that these alleles could be useful screening markers for preventing CADR before LTG treatment in Thai patients, but further replication studies with larger sample sizes are needed.

  4. Serous cutaneous glands of the Pacific tree-frog Hyla regilla (Anura, Hylidae): patterns of secretory release induced by nor-epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, G; Drewes, R C; Magherini, S; Malentacchi, C; Nosi, D; Terreni, A

    2006-02-01

    The serous (poison) cutaneous glands of the Pacific tree-frog Hyla regilla were induced to release their product by 10(-3)M nor-epinephrine stimulation. After discharge structural and ultrastructural features of the cutaneous glands involved in release were observed. Furthermore, the discharged product, consisting of discrete, secretory granules, was collected and processed for transmission electron microscope analysis. As indicated by patterns found in the myoepithelium encircling the syncytial secretory unit, gland discharge is caused by contraction of the peripheral myocytes. Muscle cell compression dramatically affects the syncytium and results in degenerative changes, including expulsion of the secretory unit nuclei. Therefore, the structural collapse in depleted glands has been ascribed to the mechanical activity performed by the myoepithelium during discharge, rather than cytoplasm involution described in conventional, holocrine glands. TEM investigation revealed that the secretory granules collected after discharge maintain their peculiar traits: they consist of recurrent patterns of thin subunits, acquired during serous maturation and provided with remarkable structural stability.

  5. Cutaneous RANK-RANKL Signaling Upregulates CD8-Mediated Antiviral Immunity during Herpes simplex Virus Infection by Preventing Virus-Induced Langerhans Cell Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenner, Lars; Hafezi, Wali; Clausen, Björn E; Lorentzen, Eva U; Luger, Thomas A; Beissert, Stefan; Kühn, Joachim E; Loser, Karin

    2015-11-01

    Herpes simplex virus-type 1 (HSV-1) causes the majority of cutaneous viral infections. Viral infections are controlled by the immune system, and CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) have been shown to be crucial during the clearance of HSV-1 infections. Although epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) are the first dendritic cells (DCs) to come into contact with the virus, it has been shown that the processing of viral antigens and the differentiation of antiviral CTLs are mediated by migratory CD103(+) dermal DCs and CD8α(+) lymph node-resident DCs. In vivo regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are implicated in the regulation of antiviral immunity and we have shown that signaling via the receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) and its ligand RANKL mediates the peripheral expansion of Tregs. However, in addition to expanding Tregs, RANK-RANKL interactions are involved in the control of antimicrobial immunity by upregulating the priming of CD4(+) effector T cells in LCMV infection or by the generation of parasite-specific CD8(+) T cells in Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Here, we demonstrate that cutaneous RANK-RANKL signaling is critical for the induction of CD8-mediated antiviral immune responses during HSV-1 infection of the skin by preventing virus-induced LC apoptosis, improving antigen transport to regional lymph nodes, and increasing the CTL priming capacity of lymph node DCs.

  6. Ultraviolet light and cutaneous lupus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, Marc; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light is one of the major factors known to trigger cutaneous disease activity in (systemic) lupus erythematosus patients. UV light, UVB in particular, is a potent inducer of apoptosis. Currently, disturbed clearance of apoptotic cells is one of the concepts explaining

  7. Preventative topical diclofenac treatment differentially decreases tumor burden in male and female Skh-1 mice in a model of UVB-induced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberyszyn, Tatiana M.

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) light is the major environmental carcinogen contributing to non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) development. There are over 3.5 million NMSC diagnoses in two million patients annually, with men having a 3-fold greater incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) compared with women. Chronic inflammation has been linked to tumorigenesis, with a key role for the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme. Diclofenac, a COX-2 inhibitor and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, currently is prescribed to patients as a short-term therapeutic agent to induce SCC precursor lesion regression. However, its efficacy as a preventative agent in patients without evidence of precursor lesions but with significant UVB-induced cutaneous damage has not been explored. We previously demonstrated in a murine model of UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis that when exposed to equivalent UVB doses, male mice had lower levels of inflammation but developed increased tumor multiplicity, burden and grade compared with female mice. Because of the discrepancy in the degree of inflammation between male and female skin, we sought to determine if topical treatment of previously damaged skin with an anti-inflammatory COX-2 inhibitor would decrease tumor burden and if it would be equally effective in the sexes. Our results demonstrated that despite observed sex differences in the inflammatory response, prolonged topical diclofenac treatment of chronically UVB-damaged skin effectively reduced tumor multiplicity in both sexes. Unexpectedly, tumor burden was significantly decreased only in male mice. Our data suggest a new therapeutic use for currently available topical diclofenac as a preventative intervention for patients predisposed to cutaneous SCC development before lesions appear. PMID:23125227

  8. Cellular and humoral responses induced by Leishmania histone H2B and its divergent and conserved parts in cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis patients, respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddeb-Garnaoui, A; Toumi, A; Ghelis, H; Mahjoub, M; Louzir, H; Chenik, M

    2010-02-17

    Leishmania histone H2B has been reported to be a promising candidate for both vaccination and serodiagnosis. We evaluated the cellular immune responses induced by H2B and its divergent amino-terminal (H2B-N) and conserved carboxy-terminal (H2B-C) regions in individuals with a history of Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (LCL) due to Leishmania (L.) major. H2B induced significantly high PBMC proliferation and IFNgamma levels in LCL individuals whereas significantly lower proliferation and IFNgamma levels were observed with the divergent part of the protein. All proteins induced IL10 in LCL and healthy individuals. We also evaluated the humoral responses induced by these proteins in patients with Mediterranean Visceral Leishmaniasis (MVL) due to L. infantum. H2B and H2B-N were highly recognized by MVL sera. Our results show that the entire H2B protein is more efficient than its amino- and carboxy-terminal regions in inducing a dominant Th1 profile in cured LCL subjects and suggest that this protein may constitute a potential vaccine against leishmaniasis. Furthermore, H2B and H2B-N are interesting antigens for serodiagnosis of MVL. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study on combined effects of radiation and bleomycin on carcinoma of tongue iduced by DMBA in hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Nobuyasu

    1979-01-01

    Carcinoma of the tongue (Mostly squamous cell carcinoma) was induced in hamsters by 9,10-dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA). The amount of various kinds of free radicals, which increased due to radioactive radiation and administration of bleomycin (BLM) in tongue and liver tissues, was determined by an electron spin resonance method. The hamsters were separated into seven groups: BLM administration only (group A 1 ), 60 Co-γ-ray irradiation only (A 2 ), 60 Co-γ-ray irradiation 30 min after BLM administration (A 3 ), BLM administration 30 min after 60 Co-γ-ray irradiation (A 4 ), 60 Co-γ-ray irradiation 24 h after BLM administration (A 5 ), BLM administration 24 h after 60 Co-γ-ray irradiation (A 6 ), and the control (A 7 ). Mean free radicals in the groups were compared, using samples fixed 5 min after treatment. The ratio of mean free radicals of carcinoma of the tongue were 2.6, 2.9, 3.7, 3.9, 3.0, 3.2, and 1 in A 1 , A 2 , A 3 , A 4 , A 5 , A 6 , and A 7 . The ratio of mean free radicals of the liver under the same condition were 1.5, 1.6, 3.3, 3.8, 2.2, 2.6, and 1. A combination of BLM and radioactive radiation increased the amount of free radicals in carcinoma of the tongue and in the liver. Especially BLM administration 30 min after 60 Co-γ-ray irradiation showed a synergistic effect. Judging from the amount of free radicals determined, the effect of radioactive irradiation increased when combined with BLM administration. BLM was most effective when it was administered 5 min after radioactive irradiation. (Tsunoda, M.)

  10. Clinicopathologic analysis of coxsackievirus a6 new variant induced widespread mucocutaneous bullous reactions mimicking severe cutaneous adverse reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wen-Hung; Shih, Shin-Ru; Chang, Ching-Fen; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chang, Shih-Chen; Liu, Ming-Tsan; Ko, Yu-Shien; Deng, Ming-Chung; Liau, Yea-Ling; Lin, Lung-Huang; Chen, Tou-Hwei; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Ho, Hsin-Chun; Lin, Jheng-Wei; Lu, Chun-Wei; Lu, Chin-Fang; Hung, Shuen-Iu

    2013-12-15

    The cutaneous manifestations of human enterovirus (HEV) infection are usually limited, such as hand-foot-mouth disease. By comparison, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a life-threatening severe cutaneous adverse reaction (SCAR), mainly caused by drugs. During the HEV outbreaks in 2010-2012 in Taiwan, we identified 21 patients who developed widespread blistering mucocutaneous reactions without any suspected drug causality. We screened possible pathogen(s) for detecting human herpes virus (HHV1-HHV7), HEV, or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections using throat swab virus cultures, real-time PCR, DNA sequencing, immunochemistry and electron microscopy analyses. Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) DNA was identified in the blistering skin lesions in 6 of 21 patients. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells expressing granulysin predominantly infiltrated into the skin lesions, sharing the histopathological features with SJS. Intact CVA6 viral particles were identified in the blister fluids and skin lesions by electron microscopy. The phylogenetic analysis of the viral genome showed the CVA6 DNA sequence sharing higher similarity (97.6%-98.1%) to CVA6 strains reported from Finland at 2008. This study identifies a new variant of CVA6 as the causative agent for severe mucocutaneous blistering reactions mimicking SCAR. An awareness of this unusual presentation of HEV infection is needed in the epidemic area.

  11. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stebut, E; Sunderkötter, C

    2007-05-01

    Infections with Leishmania are increasing worldwide because of tourism and job-related travel; central Europe is no exception. Infections often first become apparent after return from an endemic region. Depending on the Leishmania species and the host immune status, different forms of cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (MCL) (L. brasiliensis complex) or visceral leishmaniasis (L. donovani as well as L. infantum) may develop. CL may heal spontaneously with scarring but can evolve into diffuse CL (with reduced immune response to L. amazonensis, L. guyanensis, L. mexicana or L. aethiopica) or into recurrent CL. Diagnostic criteria include travel to an endemic area as well as ulcerated plaques or nodules on an exposed site which show no tendency towards healing over 3-4 weeks. Differential diagnostic considerations include ecthyma, other infectious ulcers, and malignant neoplasms. The diagnosis is confirmed by finding Leishmania in a smear or tissue biopsy, as well as by culture. Therapy options range from topical treatment of simple CL of the Old World caused by L. major to systemic therapy which is needed for most complex cases of CL as well as MCL. Miltefosine is a less toxic option to replace the antimony compounds.

  12. Evidence that the contraction-induced rapid hyperemia in rabbit masseter muscle is based on a mechanosensitive mechanism, not shared by cutaneous vascular beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turturici, Marco; Mohammed, Mazher; Roatta, Silvestro

    2012-08-15

    Several mechanisms have been hypothesized to contribute to the rapid hyperemia at the onset of exercise. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role played by the mechanosensitivity of the vascular network. In 12 anesthetized rabbits blood flow was recorded from the exclusively muscular masseteric artery in response to brief spontaneous contractions (BSC) of the masseter muscle, artery occlusion (AO), muscle compression (MC), and muscle stretch (MS). Activation of masseter muscle was monitored by electromyography (EMG). Responses to AO were also recorded from the mostly cutaneous facial and the central ear arteries. Five animals were also tested in the awake condition. The hyperemic response to BSC (peak amplitude of 394 ± 82%; time to peak of 1.8 ± 0.8 s) developed with a latency of 300-400 ms from the beginning of the EMG burst and 200-300 ms from the contraction-induced transient flow reduction. This response was neither different from the response to AO (peak amplitude = 426 ± 158%), MC, and MS (P = 0.23), nor from the BSC response in the awake condition. Compared with the masseteric artery, the response to AO was markedly smaller both in the facial (83 ± 18%,) and in the central ear artery (68 ± 20%) (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the rapid contraction-induced hyperemia can be replicated by a variety of stimuli affecting transmural pressure in muscle blood vessels and is thus compatible with the Bayliss effect. This prominent mechanosensitivity appears to be a characteristic of muscle and not cutaneous vascular beds.

  13. Dapsone-induced severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions are strongly linked with HLA-B*13: 01 allele in the Thai population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempark, Therdpong; Satapornpong, Patompong; Rerknimitr, Pawinee; Nakkam, Nontaya; Saksit, Niwat; Wattanakrai, Penpun; Jantararoungtong, Thawinee; Koomdee, Napatrupron; Mahakkanukrauh, Ajanee; Tassaneeyakul, Wichittra; Suttisai, Sumitra; Pratoomwun, Jirawat; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Rerkpattanapipat, Ticha; Sukasem, Chonlaphat

    2017-12-01

    A previous publication in Chinese leprosy patients showed that the HLA-B*13:01 allele is a strong genetic marker for dapsone-induced drug hypersensitivity reactions, however there are no data describing whether HLA-B*13:01 is a valid marker for prediction of dapsone-induced drug hypersensitivity reactions in other ethnicities or nonleprosy patients. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is an association between HLA genotypes and dapsone-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) in Thai nonleprosy patients. HLA-B genotypes of 15 patients with dapsone-induced SCARs (11 drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, 4 Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis), 29 control patients, and 986 subjects from the general Thai population were determined by the reverse PCR sequence-specific oligonucleotides probe. The HLA-B*13:01 allele was significantly associated with dapsone-induced SCARs compared with dapsone-tolerant controls (odds ratio: 54.00, 95% confidence interval: 7.96-366.16, P=0.0001) and the general population (odds ratio: 26.11, 95% confidence interval: 7.27-93.75, P=0.0001). In addition, HLA-B*13:01 associated with dapsone-induced SJS-TEN (OR: 40.50, 95% confidence interval: 2.78-591.01, P=0.0070) and DRESS (OR: 60.75, 95% confidence interval: 7.44-496.18, P=0.0001). This study demonstrated an association between HLA-B*13:01 and dapsone-induced SCARs including Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms in nonleprosy patients. Moreover, these results suggest that the HLA-B*13:01 allele may be a useful genetic marker for prediction of dapsone-induced SCARs in Thai and Han-Chinese populations.

  14. Effects of UVB and 7, 12, dimethylbenz(alpha)anthracene (DMBA) on epidermal melanocytes of the tail in C57BL mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blog, F.B.; Szabo, G.

    1979-01-01

    The morphological and numerical changes in the epidermal melanocyte system of the tail of C57BL mice were studied after exposure to 7, 12, dimethylbenz(alpha)anthracene(DMBA) followed by UVB irradiation. Biopsies were studied by the combined skin-splitting DOPA and electron microscopic techniques. After 10 weeks of DMBA treatment the following changes were observed: the original brick-like arrangement of melanocytes became confluent, melanocytes were irregularly shaped, dendrites shortened and clumped together, and the outer root sheaths of the hair follicles became covered with melanocytes. Damage of melanocytes by the DMBA treatment was seen, but no inflammation or tumor formation was observed

  15. Exposure to ionizing radiation induces the migration of cutaneous dendritic cells by a CCR7-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Ryan J; Gerber, Scott A; Judge, Jennifer L; Ryan, Julie L; Pentland, Alice P; Lord, Edith M

    2012-11-01

    In the event of a deliberate or accidental radiological emergency, the skin would likely receive substantial ionizing radiation (IR) poisoning, which could negatively impact cellular proliferation, communication, and immune regulation within the cutaneous microenvironment. Indeed, as we have previously shown, local IR exposure to the murine ear causes a reduction of two types of cutaneous dendritic cells (cDC), including interstitial dendritic cells of the dermis and Langerhans cells of the epidermis, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These APCs are critical regulators of skin homeostasis, immunosurveillance, and the induction of T and B cell-mediated immunity, as previously demonstrated using conditional cDC knockout mice. To mimic a radiological emergency, we developed a murine model of sublethal total body irradiation (TBI). Our data would suggest that TBI results in the reduction of cDC from the murine ear that was not due to a systemic response to IR, as a loss was not observed in shielded ears. We further determined that this reduction was due, in part, to the upregulation of the chemoattractant CCL21 on lymphatic vessels as well as CCR7 expressed on cDC. Migration as a potential mechanism was confirmed using CCR7(-/-) mice in which cDC were not depleted following TBI. Finally, we demonstrated that the loss of cDC following TBI results in an impaired contact hypersensitivity response to hapten by using a modified contact hypersensitivity protocol. Taken together, these data suggest that IR exposure may result in diminished immunosurveillance in the skin, which could render the host more susceptible to pathogens.

  16. Effects of morin on the pharmacokinetics of etoposide in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumors in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Si Hyung; Choi, Hyeon Gyeom; Lim, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Myung Gull; Kim, So Hee

    2013-03-01

    Etoposide, used for the treatment of breast cancer, is mainly metabolized via hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 in humans and is also a substrate for p-glycoprotein (P-gp). Morin is known to be able to modulate the activities of metabolic enzymes including CYPs and can act as a potent P-gp inhibitor. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of morin on the pharmacokinetics of etoposide in rats with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors. Etoposide was administered intravenously (2 mg/kg) and orally (10 mg/kg) in control and DMBA rats without (DMBA-WOM) and with (DMBA-WM) morin (15 mg/kg). Protein and mRNA expression of CYP3A and P-gp was analyzed, and the tissue distribution of etoposide was also measured. Both protein and mRNA expression of CYP3A and P-gp was inhibited by morin in the liver, intestine and breast tumors of DMBA-WM rats. After both intravenous and oral administration of etoposide in DMBA-WM rats, the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC) of etoposide was significantly greater, and the time-averaged total body clearance (CL) of etoposide was significantly slower than those in control and DMBA-WOM rats. The amount of etoposide recovered from each tissue was significantly higher in DMBA-WM rats, especially in the breast tumor, liver and large intestine. No significant differences between control and DMBA-WOM rats were observed. Taken together, greater AUC and slower CL of etoposide in DMBA-WM rats could possibly be due to the inhibition of hepatic CYP3A (intravenous) and mainly due to the inhibition of intestinal CYP3A and P-gp (oral) by morin.

  17. PANCREATIC TOXICITY AS AN ADVERSE EFFECT INDUCED BY MEGLUMINE ANTIMONIATE THERAPY IN A CLINICAL TRIAL FOR CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rosandiski LYRA

    Full Text Available SUMMARY American tegumentary leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania. Pentavalent antimonials are the first choice drugs for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL, although doses are controversial. In a clinical trial for CL we investigated the occurrence of pancreatic toxicity with different schedules of treatment with meglumine antimoniate (MA. Seventy-two patients were allocated in two different therapeutic groups: 20 or 5 mg of pentavalent antimony (Sb5+/kg/day for 20 or 30 days, respectively. Looking for adverse effects, patients were asked about abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or anorexia in each medical visit. We performed physical examinations and collected blood to evaluate serum amylase and lipase in the pre-treatment period, and every 10 days during treatment and one month post-treatment. Hyperlipasemia occurred in 54.8% and hyperamylasemia in 19.4% patients. Patients treated with MA 20 mg Sb5+ presented a higher risk of hyperlipasemia (p = 0.023. Besides, higher MA doses were associated with a 2.05 higher risk ratio (p = 0.003 of developing more serious (moderate to severe hyperlipasemia. The attributable fraction was 51% in this group. Thirty-six patients presented abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or anorexia but only 47.2% of those had hyperlipasemia and/ or hyperamylasemia. These findings suggest the importance of the search for less toxic therapeutic regimens for the treatment of CL.

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Immunotherapy with Interferon-Gamma in the Management of Chronic Sulfur Mustard-Induced Cutaneous Complications: Comparison with Topical Betamethasone 1%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present trial investigated the efficacy of immunotherapy with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ in the treatment of sulfur mustard (SM-induced chronic skin complications. Forty subjects who were suffering from chronic skin complications of SM and were diagnosed to have severe atopic dermatitis, were assigned to IFN-γ (50 μg/m2 subcutaneously three times per week (n=20 or betamethasone valerate topical cream 0.1% (n=20 every night for 30 days. Extent and intensity of cutaneous complications was evaluated using scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD index, and quality of life using dermatology life quality index (DLQI at baseline and at the end of trial. SCORAD-A and SCORAD-B scores were significantly decreased in both IFN-γ and betamethasone. However, SCORAD-C score was decreased only in the IFN-γ group. There were significant reductions in overall as well as objective SCORAD scores in both groups. As for the magnitude of changes, treatment with IFN-γ was associated with greater reductions in overall, objective and segmented SCORAD scores compared to betamethasone. DLQI reduction was found to be significantly greater in the IFN-γ group. Promising improvements in quality life and clinical symptoms that was observed in the present study suggest the application of IFN-γ as an effective therapy for the management of SM-induced chronic skin complications.

  19. [Histopathology of cutaneous drug reactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortonne, Nicolas

    2018-02-01

    There are many different types of cutaneous adverse reactions. The most classical reactions are driven by T lymphocytes that specifically react towards a drug, with an individual genetic susceptibility linked to certain type I major histocompatibility complex alleles. These reactions are characterized by a wide variety of clinical and histopathological presentations, and a wide range of severity. The most frequent entity is the maculopapular rash, while the most aggressive forms are the Steven-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS-TEN). The histopathological alterations associated to each of these syndromes have been better described in the literature during the past 10 years, encompassing non-specific lesions, as in most drug induced maculopapular rashes, to more specific inflammatory patterns. The finding of confluent apoptotic keratinocytes with epidermal detachment is the prototypical aspect of SJS-TEN. There are however numerous pitfalls, and a similar aspect to those observed in each cutaneous drug reactions entities can be found in other diseases. DRESS syndrome can indeed present with dense and epidermotropic T-cell infiltrate, sometimes with nuclear atypias, and thus can be difficult to distinguish from a primary or secondary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The diagnosis of cutaneous adverse reactions relies on a clinical-pathological confrontation and requires an accurate evaluation of drug imputability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Th1 Cell Development Induced by Cysteine Proteinases A and B in Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Due to Leishmania guyanensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascalis, Hervé; Lavergne, Anne; Bourreau, Eliane; Prévot-Linguet, Ghislaine; Kariminia, Amina; Pradinaud, Roger; Rafati, Sima; Launois, Pascal

    2003-01-01

    The cysteine proteinases CPA and CPB from Leishmania major induced Th1 responses in patients with leishmaniasis due to Leishmania guyanensis. Furthermore, cysteine proteinases induced neither interleukin 4 (IL-4) nor IL-13 and low levels of IL-10 in controls and patients. The results suggest that CPs would be quite good candidates for a vaccine against different Leishmania species. PMID:12704171

  1. miR-122 regulates p53/Akt signalling and the chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Manfè

    Full Text Available Advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL is resistant to chemotherapy and presents a major area of medical need. In view of the known role of microRNAs (miRNAs in the regulation of cellular signalling, we aimed to identify the functionally important miRNA species, which regulate apoptosis in CTCL. Using a recently established model in which apoptosis of CTCL cell lines is induced by Notch-1 inhibition by γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs, we found that miR-122 was significantly increased in the apoptotic cells. miR-122 up-regulation was not specific for GSI-1 but was also seen during apoptosis induced by chemotherapies including doxorubicin and proteasome blockers (bortezomib, MG132. miR-122 was not expressed in quiescent T-cells, but was detectable in CTCL: in lesional skin in mycosis fungoides and in Sézary cells purified from peripheral blood. In situ hybridization results showed that miR-122 was expressed in the malignant T-cell infiltrate and increased in the advanced stage mycosis fungoides. Surprisingly, miR-122 overexpression decreased the sensitivity to the chemotherapy-induced apoptosis via a signaling circuit involving the activation of Akt and inhibition of p53. We have also shown that induction of miR-122 occurred via p53 and that p53 post-transcriptionally up-regulated miR-122. miR-122 is thus an amplifier of the antiapoptotic Akt/p53 circuit and it is conceivable that a pharmacological intervention in this pathway may provide basis for novel therapies for CTCL.

  2. [Cutaneous loxoscelism mainly edematous: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Barra, Paula de; Vial, Verónica; Labraña, Yenis; Álvarez, Ana María; Seguel, Helena

    2015-08-01

    In Chile, loxoscelism is caused by the bite of the Loxosceles laeta spider. The clinical presentation has two different forms: cutaneous loxoscelism (CL) and vicero-cutaneous loxoscelism, which is less frequent. Cutaneous loxoscelism includes an uncommon clinical variation (4%), called CL with edematous predominance (CLEP). We present a 5-year-old patient with sudden pain and edema on his right eyelid associated with fever, which progressed rapidly involving the right hemifacial area, frontal region, and left eyelid. Angioedema and pre-orbital cellulitis were discarded and CLEP was suspect. Cutaneous loxoscelism with an edematous predominance is self-limited, benign and with little or no necrotic injury due to the edema, which dilutes the toxin-induced enzymatic process causing necrosis. As in the reported cases it usually responds well to medical treatment and does not cause visceral involvement.

  3. Intravesicular taxane-induced dermatotoxicity in a 78-year-old man with urothelial carcinoma and primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Daniel; O'Donnell, Michael; Stone, Mary Seabury; Liu, Vincent

    2018-02-27

    Patients treated with intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy for urothelial carcinoma often become refractory and experience recurrent disease, thus necessitating alternative intravesical treatment modalities if the patient is to be spared the morbidities associated with radical cystectomy. Intravesical treatment with taxane-based chemotherapy, such as docetaxel, has gained traction in urologic oncology, proving to be an effective salvage therapy in such patients. Systemic taxane-based chemotherapeutic regimens have long been used in several advanced malignancies, and their systemic side effects and associated histologic correlates have been extensively documented. In contrast to adverse effects associated with systemic administration, intravesical taxane administration has thus far proven to be well-tolerated, with little to no systemic absorption. To our knowledge, features of taxane-induced systemic effects have not been reported in this setting. Herein, we report a case of a patient with recurrent urothelial carcinoma treated with intravesical docetaxel, along with primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, who developed characteristic dermatotoxic histologic findings associated with intravenous taxane administration. As such histopathologic findings often represent close mimickers of neoplastic and infectious etiologies, knowledge of the potential for systemic manifestations of taxane therapy in patients treated topically may prevent potentially costly diagnostic pitfalls. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. TRPV1 and TRPA1 in cutaneous neurogenic and chronic inflammation: pro-inflammatory response induced by their activation and their sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Olivier; L'Herondelle, Killian; Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Sakka, Mehdi; Buhé, Virginie; Plée-Gautier, Emmanuelle; Carré, Jean-Luc; Lefeuvre, Luc; Misery, Laurent; Le Garrec, Raphaele

    2017-09-01

    Cutaneous neurogenic inflammation (CNI) is inflammation that is induced (or enhanced) in the skin by the release of neuropeptides from sensory nerve endings. Clinical manifestations are mainly sensory and vascular disorders such as pruritus and erythema. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and ankyrin 1 (TRPV1 and TRPA1, respectively) are non-selective cation channels known to specifically participate in pain and CNI. Both TRPV1 and TRPA1 are co-expressed in a large subset of sensory nerves, where they integrate numerous noxious stimuli. It is now clear that the expression of both channels also extends far beyond the sensory nerves in the skin, occuring also in keratinocytes, mast cells, dendritic cells, and endothelial cells. In these non-neuronal cells, TRPV1 and TRPA1 also act as nociceptive sensors and potentiate the inflammatory process. This review discusses the role of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in the modulation of inflammatory genes that leads to or maintains CNI in sensory neurons and non-neuronal skin cells. In addition, this review provides a summary of current research on the intracellular sensitization pathways of both TRP channels by other endogenous inflammatory mediators that promote the self-maintenance of CNI.

  5. TRPV1 and TRPA1 in cutaneous neurogenic and chronic inflammation: pro-inflammatory response induced by their activation and their sensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Gouin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cutaneous neurogenic inflammation (CNI is inflammation that is induced (or enhanced in the skin by the release of neuropeptides from sensory nerve endings. Clinical manifestations are mainly sensory and vascular disorders such as pruritus and erythema. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and ankyrin 1 (TRPV1 and TRPA1, respectively are non-selective cation channels known to specifically participate in pain and CNI. Both TRPV1 and TRPA1 are co-expressed in a large subset of sensory nerves, where they integrate numerous noxious stimuli. It is now clear that the expression of both channels also extends far beyond the sensory nerves in the skin, occuring also in keratinocytes, mast cells, dendritic cells, and endothelial cells. In these non-neuronal cells, TRPV1 and TRPA1 also act as nociceptive sensors and potentiate the inflammatory process. This review discusses the role of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in the modulation of inflammatory genes that leads to or maintains CNI in sensory neurons and non-neuronal skin cells. In addition, this review provides a summary of current research on the intracellular sensitization pathways of both TRP channels by other endogenous inflammatory mediators that promote the self-maintenance of CNI.

  6. The role of epidermal cytokines in the generation of cutaneous immune reactions and ultraviolet radiation-induced immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    The immune suppression generated by UV exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer patients. This finding has fuelled efforts to understand the mechanisms involved in the immune suppression induced by exposure to UV radiation. This article reviews the recent findings on the role of epidermal cytokines in the generation of an immune response and their role in the induction of immune suppression induced by UV exposure. (UK)

  7. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Sasani, F.; Javanbakht, J.; Samani, R.; Shirani, D.

    2014-01-01

    Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) is a significant veterinary problem. Infected dogs also serve as parasite reservoirs and contribute to human transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Histologically, the lesions were nodular to diffuse interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with histiocytic pseudorosettes together with numerous amastigotes within macrophages and occasionally within the interstitium. Organisms were often contained within clear and intracellular vacuoles. The other inflammato...

  8. Cutaneous Manifestations of Human and Murine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breanna M. Scorza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The leishmaniases are diseases caused by pathogenic protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Infections are initiated when a sand fly vector inoculates Leishmania parasites into the skin of a mammalian host. Leishmania causes a spectrum of inflammatory cutaneous disease manifestations. The type of cutaneous pathology is determined in part by the infecting Leishmania species, but also by a combination of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory host immune response factors resulting in different clinical outcomes. This review discusses the distinct cutaneous syndromes described in humans, and current knowledge of the inflammatory responses associated with divergent cutaneous pathologic responses to different Leishmania species. The contribution of key hematopoietic cells in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in mouse models are also reviewed and compared with those observed during human infection. We hypothesize that local skin events influence the ensuing adaptive immune response to Leishmania spp. infections, and that the balance between inflammatory and regulatory factors induced by infection are critical for determining cutaneous pathology and outcome of infection.

  9. Efficacy, Safety and Cost-Effectiveness of Thermotherapy in the Treatment ofLeishmania donovani-Induced Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refai, Wardha F; Madarasingha, Nayani P; Sumanasena, Buthsiri; Weerasingha, Sudath; De Silva, Amala; Fernandopulle, Rohini; Satoskar, Abhay R; Karunaweera, Nadira D

    2017-10-01

    Leishmania donovani causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka. Standard treatment is multiple, painful doses of intralesional sodium stibogluconate (IL-SSG). Treatment failures are increasingly reported, hence the need to investigate alternatives. Efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of thermotherapy were assessed for the first time for L . donovani CL. A single blinded noninferiority randomized controlled trial was conducted on new laboratory-confirmed CL patients with single lesions ( N = 213). Selected patients were randomly assigned to 1) test group ( N = 98; single session of radiofrequency-induced heat therapy (RFHT) given at 50°C for 30 seconds) and 2) control group ( N = 115; 1-3 mL IL-SSG given weekly, until cure/10 doses). Patients were followed-up fortnightly for 12 weeks to assess clinical cure. Cost of treatment was assessed using scenario building technique. Cure rates by 8, 10, and 12 weeks in RFHT group were 46.5%, 56.5%, and 65.9% as opposed to 28%, 40.8%, and 59.4% in IL-SSG group, with no major adverse events. Cure rate by RFHT was significantly higher at 8 weeks ( P = 0.009, odds ratio [OR]: 2.236, confidence interval [CI]: 1.217-4.108) and 10 weeks ( P = 0.035, OR: 1.881, CI: 1.044-3.388), but comparable thereafter. Cost of RFHT was 7 times less (USD = 1.54/patient) than IL-SSG (USD = 11.09/patient). A single application of RFHT is safe, cost-effective, and convenient, compared with multiple doses of IL-SSG in the treatment of L. donovani CL. Therefore, RFHT would be considered noninferior as per trial outcome when compared with standard IL-SSG therapy with multiple benefits for the patient and the national health care system.

  10. Cytokines Expression and Nitric Oxide Production under Induced Infection to Typhimurium in Chicken Lines Divergently Selected for Cutaneous Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Singh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the impact of Salmonella Typhimurium on cell-mediated immunity (CMI was investigated in 5 week-old immuno divergent broiler lines selected for the high and low response to phytohemagglutinin-P. The immune response was assessed in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs induced with Salmonella Typhimurium at different time intervals (0 h, 0.5 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h. The differential mRNA expression patterns of IFN-γ, IL-2 and iNOS were evaluated by quantitative real time PCR. In-vitro production of nitric oxide (NO was also estimated in the culture supernatant and correlated with iNOS mRNA expression. Present study showed higher production of NO in the high cell-mediated line (HCMI as compared to the low cell-mediated line (LCMI upon stimulation with Salmonella Typhimurium. Correspondingly, higher mRNA expression of iNOS and IFN-γ were observed in high response birds (HCMI; but IL-2 was down regulated in this line compared to the low response birds (LCMI. Significantly (p<0.05 higher expression of iNOS, IFN-γ and higher production of NO in high line indicated that the selection for PHA-P response might be employed for increasing the immune competence against Salmonella Typhimurium in chicken flocks.

  11. Selection of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and treatment regimen for sulfur mustard-induced cutaneous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plahovinsak, Jennifer L; Buccellato, Matthew A; Reid, Frances M; Graham, John S

    2016-09-01

    clinical assessment and histopathological severity scores. Therefore, a combination of diclofenac and clobetasol application, when administered for at least five days, shows promise in ameliorating HD-induced lesions.

  12. Recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes,Ciro Martins; Damasco,Fabiana dos Santos; Morais,Orlando Oliveira de; Paula,Carmen Dea Ribeiro de; Sampaio,Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of an 18-year-old male patient who, after two years of inappropriate treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis, began to show nodules arising at the edges of the former healing scar. He was immune competent and denied any trauma. The diagnosis of recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis was made following positive culture of aspirate samples. The patient was treated with N-methylglucamine associated with pentoxifylline for 30 days. Similar cases require special attention mainly because...

  13. Chemopreventive effects of NSAIDs as inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducers of apoptosis in experimental lung carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Shruti; Vaish, Vivek; Sanyal, Sankar Nath

    2012-07-01

    Roles of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme and intrinsic pathway of apoptosis have been explored for the chemopreventive effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on 9,10-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced lung cancer in rat model. 16 weeks after the administration of DMBA, morphological analysis revealed the occurrences of tumours and lesions, which were regressed considerably with the co-administration of indomethacin and etoricoxib, the two NSAIDs under investigation. DMBA group was marked by hyperplasia and dysplasia as observed by histological examination, and these features were corrected to a large extent by the two NSAIDs. Elevated levels of COX-2 were seen in the DMBA group, the enzyme responsible for prostaglandin synthesis during inflammation and cancer, whilst the expression of the constitutive isoform, COX-1, was equally expressed in all the groups. Apoptosis was quantified by studying the activities of apaf-1, caspase-9, and 3 by immunofluorescence and western blots. Their activities were found to diminish in the DMBA-treated animals as compared to the other groups. Fluorescent co-staining of the isolated broncho-alveolar lavage cells showed reduced number of apoptotic cells in the DMBA group, indicating decrease in apoptosis after carcinogen administration. The present results thus suggest that the mechanism of cancer chemoprevention of NSAIDs may include the suppression of COX-2 and the induction of apoptosis.

  14. Impact of obesity on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced altered ovarian connexin gap junction proteins in female mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, Shanthi, E-mail: shanthig@iastate.edu; Nteeba, Jackson, E-mail: nteeba@iastate.edu; Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: akeating@iastate.edu

    2015-01-01

    The ovarian gap junction proteins alpha 4 (GJA4 or connexin 37; CX37), alpha 1 (GJA1 or connexin 43; CX43) and gamma 1 (GJC1 or connexin 45; CX45) are involved in cell communication and folliculogenesis. 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) alters Cx37 and Cx43 expression in cultured neonatal rat ovaries. Additionally, obesity has an additive effect on DMBA-induced ovarian cell death and follicle depletion, thus, we investigated in vivo impacts of obesity and DMBA on CX protein levels. Ovaries were collected from lean and obese mice aged 6, 12, 18, or 24 wks. A subset of 18 wk old mice (lean and obese) were dosed with sesame oil or DMBA (1 mg/kg; ip) for 14 days and ovaries collected 3 days thereafter. Cx43 and Cx45 mRNA and protein levels decreased (P < 0.05) after 18 wks while Cx37 mRNA and protein levels decreased (P < 0.05) after 24 wks in obese ovaries. Cx37 mRNA and antral follicle protein staining intensity were reduced (P < 0.05) by obesity while total CX37 protein was reduced (P < 0.05) in DMBA exposed obese ovaries. Cx43 mRNA and total protein levels were decreased (P < 0.05) by DMBA in both lean and obese ovaries while basal protein staining intensity was reduced (P < 0.05) in obese controls. Cx45 mRNA, total protein and protein staining intensity level were decreased (P < 0.05) by obesity. These data support that obesity temporally alters gap junction protein expression and that DMBA-induced ovotoxicity may involve reduced gap junction protein function. - Highlights: • Ovarian gap junction proteins are affected by ovarian aging and obesity. • DMBA exposure negatively impacts gap junction proteins. • Altered gap junction proteins may contribute to infertility.

  15. Impact of obesity on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced altered ovarian connexin gap junction proteins in female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, Shanthi; Nteeba, Jackson; Keating, Aileen F.

    2015-01-01

    The ovarian gap junction proteins alpha 4 (GJA4 or connexin 37; CX37), alpha 1 (GJA1 or connexin 43; CX43) and gamma 1 (GJC1 or connexin 45; CX45) are involved in cell communication and folliculogenesis. 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) alters Cx37 and Cx43 expression in cultured neonatal rat ovaries. Additionally, obesity has an additive effect on DMBA-induced ovarian cell death and follicle depletion, thus, we investigated in vivo impacts of obesity and DMBA on CX protein levels. Ovaries were collected from lean and obese mice aged 6, 12, 18, or 24 wks. A subset of 18 wk old mice (lean and obese) were dosed with sesame oil or DMBA (1 mg/kg; ip) for 14 days and ovaries collected 3 days thereafter. Cx43 and Cx45 mRNA and protein levels decreased (P < 0.05) after 18 wks while Cx37 mRNA and protein levels decreased (P < 0.05) after 24 wks in obese ovaries. Cx37 mRNA and antral follicle protein staining intensity were reduced (P < 0.05) by obesity while total CX37 protein was reduced (P < 0.05) in DMBA exposed obese ovaries. Cx43 mRNA and total protein levels were decreased (P < 0.05) by DMBA in both lean and obese ovaries while basal protein staining intensity was reduced (P < 0.05) in obese controls. Cx45 mRNA, total protein and protein staining intensity level were decreased (P < 0.05) by obesity. These data support that obesity temporally alters gap junction protein expression and that DMBA-induced ovotoxicity may involve reduced gap junction protein function. - Highlights: • Ovarian gap junction proteins are affected by ovarian aging and obesity. • DMBA exposure negatively impacts gap junction proteins. • Altered gap junction proteins may contribute to infertility

  16. Association of carbamazepine-induced severe cutaneous drug reactions and HLA-B*1502 allele status, and dose and treatment duration in paediatric neurology patients in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kok Wee; Chan, Derrick W S; Cheung, Yin Bun; Ching, Leng Kee; Hie, Szu Liang; Thomas, Terrence; Ling, Simon; Tan, Ene Choo

    2014-06-01

    To determine the association between severe cutaneous drug reactions (SCDR), HLA-B*1502 allelism, carbamazepine dose and treatment duration in a Singapore paediatric population. Case-control study of SCDR with carbamazepine and HLA-B*1502. We recruited 32 cases, 5 with Steven Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermolytic Necrolysis (SJS/TEN) (2 Chinese, 3 Malay), 6 with hypersensitivity syndrome (HSS) (5 Chinese, 1 Indian), 11 with minor drug reactions (9 Chinese, 2 Malay) and 10 controls (7 Chinese, 2 Malay, 1 Indian). HLA-B*1502 allelism was assayed. HLA-B*1502 status and the type of drug reaction were compared using univariate analysis. The time-span from treatment onset to reaction and the dose-time to reaction association in the 3 groups were analysed. HLA-B*1502 was positive in: 5/5 (SJS/TEN), 0/6 (HSS), 1/11 (minor drug reactions) and 1/10 controls. OR for SJS/TEN in HLA-B*1502-positive patients relative to that in HLA-B*1502-negative patients was estimated by exact logistic regression to be 27.20 (95% CI 2.67 to ∞). Median treatment duration (days) until allergic reactions was 12 (range 11-13), 16 (range 10-37) and 11 (range 0-63) for SJS/TEN, HSS and minor drug reactions, respectively. Median dose at onset of reactions was 6.2 mg/kg/day (range 4.6-7.4), 9.8 mg/kg/day (range 7.7-12.2) and 6.7 mg/kg/day (range 3.6-20.0) for the 3 groups, respectively. HLA-B*1502 positivity increases the odds of carbamazepine-induced SCDR in Singapore children of Chinese and Malay ethnicity. Adverse drug reactions to carbamazepine occurred within 2 weeks and at low doses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Propylthiouracil-induced cutaneous vasculitis

    OpenAIRE

    Milanez, Fernanda Manente; Costa, Leonardo Atem Gonçalves A.; José, Fábio Freire; Enokihara, Milvia M. S. S.; Souza, Alexandre Wagner Silva de

    2008-01-01

    O uso do propiltiouracil (PTU) está associado ao desenvolvimento de diferentes auto-anticorpos, entre eles anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilos (ANCA), que estão envolvidos na patogênese das vasculites sistêmicas ANCA-associadas (VSAA). Será relatado o caso de um paciente do sexo feminino, de 46 anos, que apresentou vasculite cutânea durante o uso de PTU como terapêutica para doença de Graves. O ANCA com padrão perinuclear (p-ANCA) foi positivo em títulos > 1/320, porém anticorpos antimie...

  18. Chemopreventive Activity of Honokiol against 7, 12 - Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-Induced Mammary Cancer in Female Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a predominant cause of death in women across the globe. Chemoprevention by using natural, dietary or synthetic products has been appearing to be a fascinating approach to combat the growing burden of breast cancer. In the current study, we intended to explore the mechanisms of chemopreventive action of honokiol against 7, 12 - dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA-induced mammary cancer in female Sprague Dawlely (SD rats. We induced mammary cancer in SD rats by administering single dose of DMBA (80 mg/kg through intra gastric route. Chemopreventive effects of honokiol (80 mg/kg, i.p. were confirmed from its ameliorating effect on the DMBA-induced anomalies such as liver marker enzymes, Phases I and II metabolizing enzymes and oxidative stress markers. Further, honokiol reversed the DMBA-induced abnormalities in inflammatory cytokines levels and serum tumor markers. Additionally, histopathological examination of mammary tissue and protein expression analysis of NF-κB revealed that honokiol is effective against DMBA-induced mammary cancer. In summary, the results of our study support the chemopreventive feature of honokiol in mammary cancer.

  19. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasani, F; Javanbakht, J; Samani, R; Shirani, D

    2016-03-01

    Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) is a significant veterinary problem. Infected dogs also serve as parasite reservoirs and contribute to human transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Histologically, the lesions were nodular to diffuse interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with histiocytic pseudorosettes together with numerous amastigotes within macrophages and occasionally within the interstitium. Organisms were often contained within clear and intracellular vacuoles. The other inflammatory cells, which were present in the biopsies of the Leishmania-infected dog, were lymphocytes and plasma cells. The histopathology results emphasized the role of dog, particularly asymptomatic dog, as reservoirs for CCL because of the high cutaneous parasite loads. These results may help to explain the maintenance of high transmission rates and numbers of CCL cases in endemic urban regions.

  20. Cutaneous signs of piety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, V; Al Aboud, Khalid

    2014-07-01

    It is important for dermatologists to be aware of cutaneous changes related to religious practices to help in their recognition and management. The anatomic location of cutaneous lesions associated with friction from praying varies based on religious practice. Allergic contact dermatitis from products and substances commonly used in worshipping also vary by religion. Some religious practices may render individuals prone to infections that manifest on the skin. Tattoos of godly figures also may adorn the body. Religious practices also have been implicated in cases of urticaria, köbnerization, and leukoderma. This article reviews the clinical presentation of some of the most common cutaneous changes that occur in individuals who practice the following religions: Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, and Sikhism.

  1. Primary cutaneous leiomysarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhangi Vinayak Agale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cutaneous leiomyosarcoma of the skin is a rare soft tissue neoplasm, accounting for about 2-3% of all superficial soft tissue sarcomas. It arises between the ages of 50 and 70 years, and shows a greater predilection for the lower extremities. Clinically, it presents with solitary, well-circumscribed nodule and, microscopically, consists of fascicles of spindle-shaped cells with "cigar-shaped" nuclei. Local recurrence is known in this tumor. We document a case of primary cutaneous leiomyosarcoma in a 77-year-old man and discuss the histological features and immunohistochemical profile of this uncommon neoplasm.

  2. Cutaneous infections in wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eugene K; Deweber, Kevin; Berry, James W; Wilckens, John H

    2013-09-01

    Cutaneous infections are common in wrestlers. Although many are simply a nuisance in the everyday population, they can be problematic to wrestlers because such infections may result in disqualification from practice or competition. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are therefore important. Medline and PubMed databases, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and UpToDate were searched through 2012 with the following keywords in various combinations: skin infections, cutaneous infections, wrestlers, athletes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, skin and soft tissue infections, tinea corporis, tinea capitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster, molluscum contagiosum, verruca vulgaris, warts, scabies, and pediculosis. Relevant articles found in the primary search, and selected references from those articles were reviewed for pertinent clinical information. The most commonly reported cutaneous infections in wrestlers are herpes simplex virus infections (herpes gladiatorum), bacterial skin and soft tissue infections, and dermatophyte infections (tinea gladiatorum). The clinical appearance of these infections can be different in wrestlers than in the community at large. For most cutaneous infections, diagnosis and management options in wrestlers are similar to those in the community at large. With atypical presentations, testing methods are recommended to confirm the diagnosis of herpes gladiatorum and tinea gladiatorum. There is evidence to support the use of prophylactic medications to prevent recurrence of herpes simplex virus and reduce the incidence of dermatophyte infections in wrestlers.

  3. Staging of cutaneous melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Mohr (P.); A.M.M. Eggermont (Alexander); A. Hauschild (Axel); A. Buzaid (A.)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging of cutaneous melanoma is a continuously evolving system. The identification of increasingly more accurate prognostic factors has led to major changes in melanoma staging over the years, and the current system described in this review

  4. Primaty Cutaneous Histoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year old woman presented with diffuse swelling of the base of the right thumb along with ulceration. X-ray indicated bony damage. Histopathology showed PAS positive intracellular organisms suggestive of histoplasmosis. We are reporting a very rare case of primary cutaneous histoplasmosis from this part of the country.

  5. Chemotherapy of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    country of Colombia a large numbers of cutaneous leishmania cases (over 40,000) were reported between 2005 and 2009. It was caused by Leishmania...Activity Relationships of Peroxide- Based Artemisinin Antimalarials. In: Biologically Active Natural Products: Pharmaceuticals , Cutler, S.J., Cutler

  6. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baishya B

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of cutaneous leishmaniasis is being reported from Assam, a North Eastern state of India. Clinical feature and direct smear examination of the case confirmed the diagnosis. Dramatic resolution of the lesions with sodium antimony gluconate during 10 days of therapy was achieved.

  7. High-Frequency Transcutaneous Peripheral Nerve Stimulation Induces a Higher Increase of Heat Pain Threshold in the Cutaneous Area of the Stimulated Nerve When Confronted to the Neighbouring Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Buonocore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is probably the most diffused physical therapy used for antalgic purposes. Although it continues to be used by trial and error, correct targeting of paresthesias evoked by the electrical stimulation on the painful area is diffusely considered very important for pain relief. Aim. To investigate if TENS antalgic effect is higher in the cutaneous area of the stimulated nerve when confronted to neighbouring areas. Methods. 10 volunteers (4 males, 6 females underwent three different sessions: in two, heat pain thresholds (HPTs were measured on the dorsal hand skin before, during and after electrical stimulation (100 Hz, 0.1 msec of superficial radial nerve; in the third session HPTs, were measured without any stimulation. Results. Radial nerve stimulation induced an increase of HPT significantly higher in its cutaneous territory when confronted to the neighbouring ulnar nerve territory, and antalgic effect persisted beyond the stimulation time. Conclusions. The location of TENS electrodes is crucial for obtaining the strongest pain relief, and peripheral nerve trunk stimulation is advised whenever possible. Moreover, the present study indicates that continuous stimulation could be unnecessary, suggesting a strategy for avoiding the well-known tolerance-like effect of prolonged TENS application.

  8. Cutaneous changes in chronic alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Gatha

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption can have a variety of cutaneous manifestations. Awareness of the cutaneous changes of alcohol abuse can allow early detection and intervention in an attempt to limit the adverse medical consequences. Hence a study was planned to determine the cutaneous changes in chronic alcoholics. AIMS: To determine the cutaneous changes in chronic alcoholics. METHODS: All the patients attending alcohol de-addiction camps were examined for cutaneous changes. The results were analyzed using Gausian test and compared with other reports. RESULTS: Out of 200 alcoholics examined for cutaneous changes, 182 (91% had cutaneous, nail, hair or oral cavity changes. Nail changes were found in 51 (25.5% alcoholics, koilonychia being the commonest (16%. Oral changes were present in 107 (53.5% alcoholics and changes due to nutritional deficiency in 20 (10%. Diseases due to poor hygiene were seen in 55 (27.5% alcoholics. Tinea versicolor (14% and seborrheic dermatitis (11.5% were the commonest cutaneous changes noted. CONCLUSION: Even though alcohol abuse has a variety of cutaneous manifestations and perhaps aggravates many diseases, there are no specific cutaneous signs of alcoholism. Knowledge of the spectrum of cutaneous manifestations of alcohol abuse can allow its early detection and treatment in an attempt to minimize the medical consequences.

  9. Anticancer Drugs Induced Severe Adverse Cutaneous Drug Reactions: An Updated Review on the Risks Associated with Anticancer Targeted Therapy or Immunotherapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Yee Ng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous adverse drug reactions are commonly seen in patients with anticancer drug treatment. Anticancer drugs, including chemotherapy, target therapy, and recent immunotherapy causing skin reactions ranging from mild skin rash to life-threatening severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrosis (TEN with increase morbidity and mortality while they are receiving cancer treatments, have been proposed to be a result of direct skin toxicity or drug hypersensitivity reactions (these are proposed mechanism, not definite. Differentiating SCARs from other more commonly seen reactions with a better outcome help prevent discontinuation of therapy and inappropriate use of systemic immunosuppressants for presumable allergic reactions, of which will affect the clinical outcome. In this article, we have reviewed published articles from 1950 to August 2017 for SJS/TEN associated with anticancer drugs, including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. We aimed to provide an overview of SJS/TEN associated with anticancer drugs to increase clinician recognition and accelerate future studies on the pathomechanism and managements.

  10. Cutaneous amebiasis in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña, Mario L; Fernández-Díez, Jorge; Magaña, Mario

    2008-10-01

    Cutaneous amebiasis (CA), which is still a health problem in developing countries, is important to diagnose based on its clinical and histopathologic features. Retrospective medical record review of 26 patients with CA (22 adults and 4 children) treated from 1955 to 2005 was performed. In addition to the age and sex of the patients, the case presentation, associated illness or factors, and method of establishing the diagnosis, clinical pictures and microscopic slides were also analyzed. Cutaneous amebiasis always presents with painful ulcers. The ulcers are laden with amebae, which are relatively easy to see microscopically with routine stains. Erythrophagocytosis is an unequivocal sign of CA. Amebae reach the skin via 2 mechanisms: direct and indirect. Amebae are able to reach the skin if there is a laceration (port of entry) and if conditions in the patient are favorable. Amebae are able to destroy tissues by means of their physical activity, phagocytosis, enzymes, secretagogues, and other molecules.

  11. Chronic zosteriform cutaneous leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Omidian M; Mapar M

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmanasis (CL) may present with unusual clinical variants such as acute paronychial, annular, palmoplantar, zosteriform, erysipeloid, and sporotrichoid. The zosteriform variant has rarely been reported. Unusual lesions may be morphologically attributed to an altered host response or owing to an atypical strain of parasites in these lesions. We report a patient with CL in a multidermatomal pattern on the back and buttock of a man in Khozestan province in the south of Iran. To our ...

  12. Cutaneous Tuberculosis Ineastern Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A J Kanwar

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the clinical and laboratory data from 21 patents of cutaneous tuberculosis seen over a period of 10 years revealed that it is rare in eastern Libya. There were 15 males and 6 females. Lupus vulgaris was seen in 11, scrofuloderma in 4. Three patients each had tuberculosis verrucosa cutis and papulonecrotic tuberculid. The diagnosis in each case was confirmed histopathologically.

  13. Modulatory Effect of Taurine on 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)Anthracene-Induced Alterations in Detoxification Enzyme System, Membrane Bound Enzymes, Glycoprotein Profile and Proliferative Cell Nuclear Antigen in Rat Breast Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanitha, Manickam Kalappan; Baskaran, Kuppusamy; Periyasamy, Kuppusamy; Selvaraj, Sundaramoorthy; Ilakkia, Aruldoss; Saravanan, Dhiravidamani; Venkateswari, Ramachandran; Revathi Mani, Balasundaram; Anandakumar, Pandi; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal

    2016-08-01

    The modulatory effect of taurine on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer in rats was studied. DMBA (25 mg/kg body weight) was administered to induce breast cancer in rats. Protein carbonyl levels, activities of membrane bound enzymes (Na(+) /K(+) ATPase, Ca(2+) ATPase, and Mg(2+) ATPase), phase I drug metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, NADPH cytochrome c reductase), phase II drug metabolizing enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase and UDP-glucuronyl transferase), glycoprotein levels, and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were studied. DMBA-induced breast tumor bearing rats showed abnormal alterations in the levels of protein carbonyls, activities of membrane bound enzymes, drug metabolizing enzymes, glycoprotein levels, and PCNA protein expression levels. Taurine treatment (100 mg/kg body weight) appreciably counteracted all the above changes induced by DMBA. Histological examination of breast tissue further supported our biochemical findings. The results of the present study clearly demonstrated the chemotherapeutic effect of taurine in DMBA-induced breast cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Metformin inhibits 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced breast carcinogenesis and adduct formation in human breast cells by inhibiting the cytochrome P4501A1/aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maayah, Zaid H. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ghebeh, Hazem [Stem Cell & Tissue Re-Engineering, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Alhaider, Abdulqader A. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Camel Biomedical Research Unit, College of Pharmacy and Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); El-Kadi, Ayman O.S. [Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Soshilov, Anatoly A.; Denison, Michael S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Ansari, Mushtaq Ahmad [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Korashy, Hesham M., E-mail: hkorashy@ksu.edu.sa [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-04-15

    Recent studies have established that metformin (MET), an oral anti-diabetic drug, possesses antioxidant activity and is effective against different types of cancer in several carcinogen-induced animal models and cell lines. However, whether MET can protect against breast cancer has not been reported before. Therefore, the overall objectives of the present study are to elucidate the potential chemopreventive effect of MET in non-cancerous human breast MCF10A cells and explore the underlying mechanism involved, specifically the role of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1)/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. Transformation of the MCF10A cells into initiated breast cancer cells with DNA adduct formation was conducted using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), an AhR ligand. The chemopreventive effect of MET against DMBA-induced breast carcinogenesis was evidenced by the capability of MET to restore the induction of the mRNA levels of basic excision repair genes, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1), and the level of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Interestingly, the inhibition of DMBA-induced DNA adduct formation was associated with proportional decrease in CYP1A1 and in NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene expression. Mechanistically, the involvements of AhR and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in the MET-mediated inhibition of DMBA-induced CYP1A1 and NQO1 gene expression were evidenced by the ability of MET to inhibit DMBA-induced xenobiotic responsive element and antioxidant responsive element luciferase reporter gene expression which suggests an AhR- and Nrf2-dependent transcriptional control. However, the inability of MET to bind to AhR suggests that MET is not an AhR ligand. In conclusion, the present work shows a strong evidence that MET inhibits the DMBA-mediated carcinogenicity and adduct formation by inhibiting the expression of CYP1A1 through an AhR ligand-independent mechanism

  15. A case of radiation-induced cutaneous angiosarcoma 15 years after simultaneously occurring uterine cervical and gastric cancers discovered by autopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, T.; Enomoto, Yasunori; Yoshikawa, Takafumi; Nonomura, Akitaka; Ichijima, Kunio

    2005-01-01

    A case of cutaneous angiosarcoma in the skin on the left hip previously irradiated for cervical uterine squamous cell carcinoma is discovered by autopsy. The patient, a 79-year-old woman, at age 64 had been then underwent radiotherapy for the cervical uterine carcinoma. A total dose of 50 Gy was administrated. At 79 years of age, she noticed multiple purple black nodular skin lesions on the left hip and thigh. She was hospitalized for 8 days, but her general condition rapidly deteriorated and she died. An autopsy revealed that the skin lesion was composed of atypical polygonal cell proliferation forming irregularly anastomosing vascularity, together with hemorrhage and necrosis. The tumor cells were positive for both CD34 and factor 8-related antigens. The final diagnosis was angiosarcoma. (author)

  16. Cutaneous manifestations in patients with mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Karin; Escribano, Luis; Grattan, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous lesions in patients with mastocytosis are highly heterogeneous and encompass localized and disseminated forms. Although a classification and criteria for cutaneous mastocytosis (CM) have been proposed, there remains a need to better define subforms of cutaneous manifestations in patient...

  17. Cutaneous Nocardiosis Simulating Cutaneous Lymphatic Sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchin, Pedro; Trope, Beatriz Moritz; Fernandes, Larissa Araujo; Barreiros, Glória; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is the subcutaneous mycosis caused by several species of the Sporothrix genus. With worldwide occurrence, the State of Rio de Janeiro is presently undergoing a zoonotic sporotrichosis epidemic. The form of lymphocutaneous nocardiosis is rare, being caused especially by Nocardia brasiliensis. It appears as a nodular or ulcerated lesion, with multiple painful erythematous nodules or satellite pustules distributed along the lymphatic tract, similar to the lymphocutaneous variant of sporotrichosis. We present a 61-year-old man who, after an insect bite in the left leg, developed an ulcerated lesion associated with ascending lymphangitis, nonresponsive to previous antibiotic therapies. The patient was admitted for investigation, based on the main diagnostic hypothesis of lymphatic cutaneous sporotrichosis entailed by the highly suggestive morphology, associated with the epidemiologic information that he is a resident of the city of Rio de Janeiro. While culture results were being awaited, the patient was medicated with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim to cover CA-MRSA and evolved with total healing of the lesions. After hospital discharge, using an ulcer fragment, an Actinomyces sp. was cultivated and N. brasiliensis was identified by molecular biology. The objective of this report is to demonstrate a case of lymphocutaneous nocardiosis caused by N. brasiliensis after a probable insect bite. Despite the patient being a resident of the State of Rio de Janeiro (endemic region for sporotrichosis), it is highlighted that it is necessary to be aware of the differential diagnoses of an ulcerated lesion with lymphangitis, favoring an early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the illness.

  18. Cutaneous Nocardiosis Simulating Cutaneous Lymphatic Sporotrichosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Secchin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is the subcutaneous mycosis caused by several species of the Sporothrix genus. With worldwide occurrence, the State of Rio de Janeiro is presently undergoing a zoonotic sporotrichosis epidemic. The form of lymphocutaneous nocardiosis is rare, being caused especially by Nocardia brasiliensis. It appears as a nodular or ulcerated lesion, with multiple painful erythematous nodules or satellite pustules distributed along the lymphatic tract, similar to the lymphocutaneous variant of sporotrichosis. We present a 61-year-old man who, after an insect bite in the left leg, developed an ulcerated lesion associated with ascending lymphangitis, nonresponsive to previous antibiotic therapies. The patient was admitted for investigation, based on the main diagnostic hypothesis of lymphatic cutaneous sporotrichosis entailed by the highly suggestive morphology, associated with the epidemiologic information that he is a resident of the city of Rio de Janeiro. While culture results were being awaited, the patient was medicated with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim to cover CA-MRSA and evolved with total healing of the lesions. After hospital discharge, using an ulcer fragment, an Actinomyces sp. was cultivated and N. brasiliensis was identified by molecular biology. The objective of this report is to demonstrate a case of lymphocutaneous nocardiosis caused by N. brasiliensis after a probable insect bite. Despite the patient being a resident of the State of Rio de Janeiro (endemic region for sporotrichosis, it is highlighted that it is necessary to be aware of the differential diagnoses of an ulcerated lesion with lymphangitis, favoring an early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the illness.

  19. Chronic zosteriform cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidian M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmanasis (CL may present with unusual clinical variants such as acute paronychial, annular, palmoplantar, zosteriform, erysipeloid, and sporotrichoid. The zosteriform variant has rarely been reported. Unusual lesions may be morphologically attributed to an altered host response or owing to an atypical strain of parasites in these lesions. We report a patient with CL in a multidermatomal pattern on the back and buttock of a man in Khozestan province in the south of Iran. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of multidermatomal zosteriform CL. It was resistant to conventional treatment but responded well to a combination of meglumine antimoniate, allopurinol, and cryotherapy.

  20. Primary cutaneous myoepithelial carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Markus Winther; Steiniche, Torben; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a case of primary myoepithelial carcinoma of the skin and reviews the available literature on this topic. Myoepitheliomas and carcinomas arise most frequently from myoepithelial cells within the salivary glands but are found in many anatomical locations. We documented a case...... literature search identified 23 papers that reported 58 cases of cutaneous myoepitheliomas and myoepithelial carcinomas. All cases are reviewed in the presented paper. This case report and literature review serves to increase awareness regarding myoepithelial carcinomas. These tumours exhibit high metastatic...

  1. Barrier protective use of skin care to prevent chemotherapy-induced cutaneous symptoms and to maintain quality of life in patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wohlrab J

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Johannes Wohlrab,1 Nikola Bangemann,2 Anke Kleine-Tebbe,3 Marc Thill,4,5 Sherko Kümmel,6 Eva-Maria Grischke,7 Rainer Richter,8 Sophie Seite,9 Diana Lüftner10 1Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Halle (Saale, 2Interdisciplinary Breast Centre, University Hospital Charité Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany, 3Breast Centre DRK Hospital, Berlin, 4Breast Centre University of Lübeck, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Lübeck, 5Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Agaplesion Markus Hospital, Frankfurt am Main, 6Breast Centre and Clinic of Senology, Hospital Essen-Mitte, Essen, 7Breast Centre University of Tübingen, Department of Gynaecology, Tübingen, 8L'Oréal, Deutschland GmbH, Düsseldorf, 9La Roche-Posay, Dermatological Laboratories, Asnières, France; 10University Hospital Charité Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Tumour Immunology, Berlin, Germany Purpose: Chemotherapy with anthracyclines, taxanes, or alkylating agents often causes cutaneous side effects. Nonspecific inhibition of the proliferative activity of keratinocytes has antidifferentiation effects that lead to defects in the barrier function and, thus, to dry, itchy, and irritable skin. These cutaneous symptoms reduce the quality of life of the patients considerably. Conditioning with topical application of niacinamide uses the cytoprotective and barrier stabilizing effect of vitamin B3. Patients and methods: A multicenter randomized crossover study investigated the influence of the test preparation on the quality of life compared to standard care for 73 patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant or neoadjuvant cytostatic therapy. Primary target parameter was the Dermatology Life Quality Index with its respective subscales after 6 weeks of a twice-daily application of the respective preparations. Additionally, specific symptoms such as pruritus, dryness, and

  2. Cutavirus in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Sarah; Fridholm, Helena; Vinner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    A novel human protoparvovirus related to human bufavirus and preliminarily named cutavirus has been discovered. We detected cutavirus in a sample of cutaneous malignant melanoma by using viral enrichment and high-throughput sequencing. The role of cutaviruses in cutaneous cancers remains...

  3. Cutaneous tuberculosis in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmalek, R; Mebazaa, A; Berriche, A; Kilani, B; Ben Osman, A; Mokni, M; Tiouiri Benaissa, H

    2013-09-01

    Tuberculosis is endemic in Tunisia. Pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common presentation in our country. Cutaneous presentations are rare (1-2% of cases). The diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis (CT) is difficult. Histological and clinical presentations are polymorphous, many differential diagnoses are available, and it is difficult to isolate Mycobacterium. We had for aim to study the epidemiological and clinical features of CT in Tunisia, and to compare presentations before and after 1990. We conducted a retrospective study between January 1991 and December 2011, in which we included all cases of CT observed at the Infectious Diseases and Dermatology Units of the Tunis la Rabta Hospital. Hundred and thirty-seven patients were included, with a mean age of 43.8years; 72.3% were female patients. Hundred and fifty locations were observed, most of which on the head and neck. Scrofuloderma was the most frequent presentation, observed in 65% of cases. The diagnosis was confirmed by histology and/or microbiology in 75.8% of cases. The treatment was prescribed for a mean 11.3months, leading to full recovery in most cases. CT is still reported in Tunisia. The diagnosis relies mainly on histology. Controlling this mutilating tuberculosis requires a global control of this disease, and especially lymph node location, given the high rate of scrofuloderma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Adverse cutaneous drug reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak Surajit

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In everyday clinical practice, almost all physicians come across many instances of suspected adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR in different forms. Although such cutaneous reactions are common, comprehensive information regarding their incidence, severity and ultimate health effects are often not available as many cases go unreported. It is also a fact that in the present world, almost everyday a new drug enters market; therefore, a chance of a new drug reaction manifesting somewhere in some form in any corner of world is unknown or unreported. Although many a times, presentation is too trivial and benign, the early identification of the condition and identifying the culprit drug and omit it at earliest holds the keystone in management and prevention of a more severe drug rash. Therefore, not only the dermatologists, but all practicing physicians should be familiar with these conditions to diagnose them early and to be prepared to handle them adequately. However, we all know it is most challenging and practically difficult when patient is on multiple medicines because of myriad clinical symptoms, poorly understood multiple mechanisms of drug-host interaction, relative paucity of laboratory testing that is available for any definitive and confirmatory drug-specific testing. Therefore, in practice, the diagnosis of ACDR is purely based on clinical judgment. In this discussion, we will be primarily focusing on pathomechanism and approach to reach a diagnosis, which is the vital pillar to manage any case of ACDR.

  5. Corynebacterium ulcerans cutaneous diphtheria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Luke S P; Leslie, Asuka; Meltzer, Margie; Sandison, Ann; Efstratiou, Androulla; Sriskandan, Shiranee

    2015-09-01

    We describe the case of a patient with cutaneous diphtheria caused by toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans who developed a right hand flexor sheath infection and symptoms of sepsis such as fever, tachycardia, and elevated C-reactive protein, after contact with domestic cats and dogs, and a fox. We summarise the epidemiology, clinical presentation, microbiology, diagnosis, therapy, and public health aspects of this disease, with emphasis on improving recognition. In many European countries, C ulcerans has become the organism commonly associated with cutaneous diphtheria, usually seen as an imported tropical disease or resulting from contact with domestic and agricultural animals. Diagnosis relies on bacterial culture and confirmation of toxin production, with management requiring appropriate antimicrobial therapy and prompt administration of antitoxin, if necessary. Early diagnosis is essential for implementation of control measures and clear guidelines are needed to assist clinicians in managing clinical diphtheria. This case was a catalyst to the redrafting of the 2014 national UK interim guidelines for the public health management of diphtheria, released as final guidelines in March, 2015. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prophylactic immunization against experimental leishmaniasis. III. Protection against fatal Leishmania tropica infection induced by irradiated promastigotes involves Lyt-1/sup +/2/sup -/ T cells that do not mediate cutaneous DTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liew, F.Y.; Howard, J.G.; Hale, C.

    1984-01-01

    Protective immunity against fatal L. tropica infection in genetically vulnerable BALB/c mice can be induced by prophylactic immunization with irradiated promastigotes even when heat-killed. Such immunity is adoptively transferable transiently into intact or durably into sub-lethally irradiated (200 or 550 rad) syngeneic recipients by splenic T but not B cells. The effector T cells are of the Lyt-1/sup +/2/sup -/ phenotype, devoid of demonstrable cytotoxic activity. The immune splenic T cell population expresses specific helper activity for antibody synthesis. A causal role for helper T cells in this capacity, however, seems unlikely, because it was shown that antibody does not determine the protective immunity against L. tropica. The immunized donors show no detectable cutaneous DTH or its early memory recall in response to live or killed promastigotes or a soluble L. tropica antigen preparation. Spleen, lymph node, and peritoneal exudate cells from protectively immunized donors similarly fail to transfer DTH locally or systemically. These cells also lack demonstrable suppressive activity against the expression or induction of DTH to L. tropica. Thus, protection against L. tropica induced by prophylactic i.v. immunization with irradiated promastigotes appears to be conferred by Lyt-1/sup +/2/sup -/ T cells that are distinguishable from T cells mediating either both DTH and T help, or cytotoxicity.

  7. Prophylactic immunization against experimental leishmaniasis. III. Protection against fatal Leishmania tropica infection induced by irradiated promastigotes involves Lyt-1+2- T cells that do not mediate cutaneous DTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew, F.Y.; Howard, J.G.; Hale, C.

    1984-01-01

    Protective immunity against fatal L. tropica infection in genetically vulnerable BALB/c mice can be induced by prophylactic immunization with irradiated promastigotes even when heat-killed. Such immunity is adoptively transferable transiently into intact or durably into sub-lethally irradiated (200 or 550 rad) syngeneic recipients by splenic T but not B cells. The effector T cells are of the Lyt-1 + 2 - phenotype, devoid of demonstrable cytotoxic activity. The immune splenic T cell population expresses specific helper activity for antibody synthesis. A causal role for helper T cells in this capacity, however, seems unlikely, because it was shown that antibody does not determine the protective immunity against L. tropica. The immunized donors show no detectable cutaneous DTH or its early memory recall in response to live or killed promastigotes or a soluble L. tropica antigen preparation. Spleen, lymph node, and peritoneal exudate cells from protectively immunized donors similarly fail to transfer DTH locally or systemically. These cells also lack demonstrable suppressive activity against the expression or induction of DTH to L. tropica. Thus, protection against L. tropica induced by prophylactic i.v. immunization with irradiated promastigotes appears to be conferred by Lyt-1 + 2 - T cells that are distinguishable from T cells mediating either both DTH and T help, or cytotoxicity

  8. Topical treatment with nanoliposomal Amphotericin B reduces early lesion growth but fails to induce cure in an experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania mexicana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varikuti, Sanjay; Oghumu, Steve; Saljoughian, Noushin; Pioso, Marissa S; Sedmak, Bren E; Khamesipour, Ali; Satoskar, Abhay R

    2017-09-01

    Leishmania mexicana infection causes localized skin lesions that can lead to tissue damage and permanent disfigurement if not resolved. Currently, recommended treatments include intravenous administration of Amphotericin B, which is undesirable due to the associated cost and patient burden related to receiving regular injections. In this study, we evaluated the effect of topical treatment with a nanoliposomal formulation of Amphotericin B that is penetrable to the skin (SinaAmphoLeish 0.4%) in mice infected with L. mexicana by using ulcerated (BALB/c) and non-ulcerated (129SVE) models. BALB/c mice received a 4 week treatment following ulcerated lesion development, while 129SVE mice received a 10 week treatment beginning at week 5 post-infection. Although mice from both models showed comparable susceptibility to L. mexicana infection after topical treatment with SinaAmphoLeish relative to controls, 129SVE mice displayed a transient decrease in lesion sizes which eventually became similar to control mice. On other hand this treatment resulted in no reduction in the lesion sizes in BALB/c mice. 129SVE treated mice exhibited greater IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 cytokine levels and higher T-cell proliferation in re-stimulated draining lymph node cells. BALB/c mice showed no differences in cytokine responses between treated and control mice. These findings indicate that topical SinaAmphoLeish treatment is not likely to be effective in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. mexicana. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Cutaneous larva migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Wieczorek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM is a tropical zoonosis, caused by parasites, usually Ancylostoma braziliense. Humans are an accidental host. Polish patients with CLM are usually tourists visiting tropical and subtropical countries. The first symptoms do not always appear as creeping eruptions, which complicates the diagnosis. Objective. To present the case of a man with CLM after returning from Thailand to Poland and associated diagnostic difficulties. Case report. We present a case of a 28-year-old man who returned to Poland from Thailand. The first symptoms appeared as disseminated pruritic papules. No improvement after treatment with corticosteroids and antihistamines was observed. The diagnosis was established after the appearance of serpentine erythemas and improvement after albendazole therapy. Conclusions. In the case of returnees from exotic countries suffering from raised, pruritic rashes, and no improvement after treatment with corticosteroids and antihistamines, parasitic etiology should be considered.

  10. Miltefosine in cutaneous leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.B.; Mumtaz, N.; Bari, A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of oral Miltefosine in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and its comparison with the most effective standard treatment, pentavalent antimony compound. Thirty patients, 12 years of age or older clinically and histopathologically diagnosed as cutaneous leishmaniasis were selected. Fifteen patients received orally administered Miltefosine 2.5mg/kg/day for 28 days and remaining 15 received injectable pentavalent antimony 20mg/kg/day for 28 days. Pre-treatment complete physical examination was done along with necessary laboratory investigations in all cases. These were repeated again after 2 weeks and at the end of treatment to note any deviation from the normal limits. Groups were almost matched in terms of age, weight, parasitological score. The efficacy was evaluated by ulcer size, before therapy, at 2 weeks and 4 weeks. Patients were followed-up at 3 and 6 months. Efficacy of two groups was statistically compared by calculating p-value by z-test. All patients completed the study without any serious complication. Lesions improved significantly and only scarring and post-inflammatory pigmentation was left. At 3 months, cure rate was 93% in group A and it was 73.33% in group B while at the end of 6 months, it was 86% and 66.6% respectively. This difference between efficacies of two groups was not found to be statistically significant (p-value >0.5). Miltefosine appears to be a safe and effective alternative to currently used therapies. The striking advantage of Miltefosine is its oral administration and it may also be helpful in regions where parasites are resistant to current agents. (author)

  11. Chemopreventive effect of Annona muricata on DMBA-induced cell proliferation in the breast tissues of female albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    J.B. Minari; U. Okeke

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and leading cause of cancer death in women. Breast cancer and cancer related diseases have been treated using surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Despite these therapeutic options, cancer remains associated with high mortality. Traditional medicine which involves the use of herbs has been used to treat various types of cancer and this has been found to be effective with minimal or no side effects....

  12. A novel multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of both HLA-A*31:01/HLA-B*15:02 alleles, which confer susceptibility to carbamazepine-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D V; Vidal, C; Chi, H C; Do, N T Q; Fulton, R; Li, J; Fernando, S L

    2017-12-01

    HLA-A*31:01 and HLA-B*15:02 have been widely reported to confer genetic susceptibility to carbamazepine (CBZ)-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs). Accordingly, the screening for these alleles has been highly recommended to prevent SCAR prior to introducing CBZ therapy. Although a number of methods are available for screening of HLA-A*31:01 or HLA-B*15:02 alleles separately, developing an assay that can detect both these alleles would be more clinically practical, cost-effective and less time-consuming. Therefore, in this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using TaqMan Probe was designed and validated to be able to detect HLA-A*31:01 and HLA-B*15:02. In comparison with Luminex-SSO/SBT/SSB, the multiplex PCR assay for detection of HLA-A*31:01 and HLA-B*15:02 had a perfect agreement in the validation group of 125 samples. The method was able to detect the target genes at the DNA concentration of 0.037 ng/μL. The unit cost of this assay is less than $5 USD with total time of 110 minutes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Hodgkin's Lymphoma with Cutaneous Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ameri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a rare disease (0.5% to 3.4% which tends to be in the setting of an advanced disease and has a poor prognosis. Treatment of patients with cutaneous involvement of Hodgkin’s lymphoma is according to dissemination of disease (systemic or localized therapy. The majority of data in this context are based on individual case reports or literature reviews. We have reported a case of Hodgkin’s lymphoma that relapsed with isolated cutaneous involvement two years after completion of his first treatment. Our case had no response to systemic chemotherapy but obtained a complete remission to radiation therapy and had longterm disease-free survival. Radiotherapy might be considered a good salvage treatment in patients with cutaneous Hodgkin’s lymphoma with long-term disease-free survival.

  14. Multiple Cutaneous (pre)-Malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.T. van der Leest (Robert)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The three most common cutaneous malignancies are derived from melanocytes and keratinocytes (ordered in decreasing aggressiveness): melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). This thesis focuses only on these three types of cancer and

  15. Prurigo Nodularis With Cutaneous Horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadeus Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous horns are rare horny excrescences which occur in various dermatoses. We report a girl with prurigo nodularis who developed a horn on one of the nodules. This unique association has not been reported so far.

  16. Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Xia Wang; Hai-Yan Wang; Jun-Nian Zheng; Jian-Chao Sui

    2014-01-01

    Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of malignant sweat gland lesions. It is characterized clinically with non-symptomatic, slow-growing nodules. We report the case of a patient with cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma with local recurrence and metastasis to the lung that was treated with surgical resection therapy and chemotherapy. The initial neoplasm was excised but biopsy was not performed. The tumor then recurred 7 years later, was re-excised, biopsy was performed, and ...

  17. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvoyiannis, Miltiadis; Khromachou, Tamim; Byers, Norman; Hargreaves, James; Murray, Henry W

    2014-09-01

    In the United States, autochthonous cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by infection with Leishmania mexicana has been reported from Texas and Oklahoma. Here, we describe a child with 2 new features: cutaneous infection acquired outside of the south-central United States (in North Dakota) and infection caused by Leishmania donovani species complex. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A Review of Adverse Cutaneous Drug Reactions Resulting from the Use of Interferon and Ribavirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Mistry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced cutaneous eruptions are named among the most common side effects of many medications. Thus, cutaneous drug eruptions are a common cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospital settings. The present article reviews different presentations of drug-induced cutaneous eruptions, with a focus on eruptions reported secondary to the use of interferon and ribavirin. Presentations include injection site reactions, psoriasis, eczematous drug reactions, alopecia, sarcoidosis, lupus, fixed drug eruptions, pigmentary changes and lichenoid eruptions. Also reviewed are findings regarding life-threatening systemic drug reactions.

  19. Psoralen with ultraviolet A-induced apoptosis of cutaneous lymphoma cell lines is augmented by type I interferons via the JAK1-STAT1 pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liszewski, Walter; Naym, David Gram; Biskup, Edyta

    2017-01-01

    to a homozygous nonsense mutation. RESULTS: PUVA caused G2/M cell cycle block and apoptosis of MyLa and HuT-78 accompanied by increase in the expression of the mitochondrial pro-apoptotic genes Bax, BAK, and PUMA and a downregulation in anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. p53 was induced and c-Myc was repressed by PUVA...

  20. Vaccines and vaccination strategies against human cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwor, Ifeoma; Uzonna, Jude

    2009-05-01

    One might think that the development of a vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis would be relatively straightforward because the type of immune response required for protection is known and natural immunity occurs following recovery from primary infection. However, there is as yet no effective vaccine against the disease in humans. Although vaccination in murine studies has yielded promising results, these vaccines have failed miserably when tested in primates or humans. The reasons behind these failures are unknown and remain a major hurdle for vaccine design and development against cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, recovery from natural, deliberate or experimental infections results in development of long-lasting immunity to re-infection. This so called infection-induced resistance is the strongest anti-Leishmania immunity known. Here, we briefly review the different approaches to vaccination against cutaneous leishmaniasis and argue that vaccines composed of genetically modified (attenuated) parasites, which induce immunity akin to infection-induced resistance, may provide best protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans.

  1. Cutaneous papillomatosis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, F; Tachezy, R

    2005-01-01

    Three of four heifers housed together developed multiple cutaneous tumours in the linea alba and on the teats 3 months after the application of plastic muzzle plates with sharp tips to prevent mutual sucking and licking. Fibropapilloma with many koilocytes but few intranuclear inclusions was diagnosed histologically. The dermis showed neoplastic fibroblasts and a structureless intercellular matrix, and nonpurulent vasculitis was also recorded. Immunohistochemical examination with an antibody against L1 papillomavirus antigen demonstrated intranuclear positivity in single cells of the granular and cornified layers and in many mesenchymal cells in the fibrous parts of the tumours. CD3-positive lymphocytes were present in the wall of some blood vessels, and in the dermis and epidermis. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was detected predominantly in the basal layer of the epidermis and in the superficial dermis. Electron microscopy revealed small intranuclear aggregates of virus particles in an epidermocyte, damage to desmosomes and disorganization of cytokeratin filaments in many epidermocytes. Aggregates of virus particles were revealed also in a fibroblast in the dermis. In blood capillaries of the corium, acute swelling, inflammation and necrosis of the endothelium were observed. By means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleotide DNA sequencing of the PCR product, the virus was identified as bovine papilloma virus type 1 (BPV 1). The presence of this virus in the tissue was further confirmed by in-situ hybridization with a BPV 1 probe.

  2. Effects of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibition on sulfur mustard-induced cutaneous injuries in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Jiang, Ning; Xiao, Zhi-Yong; Cheng, Jun-Ping; Mei, Yi-Zhou; Zheng, Pan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Rui; Zhou, Xin-Bo; Zhou, Wen-Xia; Zhang, Yong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Early studies with first-generation poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have already indicated some therapeutic potential for sulfur mustard (SM) injuries. The available novel and more potential PARP inhibitors, which are undergoing clinical trials as drugs for cancer treatment, bring it back to the centre of interest. However, the role of PARP-1 in SM-induced injury is not fully understood. In this study, we selected a high potent specific PARP inhibitor ABT-888 as an example to investigate the effect of PARP inhibitor in SM injury. The results showed that in both the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM) and HaCaT cell model, PARP inhibitor ABT-888 can reduce cell damage induced by severe SM injury. ABT-888 significantly reduced SM induced edema and epidermal necrosis in MEVM. In the HaCaT cell model, ABT-888 can reduce SM-induced NAD(+)/ATP depletion and apoptosis/necrosis. Then, we studied the mechanism of PARP-1 in SM injury by knockdown of PARP-1 in HaCaT cells. Knockdown of PARP-1 protected cell viability and downregulated the apoptosis checkpoints, including p-JNK, p-p53, Caspase 9, Caspase 8, c-PARP and Caspase 3 following SM-induced injury. Furthermore, the activation of AKT can inhibit autophagy via the regulation of mTOR. Our results showed that SM exposure could significantly inhibit the activation of Akt/mTOR pathway. Knockdown of PARP-1 reversed the SM-induced suppression of the Akt/mTOR pathway. In summary, the results of our study indicated that the protective effects of downregulation of PARP-1 in SM injury may be due to the regulation of apoptosis, necrosis, energy crisis and autophagy. However, it should be noticed that PARP inhibitor ABT-888 further enhanced the phosphorylation of H2AX (S139) after SM exposure, which indicated that we should be very careful in the application of PARP inhibitors in SM injury treatment because of the enhancement of DNA damage.

  3. Effects of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 inhibition on sulfur mustard-induced cutaneous injuries in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Early studies with first-generation poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors have already indicated some therapeutic potential for sulfur mustard (SM injuries. The available novel and more potential PARP inhibitors, which are undergoing clinical trials as drugs for cancer treatment, bring it back to the centre of interest. However, the role of PARP-1 in SM-induced injury is not fully understood. In this study, we selected a high potent specific PARP inhibitor ABT-888 as an example to investigate the effect of PARP inhibitor in SM injury. The results showed that in both the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM and HaCaT cell model, PARP inhibitor ABT-888 can reduce cell damage induced by severe SM injury. ABT-888 significantly reduced SM induced edema and epidermal necrosis in MEVM. In the HaCaT cell model, ABT-888 can reduce SM-induced NAD+/ATP depletion and apoptosis/necrosis. Then, we studied the mechanism of PARP-1 in SM injury by knockdown of PARP-1 in HaCaT cells. Knockdown of PARP-1 protected cell viability and downregulated the apoptosis checkpoints, including p-JNK, p-p53, Caspase 9, Caspase 8, c-PARP and Caspase 3 following SM-induced injury. Furthermore, the activation of AKT can inhibit autophagy via the regulation of mTOR. Our results showed that SM exposure could significantly inhibit the activation of Akt/mTOR pathway. Knockdown of PARP-1 reversed the SM-induced suppression of the Akt/mTOR pathway. In summary, the results of our study indicated that the protective effects of downregulation of PARP-1 in SM injury may be due to the regulation of apoptosis, necrosis, energy crisis and autophagy. However, it should be noticed that PARP inhibitor ABT-888 further enhanced the phosphorylation of H2AX (S139 after SM exposure, which indicated that we should be very careful in the application of PARP inhibitors in SM injury treatment because of the enhancement of DNA damage.

  4. Part of the oxidative stress in the development of radio-induced cell effects at cutaneous level: application to accidental localised irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carine, Laurent

    2005-10-01

    The objective of our study was to answer to the following questions: does the initial radio-induced oxidative stress lead to the accumulation of DNA damages in the low renewal cells (fibroblasts, endothelial cells) that could be responsible of delayed effects; does it exist delayed oxidative phenomena and era they implied in the delayed effects arising; does it exist a phenomenon of premature senescence; does it exist a premature senescence phenomenon that could lead to an accumulation of damages before the cell death; what are the action mechanisms of the association pentoxifylline/α-tocopherol. (N.C.)

  5. miR-122 regulates p53/Akt signalling and the chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfè, Valentina; Biskup, Edyta; Rosbjerg, Anne

    2012-01-01

    R-122 was expressed in the malignant T-cell infiltrate and increased in the advanced stage mycosis fungoides. Surprisingly, miR-122 overexpression decreased the sensitivity to the chemotherapy-induced apoptosis via a signaling circuit involving the activation of Akt and inhibition of p53. We have also...... shown that induction of miR-122 occurred via p53 and that p53 post-transcriptionally up-regulated miR-122. miR-122 is thus an amplifier of the antiapoptotic Akt/p53 circuit and it is conceivable that a pharmacological intervention in this pathway may provide basis for novel therapies for CTCL....

  6. [Cutaneous chondroid syringoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Agathe; Dufrenot-Petitjean-Roget, Leila; Amazan, Emmanuelle; Derancourt, Christian; Alexandre, Marina; Quist, Danièle; Grossin, Maggy; Molinié, Vincent

    2015-08-01

    Chondroid syringoma (CS) is a rare cutaneous tumor characterized by mixte epithelial and mesenchymal component. The confident histological diagnosis can be obtained by immuno-histochemistry study. Here we present 10 new cases with their clinico-hystological characteristics. The 10 cases were observed between January 2000 and august 2013, in Fort-de-France and Louis-Mourier universitary hospitals. For all the cases a controlled histological study was performed by a dermatopathologist expert and immuno-histochemistry was added. Clinical and immuno-histological data were analyzed. The lesions were almost localized on the face (3/10) and the extremities (3/10). The size was about 1.2 to 5.2cm. Every case was treated by surgery, no malignant case was diagnosed. Histologically, all the 10 cases presented as a well-limited dermic tumor with a mixte epithelial and mesenchymal component. The stroma was myxo-chondroid, and the epithelial component consisted in epithelial cavities lined by one or two cell layers with eccrine (4/10) or apocrine (5/10) features. Immuno-chemistry study reveals positivity for EMA, ACE and CK7 for the internal cells, and positivity for S100 protein and vimentin of the extern cell layer. Chondroid syringoma is characterized by a mixte epithelial with eccrine and apocrine cells and a myxo-chondroid stroma. Our study has some clinical and histological particularities (lesions on the extremities, epidermic connecting…). The main differentials diagnoses are the other annexial tumors. The treatment is surgical. The histological diagnosis of CS is quite easy, but in case of doubt, immuno-chemistry will help, showing a double mesenchymal and epithelial differentiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Localized cutaneous sporotrichosis lasting for 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi S

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A case of localized cutaneous sporotrichosis lasting for 10 years is being reported. The fixed cutaneous variety creates diagnostic difficulty by mimicking other conditions, chiefly lupus vulgaris.

  8. Cutaneous human myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suite, M; Polson, K

    2007-10-01

    This is a case report of cutaneous myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis in a female physician who had travelled to Belize. Cutaneous myiasis is endemic in Central and South America but is seldom reported from the Caribbean islands.

  9. [Adverse cutaneous reactions to drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suástegui-Rodríguez, Irvin; Campos-Jiménez, Karin Ivette; Domínguez-Cherit, Judith; Méndez-Flores, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Adverse cutaneous reactions to drugs are any undesirable change in the structure or function of the skin. These are among the adverse side effects to common drugs. The most commonly implicated drugs are antibiotics and anticonvulsants. Cutaneous clinical manifestations are diverse ranging from mild or moderate reactions, such as urticaria and maculopapular rash, to severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR), which are known due to their high morbidity and mortality (among these: Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). The clinical pattern, etiology, prognosis and treatment differ among these skin reactions, which is why it is necessary a clear diagnosis based on a comprehensive clinical examination, skin biopsy, and specific laboratory tests. The therapeutic options depend on the clinical diagnosis. For all reactions, a symptomatic and adequate supportive therapy is necessary; in some cases, a systemic immunomodulatory therapy can be useful.

  10. Cutaneous Plasmacytosis with Perineural Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Brezinski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Cutaneous and systemic plasmacytosis are rare conditions of unknown etiology with characteristic red-brown skin lesions and a mature polyclonal plasma cell infiltrate within the dermis. Perineural plasma cell infiltrates may be a histologic clue to the diagnosis of cutaneous plasmacytosis. Observations. Our patient had a five-year history of persistent reddish-brown plaques on the neck and trunk without systemic symptoms. Histologic examination showed dermal perivascular and perineural plasma cells with excess lambda light chain expression. Due to decreased quality of life caused by his skin lesions, he was placed on a chemotherapeutic regimen with bortezomib. Conclusions and Relevance. The patient was diagnosed with cutaneous plasmacytosis based on classic histopathology results with a recently characterized pattern of perineural involvement. Bortezomib therapy was initiated to manage his skin eruption, which has not been previously described as a treatment for this chronic condition.

  11. Localised cutaneous microvascular adaptation to exercise training in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Ceri L; Carter, Howard H; Thijssen, Dick H J; Birk, Gurpreet K; Cable, N Timothy; Low, David A; Kerstens, Floortje; Meeuwis, Iris; Dawson, Ellen A; Green, Daniel J

    2018-02-07

    Exercise training induces adaptation in conduit and resistance arteries in humans, partly as a consequence of repeated elevation in blood flow and shear stress. The stimuli associated with intrinsic cutaneous microvascular adaptation to exercise training have been less comprehensively studied. We studied 14 subjects who completed 8-weeks cycle ergometer training, with partial cuff inflation on one forearm to unilaterally attenuate cutaneous blood flow responses during each exercise-training bout. Before and after training, bilateral forearm skin microvascular dilation was determined using cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC: skin flux/blood pressure) responses to gradual localised heater disk stimulation performed at rest (33, 40, 42 and 44 °C). Cycle exercise induced significant increases in forearm cutaneous flux and temperature, which were attenuated in the cuffed arm (2-way ANOVA interaction-effect; P < 0.01). We found that forearm CVC at 42 and 44 °C was significantly lower in the uncuffed arm following 8-weeks of cycle training (P < 0.01), whereas no changes were apparent in the contralateral cuffed arm (P = 0.77, interaction-effect P = 0.01). Lower limb exercise training in healthy young men leads to lower CVC-responses to a local heating stimulus, an adaptation mediated, at least partly, by a mechanism related to episodic increases in skin blood flow and/or skin temperature.

  12. Mohs micrographic surgery of rare cutaneous tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flohil, S.C.; Lee, C.B. van; Beisenherz, J.; Mureau, M.A.M.; Overbeek, L.I.H.; Nijsten, T.; Bos, R.R.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recurrence rates after Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) for rare cutaneous tumours are poorly defined. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the recurrence rate after MMS for rare cutaneous tumours at a university centre. METHODS & MATERIALS: Retrospective review of all rare cutaneous tumours treated

  13. Cutaneous manifestations associated with melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Ritva; Selph, Jacqueline; Gerstenblith, Meg R

    2016-06-01

    Melanoma is a malignancy most commonly arising from the skin; therefore, primary melanoma characteristics are usually the first cutaneous manifestations of melanoma. Cutaneous metastases, which can occur locally or diffusely, are important to detect in a timely manner as treatments for advanced melanoma that impact survival are now available. Melanoma can be associated with local or diffuse pigmentation changes, including depigmentation associated with the leukodermas and hyperpigmentation associated with diffuse melanosis cutis. The leukodermas occur frequently, illustrate the immunogenic nature of melanoma, and may impact prognosis. Paraneoplastic syndromes in association with melanoma are rare, though can occur. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in Odontogenic Cutaneous Fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Gyun; Kim, Jun Oh; Park, Young Ji; Kim, Jun Sik; Lee, Yoon Jung; Lee, Kyung Suk

    2017-06-01

    An odontogenic cutaneous fistula is a pathological communication between the outer skin surface of the face and the oral cavity. Facial cutaneous fistula is a complication of odontogenic infection that is often misdiagnosed with skin infection. We report a rare case, which was diagnosed as basal cell carcinoma based on the biopsy of skin lesions in the patient who had been diagnosed with odontogenic cutaneous fistula. A 64-year-old male patient presented with a cutaneous odontogenic fistula. The patient had undergone surgical extraction of fistula tract and loose tooth before dermatology or plastic surgery consultation. With the biopsy and computed tomography, it was confirmed that fistula and basal cell carcinoma. However, the connection between the fistula and skin cancer was not clear. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan was performed and was not detected as other local or distant metastasis. After that, wide excision of the skin lesion was performed. Although skin cancer is not commonly observed, it is necessary to rule out this disease entity by performing biopsy of skin lesions.

  15. Immunohistochemical Study Effects of Spirulina Algae on the Induced Mammary Tumor in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BinMeferij, Mashael Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    This work aimed at investigating the protective effects of Spirulina platensis on the induced mammary tumor in rats by dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and the proliferation of the tumor cells by using immunohistochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). At 50 days of age, group 1 remained untreated, group 2 treated with 2% Spirulina platenesis in food, group 3 received 50 mg/kg DMBA i.p. groupe 4 received 50 mg/kg DMBA i.p and fed on 2% spirulina. Rats were killed when the largest mammary tumor reached 1-2 cm in diameter or after 6 months of animal>s age. All the tumors produced by DMBA were ductal carcinoma in 100% of group 3, but in group 4 two rats had mammary tumor. The groups 1 and 2 had no tumor and have the same histological and immunostaining features, but in group 4, 13/15 rats had no tumor except formation of some cysts and hyperplasia in epithelial cells. The conclusion of this work suggests that Spirulina platnesis could be considered as a chemotherapeutic agent that causes apoptosis to tumor cells by reducing the number of malignant cells and resists cancer formation. (author)

  16. Chemopreventive potential of Annona muricata L leaves on chemically-induced skin papillomagenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamizah, Sulaiman; Roslida, A H; Fezah, O; Tan, K L; Tor, Y S; Tan, C I

    2012-01-01

    Annona muricata L (Annonaceae), commonly known as soursop has a long, rich history in herbal medicine with a lengthy recorded indigenous use. It had also been found to be a promising new anti-tumor agent in numerous in vitro studies. The present investigation concerns chemopreventive effects in a two-stage model of skin papillomagenesis. Chemopreventive effects of an ethanolic extract of A. muricata leaves (AMLE) was evaluated in 6-7 week old ICR mice given a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenza(α)anthracene (DMBA 100 μg/100 μl acetone) and promotion by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone/ twice a week) for 10 weeks. Morphological tumor incidence, burden and volume were measured, with histological evaluation of skin tissue. Topical application of AMLE at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced DMBA/croton oil induced mice skin papillomagenesis in (i) peri-initiation protocol (AMLE from 7 days prior to 7 days after DMBA), (ii) promotion protocol (AMLE 30 minutes after croton oil), or (iii) both peri-initiation and promotion protocol (AMLE 7 days prior to 7 day after DMBA and AMLE 30 minutes after croton oil throughout the experimental period), in a dose dependent manner (pmuricata leaves extract was able to suppress tumor initiation as well as tumor promotion even at lower dosage.

  17. Effects of aqueous cinnamon extract on chemically-induced carcinoma of hamster cheek pouch mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah K. Ezzat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of aqueous cinnamon extract (ACE on 7, 12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis in hamster cheek pouch (HCP mucosa. Sixty male Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into six equal groups. The hamsters of groups I, II and III received no treatment, DMBA and ACE respectively, for 16 weeks. Groups IV and V were handled as group II and concomitantly treated with ACE for the same period and additionally group V received ACE for other 16 weeks after the stoppage of DMBA application. Group VI hamsters were handled as group III and additionally received DMBA for other 16 weeks after the stoppage of ACE supplementation. Hamsters of each group were euthanized according to the experimental schedule. The buccal pouches were and prepared for H&E stain, PAS reagent, CD3 and PDGF immunohistochemical reactivity. All groups showed dysplastic changes with varying degrees except groups I and III. Deep invasive carcinomas were recorded in 90% of the samples of group II, 60% of group IV, 50% of group V and 40% of group VI. From the previous results, it can be concluded that ACE has the potentiality preventing oral cancer initiation better than inhibiting oral cancer progression.

  18. In-vivo characterization of endogenous porphyrin fluorescence from DMBA-treated Swiss Albino mice skin carcinogenesis for measuring tissue transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Singaravelu; Ebenezar, Jeyasingh; Hemamalini, Srinivasan; Aruna, Prakasa R.

    2002-05-01

    Steady state fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of endogenous porphyrin emission from DMBA treated skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice was carried out. The emission of endogenous porphyrin from normal and abnormal skin tissues was studied both in the presence and absence of exogenous ALA to compare the resultant porphyrin emission characterictics. The mice skin is excited at 405nm and emission spectra are scanned from 430 to 700nm. The average fluorescence emission spectra of mice skin at normal and various tissues transformation conditions were found to be different. Two peaks around 460nm and 636nm were observed and they may be attributed to NADH, Elastin and collagen combination and endogenous porphyrin emission. The intensity at 636nm increases as the stage of the cancer increases. Although exogenous ALA enhances the PPIX level in tumor, the synthesis of PPIX was also found in normal surrounding skin, in fact, with higher concentration than that of tumor tissues.

  19. Orbito-Maxillofacial Cutaneous Anthrax

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi. Correspondence to: Dr Kamau. P.O Box 24221-00502, Kenya. Email:mrtnkamau@yahoo.com. Background. Anthrax is a ... microbiologic gram staining. All cases were treated with antibiotics and resolution of the initial cutaneous lesions was noted within three weeks.

  20. Cutaneous, mucocutaneous and neurocutaneous cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P N Arora

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous cysticerci are often a pointer to the involvement of internal organs. A series of 33 patients including 5 vegetarians, between 10 to 48 years age, were investigated. Almost half the patients presented with cutaneous cysts of less than one month duration or were unaware of it. In the, other the duration varied upto 10 years. Cutaneous cysts were present in the case& Mental retardation, diminished vision and flashes of lights were, recorded in one case each, raised intracranial tension in 11 and seizures in 29 patients. Four, of the 6 patients with solitary cysts had no involvement of the internal- organs, whereas all the 27 patients with multiple had in nt of brain. Trunk was the commonest site in 16 patients. The other sites involved were scalp, eyelids, face, tongue neck, breast and limbs. Stool examination -for tapeworm segments/ eggs was positive in 2,calcification was seen on X-ray examination of skull in one and of soft tissues in 3, CT scan of skull was suggestive of cysticerci in 27 and skin biopsy for cysticercosis was confirmatory in all the 33 patients. Four patients with a solitary cutaneous cyst were treated by excision. One patients with neurocutaneous cysts was treated with albendazole without response. Out of 16patients with mucocutaneous and neurocutaneous cysticercosis treated with praziquantel, one did not respond. 7 responded partially and 8 had complete relief.

  1. Sporotrichoid pattern of cutaneous nocardiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inamadar A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A young male patient, having linearly arranged nodular lesions on lower extremity was diagnosed to have lymphocutaneous variety of cutaneous nocardiosis. This is a rare entity and has to be differentiated form other causes of nodular lymphangitis. The patient responded dramatically to Cotrimoxazole therapy.

  2. Cutane Waldenström

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havens, J.M.; Abdul Hamid, M.; Veraart, J.C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    A 72 year old man, with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, presented with pruritic skin lesions on the trunk (erythematosquamous plaques) and the lower legs (purple nodules). Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia can present not only with cutaneous manifestations of the known lymphoma, but can also present with

  3. Hemophagocytosis in Cutaneous Autoimmune Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerl, Katrin; Wolf, Ingrid H; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Wolf, Peter; French, Lars E; Kerl, Helmut

    2015-07-01

    The significance of the histological visualization of hemophagocytosis in tissues depends on the context, varying from a nonspecific phenomenon to a characteristic or diagnostic feature for certain disease entities. Hemophagocytosis is also one of the key features of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) (hemophagocytic syndrome) a potentially life-threatening complication of underlying conditions such as infections, malignancy, and autoimmune disorders. Clinical manifestations of MAS are high fever, pancytopenia, liver dysfunction, and coagulopathy. These clinical symptoms are due to an abnormal activation of the immune system in a strong association with the cytokine milieu. The diagnosis of MAS may be easily missed; it is usually detected in the bone marrow, lymph node, liver, and spleen. Only few reports exist in the literature with histological description of cutaneous hemophagocytosis as a sign for MAS in patients with lymphoma and infection. In this report, the authors present the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of 3 patients with cutaneous hemophagocytosis, specifically erythrophagocytosis, associated with autoimmune disease, and discuss the relevance of these findings. The authors report 3 patients who developed cutaneous hemophagocytosis during the course of an underlying autoimmune disorder. One patient suffered from dermatomyositis, the other 2 patients from systemic lupus erythematosus, whereby one of them was a 3-month old girl with neonatal lupus erythematosus. The patient with dermatomyositis developed MAS according to the current diagnostic criteria. Although the 2 other patients had an acute flare of their autoimmune disease with histological signs of cutaneous hemophagocytosis, they did not fulfill the complete criteria for a diagnosis of MAS. Histiocyte proliferation and activation with increase of cytokines could be demonstrated by immunohistology. This report is the first to describe hemophagocytosis in cutaneous biopsies

  4. Bidens pilosa chemoprotective effect on induced breast cancer in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo, Jorge; 1 Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú. 2 Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú.; Bonilla, Pablo; Instituto de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UNMSM. Lima, Perú.; Ráez, Ernesto; Instituto de Patología, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú.; Barreda, Alejandro; Departamento Académico de Ginecología y Obstetricia, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú.; Huamán, Oscar; Centro de Investigación en Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Bidens pilosa species belonging to the Asteraceae family, known in Peru as love dry bur, is credited with anti-inflammatory, diuretic, hepatoprotective effects. Objectives: To determine the protective effect of phenolic compounds and flavonoids extracted from Bidens pilosa L whole plant on breast cancer induced in rats by 7,12-dimethylbenz (A) anthracene (DMBA). Design: Experimental. Setting: Laboratory of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marc...

  5. Evaluation of the chemopreventive response of naringenin-loaded nanoparticles in experimental oral carcinogenesis using laser-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulfikkarali, N. K.; Krishnakumar, N.

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the chemopreventive effects of prepared naringenin-loaded nanoparticles (NARNPs) relative to the efficacy of free naringenin (NAR) in modifying the carcinogenic process and to study the changes in the endogenous fluorophores during DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis by laser-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) spectroscopy. LIAF emission spectra from the hamster buccal mucosa of the control and experimental groups of animals were recorded in the 350-700 nm spectral range on a miniature fiber optic spectrometer from different anatomical sites of each group, with excitation at 404 nm from a diode laser. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was developed in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. DMBA-painted animals revealed morphological changes, hyperplasia, dysplasia and well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. LIAF emission spectra showed significant difference between the control and tumor tissues. The tumor tissues are characterized by an increase in the emission of porphyrins and a decrease in the emission of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogenase (NADH) and flavin adenine nucleotide (FAD) when compared to the control tissues. Furthermore, oral administration of NAR and its nanoparticulates restored the status of endogenous fluorophores in the buccal mucosa of DMBA-painted animals. On a comparative basis, the treatment of nanoparticulate naringenin was found to be more effective than free naringenin in completely preventing the formation of squamous cell carcinoma and in improving the status of endogenous porphyrins to a normal range in DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. The result of the present study further suggests that LIAF spectroscopy may be a very valuable tool for rapid and sensitive detection of endogenous fluorophore changes in response to chemopreventive agents.

  6. Role of peripheral eosinophilia in adverse cutaneous drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, F; Cogorno, L; Agnoletti, A F; Parodi, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to verify whether peripheral eosinophilia (PE) may be a marker of severity for adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR). We investigated for PE in sixty-three patients diagnosed as adverse cutaneous drug reactions. All the patients underwent blood tests at baseline visit. Only patients that showed a very likely connection between ACDR and the suspected causative drug were induced in the study. We found that 11 out of 63 patients (17%) presented PE for values ≥ 0.6 x 10(9) cells/l or for a percentage of total leukocytes ≥ 6%. These 11 patients compared to patients without eosinophilia had a longer recovery time, they showed diffuse severe cutaneous reactions and they all needed a systemic therapy compared to the 41% of patients without eosinophilia. These outcomes prompt us to believe that peripheral eosinophilia may be an index of severity for adverse cutaneous drug reactions. Therefore, we suggest physicians to always detect the presence of peripheral eosinophilia in order to not underestimate the reaction and to promptly start an appropriate therapy.

  7. Influence of microemulsions on cutaneous drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreilgaard, Mads

    2002-01-01

    In attempt to increase cutaneous drug delivery, microemulsion vehicles have been more and more frequently employed over recent years. Microemulsion formulations have been shown to be superior for both transdermal and dermal delivery of particularly lipophilic compounds, but also hydrophilic...... compounds appear to benefit from application in microemulsions compared to conventional vehicles, like hydrogels, emulsions and liposomes. The favourable drug delivery properties of microemulsions appear to mainly be attributed to the excellent solubility properties. However, the vehicles may also act...... as penetration enhancers depending on the oil/surfactant constituents, which involves a risk of inducing local irritancy. The correlation between microemulsion structure/composition and drug delivery potential is not yet fully elucidated. However, a few studies have indicated that the internal structure...

  8. Targeted Deletion and Lipidomic Analysis Identify Epithelial Cell COX-2 as a Major Driver of Chemically-induced Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jing; Ishikawa, Tomo-o; Dumlao, Darren S.; Norris, Paul C.; Magyar, Clara E.; Mikulec, Carol; Catapang, Art; Dennis, Edward A.; Fischer, Susan M.; Herschman, Harvey R.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacologic and global gene deletion studies demonstrate that cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2/COX2) plays a critical role in DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumor induction. While many cell types in the tumor microenvironment express COX-2, the cell types in which COX-2 expression is required for tumor promotion are not clearly established. Here, cell-type specific Cox-2 gene deletion reveals a vital role for skin epithelial cell COX-2 expression in DMBA/TPA tumor induction. In contrast, myeloid Cox-2 gene deletion has no effect on DMBA/TPA tumorigenesis. The infrequent, small tumors that develop on mice with an epithelial cell-specific Cox-2 gene deletion have decreased proliferation and increased cell differentiation properties. Blood vessel density is reduced in tumors with an epithelial cell-specific Cox-2 gene deletion, compared to littermate control tumors, suggesting a reciprocal relationship in tumor progression between COX-2 expressing tumor epithelial cells and microenvironment endothelial cells. Lipidomics analysis of skin and tumors from DMBA/TPA-treated mice suggests that the prostaglandins PGE2 and PGF2α are likely candidates for the epithelial cell COX-2-dependent eicosanoids that mediate tumor progression. This study both illustrates the value of cell-type specific gene deletions in understanding the cellular roles of signal-generating pathways in complex microenvironments and emphasizes the benefit of a systems-based lipidomic analysis approach to identify candidate lipid mediators of biological responses. PMID:25063587

  9. Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zheng, Jun-Nian; Sui, Jian-Chao

    2014-01-01

    Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of malignant sweat gland lesions. It is characterized clinically with non-symptomatic, slow-growing nodules. We report the case of a patient with cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma with local recurrence and metastasis to the lung that was treated with surgical resection therapy and chemotherapy. The initial neoplasm was excised but biopsy was not performed. The tumor then recurred 7 years later, was re-excised, biopsy was performed, and diagnosed as a low-grade hidradenocarcinoma. We presented a very good result of chemotherapy in the treatment of this rare malignant disease. It demonstrates that adjunct chemotherapy is effective to control the condition of malignant sweat-gland carcinomas patient.

  10. Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xia Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of malignant sweat gland lesions. It is characterized clinically with non-symptomatic, slow-growing nodules. We report the case of a patient with cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma with local recurrence and metastasis to the lung that was treated with surgical resection therapy and chemotherapy. The initial neoplasm was excised but biopsy was not performed. The tumor then recurred 7 years later, was re-excised, biopsy was performed, and diagnosed as a low-grade hidradenocarcinoma. We presented a very good result of chemotherapy in the treatment of this rare malignant disease. It demonstrates that adjunct chemotherapy is effective to control the condition of malignant sweat-gland carcinomas patient.

  11. [Cutaneous ultrasound and dermal fillers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas Fernández, C; Burón Álvarez, I; Fernández-Tresguerres Centeno, A; Alfageme Roldán, F; de Cabo Francés, F

    2015-11-01

    Requests for fillers or dermatological implants have dramatically increased in dermatology consultations in the last few years, either for the correction of superficial age-related wrinkles and cutaneous creases or to increase the volume of specific areas (cheeks, lips...). Dermatologists are often the first professionals to provide these treatments. Nevertheless, in other situations, the patients have already been treated, and many of them do not know the type of material that has been implanted or may even deny previous treatment, even when evident on clinical examination. In these occasions, cutaneous ultrasound is an effective and reliable tool for the real-time diagnosis of the kind of implant that has been used, its location, and the study of its possible complications. Copyright © 2015 Academia Española de Dermatología y Venereología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. A profile of cutaneous tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patra Apares

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available About 39330, new patients were examined over a period of two years and it was revealed that 104 patients (0.26% had cutaneous tuberculosis. Most of the tuberculosis patients (61.52% were between the age of 5 to 25 years. Lupus vulgaris was the commonest variant (57.69%, followed by scrofuloderma (21.15%. Males suffered more than females (2.25:1 and all patients belonged to lower socio-economic class. 62 cases (59.61% showed evidence of BCG vaccination that failed to protect cutaneous tuberculosis. Mantoux test was positive in all cases except 4. Bacteriological examination was negative in all cases. Response to antitubercular therapy was very good except in two cases which required addition of an extra drug and also took more time.

  13. Carcinoma in cutaneous Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma occurring in the cutaneous lesions of Lichen Planus though rarely mentioned in literature does occur and should be kept in mind while treating such lesions. We report a 16 year female who developed a squamous cell carcinoma in a long standing verrucous lichen planus in the lower leg. This case is being presented to indicate the possibility of malignant transformation of cutaneous lichen planus to carcinoma, especially in the hypertrophic forms and the need to have an early diagnosis so that it can be treated in the initial stages. A high degree of suspicion should be present whenever we come across a non healing lesion in a patient with lichen planus. A few markers, which may give us a clue for increased chances of malignant transformation in these cases is presented.

  14. Comparative evaluation of antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and apoptosis inducing potential of black tea polyphenols in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathiba Duvuru

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the relative chemopreventive efficacy of two black tea polyphenols, Polyphenon-B [P-B] and BTF-35 on 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP carcinogenesis. Methods Hamsters were divided into 6 groups. The right buccal pouches of animals in groups 1–3 were painted with 0.5% of DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. While hamsters in group 1 received no further treatment, animals in groups 2 and 3 received diet containing 0.05% P-B and BTF-35 respectively, four weeks before DMBA painting that was continued until the end of the experiments. Animals in groups 4 and 5 were given P-B and BTF-35 alone respectively as in groups 2 and 3. Group 6 animals served as the untreated control. All the animals were sacrificed after 18 weeks. The expression of p21, cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-P, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, cytokeratins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was analysed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Results DMBA treated animals developed buccal pouch carcinomas that displayed increased expression of p21, cyclin D1, GST-P, NF-κB, cytokeratins, VEGF and Bcl-2 with decreased expression of Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP. Dietary administration of both P-B and BTF-35 reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by modulating markers of cell proliferation, cell survival, tumour infiltration, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Conclusion The results of the present study provide a mechanistic basis for the chemopreventive potential of black tea polyphenols. The greater efficacy of BTF-35 in inhibiting HBP carcinogenesis and modulating multiple molecular targets may have a potential role in the prevention of oral cancer.

  15. Unusual presentation of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahiry Anup Kumar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leis hmaniasis is endemic in some regions of Saudi Arabia. A case with uncommon hyperkeratotic type of lesion was seen. Being an endemic zone, a slit- skin smear was done and stained with Giemsa′s stain. Smears howed Leishman Donovan bodies within and outside the macrophages. Significant improvement, followed by complete resolution of the lesion was seen with ketoconazole treatment.

  16. Cutaneous and mucosal pain syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddappa K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The cutaneous and mucosal pain syndromes are characterized by pain, burning sensation, numbness or paraesthesia of a particular part of the skin or mucosal surface without any visible signs. They are usually sensory disorders, sometimes with a great deal of psychologic overlay. In this article various conditions have been listed and are described. The possible causative mechanisms are discussed when they are applicable and the outline of their management is described.

  17. Cutaneous manifestations of internal malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ayyamperumal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many malignancies affecting the internal organs display cutaneous manifestations which may be either specific (tumor metastases or nonspecific lesions. Aims: The study is aimed at determining the frequency and significance of cutaneous manifestations among patients with internal malignancy. Materials and Methods: 750 cases of proven internal malignancy, who attended a cancer chemotherapy center in South India, were studied. Specific infiltrates were confirmed by histopathology, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and marker studies. Results: Out of the 750 patients with internal malignancy, skin changes were seen in a total of 52 (6.93% patients. Conclusion: Cutaneous metastases (specific lesions were seen in 20 patients (2.66%: contiguous in 6 (0.8%, and non-contiguous in 14 (1.86%. Nonspecific skin changes were seen in 32 patients (4.26%. None of our patients presented with more than one type of skin lesions. Herpes zoster was the most common nonspecific lesion noticed in our patients, followed by generalized pruritus, multiple eruptive seborrheic keratoses, bullous disorder, erythroderma, flushing, purpura, pyoderma gangrenosum, insect bite allergy and lichenoid dermatitis.

  18. Ampullary carcinoma with cutaneous metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ting Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater is a rare gastrointestinal tumor. Additionally, cutaneous metastasis from such an internal malignancy is also uncommon. We reported the case of a 55-year-old man afflicted with ampullary carcinoma with cutaneous metastasis. The patient did not undergo the standard Whipple procedure but received chemotherapy due to apparent left neck lymph node metastasis noted by initial PET/CT imaging. The skin metastasis presented as a left neck infiltrating purpuric lesion, which was confirmed by skin biopsy approximately one year after the patient's disease was first diagnosed. Thereafter, the patient received further chemotherapy pursuant to his course of medical management. Skin metastasis usually represents a poor patient prognosis. In these cases, treatment of cutaneous metastasis typically includes systemic chemotherapy and local management such as radiation therapy or tumor excision. And when choosing a chemotherapy regimen for the ampullary cancer, the histological subtypes (intestinal or pancreatobiliary should be comprehensively considered. In our review of the literature, the intestinal type seems to have less distant lymph node metastasis, advanced local invasion, as well as recurrence than pancreatobiliary type of ampullary cancer.

  19. Cutaneous Chromatophoromas in Captive Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Gutiérrez, J F; Garner, M M; Kiupel, M

    2016-11-01

    Chromatophoromas are neoplasms arising from pigment-bearing cells (chromatophores) of the dermis. While isolated cases have been reported in the literature, the prevalence and biological behavior of chromatophoromas in snakes are unknown. Forty-two chromatophoromas were identified among 4663 submissions (0.9%) to a private diagnostic laboratory in a 16-year period. The most commonly affected snakes were colubrids (23 cases, 55%) and vipers (8 cases, 19%). The San Francisco garter snake was the most commonly affected species (6 cases; 14% of all affected snake species and 3.7% of all garter snake submissions). No sex predilection was found. The age of 28 snakes ranged from 5 to 27 years. Single cutaneous chromatophoromas were most commonly observed and presented as pigmented cutaneous masses or plaques along any body segment. Euthanasia or death due to progressive neoplastic disease or metastasis was reported in 8 (19%) and 4 (10%) cases, respectively. The survival time of 4 animals ranged from 4 to 36 months. Microscopically, xanthophoromas, iridophoromas, melanocytic neoplasms, and mixed chromatophoromas were identified, with melanocytic neoplasms being most common. Microscopic examination alone was generally sufficient for the diagnosis of chromatophoroma, but immunohistochemistry for S-100 and PNL-2 may be helpful for diagnosing poorly pigmented cases. Moderate to marked nuclear atypia appears to be consistently present in cutaneous chromatophoromas with a high risk of metastasis, while mitotic count, lymphatic invasion, the level of infiltration, and the degree of pigmentation or ulceration were not reliable predictors of metastasis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Selenium for the Prevention of Cutaneous Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Grossman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of selenium (Se supplementation in cancer prevention is controversial; effects often depend on the nutritional status of the subject and on the chemical form in which Se is provided. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models to study two unique therapeutic windows for intervention in the process of cutaneous melanomagenisis, and to examine the utility of two different chemical forms of Se for prevention and treatment of melanoma. We studied the effects of Se in vitro on UV-induced oxidative stress in melanocytes, and on apoptosis and cell cycle progression in melanoma cells. In vivo, we used the HGF transgenic mouse model of UV-induced melanoma to demonstrate that topical treatment with l-selenomethionine results in a significant delay in the time required for UV-induced melanoma development, but also increases the rate of growth of those tumors once they appear. In a second mouse model, we found that oral administration of high dose methylseleninic acid significantly decreases the size of human melanoma xenografts. Our findings suggest that modestly elevation of selenium levels in the skin might risk acceleration of growth of incipient tumors. Additionally, certain Se compounds administered at very high doses could have utility for the treatment of fully-malignant tumors or prevention of recurrence.

  1. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in patient with alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Benvegnú

    Full Text Available Abstract Sporotrichosis is the most prevalent subcutaneous mycosis and is characterized by a subacute or chronic development of a cutaneous or subcutaneous nodular lesion. It is caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix spp, which may manifest in different clinical forms. The disseminated cutaneous form is uncommon and is more likely to occur in immunocompromised patients. We report a 47-year-old male patient with multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules. The patient was diagnosed with disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis based on the isolation and identification of Sporothrix spp. The patient was treated with potassium iodide, which resulted in clinical improvement of the lesions.

  2. Cutaneous dermatomyositis in the era of biologicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Natalie A; Vleugels, Ruth Ann; Callen, Jeffrey P

    2016-01-01

    Dermatomyositis (DM) is a systemic inflammatory condition characterized by cutaneous and muscle findings, in addition to potential involvement of other organ systems. A distinct subtype of DM exists that is categorized by cutaneous findings with absent or minimal muscle involvement, referred to as clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis or dermatomyositis sine myositis. A variety of topical, immunosuppressive, and immunomodulatory therapies have been utilized to treat cutaneous DM. The advent of biological agents including tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists, intravenous immunoglobulin, rituximab, and others has allowed for the use of these agents with varying degrees of success for the treatment of cutaneous DM.

  3. Cutaneous lesions in new born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdeva Meenakshi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred unselected newborn babies delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II of SGBT Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar during April 2000 to October 2000 were examined for cutaneous lesions daily for the first five days after birth. Different cutaneous lesions were seen in 474(94. 8% newborns. The physiological skin changes observed in order of frequency were Epstein pearls in 305(61%, Mongolian spot in 301(60. 2%, superficial cutaneous desquamation in 200(40%, icterus in 128(25. 6%, milia in 119(23. 8%, sebaceous gland hyperplasia in 107 (21. 4%, occipital alopecia in 94(18. 8%, lanugo in 72(14. 4%, peripheral cyanosis in 47(9. 4%, breast hypertrophy in 29(5. 8% and miniature puberty in 28(5. 6% newborns. Of the transient non-infective skin diseases, erythema toxicum neonatorum was observed most commonly in 105(21 %, followed by miliaria rubra in 103(20. 6% and acne neonatorum in 27(5. 4% newborns. The naevi and other developmental defects in the descending order were salmon patch in 69(13. 8%, congenital melanocytic noevi in 10(2%, accessory tragi in 3(0.6%, spina bifida in 2(0.4%, hydrocephalus in 1(0.2% and poliosis in 1(0.2% newborns. Cradle cap was the only dermatitis observed in 50(10% newborns. One (0.2% case each of Harlequin ichthyosis and labial cyst was seen.

  4. Many faces of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bari Arfan Ul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is known for its clinical diversity and increasing numbers of new and rare variants of the disease are being reported these days. Aim: The aim of this descriptive study was to look for and report the atypical presentations of this common disease occurring in Pakistan. Methods: The study was carried out in three hospitals (MH, Rawalpindi; PAF Hospital, Sargodha; and CMH, Muzaffarabad from 2002 to 2006. Military and civilian patients of all ages, both males and females, belonging to central and north Punjab province and Kashmir were included in the study. Clinical as well as parasitological features of cutaneous leishmaniasis were studied. The unusual lesions were photographed and categorized accordingly using simple descriptive statistics. Results: Out of 718 patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis, 41 (5.7% had unusual presentations. The commonest among unusual morphologies was lupoid leishmaniasis 14 (34.1%, followed by sporotrichoid 5 (12.1%, paronychial 3 (7.3%, lid leishmaniasis 2 (4.9%, psoriasiform 2 (4.9%, mycetoma-like 2 (4.9%, erysipeloid 2 (4.9%, chancriform 2 (4.9%, whitlow 1 (2.4%, scar leishmaniasis 1 (2.4%, DLE-like 1 (2.4%, ′squamous cell carcinoma′-like 1 (2.4%, zosteriform 1 (2.4%, eczematous 1 (2.4%, verrucous 1 (2.4%, palmar/plantar 1 (2.4% and mucocutaneous 1 (2.4%. Conclusion: In Pakistan, an endemic country for CL, the possibility of CL should be kept in mind while diagnosing common dermatological diseases like erysipelas, chronic eczema, herpes zoster, paronychia; and uncommon disorders like lupus vulgaris, squamous cell carcinoma, sporotrichosis, mycetoma and other deep mycoses.

  5. Four experimental stimulants found in sports and weight loss supplements: 2-amino-6-methylheptane (octodrine), 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA), 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) and 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (1,3-DMBA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Pieter A; Travis, John C; Keizers, Peter H J; Deuster, Patricia; Venhuis, Bastiaan J

    2017-11-08

    The United States Food and Drug Administration banned the stimulant 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) from dietary supplements and warned consumers that the stimulant can pose cardiovascular risks ranging from high blood pressure to heart attacks. We designed our study to determine if a new stimulant similar in structure to 1,3-DMAA has been introduced as an ingredient in supplements sold in the United States (US). We analyzed six brands of supplements that listed an ingredient on the label (e.g., Aconitum kusnezoffii, DMHA or 2-amino-isoheptane) that might refer to an analog of 1,3-DMAA. Supplements were analyzed by two separate laboratories using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and reference standards. Two previously unidentified 1,3-DMAA analogs (2-amino-6-methylheptane [octodrine] and 1,4-dimethylamylamine [1,4-DMAA]) and two banned stimulants (1,3-DMAA and 1,3-dimethylbutylamine [1,3-DMBA]) were identified. Octodrine was found at a dose (±95% CI) of 72 ± 7.5 mg per serving. In Europe, octodrine was previously sold as a pharmaceutical in multi-ingredient medications at dosages from 8 to 33 mg. The quantity of octodrine found in our study was more than twice the largest pharmaceutical dose. The other new stimulant, 1,4-DMAA, has not previously been approved for human consumption, and its safety in humans is unknown. 1,4-DMAA was found at dosages between 21 ± 11 mg to 94 ± 48 mg per serving. In addition, two banned stimulants - 1,3-DMAA and 1,3-DMBA - were also identified: 24 ± 7.6 mg to 35 ± 11 mg of 1,3-DMAA and 51 ± 16 mg of 1,3-DMBA. In one product, 24 ± 7.6 mg of 1,3-DMAA was combined with 21 ± 11 mg of 1,4-DMAA. 1,3-DMAA has been investigated as potentially contributing to hemorrhagic strokes and sudden death, whereas the safety of 1,3-DMBA in humans is unknown. Two banned stimulants (1,3-DMAA and 1,3-DMBA) and two previously unidentified stimulants (1,4-DMAA and

  6. Cutaneous manifestations of chikungunya fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetharam, K A; Sridevi, K; Vidyasagar, P

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya fever, a re-emerging RNA viral infection produces different cutaneous manifestations in children compared to adults. 52 children with chikungunya fever, confirmed by positive IgM antibody test were seen during 2009-2010. Pigmentary lesions were common (27/52) followed by vesiculobullous lesions (16/52) and maculopapular lesions (14/52). Vesiculobullous lesions were most common in infants, although rarely reported in adults. Psoriasis was exacerbated in 4 children resulting in more severe forms. In 2 children, guttate psoriasis was observed for the first time.

  7. Brachytherapy in cutaneous periocular tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petriz, L.; Sole, J.M.; Cinos, C.; Gutierrez, Bayard L.; Gutierrez, Miguelez C.; Rodriguez, D.

    1996-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous tumors are treated surgically or with radiotherapy. Similar local control and disease-free survival are been reported using the two arms mentioned. In cutaneous periocular tumors, surgery represents an anatomical and irreversible deformity in contrast from radiation therapy that preserves anatomical sites MATERIAL AND METHODS: From June 1993 to December 1995, 6 patients with cutaneous periocular tumors (1 dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, 1 squamous carcinoma and 4 basal cell carcinoma) have been treated with radical brachytherapy in CSUB. This tumors were located in epicantus (3 cases), superior eyelid (1 case) and free bord of inferior eyelid (2 cases). The technique used consists in interstitial application of plastic tubs and manual loading with iridium-192. Two wires were used in eyelid lesions (3 cases) and 3 wires when lesion was located in epicantus (except one patient who needed 11). Four patients received brachytherapy for primary tumors and two patients for local relapse after surgical management who previously had been treated with electron beam (42 Gy and 60 Gy with lent protection). Doses were especified to 85% isodoses (Paris system) except one case (isodose 70%) and they were 60 Gy (one patient) and 65 Gy (five patients). Lineal activity ranged from 5.21 to 7.99 cGy/h (medium 6.3 cGy/h) and duration treatment were between 30.77 h and 77.66 h. Only one patient used an ocular lent protector at time of brachytherapy. Follow-up was 2, 2, 6, 9, 10 and 27 months. RESULTS: During the treatment, all patients presented local hematoma and conjuntivitis that resolved with topical treatment. Acromy and telangiectassia have been seen in only one patient who received electron beam therapy previously. Lost of eyelashes were seen in two patients treated for parpebral lesions. None cataractas and lacrimal obstruction are reported. Five patients are live and well whitout disease and one patient died from intercurrent disease with local

  8. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bagherani

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nThis case report states a 25-year-old woman, residing in the city of Dezfool, Khuzestan Province, south of Iran with the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in June 2008. Her skin lesion had de­veloped from 8 months earlier as a nodule on her left arm, 1×3 cm in diameter. Because of sever­ity of the lesion, we prescribed meglumine antimoniate intralesionally with giving up her breast feeding. After 6 months follow-up, no recurrence was seen.

  9. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in newly diagnosed HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Soza, Gabriela M.; Patel, Mahir; Readinger, Allison; Ryan, Caitriona

    2016-01-01

    We present a woman with a widespread severe papulopustular eruption, fever, and fatigue of 5 weeks' duration. HIV infection was diagnosed, with an absolute CD4+ count of 3 cells/µL. The eruption was consistent with disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis. The clinical manifestations and management of cutaneous histoplasmosis are reviewed.

  10. Fixed Cutaneous Sporotrichosis Masquerading As Lupus Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar B C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is reported to be rare in India. Fixed cutaneous variety is the most pleomorphic type of sporotrichosis and it may mimick several other dermatoses resulting in difficulty in making a correct diagnosis. Here we are reporting a case of fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis which resembled lupus vulgaris both clinically and histopathologically.

  11. Cutaneous Microembolism of Fingers and Toes

    OpenAIRE

    Uwe Wollina; André Koch; Birgit Heinig; Georgi Tchernev; Torello Lotti

    2018-01-01

    A macro vascular embolism is a well-known emergency. In contrast, cutaneous microembolism is a lesser known symptom. However, cutaneous microembolism of fingers and toes is a red flag symptom for vascular emergencies. The underlying cause may involve infectious, immunological, metabolic and physical disorders, coagulation disorders and malignancies. Early recognition can help to live safe.

  12. Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions of Chinese inpatients: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qiancheng; Fang, Xia; Zeng, Qinghai; Lu, Jianyun; Jing, Chen; Huang, Jinhua

    2017-01-01

    The rate of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions is low, and these reactions can result in death or disability. An evidence-based epidemiological study of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions in China has not been reported. The aim of this study was to analyze epidemiology and characteristics of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions of Chinese inpatients during the recent 15 years with meta-analysis. We retrospectively reviewed Chinese literature reporting severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions and collecting data from 2000 to 2015, which were in accordance with our inclusion criteria. All included data were analyzed with the Launch Open Meta-Analyst software. Twenty-five articles involving 928 cases with severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions were included. Men to women ratio was 1.14:1. Twenty-one per cent of the patients had drug allergy history. Antibiotics (26.0%), sedative hypnotics and anticonvulsants (21.6%), and antipyretic analgesics (17.1%) were the most common causative drugs. The most frequent clinical subtype was Stevens-Johnson syndrome (50.1%), followed by toxic epidermal necrolysis (25.4%), exfoliative dermatitis (21.0%) and drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (1.6%). In addition to skin rashes, patients with severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions suffered mostly from fever (73%), and blood routine abnormality (66.7%). This meta-analysis is limited by its retrospective design and by its methodological variation. The most common causative drugs were antibiotics and sedative hypnotics and anticonvulsants. Stevens-Johnson syndrome was the most frequent clinical subtype of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions. In addition to skin rashes, patients with severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions suffered mostly from fever, mucosal lesion, and hematologic abnormalities.

  13. Cutaneous sporotrichosis: Unusual clinical presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan Vikram

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three unusual clinical forms of sporotrichosis described in this paper will be a primer for the clinicians for an early diagnosis and treatment, especially in its unusual presentations. Case 1, a 52-year-old man, developed sporotrichosis over pre-existing facial nodulo-ulcerative basal cell carcinoma of seven-year duration, due to its contamination perhaps from topical herbal pastes and lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis over right hand/forearm from facial lesion/herbal paste. Case 2, a 25-year-old woman, presented with disseminated systemic-cutaneous, osteoarticular and possibly pleural (effusion sporotrichosis. There was no laboratory evidence of tuberculosis and treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs (ATT did not benefit. Both these cases were diagnosed by histopathology/culture of S. schenckii from tissue specimens. Case 3, a 20-year-old girl, had multiple intensely pruritic, nodular lesions over/around left knee of two-year duration. She was diagnosed clinically as a case of prurigo nodularis and histologically as cutaneous tuberculosis, albeit, other laboratory investigations and treatment with ATT did not support the diagnosis. All the three patients responded well to saturated solution of potassium iodide (SSKI therapy. A high clinical suspicion is important in early diagnosis and treatment to prevent chronicity and morbidity in these patients. SSKI is fairly safe and effective when itraconazole is not affordable/ available.

  14. Cutaneous signs of classical dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriemma, M; Capo, A; Meogrossi, G; Amerio, P

    2014-10-01

    Idiopathic immune myopathies (IIM) are an heterogeneous group of autoimmune muscle disorders characterized by progressive muscle involvement. Dermatomyositis (DM) is the most common form of IIM. It is a multisystem disorder characterized by symmetric proximal, extensor, inflammatory myopathy, vascular involvement and a characteristic cutaneous eruption. Six types of DM have been identified: idiopathic, juvenile (JDM), cancer-related other autoimmune diseases-related, iatrogenic DM and amyopathic DM. Cutaneous manifestations of DM are the most important aspect of this disease and can precede from several months to years muscle or systemic involvement. Three groups of signs have been described: pathognomonic, highly characteristic and compatible. Although differences exist among the different clinical presentation of skin lesions, they share common histological findings including the presence of interface dermatitis with epidermal atrophy, basement membrane degeneration, vacuolar alteration of basal keratinocytes, and dermal changes consisting of interstitial mucin deposition and a sparse lymphocytic infiltrate. DM is a serious disease; the correct evaluation of any skin lesion suggesting an early diagnosis is of utmost importance. Skin signs may, also, represent a marker of treatment efficacy even though systemic symptoms worsening may not always be followed by more severe skin lesions.

  15. [Cutaneous mastocytosis: A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegpi-Trueba, María Soledad; Hasbún-Acuña, Paula; Berroeta-Mauriziano, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Mastocytosis represents a group of diseases characterised by an excesive accumulation of mastocytes in one or multiple tissues. It can affect only the skin, or have a systemic involvement. It has a low prevalence, and the prognosis is benign in children. To report a case of urticaria pigmentosa as a subtype of cutaneous mastocytosis, and present a literature review focused on clinical findings, diagnosis and initial basic management. A child of six months of age presenting with multiple blemishes and light brown papules located on the trunk, arms and legs. The symptoms were compatible with urticaria pigmentosa, and was confirmed by biopsy. Tests to rule out systemic involvement were requested. The patient was treated with general measures, education, and antihistamines, with favourable results. Cutaneous mastocytosis is a rare disease with a good prognosis. In childhood general measures and education are usually enough to obtain favourable results. Histamine H1 antagonists are the first line drug treatment. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. BAP1 PLAYS A SURVIVAL ROLE IN CUTANEOUS MELANOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Taylor, Michael; Miao, Benchun; Ji, Zhenyu; Njauw, Jenny Ching-Ni; Jönsson, Göran; Frederick, Dennie Tompers; Tsao, Hensin

    2014-01-01

    Although the pattern of BAP1 inactivation in ocular melanoma specimens and in the BAP1 cutaneous/ocular melanoma (CM/OM) predisposition syndrome suggests a tumor suppressor function, the specific role of this gene in the pathogenesis of cutaneous melanoma is not fully understood. We thus set out to characterize BAP1 in cutaneous melanoma and discovered an unexpected pro-survival effect of this protein. Tissue and cell lines analysis showed that BAP1 expression was maintained, rather than lost, in primary melanomas compared to nevi and normal skin. Genetic depletion of BAP1 in melanoma cells reduced proliferation and colony forming capability, induced apoptosis and inhibited melanoma tumor growth in vivo. On the molecular level, suppression of BAP1 led to a concomitant drop in the protein levels of survivin a member of anti-apoptotic proteins and a known mediator of melanoma survival. Restoration of survivin in melanoma cells partially rescued the growth-retarding effects of BAP1 loss. In contrast to melanoma cells, stable overexpression of BAP1 into immortalized but non-transformed melanocytes did suppress proliferation and reduce survivin. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that BAP1 may play a growth-sustaining role in melanoma cells, but that its impact on ubiquitination underpins a complex physiology which is context and cell dependent. PMID:25521456

  17. Immunohistopathological Findings of Severe Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Orime

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions should involve immunohistopathological examination, which gives insight into the pathomechanisms of these disorders. The characteristic histological findings of erythema multiforme (EM, Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS, and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN provide conclusive evidence demonstrating that SJS/TEN can be distinguished from EM. Established SJS/TEN shows full-thickness, extensive keratinocyte necrosis that develops into subepidermal bullae. Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS and exanthema in drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS each display a variety of histopathological findings, which may partly correlate with the clinical manifestations. Although the histopathology of DRESS is nonspecific, the association of two or more of the four patterns—eczematous changes, interface dermatitis, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis- (AGEP- like patterns, and EM-like patterns—might appear in a single biopsy specimen, suggesting the diagnosis and severe cutaneous manifestations of DRESS. Cutaneous dendritic cells may be involved in the clinical course. AGEP typically shows spongiform superficial epidermal pustules accompanied with edema of the papillary dermis and abundant mixed perivascular infiltrates. Mutations in IL36RN may have a definite effect on pathological similarities between AGEP and generalized pustular psoriasis.

  18. CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION OF CUTANEOUS TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Babu Chekur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Cutaneous tuberculosis is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is primarily a granulomatous disease. We studied the clinical pathological profile of 42 cases of cutaneous tuberculosis in Osmania General Hospital from December 2010 – October 2012. METHODS A total of 42 cases of cutaneous tuberculosis attending DVL OPD at Osmania General Hospital were studied along with clinical features, age, sex, duration of illness in correlation with Mantoux test and types of cutaneous lesions. RESULTS Out of 42 cases, commonest variant was Lupus vulgaris (38.06%. Majority (37.5% of the cases were in the age group of 21- 30 years. Male preponderance was noted in the study with highest incidence in the low socioeconomic group. The location of cutaneous tuberculosis was high in head and neck region (23.80% and clinically majority of cases were (38.06% found to be Lupus vulgaris variant. CONCLUSIONS Among the various types of cutaneous tuberculosis, Lupus vulgaris is the commonest variant followed by scrofuloderma in the study population. The other variants like Tuberculosis verrucosa cutis accounted to 19.04% of the study cases. A small percentage were contributed by Lichen scrofulosorum (2.38% and Papulonecrotic tuberculids (2.38% respectively. Lupus vulgaris was the most common histopathological variant. Most of the components of cutaneous tuberculosis on histopathology exhibited hyperkeratosis, hyperplasia, pseudoepitheliomatous changes; lymphocytic dermal infiltrate, epithelioid cell granulomas in the dermis, vasculitis changes in the dermis with changes of septal or lobular panniculitis.

  19. Cutaneous findings in five cases of malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignesh B Vaishnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. Cutaneous lesions in malaria are rarely reported and include urticaria, angioedema, petechiae, purpura, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. Here, five malaria cases associated with cutaneous lesions have been described. Out of the five cases of malaria, two were associated with urticaria and angioedema, one case was associated with urticaria, and other two were associated with reticulated blotchy erythema with petechiae. Most of the cutaneous lesions in malaria were nonspecific and reflected the different immunopathological mechanism in malarial infection.

  20. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  1. Cutaneous manifestations of primary immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Abdelhakim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs are a group of rare, chronic disorders with deficient or malfunctioning immune system. It commonly affects the hematopoietic system, with skin the second most affected organ. Skin involvement is observed in half of pediatric PID cases and often precedes the final diagnosis. Skin infections and eczemas are the two most common manifestations in PID.[1] Skin manifestations associated with PIDs can be of infectious and noninfectious causes. Common noninfectious causes are eczema, erythroderma, cutaneous granulomas, dysplasia, vasculitis, and telangiectasia. It is important to be aware of skin manifestations in pediatric patients as early detection of PID may aid in the management of serious immunologic conditions and prevent associated morbidity and mortality.

  2. Histopathological development of equine cutaneous papillomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, M; Oyamada, T; Yoshikawa, H; Yoshikawa, T; Itakura, C

    1990-05-01

    The histopathological development of equine cutaneous papillomas was studied in 78 warts naturally occurring in 50 one to 3-year-old Thoroughbred or Arab horses and in 54 warts experimentally induced in three 2-year-old Thoroughbreds. Lesions in the natural cases were categorized into three phases, growth, development and regression. Main lesions of the growing phase were marked hyperplasia of the basal cells and mild to moderate acanthosis, hyper- and parakeratosis with a few intranuclear inclusion bodies (IIB) which were positive with anti-bovine papillomavirus serum. In the developing phase, there was prominent acanthosis with cellular swelling and fusion, and marked hyper- and parakeratosis. Many IIB were also present in swollen or degenerative prickle cells and granular cells, with a high degree of parakeratosis in keratinocytes. In the regressing phase, epidermal layers were almost normal with only slight hyperplastic change. However, there was rete peg proliferation downward into the dermis with moderate proliferation of fibroblasts and collagen fibres. In addition, in 10 spontaneous and one experimental wart, the lesions were fibropapillomas and this has never been described in horses previously. It was concluded that papillomas were initiated by basal cell hyperplasia without viral antigen production, with formation of acanthosis and hyper- and parakeratosis with IIB production. These findings were confirmed by examination of the experimental cases on the basis of the gross diameter of the warts.

  3. Functional assessment of cutaneous microvasculature after radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, C.; Durand, R.; Grulkey, W.; Sayer, S.; Olivotto, I.

    1999-01-01

    Background and purpose: To determine if laser Doppler flowmetry could be used to non-invasively evaluate microvasculature function after radiation therapy (RT), we assessed blood flow response to heating in women following RT after breast conservation.Materials and methods: Forty women with unilateral stage I/II breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and RT were evaluated at varying intervals post RT. Ten patients were retested after an interval of 55 to 57 months to assess reproducibility of the control data. A laser Doppler probe fitted into a heat source was used to non-invasively measure blood flow in a small area of skin on the treated breast and a matched area on the untreated side. The heating element increased skin surface temperature to 40C, permitting assessment of heat stress induced changes in blood flow.Results36 months post RT, there was no significant difference seen in relative blood flow between the irradiated and non-irradiated sides. Cutaneous blood flow response to the heat stress was very reproducible when women were reassessed 55 to 57 months after initial testing.Conclusions 36 months post RT. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with previously undiagnosed HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kenneth; Tee, Shang-Ian; Ho, Madeline S L; Pan, Jiun Yit

    2015-08-01

    Protothecosis is an uncommon condition resulting from infection by achlorophyllous algae of the Prototheca species. Immunocompromised individuals are generally most susceptible to protothecal infection and tend to develop severe and disseminated disease. However, the association between protothecosis and HIV-induced immunosuppression is not clear, with only a handful of cases having been described to date. Here we report a case of cutaneous protothecosis in a Chinese man with previously undiagnosed HIV infection that responded well to oral itraconazole. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  5. Cytotoxic T cells mediate pathology and metastasis in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda O Novais

    Full Text Available Disease progression in response to infection can be strongly influenced by both pathogen burden and infection-induced immunopathology. While current therapeutics focus on augmenting protective immune responses, identifying therapeutics that reduce infection-induced immunopathology are clearly warranted. Despite the apparent protective role for murine CD8⁺ T cells following infection with the intracellular parasite Leishmania, CD8⁺ T cells have been paradoxically linked to immunopathological responses in human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Transcriptome analysis of lesions from Leishmania braziliensis patients revealed that genes associated with the cytolytic pathway are highly expressed and CD8⁺ T cells from lesions exhibited a cytolytic phenotype. To determine if CD8⁺ T cells play a causal role in disease, we turned to a murine model. These studies revealed that disease progression and metastasis in L. braziliensis infected mice was independent of parasite burden and was instead directly associated with the presence of CD8⁺ T cells. In mice with severe pathology, we visualized CD8⁺ T cell degranulation and lysis of L. braziliensis infected cells. Finally, in contrast to wild-type CD8⁺ T cells, perforin-deficient cells failed to induce disease. Thus, we show for the first time that cytolytic CD8⁺ T cells mediate immunopathology and drive the development of metastatic lesions in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  6. IL-22 Protects against Tissue Damage during Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara Gimblet

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease characterized by ulcerating skin lesions, the resolution of which requires an effective, but regulated, immune response that limits parasite growth without causing permanent tissue damage. While mechanisms that control the parasites have been well studied, the factors regulating immunopathologic responses are less well understood. IL-22, a member of the IL-10 family of cytokines, can contribute to wound healing, but in other instances promotes pathology. Here we investigated the role of IL-22 during leishmania infection, and found that IL-22 limits leishmania-induced pathology when a certain threshold of damage is induced by a high dose of parasites. Il22-/- mice developed more severe disease than wild-type mice, with significantly more pathology at the site of infection, and in some cases permanent loss of tissue. The increased inflammation was not due to an increased parasite burden, but rather was associated with the loss of a wound healing phenotype in keratinocytes. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that during cutaneous leishmaniasis, IL-22 can play a previously unappreciated role in controlling leishmania-induced immunopathology.

  7. [Case report: disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancheno-Valencia, Alexandra; Cabezas-Arteaga, Julia; Sacoto-Aizaga, Ketty; Arenas-Guzmáno, Roberto

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified leishmaniasis as an uncontrolled and emerging disease. In Ecuador, the only anecdotal cases of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded in 1994 and have not been formally published. This form can be differentiated from classical localized cutaneous leishmaniasis by the number of injuries, the clinical type of the main elementary lesions (papular and acneform), and a weak response to standard treatments. The case we report is a 34-year-old woman who presented with disseminated nodular lesions and ulcers of various sizes with erythematous edges and scars. We report the case and review diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis and the differences that can be found with the other cutaneous variants. The diagnosis requires to be considered by primary care physicians in endemic areas and specialists, taking into account that this presentation can also occur in immunocompetent hosts.

  8. Follicular infundibulum tumour presenting as cutaneous horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraman M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour of follicular infundibulum is an organoid tumour with a plate like growth attached to the epidermis with connection from the follicular epithelium. We are reporting such a case unusually presenting as cutaneous horn.

  9. Dynamics of parasite clearance in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients treated with miltefosine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorlo, Thomas P. C.; van Thiel, Pieter P. A. M.; Schoone, Gerard J.; Stienstra, Ymkje; van Vugt, Michèle; Beijnen, Jos H.; de Vries, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Parasite loads were quantified in repeated skin biopsies from lesions of 2 patients with Old-World cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania major and L. infantum during and after treatment with miltefosine. Miltefosine induced a rapid therapeutic effect on both infections with an initial

  10. Inhibition of motoneurons during the cutaneous silent period in the spinal cord of the turtle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzulaitis, Robertas; Hounsgaard, Jørn Dybkjær; Alaburda, Aidas

    2012-01-01

    motoneurons in the isolated carapace-spinal cord preparation from adult turtles during rhythmic scratch-like reflex. Electrical stimulation of cutaneous nerves induced CSP-like suppression of motor nerve firing during rhythmic network activity. The stimulus that generated the CSP-like suppression of motor...

  11. Histological Types of Polypoid Cutaneous Melanoma II

    OpenAIRE

    Knežević, Fabijan; Duančić, Vjekoslav; Šitić, Sanda; Horvat-Knežević, Anica; Benković, Vesna; Ramić, Snježana; Kostović, Krešimir; Ramljak, Vesna; Velemir Vrdoljak, Danko; Stanec, Mladen; Božović, Angelina

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain which histological types of melanoma can clinically and morphologically appear as polypoid melanomas. In 645 cases of primary cutaneous melanoma we have analyzed criteria for diagnosis of polypoid cutaneous melanoma and afterwards we have analyzed growth phase in each polypoid melanoma, histological type of atypical melanocytes, the number of epidermal ridges which are occupied by atypical melanocytes, and distribution according to age, sex a...

  12. Secondary Cutaneous Amyloidosis Associated with Mycosis Fungoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-16

    and has been reported with PUVA use. To date, there are three reported cases of secondary localized cutaneous amyloidosis associated with mycosis...Secondary localized cutaneous amyloidosis is often not clinically apparent , but may be seen histologically. It is associated with several skin tumors...fungoides prior to any treatment. We present a case of a 39-year-old female who presented to the dermatology clinic for evaluation of facial acne

  13. Study of cutaneous manifestations in geriatrics

    OpenAIRE

    Shashikant B. Dhumale; Rajesh Khyalappa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous signs and symptoms increases as the age advances. These are physiological as well as pathological changes. They can be due to systemic diseases present in old age. Methods: All the 200 geriatric patients have cutaneous manifestations. Results: Pruritus, eczema, stasis eczema, fungal infections were common. Diabetes was found in large incidence i.e. 27.5%, which show certain skin manifestations like pruritus, skin tag etc. Conclusions: Poor hygiene and systemic ...

  14. Cutaneous Sensibility Changes in Bell's Palsy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas Palacio, Carlos Andrés; Múnera Galarza, Francisco Alejandro

    2017-05-01

    Objective Bell's palsy is a cranial nerve VII dysfunction that renders the patient unable to control facial muscles from the affected side. Nevertheless, some patients have reported cutaneous changes in the paretic area. Therefore, cutaneous sensibility changes might be possible additional symptoms within the clinical presentation of this disorder. Accordingly, the aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between cutaneous sensibility and facial paralysis severity in these patients. Study Design Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Settings Tertiary care medical center. Subjects and Methods Twelve acute-onset Bell's palsy patients were enrolled from March to September 2009. In addition, 12 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers were tested. Cutaneous sensibility was evaluated with pressure threshold and 2-point discrimination at 6 areas of the face. Facial paralysis severity was evaluated with the House-Brackmann scale. Results Statistically significant correlations based on the Spearman's test were found between facial paralysis severity and cutaneous sensitivity on forehead, eyelid, cheek, nose, and lip ( P Bell's palsy patients but not in healthy subjects. Conclusion Such results suggest a possible relationship between the loss of motor control of the face and changes in facial sensory information processing. Such findings are worth further research about the neurophysiologic changes associated with the cutaneous sensibility disturbances of these patients.

  15. Taurine Regulates Mitochondrial Function During 7,12-Dimethyl Benz[a]anthracene Induced Experimental Mammary Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manickam Kalappan Vanitha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was undertaken to determine the modulatory effect of taurine on the liver mitochondrial enzyme system with reference to mitochondrial lipid peroxidation (LPO, antioxidants, major tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, and electron transport chain enzymes during 7,12-dimethyl benz[a]anthracene (DMBA induced breast cancer in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Animals in which breast cancer had been induced by using DMBA (25 mg/kg body weight showed an increase in mitochondrial LPO together with decreases in enzymic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR and glutathione-S-transferase (GST, non-enzymic antioxidants (reduced glutathione (GSH, vitamin C, and vitamin E, in citric acid cycle enzymes (isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH, alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (alpha KDH, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH and malate dehydrogenase (MDH, and in electron transport chain (ETC complexes. Results: Taurine (100 mg/kg body weight treatment decreased liver mitochondrial LPO and augmented the activities/levels of enzymic, and non-enzymic antioxidants, tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes and ETC complexes. Conclusion: The results of our present study demonstrated the chemotherapeutic efficacy of taurine treatment for DMBA-induced breast carcinomas.

  16. Protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in outbred vervet monkeys using a recombinant histone H1 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masina, Slavica; M Gicheru, Michael; Demotz, Stéphane O; Fasel, Nicolas J

    2003-10-15

    Infection with Leishmania major parasites results in the development of cutaneous ulcerative lesions on the skin. We investigated the protective potential of a single, recombinant histone H1 antigen against cutaneous leishmaniasis in an outbred population of vervet monkeys, using Montanide adjuvant. Protection was assessed by challenging the animals with a mixture of vector sand fly salivary-gland lysate and a low dose of in vitro-derived parasites, thus more closely mimicking natural infection induced by L. major. The course of infection in immunized monkeys was compared with that of animals that had healed from a primary infection and were immune. The monkeys immunized with recombinant histone H1 showed a reduced development of lesion size, compared with controls. Our study therefore illustrates the potential use of histone H1 as a vaccine candidate against cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans.

  17. Cutaneous expression of systemic candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraz, J; Delgado-Jiménez, Y; Pérez-Gala, S; Nam-Cha, S; Fernández-Herrera, J; García-Diez, A

    2009-01-01

    Skin lesions associated with Candida septicaemia occur only in a minority of patients, who are usually immunocompromised, but they can help to establish a diagnosis rapidly. The lesions form a characteristic maculopapular or nodular rash at the onset of the infection. We report three cases of systemic candidiasis (SC) with cutaneous manifestations in immunocompromised patients. In these patients, the lesions started as asymptomatic or slightly pruriginous macules, papules or nodules localized on the trunk and extremities. The patients' general condition was very poor and they presented a high fever at the onset of the illness. Candida spp. were isolated from blood in all cases, and histology showed yeasts in two of them. Most of the lesions resolved with antifungal treatment. The diagnosis of SC is often delayed or missed because of the absence of useful diagnostic tools, the varying clinical manifestations and the frequent negativity (50-75%) of blood cultures for Candida. Fluconazole is the treatment of choice for Candida albicans, but treatment response is unknown for other Candida spp., which may require treatment with amphotericin B.

  18. Red Mold Rice Mitigates Oral Carcinogenesis in 7,12-Dimethyl-1,2-Benz[a]anthracene-Induced Oral Carcinogenesis in Hamster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruei-Lan Tsai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of oral tumor has exponentially increased in recent years; however, the effective therapies or prevention strategies are not sufficient. Red mold rice is a traditional Chinese food, and several reports have demonstrated that red mold rice had an anti-tumor effect. However, the possible anti-tumor mechanisms of the red mold rice are unclear. In this study, we examined the anti-tumor effect of red mold rice on 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA-induced oral tumor in hamster. The ethanol extract of red mold rice (RMRE treatment significantly decreases the levels of DMBA-induced reactive oxygen species, nitro oxide and prostaglandin E2 than those of the lovastatin-treated group (P < .001. Moreover, RMRE decreases the formation of oral tumor induced by DMBA. Monacolin K, monascin, ankaflavin or other red mold rice metabolites had been reported to decrease inflammation and oxidative stress and exerted anti-tumor effects. Therefore, we evaluated the anti-inflammation and anti-oxidative stress effects of monacolin K, monascin, ankaflavin and citrinin in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 cells. We found that RMRE reduced the LPS-induced nitrite levels in RAW264.7 cells better than monacolin K, monascin, ankaflavin or citrinin (P < .05.

  19. Effect of dietary supplementation on the prognostic value of urinary and serum 8-isoprostaglandin F2α in chemically-induced mammary carcinogenesis in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Białek Sławomir

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of zinc or copper and polyphenolic compounds on the 8-isoprostaglandin F2α concentration in the serum and urine of rats with mammary cancer (adenocarcinoma induced with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]antracene. The research focused on the kinetics of alterations in urinary 8-isoPGF2α at the early stage of carcinogenesis as well as the influence of dietary factors on the process. The impact of selected compounds on the intensity of DMBA - induced carcinogenesis was also assessed. Result and conclusions Administration of DMBA, a compound that inducers mammary tumors in experimental animals, increased the serum and urinary 8-isoPGF2α levels in study rats. In the rat model, diet supplementation with zinc, combined with selected polyphenolic compounds (resveratrol or genistein yielded a statistically significant decrease in the rat serum and urinary biomarker concentration with a simultaneously significant stimulation of carcinogenesis. The results indicate that there is an inverse correlation between the intensity of DMBA-induced carcinogenicity and the level of 8-isoPGF2α in urine and serum of rats.

  20. Effects of chemical carcinogens of hemopoiesis, immunopoiesis and viral oncogenesis. Technical progress report, December 1, 1977--September 30, 1978. [Mechanisms of potentiation of viral leukemogenesis by MMS, benzopyrene, and DMBA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OKunewick, J.P.; Raikow, R.B.; Meredith, R.F.

    1978-10-01

    During the past year we have concentrated on defining the circumstances under which methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), benzo(a) pyrene (BP), and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) interact with Friend virus (FLV) to produce leukemia. The optimum scheduling for each and also the effective dose levels of the chemicals have been partially determined. There are at least three critical factors which govern whether or not a leukemogenic interaction can be shown between the chemical agents and the virus. These are chemical dose, virus dose, and their relative time of administration. The most critical of these is virus dose. The optimum virus dose is that which results in between 25 and 40% incidence of leukemia within 40 days after virus infection when virus is given alone. The chemical carcinogens have a lower dose threshold, below which no significant potentiating effect can be observed. The only upper limit would appear to be acute drug toxicity. The third element, timing, is equally critical and varies according to the chemical. This variation may reflect different mechanisms of action by the chemical agents and/or different pharmacology. Data on the effects of MMS, BP, and DMBA on the immune system have indicated that the viral enhancement is probably not dependent on this function. Further enhancement of the potentiation of viral leukemogenesis was observed using benzo(a)pyrene and caffeine, indicating that the inhibition by caffeine of DNA repair may be an important factor in virus potentiation. (ERB)

  1. Acceleration of cutaneous wound healing by brassinosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Debora; Rathinasabapathy, Thirumurugan; Schmidt, Barbara; Shakarjian, Michael P; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    Brassinosteroids are plant growth hormones involved in cell growth, division, and differentiation. Their effects in animals are largely unknown, although recent studies showed that the anabolic properties of brassinosteroids are possibly mediated through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathway. Here, we examined biological activity of homobrassinolide (HB) and its synthetic analogues in in vitro proliferation and migration assays in murine fibroblast and primary keratinocyte cell culture. HB stimulated fibroblast proliferation and migration and weakly induced keratinocyte proliferation in vitro. The effects of topical HB administration on progression of wound closure were further tested in the mouse model of cutaneous wound healing. C57BL/6J mice were given a full-thickness dermal wound, and the rate of wound closure was assessed daily for 10 days, with adenosine receptor agonist CGS-21680 as a positive control. Topical application of brassinosteroid significantly reduced wound size and accelerated wound healing in treated animals. mRNA levels of transforming growth factor beta and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 were significantly lower, while tumor necrosis factor alpha was nearly suppressed in the wounds from treated mice. Our data suggest that topical application of brassinosteroids accelerates wound healing by positively modulating inflammatory and reepithelialization phases of the wound repair process, in part by enhancing Akt signaling in the skin at the edges of the wound and enhancing migration of fibroblasts in the wounded area. Targeting this signaling pathway with brassinosteroids may represent a promising approach to the therapy of delayed wound healing. © 2013 by the Wound Healing Society.

  2. Selective vascular injury during cutaneous laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnell, James William

    Pulsed laser irradiation in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling (CSC) can induce selective vascular injury to remove cutaneous hypervascular malformations such as port wine stains (PWS), hemangiomas, and facial veins. In this group of studies, we characterized the cryogen heat removal process and determined the effects of pulsed laser irradiation in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling of human skin. First, we employed an inverse heat conduction algorithm to measure the thermal boundary condition due to CSC in in vitro skin phantoms. Second, we developed a mathematical model of laser irradiation in conjunction with CSC in human skin. We determined tissue damage and temperature profiles due to varying combinations of laser pulse duration, radiant exposure, and CSC application times. Finally, we used ex vivo and in vivo human skin to determine the effects of high radiant exposures and CSC on epidermal and vascular injury. CSC induces a dynamic cooling effect, removing heat from the skin both during and following the spurt application time. Residual cryogen, deposited on the skin surface during the cryogen spurt, remains on the skin surface several times as long as the as cryogen spurt itself. The heat removal rate during the cryogen spurt is greatest; however, the total energy removed following the cryogen spurt is also substantial (approximately half as much as during the spurt application time). CSC was effective in protecting the human skin epidermis in light to moderately pigmented skin. Mathematical modeling, ex vivo, and in vivo studies showed that the epidermal damage threshold could be increased by a factor of approximately two. Increased radiant exposures increased the risk of non-selective vascular injury observed in histology as injury to the epidermis and perivascular collagen; however, proper choice of cryogen cooling durations resulted in the elimination of epidermal injury as well as perivascular tissue injury. In addition, higher radiant

  3. Evaluation of abdominal cutaneous sensibility following abdominoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aherrera, Andrew S; Pincus, David J; Vernadakis, Adam J; Pandya, Sonal N

    2015-03-01

    Cutaneous hypesthesia is an undesirable postoperative outcome following abdominoplasty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate postabdominoplasty cutaneous sensibility using clinical, quantitative, and reproducible methods. Thirty patients who underwent abdominoplasty were divided into three groups: 0 to 12 months (short-term follow-up), 12 to 24 months (intermediate-term follow-up), and greater than 24 months (long-term follow-up) following abdominoplasty. Abdominal skin was divided into 12 areas, and superficial tactile sensibility was assessed subjectively using a patient questionnaire and objectively using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments. Statistical analysis was performed using the t test, with significance defined as p ≤ 0.05. Seventeen patients (56.7 percent) subjectively reported the presence of any abdominal cutaneous sensibility change postoperatively. Of those, 82.4 percent reported indifference toward this outcome. The greatest degree of objective sensibility loss was noted in area 8 (infraumbilical), followed by areas 5 (supraumbilical) and 11 (midline infraincisional). In these areas, there were statistically significant decreases in the average cutaneous pressure thresholds between the short-term and intermediate-term follow-up groups, the intermediate-term and long-term follow-up groups, and the short-term and long-term follow-up groups. Postabdominoplasty cutaneous sensibility losses improve over time. These findings may enable plastic surgeons to better inform their patients regarding the risk of sensibility loss and the longitudinal outcome of such changes postoperatively. Therapeutic, IV.

  4. Hepatic dysfunction induced by 7, 12-dimethylbenz(αanthracene and its obviation with erucin using enzymatic and histological changes as indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Arora

    Full Text Available The toxicity induced by 7, 12-dimethylbenz(αanthracene (DMBA has been widely delineated by a number of researchers. This potent chemical damages many internal organs including liver, by inducing the production of reactive oxygen species, DNA-adduct formation and affecting the activities of phase I, II, antioxidant and serum enzymes. Glucosinolate hydrolytic products like isothiocyanates (ITCs are well known for inhibiting the DNA-adduct formation and modulating phase I, II enzymes. Sulforaphane is ITC, currently under phase trials, is readily metabolized and inter-converted into erucin upon ingestion. We isolated erucin from Eruca sativa (Mill. Thell. evaluated its hepatoprotective role in DMBA induced toxicity in male wistar rats. The rats were subjected to hepatic damage by five day regular intraperitoneal doses of DMBA. At the end of the protocol, the rats were euthanized, their blood was collected and livers were processed. The liver homogenate was analyzed for phase I (NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, cytochrome P450, cytochrome P420 and cytochrome b5, phase II (DT diaphorase, glutathione-S-transferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidise, ascorbate peroxidise, glutathione reductase and lactate dehydrogenase. The level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, conjugated dienes and reduced glutathione in the liver homogenate was also analyzed. The serum was also analyzed for markers indicating hepatic damage (alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, direct bilirubin and total bilirubin. Erucin provided significant protection against DMBA induced damage by modulating the phase I, II and antioxidant enzymes. The histological evaluation of liver tissue was also conducted, which showed the hepatoprotective role of erucin.

  5. Long-term dysregulation of circadian and 17-beta estradiol-induced LH, prolactin and corticosterone secretion after dimethylbenz (a) anthracene administration in the Sprague-Dawley female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon de Jonage-Canonico, M Beau; Lenoir, V; Scholler, R; Kerdelhué, B

    2005-07-01

    A single intragastric administration of 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) has been shown, when given at 55-60 days of age, to induce mammary tumors in young cycling female Sprague-Dawley rats. The appearance of the tumors is preceded by a series of neuroendocrine disturbances of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, including attenuation of the preovulatory Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) release and amplification of the preovulatory 17beta-Estradiol (E(2)) surge. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that a single administration of DMBA could also, in the long range, induce disturbances of others neuroendocrine axis, like the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis and/or the Lactotroph axis. Sprague-Dawley rats, 55-60 days of age, received, on the day of Estrous of the Estrous cycle, a single administration of 15 mg of DMBA delivered by intragastric intubation. Then, they were ovariectomized 5 days later. One month later, (1) Two groups of animal were sacrificed by decapitation at 09:00 a.m. and 05:00 p.m. to record the circadian rhythm of plasma LH, Prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone, (2) Three other groups of animal were sacrificed by decapitation at three different times after a morning subcutaneous administration of 50 microg/kg of Estradiol Benzoate (EB), to induce a negative and positive feed-back of the secretion of LH. Then, plasma LH, PRL and corticosterone concentrations were measured. After DMBA administration, (1) the negative--but not the positive--LH feed-back was seen, (2) the PRL circadian rhythm was blunted and the corticosterone circadian rhythm was almost absent, (3) the increase in PRL or Corticosterone plasma concentration was significantly reduced. In conclusion, a single administration of DMBA provokes a long-term dysregulation of not only the HPG axis but also of the lactotroph and HPA axis. These dysregulations, along with the already evidenced long-term inhibition of DMBA upon

  6. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions seen in a tertiary hospital in Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wen Yi; Lee, Chew Kek; Choon, Siew Eng

    2010-07-01

    Adverse drug reactions are most commonly cutaneous in nature. Patterns of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and their causative drugs vary among the different populations previously studied. Our aim is to determine the clinical pattern of drug eruptions and the common drugs implicated, particularly in severe cutaneous ADRs in our population. This study was done by analyzing the database established for all adverse cutaneous drug reactions seen from January 2001 until December 2008. A total of 281 cutaneous ADRs were seen in 280 patients. The most common reaction pattern was maculopapular eruption (111 cases, 39.5%) followed by Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS: 79 cases, 28.1%), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS: 19 cases, 6.8%), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN: 16 cases, 5.7 %), urticaria/angioedema (15 cases, 5.3%) and fixed drug eruptions (15 cases, 5.3%). Antibiotics (38.8%) and anticonvulsants (23.8%) accounted for 62.6% of the 281 cutaneous ADRs seen. Allopurinol was implicated in 39 (13.9%), carbamazepine in 29 (10.3%), phenytoin in 27 (9.6%) and cotrimoxazole in 26 (9.3%) cases. Carbamazepine, allopurinol and cotrimoxazole were the three main causative drugs of SJS/TEN accounting for 24.0%, 18.8% and 12.5% respectively of the 96 cases seen whereas DRESS was mainly caused by allopurinol (10 cases, 52.6%) and phenytoin (3 cases, 15.8%). The reaction patterns and drugs causing cutaneous ADRs in our population are similar to those seen in other countries although we have a much higher proportion of severe cutaneous ADRs probably due to referral bias, different prescribing habit and a higher prevalence of HLA-B*1502 and HLA-B*5801 which are genetic markers for carbamazepine-induced SJS/TEN and allopurinol-induced SJS/TEN/DRESS respectively. The most common reaction pattern seen in our study population was maculopapular eruptions. Antibiotics, anticonvulsants and NSAIDs were the most frequently implicated drug groups. Carbamazepine

  7. Assessment of cutaneous drug delivery using microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreilgaard, Mads

    2002-01-01

    During the last decade microdialysis has been successfully applied to assess cutaneous drug delivery of numerous substances, indicating the large potential for bioequivalence/bioavailability evaluation of topical formulations. The technique has been shown to be minimally invasive and supply...... pharmacokinetic information directly in the target organ for cutaneous drug delivery with high temporal resolution without further intervention with the tissue after implantation. However, there are a few challenges that need to be addressed before microdialysis can be regarded as a generally applicable routine...... technique for cutaneous drug delivery assessments. Firstly, the technique is currently not suitable for sampling of highly lipophilic compounds and, secondly, more studies are desirable for elucidation of the variables associated with the technique to increase reproducibility. The present literature...

  8. Pregnancy-Associated "Cutaneous Type" Pemphigus Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The development of pemphigus, including pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and pemphigus foliaceus, during pregnancy is rare. PV manifests with mucosal and/or cutaneous erosions with flaccid bullae that are histologically characterized by suprabasilar acantholysis. In contrast, pemphigus foliaceus manifests with cutaneous-only involvement and superficial epidermal acantholysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific for autoantibodies against desmoglein 1 and desmoglein 3 aids in the diagnosis and differentiation between pemphigus subtypes. High-dose systemic corticosteroids are first-line agents in management of PV, yet their potential long-term use raises complex management issues associated with pregnancy and fetal risk. Here we report a rare case of cutaneous-limited PV in association with pregnancy.

  9. Cutaneous mucormycosis in advanced HIV disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moreira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Angionvasive mucormycosis is an emerging fungal disease known to affect mainly diabetics or subjects with profound neutropenia. Infection usually occurs through the inhalation route, but cutaneous inoculation may occur after trauma or burns. However, mucormycosis remains unusual in HIV infection. We report a fatal case of cutaneous mucormycosis due to Rhizopus arrhizus involving the scalp following herpes zoster infection. The patient was a 42-year-old man with advanced AIDS failing on salvage antiretroviral therapy. The fungus was diagnosed on the basis of histopathology and culture. Our case emphasizes the need to consider mucormycosis in the differential diagnosis of necrotic cutaneous lesions in patients with late-stage HIV disease.

  10. Creation of a virtual cutaneous tissue bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFramboise, William A.; Shah, Sujal; Hoy, R. W.; Letbetter, D.; Petrosko, P.; Vennare, R.; Johnson, Peter C.

    2000-04-01

    Cellular and non-cellular constituents of skin contain fundamental morphometric features and structural patterns that correlate with tissue function. High resolution digital image acquisitions performed using an automated system and proprietary software to assemble adjacent images and create a contiguous, lossless, digital representation of individual microscope slide specimens. Serial extraction, evaluation and statistical analysis of cutaneous feature is performed utilizing an automated analysis system, to derive normal cutaneous parameters comprising essential structural skin components. Automated digital cutaneous analysis allows for fast extraction of microanatomic dat with accuracy approximating manual measurement. The process provides rapid assessment of feature both within individual specimens and across sample populations. The images, component data, and statistical analysis comprise a bioinformatics database to serve as an architectural blueprint for skin tissue engineering and as a diagnostic standard of comparison for pathologic specimens.

  11. Modern radiation therapy for primary cutaneous lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Illidge, Tim

    2015-01-01

    , either as the sole treatment or as part of a multimodality approach. Radiation therapy of primary cutaneous lymphomas requires the use of special techniques that form the focus of these guidelines. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group has developed these guidelines after multinational...... meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group steering committee on the use of radiation therapy in primary cutaneous lymphomas in the modern era.......Primary cutaneous lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of diseases. They often remain localized, and they generally have a more indolent course and a better prognosis than lymphomas in other locations. They are highly radiosensitive, and radiation therapy is an important part of the treatment...

  12. Cutaneous Manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uva, Luís; Miguel, Diana; Pinheiro, Catarina; Freitas, João Pedro; Marques Gomes, Manuel; Filipe, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multiorgan autoimmune disease of unknown etiology with many clinical manifestations. The skin is one of the target organs most variably affected by the disease. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) established 11 criteria as a classificatory instrument to operationalise the definition of SLE in clinical trials. They were not intended to be used to diagnose individuals and do not do well in that capacity. Cutaneous lesions account for four of these 11 revised criteria of SLE. Skin lesions in patients with lupus may be specific or nonspecific. This paper covers the SLE-specific cutaneous changes: malar rash, discoid rash, photosensitivity, and oral mucosal lesions as well as SLE nonspecific skin manifestations, their pathophysiology, and management. A deeper thorough understanding of the cutaneous manifestations of SLE is essential for diagnosis, prognosis, and efficient management. Thus, dermatologists should cooperate with other specialties to provide optimal care of SLE patient. PMID:22888407

  13. Cutaneous Manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Uva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multiorgan autoimmune disease of unknown etiology with many clinical manifestations. The skin is one of the target organs most variably affected by the disease. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR established 11 criteria as a classificatory instrument to operationalise the definition of SLE in clinical trials. They were not intended to be used to diagnose individuals and do not do well in that capacity. Cutaneous lesions account for four of these 11 revised criteria of SLE. Skin lesions in patients with lupus may be specific or nonspecific. This paper covers the SLE-specific cutaneous changes: malar rash, discoid rash, photosensitivity, and oral mucosal lesions as well as SLE nonspecific skin manifestations, their pathophysiology, and management. A deeper thorough understanding of the cutaneous manifestations of SLE is essential for diagnosis, prognosis, and efficient management. Thus, dermatologists should cooperate with other specialties to provide optimal care of SLE patient.

  14. Cutaneous manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uva, Luís; Miguel, Diana; Pinheiro, Catarina; Freitas, João Pedro; Marques Gomes, Manuel; Filipe, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multiorgan autoimmune disease of unknown etiology with many clinical manifestations. The skin is one of the target organs most variably affected by the disease. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) established 11 criteria as a classificatory instrument to operationalise the definition of SLE in clinical trials. They were not intended to be used to diagnose individuals and do not do well in that capacity. Cutaneous lesions account for four of these 11 revised criteria of SLE. Skin lesions in patients with lupus may be specific or nonspecific. This paper covers the SLE-specific cutaneous changes: malar rash, discoid rash, photosensitivity, and oral mucosal lesions as well as SLE nonspecific skin manifestations, their pathophysiology, and management. A deeper thorough understanding of the cutaneous manifestations of SLE is essential for diagnosis, prognosis, and efficient management. Thus, dermatologists should cooperate with other specialties to provide optimal care of SLE patient.

  15. Cutaneous sarcoidosis: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Suparna M, Joshi Shivani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a Greek word (Sarco means flesh and Eido means type or like. Cutaneous sarcoidosis occurs in up to one third of patients with systemic sarcoidosis. This disease is characterised by the presence of non – caseating epitheloid cell granulomas in the skin. Cutaneous sarcoidosis presents as a diagnostic challenge to the dermatopathologists due to its varied presentations and almost identical histologic pictures. Hence, exclusion of infectious causes and compatibility with clinical and radiologic picture serve as significant criteria to come up to a diagnosis. Sometimes; skin lesions are the first manifestation of systemic sarcoidosis. This is not a contagious or allergic disease. There is a risk of development of systemic manifestations at a later date; for which a close follow up is a must. We are presenting a case of cutaneous sarcoidosis, which later on progress to sarcoidosis with systemic manifestations.

  16. Cutaneous mechanisms of isometric ankle force control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Leukel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The sense of force is critical in the control of movement and posture. Multiple factors influence our perception of exerted force, including inputs from cutaneous afferents, muscle afferents and central commands. Here, we studied the influence of cutaneous feedback on the control of ankle force...... output. We used repetitive electrical stimulation of the superficial peroneal (foot dorsum) and medial plantar nerves (foot sole) to disrupt cutaneous afferent input in 8 healthy subjects. We measured the effects of repetitive nerve stimulation on (1) tactile thresholds, (2) performance in an ankle force......-matching and (3) an ankle position-matching task. Additional force-matching experiments were done to compare the effects of transient versus continuous stimulation in 6 subjects and to determine the effects of foot anesthesia using lidocaine in another 6 subjects. The results showed that stimulation decreased...

  17. Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus presenting as poikiloderma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hughes, R

    2012-02-01

    Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) is a recognised variant of lupus erythematosus (LE), which accounts for 10-15% of all cases of cutaneous LE, occurring most commonly in young to middle-aged white women. Diagnosis is based on the detection of anti-Ro\\/SS-A antibodies in the skin and serum, characteristic clinical and histological cutaneous involvement, and relatively mild systemic involvement. Several unusual variants of SCLE have been reported including erythrodermic SCLE, SCLE with vitiligo-like lesions, acral SCLE and bullous SCLE. Poikoilodermatous SCLE is a recognised but rare variant of SCLE. There are currently only two case reports, comprising five individual cases, in the literature. We present a case of SCLE in which the main clinical findings were an extensive photodistributed poikilodermatous rash and alopecia.

  18. Modulation of antioxidant potential in liver of mice by kernel oil of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) and its lack of tumour promoting ability in DMBA induced skin papillomagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bimala; Kale, R K; Rao, A R

    2004-04-01

    Cashew nut shell oil has been reported to possess tumour promoting property. Therefore an attempt has been made to study the modulatory effect of cashew nut (Anlacardium occidentale) kernel oil on antioxidant potential in liver of Swiss albino mice and also to see whether it has tumour promoting ability like the shell oil. The animals were treated orally with two doses (50 and 100 microl/animal/day) of kernel oil of cashew nut for 10 days. The kernel oil was found to enhance the specific activities of SOD, catalase, GST, methylglyoxalase I and levels of GSH. These results suggested that cashew nut kernel oil had an ability to increase the antioxidant status of animals. The decreased level of lipid peroxidation supported this possibility. The tumour promoting property of the kernel oil was also examined and found that cashew nut kernel oil did not exhibit any solitary carcinogenic activity.

  19. Suppression of neutrophil accumulation in mice by cutaneous application of geranium essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshima Haruyuki

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies suggested that essential oils suppressed the adherence response of human neutrophils in vitro and that intraperitoneal application of geranium oil suppressed the neutrophil accumulation into peritoneal cavity in vivo. Usually, essential oils are applied through skin in aromatherapy in inflammatory symptoms. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of cutaneous application of essential oils on the accumulation of neutrophils in inflammatory sites in skin of mice. Methods Inflammation with accumulation of inflammatory cells was induced by injection of curdlan, a (1→3-β-D-glucan in skin or peritoneal cavity of mice. Essential oils were applied cutaneously to the mice immediately and 3 hr after intradermal injection of curdlan. The skin with inflammatory lesion was cut off 6 hr after injection of curdlan, and the homogenates were used for myeloperoxidase (MPO: a marker enzyme of neutrophil granule assay. Results The MPO activity of the skin lesion induced by curdlan was suppressed dose-dependently by cutaneous application of geranium oil. Other oils such as lavender, eucalyptus and tea tree oils also suppressed the activity, but their activities seemed weaker than geranium. Juniper oil didn't suppress the activity Conclusion Cutaneous application of essential oils, especially geranium oil, can suppress the inflammatory symptoms with neutrophil accumulation and edema.

  20. Cutaneous vasculitides: Clinico-pathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Suruchi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous vasculitis presents as a mosaic of clinical and histological findings. Its pathogenic mechanisms and clinical manifestations are varied. Aims: To study the epidemiological spectrum of cutaneous vasculitides as seen in a dermatologic clinic and to determine the clinico-pathological correlation. Methods: A cohort study was conducted on 50 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed as cutaneous vasculitis in the dermatology outdoor; irrespective of age, sex and duration of the disease. Based on the clinical presentation, vasculitis was classified according to modified Gilliam′s classification. All patients were subjected to a baseline workup consisting of complete hemogram, serum-creatinine levels, serum-urea, liver function tests, chest X-ray, urine (routine and microscopic examination besides antistreptolysin O titer, Mantoux test, cryoglobulin levels, antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies and hepatitis B and C. Histopathological examination was done in all patients while immunofluorescence was done in 23 patients. Results: Out of a total of 50 patients diagnosed clinically as cutaneous vasculitis, 41 were classified as leukocytoclastic vasculitis, 2 as Heinoch−Schonlein purpura, 2 as urticarial vasculitis and one each as nodular vasculitis, polyarteritis nodosa and pityriasis lichenoid et varioliforme acuta. Approximately 50% of the patients had a significant drug history, 10% were attributed to infection and 10% had positive collagen workup without any overt manifestations, while 2% each had Wegener granulomatosis and cryoglobulinemia. No cause was found in 26% cases. Histopathology showed features of vasculitis in 42 patients. Only 23 patients could undergo direct immunofluorescence (DIF, out of which 17 (73.9% were positive for vasculitis. Conclusions: Leukocytoclastic vasculitis was the commonest type of vaculitis presenting to the dermatology outpatient department. The workup of patients with cutaneous vasculitis

  1. Cutaneous manifestations of HIV/AIDS: Part I | Dlova | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can lead to a variety of clinical cutaneous manifestations. These cutaneous disorders occur universally during the course of HIV infection. Cutaneous manifestations of HIV are very diverse. The course and clinical presentation of HIV in individuals who have access to highly ...

  2. Cutaneous Corynebacterium Infection Presenting with Disseminated Skin Nodules and Ulceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios G.A. Kolios

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the European migrant crisis, more and more cases of cutaneous diphtheria are seen. A typical presentation includes painful cutaneous ulcerations with grayish-whitish pseudomembranes. Here we present 2 male Eritrean patients suffering from cutaneous nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae (patient 1 and Corynebacterium striatum (patient 2 infection.

  3. Cutaneous Corynebacterium Infection Presenting with Disseminated Skin Nodules and Ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolios, Antonios G A; Cozzio, Antonio; Zinkernagel, Annelies S; French, Lars E; Kündig, Thomas M

    2017-01-01

    In the context of the European migrant crisis, more and more cases of cutaneous diphtheria are seen. A typical presentation includes painful cutaneous ulcerations with grayish-whitish pseudomembranes. Here we present 2 male Eritrean patients suffering from cutaneous nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae (patient 1) and Corynebacterium striatum (patient 2) infection.

  4. Cutaneous osteosarcoma arising from a burn scar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min A.; Yi, Jaehyuck [Kyungpook National University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kyungpook National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Jong Min [Kyungpook National University, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Tumors that develop in old burn scars are usually squamous cell carcinomas. Sarcomas have also been reported, albeit rarely. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of an extraskeletal osteosarcoma arising in a prior burn scar reported in the English-language literature, mainly discussing the clinicopathological features. Herein, we present a case of cutaneous osteosarcoma visualized as a mineralized soft-tissue mass arising from the scar associated with a previous skin burn over the back. This seems to be the first report describing the imaging features of a cutaneous osteosarcoma from an old burn scar. (orig.)

  5. Cutaneous toxoplasmosis in an immunosuppressed dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A seven-year-old female spayed Schnauzer was presented with cutaneous ulcerated nodular lesions shortly after the beginning of an immunosuppressive treatment for immune-mediated hemolytic disease. Cytology was performed and a great number of neutrophils and banana-shaped organisms were observed. Biopsy showed a neutrophilic and histiocytic dermatitis and panniculitis with myriads of intralesional bradyzoites cysts and tachyzoites. PCR analysis was positive for Toxoplasma gondii and negative for Neospora caninum. Immunohistochemistry confirmed intralesional T. gondii antigens. This study reports a rare case of cutaneous toxoplasmosis in an immunosuppressed dog.

  6. Part of the oxidative stress in the development of radio-induced cell effects at cutaneous level: application to accidental localised irradiations; Role du stress oxydatif dans le developpement des effets cellulaires radio-induits au niveau cutane: application aux irradiations localisees accidentelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carine, Laurent

    2005-10-15

    The objective of our study was to answer to the following questions: does the initial radio-induced oxidative stress lead to the accumulation of DNA damages in the low renewal cells (fibroblasts, endothelial cells) that could be responsible of delayed effects; does it exist delayed oxidative phenomena and era they implied in the delayed effects arising; does it exist a phenomenon of premature senescence; does it exist a premature senescence phenomenon that could lead to an accumulation of damages before the cell death; what are the action mechanisms of the association pentoxifylline/{alpha}-tocopherol. (N.C.)

  7. Topical treatments for cutaneous warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Chun Shing; Gibbs, Sam; Bennett, Cathy; Holland, Richard; Abbott, Rachel

    2012-09-12

    Viral warts are a common skin condition, which can range in severity from a minor nuisance that resolve spontaneously to a troublesome, chronic condition. Many different topical treatments are available. To evaluate the efficacy of local treatments for cutaneous non-genital warts in healthy, immunocompetent adults and children. We updated our searches of the following databases to May 2011: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 2005), EMBASE (from 2010), AMED (from 1985), LILACS (from 1982), and CINAHL (from 1981). We searched reference lists of articles and online trials registries for ongoing trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of topical treatments for cutaneous non-genital warts. Two authors independently selected trials and extracted data; a third author resolved any disagreements. We included 85 trials involving a total of 8815 randomised participants (26 new studies were included in this update). There was a wide range of different treatments and a variety of trial designs. Many of the studies were judged to be at high risk of bias in one or more areas of trial design.Trials of salicylic acid (SA) versus placebo showed that the former significantly increased the chance of clearance of warts at all sites (RR (risk ratio) 1.56, 95% CI (confidence interval) 1.20 to 2.03). Subgroup analysis for different sites, hands (RR 2.67, 95% CI 1.43 to 5.01) and feet (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.55), suggested it might be more effective for hands than feet.A meta-analysis of cryotherapy versus placebo for warts at all sites favoured neither intervention nor control (RR 1.45, 95% CI 0.65 to 3.23). Subgroup analysis for different sites, hands (RR 2.63, 95% CI 0.43 to 15.94) and feet (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.26 to 3.07), again suggested better outcomes for hands than feet. One trial showed cryotherapy to be better than both placebo and SA, but only for hand warts.There was no significant difference in cure rates between

  8. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. exerts chemoprevention of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishayee, Anupam, E-mail: abishayee@auhs.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, American University of Health Sciences, Signal Hill, CA 90755 (United States); Mandal, Animesh [Cancer Therapeutics and Chemoprevention Group, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, OH 44272 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Dietary administration of an ethanolic extract of aerial parts of T. portulacastrum (TPE) exhibits a striking chemopreventive effect in an experimentally induced classical animal model of breast cancer. • The mammary tumor-inhibitory effect of TPE could be achieved, at least in part, though intervention of key hallmark capabilities of tumor cells, such as abnormal cell proliferation and evasion of apoptosis. • TPE is capable of diminishing activated canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling to exhibit antiproliferative, proapoptotic and oncostatic effects during this early-stage mammary carcinoma. • These results coupled with a safety profile of T. portulacastrum may encourage further studies to understand the full potential of this dietary plant for chemoprevention of breast cancer. - Abstract: Due to limited treatment options for advanced-stage metastatic breast cancer, a high priority should be given to develop non-toxic chemopreventive drugs. The value of various natural and dietary agents to reduce the risk of developing breast cancer is well established. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (Aizoaceae), a dietary and medicinal plant, has been found to exert antihepatotoxic and antihepatocarcinogenic properties in rodents. This study was initiated to investigate mechanism-based chemopreventive potential of an ethanolic extract of T. portulacastrum (TPE) against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated rat mammary gland carcinogenesis, an experimental tumor model that closely resembles human breast cancer. Rats had access to a basal diet supplemented with TPE to yield three dietary doses of the extract, i.e., 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Following two weeks of TPE treatment, mammary tumorigenesis was initiated by oral administration of DMBA (50 mg/kg body weight). At the end of the study (16 weeks after DMBA exposure), TPE exhibited a striking reduction of DMBA-induced mammary tumor incidence, total tumor burden and average tumor weight

  9. Skin temperature during cutaneous wound healing in an equine model of cutaneous fibroproliferative disorder: kinetics and anatomic-site differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Christophe J; Deschesne, Karine; Riley, Christopher B; Theoret, Christine L

    2013-02-01

    To map skin temperature kinetics, and by extension skin blood flow throughout normal or abnormal repair of full-thickness cutaneous wounds created on the horse body and limb, using infrared thermography. Experimental. Standardbreds (n = 6), aged 3-4 years. Three cutaneous wounds were created on the dorsolateral surface of each metacarpus and on the lateral thoracic wall. Thoracic skin wounds and those on 1 randomly chosen forelimb healed by second intention without a bandage, whereas contralateral limb wounds were bandaged to induce formation of exuberant granulation tissue (EGT). Thermal data were collected from all planned wound sites before the surgical procedure (baseline), and at 24, 48, 96 hours, 1, 2, and 4 weeks after wounding. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and a priori contrasts submitted to Bonferroni sequential correction. Level of significance was P temperature (CWT) increased temporally from preoperative period to week 1 postwounding, independently of anatomic location (P < .0001). CWT of limb wounds was significantly less than that of body wounds throughout healing (P < .01). CWT of limb wounds managed with bandages and developing EGT was significantly less than that of unbandaged limb wounds, which did not develop EGT (P ≤ .01). CWT varied with anatomic location and throughout healing. CWT of wounds developing EGT was significantly less than that of wounds without EGT. © Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  10. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis with laryngeal involvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis with laryngeal involvement in a setting of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. ... Grocott-Gomori methenamine silver and Periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) stains revealed a relative paucity of intracellular, narrow-neck budding fungal organisms. Culture findings confirmed the ...

  11. Exploring Adaptation Scenarios : Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Exploring Adaptation Scenarios : Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Climate Change in Algeria. In Algeria, climate change is associated with modifications in land use and their interaction with water, with the result that the last 20 years have seen an increase in ... A new publication explores the ethics of these relationships.

  12. Fibromodulin Enhances Angiogenesis during Cutaneous Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zheng, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Altogether, we demonstrated that in addition to reducing scar formation, FMOD also promotes angiogenesis. As blood vessels organize and regulate wound healing, its potent angiogenic properties will further expand the clinical application of FMOD for cutaneous healing of poorly vascularized wounds.

  13. Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in a smallpox scar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, Robert A.; Dannenberg, Hilde; Robertus, Jan-Lukas; van Ginkel, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (CLM) is a very rare smooth muscle tumour that accounts for about 2-3% of all superficial soft tissue sarcomas. Although the development of various malignancies in scar tissue is well known, we report the first case of a CLM developing in a small pox scar. Case

  14. Clinicopathological and molecular aspects of cutaneous Melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogenrieder, T.

    2009-01-01

    Clinicopathological and molecular aspects of cutaneous melanoma. Melanoma arises form the transformation of neural crest-derived melanocytes, the pigment cells of the skin, which reside in the basal layer of the epidermis. Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and one of the most aggressive

  15. Unusual Cutaneous Manifestation of Tuberous Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Shah

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous manifestations are found in 60 to 70% cases of tuberous sclerosis and consist of adenoma sebaceum, periungual fibromatas, cafe au lait spots, shagreen patches and white macules. Our patient showed unusual skin manifestations like spotty pigmentation on the chest, back and abdomen and hyperkeratosis palmaris et plantaris.

  16. A rapidly enlarging cutaneous hemangioma in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ma'ayeh, Marwan

    2014-06-18

    This is a case of a rapidly enlarging cutaneous pedunculated tumor on a patient\\'s thumb during her pregnancy. This was excised and identified as a hemangioma. A literature search identified a possible hormonal factor in causing an accelerated growth of this tumor.

  17. Cutaneous reaction associated with weekly docetaxel administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Lita; Chuen, Vivianne Shih Lee

    2009-03-01

    Docetaxel-based chemotherapy will remain clinically relevant and many of our patients will continue to receive the drug. In a recent phase 2 study of docetaxel 35 mg/m2 (weekly) in patients with metastatic breast cancer, the incidence of grade 3 cutaneous toxicity is 19%. The skin toxicity observed consists of limb/palmar-plantar erythematous reactions, or fixed-plaque erythrodysesthesia. Case series or reports have reported varied manifestations of skin reactions and include erythema multiforme, nail changes (onycholysis, pigmentation, paronychia), scleroderma, supravenous discoloration, radiation recall dermatitis, and flagellate erythema. We would like to report four patients with cutaneous reactions resulting from weekly administration of docetaxel. All cases are heavily pre-treated patients, receiving docetaxel as second or third line therapy. The cutaneous reactions occur at cycle 5. The time between chemotherapy to development of skin lesions is from 1 to 7 days. Lesions usually resolve with desquamation leaving behind areas with hyper-pigmentation or hypo-pigmentation over a period of 2 to 3 weeks. The management strategies include hand elevation, warm or cold compresses, topical and/or systemic antibiotics, topical and/or systemic corticosteroids, and cessation of drug. There is a need for a systematic approach to manage these cutaneous reactions. Oncology trained pharmacists play vital roles in assessing, managing, documenting and patient education.

  18. Cutaneous tuberculosis in children: The Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singal Archana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous tuberculosis continues to be a significant medical problem even with the advent of highly effective antituberculous drugs. It constitutes about 1.5% of all extra pulmonary tuberculosis. The prevalence in children varies from 18 to 54% in India. There is no gender predilection and the infection occurs with increased frequency in 10-14 year age group. Intrafamilial source of TB has been observed very frequently. A concomitant TB lymphadenitis is most common while involvement of other systemic organs like lung, bone and abdomen has also been observed. Protective efficacy of BCG is debatable and not yet fully defined. Of all the clinical types, scrofuloderma (SFD is the most commonly encountered variant followed by lupus vulgaris (LV and tuberculosis verrucosa cutis (TBVC. Lichen scrofulosorum (LS is generally found to be associated with systemic TB focus in about 72% of cases. The impact of HIV on childhood cutaneous TB seems to be minimal. Similar to adults, the diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis relies mainly on histopathology, culture on LJ medium or radiometric BACTEC 460 TB culture system and PCR. In addition Mantoux positivity and a positive therapeutic trial with anti-tubercular drugs may be a good pointer to tubercular infection. A thorough clinical evaluation and exhaustive investigations to pin-point associated systemic focus is advocated as the latter has an impact on the duration of treatment. Cutaneous TB in children is treated as per the recommendations of therapy for extrapulmonary TB.

  19. Cutaneous myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, E J; Buechner, S A

    2004-01-01

    Cutaneous myiasis caused by the human botfly Dermatobia hominis involves the infestation of tissue with dipterous fly larvae and is common in the neotropical region of the New World. We report a case of D. hominis imported in Switzerland from Costa Rica. In the past, various approaches to extract the botfly larva have been reported. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Primary Cutaneous Aspergillosis in an Immunocompetent Patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a 32-year-old woman with primary cutaneous aspergillosis and an apparently normal immune status. She is a dietitian who carried out research on Aspergillus contamination of ... A year before the onset of symptoms, she conducted a research on aspergillus contamination of palm oil over a six-month period and ...

  1. Mefloquine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia Dalmo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated orally with a mefloquine dose of 4.2mg/kg/day for six days in the Teaching Hospital of the Faculdade de Medicina do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG, Brazil. Three weeks later a new series was repeated. No patient was cured.

  2. Influence of microemulsions on cutaneous drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreilgaard, Mads

    2002-01-01

    In attempt to increase cutaneous drug delivery, microemulsion vehicles have been more and more frequently employed over recent years. Microemulsion formulations have been shown to be superior for both transdermal and dermal delivery of particularly lipophilic compounds, but also hydrophilic compo...

  3. Spatial distribution and epidemiological features of cutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Khademvatan

    2016-04-18

    Apr 18, 2016 ... Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne tropical and subtropical dis- ease caused by obligate intracellular protozoa known as. Leishmania genus. The disease can present clinically in three main ways as follows: cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL).

  4. Epidemiological studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, mainly in the. Al-Hassa Oasis. The vector of the disease in. Saudi Arabia is the sand fly and the alternative natural hosts are desert rodents. Leishmania tropica, the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Al-Hassa Oasis, classically causes skin lesions without dissemination. The.

  5. Nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase modulate β-adrenergic cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; McNeely, Brendan D; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-02-15

    β-Adrenergic receptor agonists such as isoproterenol induce cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating in humans, but the mechanisms underpinning this response remain unresolved. Using intradermal microdialysis, we evaluated the roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) in β-adrenergic cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating elicited by administration of isoproterenol. We show that while NOS contributes to β-adrenergic cutaneous vasodilatation, COX restricts cutaneous vasodilatation. We also show that combined inhibition of NOS and COX augments β-adrenergic sweating These new findings advance our basic knowledge regarding the physiological control of cutaneous blood flow and sweating, and provide important and new information to better understand the physiological significance of β-adrenergic receptors in the skin. β-Adrenergic receptor agonists such as isoproterenol can induce cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating in humans, but the mechanisms underpinning this response remain unresolved. We evaluated the hypotheses that (1) nitric oxide synthase (NOS) contributes to β-adrenergic cutaneous vasodilatation, whereas cyclooxygenase (COX) limits the vasodilatation, and (2) COX contributes to β-adrenergic sweating. In 10 young males (25 ± 5 years), cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and sweat rate were evaluated at four intradermal forearm skin sites infused with (1) lactated Ringer solution (control), (2) 10 mm N ω -nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA), a non-specific NOS inhibitor, (3) 10 mm ketorolac, a non-specific COX inhibitor, or (4) a combination of l-NNA and ketorolac. All sites were co-administered with a high dose of isoproterenol (100 μm) for 3 min to maximally induce β-adrenergic sweating (β-adrenergic sweating is significantly blunted by subsequent activations). Approximately 60 min after the washout period, three incremental doses of isoproterenol were co-administered (1, 10 and 100 μm each for 25 min). Increases in CVC induced

  6. Effects of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression and Cutaneous Wound Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels A. J. Cremers

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Skin wounds may lead to scar formation and impaired functionality. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC can induce the anti-inflammatory enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and protect against tissue injury. We aim to improve cutaneous wound repair by RIPC treatment via induction of HO-1. RIPC was applied to HO-1-luc transgenic mice and HO-1 promoter activity and mRNA expression in skin and several other organs were determined in real-time. In parallel, RIPC was applied directly or 24h prior to excisional wounding in mice to investigate the early and late protective effects of RIPC on cutaneous wound repair, respectively. HO-1 promoter activity was significantly induced on the dorsal side and locally in the kidneys following RIPC treatment. Next, we investigated the origin of this RIPC-induced HO-1 promoter activity and demonstrated increased mRNA in the ligated muscle, heart and kidneys, but not in the skin. RIPC did not change HO-1 mRNA and protein levels in the wound 7 days after cutaneous injury. Both early and late RIPC did not accelerate wound closure nor affect collagen deposition. RIPC induces HO-1 expression in several organs, but not the skin, and did not improve excisional wound repair, suggesting that the skin is insensitive to RIPC-mediated protection.

  7. Clinical characteristics of cutaneous lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Szczęch

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Lupus erythematosus (LE shows a wide variety of clinical manifestations, skin involvement being one of the most important. Aim : To analyze the clinical presentation of cutaneous variants of lupus erythematosus in terms of skin lesion spectrum and extracutaneous involvement. Material and methods : A total of 64 patients with cutaneous LE (CLE were included. The study was based on the “Core Set Questionnaire” developed by the European Society of Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (EUSCLE. Clinical severity of skin lesions was evaluated with the Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Disease Area and Severity Index (CLASI. All results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results : Fifteen (23.4% patients had an acute CLE (ACLE, 26 (40.6% subacute CLE (SCLE and 21 (32.8% chronic CLE (CCLE. Two (3.2% individuals only demonstrated urticarial vasculitis as a cutaneous manifestation of LE and these patients were excluded. Patients with ACLE were characterized by the earliest onset of the disease (mean age of 31.9 ±15.0 years; p < 0.001. On average, 4.8 ±1.8 criteria of systemic LE were found in the ACLE group compared to 2.7 ±1.3 criteria in SCLE and 2.5 ±1.5 criteria in CCLE (p < 0.001. The highest activity of skin lesions according to CLASI was found in the SCLE group (p = 0.002. On the other hand, the most severe skin damage was observed in CCLE (p < 0.01. Conclusions : Each variant of CLE differs significantly from the others in respect of various aspects of clinical manifestations. Due to a number of different variants of LE skin lesions, a unified classification of CLE still remains a challenge.

  8. Gene expression profiling of cutaneous wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ena

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the sequence of events leading to wound repair has been described at the cellular and, to a limited extent, at the protein level this process has yet to be fully elucidated. Genome wide transcriptional analysis tools promise to further define the global picture of this complex progression of events. Study Design This study was part of a placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial in which basal cell carcinomas were treated topically with an immunomodifier – toll-like receptor 7 agonist: imiquimod. The fourteen patients with basal cell carcinoma in the placebo arm of the trial received placebo treatment consisting solely of vehicle cream. A skin punch biopsy was obtained immediately before treatment and at the end of the placebo treatment (after 2, 4 or 8 days. 17.5K cDNA microarrays were utilized to profile the biopsy material. Results Four gene signatures whose expression changed relative to baseline (before wound induction by the pre-treatment biopsy were identified. The largest group was comprised predominantly of inflammatory genes whose expression was increased throughout the study. Two additional signatures were observed which included preferentially pro-inflammatory genes in the early post-treatment biopsies (2 days after pre-treatment biopsies and repair and angiogenesis genes in the later (4 to 8 days biopsies. The fourth and smallest set of genes was down-regulated throughout the study. Early in wound healing the expression of markers of both M1 and M2 macrophages were increased, but later M2 markers predominated. Conclusion The initial response to a cutaneous wound induces powerful transcriptional activation of pro-inflammatory stimuli which may alert the host defense. Subsequently and in the absence of infection, inflammation subsides and it is replaced by angiogenesis and remodeling. Understanding this transition which may be driven by a change from a mixed macrophage population to predominately M2

  9. Must the use of bolus in radiotherapy of cutaneous cancers be changed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, J.; Sors, A.; Gros-Dagnac, H.; Franceries, X.; Laprie, A.; Moyal, E.; Delannes, M.; Kerjean, P.; Kerjean, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a study which firstly analyzed the dose bias induced by the presence of air between the patient's skin and the bolus plate in the case of cutaneous cancers which are complex regarding their locations. Then, practical solutions for bolus modifications are studied in order to minimize this phenomenon and to quantify the dose bias in comparison with a conventional treatment. Finally, a new type of deformable bolus is proposed which better fits the patient contours. Short communication

  10. The immune microenvironment in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, M N; Issa, G; Charafeddine, K; Simaan, Y; Karam, M; Khalifeh, H; Habib, R; Khalifeh, I

    2015-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infection that has spread to non-endemic regions, stimulating recent interest for the enhanced understanding of this disease. Downregulation of the CD1a receptor on Langerhans cells has been described in various cutaneous infections. In this study, the immune response across different Ridley patterns and parasitic indices is outlined in a case series of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Skin punch biopsies from the interface of normal and lesional cutaneous leishmaniasis were collected from 33 patients with molecularly confirmed Leishmania tropica or L. major infection. Ridley patterns (2-5) were assessed for various clinicopathological features including age, gender, disease duration, parasitic index and constituents of the inflammatory infiltrate. CD1a, CD68, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20 and CD138 stains were performed on normal skin tissue, cutaneous leishmaniasis biopsies and cytospin/cell block cytology preparations of cultured leishmania promastigotes. CD1a was quantified per mm2 in the epidermis and dermis. The remaining stains were graded according to a 4-tiered grading system [0 (0-4%); 1 (5-24%); 2 (25-49%); 3 (50-74%) and 4 (75-100%). Total CD1a expression significantly decreased (14-fold) from parasitic indices (0-2) to (5-6); (ρ < 0.001). CD1a expression in the epidermis was at least 5-fold lower than normal skin (58 vs. 400 cells/mm2), inversely correlating with the parasitic index. There was an increase in dermal CD1a Langerhans cells (33 vs. 0 cells/mm² in the dermis). CD1a and CD68 staining of amastigotes was strong and diffuse, whereas promastigotes were negative. The major inflammatory infiltrate, in all Ridley patterns, consisted of macrophages and double-negative CD3(+) CD4(-) CD8(-) T lymphocytes. The double-negative CD3 T cells formed a ring around the parasitic laden macrophages. Apart from CD1a, there was no significant difference in inflammatory markers between the various Ridley patterns and parasitic indices. Disease

  11. Cutaneous embolism of an atrial myxoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Bandera, Ana Isabel; Stewart, Nicholas Charles; Uribe, Pablo; Minocha, Rashi; Choi, James Young Joon

    2015-08-01

    Cardiac myxoma often presents with heterogeneous symptoms and signs and represents a challenging diagnosis. The cutaneous manifestations, if present, are often transient and non-specific and the clinician must possess a high degree of suspicion to secure the diagnosis. We present the case of a 36-year-old woman with a 6-month history of intermittent, painful, violaceous, non-blanching macules on the thumb and fingertips of the left hand and right ankle. A cutaneous embolic phenomenon was suspected and an urgent echocardiogram demonstrated an atrial mass, with subsequent histopathology confirming the clinical suspicion of atrial myxoma. Early diagnosis and excision of the tumour avoided serious complications. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  12. Cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinjal Deepak Rambhia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy (CCV is a distinct, rare, and underdiagnosed condition. We report a case of CCV in a 50-year-old woman presenting as asymptomatic, erythematous to hyperpigmented nonblanchable macules over both the lower extremities. The clinical differential diagnosis of the lesions was pigmented purpuric dermatoses (Schamberg's purpura and cutaneous small vessel vasculitis. Histology of the lesions revealed dilated superficial dermal vessels with abundant pink hyaline material in the vessel wall, which stained with periodic acid Schiff stain. The patient was diagnosed as CCV. This condition remains largely underdiagnosed and is commonly mistaken for pigmented purpuric dermatosis or generalized essential telangiectasia. Emphasis on the differentiation of CCV from its clinical and histological mimicks is made.

  13. Cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy: A rare case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambhia, Kinjal Deepak; Hadawale, Snehal D.; Khopkar, Uday S.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy (CCV) is a distinct, rare, and underdiagnosed condition. We report a case of CCV in a 50-year-old woman presenting as asymptomatic, erythematous to hyperpigmented nonblanchable macules over both the lower extremities. The clinical differential diagnosis of the lesions was pigmented purpuric dermatoses (Schamberg's purpura) and cutaneous small vessel vasculitis. Histology of the lesions revealed dilated superficial dermal vessels with abundant pink hyaline material in the vessel wall, which stained with periodic acid Schiff stain. The patient was diagnosed as CCV. This condition remains largely underdiagnosed and is commonly mistaken for pigmented purpuric dermatosis or generalized essential telangiectasia. Emphasis on the differentiation of CCV from its clinical and histological mimicks is made. PMID:26955587

  14. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Edward; Karajgikar, Jay; Tabbara, Imad A

    2013-10-01

    Since the recognition of the anaplastic large-cell lymphomas in the 1980s, much has been learned about the diagnosis, clinical presentation, and treatment of these malignant conditions. The systemic and primary cutaneous types of anaplastic large cell lymphomas have been differentiated on clinical and immunophenotypical findings, but further research is required to elucidate their exact etiologies and pathogeneses. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma has a 95% disease-specific 5-year survival, owing partly to the relatively benign course of the disease and partly to the variety of effective treatments that are available. As with many other oncological diseases, new drugs are continually being tested and developed, with immunotherapy and biological response modifiers showing promise.

  15. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto E; Talhari, Carolina; García Bustos, María F; Rosales, Tamara; Villamil-Gomez, Wilmer E; Marquez, Marilianna; Pérez Alvarez, Alexandra M; Tálamo Sánchez, Alejandra I; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2017-12-01

    Infant and young child skin diseases are among the most common features of morbidity throughout the tropics. Because the skin is directly exposed to the environment, it is considerably affected by climatic and local conditions such as vectors and microorganisms, as in the case of leishmaniasis. In America the observed magnitude of cutaneous leishmaniasis in children has led to the study of increased risk of exposure of this group due to the possibility of peri- and intradomiciliary transmission. The present review pretends to make a concrete approach all through the broad and main figures of this parasitic disease, including the clinical, physiopathological, epidemiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects, in order to be used as a practical source of reference for pediatricians leading with tropical cutaneous pathology in the region. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. Cutaneous Manifestations of Toxoplasmosis: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sonya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although toxoplasmosis is one of the most widely spread infections in the world, types that involve the skin are extremely rare. However, skin lesions are not specific; moreover, they are quite diverse, which makes the diagnosis of cutaneous toxoplasmosis rather difficult. Thus, differential diagnosis should include a number of other diseases. We present a case of a 43-year-old immunocompetent man with multiple livid erythematous papules and nodules with yellowish discharge that involved the skin of the body and the extremities. By using electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay, immunoglobulin G antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were detected in the serum, confirming the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. The treatment with pyrimethamine and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole led to complete resolution of skin lesions. In conclusion, although rare in the dermatological practice, cutaneous toxoplasmosis should be considered in all patients presenting with lymphadenopathy, non-specific skin eruptions, especially nodular and colliquative, blood eosinophilia and histological findigs revealing abundant eosinophilic inflitrations.

  17. Comparative Assessment of Induced Immune Responses Following Intramuscular Immunization with Fusion and Cocktail of LeIF, LACK and TSA Genes Against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in BALB/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspi, Nahid; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Sharifi, Zohreh; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Dayer, Mohammad Saaid

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, we evaluated induced immune responses following DNA vaccine containing cocktail or fusion of LeIF, LACK and TSA genes or each gene alone. Mice were injected with 100 µg of each plasmid containing the gene of insert, plasmid DNA alone as the first control group or phosphate buffer saline as the second control group. Then, cellular and humoral responses, lesion size were measured for all groups. All vaccinated mice induced Th1 immune responses against Leishmania characterized by higher IFN-γ and IgG2a levels compared with control groups (p fusion and cocktail vaccines in comparison with LACK (p fusion and cocktail groups produced higher IgG2a values than groups vaccinated with a gene alone (p fusion DNA than three groups vaccinated with one gene alone (p fusion and cocktail groups. Overall, immunized mice with cocktail and fusion vaccines showed stronger Th1 response by production of higher IFN-γ and IgG2a and showed smaller mean lesion size. Therefore, use of multiple antigens can improve induced immune responses by DNA vaccination.

  18. Multiple cutaneous malignancies in xeroderma pigmentosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanty Prasenjeet

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of xeroderma pigmentosum with multiple cutaneous malignancies is being reported. The case presented with freckles, letigens, and keratosis, a non-tender ulcerated nodular lesion on the nose, a nodular ulcerated lesion on the right outer canthus of the conjunctiva, and a nodular growth which developed on the right cheek which on histopathology was found to be squamous cell cercinoma, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma respectively.

  19. Cutaneous Manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    OpenAIRE

    Uva, Luís; Miguel, Diana; Pinheiro, Catarina; Freitas, João Pedro; Marques Gomes, Manuel; Filipe, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multiorgan autoimmune disease of unknown etiology with many clinical manifestations. The skin is one of the target organs most variably affected by the disease. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) established 11 criteria as a classificatory instrument to operationalise the definition of SLE in clinical trials. They were not intended to be used to diagnose individuals and do not do well in that capacity. Cutaneous lesions account for four of these...

  20. [Cutaneous adverse reactions to tattoos and piercings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataix, J; Silvestre, J F

    2009-10-01

    Piercings and tattoos have become very popular in western society in recent decades, particularly among younger generations. Reports of medical complications associated with these decorative techniques have increased in parallel with the rise in their popularity. Due to their high frequency, adverse cutaneous reactions are particularly important among these potential complications. Tattoo-related complications include a number of cutaneous and systemic infections secondary to breach of the epidermal barrier, acute and delayed inflammatory reactions with different histopathological patterns, the appearance of benign and malignant tumors on tattooed areas of skin, and certain dermatoses triggered by isomorphic phenomena. Piercing-related complications are similar, though some, such as pyogenic skin infections, are much more common due to the delayed wound healing after piercing in certain sites. We must differentiate between complications that are independent of the site of piercing, and specific complications, which are closely related to the body area pierced. The rate of complications after performing piercings or tattoos depends on the experience of the artist, the hygiene techniques applied, and the postprocedural care by the customer. However, some of these complications are unpredictable and depend on factors intrinsic to the patient. In this article, we review the most common decorative techniques of body art, with particular focus on the potential cutaneous complications and their management.

  1. Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in a smallpox scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Robert A; Dannenberg, Hilde; Robertus, Jan-Lukas; van Ginkel, Robert J

    2012-07-16

    Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (CLM) is a very rare smooth muscle tumour that accounts for about 2-3% of all superficial soft tissue sarcomas. Although the development of various malignancies in scar tissue is well known, we report the first case of a CLM developing in a small pox scar. A 66-year-old man presented with a painless, slow-growing lump in a small pox scar on his left shoulder. Histological biopsies showed the lesion to be a primary, well-differentiated cutaneous leiomyosarcoma. A CT scan of the thorax was conducted, which showed no signs of metastases. The complete lesion was then surgically excised, and histopathological examination revealed a radically excised cutaneous type leiomyosarcoma After 13 months' review the patient was doing well with no evidence of tumour recurrence. This is the first report of a CLM arising in a small pox scar. Although the extended time interval between scarring and malignant changes makes it difficult to advise strict follow-up for patients with small pox scars, one should be aware that atypical changes and/or symptoms occurring in a small pox scar could potentially mean malignant transformation.

  2. Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in a smallpox scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pol Robert A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (CLM is a very rare smooth muscle tumour that accounts for about 2–3% of all superficial soft tissue sarcomas. Although the development of various malignancies in scar tissue is well known, we report the first case of a CLM developing in a small pox scar. Case presentation A 66-year-old man presented with a painless, slow-growing lump in a small pox scar on his left shoulder. Histological biopsies showed the lesion to be a primary, well-differentiated cutaneous leiomyosarcoma. A CT scan of the thorax was conducted, which showed no signs of metastases. The complete lesion was then surgically excised, and histopathological examination revealed a radically excised cutaneous type leiomyosarcoma After 13 months’ review the patient was doing well with no evidence of tumour recurrence. Conclusions This is the first report of a CLM arising in a small pox scar. Although the extended time interval between scarring and malignant changes makes it difficult to advise strict follow-up for patients with small pox scars, one should be aware that atypical changes and/or symptoms occurring in a small pox scar could potentially mean malignant transformation.

  3. Primary Cutaneous Histoplasmosis Masquerading as Lepromatous Leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Jenna Blah; Rani, Poonam; Aggarwal, Radhika; Kaushal, Seema

    2017-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a genus of dimorphic fungi having various varieties of which the commonest one causing infection is Histoplasma capsulatum known to cause histoplasmosis. It has a varied disease spectrum ranging from an acute infection to chronic disease especially in lungs, disseminated disease and cutaneous disorder. Histoplasma capsulatum usually causes subclinical infection and serious infections only manifest in immunocompromised patients. Frank cases of infection are seen in pulmonary histoplasmosis. The spores of these organisms are seen to be strongly associated with droppings of birds and bats. A combination of these droppings and some soil types provide for an excellent environment for the proliferation of spores. Pulmonary histoplasmosis and disseminated disease are very common in AIDS patients and are a great cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Primary cutaneous histoplasmosis is very rare and occurs due to penetrating injuries. Once diagnosis is made, the lesions respond very well to oral itraconazole, fluconazole or amphotericicn B. We report a rare case of Cutaneous Histoplasmosis (CHP) in a 70-year-old male with complaints of multiple nodules all over his body in a HIV seronegative and otherwise immunocompetent patient.

  4. Infiltrative Cutaneous Hemangiolipoma in a Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. Collier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximately 4-year-old castrated male, Saanen cross goat presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation and removal of a 22 cm × 22 cm, dark red, thickened, and crusted cutaneous lesion along the left ventrolateral thorax. An initial incisional biopsy performed approximately 8 weeks earlier was suspicious for cutaneous hemangiosarcoma. Surgical excision was deemed to be the most appropriate treatment option for this goat. A complete physical exam, complete blood count, and chemistry profile were performed and results were within normal limits. Thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound were performed to rule out metastatic disease and comorbid conditions; no metastatic lesions or other abnormalities were observed. En bloc surgical excision of the affected skin was performed and the entire tissue was submitted for histopathology. A final diagnosis of cutaneous hemangiolipoma was reached upon extensive sectioning and histologic examination of the larger tissue specimen. The goat recovered well from surgery and has had no further complications up to 9 months postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a hemangiolipoma in a goat and surgical excision for such lesions appears to be a viable treatment method.

  5. Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome: management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrona E

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleni Chrona,1,2 Georgia Kostopanagiotou,1 Dimitrios Damigos,3 Chrysanthi Batistaki1 1Second Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, “Attikon” Hospital, Athens, 2Department of Anesthesiology, General Hospital of “Ag. Panteleimon,” Piraeus, 3Department of Medical Psychology, Medical School of Ioannina, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece Abstract: Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES is a commonly underdiagnosed and undertreated chronic state of pain. This syndrome is characterized by the entrapment of the cutaneous branches of the lower thoracoabdominal intercostal nerves at the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle, which causes severe, often refractory, chronic pain. This narrative review aims to identify the possible therapeutic strategies for the management of the syndrome. Seventeen studies about ACNES therapy were reviewed; of them, 15 were case–control studies, case series, or case reports, and two were randomized controlled trials. The presently available management strategies for ACNES include trigger point injections (diagnostic and therapeutic, ultrasound-guided blocks, chemical neurolysis, and surgical ­neurectomy, in combination with systemic medication, as well as some emerging techniques, such as radiofrequency ablation and neuromodulation. An increased awareness of the syndrome and the use of specific diagnostic criteria for its recognition are required to facilitate an early and successful management. This review compiles the proposed ­management strategies for ACNES. Keywords: anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome, intercostal, neuralgia, management

  6. Stem Cells for Cutaneous Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Giles T S; Mills, Stuart J; Cowin, Allison J; Smith, Louise E

    2015-01-01

    Optimum healing of a cutaneous wound involves a well-orchestrated cascade of biological and molecular processes involving cell migration, proliferation, extracellular matrix deposition, and remodelling. When the normal biological process fails for any reason, this healing process can stall resulting in chronic wounds. Wounds are a growing clinical burden on healthcare systems and with an aging population as well as increasing incidences of obesity and diabetes, this problem is set to increase. Cell therapies may be the solution. A range of cell based approaches have begun to cross the rift from bench to bedside and the supporting data suggests that the appropriate administration of stem cells can accelerate wound healing. This review examines the main cell types explored for cutaneous wound healing with a focus on clinical use. The literature overwhelmingly suggests that cell therapies can help to heal cutaneous wounds when used appropriately but we are at risk of clinical use outpacing the evidence. There is a need, now more than ever, for standardised methods of cell characterisation and delivery, as well as randomised clinical trials.

  7. Stem Cells for Cutaneous Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles T. S. Kirby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimum healing of a cutaneous wound involves a well-orchestrated cascade of biological and molecular processes involving cell migration, proliferation, extracellular matrix deposition, and remodelling. When the normal biological process fails for any reason, this healing process can stall resulting in chronic wounds. Wounds are a growing clinical burden on healthcare systems and with an aging population as well as increasing incidences of obesity and diabetes, this problem is set to increase. Cell therapies may be the solution. A range of cell based approaches have begun to cross the rift from bench to bedside and the supporting data suggests that the appropriate administration of stem cells can accelerate wound healing. This review examines the main cell types explored for cutaneous wound healing with a focus on clinical use. The literature overwhelmingly suggests that cell therapies can help to heal cutaneous wounds when used appropriately but we are at risk of clinical use outpacing the evidence. There is a need, now more than ever, for standardised methods of cell characterisation and delivery, as well as randomised clinical trials.

  8. Surgical incision can alter capsaicin-induced central sensitization in rat brainstem nociceptive neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, D K; Sessle, B J; Hu, J W

    2008-10-15

    Surgical trauma can affect spinal neuronal excitability, but there have been no studies of the effects of surgical cutaneous injury on central nociceptive processing of deep afferent inputs evoked by noxious stimuli such as capsaicin. Thus our aim was to test the effect of surgical cutaneous incision in influencing central sensitization induced by capsaicin injection into the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The activity of single nociceptive neurons activated by noxious mechanical stimulation of the TMJ was recorded in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis/upper cervical cord of halothane-anesthetized rats. The cutaneous mechanoreceptive field (RF), cutaneous mechanical activation threshold (MAT) and TMJ MAT of neurons before and after both surgical cutaneous incision alone and capsaicin injection were compared with results of incision and lidocaine pretreatment of the facial skin overlying the TMJ and capsaicin injection into the TMJ. Incision itself induced a barrage of neuronal spikes and excitability increases reflecting central sensitization (cutaneous RF expansion, cutaneous MAT reduction) in most neurons tested whereas lidocaine pretreatment significantly attenuated the barrage and central sensitization. Capsaicin injection into the TMJ induced cutaneous RF expansion, cutaneous MAT reduction and TMJ MAT reduction following lidocaine pretreatment of the cutaneous incision site whereas capsaicin injection following incision alone not only failed to induce further central sensitization but also decreased the existing incision-induced central sensitization (no cutaneous RF expansion, increased cutaneous MAT and TMJ MAT) in most neurons tested. These findings suggest that central sensitization induced by capsaicin alone or by cutaneous incision alone can readily occur in TMJ-responsive nociceptive neurons and that following incision-induced excitability increases, capsaicin may result in a temporary suppression of nociceptive neuronal changes reflecting central

  9. Evaluation of chemopreventive potentials of ethanolic extract of Ruta graveolens against A375 skin melanoma cells in vitro and induced skin cancer in mice in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Samrat; Sikdar, Sourav; Mukherjee, Avinaba; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Chemopreventive approach with natural products, particularly plants and plant-derived ones, is receiving increasing attention for their effective role against cancer without any palpable side effects. In this study, efficacy of ethanolic extract of Ruta graveolens (RG) on skin melanoma cells (A375) in vitro and on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin cancer in vivo has been tested in Swiss albino mice. Studies on cell viability, apoptosis and autophagy induction were conducted in vitro. To check apoptosis, assays like alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential, annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay and immunoblot were performed. Fluorescence microscopic and immunoblot assays were performed to confirm autophagy induction. The effects of RG were determined by evaluating body weight, tumor incidence, tumor volume and tumor burden in mice. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status was assessed. The role of some relevant signaling proteins was also analyzed. RG caused death of A375 cells through induction of caspase 3-mediated apoptosis and Beclin-1-associated autophagy. Moreover, RG administration (75 mg/kg body weight) which showed no acute or chronic toxicity, showed significant reduction in the skin tumor burden of DMBA-painted mice. RG also demonstrated potent anti-lipid peroxidative and antioxidant functions during the course of skin cancer induction by DMBA. Chemopreventive potential of RG was demonstrated from overall results of this study, indicating its possible use in therapeutic formulation of an effective drug to treat skin cancer.

  10. Primary Cutaneous Mantle Cell Lymphoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Mazzuoccolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cutaneous mantle cell lymphoma (MCL is a rare cutaneous proliferation of naive pregerminal CD-5 positive B cells in the skin with no extracutaneous involvement. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is pathognomonic of this condition, and surgery and radiation therapy are the most common therapeutic options. In this case, we describe the clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular characteristics of a new case of primary cutaneous MCL.

  11. Gender disparity between cutaneous and non-cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Strle

    Full Text Available Cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis in Europe include erythema migrans (EM and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA; the most common non-cutaneous manifestations are Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB and Lyme arthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gender distribution of patients with these clinical manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. Data on gender were obtained from the clinical records of patients with Lyme borreliosis aged ≥15 years who had been evaluated at the University Medical Center Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Among 10,539 patients diagnosed with EM, 6,245 (59.3% were female and among 506 ACA patients 347 (68.6% were female. In contrast, among the 60 patients with Lyme arthritis only 15 (25% were female (p<0.0001 for the comparison of gender with EM or ACA and among the 130 patients with LNB only 51 (39.2% were females (p<0.0001for the comparison of gender with EM or ACA. Although the proportion that was female in the LNB group was greater than that of patients with Lyme arthritis, this difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.10. Although older individuals are more likely to be female in the general Slovenian population, the age of patients with cutaneous versus non-cutaneous manifestations was not the explanation for the observed differences in gender. In conclusion, patients with cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis were predominantly female, whereas those with non-cutaneous manifestations were predominantly male. This provocative finding is unexplained but may have direct relevance to the pathogenesis of Lyme borreliosis.

  12. [Clinical features of 32 patients with cutaneous small vessel vasculitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Maturana, Donaldo; Amaro, Patricio; Segovia, Laura; Balestrini, Claudia

    2004-02-01

    The skin is a common target of small vessel vasculitis, with a wide assortment of pathological changes. This condition is usually associated to systemic diseases. To report the clinical and pathological features of patients with cutaneous small vessel vasculitis. A retrospective review of 32 patients with a pathological diagnosis of cutaneous vasculitis. Seventy two percent of patients were women. Cutaneous lesions were mainly located in the lower limbs (94%). The most common lesion was palpable purpura (62%). Connective tissue diseases and systemic vasculitis were the most commonly associated systemic diseases. Palpable purpura is the most common manifestation of cutaneous small vessel vasculitis, that is usually associated to connective tissue diseases or systemic vasculitis.

  13. in experimental treatment of old world cutaneous leishmaniasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo efficacy of oral and intraperitoneal administration of extracts of Warburgia ugandensis (Canellaceae) in experimental treatment of old world cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major .

  14. Topical electrophilic nitro-fatty acids potentiate cutaneous inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Alicia R; Carey, Cara D; Killeen, Meaghan E; Salvatore, Sonia R; Ferris, Laura K; Freeman, Bruce A; Schopfer, Francisco J; Falo, Louis D

    2018-02-01

    Endogenous electrophilic fatty acids mediate anti-inflammatory responses by modulating metabolic and inflammatory signal transduction and gene expression. Nitro-fatty acids and other electrophilic fatty acids may thus be useful for the prevention and treatment of immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory skin disorders. In this regard, subcutaneous (SC) injections of nitro oleic acid (OA-NO 2 ), an exemplary nitro-fatty acid, inhibit skin inflammation in a model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Given the nitration of unsaturated fatty acids during metabolic and inflammatory processes and the growing use of fatty acids in topical formulations, we sought to further study the effect of nitro-fatty acids on cutaneous inflammation. To accomplish this, the effect of topically applied OA-NO 2 on skin inflammation was evaluated using established murine models of contact hypersensitivity (CHS). In contrast to the effects of subcutaneously injected OA-NO 2 , topical OA-NO 2 potentiated hapten-dependent inflammation inducing a sustained neutrophil-dependent inflammatory response characterized by psoriasiform histological features, increased angiogenesis, and an inflammatory infiltrate that included neutrophils, inflammatory monocytes, and γδ T cells. Consistent with these results, HPLC-MS/MS analysis of skin from psoriasis patients displayed a 56% increase in nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-NO 2 ) levels in lesional skin compared to non-lesional skin. These results suggest that nitro-fatty acids in the skin microenvironment are products of cutaneous inflammatory responses and, in high local concentrations, may exacerbate inflammatory skin diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. New targeted treatments for cutaneous T-cell Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Bagot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs represent a group of rare and heterogeneous diseases that are very difficult to treat at advanced stages. The development of monoclonal antibodies is a new hope for the treatment of these diseases. Alemtuzumab (Campath is a humanized IgG1 kappa monoclonal antibody specific for CD52, an antigen expressed by most T and B lymphocytes. Alemtuzumab may frequently induce long-term remissions in patients with Sezary syndrome but high-dose treatments lead to severe cytopenia, immune depletion, and opportunistic infections. This treatment is less efficient in mycosis fungoides (MF. Brentuximab vedotin is a chimeric anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody conjugated to monomethyl auristatin E, a cytotoxic antitubulin agent. Brentuximab vedotin is a very interesting new treatment for advanced tumor MF, Sezary syndrome, and primary cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders. The main limiting adverse event is neurosensitive peripheral neuropathy. Mogamulizumab is a humanized anti-C-C chemokine receptor Type 4 monoclonal antibody with a defucosylated Fc region leading to increased antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Mogamulizumab is very efficient on aggressive peripheral T-cell lymphomas, particularly adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and CTCLs, especially on the blood component of tumor cells. The main limiting events are related to the concomitant depletion of regulatory T-cells. IPH4102 is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the immune receptor KIR3DL2/CD158k. Preclinical results with this antibody offer proofs of concept for the clinical development of IPH4102 to treat patients with advanced CTCL.

  16. Inhibition of Neoplastic Transformation and Chemically-Induced Skin Hyperplasia in Mice by Traditional Chinese Medicinal Formula Si-Wu-Tang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy M. Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Exploring traditional medicines may lead to the development of low-cost and non-toxic cancer preventive agents. Si-Wu-Tang (SWT, comprising the combination of four herbs, Rehmanniae, Angelica, Chuanxiong, and Paeoniae, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines for women’s diseases. In our previous studies, the antioxidant Nrf2 pathways were strongly induced by SWT in vitro and in vivo. Since Nrf2 activation has been associated with anticarcinogenic effects, the purpose of this study is to evaluate SWT’s activity of cancer prevention. In the Ames test, SWT demonstrated an antimutagenic activity against mutagenicity induced by the chemical carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA. In JB6 P+ cells, a non-cancerous murine epidermal model for studying tumor promotion, SWT inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF-induced neoplastic transformation. The luciferase reporter gene assays demonstrated that SWT suppressed EGF-induced AP-1 and TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation, which are essential factors involved in skin carcinogenesis. In a DMBA-induced skin hyperplasia assay in ‘Sensitivity to Carcinogenesis’ (SENCAR mice, both topical and oral SWT inhibited DMBA-induced epidermal hyperplasia, expression of the proliferation marker Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, and H-ras mutations. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that SWT prevents tumor promoter and chemical-induced carcinogenesis in vitro and in vivo, partly by inhibiting DNA damage and blocking the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB.

  17. Cognitive and emotional impairments after cutaneous intoxication by CEES (a sulfur mustard analog) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros-Désormeaux, Fanny; Béracochéa, Daniel; Dorandeu, Frédéric; Piérard, Christophe

    2017-07-22

    Cognitive and emotional disorders have been reported in veterans intoxicated with sulfur mustard (SM) a chemical weapon belonging to the category of vesicating agents. However, the intense stress associated with the SM intoxication may render difficult determining the exact role played by SM intoxication itself on the emergence and maintaining of cognitive disorders. Animal's model would allow overcoming this issue. So far, we presently investigated the cognitive and emotional impact of an acute cutaneous intoxication with CEES (2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide), a SM analog in C57/Bl6 mice. Our study evidenced that up to 5days after a single acute neat CEES skin exposure, compared to controls, mice exhibited i) a significant increase in anxiety-like reactivity in an elevated plus-maze and in an open-field tasks and ii) an alteration of working memory in a sequential alternation task. In contrast, mice submitted to intoxication with a diluted CEES solution or hydrochloric acid (HCl) did not show any memory or emotional impairments. Given that, Our data shows that a single local cutaneous intoxication with neat CEES induced long-lasting cognitive and emotional pejorative effects, in accordance with the epidemiological observations in veterans. Thus, the single acute neat CEES cutaneous intoxication in mice could allow studying the sulfur mustard-induced cognitive and emotional disorders and their further counter-measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. ZNF23 Suppresses Cutaneous Melanoma Cell Malignancy via Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Cutaneous melanoma is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths with an increasing incidence worldwide. A KRAB-containing zinc finger protein member, zinc finger 23 (ZNF23, was reduced in some types of tumors and inhibited cell growth by inducing cell cycle arrest. However, the role of ZNF23 expression is still poorly understood in melanoma. Methods: The level of ZNF23 expression was detected in cutaneous melanoma, adjacent normal skin tissues and cutaneous melanoma cell lines using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The correlations between ZNF23 expression and other clinicopathologic parameters were analyzed in melanoma patients. Ectopic expression of ZNF23 plasmid was transfected into melanoma cells, SK-MEL-1 and SK-MEL-28. MTT, flow cytometry and transwell assay were used to measure cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration abilities, respectively. Mitochondrial functions and structures were detected by mitochondrial membrane potential assay and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM method in melanoma cells transfected with overexpressing ZNF23 plasmid or empty vector. Western blotting was performed to detect the levels of ZNF23, p53, p27, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 after overexpressing of ZNF23 in melanoma cells. Results: ZNF23 was elevated in adjacent normal skin tissues compared with melanoma tissues. Patients with low level of ZNF23 expression exhibited higher incidence of lymphoid metastasis, thicker size of tumors and worse outcome. By using Cox’s regression analysis, ZNF23 expression, tumor thickness and lymph node metastasis were the independent prognostic factors for overall survival (p < 0.05. Results from cellular experiments indicated that ectopic expression of ZNF23 induced cell apoptosis by activation of caspase-3, p27, p53 expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 through mitochondria-dependent pathway. Conclusions: Decreased ZNF23 was contributed to melanoma progression and poor survival

  19. [Cutaneous manifestations of male breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hali, Fouzia; Khadir, Khadija; Idhammou, Wassima; Bensardi, Fatima-Zahra; Lefriyekh, Mohamed-Rachid; Benider, Abdelatif; Zamiati, Soumia; Benchikhi, Hakima

    2011-11-01

    The appearance of skin symptoms in male breast is the main reason for consultation in our context. The aim of this study is to describe the various cutaneous manifestations of male breast cancer through a series of cases collected in a dermatology department. A retrospective study was conducted in the dermatology department at the CHU Ibn Rochd January 1988 to December 2009. All cases of male breast cancer initially diagnosed in dermatology were included. The various epidemiological, clinical, histological and therapeutic data were collected from medical records. Twenty cases were collected. The mean age was 61.25 years. Skin invasion by tumor was found in all patients, and it was the reason for consultation. It was a cutaneous involvement at the nipple and areola (17 cases) and at the periareolar skin (three cases). The clinical appearance of skin involvement was vegetative type in 12 cases, infiltrating with nipple retraction in five cases and nodule with skin change in three cases. The average period of consultation was 25 months. The axillary lymph nodes were noted in 11 patients and distant metastases in eight patients. The cutaneous metastases outside breast were noted in six patients. The histological types were: infiltrating ductal carcinoma in 15 cases (75%), papillary carcinoma in two cases (10%) and non-specific carcinoma in three cases (15%). The treatment was surgery in 14 patients and consisted of radical mastectomy with complete axillary nodal dissection according to Patey. Complementary therapies, chemotherapy or radiotherapy, were indicated in 14 patients. Our single-center study with dermatological recruitment illustrates the frequency and variety of skin disease in male breast cancer and demonstrates that they are still the main reason for consultation in our context. Better information for public and practitioners would allow earlier diagnosis and a more favourable prognosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Cutaneous drug hypersensitivity : Immunological and genetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisalay Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity is an unpredictable, immunologically mediated adverse reaction, clustered in a genetically predisposed individual. The role of "hapten concept" in immune sensitization has recently been contested by the "pharmacological interaction" hypothesis. After completion of the "human genome project" and with the availability of high-resolution genotyping, genetic susceptibility to hypersensitivity for certain drugs has been proved beyond doubt though the trend is ethnicity and phenotype dependent. Application of this newly acquired knowledge may reduce or abolish the morbidity and mortality associated with cutaneous drug hypersensitivity.

  1. Pitfalls in Cutaneous Melanoma Lymphatic Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinea, Silviu; Sandru, Angela; Gherghe, Mirela

    2016-01-01

    Sentinel node (SN) biopsy has become standard in staging of cutaneous melanoma. As skin lymphatic drainage is complex, preoperative empirical assessment of SN localization is virtually impossible. Therefore in order to identify all regional lymphatic basins corresponding to a specific primary tumor is mandatory to carry out preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. In this paper we present a clinical case that highlights the importance of identifying, biopsy and histological analysis of all SN in order to achieve a correct staging of the patient, followed by appropriate treatment according to the real clinical stage of the disease. Celsius.

  2. Cutaneous Manifestations in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Elif Demirgüneş

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: This study is designed to determine the prevalence and the clinical spectrum of skin diseases in renal transplant recipients (RTRs.Material and Method: In this study RTRs who were referred to our department between 2005 and 2007 for dermatologic examination were evaluated. Dermatologic investigation included direct clinical observation and culture or histolopathological investigation when indicated. Patients were divided into three groups: group A, post-transplantation periods £1 year; group B, post-transplantation periods of 1-5 years; and group C, post-transplantation periods >5 years. Results: In this study 88 (M=50, F=38 RTRs were evaluated. The mean age was 37 ± 12 years and the median interval since transplantation was 38.5 months (range=1 month-27 years. Over a 2-year period 298 cutaneous manifestations were identified. Ninety-five immunosuppressive (IS drug-related manifestations were observed in 58 (%65.9 patients and the most common one was acneiform eruption (n=23. Forty (45.5% patients developed cutaneous viral infections, consisting of verruca vulgaris (n=29, herpes zoster (n=9, herpes simplex (n=5, molluscum (n=2 and varicella (n=1 infections. Superficial fungal infections were observed in 35(39.2% patients, most common lesions were dermatophytosis (n = 23 and pityriasis versicolor (n=17. Bacterial infections were observed in 14 (%16 patients, folliculitis was present in 12 of them. Premalignant and malignant lesions were identified in 12 (%13.6 patients, consisting of actinic keratoses (n=9, basal cell carcinoma (n=2, squamous cell carcinoma (n=1 and Kaposi's sarcoma (n=1. There were more premalignant and malignant lesions in patients receiving azathioprine (p=0.002. Cutaneous viral infections were more common in group C (p=0.023 and IS drug-related manifestations were more common in group A (p=0.003. Conclusion: Most common cutaneous manifestation among RTRs was IS drug-related and seen in early post

  3. [Cutaneous panarteritis nodosa with destructive arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Ruiz, A; Calabozo Raluy, M; Manrique Martínez, P; Rossell Cerro, M; Múgica Sanperio, C; Goicoechea Marcaida, A

    1990-01-27

    The existence of arthritis in cutaneous panarteritis nodosa (CPAN) is controversial. We report a 52-year-old male with chronic destructive arthritis of both knees and palpable purpura in the feet, where the underlying histological finding was necrotizing arteritis. Systemic involvement was not demonstrated. AntiHBc and antiHBs antibodies were positive. Four of the 11 cases of CPAN with arthritis that we have found reported in the literature were well documented, and only one developed erosions of the joints. Our patient is the first reported case of CPAN with destructive arthritis and evidence of previous hepatitis B virus infection.

  4. Histological variants of cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantanowitz Liron

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review provides a comprehensive overview of the broad clinicopathologic spectrum of cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma (KS lesions. Variants discussed include: usual KS lesions associated with disease progression (i.e. patch, plaque and nodular stage; morphologic subtypes alluded to in the older literature such as anaplastic and telangiectatic KS, as well as several lymphedematous variants; and numerous recently described variants including hyperkeratotic, keloidal, micronodular, pyogenic granuloma-like, ecchymotic, and intravascular KS. Involuting lesions as a result of treatment related regression are also presented.

  5. Cutaneous histiocytic lesions: a clinical dilemma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahoti N

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of malignant histiocytosis requires a high index of clinical suspicion, awareness of its atypical features and availability of various tissue samples for morphological and special studies. The case reported here highlights the diagnostic difficulties encountered in a patient diagnosed as malignant histiocytosis who presented with cutaneous lesions in multiple foci, which included the face, groin and forearm. Only after repeated biopsies and special stains, a diagnosis of malignant histiocytosis was arrived at. Chemotherapy with CHOP regimen (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone was initiated. The response to chemotherapy was good and the patient is doing well eleven months after initial diagnosis.

  6. dermatology cutaneous manifestations of hiv/aids: part i

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    2004-11-01

    Nov 1, 2004 ... Cutaneous fungal infections are common in both HIV-infected ... ranging from superficial muco- cutaneous candidiasis to life- threatening disseminated infections like histoplasmosis. Fungal infections occur early in the course of HIV infection, when they manifest ... paronychia with nail dystrophy. Severe.

  7. Primary cutaneous malignancies in the Northern Cape Province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. A total of 4 270 biopsies (13 cutaneous malignancies) were identified. The commonest was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), followed by basal cell carcinoma, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) and basosquamous carcinoma, in descending order. The odds of a white male developing ...

  8. Isolation of Leishmania tropica from an Ethiopian cutaneous leishmaniasis patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hailu, Asrat; Di Muccio, Trentina; Abebe, Tamrat; Hunegnaw, Mesfin; Kager, Piet A.; Gramiccia, Marina

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the Old World is caused mainly by three species of Leishmania: L. major, L. tropica and L. aethiopica, and sporadically by L. infantum and L. donovani. In Ethiopia, zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by L. aethiopica, is a major public health problem affecting

  9. Cutaneous Carcinosarcoma with Metastasis to the Parotid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Tze Ling Loh; Jeanne Tomlinson; Ronald Chin; Guy D. Eslick

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous carcinosarcoma is a rare malignancy that exhibits both mesenchymal and epithelial components. It is similar to nonmelanoma skin cancers in terms of risk and prognostic factors. However, these malignancies are known to have a propensity for local recurrence and metastasis, even with adequate resection margins. Here we report a case of metastatic cutaneous carcinosarcoma to the parotid gland and review the relevant literature.

  10. Case Report: Generalized Cutaneous Candidiasis in a Preterm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment with topical ketoconazole and cotrimaxazole resulted in recovery. Conclusions Generalised cutaneous candidiasis in neonates is a rare disorder that results from Candida spp infection. This is probably the first report of generalised cutaneous candidiasis in neonates from a Nigerian institution. It further draws ...

  11. Organotypic in vitro models of human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, Suzan

    2013-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in fair-skinned populations. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) comprises about 15% of all skin cancer diagnoses. Treatment associated with the high and rising prevalence of cutaneous SCC puts an increasingly high financial burden on society,

  12. Cutaneous Aspergillosis at the site of ulceration from radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Fumiko; Okabe, Tomohiro.

    1979-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman with cutaneous aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus nidulans was observed. The infection developed at the site of ulceration from radiation, which occurred after operation and radiotherapy for breast cancer. In cases of cutaneous aspergillosis, saprophytic lesions can be seen. (Nishio, M.)

  13. Cutaneous myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis acquired in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraldi, S; Francia, C; Persico, M C; La Vela, V

    2009-12-01

    The authors describe a case of cutaneous myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis in a 23-year-old Italian woman who contracted the infestation during a tour in Jamaica. The infestation was located on the back and was characterized clinically by a single inflammatory nodule. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cutaneous myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis acquired in Jamaica.

  14. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sudan: an update | El Hassan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L.major is now endemic in many parts of the northern Sudan. In this up-date we discuss the clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis, its diagnosis and treatment. The most common clinical forms are nodular, noduloulcerative and ulcerative lesions. Less common forms are ...

  15. Cutaneous manifestations of malignant disease: A review | Legbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The skin is the largest and most accessible organ in the body. Internal malignancies can produce a wide range of cutaneous manifestations that are often neglected by clinicians. This review aims to increase the awareness of clinicians by highlighting the various cutaneous manifestations of common internal ...

  16. Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in HIV positive patient - A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV dual-infection is seldom reported. Leishmaniasis and HIV co-infection may intensify the immune defect and is the chief reason for atypical presentation and widespread progression of cutaneous leishmaniasis and its defiance to conventional therapy. Here we report a ...

  17. The changing profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis agent in a central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran is usually caused by Leishmania major or L. tropica. However, the direct examination or the cultures of biopsies for diagnosis are not very sensitive. The objective of this study was to identify the responsible species obtained from patients suspected of cutaneous leishmaniasis referred to the ...

  18. Coinfection of cutaneous leishmaniasis and hiv infection | Lartey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis has recently been discovered in some parts of Ghana. The case of an HIV infected patient presenting with cutaneous leishmaniasis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital is discussed. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was con-firmed by histology. Also highlighted is the fact that this is the first reported ...

  19. Acitretin for the management of generalized cutaneous lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirnia, Aria; Cohen, Philip R

    2014-09-16

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory disease that affects the skin, the oral mucosa, or both. Generalized cutaneous lichen planus may pose a therapeutic challenge for clinicians if the condition persists or flares after topical or systemic corticosteroid therapy. Acitretin, a systemic retinoid, can be considered a potential second-line treatment for patients with generalized cutaneous lichen planus. Herein, we describe a postmenopausal woman with generalized cutaneous lichen planus who was successfully treated with acitretin. A 58-year-old woman presented with generalized cutaneous lichen planus involving her upper and lower extremities as well as her lower back. After failing corticosteroid therapy, she was started on acitretin 20 mg/day, which was later increased to 30 mg/day. To review the literature on the use of acitretin in cutaneous lichen planus, we used the PubMed search engine and searched for the terms "acitretin" and "cutaneous lichen planus." Our patient had complete resolution of pruritus within one week of initiating acitretin 20 mg/day. After an increase in dose to 30 mg/day, the cutaneous lesions completely resolved over a 3-month period. There was no recurrence of disease as acitretin was tapered and discontinued. Generalized cutaneous lichen planus may pose a therapeutic challenge for the symptomatic relief of skin lesions. Topical and systemic corticosteroids are first-line treatments. In patients who fail corticosteroids, relapse after corticosteroid therapy, or have contraindications to corticosteroids, acitretin may be considered a potential second-line therapy.

  20. Isolated cutaneous leishmaniasis over face – A diagnostic dilemma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolated cutaneous leishmaniasis over face – A diagnostic dilemma. Santosh K. Swain, Ishwar C. Behera, Mahesh C. Sahu, Maitreyee Panda. Abstract. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a disease caused by an intracellular protozoa belong to the genus Leishmania, transmitted by the bite of a sandfly. It has diverse clinical ...

  1. The changing profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis agent in a central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    introduced to non-endemic areas, leading to the emergence of new zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) foci, provided that ecological conditions such as the presence of potential vectors and reservoir hosts, are in favor of the parasite lifecycle. Therefore, we could hypothesize that zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis had ...

  2. DNA-protein immunization using Leishmania peroxidoxin-1 induces a strong CD4+ T cell response and partially protects mice from cutaneous leishmaniasis: role of fusion murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor DNA adjuvant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Genetu Bayih

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, no universally effective and safe vaccine has been developed for general human use. Leishmania donovani Peroxidoxin-1 (LdPxn-1 is a member of the antioxidant family of proteins and is predominantly expressed in the amastigote stage of the parasite. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of LdPxn-1 in BALB/c mice in heterologous DNA-Protein immunization regimen in the presence of fusion murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGMCSF DNA adjuvant.A fusion DNA of LdPxn1 and mGMCSF was cloned into a modified pcDNA vector. To confirm the expression in mammalian system, Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected with the plasmid vector containing LdPxn1 gene. BALB/c mice were immunized twice with pcDNA-mGMCSF-LdPxn-1 or pcDNA-LdPxn1 DNA and boosted once with recombinant LdPxn-1 protein. Three weeks after the last immunization, mice were infected with Leishmania major promastigotes. The result showed that immunization with pcDNA-mGMCSF-LdPxn1 elicited a mixed Th-1/Th-2 immune response with significantly higher production of IFN-γ than controls. Intracellular cytokine staining of antigen-stimulated spleen cells showed that immunization with this antigen elicited significantly higher proportion of CD4+ T cells that express IFN-γ, TNF-α, or IL-2. The antigen also induced significantly higher proportion of multipotent CD4+ cells that simultaneously express the three Th-1 cytokines. Moreover, a significant reduction in the footpad swelling was seen in mice immunized with pcDNA-mGMCSF-LdPxn1 antigen. Expression study in CHO cells demonstrated that pcDNA-mGMCSF-LdPxn-1 was expressed in mammalian system.The result demonstrates that immunization of BALB/c mice with a plasmid expressing LdPxn1 in the presence of mGMCSF adjuvant elicits a strong specific immune response with high level induction of multipotent CD4+ cells that mediate protection of the mice from Leishmania major infection. To

  3. Cutaneous lichen planus: A systematic review of treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Nasim

    2015-06-01

    Various treatment modalities are available for cutaneous lichen planus. Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Health Technology Assessment Database were searched for all the systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials related to cutaneous lichen planus. Two systematic reviews and nine relevant randomized controlled trials were identified. Acitretin, griseofulvin, hydroxychloroquine and narrow band ultraviolet B are demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of cutaneous lichen planus. Sulfasalazine is effective, but has an unfavorable safety profile. KH1060, a vitamin D analogue, is not beneficial in the management of cutaneous lichen planus. Evidence from large scale randomized trials demonstrating the safety and efficacy for many other treatment modalities used to treat cutaneous lichen planus is simply not available.

  4. Inhibition of carcinogen induced c-Ha-ras and c-fos proto-oncogenes expression by dietary curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipigorngoson Suwiwek

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the chemopreventive action of dietary curcumin on 7,12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA-initiated and 12,0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA-promoted skin tumor formation in Swiss albino mice. Curcumin, a yellow coloring matter isolated from roots of Curcuma longa Linn, is a phenolic compound possessing antioxidant, free radical scavenger, and antiinflammatory properties. It has been shown by previously reported work that TPA-induced skin tumors were inhibited by topical application of curcumin, and curcumin has been shown to inhibit a variety of biological activities of TPA. Topical application of curcumin was reported to inhibit TPA-induced c-fos, c-jun and c-myc gene expression in mouse skin. This paper reports the effects of orally administered curcumin, which was consumed as a dietary component at concentrations of 0.2 % or 1 %, in ad libitum feeding. Results Animals in which tumors had been initiated with DMBA and promoted with TPA experienced significantly fewer tumors and less tumor volume if they ingested either 0.2% or 1% curcumin diets. Also, the dietary consumption of curcumin resulted in a significantly decreased expression of ras and fos proto-oncogenes in the tumorous skin, as measured by enhanced chemiluminesence Western blotting detection system (Amersham. Conclusions Whereas earlier work demonstrated that topical application of curcumin to mouse skin inhibited TPA-induced expression of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc oncogenes, our results are the first to show that orally consumed curcumin significantly inhibited DMBA- and TPA-induced ras and fos gene expression in mouse skin.

  5. Inhibition of carcinogen induced c-Ha-ras and c-fos proto-oncogenes expression by dietary curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limtrakul, Porn-ngarm; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Lipigorngoson, Suwiwek; Dunn, Floyd W

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the chemopreventive action of dietary curcumin on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12,0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted skin tumor formation in Swiss albino mice. Curcumin, a yellow coloring matter isolated from roots of Curcuma longa Linn, is a phenolic compound possessing antioxidant, free radical scavenger, and antiinflammatory properties. It has been shown by previously reported work that TPA-induced skin tumors were inhibited by topical application of curcumin, and curcumin has been shown to inhibit a variety of biological activities of TPA. Topical application of curcumin was reported to inhibit TPA-induced c-fos, c-jun and c-myc gene expression in mouse skin. This paper reports the effects of orally administered curcumin, which was consumed as a dietary component at concentrations of 0.2 % or 1 %, in ad libitum feeding. Animals in which tumors had been initiated with DMBA and promoted with TPA experienced significantly fewer tumors and less tumor volume if they ingested either 0.2% or 1% curcumin diets. Also, the dietary consumption of curcumin resulted in a significantly decreased expression of ras and fos proto-oncogenes in the tumorous skin, as measured by enhanced chemiluminesence Western blotting detection system (Amersham). Whereas earlier work demonstrated that topical application of curcumin to mouse skin inhibited TPA-induced expression of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc oncogenes, our results are the first to show that orally consumed curcumin significantly inhibited DMBA- and TPA-induced ras and fos gene expression in mouse skin

  6. Ten days of repeated local forearm heating does not affect cutaneous vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Michael A; Brunt, Vienna E; Jensen, Krista Nicole; Lorenzo, Santiago; Minson, Christopher T

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether 10 days of repeated local heating could induce peripheral adaptations in the cutaneous vasculature and to investigate potential mechanisms of adaptation. We also assessed maximal forearm blood flow to determine whether repeated local heating affects maximal dilator capacity. Before and after 10 days of heat training consisting of 1-h exposures of the forearm to 42°C water or 32°C water (control) in the contralateral arm (randomized and counterbalanced), we assessed hyperemia to rapid local heating of the skin ( n = 14 recreationally active young subjects). In addition, sequential doses of acetylcholine (ACh, 1 and 10 mM) were infused in a subset of subjects ( n = 7) via microdialysis to study potential nonthermal microvascular adaptations following 10 days of repeated forearm heat training. Skin blood flow was assessed using laser-Doppler flowmetry, and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as laser-Doppler red blood cell flux divided by mean arterial pressure. Maximal cutaneous vasodilation was achieved by heating the arm in a water-spray device for 45 min and assessed using venous occlusion plethysmography. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) was calculated as forearm blood flow divided by mean arterial pressure. Repeated forearm heating did not increase plateau percent maximal CVC (CVC max ) responses to local heating (89 ± 3 vs. 89 ± 2% CVC max , P = 0.19), 1 mM ACh (43 ± 9 vs. 53 ± 7% CVC max , P = 0.76), or 10 mM ACh (61 ± 9 vs. 85 ± 7% CVC max , P = 0.37, by 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA). There was a main effect of time at 10 mM ACh ( P = 0.03). Maximal FVC remained unchanged (0.12 ± 0.02 vs. 0.14 ± 0.02 FVC, P = 0.30). No differences were observed in the control arm. Ten days of repeated forearm heating in recreationally active young adults did not improve the microvascular responsiveness to ACh or local heating. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show for the first time that 10 days of repeated

  7. Tempol augments the blunted cutaneous microvascular thermal reactivity in healthy young African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurr, Chansol; Patik, Jordan C; Kim, KiYoung; Christmas, Kevin M; Brothers, R Matthew

    2018-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? The purpose was to determine whether there is a difference between African Americans and Caucasians in cutaneous microvascular function and whether this difference is attributable to elevated oxidative stress. What is the main finding and its importance? The main finding is that African Americans have an attenuated cutaneous vasodilatation during local heating relative to Caucasians that is restored with local infusion of the superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol. This suggests that superoxide mediates microvascular dysfunction and might contribute to the greater prevalence of cardiovascular disease in this population. African Americans (AA) have elevated risk for cardiovascular disease relative to other populations. We hypothesized that the cutaneous hyperaemic response to local heating is reduced in young AA relative to Caucasian Americans (CA) and that this is attributable to elevated oxidative stress. As such, ascorbic acid (a global antioxidant) and tempol (a superoxide dismutase mimetic) would improve this response in AA. Microdialysis fibres received lactated Ringer solution (control), 10 mm ascorbic acid or 10 μm 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (tempol) at a rate of 2.0 μl min -1 . Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as the red blood cell flux divided by mean arterial pressure. Data were presented as a percentage of maximal CVC (%CVC max ) induced by 44°C heating plus sodium nitroprusside. Twenty-four (12 AA, 12 CA) young (23 ± 4 years old) subjects participated. During 39°C heating, the %CVC max was lower in AA at the control (CA, 65 ± 20% versus AA, 47 ± 15%; P tempol site, there were no differences between groups. This was followed by infusion of 10 mm l-NAME at all sites to assess the contribution of nitric oxide to vasodilatation during local heating. The contribution of nitric oxide was lower in AA relative to CA at 39°C; however, this was restored with

  8. Severe cutaneous adverse reactions to antiepileptic drugs in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C-Y; Dao, R-L; Lee, T-J; Lu, C-W; Yang, C-H; Hung, S-I; Chung, W-H

    2011-12-06

    Ethnicity has been shown to be a contributing risk factor regarding antiepileptic drug (AED)-induced severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs). To increase the clinical and epidemiologic information in Asians, we investigated the characteristics, outcome, and tolerability toward alternative drugs for AED-induced SCARs. A total of 154 patients with AED-induced SCARs, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrosis (TEN), and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), were analyzed for demographic characteristics, causative AEDs, latent period, organ involvement, complications, and mortality. Tolerability toward alternative AEDs was followed for patients after AED-SCARs episodes. Carbamazepine (CBZ) and phenytoin (PHT) were the most common causative AEDs for SJS/TEN (67.8%) and DRESS (43.6%), respectively. No SCARs case was caused by nonaromatic AEDs, e.g., valproic acid (VPA) and topiramate (TPM). The liver was the most frequently involved internal organ in AED-DRESS, whereas ocular complications were more commonly seen in AED-SJS/TEN. The mortality of AED-SJS/TEN and -DRESS was 6.1% and 7.7%, respectively. By following alternative AED usage of patients after AED-SCARs episodes, we noted that most patients were tolerant of nonaromatic AEDs. One case of oxcarbazepine-SJS had cross-hypersensitivity to lamotrigine (LTG) and further developed into DRESS. CBZ, PHT, and LTG were the major causative AEDs for SCARs. The mortality of PHT-SCARs was higher than CBZ-SCARs due to complicated comorbidity in patients. Nonaromatic AEDs were safe alternatives for patients with aromatic AED-induced SCARs.

  9. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.A. Lima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry.

  10. Prevalence of cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Muhammad, Z.; Qayum, I.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycaemia due to absolute or relative insulin deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of skin manifestations in patients with diabetes mellitus of this area. This descriptive study was conducted in medical out patient door of District Headquarter Hospital Battgram from January 2008 to July 2008. A total of 350 diabetic (types 1 and 2) patients over 15 years of age attending the medical OPD of DHQ Hospital were examined in detail for skin manifestations of the disease. Three hundred and fifty diabetic (type-1 and type-2) patients (193 females and 157 males) enrolled in this study. Mean age of the patients was 54+-8.53 years. Duration of diabetes was between 1-12 years; 320 patients had type-2 and 30 patients had type-1 diabetes mellitus. Patients with uncontrolled disease were 327 and 23 patients showed adequate glycaemic control. Seventy-six percent of patients had cutaneous manifestations. The skin manifestations observed were: skin infections 30.9%, foot gangrene and ulcers 12.9%, pruritus 7.1%, vitiligo 5.7%, yellow skin 4.2%, diabetic dermopathy 4.2%, skin tags 3.7%, acanthosis nigricans 2.9%, eruptive xanthomas 2.6%, necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum 1.4%, diabetic bullae 0.6%, and pigmented purpuras in 0.3% patients. Cutaneous manifestations were quite Common in the diabetics of this area. (author)

  11. Primary cutaneous melanoma: an 18-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moris Anger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary cutaneous melanoma still constitutes the main cause of skin cancer death in developed countries, and its incidence in recent years has been increasing in a steady, worrisome manner. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the clinical, epidemiological and demographic aspects of this disease, and correlated them with patient prognosis. METHODS: Using epidemiologic and clinical data, we analyzed 84 patients with mild to severe primary cutaneous melanoma treated between 1990 and 2007. Slides containing surgical specimens were analyzed, and new slides were made from archived paraffin sections when necessary. RESULTS: The melanoma incidence was higher in areas of sun exposure, with lesions commonly observed in the trunk for males, and lower limbs for females. In addition to Breslow's thickness and ulceration (p = 0.043 and p 1 mm and 4 mm and the mitotic index (0 when absent or 1 when >1 per mm² allowed the establishment of a prognostic score: if the sum was equal to or over three, nearly all (91.7% patients had systemic disease. The 5-year survival was approximately seventy percent. CONCLUSION: Because American Join Committee of Cancer Staging will update the classification of malignant tumors (TNM staging in the near future, and introduce mitosis as a prognostic factor, our results show the importance of such a feature. Additional studies are necessary to confirm the importance of a prognostic score as proposed herein.

  12. Wound Healing of Cutaneous Sulfur Mustard Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John S.; Chilcott, Robert P.; Rice, Paul; Milner, Stephen M.; Hurst, Charles G.; Maliner, Beverly I.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfur mustard is an alkylating chemical warfare agent that primarily affects the eyes, skin, and airways. Sulfur mustard injuries can take several months to heal, necessitate lengthy hospitalizations, and result in significant cosmetic and/or functional deficits. Historically, blister aspiration and/or deroofing (epidermal removal), physical debridement, irrigation, topical antibiotics, and sterile dressings have been the main courses of action in the medical management of cutaneous sulfur mustard injuries. Current treatment strategy consists of symptomatic management and is designed to relieve symptoms, prevent infections, and promote healing. There are currently no standardized or optimized methods of casualty management that prevent or minimize deficits and provide for speedy wound healing. Several laboratories are actively searching for improved therapies for cutaneous vesicant injury, with the aim of returning damaged skin to optimal appearance and normal function in the shortest time. Improved treatment will result in a better cosmetic and functional outcome for the patient, and will enable the casualty to return to normal activities sooner. This editorial gives brief overviews of sulfur mustard use, its toxicity, concepts for medical countermeasures, current treatments, and strategies for the development of improved therapies. PMID:16921406

  13. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis – Dermoscopic Findings And Cryotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrev Hristo P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a 60-year-old male patient who, three months after a holiday in Southern Greece, found a small ‘pimple’ on his back, which gradually got as big as a small walnut, the central part becoming ulcerated and scabby. Dermatological examination found an erythematous-to-livid nodular lesion on the right shoulder; it was 16 mm in diameter with central ulceration, covered with brownish crust which discharged pus-like secretion upon pressure. Microscope examination of Romanowsky-Giemsa stained lesion material detected amastigote forms of Leishmania tropica. The culture investigation and serological tests for leishmaniasis were negative. Dermoscopy of the lesion found the following features: erythema, hyperkeratosis, central ulceration covered with brownish crust, “yellow tears-like” structures and “white starburst-like” patterns, and various vascular structures (including dotted vessels, comma-shaped vessels, hairpin- and glomerular-like vessels. The patient was diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis and underwent four cryotherapy sessions every other week with excellent therapeutic results - complete resolution of infiltrate with subsequent gentle hypopigmented scarring. In conclusion, dermoscopy is an easily accessible non-invasive method which can be useful for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Cryotherapy is the treatment of choice for single skin lesions.

  14. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Harnalikar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis, a systemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum var capsulatum and Histoplasma capsulatum var duboisii is endemic to many parts of the world. The clinical manifestations range from acute or chronic pulmonary infection to a progressive disseminated disease. After initial exposure to the fungus, the infection is self-limited and restricted to the lungs in 99% of healthy individuals. The remaining 1%, however, progress to either disseminated or chronic disease involving the lungs, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow or rarely, the skin and mucous membranes. Mucocutaneous histoplasmosis is frequently reported in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, but it is rare in immunocompetent hosts. A 60-year-old male presented with asymptomatic swelling of the hard palate and crusted papules and nodules over the extremities, face and trunk. Clinically, the diagnoses of cutaneous cryptococcosis versus histoplasmosis was considered in this patient. A chest X-ray revealed hilar lymphadenopathy. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV was nonreactive. Skin biopsy revealed multiple tiny intracellular round yeast forms with a halo in the mid-dermis. Culture of the skin biopsy in Sabouraud′s dextrose agar showed colonies of Histoplasma capsulatum. Despite an investigation including no evidence of underlying immunosuppression was found, he was started on IV amphotericin-B (0.5 mg/kg/day. However, the patient succumbed to his disease 2 days after presentation. We report a rare case of disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent individual.

  15. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, C.M.A.; Lima, A.R.; Degenhardt, Ä.L.; Da Silva, F.C.A., E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Valverde, N.J. [Fundacao Eletronuclear de Assistencia Medica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry. (author)

  16. Alterations of serum antioxidant trace elements (Se, Zn and Cu status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Farzin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the serum antioxidant trace elements selenium (Se, zinc (Zn and copper (Cu in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. Methods: In this study, serum Se, Zn and Cu was determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (n=95. The values were statistically compared between patients and control group (n=100 using One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Our results showed that there was a significant difference in the values of Se and Zn between two groups (P0.05. Se and Zn levels were found to be (4.33依1.06 and (70.23依19.12 µg/dL in cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, and these values were found statistically lower compared to the controls (11.10依2.37 and (119.61依26.18 µg/dL, respectively. Conclusions: The observations that host products are released from stimulated leukocytes and could induce metabolic changes similar to an acute-phase response revealed an endocrine role for the immune system. Characteristic changes in trace-mineral metabolism are an integral part of the acute-phase response. The changes are usually reflected in decreased serum Se and Zn concentrations.

  17. Stimulation of cutaneous wound healing by an FPR2-specific peptide agonist WKYMVm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yang Woo; Heo, Soon Chul; Jang, Il Ho; Jeong, Geun Ok; Yoon, Jung Won; Mun, Je-Ho; Kim, Jae Ho

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common human diseases and 15% of the 200 million diabetics worldwide suffer from diabetic wounds. Development of new therapeutic agents is needed for treatment of diabetic wounds. Wound healing is mediated by multiple steps, including inflammation, epithelialization, neoangiogenesis, and granulation. Formyl peptide receptor 2 has been known to stimulate angiogenesis, which is essential for tissue repair and cutaneous wound healing. In this study, we explored the therapeutic effects of WKYMVm (Trp-Lys-Tyr-Met-Val-D-Met-NH2), a synthetic peptide agonist of formyl peptide receptor 2, on cutaneous wounds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Topical application of WKYMVm onto cutaneous wounds stimulated formation of von Willebrand factor-positive capillary and α-smooth muscle actin-positive arteriole with a maximal stimulation on day 6, suggesting WKYMVm-stimulated angiogenesis. Infiltration of immune cells could be detected on early phase during wound healing and WKYMVm treatment acutely augmented infiltration of CD68-positive macrophages. In addition, reepithelialization and granulation tissue formation were accelerated by treatment with WKYMVm. These results suggest that WKYMVm has therapeutic effects on diabetic wounds by stimulating angiogenesis and infiltration of immune cells. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  18. Acute Radiation Disease : Cutaneous Syndrome and Toxic properties of Radiomimetics -Radiation Neurotoxins and Hematotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Cutaneous injury is an important complication of a general or local acute irradiation. A type of a skin and tissues lesions depends on a type, intensity, and period of irradiation. Also, the clinical picture, signs, and manifestations of the cutaneous syndrome depend on a type of the radiation toxins circulated in lymph and blood of irradiated mammals. Radiation Toxins were isolated from lymph of the mammals that were irradiated and developed different forms of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) -Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, and Hematopoietic. Radiation Toxins can be divided into the two important types of toxins (Neu-rotoxins and Hematotoxins) or four groups. The effects of Radiation Neurotoxins include severe damages and cell death of brain, heart, gastrointestinal tissues and endothelial cells of blood and lymphatic vessels. The hematotoxicity of Hematotoxic Radiation Toxins includes lym-phopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia in the blood circulation and transitory lymphocytosis and leukocytosis in the Central Lymphatic System. In all cases, administration of the Radiomimetics (Radiation Toxins) intramuscularly or intravenously to healthy, radiation naive mammals had induced and developed the typical clinical manifestations of the ARS. In all cases, administration of Radiomimetics by subtoxic doses had demonstrated development of typical clinical signs of the cutaneous syndrome such as hair loss, erythema, swelling, desqua-mation, blistering and skin necrosis. In animal-toxic models, we have activated development of the local skin and tissue injury after injection of Radiation Toxins with cytoxic properties.

  19. Signet-Ring Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising on the Back of the Finger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Nakajima

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of pathologic variants of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC has been reported, and the signet-ring variant of cutaneous SCC is extremely uncommon. We reported an 83-year-old man with signet-ring SCC arising on the back of the finger. As far as we know, only 4 cases have been described in detail, and one dermatopathologic report focused on the presence of signet-ring cells briefly described in clinical data of 6 cases. Interestingly, in these reports, the skin lesions of 10 cases occurred exclusively in the head and neck area. This case involved a skin lesion on the back of the finger and is thus the first reported case of signet-cell cutaneous SCC that did not arise in the head and neck area. The location of this lesion, together with the histological findings compatible with actinic keratosis, support the hypothesis that the development of signet-ring SCC is related to ultraviolet light-induced damage.

  20. Tempol improves cutaneous thermal hyperemia through increasing nitric oxide bioavailability in young smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Brunt, Vienna E.

    2014-01-01

    We recently found that young cigarette smokers display cutaneous vascular dysfunction relative to nonsmokers, which is partially due to reduced nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS)-dependent vasodilation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that reducing oxidative stress improves NO bioavailability, enhancing cutaneous vascular function in young smokers. Ten healthy young male smokers, who had smoked for 6.3 ± 0.7 yr with an average daily consumption of 9.1 ± 0.7 cigarettes, were tested. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) during local heating to 42°C at a rate of 0.1°C/s was evaluated as laser-Doppler flux divided by mean arterial blood pressure and normalized to maximal CVC, induced by local heating to 44°C plus sodium nitroprusside administration. We evaluated plateau CVC during local heating, which is known to be highly dependent on NO, at four intradermal microdialysis sites with 1) Ringer solution (control); 2) 10 μM 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (tempol), a superoxide dismutase mimetic; 3) 10 mM Nω-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA), a nonspecific NOS inhibitor; and 4) a combination of 10 μM tempol and 10 mM l-NNA. Tempol increased plateau CVC compared with the Ringer solution site (90.0 ± 2.3 vs. 77.6 ± 3.9%maximum, P = 0.028). Plateau CVC at the combination site (56.8 ± 4.5%maximum) was lower than the Ringer solution site (P tempol effect was exclusively NO dependent. These data suggest that in young smokers, reducing oxidative stress improves cutaneous thermal hyperemia to local heating by enhancing NO production. PMID:24682395

  1. Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran; an Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazirianzadeh B.* PhD,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a prevalent parasitological disease with diverse clinical manifestations in Iran. Therefore, the present retrospective study carried out to describe the demographic features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran. Materials & Methods This descriptive study was performed on 136 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients whose data were recorded in the Ramshir health center during 2006-9. Demographic information of patients including age, sex, habitat and sites of lesions, month and years of incidence were recorded. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software. Findings Totally 79 patients (58.1% resided in urban areas and the born to 9 years (49.3% was recognized as the most infected age group. Hands (41.2% had the highest rates of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions followed by face (36.0% and foot (22.8%. The maximum number of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions was reported in March. Conclusion As cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir seemed to be an endemic rural type, the appropriate preventing measures regarding to the rural cutaneous leishmaniasis should be considered to decrease incidence of the disease in the region.

  2. Cutaneous Findings Mistaken for Physical Abuse: Present but Not Pervasive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kimberly A; Metz, James; Feldman, Kenneth; Sidbury, Robert; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2014-02-26

    Incorrect diagnoses during child abuse evaluations are serious. Because skin lesions are common in abuse, it is important to consider cutaneous mimics of physical abuse. The current study prospectively identified cutaneous mimics in a cohort of children evaluated for possible physical abuse. This is a secondary analysis of data from the Examining Siblings To Recognize Abuse research network's prospective, observational, cross-sectional study involving 20 U.S. child abuse teams. Subjects were younger than 10 years old and were evaluated by child abuse physicians (CAPs) for concerns of physical abuse. CAPs prospectively documented whether mimics were identified during their physical abuse evaluations. Details of each patient with cutaneous mimics were evaluated to determine the types of mimics, which part of the evaluations identified mimics, and the perceived abuse likelihood. Of 2,890 children evaluated for physical abuse, 137 had at least one mimic identified and 69 had some cutaneous mimic components. Although 985 of 2,753 (39%) subjects without mimics had high levels of abuse concern, only 9 of 137 (6%) children with mimics had high levels of abuse concern (p physical examination. Cutaneous abuse mimics were identified in 2.4% of children evaluated for physical abuse. Although it was eventually determined that there was little or no concern for abuse in 84% of children with cutaneous mimics, a small number were physically abused. CAP evaluation may be valuable in recognizing children with cutaneous mimics who also were abused. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Wearing graduated compression stockings augments cutaneous vasodilation in heat-stressed resting humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Nikawa, Toshiya; Tsuji, Bun; Kondo, Narihiko; Kenny, Glen P; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2017-05-01

    We investigated whether graduated compression induced by stockings enhances cutaneous vasodilation in passively heated resting humans. Nine habitually active young men were heated at rest using water-perfusable suits, resulting in a 1.0 °C increase in body core temperature. Heating was repeated twice on separate occasions while wearing either (1) stockings that cause graduated compression (pressures of 26.4 ± 5.3, 17.5 ± 4.4, and 6.1 ± 2.0 mmHg at the ankle, calf, and thigh, respectively), or (2) loose-fitting stockings without causing compression (Control). Forearm vascular conductance during heating was evaluated by forearm blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) divided by mean arterial pressure to estimate heat-induced cutaneous vasodilation. Body core (esophageal), skin, and mean body temperatures were measured continuously. Compared to the Control, forearm vascular conductance during heating was higher with graduated compression stockings (e.g., 23.2 ± 5.5 vs. 28.6 ± 5.8 units at 45 min into heating, P = 0.001). In line with this, graduated compression stockings resulted in a greater sensitivity (27.5 ± 8.3 vs. 34.0 ± 9.4 units °C -1 , P = 0.02) and peak level (25.5 ± 5.8 vs. 29.7 ± 5.8 units, P = 0.004) of cutaneous vasodilation as evaluated from the relationship between forearm vascular conductance with mean body temperature. In contrast, the mean body temperature threshold for increases in forearm vascular conductance did not differ between the Control and graduated compression stockings (36.5 ± 0.1 vs. 36.5 ± 0.2 °C, P = 0.85). Our results show that graduated compression associated with the use of stockings augments cutaneous vasodilation by modulating sensitivity and peak level of cutaneous vasodilation in relation to mean body temperature. However, the effect of these changes on whole-body heat loss remains unclear.

  4. Chimeric L2-Based Virus-Like Particle (VLP Vaccines Targeting Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses (HPV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Huber

    Full Text Available Common cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV types induce skin warts, whereas species beta HPV are implicated, together with UV-radiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC in immunosuppressed patients. Licensed HPV vaccines contain virus-like particles (VLP self-assembled from L1 major capsid proteins that provide type-restricted protection against mucosal HPV infections causing cervical and other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal carcinomas and warts (condylomas, but do not target heterologous HPV. Experimental papillomavirus vaccines have been designed based on L2 minor capsid proteins that contain type-common neutralization epitopes, to broaden protection to heterologous mucosal and cutaneous HPV types. Repetitive display of the HPV16 L2 cross-neutralization epitope RG1 (amino acids (aa 17-36 on the surface of HPV16 L1 VLP has greatly enhanced immunogenicity of the L2 peptide. To more directly target cutaneous HPV, L1 fusion proteins were designed that incorporate the RG1 homolog of beta HPV17, the beta HPV5 L2 peptide aa53-72, or the common cutaneous HPV4 RG1 homolog, inserted into DE surface loops of HPV1, 5, 16 or 18 L1 VLP scaffolds. Baculovirus expressed chimeric proteins self-assembled into VLP and VLP-raised NZW rabbit immune sera were evaluated by ELISA and L1- and L2-based pseudovirion (PsV neutralizing assays, including 12 novel beta PsV types. Chimeric VLP displaying the HPV17 RG1 epitope, but not the HPV5L2 aa53-72 epitope, induced cross-neutralizing humoral immune responses to beta HPV. In vivo cross-protection was evaluated by passive serum transfer in a murine PsV challenge model. Immune sera to HPV16L1-17RG1 VLP (cross- protected against beta HPV5/20/24/38/96/16 (but not type 76, while antisera to HPV5L1-17RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV20/24/96 only, and sera to HPV1L1-4RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV4 challenge. In conclusion, RG1-based VLP are promising next generation vaccine candidates to target

  5. Chimeric L2-Based Virus-Like Particle (VLP) Vaccines Targeting Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses (HPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Bettina; Schellenbacher, Christina; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Jindra, Christoph; Christensen, Neil; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Common cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types induce skin warts, whereas species beta HPV are implicated, together with UV-radiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in immunosuppressed patients. Licensed HPV vaccines contain virus-like particles (VLP) self-assembled from L1 major capsid proteins that provide type-restricted protection against mucosal HPV infections causing cervical and other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal carcinomas and warts (condylomas), but do not target heterologous HPV. Experimental papillomavirus vaccines have been designed based on L2 minor capsid proteins that contain type-common neutralization epitopes, to broaden protection to heterologous mucosal and cutaneous HPV types. Repetitive display of the HPV16 L2 cross-neutralization epitope RG1 (amino acids (aa) 17-36) on the surface of HPV16 L1 VLP has greatly enhanced immunogenicity of the L2 peptide. To more directly target cutaneous HPV, L1 fusion proteins were designed that incorporate the RG1 homolog of beta HPV17, the beta HPV5 L2 peptide aa53-72, or the common cutaneous HPV4 RG1 homolog, inserted into DE surface loops of HPV1, 5, 16 or 18 L1 VLP scaffolds. Baculovirus expressed chimeric proteins self-assembled into VLP and VLP-raised NZW rabbit immune sera were evaluated by ELISA and L1- and L2-based pseudovirion (PsV) neutralizing assays, including 12 novel beta PsV types. Chimeric VLP displaying the HPV17 RG1 epitope, but not the HPV5L2 aa53-72 epitope, induced cross-neutralizing humoral immune responses to beta HPV. In vivo cross-protection was evaluated by passive serum transfer in a murine PsV challenge model. Immune sera to HPV16L1-17RG1 VLP (cross-) protected against beta HPV5/20/24/38/96/16 (but not type 76), while antisera to HPV5L1-17RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV20/24/96 only, and sera to HPV1L1-4RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV4 challenge. In conclusion, RG1-based VLP are promising next generation vaccine candidates to target cutaneous HPV

  6. Methotrexate-induced necrolysis in tumoral-stage mycosis fungoides: a challenging diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mna, Amira Ben; Souissi, Asmahene; Halouani, Slim; El Euch, Dalenda; Zahani, Alia; Kchir, Nidham; Zaraa, Ines; Mokni, Mourad

    2016-01-15

    Methotrexate-induced cutaneous ulceration is a rare but potentially serious drug adverse reaction. This adverse reaction of methotrexate therapy has been initially described in psoriasis patients and is unusual in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. In 1978, Mc Donald et al reported the first three cases of cutaneous ulcerations in patients treated for a mycosis fungoides with intravenous infusions of methotrexate. Since then, few cases of methotrexate-induced skin ulcers in patients with mycosis fungoides have been published. We report an additional patient with erythrodermic mycosis fungoides who developed cutaneous ulcerations as a sole manifestation of methotrexate toxicity.

  7. Toxigenic cutaneous diphtheria in a returned traveller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahim, Nur R; Koehler, Ann P; Shaw, Doug D; Graham, Caitlin R

    2014-12-31

    Diphtheria is rarely reported in Australia. A case of cutaneous diphtheria was reported to the South Australian Department for Health and Ageing in April 2013 in an Australian-born 18-year-old female following travel in India. The case presented with a skin ulcer on her toe. Toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae was isolated from a swab of the lesion. The case was treated with antibiotics. The public health response included infection control advice, assessing the case and household contacts for organism carriage and providing antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis to contacts. Although cutaneous diphtheria is not included as part of the Australian communicable disease surveillance case definition, this may be an oversight as international evidence demonstrates that it is a source of organism transmission and can potentially result in outbreaks among susceptible populations. This formed the rationale for the public health response to this particular case. The protocol for the public health management of diphtheria in South Australia has since been revised to include cutaneous lesions caused by the toxigenic strain of the organism as part of the surveillance case definition. This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce the whole or part of this work in unaltered form for your own personal use or, if you are part of an organisation, for internal use within your organisation, but only if you or your organisation do not use the reproduction for any commercial purpose and retain this copyright notice and all disclaimer notices as part of that reproduction. Apart from rights to use as permitted by the Copyright Act 1968 or allowed by this copyright notice, all other rights are reserved and you are not allowed to reproduce the whole or any part of this work in any way (electronic or otherwise) without first being given the specific written permission from the Commonwealth to do so. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights are to be sent

  8. Influence of Th2 cells on hair cycle/growth after repeated cutaneous application of hapten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, K; Nomura, T; Ikenouchi-Sugita, A; Ito, T; Nakamura, M; Miyachi, Y; Tokura, Y; Kabashima, K

    2014-03-01

    Exposure to contact allergens in order to produce allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) seems to induce hair cycle/growth, but the mechanism of this remains unclear. In the current study, we investigated this mechanism and found that repeated application of hapten induced production of interleukin (IL)-4 in lymph-node immune cells. In addition, hair growth was induced in mice after the adoptive transfer of T-helper (Th)2 cells that had been purified from mice exposed to repeated cutaneous application of hapten. These findings lead us to speculate that Th2 cells that are repeatedly hapten-sensitized are recruited to hapten-challenged skin areas, and thus stimulate the production of IL-4 in the vicinity of the hair follicles, which influences hair cycle/growth. Our results may provide fundamental insights into the mechanism of contact hypersensitivity-induced hair cycle/growth. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. A Literature Revision in Primary Cutaneous B-cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva, R La; Violetti, S Alberti; Delfino, C; Grandi, V; Cicchelli, S; Tomasini, C; Fierro, M T; Berti, E; Pimpinelli, N; Quaglino, P

    2017-01-01

    The term "Primary Cutaneous B-Cell Lymphoma" (PCBCL) comprehends a variety of lymphoproliferative disorders characterized by a clonal proliferation of B-cells primarily involving the skin. The absence of evident extra-cutaneous disease must be confirmed after six-month follow-up in order to exclude a nodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) with secondary cutaneous involvement, which may have a completely different clinical behavior and prognosis. In this article, we have summarized the clinico-pathological features of main types of PCBCL and we outline the guidelines for management based on a review of the available literature.

  10. Cutaneous anthrax on an unexpected area of body

    OpenAIRE

    Ertuğrul Güçlü; Nazan Tuna; Oğuz Karabay

    2012-01-01

    Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. Cutaneous anthrax is the most commonly seen form of anthrax.Skin lesions usually occur on the most exposed areas of the body, such as the face, neck, hand or upper extremity.The aim of this paper is to report a case of cutaneous anthrax form which was occurred on an unexpected area of thebody of a slaughter-house worker. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012;2(4): 163-164Key words: Anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, cutaneous

  11. Cutaneous necrotizing vasculitis. Relation to systemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, T M; Comacchi, C; Ghersetich, I

    1999-01-01

    Cutaneous necrotizing vasculitis (CNV) is a complex multisystem disease generally involving the skin and mucous membranes, often accompanied by renal, gastrointestinal, pericardial, neurological, and articular signs and symptoms. CNV may be idiopatical or occur in association with a drug, infection, or underlying disease. CNV has been shown in patients with chronic infections (viral, bacterial, protozoa, helminthic), serum sickness, a variety of collagen vascular diseases (systemic lupus erythematous, Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, Behçet's disease) hyperglobulinemic states, cryoglobulinemia, bowel bypass syndrome, ulcerative colitis, cystic fibrosis, primary biliary cirrhosis and HIV infection. Association with malignancies is not frequent. Lymphoproliferative disorders (Hodgkin's disease, mycosis fungoides, lymphosarcoma, adult T-cell leukemia, multiple mieloma) and solid tumors (lung cancer, colon carcinoma, renal, prostate, head and neck cancer and breast cancer) may be associated with CNV. Whenever possible, treatment is directed at the elimination of the cause. In other cases after adequate laboratory screening local and systemic therapy are recommended.

  12. A rare cutaneous tumor: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuran Alli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP is a rare indolent cutaneous tumor which has been considered as a low-grade dermal and subcutaneous fibrohistiocytic neoplasm. DFSP expands slowly but recurs frequently leading to the general assumption that DFSP is a locally aggressive neoplasm. This low-grade/borderline tumor which is generally found on trunk and proximal extremities of adults has limited potential for metastasis. Clinical presentation is usually typical with a red-brown or skin coloured indurated plaque with multiple nodules or protuberances. Histopathology of DFSP is also characteristical which demonstrates storiform pattern of uniform spindle cells infiltrating deep into the subcutaneous fat tissue constituting honeycomb appearence. Here, we report a case of DFSP in a 50-year-old woman who presents with a twenty year history of slowly growing mass on her left femoral area.

  13. Effect of UV irradiation on cutaneous cicatrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Eva; Rossen, Kristian; Sorensen, Lars Tue

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on human cutaneous cicatrices. In this randomized, controlled study, dermal punch biopsy wounds served as a wound healing model. Wounds healed by primary or second intention and were randomized to postoperative solar UV...... irradiation or to no UV exposure. Evaluations after 5 and 12 weeks included blinded clinical assessments, skin reflectance measurements, histology, immunohistochemistry, and biochemical analyses of the N-terminal propeptide from procollagen-1, hydroxyproline, hydroxylysine, and proline. Twelve weeks...... postoperatively, UV-irradiated cicatrices healing by second intention: (i) were significantly pointed out as the most disfiguring; (ii) obtained significantly higher scores of colour, infiltration and cicatrix area; and (iii) showed significantly higher increase in skin-reflectance measurements of skin...

  14. Proteome profiling of human cutaneous leishmaniasis lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Santos, Claire; Attarha, Sanaz; Saini, Ravi Kanth; Boaventura, Viviane; Costa, Jackson; Khouri, Ricardo; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Cláudia Ida; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we used proteomics and biological network analysis to evaluate the potential biological processes and components present in the identified proteins of biopsies from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients infected by Leishmania braziliensis in comparison with normal skin. We identified 59 proteins differently expressed in samples from infected and normal skin. Biological network analysis employing identified proteins showed the presence of networks that may be involved in the cell death mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. After immunohistochemical analyses, the expression of caspase-9, caspase-3, and granzyme B was validated in the tissue and positively correlated with the lesion size in CL patients. In conclusion, this work identified differentially expressed proteins in the inflammatory site of CL, revealed enhanced expression of caspase-9, and highlighted mechanisms associated with the progression of tissue damage observed in lesions.

  15. Treatments for Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yung-Tsu

    2017-01-01

    Severe cutaneous adverse reaction (SCAR) is life-threatening. It consists of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), and generalized bullous fixed drug eruptions (GBFDE). In the past years, emerging studies have provided better understandings regarding the pathogenesis of these diseases. These diseases have unique presentations and distinct pathomechanisms. Therefore, theoretically, the options of treatments might be different among various SCARs. However, due to the rarity of these diseases, sufficient evidence is still lacking to support the best choice of treatment for patients with SCAR. Herein, we will provide a concise review with an emphasis on the characteristics and treatments of each SCAR. It may serve as a guidance based on the current best of knowledge and may shed light on the directions for further investigations. PMID:29445753

  16. Pattern of cutaneous manifestations in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Abhishek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus affects individuals of all ages and socioeconomic status. Skin is affected by the acute metabolic derangements as well as by chronic degenerative complications of diabetes. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of skin manifestations in patients with diabetes mellitus. To analyze the prevalence and pattern of skin disorders among diabetic patients from this region of Western Himalayas. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive patients with the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and having skin lesions, either attending the diabetic clinic or admitted in medical wards were included in this study. Results: The common skin disorders were: x0 erosis (44%, diabetic dermopathy (36%, skin tags (32%, cutaneous infections (31%, and seborrheic keratosis (30%. Conclusion: Skin is involved in diabetes quite often and the manifestations are numerous. High prevalence of xerosis in our diabetic population is perhaps due to cold and dry climatic conditions in the region for most of the time in the year.

  17. Unusual Presentation of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Ocular Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Doroodgar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected female sandflies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is one of 3 main forms of the disease. CL is the most common form of the disease and is endemic in many urban and rural parts of Iran and usually caused by two species of Leishmania: L. major and L. tropica. We report a case of unusual leishmaniasis with 25 lesions on exposed parts of the body and right eyelid involvement (ocular leishmaniasis. The patient was a 75-year-old male farmer referred to health care center in Aran va Bidgol city. The disease was diagnosed by direct smear, culture, and PCR from the lesions. PCR was positive for Leishmania major.

  18. Treatments for Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Tsu Cho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe cutaneous adverse reaction (SCAR is life-threatening. It consists of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP, and generalized bullous fixed drug eruptions (GBFDE. In the past years, emerging studies have provided better understandings regarding the pathogenesis of these diseases. These diseases have unique presentations and distinct pathomechanisms. Therefore, theoretically, the options of treatments might be different among various SCARs. However, due to the rarity of these diseases, sufficient evidence is still lacking to support the best choice of treatment for patients with SCAR. Herein, we will provide a concise review with an emphasis on the characteristics and treatments of each SCAR. It may serve as a guidance based on the current best of knowledge and may shed light on the directions for further investigations.

  19. Multimodal imaging of cutaneous wound tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiwu; Gnyawali, Surya; Huang, Jiwei; Ren, Wenqi; Gordillo, Gayle; Sen, Chandan K.; Xu, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of wound tissue ischemia, perfusion, and inflammation provides critical information for appropriate detection, staging, and treatment of chronic wounds. However, few methods are available for simultaneous assessment of these tissue parameters in a noninvasive and quantitative fashion. We integrated hyperspectral, laser speckle, and thermographic imaging modalities in a single-experimental setup for multimodal assessment of tissue oxygenation, perfusion, and inflammation characteristics. Algorithms were developed for appropriate coregistration between wound images acquired by different imaging modalities at different times. The multimodal wound imaging system was validated in an occlusion experiment, where oxygenation and perfusion maps of a healthy subject's upper extremity were continuously monitored during a postocclusive reactive hyperemia procedure and compared with standard measurements. The system was also tested in a clinical trial where a wound of three millimeters in diameter was introduced on a healthy subject's lower extremity and the healing process was continuously monitored. Our in vivo experiments demonstrated the clinical feasibility of multimodal cutaneous wound imaging.

  20. Sun behaviour after cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Datta, P; Heydenreich, J

    2013-01-01

    Background  It has been reported that patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) can lower their risk of a second primary melanoma by limiting recreational sun exposure. Previous studies based on questionnaires and objective surrogate measurements indicate that before their diagnosis......, patients with CMM are exposed to higher ultraviolet radiation (UVR) doses than controls, followed by a reduction after diagnosis. Objectives  In a prospective, observational case-control study, we aimed to assess sun exposure after diagnosis of CMM by objective measurements to substantiate advice about sun...... months and 6 years before the start of the study. During a summer season participants filled in sun exposure diaries daily and wore personal electronic UVR dosimeters in a wristwatch that continuously measured time-stamped UVR doses in standard erythema dose. Results  The UVR dose of recently diagnosed...

  1. BAP1 has a survival role in cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Taylor, Michael; Miao, Benchun; Ji, Zhenyu; Njauw, Jenny C-N; Jönsson, Göran; Frederick, Dennie T; Tsao, Hensin

    2015-04-01

    Although the pattern of BAP1 inactivation in ocular melanoma specimens and in the BAP1 cutaneous melanoma (CM)/ocular melanoma predisposition syndrome suggests a tumor suppressor function, the specific role of this gene in the pathogenesis of CM is not fully understood. We thus set out to characterize BAP1 in CM and discovered an unexpected pro-survival effect of this protein. Tissue and cell lines analysis showed that BAP1 expression was maintained, rather than lost, in primary melanomas compared with nevi and normal skin. Genetic depletion of BAP1 in melanoma cells reduced proliferation and colony-forming capability, induced apoptosis, and inhibited melanoma tumor growth in vivo. On the molecular level, suppression of BAP1 led to a concomitant drop in the protein levels of survivin, a member of anti-apoptotic proteins and a known mediator of melanoma survival. Restoration of survivin in melanoma cells partially rescued the growth-retarding effects of BAP1 loss. In contrast to melanoma cells, stable overexpression of BAP1 into immortalized but non-transformed melanocytes did suppress proliferation and reduce survivin. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that BAP1 may have a growth-sustaining role in melanoma cells, but that its impact on ubiquitination underpins a complex physiology, which is context and cell dependent.

  2. Experimental transmission of cutaneous chytridiomycosis in dendrobatid frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, D K; Lamirande, E W; Pessier, A P; Longcore, J E

    2001-01-01

    In a series of three experiments during March-October, 1998, two species of captive-bred poison dart frogs (Dendrobates tinctorius and D. auratus) were exposed to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a recently-described chytridiomycete fungus (chytrid) that was originally isolated from a blue poison dart frog (D. azureus). All frogs exposed to the chytrids developed a fatal skin disease, whereas none of the control frogs developed skin lesions. The most consistent clinical sign in chytrid-exposed frogs was excessive shedding of skin. Gross lesions were subtle, usually affected the legs and ventrum, and consisted of mild skin thickening and discoloration. Microscopic examination of shed skin pieces and/or skin imprints demonstrated the presence of chytrids and was used for ante mortem and post mortem confirmation of chytrid infection. Histologically, there was epidermal hyperkeratosis, hyperplasia, and hypertrophy associated with low to moderate numbers of chytrids in the keratinized layers. These experiments demonstrated that Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis can be a fatal pathogen in poison dart frogs. The experimentally-induced disease in these frogs resembled cases of cutaneous chytridiomycosis that have recently been described in several other species of captive and wild amphibians.

  3. [Cutaneous Malassezia infections and Malassezia associated dermatoses: An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenoff, P; Krüger, C; Mayser, P

    2015-06-01

    The lipophilic yeast fungus Malassezia (M.) spp. is the only fungal genus or species which is part of the physiological human microbiome. Today, at least 14 different Malassezia species are known; most of them can only be identified using molecular biological techniques. As a facultative pathogenic microorganism, Malassezia represents the causative agent both of superficial cutaneous infections and of blood stream infections. Pityriasis versicolor is the probably most frequent infection caused by Malassezia. Less common, Malassezia folliculitis occurs. There is only an episodic report on Malassezia-induced onychomycosis. Seborrhoeic dermatitis represents a Malassezia-associated inflammatory dermatosis. In addition, Malassezia allergenes should be considered as the trigger of "Head-Neck"-type atopic dermatitis. Ketoconazole possesses the strongest in vitro activity against Malassezia, and represents the treatment of choice for topical therapy of pityriasis versicolor. Alternatives include other azole antifungals but also the allylamine terbinafine and the hydroxypyridone antifungal agent ciclopirox olamine. "Antiseborrhoeic" agents, e.g. zinc pyrithione, selenium disulfide, and salicylic acid, are also effective in pityriasis versicolor. The drug of choice for oral treatment of pityriasis versicolor is itraconazole; an effective alternative represents fluconazole. Seborrhoeic dermatitis is best treated with topical medication, including topical corticosteroids and antifungal agents like ketoconazole or sertaconazole. Calcineurin inhibitors, e.g. pimecrolimus and tacrolimus, are reliable in seborrhoeic dermatitis, however are used off-label.

  4. Growth hormone regulates the sensitization of developing peripheral nociceptors during cutaneous inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohua; Green, Kathryn J.; Ford, Zachary K.; Queme, Luis F.; Lu, Peilin; Ross, Jessica L.; Lee, Frank B.; Shank, Aaron T.; Hudgins, Renita C.; Jankowski, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous inflammation alters the function of primary afferents and gene expression in the affected dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). However specific mechanisms of injury-induced peripheral afferent sensitization and behavioral hypersensitivity during development are not fully understood. Recent studies in children suggest a potential role for growth hormone (GH) in pain modulation. GH modulates homeostasis and tissue repair after injury, but how GH effects nociception in neonates is not known. To determine if GH played a role in modulating sensory neuron function and hyper-responsiveness during skin inflammation in young mice, we examined behavioral hypersensitivity and the response properties of cutaneous afferents using an ex vivo hairy skin-saphenous nerve-dorsal root ganglion (DRG)-spinal cord preparation. Results show that inflammation of the hairy hindpaw skin initiated at either postnatal day 7 (P7) or P14 reduced GH levels specifically in the affected skin. Furthermore, pretreatment of inflamed mice with exogenous GH reversed mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in addition to altering nociceptor function. These effects may be mediated via an upregulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGFr1) as GH modulated the transcriptional output of IGFr1 in DRG neurons in vitro and in vivo. Afferent-selective knockdown of IGFr1 during inflammation also prevented the observed injury-induced alterations in cutaneous afferents and behavioral hypersensitivity similar to that following GH pretreatment. These results suggest that GH can block inflammation-induced nociceptor sensitization during postnatal development leading to reduced pain-like behaviors, possibly by suppressing the upregulation of IGFr1 within DRGs. PMID:27898492

  5. Activation of Akt1 accelerates carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis in mammary gland of virgin and post-lactating transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yanyuan; Kim, Juri; Elshimali, Yayha; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2014-01-01

    Data from in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that activation of Akt regulates cell survival signaling and plays a key role in tumorigenesis. Hence, transgenic mice were created to explore the oncogenic role of Akt1 in the development of mammary tumors. The transgenic mice were generated by expressing myristoylated-Akt1 (myr-Akt1) under the control of the MMTV-LTR promoter. The carcinogen 7, 12 dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA) was used to induce tumor formation. The MMTV driven myr-Akt1 transgene expression was detected primarily in the mammary glands, uterus, and ovaries. The expression level increased significantly in lactating mice, suggesting that the response was hormone dependent. The total Akt expression level in the mammary gland was also higher in the lactating mice. Interestingly, the expression of MMTVmyr-Akt1 in the ovaries of the transgenic mice caused significant increase in circulating estrogen levels, even at the post-lactation stage. Expression of myr-Akt1 in mammary glands alone did not increase the frequency of tumor formation. However, there was an increased susceptibility of forming mammary tumors induced by DMBA in the transgenic mice, especially in mice post-lactation. Within 34 weeks, DMBA induced mammary tumors in 42.9% of transgenic mice post-lactation, but not in wild-type mice post-lactation. The myr-Akt1 mammary tumors induced by DMBA had increased phosphorylated-Akt1 and showed strong expression of estrogen receptor (ERα) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In addition, Cyclin D1 was more frequently up-regulated in mammary tumors from transgenic mice compared to tumors from wild-type mice. Overexpression of Cyclin D1, however, was not completely dependent on activated Akt1. Interestingly, mammary tumors that had metastasized to secondary sites had increased expression of Twist and Slug, but low expression of Cyclin D1. In summary, the MMTVmyr-Akt1 transgenic mouse model could be useful to study mechanisms of ER

  6. Activation of Akt1 accelerates carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis in mammary gland of virgin and post-lactating transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanyuan; Kim, Juri; Elshimali, Yayha; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2014-04-17

    Data from in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that activation of Akt regulates cell survival signaling and plays a key role in tumorigenesis. Hence, transgenic mice were created to explore the oncogenic role of Akt1 in the development of mammary tumors. The transgenic mice were generated by expressing myristoylated-Akt1 (myr-Akt1) under the control of the MMTV-LTR promoter. The carcinogen 7, 12 dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA) was used to induce tumor formation. The MMTV driven myr-Akt1 transgene expression was detected primarily in the mammary glands, uterus, and ovaries. The expression level increased significantly in lactating mice, suggesting that the response was hormone dependent. The total Akt expression level in the mammary gland was also higher in the lactating mice. Interestingly, the expression of MMTVmyr-Akt1 in the ovaries of the transgenic mice caused significant increase in circulating estrogen levels, even at the post-lactation stage. Expression of myr-Akt1 in mammary glands alone did not increase the frequency of tumor formation. However, there was an increased susceptibility of forming mammary tumors induced by DMBA in the transgenic mice, especially in mice post-lactation. Within 34 weeks, DMBA induced mammary tumors in 42.9% of transgenic mice post-lactation, but not in wild-type mice post-lactation. The myr-Akt1 mammary tumors induced by DMBA had increased phosphorylated-Akt1 and showed strong expression of estrogen receptor (ERα) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In addition, Cyclin D1 was more frequently up-regulated in mammary tumors from transgenic mice compared to tumors from wild-type mice. Overexpression of Cyclin D1, however, was not completely dependent on activated Akt1. Interestingly, mammary tumors that had metastasized to secondary sites had increased expression of Twist and Slug, but low expression of Cyclin D1. In summary, the MMTVmyr-Akt1 transgenic mouse model could be useful to study mechanisms of ER

  7. Blog and Podcast Watch: Cutaneous Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grock, Andrew; Morley, Eric J; Roppolo, Lynn; Khadpe, Jay; Ankel, Felix; Lin, Michelle

    2017-02-01

    The WestJEM Blog and Podcast Watch presents high quality open-access educational blogs and podcasts in emergency medicine (EM) based on the ongoing Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) Approved Instructional Resources (AIR) and AIR-Professional series. Both series critically appraise resources using an objective scoring rubric. This installment of the Blog and Podcast Watch highlights the topic of cutaneous emergencies from the AIR series. The AIR series is a continuously building curriculum that follows the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) annual testing schedule. For each module, relevant content is collected from the top 50 most accessed sites per the Social Media Index published within the previous 12 months and scored by eight board members using five equally weighted measurement outcomes: Best Evidence in Emergency Medicine (BEEM) score, accuracy, educational utility, evidence based, and references. Resources scoring ≥30 out of 35 available points receive an AIR label. Resources scoring 27-29 receive an "honorable mention" label, if the editorial board agrees that the post is accurate and educationally valuable. A total of 35 blog posts and podcasts were evaluated. None scored ≥30 points necessary for the AIR label, although four honorable mention posts were identified. Key educational pearls from these honorable mention posts are summarized. This Blog and Podcast Watch series is based on the AIR and AIR-Pro series, which attempts to identify high quality educational content on open-access blogs and podcasts. This series provides an expert-based, post-publication curation of educational social media content for EM clinicians with this installment focusing on cutaneous emergencies.

  8. Blog and Podcast Watch: Cutaneous Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Grock

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The WestJEM Blog and Podcast Watch presents high quality open-access educational blogs and podcasts in emergency medicine (EM based on the ongoing Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM Approved Instructional Resources (AIR and AIR-Professional series. Both series critically appraise resources using an objective scoring rubric. This installment of the Blog and Podcast Watch highlights the topic of cutaneous emergencies from the AIR series.    The AIR series is a continuously building curriculum that follows the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD annual testing schedule. For each module, relevant content is collected from the top 50 most accessed sites per the Social Media Index published within the previous 12 months and scored by eight board members using five equally weighted measurement outcomes: Best Evidence in Emergency Medicine (BEEM score, accuracy, educational utility, evidence based, and references. Resources scoring ≥30 out of 35 available points receive an AIR label. Resources scoring 27-29 receive an “honorable mention” label, if the editorial board agrees that the post is accurate and educationally valuable. A total of 35 blog posts and podcasts were evaluated. None scored ≥30 points necessary for the AIR label, although four honorable mention posts were identified. Key educational pearls from these honorable mention posts are summarized. This Blog and Podcast Watch series is based on the AIR and AIR-Pro series, which attempts to identify high quality educational content on open-access blogs and podcasts. This series provides an expertbased, post-publication curation of educational social media content for EM clinicians with this installment focusing on cutaneous emergencies. [West J Emerg Med. 2017;18(2288-292.

  9. Managing Cutaneous Tuberculosis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Gallardo, Bettina M

    2017-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a prevalent disease worldwide; an estimated one third of the world's population is infected and 2015 data from the World Health Organization show 10 million people had an active infection. Although TB often is cited as a disease that most commonly occurs in underdeveloped countries, the evolution of drug-resistant forms of TB and infection sensitivity of immunocompromised individuals have made this disease a focal point for indus- trialized countries as well. When TB is spread, it commonly affects the lungs, but it can infect any organ of the body. An uncommon version - cutaneous TB - affects man with multiple comorbidities, including peripheral vascular disease and a remote history of travel to Latin America who presented to a wound care clinic with a 2-year history of painful shallow necrotic ulcers on his right lower limb and previous treatments that included a positive response to antibiotics. Once TB was con rmed via 2 posi- tive Quantiferon Gold tests, the patient received therapy (directly observed by the state health department) that included pyrazinamide, rifampin, ethambutol, isoniazid, and undocumented vitamin B6. Treatment for the TB-related lesions, con- comitant cellulitis, and a Stage 2 pressure injury under his rst right metatarsal head was initiated as well. The patient received local wound care for 40 days that included sharp debridement, of oading for the pressure injury, and pain relief before treatment at the wound care clinic and daily as prescribed by his primary care provider. All wounds were securely covered with collagen dressings followed by silicone-bordered bandages. Local wound care was provided for 40 days, with biweekly follow-up for an additional 30 days. The wounds resolved and the patient was discharged from the wound care clinic but remained on the caseload for 30 days in the event his pain increased or the wounds recurred. Cutaneous TB, uncommon and challenging, should be a consideration in

  10. Must the use of bolus in radiotherapy of cutaneous cancers be changed; Doit-on changer la technique d'utilisation des bolus en radiotherapie des cancers cutanes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilleri, J.; Sors, A.; Gros-Dagnac, H.; Franceries, X. [UMR 825 ' imagerie cerebrale et handicaps neurologiques' , Inserm, Toulouse (France); Laprie, A.; Moyal, E.; Delannes, M. [Service de radiotherapie, institut Claudius-Regaud (CLCC), Toulouse (France); Kerjean, P.; Kerjean, J.C. [Kerjean Biotechnologies, La Dagueniere (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report a study which firstly analyzed the dose bias induced by the presence of air between the patient's skin and the bolus plate in the case of cutaneous cancers which are complex regarding their locations. Then, practical solutions for bolus modifications are studied in order to minimize this phenomenon and to quantify the dose bias in comparison with a conventional treatment. Finally, a new type of deformable bolus is proposed which better fits the patient contours. Short communication

  11. Cutaneous noradrenaline measured by microdialysis in complex regional pain syndrome during whole-body cooling and heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Astrid J.; Gierthmühlen, Janne; Petersen, Lars J

    2013-01-01

    and the perceived skin temperature were measured every 5min during thermal exposure, while noradrenaline was determined from cutaneous microdialysate collected every 20min throughout the study period. Cooling induced peripheral sympathetic activation in patients and controls with significant increases in dermal...... and in healthy volunteers. Seven patients and nine controls completed whole-body cooling (sympathetic activation) and heating (sympathetic inhibition) induced by a whole-body thermal suit with simultaneous measurement of the skin temperature, skin blood flow, and release of dermal noradrenaline. CRPS pain...... noradrenaline, vasoconstriction, and reduction in skin temperature. The main findings were that the noradrenaline response did not differ between patients and controls or between the CRPS hand and the contralateral unaffected hand, suggesting that the evoked noradrenaline release from the cutaneous sympathetic...

  12. Preliminary experiences of intralesional immunotherapy in cutaneous metastatic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Laura; Ridolfi, Ruggero

    2002-01-01

    Antigen presenting cells are inactive within tumor tissue because of local immunosuppression. Tumor infiltrating lymphocyte signal activation transducing mechanisms are also seriously impaired. Administration of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor may lead to antigen-presenting cell recovery and interleukin-2 may restore local tumor infiltrating lymphocyte activation. Moreover, interleukin-2 increases the systemic lymphocyte population, an event which seems to correlate with a better prognosis. The present phase I-II study was carried out to examine whether intralesional injection of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor followed by subcutaneous interleukin-2 would induce a clinical response in advanced, pretreated and elderly melanoma patients. Fourteen patients over 60 years of age received intralesional granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (150 micrograms per lesion on day 1), generally divided between the two largest cutaneous lesions, followed by perilesional subcutaneous interleukin-2 (3.000.000/IU) for 5 days (3 to 7) every 3 weeks. All patients received 6 courses of treatment unless progression occurred. Clinical evaluation of the treated cutaneous lesions was assessed at the baseline and before every cycle. Distant lesions were checked every two cycles. Four clinical responses (2 partial responses and 2 minimal responses) (28.5%), which also involved lesions that had not been directly treated, and seven cases of stable disease were observed. The response duration for partial response and minimal response was 9, 4, 4 and 2.5+ months, respectively. Stable disease (50%) recorded in the 7 patients was short term, 3-6 months. Three patients rapidly progressed after 2, 2, and 1 therapy cycles, respectively. The patient who reached the best partial response had a fairly high absolute lymphocyte count (1600 to 2400/mm3). The second one, who reached a complete remission after subsequent locoregional chemotherapy and hyperthermia

  13. Cutaneous Microvascular Blood Flow and Reactivity in Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Treml

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As is known, hypoxia leads to an increase in microcirculatory blood flow of the skin in healthy volunteers. In this pilot study, we investigated microcirculatory blood flow and reactive hyperemia of the skin in healthy subjects in normobaric hypoxia. Furthermore, we examined differences in microcirculation between hypoxic subjects with and without short-term acclimatization, whether or not skin microvasculature can acclimatize. Fourty-six healthy persons were randomly allocated to either short-term acclimatization using intermittent hypoxia for 1 h over 7 days at an FiO2 0.126 (treatment, n = 23 or sham short-term acclimatization for 1 h over 7 days at an FiO2 0.209 (control, n = 23. Measurements were taken in normoxia and at 360 and 720 min during hypoxia (FiO2 0.126. Microcirculatory cutaneous blood flow was assessed with a laser Doppler flowmeter on the forearm. Reactive hyperemia was induced by an ischemic stimulus. Measurements included furthermore hemodynamics, blood gas analyses and blood lactate. Microcirculatory blood flow increased progressively during hypoxia (12.3 ± 7.1–19.0 ± 8.1 perfusion units; p = 0.0002 in all subjects. The magnitude of the reactive hyperemia was diminished during hypoxia (58.2 ± 14.5–40.3 ± 27.4 perfusion units; p = 0.0003. Short-term acclimatization had no effect on microcirculatory blood flow. When testing for a hyperemic response of the skin's microcirculation we found a diminished signal in hypoxia, indicative for a compromised auto-regulative circulatory capacity. Furthermore, hypoxic short-term acclimatization did not affect cutaneous microcirculatory blood flow. Seemingly, circulation of the skin was unable to acclimatize using a week-long short-term acclimatization protocol. A potential limitation of our study may be the 7 days between acclimatization and the experimental test run. However, there is evidence that the hypoxic ventilatory response, an indicator of acclimatization, is increased for

  14. Recent advances of pharmacogenomics in severe cutaneous adverse reactions: immune and nonimmune mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Ro-Lan; Su, Shih-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) are severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) which are majorly caused by drugs. Though the incidence rate is low, SCAR sometimes can be life-threatening and leads to lifelong sequelae. Many pharmacogenomic associations in immune and nonimmune related genes with the development of SCAR have been discovered recently and the pharmacogenetic tests have been applied to prevent specific drug-induced SCAR. In this review, we discuss the recent advances of pharmacogenomics in SCAR. PMID:25938070

  15. Effect of Topical Application of Different Substances on Fibroplasia in Cutaneous Surgical Wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Andreza Miranda; Oliveira, Dhelfeson Willya Douglas; Marinho, Sandra Aparecida; Lima, Nádia Lages; de Miranda, João Luiz; Verli, Flaviana Dornela

    2012-01-01

    Background. Fibroblasts on the edges of a surgical wound are induced to synthesize collagen during the healing process which is known as fibroplasia. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the application of different substances on fibroplasia of cutaneous surgical wounds on rats. Materials and Methods. 48 Wistar rats were divided into three groups. A surgical wound 1 cm in diameter and 1  mm in depth was created on the dorsum of each animal. The surgical wounds were ...

  16. Attenuation of benzoyl peroxide-mediated cutaneous oxidative stress and hyperproliferative response by the prophylactic treatment of mice with spearmint (Mentha spicata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, M; Alam, A; Sultana, S

    2000-10-01

    The modulating effect of spearmint (Mentha spicata) on benzoyl peroxide-induced responses of tumor promotion in murine skin was investigated. Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is an effective cutaneous tumor promoter acting through the generation of oxidative stress, induction of ornithine decarboxylase activity and by enhancing DNA synthesis. BPO treatment (20 mg/animal) increased cutaneous microsomal lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide generation. The activity of cutaneous antioxidant enzymes, namely catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase, was decreased and the level of cutaneous glutathione was depleted. BPO treatment also induced the ornithine decarboxylase activity and enhanced the [3H]thymidine uptake in DNA synthesis in murine skin. Prophylactic treatment of mice with spearmint extract (10, 15 and 20 mg/kg) 1 hr before BPO treatment resulted in the diminution of BPO-mediated damage. The susceptibility of cutaneous microsomal membrane to lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide generation was significantly reduced (P < 0.05 ). In addition, depleted levels of glutathione, inhibited activity of glutathione dependent and antioxidant enzymes were recovered to a significant level (P < 0.01, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Similarly, the elevated ornithine decarboxylase activity and enhanced thymidine uptake in DNA synthesis was inhibited significantly (P < 0.05 ) in a dose-dependent manner. The protective effect of spearmint was dose dependent in all parameters. The result suggests that spearmint is an effective chemopreventive agent that may suppress BPO-induced cutaneous oxidative stress, toxicity and hyperproliferative effects in the skin of mice.

  17. Homozygous Hypercholesterolaemia With Cutaneous And Tendinous Xanthoma In A Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahiri Bhabesh Chandra

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A seven year old male child, born of a consanguineous marriage is reported for the rare occurrence of severe hypercholesterolaemia with cutaneous and tendinous xanthoma, mental retardation and eosinophilia in his childhood.

  18. Diffuse Cutaneous Mastocytosis in a Child - a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popadić Svetlana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mastocytosis refers to a group of diseases characterized by a clonal proliferation and accumulation of mast cells in one or more tissues/organs with different clinical presentations. In children, limited cutaneous forms of mastocytosis are rather frequent, while systemic mastocytosis is rare. The diagnosis of cutaneous mastocytosis is based on clinical findings and histopathology. We present a patient who developed skin lesions at the age of 18 months. Clinical findings, confirmed by histopathology, were consistent with diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis. The follow-up period was 7 years. The treatment included oral antihistamines in combination with mast cell stabilizers, mild topical steroids and avoidance of friction. During the follow-up period, there were no signs of systemic involvement, and the quality of life was preserved, despite the large surface of affected skin. This case report should increase the awareness and knowledge of clinicians about this rare form of cutaneous mastocytosis in the pediatric population.

  19. Two Cases of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Seen in Trivandrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lohidakshan Unnithen

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Trivandrum acquired the infection while residing in Saudi Arabia. One patient responded to trivalent antimony (Fantorin and the other to dapsone.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of miltefosine in Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorlo, Thomas P. C.; van Thiel, Pieter P. A. M.; Huitema, Alwin D. R.; Keizer, Ron J.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Beijnen, Jos H.; de Vries, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of miltefosine in leishmaniasis patients are, to a great extent, unknown. We examined and characterized the pharmacokinetics of miltefosine in a group of patients with Old World (Leishmania major) cutaneous leishmaniasis. Miltefosine plasma concentrations were determined in

  1. Cutaneous horn and thermal keratosis in erythema AB igne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sood Apra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 46 - year - old Kashmiri lady developed erythema ab igne on both legs. She subsequently developed multiple keratoses and a cutaneous horn in the involved skin. An uncommon association of these three clinical conditions is being presented.

  2. Successful treatment of cutaneous mucormycosis in a young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    published by Medpharm Publications, NISC (Pty) Ltd and Cogent,. Taylor & Francis Group. Successful treatment of cutaneous mucormycosis in a young diabetic with end- stage renal disease using combination systemic antifungal agents. A Korba* ...

  3. Cutaneous leishmaniasis with lymphadenopathy due to Leishmania donovani

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, W. R.; Wonders, J.; Jensema, A. J.; Chocholova, E.; Kager, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We describe a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis with lymphadenopathy due to Leishmania donovani, which was successfully treated with oral miltefosine. Given the increased prevalence of travelling, patients presenting with lymph-node enlargement should have leishmaniasis included in the

  4. Diet phytochemicals and cutaneous carcinoma chemoprevention: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siliang; Shen, Peiliang; Zhou, Jinrong; Lu, Yin

    2017-05-01

    Cutaneous carcinoma, which has occupied a peculiar place among worldwide populations, is commonly responsible for the considerably increasing morbidity and mortality rates. Currently available medical procedures fail to completely avoid cutaneous carcinoma development or to prevent mortality. Cancer chemoprevention, as an alternative strategy, is being considered to reduce the incidence and burden of cancers through chemical agents. Derived from dietary foods, phytochemicals have become safe and reliable compounds for the chemoprevention of cutaneous carcinoma by relieving multiple pathological processes, including oxidative damage, epigenetic alteration, chronic inflammation, angiogenesis, etc. In this review, we presented comprehensive knowledges, main molecular mechanisms for the initiation and development of cutaneous carcinoma as well as effects of various diet phytochemicals on chemoprevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions at a Tertiary Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medication and maintenance of prescription records. The cost associated with ADRs is high. ADR monitoring is essential to reduce patient suffering as well as to achieve the substantial savings in health care cost. Keywords: Cutaneous adverse ...

  6. Chemoprevention by grape seed extract and genistein in carcinogen-induced mammary cancer in rats is diet dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helen; Hall, Patti; Smith, Michelle; Kirk, Marion; Prasain, Jeevan K; Barnes, Stephen; Grubbs, Clinton

    2004-12-01

    Many popular dietary supplements are enriched in polyphenols such as the soy isoflavones, tea catechins, and resveratrol (from grape skins), each of which has been shown to have chemopreventive activity in cellular models of cancer. The proanthocyanidins, which are oligomers of the catechins, are enriched in grape seeds and form the basis of the dietary supplement grape seed extract (GSE). Evidence suggests that the proanthocyanidins may be metabolized to the monomeric catechins. This study was carried out to determine whether GSE added to rodent diets protected against carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats and whether this was affected by the composition of the whole diet. Female rats were begun on 5%, 1.25%, or 0% (control) GSE-supplemented diets at age 35 d. At age 50 d they were administered 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in sesame oil at 80 mg/kg body weight. They were weighed and monitored weekly for tumor development until 120 d after DMBA administration. Administration of GSE in AIN-76A diet did not show any protective activity of GSE against DMBA-induced breast cancer. However, administration of GSE in a laboratory dry food diet (Teklad 4% rodent diet) resulted in a 50% reduction in tumor multiplicity. In similar experiments, genistein administered in AIN-76A diet also failed to show chemopreventive activity against the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea; however, when administered at the same dose in the Teklad 4% rodent diet, genistein exhibited significant chemopreventive activity (44-61%). These results demonstrate that GSE is chemopreventive in an animal model of breast cancer; moreover, the diet dependency of the chemopreventive activity for both GSE and genistein suggests that whether or not a compound is chemopreventive may depend on the diet in which the agent is administered.

  7. Cutaneous and systemic hypersensitivity reactions to metallic implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basko-Plluska, Juliana L; Thyssen, Jacob P; Schalock, Peter C

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous reactions to metal implants, orthopedic or otherwise, are well documented in the literature. The first case of a dermatitis reaction over a stainless steel fracture plate was described in 1966. Most skin reactions are eczematous and allergic in nature, although urticarial, bullous......) following the insertion of intravascular stents, dental implants, cardiac pacemakers, or implanted gynecologic devices. Despite repeated attempts by researchers and clinicians to further understand this difficult area of medicine, the association between metal sensitivity and cutaneous allergic reactions...

  8. Tuberculosis. Lung and extrapulmonary compromise (cutaneous and ganglionar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez Mildred; Neira, Myriam Consuelo; Latorre Pablo; Faisal, Michel

    2000-01-01

    We present the case or a male, 28 year old that consulted for fever, weight loss and axillary ulcer. Clinically had two skin lesions where cutaneous tuberculosis was proven (lupus vulgaris-scrofuloderma). The skin lesions led to the diagnosis of lung tuberculosis and tuberculous adenitis. In this case all the diagnostic criteria for cutaneous tuberculosis were completed: active presence of tuberculosis in another place, positive reaction to tuberculin test, physical signs and appropriate answer to the treatment

  9. Cutaneous Anthrax in an Unestimated Area of Body

    OpenAIRE

    Guclu, Ertugrul; Tuna, Nazan; Karabay, Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Ertugrul Guclu, Nazan Tuna, Oguz Karabay Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. cutaneous anthrax is the most commonly seen form of anthrax. Skin lesions usually occur on the most exposed areas of the body, such as the face, neck, hand or upper extremity. The aim of this paper is to report a case of cutaneous anthrax form which was occurred on an unexpected area of the body of a slaughter-house worker.

  10. Cutaneous Anthrax in an Unestimated Area of Body

    OpenAIRE

    Guclu, Ertugrul; Tuna, Nazan; Karabay, Oguz

    2012-01-01

    Ertugrul Guclu, Nazan Tuna, Oguz Karabay Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. cutaneous anthrax is the most commonly seen form of anthrax. Skin lesions usually occur on the most exposed areas of the body, such as the face, neck, hand or upper extremity. The aim of this paper is to report a case of cutaneous anthrax form which was occurred on an unexpected area of the body of a slaughter-house worker.

  11. Cutaneous Carcinosarcoma with Metastasis to the Parotid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze Ling Loh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous carcinosarcoma is a rare malignancy that exhibits both mesenchymal and epithelial components. It is similar to nonmelanoma skin cancers in terms of risk and prognostic factors. However, these malignancies are known to have a propensity for local recurrence and metastasis, even with adequate resection margins. Here we report a case of metastatic cutaneous carcinosarcoma to the parotid gland and review the relevant literature.

  12. Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa in a patient with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsuda, Atsushi; Kinoshita, Koji; Togashi, Masaru; Maki, Nobuki; Masai, Rie; Niitsu, Hidetaka; Ohtani, Setsuya; Sageshima, Masato; Sawada, Ken-ichi; Wakui, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    A 19-year-old Japanese woman with a 4-year history of Crohn's disease (CD) developed high fever, polyarthralgia, and painful subcutaneous nodules of the legs. A skin biopsy showed panarteritis with fibrinoid necrosis in the deep dermis. Endoscopic examination showed aphthous lesions in the entire colon. She was diagnosed with cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) associated with CD. Steroid therapy improved her symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first Japanese case of cutaneous PAN associated with CD.

  13. Unusual radiological bone changes at the site of cutaneous tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.C.; Bhargava, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    Though radiological bone changes have been usually reported with scrofuloderma, bone changes in association with other forms of cutaneous tuberculosis (TB) are uncommon. We describe bone changes at the site of 3 lesions of lupus vulgaris and 2 of scrofuloderma in 4 patients. Radiological examination of bones underlying cutaneous TB is recommended for complete evaluation of the spectrum of TB. (author). 8 refs., 6 figs

  14. Elephantiasis of the external genitalia: A sequel to cutaneous tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavathy L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis continues to be an important public health problem and cutaneous tuberculosis constitutes a minor proportion of extra pulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis. Elephantiasis of the external genitalia, as a sequel to cutaneous tuberculosis, in a 40-year-old diabetic lady is being reported for its rarity. The patient also had lesions of healed scrofuloderma of 27 years′ duration, in both axillae, with residual pedunculated nodules.

  15. Cutaneous and systemic hypersensitivity reactions to metallic implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basko-Plluska, Juliana L; Thyssen, Jacob P; Schalock, Peter C

    2011-01-01

    , and vasculitic eruptions may occur. Also, more complex immune reactions may develop around the implants, resulting in pain, inflammation, and loosening. Nickel, cobalt, and chromium are the three most common metals that elicit both cutaneous and extracutaneous allergic reactions from chronic internal exposure......) following the insertion of intravascular stents, dental implants, cardiac pacemakers, or implanted gynecologic devices. Despite repeated attempts by researchers and clinicians to further understand this difficult area of medicine, the association between metal sensitivity and cutaneous allergic reactions...

  16. Cutaneous Glucocorticoidogenesis and Cortisol Signaling Are Defective in Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Brożyna, Anna A; Tuckey, Robert C

    2017-08-01

    Hannen et al. report that cutaneous glucocorticoidogenesis and expression of glucocorticoid receptors are inhibited in psoriatic skin. These findings substantiate the previous concept that deficient feedback of local proopiomelanocortin and glucocorticoids on cutaneous immunity contributes to inflammatory and autoimmune dermatoses. Restoration of efficient endogenous glucocorticoid signaling represents a realistic goal in treating psoriasis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cutaneous myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis in Saudis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, J; Qadri, S M; Imam, A M

    2000-07-01

    Cutaneous myiasis infestations are normally found in South and Central America but increasing travel has resulted in their spread to non-indigenous countries with increasing frequency. We report two cases of cutaneous infestation by Dermatobia hominis in Taif, Saudi Arabia. There was no history of travel outside Saudi Arabia. The source of infection appears to be domestic cattle indicating that these infestations may be endemic in this region.

  18. CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE AND RENAL TRANSPLANTATION

    OpenAIRE

    R. Suganya Gnanadeepam; S. Kayalvizhi Money

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The kidney and the skin are the two large networks of the body with abundant blood supply associated with various cutaneous manifestations. This study aims to detect the various cutaneous manifestations and its incidence in patients with chronic renal failure and renal transplantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was done for a period of 1 year from January 2016 to December 2016 at Nephrology OPD ward and Medicine wards, Government KAPV Medical College Hos...

  19. Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eunkyo [Department of Home Economics Education, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Min [Research Institute of Health Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, In-Kyung [Department of Home Economics Education, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yunsook [Department of Foods and Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Hyun, E-mail: jjhkim@cau.ac.kr [Department of Home Economics Education, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine the effect of genistein on cutaneous wound healing. {yields} Genistein enhanced wound closure during the early stage of wound healing. {yields} These genistein effects on wound closure were induced by reduction of oxidative stress through increasing antioxidant capacity and modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. -- Abstract: Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected by antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-{kappa}B and TNF-{alpha} expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These results

  20. Wearing graduated compression stockings augments cutaneous vasodilation but not sweating during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Nikawa, Toshiya; Tsuji, Bun; Kenny, Glen P; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2017-05-01

    The activation of cutaneous vasodilation and sweating are essential to the regulation of core temperature during exercise in the heat. We assessed the effect of graduated compression induced by wearing stockings on cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during exercise in the heat (30°C). On two separate occasions, nine young males exercised for 45 min or until core temperature reached ~1.5°C above baseline resting while wearing either (1) stockings causing graduated compression (graduate compression stockings, GCS), or (2) loose-fitting stockings without compression (Control). Forearm vascular conductance was evaluated by forearm blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) divided by mean arterial pressure to estimate cutaneous vasodilation. Sweat rate was estimated using the ventilated capsule technique. Core and skin temperatures were measured continuously. Exercise duration was similar between conditions (Control: 42.2 ± 3.6 min vs. GCS: 42.2 ± 3.6 min, P  = 1.00). Relative to Control, GCS increased forearm vascular conductance during the late stages (≥30 min) of exercise (e.g., at 40 min, 15.6 ± 5.6 vs. 18.0 ± 6.0 units, P  = 0.01). This was paralleled by a greater sensitivity (23.1 ± 9.1 vs. 32.1 ± 15.0 units°C -1 , P  = 0.043) and peak level (14.1 ± 5.1 vs. 16.3 ± 5.7 units, P  = 0.048) of cutaneous vasodilation as evaluated from the relationship between forearm vascular conductance with core temperature. However, the core temperature threshold at which an increase in forearm vascular conductance occurred did not differ between conditions (Control: 36.9 ± 0.2 vs. GCS: 37.0 ± 0.3°C, P  = 0.13). In contrast, no effect of GCS on sweating was measured (all P  > 0.05). We show that the use of GCS during exercise in the heat enhances cutaneous vasodilation and not sweating. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American

  1. Effects of arm-cranking exercise in cutaneous microcirculation in older, sedentary people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonizakis, Markos; Winter, Edward

    2011-05-01

    Microvascular integrity is compromised by several diseases and conditions as well as age. Exercise can reverse these effects but it is unclear whether these are systemic or localised, or which mechanisms are responsible for observed improvements Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to assess whether arm-cranking exercise had a systemic or localised cutaneous, microcirculatory effect in an older, healthy population and compare these findings with our previous work on patients with chronic venous disease. A secondary objective was to see if improvements were greater in the lower- or in the upper-limb. Endothelial-dependent- and independent-vasodilation were assessed on the forearm and the perimalleolar region in 14 older (59±4.5years), sedentary, healthy participants using LDF and incremental doses of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), before and after a session of arm-cranking exercise. Cutaneous blood flux data were expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). Endothelial-dependent vasodilation increased both in the upper- (p=0.04, d=0.59) and lower-limb (p=0.03, d=0.52), after exercise. Endothelial-independent vasodilation did not change either in the lower- and upper-limb (p>0.05 on both occasions). "Between-limbs" comparison showed that pre-exercise differences between the forearm and the lower-leg (p=0.04, d=0.47) disappeared after ACh-induced vasodilation, following arm-cranking exercise (p>0.05). Conversely, SNP-induced did not change. Our results suggest that in a healthy, sedentary population (and in contrast to post-surgical varicose vein patients), acute arm-cranking exercise leads to an improvement of microvascular endothelial function in the extremities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Taurine Attenuates Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced Breast Tumorigenesis in Rats: A Plasma Metabolomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y U; Li, Qingdi Quentin; Guo, Song Chao

    2016-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women worldwide. Taurine, the most abundant free amino acid, plays a role in several biological processes in humans and has been shown to have activity against breast cancer and other tumors. To investigate the role and mechanism of taurine action in breast cancer, we used dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast carcinogenesis in rats as a model of breast cancer. The administration of taurine significantly reduced the DMBA-induced breast cancer rate from 80% to 40% in rats (ptaurine-administered rats. Bioinformatic analysis further revealed that these metabolites are involved in multiple metabolic pathways, including energy, glucose, amino acid, and nucleic acid metabolism, suggesting that the antitumor activity of taurine in rats is mediated through altered metabolism of breast cancer cells. We propose that these differential metabolites may be potential biomarkers for monitoring cancer therapy and prognosis in the clinic. This study provides a scientific basis for further investigations of the antitumor mechanism of taurine and the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat breast cancer. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Self-healing juvenile cutaneous mucinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziejczyk, Beata; Gazda, Agnieszka; Hernik, Elżbieta; Szczygielska, Izabela; Rutkowska-Sak, Lidia; Koprowska, Marta Legatowicz

    2017-01-01

    Girl, aged 4 years old, began the disease with pain of the lower extremities, fever up to 38°C and signs of upper airway infection. Then the patient developed oedema and redness of the whole face, thickened skin, subcutaneous nodular foldings of the frontal, occipital, cervical and axillary regions, extensor areas of the joints; fine, hard whitish nodules in the frontal region and over interphalangeal joints of the hands, pruritus; oedemas of the ankles, knees and joints of the hands, cervical lymphadenopathy and hepatomegaly. Blood tests at the moment of the diagnosis revealed elevation of markers of inflammation as ESR and CRP, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, hypoalbuminemia, and hyper-alfa-2-globulinemia. Histopathological examination of the skin biopsy specimen and subcutaneous tissue revealed myxoid subcutaneous tissue located under the dermis and a section consisting of myxoid mesenchymal tissue with inflammatory infiltration by histiocytic cells. The presence of acid mucopolysaccharides in fields of the myxoid tissue was also observed. The self-healing juvenile cutaneous mucinosis (SJCM) was diagnosed.

  4. Evaluation of laboratory diagnosis for cutaneous tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Ilhan; Afsar, Fatma Sule

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) is still difficult to diagnose due to its varied clinical presentation and limitations of diagnostic methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of diagnostic laboratory tests available for CTB. Twenty-six skin biopsy specimens belonging to clinically suspected cases of CTB were studied retrospectively. The specimens were divided into two portions, one part processed for histopathological evaluation and the other was used for microscopy and inoculation for the isolation of mycobacteria. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was applied to 14 of 26 specimens to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) DNA. Of the 26 biopsy specimens, 11 were confirmed as CTB by identification of MTBC in culture and/or histopathologic affirmation. Of these, four were lupus vulgaris, four were TB verrucosa cutis, one was scrofuloderma, one was primary inoculation TB, and one was periorifical CTB. Culture for mycobacteria was positive for five (45.45%) specimens, while histopathologic affirmation was obtained in ten (90.90%) specimens. Acid-fast Bacilli were not demonstrated in any of the specimens on microscopic examination. The PCR was found to be applied to six of the 11 specimens diagnosed as CTB and was positive in two specimens (33.3%), which were positive for growth in culture and histopathological correlation. The recovery rate of MTBC from biopsy specimens was found to be satisfactory for CTB with histopathological correlation, but the combination of culture with a rapid method, PCR, may improve the diagnostic rate.

  5. Sunbed use and cutaneous melanoma in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moan, Johan E; Baturaite, Zivile; Grigalavicius, Mantas; Juzeniene, Asta

    2013-12-01

    Incidence rates of cutaneous melanoma (CM) in light skinned people in Norway are among the highest in the world. Sunbed use has increased in Norway since 1980. We will try to elucidate whether there is any correlation between the increase in sunbed use and the CM incidence rates, whether the increase in CM risk is similar for all age groups, and whether the possible difference between young and old persons can inform future healthcare strategies. The frequency of sunbed use by different age groups in the time period 1980-2011 and incidence rates (1980-2009) of CM at different age groups in Norway were studied. Time in minutes per day spent in front of screen of computers or TVs for boys and girls was also analysed. The number of sunbed sessions per year in Norway increased throughout the entire period. The number of men and women diagnosed with CM per year, all ages combined, also increased. Sunbed use increased at a similar rate for three age groups (0-19, 20-50, and >50 years old), while the age-adjusted CM incidence rate increased only for the oldest group. Time spent in front of the screen of computers or TVs increased from 1985 to 2005 and is still increasing. CM incidence is decreasing while sunbed use is increasing in younger age groups. The present data indicate that more work needs to be done before one can know whether the overall health effects of sunbed exposure are positive or negative.

  6. [NMF and cosmetology of cutaneous hydration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, J-P

    2002-01-01

    In the stratum corneum, the water binds to the intracellular hygroscopic and hydrosoluble substances called "natural moisturizing factors" or NMF. These "natural moisturizing factors" contained in the corneocytes are formed during epidermal differentiation and may represent up to 10 p. cent of the corneocyte mass. They are principally amino acids, carboxylic pyrrolidone acid, lactic acid, urea, glucose and mineral ions. Keratinization plays an important part in the formation of NMF that exhibit strong osmotic potential attracting the water molecules. The binding of water to NMF is the static aspect of cutaneous hydration. The second, dynamic, aspect is related to the selective permeability of the stratum corneum and to its lipid barrier properties, the permeability of which depends on the integrity and nature of the inter-corneocyte lipids and their lamellar organization between the cells. In these conditions, hydration cosmetics rely on two concepts that can be isolated or associated: the supply of hydrophilic substances to the stratum corneum, capable of attracting and retaining water (moisturizer) or capable of restoring the barrier in order to restore normal water loss or of protecting it against aggression (occlusive).

  7. Treatment of Cutaneous Pseudolymphoma: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Miguel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous pseudolymphoma (CPL is a reactive polyclonal T- or B-cell lymphoproliferative process. CPL may appear as localized or disseminated skin lesions. While most cases of CPL are idiopathic, they may also occur as a response to, for example, contact dermatitis, arthropod reactions, and bacterial infections. CPL can be classified based on its clinical features, but all variants have similar histopathological patterns of either predominantly B-cell infiltrates, T-cell infiltrates, or mixed T/B-cell infiltrates. The prognosis of CPL is good, but the underlying disease process should be taken into account. If an antigenic stimulus is identified, it should be removed. In patients with idiopathic CPL, a close follow-up control strategy should be adopted. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize all reported treatments for CPL. The review was based on articles from the PubMed database, using the query “skin pseudolymphoma treatment”, English and German, about “human” subjects, and published between 1990 and 2015 documenting adequate treatment and/or aetiology. Mainly individual case reports and small case series were found. Treatment options include topical and intralesional agents, systemic agents, and physical modalities. The final part of the review proposes a treatment algorithm for CPL according to each aetiology, based on the literature of the last 25 years. Future research should focus on randomized controlled trials and studies on long-term outcomes, which were not identified in the current review.

  8. Predicting Geographic Variation in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid H.; Davies, Clive R.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 6,000 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis are reported annually in Colombia, a greater than twofold increase since the 1980s. Such reports certainly underestimate true incidence, and their geographic distribution is likely biased by local health service effectiveness. We investigated how well freely available environmental data explain the distribution of cases among 1,079 municipalities. For each municipality, a unique predictive logistic regression model was derived from the association among remaining municipalities between elevation, land cover (preclassified maps derived from satellite images), or both, and the odds of at least one case being reported. Land cover had greater predictive power than elevation; using both datasets improved accuracy. Fitting separate models to different ecologic zones, reflecting transmission cycle diversity, enhanced the accuracy of predictions. We derived measures that can be directly related to disease control decisions and show how results can vary, depending on the threshold selected for predicting a disease-positive municipality. The results identify areas where disease is most likely to be underreported. PMID:15200848

  9. Cutaneous reactions due to antihypertensive drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadhayai J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of a total of 1147 patients on antihypertensive drugs, 23 (2.04% developed adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR. The commonest antihypertensive drug group causing ACDR was beta-blockers of which atenolol was the commonest culprit. The second most common group was calcium channel blockers with amlodipine as the commonest offender. The most common patterns of ACDR observed included urticaria followed by lichenoid drug eruption (LDE. We noted 2 new patterns of reactions; (i one patient developed brownish blue pigmentation of nails while on atenolol for 3 years, which resolved in 4 months after withdrawal and (ii another patient on amlodipine for 8 years developed Schamberg′s like purpuric pigmentation, which resolved on withdrawal of drug within 3 months. These findings have not been reported in the literature earlier. This study is presented for paucity of Indian data on ACDR due to antihypertensive drugs, and remarkable advancement in area of cardiovascular and antihypertensive pharmacology and a large number of population taking antihypertensive drugs.

  10. Pattern of Cutaneous Tuberculosis in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Kumar

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on 66 patients with cutaneous tuberculosis seen over a period of 4 years was analysed. Males -predominated (71.6% over females (28.4%. More than one f′ patients were below the age of 10 years. Lupus vulgaris was the commonest type of disease pattern seen in 81.8% followed by scrofuloderma in 21.2%. Warty tuberculosis was the least common of all. Tuberculids seen were erythema nodosum in 3, papulonecrotic in 2, and lichen scrofulosorum in one. Face was involved most often (34.8% followed by legs, buttocks, arms and neck. The number of legions varied from 2-7 in a quarter of patients. Organs other than skin were involved in 25.8% patients. Pulmonary involvement was the commonest followed by bone. CNS and lymph node involvement. , Almost half the patients were unvaccinated as were the BCG vaccinated patients. Mantoux test was negative in 27.2% patients. Characteristic tubercular histopathology was seen in 81.8% and in the rest it was non-specific.

  11. Worldwide Increasing Incidences of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne E. Godar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM has been increasing at a steady rate in fair-skinned populations around the world for decades. Scientists are not certain why CMM has been steadily increasing, but strong, intermittent UVB (290–320 nm exposures, especially sunburn episodes, probably initiate, CMM, while UVA (321–400 nm passing through glass windows in offices and cars probably promotes it. The CMM incidence may be increasing at an exponential rate around the world, but it definitely decreases with increasing latitude up to ~50°N where it reverses and increases with the increasing latitude. The inversion in the incidence of CMM may occur because there is more UVA relative to UVB for most of the year at higher latitudes. If windows, allowing UVA to enter our indoor-working environment and cars, are at least partly responsible for the increasing incidence of CMM, then UV filters can be applied to reduce the rate of increase worldwide.

  12. [Cutaneous gnathostomiasis, first confirmed case in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Leonardo F; Palacios, Diana M; López, Rocío; Baldión, Margarita; Matijasevic, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Gnathostomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by some species of helminthes belonging to the genus Gnathostoma . It has a wide clinical presentation and its diagnosis is a challenge. Tropical and subtropical countries are endemic, and its transmission is associated with eating raw or undercooked meat from fresh water animals. Increasing global tourism and consuming exotic foods have produced a noticeable rise in cases of the disease in the last decades. However, in our country, there has not been any confirmed case of gnathostomiasis previously reported. We present the case of a 63-year-old Colombian man with an international travel history, who presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. During the hospital stay, he developed a cutaneous lesion on the upper right abdominal quadrant, where later, a larva was found. A morphological study allowed us to identify it as Gnathostoma spinigerum . As such, this is the first report of an imported case of gnathostomiasis confirmed in Colombia. This article describes the principles, etiology, pathogenic cycle and treatment of this disease with special considerations to our patient´s particular features.

  13. [Systemic lupus erythematosus : Unusual cutaneous manifestations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockinger, T; Richter, L; Kanzler, M; Melichart-Kotik, M; Pas, H; Derfler, K; Schmidt, E; Rappersberger, K

    2016-12-01

    Various different mucocutaneous symptoms may affect up to 80 % of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. To investigate, various unspecific, but otherwise typical clinical symptoms of skin and mucous membranes that arise in SLE patients other than those defined as SLE criteria such as butterfly rash, chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus, oral ulcers, and increased photosensitivity. Extensive search of peer-reviewed scientific articles was performed, medical histories of several SLE patients seen in our department were analyzed, and the rare disease courses in three SLE patients are presented. Here we present a variety of unspecific but typical mucocutaneous manifestations in SLE patients: periungual erythema, periungual telangiectasia and periungual splinter hemorrhage, papules on the dorsum of the hands, scaling erythema, sometimes associated with necrosis, especially of the ears, along with complement deficiency, and the bizarre necroses of antiphospholipid syndrome. Furthermore, we show the typical clinico-histological features of neutrophilic urticarial dermatosis, as well as those of bullous SLE and finally a severe course of bacterial sepsis with Neisseria flavescens/macacae. Here we show several unspecific but rather typical mucocutaneous symptoms in lupus patients that are indicative of SLE and thus may lead to an early diagnosis. Also, life-threatening bacterial sepsis may occur with microorganisms that are commonly considered "apathogenic", such as Neisseria flavescens/macacae, which exclusively affect immunosuppressed patients.

  14. Exogenous Tryptophan Promotes Cutaneous Wound Healing of Chronically Stressed Mice through Inhibition of TNF-α and IDO Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Luana Graziella; Bortolot, Beatriz Salari; Cecatto, Matheus Jorand; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa; Romana-Souza, Bruna

    2015-01-01

    Stress prolongs the inflammatory response compromising the dermal reconstruction and wound closure. Acute stress-induced inflammation increases indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase-stimulated tryptophan catabolism. To investigate the role of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase expression and tryptophan administration in adverse effects of stress on cutaneous wound healing, mice were submitted to chronic restraint stress and treated with tryptophan daily until euthanasia. Excisional lesions were created on each mouse and 5 or 7 days later, the lesions were analyzed. In addition, murine skin fibroblasts were exposed to elevated epinephrine levels plus tryptophan, and fibroblast activity was evaluated. Tryptophan administration reversed the reduction of the plasma tryptophan levels and the increase in the plasma normetanephrine levels induced by stress 5 and 7 days after wounding. Five days after wounding, stress-induced increase in the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase, and this was inhibited by tryptophan. Stress-induced increase in the lipid peroxidation and the amount of the neutrophils, macrophages and T cells number was reversed by tryptophan 5 days after wounding. Tryptophan administration inhibited the reduction of myofibroblast density, collagen deposition, re-epithelialization and wound contraction induced by stress 5 days after wounding. In dermal fibroblast culture, the tryptophan administration increased the cell migration and AKT phosphorylation in cells treated with high epinephrine levels. In conclusion, tryptophan-induced reduction of inflammatory response and indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase expression may have accelerated cutaneous wound healing of chronically stressed mice. PMID:26057238

  15. CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE AND RENAL TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Suganya Gnanadeepam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The kidney and the skin are the two large networks of the body with abundant blood supply associated with various cutaneous manifestations. This study aims to detect the various cutaneous manifestations and its incidence in patients with chronic renal failure and renal transplantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was done for a period of 1 year from January 2016 to December 2016 at Nephrology OPD ward and Medicine wards, Government KAPV Medical College Hospital, Trichy. During this period, 100 patients who had the presence of skin manifestations were selected and studied (80 renal failure patients and 20 renal transplantation patients. RESULTS Most of the specific cutaneous manifestations of chronic renal failure and renal transplantation were noted in this study. Pruritus and xerosis were the most common manifestations noted in chronic renal failure while infections was commonly noted in renal transplantation patients. CONCLUSION Pruritus and xerosis were the most common among the specific cutaneous manifestations in chronic renal failure followed by nail abnormalities and pigmentary changes. Cutaneous manifestations of renal transplantation were mostly due to infections of which fungal infection is the most common followed by viral infection.

  16. Evaluation of cutaneous abdominal wall sensibility after abdominoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fels, Klaus Werner; Cunha, Marcelo Sacramento; Sturtz, Gustavo Pinó; Gemperli, Rolf; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2005-01-01

    Changes in cutaneous sensibility are common after diverse plastic surgical procedures. Although prior studies examined aesthetic results, combined procedures, and new abdominoplasty techniques, few examined the effect of undermining on cutaneous sensibility. This study aimed to analyze and quantify cutaneous sensibility after classic abdominoplasty. Two groups of patients were studied: a control group of 10 patients without surgery and another group of 25 patients who had undergone classic abdominoplasty. The abdominal wall surface was divided into nine regions. Pain sensibility was evaluated by tests with needles, and thermal sensibility by test tubes containing hot and cold water. Superficial tactile sensibility was tested using the Pressure-Specified Sensory Device (PSSD), which is capable of determining the cutaneous pressure threshold. Statistical analysis was conducted using Student's 't-test'. The results showed a decrease in the three types of sensibility. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the groups for all regions tested. The centermost regions of the abdominal wall presented the highest index of analgesia and thermal anesthesia, as well as higher cutaneous pressure thresholds.

  17. Photodynamic therapy for multi-resistant cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen F. Nikkels

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare group of proliferative disorders. Beside cutaneous involvement, other internal organs can be affected. The treatment of cutaneous lesions is difficult and relies on topical corticosteroids, carmustine, nitrogen mustard, and photochemotherapy. Systemic steroids and vinblastine are used for recalcitrant skin lesions. However, some cases fail to respond. An 18-month old boy presented a CD1a+, S100a+ Langerhans cell histocytosis with cutaneous and severe scalp involvement. Topical corticosteroids and nitrogen mustard failed to improve the skin lesions. Systemic corticosteroids and vinblastine improved the truncal involvement but had no effect on the scalp lesions. Methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL based photodynamic therapy (PDT resulted in a significant regression of the scalp lesions. Control histology revealed an almost complete clearance of the tumor infiltrate. Clinical follow-up after six months showed no recurrence. Although spontaneous regression of cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis is observed, the rapid effect of photodynamic therapy after several failures of other treatment suggests that photodynamic therapy was successful. As far as we know this is the first report of photodynamic therapy for refractory skin lesions. Larger series are needed to determine whether photodynamic therapy deserves a place in the treatment of multiresistant cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

  18. Modification of active cutaneous vasodilation by oral contraceptive hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, N; Johnson, J M

    1997-12-01

    It is not clear whether the altered thermoregulatory reflex control of the cutaneous circulation seen among phases of the menstrual cycle also occurs with the synthetic estrogen and progesterone in oral contraceptive pills and whether any such modifications include altered control of the cutaneous active vasodilator system. To address these questions, we conducted controlled whole body heating experiments in seven women at the end of the third week of hormone pills (HH) and at the end of the week of placebo/no pills (LH). A water-perfused suit was used to control body temperature. Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to monitor cutaneous blood flow at a control site and at a site at which noradrenergic vasoconstrictor control had been eliminated by iontophoresis of bretylium (BT), isolating the active cutaneous vasodilator system. The oral temperature (Tor) thresholds for cutaneous vasodilation were higher in HH at both control [37.09 +/- 0.12 vs. 36.83 +/- 0.07 degrees C (LH), P system to higher internal temperatures. The similarity of the shifts among thermoregulatory effectors suggests a centrally mediated action of these hormones.

  19. Cutaneous neoplasia following PUVA therapy for psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, K.E.; Handley, J.; McGinn, S.; Allen, G. [Belfast City Hospital (United Kingdom). Dept. of Dermatology; Patterson, C.C. [Queen`s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-01

    To determine the risk of cutaneous neoplasia following photochemotherapy (PUVA), we reviewed patients with psoriasis treated at out unit between 1979 and 1991. Two hundred and forty-five patients were assessed, with a median duration of follow-up of 9.5 years. Fifty-nine per cent were male, and 41% female. The median number of exposures was 59, and the median total dose was 133J/cm{sup 2} for the group as a whole. Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) occurred in six individuals (2.4%), basal cell carcinoma occurred in all six and one individual also developed four squamous cell carcinomas and Bowen`s disease of the penis. No cases of malignant melanoma were recorded. Patients who developed NMSC received a median number of 225 exposures and a median cumulative dose of 654J/cm{sup 2}. Compared with a control study population in West Glamorgan, Wales, there was a 1.4 (95% confidence limits (CL) 0.5 and 3.1) times increased risk of NMSC. A statistically significant increased incidence of NMSC was found for patients who had received 100 or more exposures, and 250 or more J/cm{sup 2}, with risks of 3.7 (95% CL 1.0 and 9.5), and 4.0 (95% CL 1.1 and 10), respectively. A PUVA dose of < 250 J/cm{sup 2} or < 100 exposures conferred a minimal increase in risk of NMSC in our study population. (author).

  20. Infrared thermography of cutaneous melanoma metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shada, Amber L; Dengel, Lynn T; Petroni, Gina R; Smolkin, Mark E; Acton, Scott; Slingluff, Craig L

    2013-06-01

    Differentiating melanoma metastasis from benign cutaneous lesions currently requires biopsy or costly imaging, such as positron emission tomography scans. Melanoma metastases have been observed to be subjectively warmer than similarly appearing benign lesions. We hypothesized that infrared (IR) thermography would be sensitive and specific in differentiating palpable melanoma metastases from benign lesions. Seventy-four patients (36 females and 38 males) had 251 palpable lesions imaged for this pilot study. Diagnosis was determined using pathologic confirmation or clinical diagnosis. Lesions were divided into size strata for analysis: 0-5, >5-15, >15-30, and >30 mm. Images were scored on a scale from -1 (colder than the surrounding tissue) to +3 (significantly hotter than the surrounding tissue). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each stratum. Logistical challenges were scored. IR imaging was able to determine the malignancy of small (0-5 mm) lesions with a sensitivity of 39% and specificity of 100%. For lesions >5-15 mm, sensitivity was 58% and specificity 98%. For lesions >15-30 mm, sensitivity was 95% and specificity 100%, and for lesions >30 mm, sensitivity was 78% and specificity 89%. The positive predictive value was 88%-100% across all strata, and the negative predictive value was 95% for >15-30 mm lesions and 80% for >30 mm lesions. Malignant lesions >15 mm were differentiated from benign lesions with excellent sensitivity and specificity. IR imaging was well tolerated and feasible in a clinic setting. This pilot study shows promise in the use of thermography for the diagnosis of malignant melanoma with further potential as a noninvasive tool to follow tumor responses to systemic therapies. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Clinical and dermoscopic evaluation of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Erhan; Ucmak, Derya; Baykara, Sule Nergiz; Akkurt, Zeynep Meltem; Arica, Mustafa

    2015-02-01

    Dermoscopy is a method to aid in the visualization of the epidermis and dermis. In recent years, the use of dermoscopy in the diagnosis of non-melanocytic lesions such as those of leishmania cutis has increased. This study was intended to establish whether dermoscopic investigation has any diagnostic value in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Fifty-five patients diagnosed with CL at the Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, between February and October 2012, were included in the study. Collectively, the patients exhibited a total of 127 lesions. The mean ± standard deviation age of the patients was 25.7 ± 21.3 years (range: 4-86 years). Twenty-three (41.8%) patients were male, and 32 (58.2%) were female. In dermoscopy, teardrop-like structures were observed in 42.5% of the lesions. Vascular structures were detected in 115 (90.6%) lesions; no vascular structures were observed in 12 (9.4%) lesions. Branching, linear, comma-like, and polymorphic vessels were seen more commonly in lesions on the face; pin-point and hairpin-like vessels were seen more commonly in lesions on the upper extremities. When the findings obtained in this study were evaluated along with those reported in the literature, it became apparent that follicular plugs, also called "teardrop-like structures", seen on the face and neck may be a dermoscopic feature specific to CL. As hairpin-like vessels seen in an asymmetric radial arrangement were often observed on parts of the body other than the face, further dermoscopic studies comparing the lesions of CL with other ulcerating lesions are necessary. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. Interventions for Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras-Mosteiro, Julio; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Pinart, Mariona; Lopez Pereira, Patricia; Reveiz, Ludovic; Garcia-Carrasco, Emely; Campuzano Cuadrado, Pedro; Royuela, Ana; Mendez Roman, Irene; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2017-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by a parasitic infection, is considered one of the most serious skin diseases in many low- and middle-income countries. Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL) is caused by species found in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and India. The most commonly prescribed treatments are antimonials, but other drugs have been used with varying success. As OWCL tends to heal spontaneously, it is necessary to justify the use of systemic and topical treatments. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2008. To assess the effects of therapeutic interventions for the localised form of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis. We updated our searches of the following databases to November 2016: the Cochrane Skin Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of included studies for further references to relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We wrote to national programme managers, general co-ordinators, directors, clinicians, WHO-EMRO regional officers of endemic countries, pharmaceutical companies, tropical medicine centres, and authors of relevant papers for further information about relevant unpublished and ongoing trials. We undertook a separate search for adverse effects of interventions for Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis in September 2015 using MEDLINE. Randomised controlled trials of either single or combination treatments in immunocompetent people with OWCL confirmed by smear, histology, culture, or polymerase chain reaction. The comparators were either no treatment, placebo/vehicle, and/or another active compound. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias and extracted data. We only synthesised data when we were able to identify at least two studies investigating similar treatments and reporting data amenable to pooling. We also recorded data about adverse effects from the

  3. Cutaneous Manifestations in HIV Infected Libyan Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljehawi Nabil A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease may result from HIV infection itself, or from opportunistic disorders secondary to the declined immunocompetence due to the disease. A total of 220 HIV positive patients, treated in the Benghazi Center of Infectious Diseases and Immunology over a period of 14 years (January 2003 to November 2016, were included in a retrospective study. The patients' age ranged from 7 to 46 years. The study was conducted by reviewing the patients' records using the management information system (MIS. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out by the t-test and Chi square test. Among the studied patients, 119 (54.1% were males and 101 (45.9% were females, and most of them (78.6% were 10 – 19 years of age. The predominant mode of transmission was parenteral transmission, in 95% of patients, and positive family history was observed in 12% of patients. Among the total number of visits to dermatologists, 93% of patients had a single disease. Of the total number of skin diseases diagnosed during the visits, parasitic infestations were seen in 92 patients (21.0%, eczematous and related disorders in 78 patients (17.8%, viral infections in 71 patients (16.2%, bacterial infections in 41 patients (9.3%, and fungal infections in 35 patients (7.9%. Dermatophyte infections were the most common fungal infections recorded in 19 patients (4.3%, followed by Candida infection in 11 patients (2.5%. Warts were found in 5.9% of viral infections, followed by herpes zoster (4.1%. HIV positive patients should be examined for skin disorders, because early diagnosis and management of such problems improves the quality of life in these patients.

  4. Evaluation of laboratory diagnosis for cutaneous tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Afsar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB is still difficult to diagnose due to its varied clinical presentation and limitations of diagnostic methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of diagnostic laboratory tests available for CTB. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six skin biopsy specimens belonging to clinically suspected cases of CTB were studied retrospectively. The specimens were divided into two portions, one part processed for histopathological evaluation and the other was used for microscopy and inoculation for the isolation of mycobacteria. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique was applied to 14 of 26 specimens to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC DNA. Results: Of the 26 biopsy specimens, 11 were confirmed as CTB by identification of MTBC in culture and/or histopathologic affirmation. Of these, four were lupus vulgaris, four were TB verrucosa cutis, one was scrofuloderma, one was primary inoculation TB, and one was periorifical CTB. Culture for mycobacteria was positive for five (45.45% specimens, while histopathologic affirmation was obtained in ten (90.90% specimens. Acid-fast Bacilli were not demonstrated in any of the specimens on microscopic examination. The PCR was found to be applied to six of the 11 specimens diagnosed as CTB and was positive in two specimens (33.3%, which were positive for growth in culture and histopathological correlation. Conclusion: The recovery rate of MTBC from biopsy specimens was found to be satisfactory for CTB with histopathological correlation, but the combination of culture with a rapid method, PCR, may improve the diagnostic rate.

  5. INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY OF CUTANEOUS MELANOMA METASTASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shada, Amber L.; Dengel, Lynn T.; Petroni, Gina R.; Smolkin, Mark E.; Acton, Scott; Slingluff, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Differentiating melanoma metastasis from benign cutaneous lesions currently requires biopsy or costly imaging, such as positron emission tomography scans. Melanoma metastases have been observed to be subjectively warmer than similarly appearing benign lesions. We hypothesized that infrared (IR) thermography would be sensitive and specific in differentiating palpable melanoma metastases from benign lesions. Materials and methods Seventy-four patients (36 females and 38 males) had 251 palpable lesions imaged for this pilot study. Diagnosis was determined using pathologic confirmation or clinical diagnosis. Lesions were divided into size strata for analysis: 0–5, >5–15, >15–30, and >30 mm. Images were scored on a scale from −1 (colder than the surrounding tissue) to +3 (significantly hotter than the surrounding tissue). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each stratum. Logistical challenges were scored. Results IR imaging was able to determine the malignancy of small (0–5 mm) lesions with a sensitivity of 39% and specificity of 100%. For lesions >5–15 mm, sensitivity was 58% and specificity 98%. For lesions >15–30 mm, sensitivity was 95% and specificity 100%, and for lesions >30 mm, sensitivity was 78% and specificity 89%. The positive predictive value was 88%–100% across all strata, and the negative predictive value was 95% for >15–30 mm lesions and 80% for >30 mm lesions. Conclusions Malignant lesions >15 mm were differentiated from benign lesions with excellent sensitivity and specificity. IR imaging was well tolerated and feasible in a clinic setting. This pilot study shows promise in the use of thermography for the diagnosis of malignant melanoma with further potential as a noninvasive tool to follow tumor responses to systemic therapies. PMID:23043862

  6. Acute effects of remote ischemic preconditioning on cutaneous microcirculation - a controlled prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraemer Robert

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Therapeutic strategies aiming to reduce ischemia/reperfusion injury by conditioning tissue tolerance against ischemia appear attractive not only from a scientific perspective, but also in clinics. Although previous studies indicate that remote ischemic intermittent preconditioning (RIPC is a systemic phenomenon, only a few studies have focused on the elucidation of its mechanisms of action especially in the clinical setting. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the acute microcirculatory effects of remote ischemic preconditioning on a distinct cutaneous location at the lower extremity which is typically used as a harvesting site for free flap reconstructive surgery in a human in-vivo setting. Methods Microcirculatory data of 27 healthy subjects (25 males, age 24 ± 4 years, BMI 23.3 were evaluated continuously at the anterolateral aspect of the left thigh during RIPC using combined Laser-Doppler and photospectrometry (Oxygen-to-see, Lea Medizintechnik, Germany. After baseline microcirculatory measurement, remote ischemia was induced using a tourniquet on the contralateral upper arm for three cycles of 5 min. Results After RIPC, tissue oxygen saturation and capillary blood flow increased up to 29% and 35% during the third reperfusion phase versus baseline measurement, respectively (both p = 0.001. Postcapillary venous filling pressure decreased statistically significant by 16% during second reperfusion phase (p = 0.028. Conclusion Remote intermittent ischemic preconditioning affects cutaneous tissue oxygen saturation, arterial capillary blood flow and postcapillary venous filling pressure at a remote cutaneous location of the lower extremity. To what extent remote preconditioning might ameliorate reperfusion injury in soft tissue trauma or free flap transplantation further clinical trials have to evaluate. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01235286

  7. Effect of hypohydration on postsynaptic cutaneous vasodilation and sweating in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Matthew A; Six, Ashley; Moyen, Nicole E; Satterfield, Alf Z; Ganio, Matthew S

    2017-05-01

    Hypohydration decreases cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during heat stress, but it is unknown if these decrements are from postsynaptic (i.e., sweat gland/blood vessel) alterations. The purpose of this study was to determine if hypohydration affects postsynaptic cutaneous vasodilation and sweating responses. Twelve healthy men participated in euhydrated (EU) and hypohydrated (HY) trials, with hypohydration induced via fluid restriction and passive heat stress. Changes in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; % max ) in response to incremental intradermal infusion of the endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and the endothelium-dependent vasodilator methacholine chloride (MCh) were assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry. Local sweat rate (LSR) was simultaneously assessed at the MCh site via ventilated capsule. At the end of the last dose, maximal CVC was elicited by delivering a maximal dose of SNP (5 × 10 -2 M) for 30 min to both sites with simultaneous local heating (~44°C) at the SNP site. The concentration of drug needed to elicit 50% of the maximal response (log EC 50 ) was compared between hydration conditions. The percent body mass loss was greater with HY vs. EU (-2.2 ± 0.7 vs. -0.1 ± 0.7%, P 0.05). In conclusion, hypohydration attenuated endothelium-dependent CVC but did not affect endothelium-independent CVC or LSR responses. These data suggest that reductions in skin blood flow accompanying hypohydration can be partially attributed to altered postsynaptic function. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Cutaneous blood flow rate in areas with and without arteriovenous anastomoses during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midttun, M.; Sejrsen, Per

    1998-01-01

    Arteriovenous anastomoses, capillaries, cutaneous bllod flow rate, exercise, finger blood flow, skin blood flow......Arteriovenous anastomoses, capillaries, cutaneous bllod flow rate, exercise, finger blood flow, skin blood flow...

  9. Cutaneous Mucormycosis Complicating a Polymicrobial Wound Infection Following a Dog Bite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, Dalila; Chapin, Kimberly; Binns, Linda; Tashima, Karen

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of cutaneous mucormycosis and Enterobacter infection developing in a 50-year-old diabetic woman following a dog bite that showed delayed development and diagnosis in comparison with typical zygomycotic cutaneous lesions. PMID:22567468

  10. Extensive cutaneous metastases of ovarian cancer after prolonged response to liposomal doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Christine D; Iglesias, David A; Watkins, Jack; Coleman, Robert L; Kilgore, Larry; Ramirez, Pedro T

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous metastases are rare and clinically challenging to manage. When present, they often represent end-stage disease.•Treatments for cutaneous metastases are limited, and primarily palliative in nature.

  11. Unusual Manifestation of Cutaneous Sarcoidosis: A Case Report of Morpheaform Sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attiyeh Vasaghi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is multi organ disease with cutaneous manifestation in 20%-35% patients. Cutaneous sarcoidosis has variable manifestations that make it difficult to diagnose. So clinical, histopathologic and laboratory evaluation is needed for diagnosis. Most of cutaneous lesions presents as nodul, maculopapule and plaque. Morpheaform lesion is a rare presentation of cutaneous sarcoidosis. This case had multiple indurated scaly plaques resemble morphea with granulomatous pattern in histopathologic examination. The patient responded to prednisolone in addition to hydroxychloroquine.

  12. Unusual Manifestation of Cutaneous Sarcoidosis: A Case Report of Morpheaform Sarcoidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Attiyeh Vasaghi; Amir Kalafi

    2012-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is multi organ disease with cutaneous manifestation in 20%-35% patients. Cutaneous sarcoidosis has variable manifestations that make it difficult to diagnose. So clinical, histopathologic and laboratory evaluation is needed for diagnosis. Most of cutaneous lesions presents as nodul, maculopapule and plaque. Morpheaform lesion is a rare presentation of cutaneous sarcoidosis. This case had multiple indurated scaly plaques resemble morphea with granulomatous pattern in histopathologi...

  13. Cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Can; Kantar, Mehmet; Tuna, Arzu; Ertam, Ilgen; Aksoylar, Serap; Günaydın, Aslı; Çetingül, Nazan

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric oncology patients can present with various skin lesions related to both primary disease and immunosuppressive treatments. This study aimed to evaluate the cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric oncology patients. Sixty-five pediatric oncology patients who were scheduled to undergo chemotherapy from May 2011 to May 2013 were included in the study. Three patients were excluded from the results, as 2 patients died during treatment and 1 patient withdrew from the study; therefore, a total of 62 patients were evaluated for mucocutaneous findings. Patients were grouped according to their oncological diagnoses and a statistical analysis was performed. There was no statistical significance in the incidence of cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy among the different diagnostic groups. Awareness among dermatologists of the possible cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric patients and their causes can promote early diagnosis and treatment in this patient population.

  14. POLE mutations in families predisposed to cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Heitzer, Ellen; Johansson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated...... whole-genome and exome data from probands of 34 melanoma families lacking pathogenic mutations in known high penetrance melanoma susceptibility genes: CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, TERT, POT1, ACD and TERF2IP. We found a novel germline mutation, POLE p.(Trp347Cys), in a 7-case cutaneous melanoma family....... Functional assays in S. pombe showed that this mutation led to an increased DNA mutation rate comparable to that seen with a Pol ε mutant with no exonuclease activity. We then performed targeted sequencing of POLE in 1243 cutaneous melanoma cases and found that a further ten probands had novel or rare...

  15. Photodynamic therapy for cutaneous metastases of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Goranskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in w omen. Cutaneous metastases are observed in 20 % pa- tients with breast cancer. 36 breast cancer patients with cutaneous metastases were treated with photodynamic therapy in the de partment of laser and photodynamic therapy MRRC. Complete regression was obtained in 33.9 %, partial — in 39 % of cases, the stabilization achieved in 25.4 %, progression noted in 1.7 %. The objective response was obtained in 72.9 % of cases, treatment effect — in 97.4 %. Photodynamic therapy has good treatment results of cutaneous metastases of breast cancer with a small number of side effects.

  16. Cutaneous and systemic hypersensitivity reactions to metallic implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basko-Plluska, Juliana L; Thyssen, Jacob P; Schalock, Peter C

    2011-01-01

    ) following the insertion of intravascular stents, dental implants, cardiac pacemakers, or implanted gynecologic devices. Despite repeated attempts by researchers and clinicians to further understand this difficult area of medicine, the association between metal sensitivity and cutaneous allergic reactions......Cutaneous reactions to metal implants, orthopedic or otherwise, are well documented in the literature. The first case of a dermatitis reaction over a stainless steel fracture plate was described in 1966. Most skin reactions are eczematous and allergic in nature, although urticarial, bullous......, and vasculitic eruptions may occur. Also, more complex immune reactions may develop around the implants, resulting in pain, inflammation, and loosening. Nickel, cobalt, and chromium are the three most common metals that elicit both cutaneous and extracutaneous allergic reactions from chronic internal exposure...

  17. Cutaneous Larga Migrans - presentation of two typical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Soares

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cutaneous Larva Migrans is a dermatosis caused by nemantode parasites, mainely Ancylostoma brasiliensis and Ancylostoma caninus. It is an endemic disease in tropical countries but a rare diagnosis in the rest of the world. Case Report: We report the case of a ten-year-old child emigrated from Angola. The physical examination showed scarring injuries from previous incisions made as a form of treatment as well as a serpiginous lesion on the dorsum of the left foot, compatible with cutaneous Larva Migrans. The patient was started on albendazole and complete resolution of symptoms was obtained after one week. About that time, the patient’s brother, who had the same symptoms on both feet, was submitted to the same treatment, also with resolution of symptoms. Discussion: The authors wish to enphasize the relevance of this case due to the migration from countries with high prevalence of cutaneous Larva Migrans.

  18. Giant cutaneous horn in an African woman: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nthumba Peter M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A cutaneous horn is a conical projection of hyperkeratotic epidermis. Though grossly resembling an animal horn, it lacks a bony core. These lesions have been well described in Caucasian patients, as well as in a number of Arabic and Asian patients. Case presentation A young female presented with a large 'horn' of five-year duration, arising from a burn scar. Excision and scalp reconstruction were performed. Histology was reported as verrucoid epidermal hyperplasia with cutaneous horn. Conclusion This may be the first documentation of this lesion in a black African. Although likely rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dermatologic lesions. Up to 40% of cutaneous horns occur as part of a premalignant or malignant lesion, and surgical extirpation with histological examination is thus more important than the curiosity surrounding these lesions.

  19. Bilateral "turkey ear" as a cutaneous manifestation of lupus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingjie; Wang, Hongmiao; Zheng, Hua; Li, Xiao

    2018-03-14

    Lupus vulgaris is a common form of cutaneous tuberculosis in China, mostly involving the head and neck region. Turkey ear is a clinically descriptive term, used for a massively enlarged earlobe with bluish-red or violaceous indurated plaques and nodules, which can be a sign of lupus vulgaris. A 47-year-old female presented with edema and reddish ulcerated lesions on both ears which was diagnosed as lupus vulgaris by conventional laboratory investigations and the patient showed good response to antituberculous therapy. Occurrence of turkey ears in lupus pernio (sarcoidosis) should also be mentioned here as this presentation was originally described in this condition. Two case reports of turkey ear have been reported with cutaneous tuberculosis (not bilateral). However, occurrence of bilateral turkey ears in cutaneous tuberculosis has not been described so far in the literature.

  20. Cutaneous Granulomas in Dolphins Caused by Novel Uncultivated Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Raquel; Bossart, Gregory D; St Leger, Judy A; Dalton, Leslie M; Reif, John S; Schaefer, Adam M; McCarthy, Peter J; Fair, Patricia A; Mendoza, Leonel

    2016-12-01

    Cutaneous granulomas in dolphins were believed to be caused by Lacazia loboi, which also causes a similar disease in humans. This hypothesis was recently challenged by reports that fungal DNA sequences from dolphins grouped this pathogen with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We conducted phylogenetic analysis of fungi from 6 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with cutaneous granulomas and chains of yeast cells in infected tissues. Kex gene sequences of P. brasiliensis from dolphins showed 100% homology with sequences from cultivated P. brasiliensis, 73% with those of L. loboi, and 93% with those of P. lutzii. Parsimony analysis placed DNA sequences from dolphins within a cluster with human P. brasiliensis strains. This cluster was the sister taxon to P. lutzii and L. loboi. Our molecular data support previous findings and suggest that a novel uncultivated strain of P. brasiliensis restricted to cutaneous lesions in dolphins is probably the cause of lacaziosis/lobomycosis, herein referred to as paracoccidioidomycosis ceti.