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Sample records for division delays induced

  1. Modification of radiation-induced division delay by caffeine analogues and dibutyryl cyclic AMP

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    Kimler, B.F.; Leeper, D.B.; Snyder, M.H.; Rowley, R.; Schneiderman, M.H. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA). Hospital)

    1982-01-01

    The mitotic selection procedure for cell cycle analysis was utilized to investigate the concentration-dependent modification of x-radiation-induced division delay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by methyl xanthines (caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine) and by dibutyryl cyclic AMP. The methyl xanthines (concentrations from 0.5 to 1000 ..mu..g/ml) all reduced radiation-induced division delay with the effect being linear between approximately 100 and 1000 ..mu..g/ml. After doses of 100-300 rad, delay was reduced by 75, 94 or 83 per cent at 1000 ..mu..g/ml for each drug, respectively. However, the addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP had an opposite effect: radiation-induced delay was increased by the concentration range of 0.3 to 300 ..mu..g/ml. These results indicate that in mammalian cells the control of cell cycle progression and the modification of radiation-induced division delay are not simply related to intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. Rather, there appear to be at least two competing mechanisms which are differentially affected by caffeine analogues or by direct addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP. The direct effect of caffeine and the methyl xanthines on membrane calcium permeability is considered.

  2. Stability of networked control systems with multi-step delay based on time-division algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changlin MA; Huajing FANG

    2005-01-01

    A new control mode is proposed for a networked control system whose network-induced delay is longer than a sampling period. A time-division algorithm is presented to implement the control and for the mathematical modeling of such networked control system. The infinite horizon controller is designed, which renders the networked control system mean square exponentially stable. Simulation results show the validity of the proposed theory.

  3. Teriparatide Induced Delayed Persistent Hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosshan Thiruchelvam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teriparatide, a recombinant PTH, is an anabolic treatment for osteoporosis that increases bone density. Transient hypercalcemia is a reported side effect of teriparatide that is seen few hours following administration of teriparatide and resolves usually within 16 hours of drug administration. Persistent hypercalcemia, although not observed in clinical trials, is rarely reported. The current case describes a rare complication of teriparatide induced delayed persistent hypercalcemia.

  4. DNA replication defects delay cell division and disrupt cell polarity in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encalada, S E; Martin, P R; Phillips, J B; Lyczak, R; Hamill, D R; Swan, K A; Bowerman, B

    2000-12-15

    In early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, asymmetric cell divisions produce descendants with asynchronous cell cycle times. To investigate the relationship between cell cycle regulation and pattern formation, we have identified a collection of embryonic-lethal mutants in which cell divisions are delayed and cell fate patterns are abnormal. In div (for division delayed) mutant embryos, embryonic cell divisions are delayed but remain asynchronous. Some div mutants produce well-differentiated cell types, but they frequently lack the endodermal and mesodermal cell fates normally specified by a transcriptional activator called SKN-1. We show that mislocalization of PIE-1, a negative regulator of SKN-1, prevents the specification of endoderm and mesoderm in div-1 mutant embryos. In addition to defects in the normally asymmetric distribution of PIE-1, div mutants also exhibit other losses of asymmetry during early embryonic cleavages. The daughters of normally asymmetric divisions are nearly equal in size, and cytoplasmic P-granules are not properly localized to germline precursors in div mutant embryos. Thus the proper timing of cell division appears to be important for multiple aspects of asymmetric cell division. One div gene, div-1, encodes the B subunit of the DNA polymerase alpha-primase complex. Reducing the function of other DNA replication genes also results in a delayed division phenotype and embryonic lethality. Thus the other div genes we have identified are likely to encode additional components of the DNA replication machinery in C. elegans.

  5. A DNA damage-induced, SOS-independent checkpoint regulates cell division in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua W Modell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cells must coordinate DNA replication with cell division, especially during episodes of DNA damage. The paradigm for cell division control following DNA damage in bacteria involves the SOS response where cleavage of the transcriptional repressor LexA induces a division inhibitor. However, in Caulobacter crescentus, cells lacking the primary SOS-regulated inhibitor, sidA, can often still delay division post-damage. Here we identify didA, a second cell division inhibitor that is induced by DNA damage, but in an SOS-independent manner. Together, DidA and SidA inhibit division, such that cells lacking both inhibitors divide prematurely following DNA damage, with lethal consequences. We show that DidA does not disrupt assembly of the division machinery and instead binds the essential division protein FtsN to block cytokinesis. Intriguingly, mutations in FtsW and FtsI, which drive the synthesis of septal cell wall material, can suppress the activity of both SidA and DidA, likely by causing the FtsW/I/N complex to hyperactively initiate cell division. Finally, we identify a transcription factor, DriD, that drives the SOS-independent transcription of didA following DNA damage.

  6. A DNA damage-induced, SOS-independent checkpoint regulates cell division in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Joshua W; Kambara, Tracy K; Perchuk, Barrett S; Laub, Michael T

    2014-10-01

    Cells must coordinate DNA replication with cell division, especially during episodes of DNA damage. The paradigm for cell division control following DNA damage in bacteria involves the SOS response where cleavage of the transcriptional repressor LexA induces a division inhibitor. However, in Caulobacter crescentus, cells lacking the primary SOS-regulated inhibitor, sidA, can often still delay division post-damage. Here we identify didA, a second cell division inhibitor that is induced by DNA damage, but in an SOS-independent manner. Together, DidA and SidA inhibit division, such that cells lacking both inhibitors divide prematurely following DNA damage, with lethal consequences. We show that DidA does not disrupt assembly of the division machinery and instead binds the essential division protein FtsN to block cytokinesis. Intriguingly, mutations in FtsW and FtsI, which drive the synthesis of septal cell wall material, can suppress the activity of both SidA and DidA, likely by causing the FtsW/I/N complex to hyperactively initiate cell division. Finally, we identify a transcription factor, DriD, that drives the SOS-independent transcription of didA following DNA damage.

  7. A DNA Damage-Induced, SOS-Independent Checkpoint Regulates Cell Division in Caulobacter crescentus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Joshua W.; Kambara, Tracy K.; Perchuk, Barrett S.; Laub, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Cells must coordinate DNA replication with cell division, especially during episodes of DNA damage. The paradigm for cell division control following DNA damage in bacteria involves the SOS response where cleavage of the transcriptional repressor LexA induces a division inhibitor. However, in Caulobacter crescentus, cells lacking the primary SOS-regulated inhibitor, sidA, can often still delay division post-damage. Here we identify didA, a second cell division inhibitor that is induced by DNA damage, but in an SOS-independent manner. Together, DidA and SidA inhibit division, such that cells lacking both inhibitors divide prematurely following DNA damage, with lethal consequences. We show that DidA does not disrupt assembly of the division machinery and instead binds the essential division protein FtsN to block cytokinesis. Intriguingly, mutations in FtsW and FtsI, which drive the synthesis of septal cell wall material, can suppress the activity of both SidA and DidA, likely by causing the FtsW/I/N complex to hyperactively initiate cell division. Finally, we identify a transcription factor, DriD, that drives the SOS-independent transcription of didA following DNA damage. PMID:25350732

  8. A delay in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle that is induced by a dicentric chromosome and dependent upon mitotic checkpoints.

    OpenAIRE

    Neff, M. W.; Burke, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Dicentric chromosomes are genetically unstable and depress the rate of cell division in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have characterized the effects of a conditionally dicentric chromosome on the cell division cycle by using microscopy, flow cytometry, and an assay for histone H1 kinase activity. Activating the dicentric chromosome induced a delay in the cell cycle after DNA replication and before anaphase. The delay occurred in the absence of RAD9, a gene required to arrest cell division in r...

  9. Effect of gamma radiation on the delay of synchronous division of Physarium polycephalum plasmodium nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushcha, N.I.; Dmitriev, A.P.; Grodzinskij, D.M. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Fiziologii Rastenij)

    Irradiation of P. polycephalum plasmodium both at the middle of the S- and at the G/sub 2/-stages caused a linear increase in the delay of a synchronous division of nuclei at doses of up to 3000 Gy. High radiosensitivity of the plasmodium at the S phase was shown to correlate with the increased yield of abnormal multinucleolate nuclei and with the partial asynchronization of the postirradiation mitosis.

  10. Numerical analysis of intermodal delay in few-mode fibers for mode division multiplexing in optical fiber communication systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abid Munir; XIN Xiang-jun; LIU Bo; Abdul Latif; Aftab Hussain; Shahab Ahmad Niazi

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve higher spectral efficiency,mode division multiplexing (MDM) in few-mode fibers is a new research area.The idea faces lots of technical issues including intermodal delay and mode coupling which limit the achievable length of the system.This paper is designated to complete the analysis of intermodal delay in step-index few-mode fibers.We analyze numerically all the parameters of fiber,which could impact intermodal delay in few-mode fibers and identify the conditions which can increase the number of multiplex modes without significant increase in maximum intermodal delay.

  11. Admissibility analysis for discrete-time singular systems with randomly occurring uncertainties via delay-divisioning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarina Banu, L; Balasubramaniam, P

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the problem of admissibility analysis for discrete-time singular system with time-delays. The uncertainties occurring in the system parameters are assumed to be random. By constructing Lyapunov functional, sufficient delay-dependent stochastic admissibility conditions are established via delay divisioning approach in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be easily checked by utilizing the numerically efficient Matlab LMI toolbox. Numerical examples and their simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results.

  12. Delayed Radiation-Induced Vasculitic Leukoencephalopathy

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    Rauch, Philipp J. [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Faculty of Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Park, Henry S. [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Knisely, Jonathan P.S. [Department of Radiation Medicine, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, New York (United States); Chiang, Veronica L. [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Vortmeyer, Alexander O., E-mail: alexander.vortmeyer@yale.edu [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Recently, single-fraction, high-dosed focused radiation therapy such as that administered by Gamma Knife radiosurgery has been used increasingly for the treatment of metastatic brain cancer. Radiation therapy to the brain can cause delayed leukoencephalopathy, which carries its own significant morbidity and mortality. While radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy is known to be clinically different from that following fractionated radiation, pathological differences are not well characterized. In this study, we aimed to integrate novel radiographic and histopathologic observations to gain a conceptual understanding of radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy. Methods and Materials: We examined resected tissues of 10 patients treated at Yale New Haven Hospital between January 1, 2009, and June 30, 2010, for brain metastases that had been previously treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery, who subsequently required surgical management of a symptomatic regrowing lesion. None of the patients showed pathological evidence of tumor recurrence. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging data for each of the 10 patients were then studied retrospectively. Results: We provide evidence to show that radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy may present as an advancing process that extends beyond the original high-dose radiation field. Neuropathologic examination of the resected tissue revealed traditionally known leukoencephalopathic changes including demyelination, coagulation necrosis, and vascular sclerosis. Unexpectedly, small and medium-sized vessels revealed transmural T-cell infiltration indicative of active vasculitis. Conclusions: We propose that the presence of a vasculitic component in association with radiation-induced leukoencephalopathy may facilitate the progressive nature of the condition. It may also explain the resemblance of delayed leukoencephalopathy with recurring tumor on virtually all imaging modalities used for posttreatment follow-up.

  13. [Induced-division of neurons derived from neural stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiu-Xia; Que, Hai-Ping; Lu, Shuang-Hong; Liu, Shao-Jun

    2004-04-25

    In order to explore if mature neurons derived from neural stem cells have the potentiality to divide, we utilized the chemical digestion method to disperse the adult rat brain tissue into single cells, and culture them in serum-free medium. After being cultured for about eight days in vitro, the neural stem cells were induced to differentiate into neurons. The neurons were further induced to divide. Utilizing the method of serial photograph and NF-160 immunocytochemistry, the processes of division of some neurons were recorded. At the same time, PCNA+NF-160 (or Chat, GABA, GAD) double label were used to investigate if the dividing-neurons were mature ones. After the neural stem cells were induced to differentiate in vitro for eight days, they possessed the shape and character of mature neurons. The differentiated neuron had a big nucleus and one or two distinct nucleolus in the nuclear. Within the perikaryon,there were a large amount of dense and Nissl body-like structure. Several long processes emerged from various locations of the cell body. Then, EGF and bFGF were added into the medium to induce division. After two days of induced-division, neuron-like cells were observed to divide; moreover, the number of neuron-like cells in the region increased continually. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated these cells were NF-160-positive. Serial photographs of dividing-process of neuron-like cells were obtained and their daughter cells were also NF-160-positive. After PCNA+NF-160 (or Chat, GABA, GAD) double label, some cells showed brown cell plasma and black nucleus. The above-mentioned results indicate that neurons, which were previously thought to be end-differentiated, can be re-called into cell cycle under appropriate conditions. Mature neurons still have the potential to divide, proliferate and self-renew.

  14. Delayed onset of clozapine-induced leucopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongpiur, Arvind; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Sarkar, Sukanto; Das, Basudeb

    2012-05-01

    Clozapine has been reported to cause agranulocytosis, neutropenia, and leucopenia that usually occur within 18 weeks of initiation of treatment. We report a case of delayed onset leucopenia after 11 years of treatment with clozapine, which reversed within a few days after discontinuation of medication.

  15. Incomplete Information about Social Preferences Explains Equal Division and Delay in Bargaining

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    Stefan Kohler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two deviations of alternating-offer bargaining behavior from economic theory are observed together, yet have been studied separately. Players who could secure themselves a large surplus share if bargainers were purely self-interested incompletely exploit their advantage. Delay in agreement occurs even if all experimentally controlled information is common knowledge. This paper rationalizes both regularities coherently by modeling heterogeneous social preferences, either self-interest or envy, of one bargaining party as private information in a three period game of bargaining and preference screening and signaling.

  16. Ranitidine prevents postoperative transfusion-induced depression of delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F;

    1989-01-01

    The influence of perioperative blood transfusion on postoperative depression of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and the effect of ranitidine on transfusion-induced changes in postoperative CMI were investigated. CMI was assessed preoperatively and postoperatively by skin testing with seven common...... delayed-type antigens in 83 consecutive patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery. Sixty-six of these patients were randomly divided into ranitidine or no-ranitidine-treatment groups, and the remaining 17 patients were operated on without ranitidine. Thus, 50 patients were operated on without.......0001). It is concluded that perioperative transfusion with whole blood amplifies the postoperative impairment in delayed hypersensitivity and that transfusion-induced postoperative impairment in delayed hypersensitivity may be prevented by perioperative ranitidine treatment....

  17. Impaired mitochondrial functions in organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy in rats.

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    Masoud, Anwar; Kiran, Ravi; Sandhir, Rajat

    2009-12-01

    Acute exposure to organophosphates induces a delayed neurodegenerative condition known as organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN). The mechanism of OPIDN has not been fully understood as it does not involve cholinergic crisis. The present study has been designed to evaluate the role of mitochondrial dysfunctions in the development of OPIDN. OPIDN was induced in rats by administering acute dose of monocrotophos (MCP, 20 mg/kg body weight, orally) or dichlorvos (DDVP, 200 mg/kg body weight, subcutaneously), 15-20 min after treatment with antidotes [atropine (20 mg/kg body weight) and 2-PAM (100 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally]. MDA levels were observed to be higher and thiol content was lower in mitochondria from brain regions of OP exposed animals. This was accompanied by decreased activities of the mitochondrial enzymes; NADH dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and cytochrome oxidase. In addition, mitochondrial functions assessed by MTT reduction also confirmed mitochondrial dysfunctions following development of OPIDN. The spatial long-term memory evaluated using elevated plus-maze test was observed to be deficit in OPIDN. The results suggest impaired mitochondrial functions as a mechanism involved in the development of organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy.

  18. Ghrelin improves burn-induced delayed gastrointestinal transit in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, H S; Oliveira, H M; Gan, H T; Herndon, D N; Chen, J D Z

    2007-01-01

    Delayed gastrointestinal transit is common in patients with severe burn. Ghrelin is a potent prokinetic peptide. We aimed at testing the effect of ghrelin on burn-induced delayed gastrointestinal transit in rats. Gastric emptying (GE), intestinal transit (IT), and colonic transit (CT) studies were performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were randomized into two main groups as follows: sham injury and ghrelin-treated burn injury with doses of 0, 2, 5, and 10 nmol/rat ip 6 h after burn. Sham/burn injury was induced under anesthesia. Rats received a phenol red meal 20 min following ghrelin injection. Based on the most effective ghrelin dose, 1 mg/kg sc atropine was given 30 min before the ghrelin in one group of rats for each study. The rats in each group were killed 30-90 min later; their stomachs, intestines, and colons were harvested immediately, and the amount of phenol red recovered was measured. Percentage of gastric emptying (GE%) and geometric center for IT and CT were calculated. We found 1) severe cutaneous burn injury significantly delayed GE, IT, and CT compared with sham injury (P CT; 3) the most effective dose of ghrelin was 2 nmol/rat; and 4) atropine blocked the prokinetic effects of ghrelin on GE% and IT. In conclusion, ghrelin normalizes burn-induced delayed GE and IT but has no effect on CT in rats. The prokinetic effects of ghrelin are exerted via the cholinergic pathway. Ghrelin may have a therapeutic potential for burn patients with delayed upper gastrointestinal transit.

  19. Carbofuran alters centrosome and spindle organization, and delays cell division in oocytes and mitotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Ozgur; Semiz, Olcay; Can, Alp

    2015-04-01

    Although many countries banned of its usage, carbofuran (CF) is still one of the most commonly used carbamate derivative insecticides against insects and nematodes in agriculture and household, threatening the human and animal health by contaminating air, water, and food. Our goal was to evaluate the potential toxic effects of CF on mammalian oocytes besides mitotic cells. Caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway was assessed by immunofluorescence and western blot techniques. Alterations in the meiotic spindle formation after CF exposure throughout the in vitro maturation of mice oocyte-cumulus complexes (COCs) were analyzed by using a 3D confocal laser microscope. Maturation efficiency and kinetics were assessed by direct observation of the COCs. Results indicated that the number of TUNEL-positive cells increased in CF-exposed groups, particularly higher doses (>250 µM) in a dose-dependent fashion. The ratio of anticleaved caspase-3 labeled cells in those groups positively correlated with TUNEL-positivity. Western blot analysis confirmed a significant increase in active caspase-3 activity. CF caused a dose-dependent accumulation of oocytes at prometaphase-I (PM-I) of meiosis. Partial loss of spindle microtubules (MTs) was noted, which consequently gave rise to a diamond shape spindle. Aberrant pericentrin foci were noted particularly in PM-I and metaphase-I (M-I) stages. Conclusively, CF (1) induces programmed cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and (2) alters spindle morphology most likely through a mechanism that interacts with MT assembly and/or disorientation of pericentriolar proteins. Overall, data suggest that CF could give rise to aneuploidy or cell death in higher doses, therefore reduce fertilization and implantation rates. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Ranitidine prevents postoperative transfusion-induced depression of delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F;

    1989-01-01

    The influence of perioperative blood transfusion on postoperative depression of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and the effect of ranitidine on transfusion-induced changes in postoperative CMI were investigated. CMI was assessed preoperatively and postoperatively by skin testing with seven common...... ranitidine, 50 mg intravenously every 6 hours for 72 hours, received perioperative blood transfusion. Eleven of these patients could be matched to 11 transfused patients not receiving perioperative ranitidine. Ranitidine prevented postoperative reduction in skin test response (+6% vs -55%, p less than 0.......0001). It is concluded that perioperative transfusion with whole blood amplifies the postoperative impairment in delayed hypersensitivity and that transfusion-induced postoperative impairment in delayed hypersensitivity may be prevented by perioperative ranitidine treatment....

  1. Correlation-induced Time Delay in Atomic Photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, David A.; Manson, Steven T.; Deshmukh, Pranawa C.; Kheifets, Anatoli S.

    2016-05-01

    Interchannel coupling has been seen to result in structures in the photoionization cross sections of outer shell electrons in the vicinity of inner-shell thresholds, a result which leads us to ask if the same would be true for the time delay of outer shell electrons near inner-shell thresholds. Using the relativistic-random-phase approximation (RRPA) methodology, a theoretical study of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon were performed to search for these correlation-induced effects. Calculations were performed both with coupling and without coupling to verify that the structures found in the time delay were in fact due to interchannel coupling. Using this method to study the effects of interchannel coupling reveals how much of an impact the coupling has on the time delay, in some cases over a broad energy range. In cases where the spin-orbit doublets' respective thresholds are far enough apart, effects can be found in the j = l + 1/2channels due to interchannel coupling with the j = l-1/2 channels. These structures are purely a relativistic effect and are related to spin-obit activated interchannel coupling effects. Work supported by DOE, Office of Chemical Sciences, DST (India), and the Australian Research Council.

  2. Chemotherapy-induced Peripheral Neuropathy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    It usually starts in the hands and/or feet and creeps up the arms and legs. Sometimes it feels like a tingling or numbness. Other times, it’s more of a shooting and/or burning pain or sensitivity to temperature. It can include sharp, stabbing pain, and it can make it difficult to perform normal day-to-day tasks like buttoning a shirt, sorting coins in a purse, or walking. An estimated 30 to 40 percent of cancer patients treated with chemotherapy experience these symptoms, a condition called chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). |

  3. Organophosphorus agent induced delayed neuropathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshit Acharya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year old male, was presented with complaint of difficulty in walking with inability to flex foot and toes in bilateral feet ( and ldquo;foot drop and rdquo;, which was acute at the onset and gradually progressive since the past 7 days. The patient's wife and their 2 children had similar complaint with the same period of onset. At home, his family used cottonseed oil as cooking oil with wheat grain mixed with castor oil. On neurological examination, he was found to have lower motor neuron weakness with spasticity. After ruling out other common causes of polyneuropathy and lower motor weakness; due to high suspicion of poisoning by food adulterant, RBC acetyl cholinesterase (AChE and plasma cholinesterase (BuChE were tested at National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH, which came low and confirmed diagnosis of Organophosphorus (OP poisoning. Nerve conduction study was done; which showed decreased amplitude of conduction in bilateral peroneal and right tibial nerve along with decreased mean nerve conduction velocity of bilateral median nerve. Thus patient was diagnosed with organophosphorus agent induced delayed axonal type of polyneuropathy and physiotherapy was started as treatment. OP compounds are a diverse group of chemicals which are principally used as insecticides in agriculture. Following organophosphate poisoning (OPP, 3 well-defined neurological syndromes are recognised: cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome and delayed polyneuropathy. Some organophosphates, particularly triorthocresyl phosphate (TOCP and tricresyl phosphate (TCP, produce delayed neuropathy. On ingestion, they do not produce significant cholinergic crisis, but 7 to 20 days later it leads to a pure motor axonal neuropathy with wrist and foot drop. The mechanism may involve inhibition of neuropathy target esterase (NTE, which is found in the brain, peripheral nerves, and lymphocytes. This form of toxicity has been seen occasionally in small epidemics in

  4. Bifurcation analysis of delay-induced periodic oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider a generic differential equation with a cubic nonlinearity and delay. This system, in the absence of delay, is known to undergo an oscillatory instability. The addition of the delay is shown to result in the creation of a number of periodic solutions with constant amplitude

  5. Distant, delayed and ancient earthquake-induced landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenith, Hans-Balder; Torgoev, Almaz; Braun, Anika; Schlögel, Romy; Micu, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    On the basis of a new classification of seismically induced landslides we outline particular effects related to the delayed and distant triggering of landslides. Those cannot be predicted by state-of-the-art methods. First, for about a dozen events the 'predicted' extension of the affected area is clearly underestimated. The most problematic cases are those for which far-distant triggering of landslides had been reported, such as for the 1988 Saguenay earthquake. In Central Asia reports for such cases are known for areas marked by a thick cover of loess. One possible contributing effect could be a low-frequency resonance of the thick soils induced by distant earthquakes, especially those in the Pamir - Hindu Kush seismic region. Such deep focal and high magnitude (>>7) earthquakes are also found in Europe, first of all in the Vrancea region (Romania). For this area and others in Central Asia we computed landslide event sizes related to scenario earthquakes with M>7.5. The second particular and challenging type of triggering is the one delayed with respect to the main earthquake event: case histories have been reported for the Racha earthquake in 1991 when several larger landslides only started moving 2 or 3 days after the main shock. Similar observations were also made after other earthquake events in the U.S., such as after the 1906 San Francisco, the 1949 Tacoma, the 1959 Hebgen Lake and the 1983 Bora Peak earthquakes. Here, we will present a series of detailed examples of (partly monitored) mass movements in Central Asia that mainly developed after earthquakes, some even several weeks after the main shock: e.g. the Tektonik and Kainama landslides triggered in 1992 and 2004, respectively. We believe that the development of the massive failures is a consequence of the opening of tension cracks during the seismic shaking and their filling up with water during precipitations that followed the earthquakes. The third particular aspect analysed here is the use of large

  6. Observer design for compensation of network-induced delays in integrated communication and control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, R.; Ray, A.

    1988-01-01

    A method for compensating the effects of network-induced delays in integrated communication and control systems (ICCS) is proposed, and a finite-dimensional time-invariant ICCS model is developed. The problem of analyzing systems with time-varying and stochastic delays is circumvented by the application of a deterministic observer. For the case of controller-to-actuator delays, the observed design must rely on an extended model which represents the delays as additional states.

  7. Delaying cluster growth of ionotropic induced alginate gelation by oligoguluronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padoł, Anna Maria; Maurstad, Gjertrud; Draget, Kurt Ingar; Stokke, Bjørn Torger

    2015-11-20

    Alginates form gels in the presence of various divalent ions, such as Ca(2+) that mediate lateral association of chain segments. Various procedures exist that introduce Ca(2+) to yield alginate hydrogels with overall homogeneous or controlled gradients in the concentration profiles. In the present study, the effect of adding oligomers of α-l-guluronic acid (oligoGs) to gelling solutions of alginate was investigated by determination of the cluster growth stimulated by in situ release of Ca(2+). Three different alginate samples varying in fraction of α-l-guluronic acid and molecular weights were employed. The cluster growth was determined for both pure alginates and alginates with two different concentrations of the oligoGs employing dynamic light scattering. The results show that addition of oligoG slows down the cluster growth, the more efficient for the alginates with higher fraction of α-l-guluronic acid, and the higher molecular weight. The efficiency in delaying and slowing the cluster growth induced by added oligoG were discussed in view of the molecular parameters of the alginates. These results show that oligoG can be added to alginate solutions to control the cluster growth and eventually also transition to the gel state. Quantitative relation between the concentration of added oligoG, type and molecular weight of the alginate, and concentration, can be employed as guidelines in tuning alginate cluster growth with specific properties.

  8. Subchronic organophosphorus ester-induced delayed neurotoxicity in mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.; Murray, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    Eighteen-week-old mallard hens received 0, 10, 30, 90, or 270 ppm technical grade EPN (phenylphosphonothioic acid O-ethyl-O-4-nitrophenyl ester) in the diet for 90 days. Ataxia was first observed in the 270-ppm group after 16 days, in the 90-ppm group after 20 days, in the 30-ppm group after 38 days; 10 ppm failed to produce ataxia. By the end of 90 days all 6 birds in the 270-ppm group exhibited ataxia or paralysis whereas 5 of 6 birds in the 90-ppm group and 2 of 6 birds in the 30-ppm group were visibly affected. Treatment with 30 ppm or more resulted in a significant reduction in body weight. Brain neurotoxic esterase activity was inhibited by averages of 16, 69, 73, and 74% in the 10-, 30-, 90-, and 270-ppm groups, respectively. Brain acetylcholinesterase, plasma cholinesterase, and plasma alkaline phosphatase were significantly inhibited as well. Distinct histopathological effects were seen in the 30-, 90-, and 270-ppm groups which included demyelination and degeneration of axons of the spinal cord. Additional ducks were exposed in a similar manner to 60-, 270-, or 540-ppm leptophos (phosphonothioic acid O-4-bromo-2,5-dichlorophenyl-O-methylphenyl ester) which resulted in similar behavioral, biochemical, and histopathological alterations. These findings indicate that adult mallards are probably somewhat less sensitive than chickens to subchronic dietary exposure to organophosphorus insecticides that induce delayed neurotoxicity.

  9. Delay-induced driven patterns in coupled Cayley tree networks

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Aradhana

    2013-01-01

    We study effects of delay in diffusively coupled logistic maps on the Cayley tree networks. We find that smaller coupling values exhibits sensitiveness for value of delay, and leads to different cluster patterns of self-organized and driven types. Whereas larger coupling strengths are very robust against change in delay values, and leads to stable driven clusters comprising only nodes from last generation of the Calaye tree. Furthermore, introduction of delay exhibits suppression as well as enhancement of synchronization depending upon coupling strength values, hence demonstrating richness of the model. To the end we relate the results with social conflicts and cooperation observed in families.

  10. Bifurcations Induced in a Bistable Oscillator via Joint Noises and Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jin; Sun, Zhongkui; Xiao, Yuzhu; Xu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, noise-induced and delay-induced bifurcations in a bistable Duffing-van der Pol (DVP) oscillator under time delay and joint noises are discussed theoretically and numerically. Based on the qualitative changes of the plane phase, delay-induced bifurcations are investigated in the deterministic case. However, in the stochastic case, the response of the system is a stochastic non-Markovian process owing to the existence of noise and time delay. Then, methods have been employed to derive the stationary probability density function (PDF) of the amplitude of the response. Accordingly, stochastic P-bifurcations can be observed with the variations in the qualitative behavior of the stationary PDF for amplitude. Furthermore, results from both theoretical analyses and numerical simulations best demonstrate the appearance of noise-induced and delay-induced bifurcations, which are in good agreement.

  11. The effects of pulse cycloheximide treatments on the light-induced recovery of mitotic divisions in antheridial filaments of Chara vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kwiatkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the proliferative period of spermatogenesis in Chara vulgaris, the progression throughout successive cell divisions in antheridial filaments is greatly influenced by changes in photoperiodic conditions. The extended (4-day period of total darkness brings about cell cycle arrest in the early G2 phase. The recovery of mitosis requires about 20 hours of exposition to light. In the present study, a series of 8 pulse incubations of plants in cycloheximide (Cx; 2.5 mg/I, 2.5 h each pulse were performed within the period elapsing till the resumption of mitotic divisions. Depending on the time of treatment, the effects induced by Cx vary considerably. Within the first 10 hs of exposition to light, incubations with Cx result in the delays of mitoses; within the period between the 10th and the 17th h, mitotic divisions become blocked, and, following the 17.5 h of light-induced recovery, no influence of Cx is noticed on mitotic activity, as compared with the untreaed control plants. The obtained results provide a starting point for the characteristic of proteins synthesized during the G2 phase and a preliminary study on those mechanisms, which become engaged in the regulation of the G1-deficient cell cycle evidenced in antheridial filaments of Chara.

  12. Hopf Bifurcation and Delay-Induced Turing Instability in a Diffusive lac Operon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xin; Song, Yongli; Zhang, Tonghua

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a lac operon model with delayed feedback and diffusion effect. If the system is without delay or the delay is small, the positive equilibrium is stable so that there are no spatial patterns formed; while the time delay is large enough the equilibrium becomes unstable so that rich spatiotemporal dynamics may occur. We have found that time delay can not only incur temporal oscillations but also induce imbalance in space. With different initial values, the system may have different spatial patterns, for instance, spirals with one head, four heads, nine heads, and even microspirals.

  13. Stochastic Simulation of Delay-Induced Circadian Rhythms in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhouyi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are ubiquitous in all eukaryotes and some prokaryotes. Several computational models with or without time delays have been developed for circadian rhythms. Exact stochastic simulations have been carried out for several models without time delays, but no exact stochastic simulation has been done for models with delays. In this paper, we proposed a detailed and a reduced stochastic model with delays for circadian rhythms in Drosophila based on two deterministic models of Smolen et al. and employed exact stochastic simulation to simulate circadian oscillations. Our simulations showed that both models can produce sustained oscillations and that the oscillation is robust to noise in the sense that there is very little variability in oscillation period although there are significant random fluctuations in oscillation peeks. Moreover, although average time delays are essential to simulation of oscillation, random changes in time delays within certain range around fixed average time delay cause little variability in the oscillation period. Our simulation results also showed that both models are robust to parameter variations and that oscillation can be entrained by light/dark circles. Our simulations further demonstrated that within a reasonable range around the experimental result, the rates that dclock and per promoters switch back and forth between activated and repressed sites have little impact on oscillation period.

  14. Delay Induced Hopf Bifurcation of Small-World Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the stability and the Hopf bifurcation of small-world networks with time delay are studied. By analyzing the change of delay, we obtain several sufficient conditions on stable and unstable properties. When the delay passes a critical value, a Hopf bifurcation may appear. Furthermore, the direction and the stability of bifurcating periodic solutions are investigated by the normal form theory and the center manifold reduction. At last, by numerical simulations, we further illustrate the effectiveness of theorems in this paper.

  15. Quantification of MDL-induced signal degradation in MIMO-OFDM mode-division multiplexing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Li, Juhao; Zhu, Paikun; Wu, Zhongying; Chen, Yuanxiang; He, Yongqi; Chen, Zhangyuan

    2016-08-22

    Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) transmission over few-mode optical fiber has emerged as a promising technology to enhance transmission capacity, in which multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) digital signal processing (DSP) after coherent detection is used to demultiplex the signals. Compared with conventional single-mode systems, MIMO-MDM systems suffer non-recoverable signal degradation induced by mode-dependent loss (MDL). In this paper, the MDL-induced signal degradation in orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) MDM systems is theoretically quantified in terms of mode-average error vector magnitude (EVM) through frequency domain norm analysis. A novel scalar MDL metric is proposed considering the probability distribution of the practical MDM input signals, and a closed-form expression for EVM measured after zero-force (ZF) MIMO equalization is derived. Simulation results show that the EVM estimations utilizing the novel MDL metric remain unbiased for unrepeated links. For a 6 × 100 km 20-mode MDM transmission system, the estimation accuracy is improved by more than 90% compared with that utilizing traditional condition number (CN) based MDL metric. The proposed MDL metric can be used to predict the MDL-induced SNR penalty in a theoretical manner, which will be beneficial for the design of practical MIMO-MDM systems.

  16. Robotic reactions: delay-induced patterns in autonomous vehicle systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Moehlis, Jeff; Bullo, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Fundamental design principles are presented for vehicle systems governed by autonomous cruise control devices. By analyzing the corresponding delay differential equations, it is shown that for any car-following model short-wavelength oscillations can appear due to robotic reaction times, and that there are tradeoffs between the time delay and the control gains. The analytical findings are demonstrated on an optimal velocity model using numerical continuation and numerical simulation.

  17. Robotic reactions: Delay-induced patterns in autonomous vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Moehlis, Jeff; Bullo, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Fundamental design principles are presented for vehicle systems governed by autonomous cruise control devices. By analyzing the corresponding delay differential equations, it is shown that for any car-following model short-wavelength oscillations can appear due to robotic reaction times, and that there are tradeoffs between the time delay and the control gains. The analytical findings are demonstrated on an optimal velocity model using numerical continuation and numerical simulation.

  18. DNA lesions, inducible DNA repair, and cell division: Three key factors in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, B.N.; Shigenaga, M.K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gold, L.S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    DNA lesions that escape repair have a certain probability of giving rise to mutations when the cell divides. Endogenous DNA damage is high: 10{sup 6} oxidative lesions are present per rat cell. An exogenous mutagen produces an increment in lesions over the background rate of endogenous lesions. The effectiveness of a particular lesion depends on whether it is excised by a DNA repair system and the probability that it gives rise to a mutation when the cell divides. When the cell divides, an unrepaired DNA lesion has a certain probability of giving rise to a mutation. Thus, an important factor in the mutagenic effect of an exogenous agent whether it is genotoxic or non-genotoxic, is the increment it causes over the background cell division rate (mitogenesis) in cells that appear to matter most in cancer, the stem cells, which are not on their way to being discarded. Increasing their cell division rate increases by high doses of chemicals. If both the rate of DNA lesions and cell division are increased, then there will be a multiplicative effect on mutagenesis (and carcinogenesis), for example, by high doses of a mutagen that also increases mitogenesis through cell killing. The defense system against reactive electrophilic mutagens, such as the glutathione transferases, are also almost all inducible and buffer cells against increments in active forms of chemicals that can cause DNA lesions. A variety of DNA repair defense systems, almost all inducible, buffer the cell against any increment in DNA lesions. Therefore, the effect of a particular chemical insult depends on the level of each defense, which in turn depends on the past history of exposure. Exogenous agents can influence the induction and effectiveness of these defenses. Defenses can be partially disabled by lack of particular micronutrients in the diet (e.g., antioxidants).

  19. Approximation of Hydrogen Induced Delayed Fracture of Overlaid Cladding in Pressure Vessels Steel Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Ronnie H. Rusli; Fujita, T

    2008-01-01

    Distribution and electronic states of interstitial hydrogen atoms in the iron lattice are discussed in regard to their influence to the lattice bonding, and theory of hydrogen induced delayed fracture of steel based upon it is proposed. Characteristics of delayed fracture are accordingly well accounted for.

  20. Four-fold increase in users of time-wavelength division multiplexing (TWDM) passive optical network (PON) by delayed optical amplitude modulation (AM) upstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachhatiya, Vivek; Prince, Shanthi

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we have proposed and simulated optical time division multiplexed passive optical network (TDM-PON) using delayed optical amplitude modulation (AM). Eight upstream wavelengths are demonstrated to show optical time wavelength division multiplexed (TWDM) by combining optical network units (ONU) users data at the remote node (RN). Each ONU generates 2.5 Gb/s user data, and it is modulated using novel return to zero (RZ) delayed AM. Optical TDM aggregates 10 Gb/s data per wavelength from four 2.5 Gb/s upstream user data, which facilitates four different ONU data on the same wavelength as 10 Gb/s per upstream wavelength and, simplify the laser requirements (2.5 Gb/s) at each optical network unit (ONU) transmitter. Upstream optical TWDM-PON is investigated for eight wavelengths with wavelength spacing of 100 GHz. Novel optical TDM for upstream increased the number of the simultaneous user to fourfold from conventional TWDM-PON using delayed AM with a high-quality-factor of received signal. Despite performance degradation due to different fiber reach and dispersion compensation technique, Optical TWDM link shows significant improvement regarding receiver sensitivity when compared with common TWDM link. Hence, it offers optimistic thinking to show optical TDM at this phase as one of the future direction, where complex digital signal processing (DSP) and coherent optical communication are frequently demonstrated to serve the access network. Downstream side conventional TWDM eight wavelengths are multiplexed at the OLT and sent downstream to serve distributed tunable ONU receivers through an optical distribution network (ODN). Each downstream wavelengths are modulated at the peak rate of 10 Gb/s using non-return to zero external modulation (NRZ-EM). The proposed architecture is cost efficient and supports high data rates as well as ;pay as you grow; network for both service providers and the users perspectives. Users are classified into two categories viz home

  1. Delay induced transitions in an asymmetry bistable system and stochastic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The delay Fokker-Planck equation is given for an asymmetry bistable system with correlated Gaussian white noises. The small delay approximation based on the probability density approach is used and the approximate stationary probability density function is obtained. The phenomenon of delay induced transitions is found. When a weak periodic signal is added, the phenomenon of stochastic resonance is investigated. Expression of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is obtained by using the two-state theory. It is shown that the time delay can suppress or promote the stochastic resonance phenomenon.

  2. Attenuation of Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity by mdivi-1: A Mitochondrial Division/Mitophagy Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharanei, Mayel; Hussain, Afthab; Janneh, Omar; Maddock, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Doxorubicin is one of the most effective anti-cancer agents. However, its use is associated with adverse cardiac effects, including cardiomyopathy and progressive heart failure. Given the multiple beneficial effects of the mitochondrial division inhibitor (mdivi-1) in a variety of pathological conditions including heart failure and ischaemia and reperfusion injury, we investigated the effects of mdivi-1 on doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction in naïve and stressed conditions using Langendorff perfused heart models and a model of oxidative stress was used to assess the effects of drug treatments on the mitochondrial depolarisation and hypercontracture of cardiac myocytes. Western blot analysis was used to measure the levels of p-Akt and p-Erk 1/2 and flow cytometry analysis was used to measure the levels p-Drp1 and p-p53 upon drug treatment. The HL60 leukaemia cell line was used to evaluate the effects of pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial division on the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin in a cancer cell line. Doxorubicin caused a significant impairment of cardiac function and increased the infarct size to risk ratio in both naïve conditions and during ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Interestingly, co-treatment of doxorubicin with mdivi-1 attenuated these detrimental effects of doxorubicin. Doxorubicin also caused a reduction in the time taken to depolarisation and hypercontracture of cardiac myocytes, which were reversed with mdivi-1. Finally, doxorubicin caused a significant elevation in the levels of signalling proteins p-Akt, p-Erk 1/2, p-Drp1 and p-p53. Co-incubation of mdivi-1 with doxorubicin did not reduce the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin against HL-60 cells. These data suggest that the inhibition of mitochondrial fission protects the heart against doxorubicin-induced cardiac injury and identify mitochondrial fission as a new therapeutic target in ameliorating doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity without affecting its anti-cancer properties. PMID

  3. Delay-induced stochastic bifurcations in a bistable system under white noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhongkui, E-mail: sunzk@nwpu.edu.cn; Fu, Jin; Xu, Wei [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Xiao, Yuzhu [Department of Mathematics and Information Science, Chang' an University, Xi' an 710086 (China)

    2015-08-15

    In this paper, the effects of noise and time delay on stochastic bifurcations are investigated theoretically and numerically in a time-delayed Duffing-Van der Pol oscillator subjected to white noise. Due to the time delay, the random response is not Markovian. Thereby, approximate methods have been adopted to obtain the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation and the stationary probability density function for amplitude of the response. Based on the knowledge that stochastic bifurcation is characterized by the qualitative properties of the steady-state probability distribution, it is found that time delay and feedback intensity as well as noise intensity will induce the appearance of stochastic P-bifurcation. Besides, results demonstrated that the effects of the strength of the delayed displacement feedback on stochastic bifurcation are accompanied by the sensitive dependence on time delay. Furthermore, the results from numerical simulations best confirm the effectiveness of the theoretical analyses.

  4. Delay-induced stochastic bifurcations in a bistable system under white noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongkui; Fu, Jin; Xiao, Yuzhu; Xu, Wei

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the effects of noise and time delay on stochastic bifurcations are investigated theoretically and numerically in a time-delayed Duffing-Van der Pol oscillator subjected to white noise. Due to the time delay, the random response is not Markovian. Thereby, approximate methods have been adopted to obtain the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation and the stationary probability density function for amplitude of the response. Based on the knowledge that stochastic bifurcation is characterized by the qualitative properties of the steady-state probability distribution, it is found that time delay and feedback intensity as well as noise intensity will induce the appearance of stochastic P-bifurcation. Besides, results demonstrated that the effects of the strength of the delayed displacement feedback on stochastic bifurcation are accompanied by the sensitive dependence on time delay. Furthermore, the results from numerical simulations best confirm the effectiveness of the theoretical analyses.

  5. Noise transmission and delay-induced stochasticoscillations in biochemical network motifs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Sheng-Jun; Wang Qi; Liu Bo; Yan Shi-Wei; Fumihiko Sakata

    2011-01-01

    With the aid of stochastic delayed-feedback differential equations,we derive an analytic expression for the power spectra of reacting molecules included in a generic biological network motif that is incorporated with a feedback mechanism and time delays in gene regulation.We systematically analyse the effects of time delays,the feedback mechanism,and biological stochasticity on the power spectra.It has been clarified that the time delays together with the feedback mechanism can induce stochastic oscillations at the molecular level and invalidate the noise addition rule for a modular description of the noise propagator.Delay-induced stochastic resonance can be expected,which is related to the stability loss of the reaction systems and Hopf bifurcation occurring for solutions of the corresponding deterministic reaction equations.Through the analysis of the power spectrum,a new approach is proposed to estimate the oscillation period.

  6. Reduction theories elucidate the origins of complex biological rhythms generated by interacting delay-induced oscillations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuhiro Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Time delay is known to induce sustained oscillations in many biological systems such as electroencephalogram (EEG activities and gene regulations. Furthermore, interactions among delay-induced oscillations can generate complex collective rhythms, which play important functional roles. However, due to their intrinsic infinite dimensionality, theoretical analysis of interacting delay-induced oscillations has been limited. Here, we show that the two primary methods for finite-dimensional limit cycles, namely, the center manifold reduction in the vicinity of the Hopf bifurcation and the phase reduction for weak interactions, can successfully be applied to interacting infinite-dimensional delay-induced oscillations. We systematically derive the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation and the phase equation without delay for general interaction networks. Based on the reduced low-dimensional equations, we demonstrate that diffusive (linearly attractive coupling between a pair of delay-induced oscillations can exhibit nontrivial amplitude death and multimodal phase locking. Our analysis provides unique insights into experimentally observed EEG activities such as sudden transitions among different phase-locked states and occurrence of epileptic seizures.

  7. Time delay induced transition of gene switch and stochastic resonance in a genetic transcriptional regulatory model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Noise, nonlinear interactions, positive and negative feedbacks within signaling pathways, time delays, protein oligomerization, and crosstalk between different pathways are main characters in the regulatory of gene expression. However, only a single noise source or only delay time in the deterministic model is considered in the gene transcriptional regulatory system in previous researches. The combined effects of correlated noise and time delays on the gene regulatory model still remain not to be fully understood. Results The roles of time delay on gene switch and stochastic resonance are systematically explored based on a famous gene transcriptional regulatory model subject to correlated noise. Two cases, including linear time delay appearing in the degradation process (case I) and nonlinear time delay appearing in the synthesis process (case II) are considered, respectively. For case I: Our theoretical results show that time delay can induce gene switch, i.e., the TF-A monomer concentration shifts from the high concentration state to the low concentration state ("on"→"off"). With increasing the time delay, the transition from "on" to "off" state can be further accelerated. Moreover, it is found that the stochastic resonance can be enhanced by both the time delay and correlated noise intensity. However, the additive noise original from the synthesis rate restrains the stochastic resonance. It is also very interesting that a resonance bi-peaks structure appears under large additive noise intensity. The theoretical results by using small-delay time-approximation approach are consistent well with our numerical simulation. For case II: Our numerical simulation results show that time delay can also induce the gene switch, however different with case I, the TF-A monomer concentration shifts from the low concentration state to the high concentration state ("off"→"on"). With increasing time delay, the transition from "on" to "off" state can be further

  8. Dynamics of Time Delay-Induced Multiple Synchronous Behaviors in Inhibitory Coupled Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huaguang; Zhao, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    The inhibitory synapse can induce synchronous behaviors different from the anti-phase synchronous behaviors, which have been reported in recent studies. In the present paper, synchronous behaviors are investigated in the motif model composed of reciprocal inhibitory coupled neurons with endogenous bursting and time delay. When coupling strength is weak, synchronous behavior appears at a single interval of time delay within a bursting period. When coupling strength is strong, multiple synchronous behaviors appear at different intervals of time delay within a bursting period. The different bursting patterns of synchronous behaviors, and time delays and coupling strengths that can induce the synchronous bursting patterns can be well interpreted by the dynamics of the endogenous bursting pattern of isolated neuron, which is acquired by the fast-slow dissection method, combined with the inhibitory coupling current. For an isolated neuron, when a negative impulsive current with suitable strength is applied at different phases of the bursting, multiple different bursting patterns can be induced. For a neuron in the motif, the inhibitory coupling current, of which the application time and strength is modulated by time delay and coupling strength, can cause single or multiple synchronous firing patterns like the negative impulsive current when time delay and coupling strength is suitable. The difference compared to the previously reported multiple synchronous behaviors that appear at time delays wider than a period of the endogenous firing is discussed. The results present novel examples of synchronous behaviors in the neuronal network with inhibitory synapses and provide a reasonable explanation. PMID:26394224

  9. Low concentrations of caffeine induce asymmetric cell division as observed in vitro by means of the CBMN-assay and iFISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Karakosta, Maria; Barszczewska, Katarzyna; Karachristou, Ioanna; Pantelias, Gabriel; Terzoudi, Georgia I

    2015-11-01

    The dual role of caffeine as a chromosomal damage inducer and G2/M-checkpoint abrogator is well known but it is observed mainly at relatively high concentrations. At low concentrations, caffeine enhances the cytogenetic effects of several carcinogens and its intake during pregnancy has been recently reported to cause adverse birth outcomes. Interestingly, a threshold below which this association is not apparent was not identified. Since chromosomal abnormalities and aneuploidy are the major genetic etiologies of spontaneous abortions and adverse birth outcomes, we re-evaluate here the effects of caffeine at the cytogenetic level and propose a model for the mechanisms involved. Our hypothesis is that low caffeine concentrations affect DNA replication and cause chromosomal aberrations and asymmetric cell divisions not easily detected at metaphase since damaged cells are delayed during their G2/M-phase transition and the low caffeine concentrations cannot abrogate the G2-checkpoint. To test this hypothesis, caffeine-induced chromatid breaks and micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were evaluated in vitro after low caffeine concentration exposures, followed by a short treatment with 4mM of caffeine to abrogate the G2-checkpoint. The results show a statistically significant increase in chromatid breaks at caffeine concentrations ≥1mM. When caffeine was applied for G2/M-checkpoint abrogation, a statistically significant increase in chromatid breaks, compared to an active checkpoint, was only observed at 4mM of caffeine. The potential of low concentrations to induce asymmetric cell divisions was tested by applying a methodology combining the cytochalasin-B mediated cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) with interphase FISH (iFISH), using selected centromeric probes. Interestingly, low caffeine concentrations induce a dose dependent aneuploidy through asymmetric cell divisions, which are caused by misalignment of chromosomes through a mechanism

  10. Visible light induced ocular delayed bioluminescence as a possible origin of negative afterimage

    CERN Document Server

    Bokkon, I; Wang, C; Dai, J; Salari, V; Grass, F; Antal, I

    2011-01-01

    The delayed luminescence of biological tissues is an ultraweak reemission of absorbed photons after exposure to external monochromatic or white light illumination. Recently, Wang, B\\'okkon, Dai and Antal (Brain Res. 2011) presented the first experimental proof of the existence of spontaneous ultraweak biophoton emission and visible light induced delayed ultraweak photon emission from in vitro freshly isolated rat's whole eye, lens, vitreous humor and retina. Here, we suggest that the photobiophysical source of negative afterimage can also occur within the eye by delayed bioluminescent photons. In other words, when we stare at a colored (or white) image for few seconds, external photons can induce excited electronic states within different parts of the eye that is followed by a delayed reemission of absorbed photons for several seconds. Finally, these reemitted photons can be absorbed by nonbleached photoreceptors that produce a negative afterimage. Although this suggests the photobiophysical source of negativ...

  11. Modularity Induced Gating and Delays in Neuronal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shein-Idelson, Mark; Cohen, Gilad; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Hanein, Yael

    2016-04-01

    Neural networks, despite their highly interconnected nature, exhibit distinctly localized and gated activation. Modularity, a distinctive feature of neural networks, has been recently proposed as an important parameter determining the manner by which networks support activity propagation. Here we use an engineered biological model, consisting of engineered rat cortical neurons, to study the role of modular topology in gating the activity between cell populations. We show that pairs of connected modules support conditional propagation (transmitting stronger bursts with higher probability), long delays and propagation asymmetry. Moreover, large modular networks manifest diverse patterns of both local and global activation. Blocking inhibition decreased activity diversity and replaced it with highly consistent transmission patterns. By independently controlling modularity and disinhibition, experimentally and in a model, we pose that modular topology is an important parameter affecting activation localization and is instrumental for population-level gating by disinhibition.

  12. Delay-induced coherence bi-resonance-like behavior in stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neuron networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we study how information transmission delays affect the spiking behavior of electrically coupled stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) neurons on Newman-Watts networks.It is found that the spiking behavior becomes the most regular at an optimal time delay,indicating the occurrence of delay-induced coherence resonance-like (CR-like) behavior.Interestingly,there are different CR-like types,depending on the membrane patch size of the neuron.For a smaller patch size,only single CR-like behavior occurs;while for a larger patch size,coherence bi-resonance-like (CBR) behavior appears.These findings show that the delay-induced CR-like behavior is closely related to the channel noise strength,and the coupled neurons may exhibit different spiking behaviors under the interplay of the channel noise and time delay.Therefore,the channel noise should be taken into account in the study of time delay-related spiking activity in stochastic HH neurons.This work provides new insight into the role of channel noise and information transmission delays in realistic neural systems.

  13. Paternal cyclophosphamide exposure induces the formation of functional micronuclei during the first zygotic division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisanne Grenier

    Full Text Available Paternal exposures to cancer chemotherapeutics or environmental chemicals may have adverse effects on progeny outcome that are manifested in the preimplantation embryo. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of paternal exposure to cyclophosphamide, an anticancer alkylating agent, on the formation, chromatin origin and function of micronuclei in cleavage stage rat embryos. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with saline or cyclophosphamide (6 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks and mated to naturally cycling females to collect pronuclear zygotes and 2 to 8 cell embryos. Micronuclear chromatin structure was characterized using confocal microscopy to detect immunoreactivities for H3K9me3, a marker for maternal chromatin, and lamin B, a nuclear membrane marker. DNA synthesis was monitored using EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation. Fertilization by cyclophosphamide-exposed spermatozoa led to a dramatic elevation in micronuclei in cleavage stage embryos (control embryos: 1% to 5%; embryos sired by treated males: 70%. The formation of micronuclei occurred during the first zygotic division and was associated with a subsequent developmental delay. The absence of H3K9me3 indicated that these micronuclei were of paternal origin. The micronuclei had incomplete peri-nuclear and peri-nucleolar lamin B1 membrane formation but incorporated EdU into DNA to the same extent as the main nucleus. The formation of micronuclei in response to the presence of a damaged paternal genome may play a role in increasing the rate of embryo loss that is associated with the use of assisted reproductive technologies, parenthood among cancer survivors, and paternal aging.

  14. The Effects of Pitch Shifts on Delay-Induced Changes in Vocal Sequencing in a Songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Conor W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Like human speech, vocal behavior in songbirds depends critically on auditory feedback. In both humans and songbirds, vocal skills are acquired by a process of imitation whereby current vocal production is compared to an acoustic target. Similarly, performance in adulthood relies strongly on auditory feedback, and online manipulations of auditory signals can dramatically alter acoustic production even after vocalizations have been well learned. Artificially delaying auditory feedback can disrupt both speech and birdsong, and internal delays in auditory feedback have been hypothesized as a cause of vocal dysfluency in persons who stutter. Furthermore, in both song and speech, online shifts of the pitch (fundamental frequency) of auditory feedback lead to compensatory changes in vocal pitch for small perturbations, but larger pitch shifts produce smaller changes in vocal output. Intriguingly, large pitch shifts can partially restore normal speech in some dysfluent speakers, suggesting that the effects of auditory feedback delays might be ameliorated by online pitch manipulations. Although birdsong provides a promising model system for understanding speech production, the interactions between sensory feedback delays and pitch shifts have not yet been assessed in songbirds. To investigate this, we asked whether the addition of a pitch shift modulates delay-induced changes in Bengalese finch song, hypothesizing that pitch shifts would reduce the effects of feedback delays. Compared with the effects of delays alone, combined delays and pitch shifts resulted in a significant reduction in behavioral changes in one type of sequencing (branch points) but not another (distribution of repeated syllables). PMID:28144622

  15. The Effects of Pitch Shifts on Delay-Induced Changes in Vocal Sequencing in a Songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, MacKenzie; Berthiaume, Emily A; Kelly, Conor W; Sober, Samuel J

    2017-01-01

    Like human speech, vocal behavior in songbirds depends critically on auditory feedback. In both humans and songbirds, vocal skills are acquired by a process of imitation whereby current vocal production is compared to an acoustic target. Similarly, performance in adulthood relies strongly on auditory feedback, and online manipulations of auditory signals can dramatically alter acoustic production even after vocalizations have been well learned. Artificially delaying auditory feedback can disrupt both speech and birdsong, and internal delays in auditory feedback have been hypothesized as a cause of vocal dysfluency in persons who stutter. Furthermore, in both song and speech, online shifts of the pitch (fundamental frequency) of auditory feedback lead to compensatory changes in vocal pitch for small perturbations, but larger pitch shifts produce smaller changes in vocal output. Intriguingly, large pitch shifts can partially restore normal speech in some dysfluent speakers, suggesting that the effects of auditory feedback delays might be ameliorated by online pitch manipulations. Although birdsong provides a promising model system for understanding speech production, the interactions between sensory feedback delays and pitch shifts have not yet been assessed in songbirds. To investigate this, we asked whether the addition of a pitch shift modulates delay-induced changes in Bengalese finch song, hypothesizing that pitch shifts would reduce the effects of feedback delays. Compared with the effects of delays alone, combined delays and pitch shifts resulted in a significant reduction in behavioral changes in one type of sequencing (branch points) but not another (distribution of repeated syllables).

  16. Different delays-induced regime shifts in a stochastic insect outbreak dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jiakui; Zeng, Chunhua; Xie, Qingshuang; Guan, Lin; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Fengzao

    2016-11-01

    Considering time delays in the deterministic and stochastic forces, we construct stochastic delayed differential equations to investigate the regime shifts in an insect ecosystem. The stationary probability distribution (SPD) and mean first passage time (MFPT) are obtained, respectively. Our main results show: (i) The multiplicative noise, positive cross-correlation noise between two noises and time delays can induce the regime shifts from the boom outbreak state to the bust one, but the additive noise and negative cross-correlation can induce the regime shifts from the bust outbreak state to the boom one; (ii) For the negative cross-correlation, the MFPT as a function of noise strengths exhibits one maximum, which shows the characteristic of the noise-delayed switching for the boom outbreak state, but for the no cross-correlation or positive cross-correlation, the MFPT decreases with the noise strengths; (iii) Two different types of time delays play same roles on the maximal MFPT with additive noise, and play opposite roles on the maximal MFPT with multiplicative noise. The mechanisms for noises-and delays-induced regime shifts between two states can be explained physically through the effective potential of ecological model.

  17. Anti-Kpa-induced severe delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, R; Patel, B; Harrison, J S

    2009-01-01

    Kpa is a low-frequency antigen occurring in less than 2 percent of the Caucasian population. Mild to moderate delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions (DHTR) and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn attributable to anti-Kpa have been reported. Severe overt DHTR has not been reported with anti-Kpa. A case of a severe DHTR attributed to anti-Kpa after multiple RBC transfusions is being reported. A 52-year-old Caucasian woman received multiple units of RBCs for a lower gastrointestinal bleed. She was referred to our institution for hepatic and renal failure, which was supported by laboratory findings of peak LDH, bilirubin, BUN, and creatinine elevations. Hemoglobin had dropped on Day 10 after transfusion. The DAT and antibody screen (ABS) were negative. Initial workup and subsequent ABS were negative. Anti-Kpa was identified when an additional RBC panel was tested. One of the RBC units transfused was incompatible by antihuman globulin (AHG) crossmatch with the patient's plasma and typed positive for Kpa. DHTR was confirmed after extensive workup. The patient responded to supportive therapy and experienced an uneventful recovery. DHTR may not be considered when DAT and ABS are negative. However, correlation of recent transfusion with signs and symptoms should alert the clinician to entertain and investigate a DHTR that should include the AHG crossmatch of all implicated RBC units. The severity of the reaction also raises concerns as to when and what antigen specificity should be considered for inclusion in the antibody screening cells.

  18. Temporal recalibration in vocalization induced by adaptation of delayed auditory feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Yamamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We ordinarily perceive our voice sound as occurring simultaneously with vocal production, but the sense of simultaneity in vocalization can be easily interrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF. DAF causes normal people to have difficulty speaking fluently but helps people with stuttering to improve speech fluency. However, the underlying temporal mechanism for integrating the motor production of voice and the auditory perception of vocal sound remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the temporal tuning mechanism integrating vocal sensory and voice sounds under DAF with an adaptation technique. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants produced a single voice sound repeatedly with specific delay times of DAF (0, 66, 133 ms during three minutes to induce 'Lag Adaptation'. They then judged the simultaneity between motor sensation and vocal sound given feedback. We found that lag adaptation induced a shift in simultaneity responses toward the adapted auditory delays. This indicates that the temporal tuning mechanism in vocalization can be temporally recalibrated after prolonged exposure to delayed vocal sounds. Furthermore, we found that the temporal recalibration in vocalization can be affected by averaging delay times in the adaptation phase. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest vocalization is finely tuned by the temporal recalibration mechanism, which acutely monitors the integration of temporal delays between motor sensation and vocal sound.

  19. Delay-induced multiple stochastic resonances on scale-free neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingyun; Perc, Matjaz; Duan, Zhisheng; Chen, Guanrong

    2009-06-01

    We study the effects of periodic subthreshold pacemaker activity and time-delayed coupling on stochastic resonance over scale-free neuronal networks. As the two extreme options, we introduce the pacemaker, respectively, to the neuron with the highest degree and to one of the neurons with the lowest degree within the network, but we also consider the case when all neurons are exposed to the periodic forcing. In the absence of delay, we show that an intermediate intensity of noise is able to optimally assist the pacemaker in imposing its rhythm on the whole ensemble, irrespective to its placing, thus providing evidences for stochastic resonance on the scale-free neuronal networks. Interestingly thereby, if the forcing in form of a periodic pulse train is introduced to all neurons forming the network, the stochastic resonance decreases as compared to the case when only a single neuron is paced. Moreover, we show that finite delays in coupling can significantly affect the stochastic resonance on scale-free neuronal networks. In particular, appropriately tuned delays can induce multiple stochastic resonances independently of the placing of the pacemaker, but they can also altogether destroy stochastic resonance. Delay-induced multiple stochastic resonances manifest as well-expressed maxima of the correlation measure, appearing at every multiple of the pacemaker period. We argue that fine-tuned delays and locally active pacemakers are vital for assuring optimal conditions for stochastic resonance on complex neuronal networks.

  20. Expression of a begomoviral DNAβ gene in transgenic Nicotiana plants induced abnormal cell division

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xiao-feng; LI Yun-qin; HU Dong-wei; ZHOU Xue-ping

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of monopartite begomoviruses are being identified that a satellite molecule (DNAβ) is required to induce typical symptoms in host plants. DNAβ encodes a single gene (termed βC1) encoded in the complementary-sense. We have produced transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum plants expressing theβC1 gene of a DNAβ associated with Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV), under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Transgenic plants expressing βC1 showed severe developmental abnormalities in both species. Microscopic analysis of sections of both transgenic and non-transgenic N. tabacum leaves showed abnormal outgrowths of transgenic N. tabacum to be due to disorganized cell division (hyperplasia) of spongy and palisade parenchyma. Immuno-gold labeling of sections with a polyclonal antibody against the βC1 protein showed that the βC1 protein accumulated in the nuclei of cells. The possible biological function of the βC1 protein was discussed.

  1. The Wigner time delay for laser induced tunnel-ionization via the electron propagator

    CERN Document Server

    Yakaboylu, Enderalp; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z

    2014-01-01

    Recent attoclock experiments using the attsecond angular streaking technique enabled the measurement of the tunneling time delay during laser induced strong field ionization. Theoretically the tunneling time delay is commonly modelled by the Wigner time delay concept which is derived from the derivative of the electron wave function phase with respect to energy. Here, we present an alternative method for the calculation of the Wigner time delay by using the fixed energy propagator. The developed formalism is applied to the nonrelativistic as well as to the relativistic regime of the tunnel-ionization process from a zero-range potential, where in the latter regime the propagator can be given by means of the proper-time method.

  2. Transmission of persistent ionizing radiation-induced foci through cell division in human primary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaurijoux, Aurelie; Voisin, Pascale; Freneau, Amelie; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Gruel, Gaetan

    2017-03-01

    Unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionizing radiation are associated with lethal effects and genomic instability. After the initial breaks and chromatin destabilization, a set of post-translational modifications of histones occurs, including phosphorylation of serine 139 of histone H2AX (γH2AX), which leads to the formation of ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF). DSB repair results in the disappearance of most IRIF within hours after exposure, although some remain 24h after irradiation. Their relation to unrepaired DSBs is generally accepted but still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency and kinetics of persistent IRIF and analyzes their impact on cell proliferation. We observed persistent IRIF up to 7 days postirradiation, and more than 70% of cells exposed to 5Gy had at least one of these persistent IRIF 24h after exposure. Moreover we demonstrated that persistent IRIF did not block cell proliferation definitively. The frequency of IRIF was lower in daughter cells, due to asymmetric distribution of IRIF between some of them. We report a positive association between the presence of IRIF and the likelihood of DNA missegregation. Hence, the structure formed after the passage of a persistent IRI focus across the S and G2 phases may impede the correct segregation of the affected chromosome's sister chromatids. The ensuing abnormal resolution of anaphase might therefore cause the nature of IRIF in daughter-cell nuclei to differ before and after the first cell division. The resulting atypical chromosomal assembly may be lethal or result in a gene dosage imbalance and possibly enhanced genomic instability, in particular in the daughter cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Delay-induced depinning of localized structures in a spatially inhomogeneous Swift-Hohenberg model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbert, Felix; Schelte, Christian; Tlidi, Mustapha; Gurevich, Svetlana V.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the dynamics of localized structures in an inhomogeneous Swift-Hohenberg model describing pattern formation in the transverse plane of an optical cavity. This real order parameter equation is valid close to the second-order critical point associated with bistability. The optical cavity is illuminated by an inhomogeneous spatial Gaussian pumping beam and subjected to time-delayed feedback. The Gaussian injection beam breaks the translational symmetry of the system by exerting an attracting force on the localized structure. We show that the localized structure can be pinned to the center of the inhomogeneity, suppressing the delay-induced drift bifurcation that has been reported in the particular case where the injection is homogeneous, assuming a continuous wave operation. Under an inhomogeneous spatial pumping beam, we perform the stability analysis of localized solutions to identify different instability regimes induced by time-delayed feedback. In particular, we predict the formation of two-arm spirals, as well as oscillating and depinning dynamics caused by the interplay of an attracting inhomogeneity and destabilizing time-delayed feedback. The transition from oscillating to depinning solutions is investigated by means of numerical continuation techniques. Analytically, we use an order parameter approach to derive a normal form of the delay-induced Hopf bifurcation leading to an oscillating solution. Additionally we model the interplay of an attracting inhomogeneity and destabilizing time delay by describing the localized solution as an overdamped particle in a potential well generated by the inhomogeneity. In this case, the time-delayed feedback acts as a driving force. Comparing results from the later approach with the full Swift-Hohenberg model, we show that the approach not only provides an instructive description of the depinning dynamics, but also is numerically accurate throughout most of the parameter regime.

  4. Delayed Paclitaxel-Trastuzumab-Induced Interstitial Pneumonitis in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omalkhair Abulkhair

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonitis is a rare but serious complication associated with paclitaxel and/or trastuzumab treatment. We report a 51-year-old female patient with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with shortness of breath, fever, dry cough and pulmonary infiltrates. She had been treated without complications for 10 weeks with paclitaxel (Taxol® and trastuzumab (Herceptin® as neoadjuvant therapy, with complete clinical and pathological response. Infections and cardiomyopathy were excluded as causes of her symptoms. Bronchoscopy and biopsy were performed and a diagnosis of drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis was made. After treatment with steroids, the patient showed a significant response in less than 24 h; she was discharged home without the need for oxygen less than 48 h after therapy initiation. Although no causative association could be found between either trastuzumab or paclitaxel and this patient’s pulmonary syndrome, the potential for such toxicity should be considered, especially as paclitaxel/trastuzumab is a vey common combination therapy for breast cancer.

  5. Stimulus-induced transition of clustering firings in neuronal networks with information transmission delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingyun; Zhang, Honghui; Chen, Guanrong

    2013-07-01

    We study the evolution of spatiotemporal dynamics and transition of clustering firing synchronization on spiking Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal networks as information transmission delay and the periodic stimulus are varied. In particular, it is shown that the tuned information transmission delay can induce a clustering anti-phase synchronization transition with the pacemaker, where two equal clusters can alternatively synchronize in anti-phase firing. More interestingly, we show that the periodic stimulus can drive the delay-induced clustering anti-phase firing synchronization bifurcate to the collective perfect synchronization, which is routed by the complex process including collective chaotic firings and clustering out-of-phase synchronization of the neuronal networks. In addition, the periodic stimulus induced clustering firings of the spiking neuronal networks are robust to the connectivity probability of small world networks. Furthermore, the different stimulus frequency induced complexity is also investigated. We hope that the results of this paper can provide insights that could facilitate the understanding of the joint impact of information transmission delays and periodic stimulus on controlling dynamical behaviors of realistic neuronal networks.

  6. Bursting-like motion induced by time-varying delay in an internet congestion control model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Zhang; Jian Xu

    2012-01-01

    Time delay is an important parameter in the problem of internet congestion control.According to some researches,time delay is not always constant and can be viewed as a periodic function of time for some cases.In this work,an internet congestion control model is considered to study the time-varying delay induced bursting-like motion,which consists of a rapid oscillation burst and quiescent steady state.Then,for the system with periodic delay of small amplitude and low frequency,the method of multiple scales is employed to obtain the amplitude of the oscillation.Based on the expression of the asymptotic solution,it can be found that the relative length of the steady state increases with amplitude of the variation of time delay and decreases with frequency of the variation of time delay.Finally,an effective method to control the bursting-like motion is proposed by introducing a periodic gain parameter with appropriate amplitude.Theoretical results are in agreement with that from numerical method.

  7. Environmental Enrichment Decreases Asphyxia-Induced Neurobehavioral Developmental Delay in Neonatal Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Peter; Vadasz, Gyongyver; Kiss-Illes, Blanka; Horvath, Gabor; Tamas, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Koppan, Miklos

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term disability and represents a major problem in neonatal and pediatric care. Numerous neuroprotective approaches have been described to decrease the effects of perinatal asphyxia. Enriched environment is a popular strategy to counteract nervous system injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether enriched environment is able to decrease the asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats. Asphyxia was induced in ready-to-deliver mothers by removing the pups by caesarian section after 15 min of asphyxia. Somatic and neurobehavioral development was tested daily and motor coordination weekly. Our results show that rats undergoing perinatal asphyxia had a marked developmental delay and worse performance in motor coordination tests. However, pups kept in enriched environment showed a decrease in the developmental delay observed in control asphyctic pups. Rats growing up in enriched environment did not show decrease in weight gain after the first week and the delay in reflex appearance was not as marked as in control rats. In addition, the development of motor coordination was not as strikingly delayed as in the control group. Short-term neurofunctional outcome are known to correlate with long-term deficits. Our results thus show that enriched environment could be a powerful strategy to decrease the deleterious developmental effects of perinatal asphyxia. PMID:24232451

  8. Environmental Enrichment Decreases Asphyxia-Induced Neurobehavioral Developmental Delay in Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kiss

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term disability and represents a major problem in neonatal and pediatric care. Numerous neuroprotective approaches have been described to decrease the effects of perinatal asphyxia. Enriched environment is a popular strategy to counteract nervous system injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether enriched environment is able to decrease the asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats. Asphyxia was induced in ready-to-deliver mothers by removing the pups by caesarian section after 15 min of asphyxia. Somatic and neurobehavioral development was tested daily and motor coordination weekly. Our results show that rats undergoing perinatal asphyxia had a marked developmental delay and worse performance in motor coordination tests. However, pups kept in enriched environment showed a decrease in the developmental delay observed in control asphyctic pups. Rats growing up in enriched environment did not show decrease in weight gain after the first week and the delay in reflex appearance was not as marked as in control rats. In addition, the development of motor coordination was not as strikingly delayed as in the control group. Short-term neurofunctional outcome are known to correlate with long-term deficits. Our results thus show that enriched environment could be a powerful strategy to decrease the deleterious developmental effects of perinatal asphyxia.

  9. Adaptation to Delayed Speech Feedback Induces Temporal Recalibration between Vocal Sensory and Auditory Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Yamamoto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We ordinarily perceive our voice sound as occurring simultaneously with vocal production, but the sense of simultaneity in vocalization can be easily interrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF. DAF causes normal people to have difficulty speaking fluently but helps people with stuttering to improve speech fluency. However, the underlying temporal mechanism for integrating the motor production of voice and the auditory perception of vocal sound remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the temporal tuning mechanism integrating vocal sensory and voice sounds under DAF with an adaptation technique. Participants read some sentences with specific delay times of DAF (0, 30, 75, 120 ms during three minutes to induce ‘Lag Adaptation’. After the adaptation, they then judged the simultaneity between motor sensation and vocal sound given feedback in producing simple voice but not speech. We found that speech production with lag adaptation induced a shift in simultaneity responses toward the adapted auditory delays. This indicates that the temporal tuning mechanism in vocalization can be temporally recalibrated after prolonged exposure to delayed vocal sounds. These findings suggest vocalization is finely tuned by the temporal recalibration mechanism, which acutely monitors the integration of temporal delays between motor sensation and vocal sound.

  10. Immunohistological comparison of granulated cell proteins in induced immediate urticarial dermographism and delayed pressure urticaria lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, M T; Peterson, E A; Kobza-Black, A; English, J S; Dover, J S; Murphy, G M; Bhogal, B; Greaves, M W; Winkelmann, R K; Leiferman, K M

    1995-12-01

    Urticarial dermographism and delayed pressure urticaria are two forms of physical urticaria which are well defined clinically and histologically. Previous studies have shown eosinophil granule protein deposition in urticarial reactions, including chronic urticaria, solar urticaria and delayed pressure urticaria. To evaluate and compare the involvement of granulated inflammatory cells in urticarial dermographism and delayed pressure urticaria, we studied sequential biopsies of induced lesions of urticarial dermographism and delayed pressure urticaria by indirect immunofluorescence, to detect eosinophil granule major basic protein (MBP) and neutrophil granule elastase. Biopsies from dermographic lesions at time 0, 5 min, 15 min, 2 h and 24 h, showed few infiltrating eosinophils, with minimal extracellular MBP deposition, and a few infiltrating neutrophils, with minimal neutrophil elastase deposition, throughout the evolution of the lesions. Sequential biopsies of delayed pressure urticaria at time 0, 20 min, 6, 12 and 24 h, showed eosinophil infiltration with extensive MBP deposition beginning at 20 min, and neutrophil infiltration with variable elastase deposition beginning at 20 min. Control tissue specimens from normal volunteers showed neutrophil infiltration and slight degranulation, but no eosinophil infiltration or degranulation. Comparison of urticarial dermographism with delayed pressure urticaria showed marked differences in the patterns of infiltration. Delayed pressure urticaria, with eosinophil and neutrophil degranulation, was strikingly similar to the IgE-mediated late phase reaction. In contrast, eosinophil and neutrophil involvement in urticarial dermographism was minimal. Considering the extent of eosinophil granule protein deposition and the biological activities of the eosinophil granule proteins, the findings in delayed pressure urticaria point to an important pathophysiological role of eosinophils in the disease.

  11. Lasing oscillation condition and group delay control in gain-assisted plasmon-induced transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zi-Lan; Wang, He-Zhou; Cheng, S H; Li, Jensen

    2012-01-01

    A gain-assisted plasmonic waveguide with two detuned resonators is investigated in the plasmon-induced transparency window. Phase map is employed to study power transmittance and group delay for varying gain coefficients and frequency detunings of the two resonators. The gain coefficient for lasing oscillation condition is analytically shown to vary quadratically with the frequency detuning. In the amplification regime below the lasing threshold, the spectrum implies not only large group delay, but also high transmittance and narrow linewidth. This is in contrast to those in the loss-compensation regime and the passive case in which there always exists a trade-off between the linewidth and the peak transmittance.

  12. Fucoidan delays apoptosis and induces pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun-O; Yu, Qing

    2015-02-01

    Although some immune modulatory effects of fucoidan have been elucidated, the effects of fucoidan on the apoptosis and activation of human neutrophils have not been investigated. In this study, we demonstrated that fucoidan purified from the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifilda delays spontaneous apoptosis of human neutrophils and induces their activation. Fucoidan treatment inhibited apoptotic nuclei changes and phosphatidyl serine (PS) exposure on neutrophils cultured in vitro for 24h. The delay in neutrophil apoptosis mediated by fucoidan was associated with increased levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 and decreased levels of activated caspase-3. Screening of the signaling pathways by specific inhibitors indicated that fucoidan-induced delay in neutrophil apoptosis was dependent on the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, whereas MAPK signaling pathway was not critical. In addition, fucoidan enhanced the production of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α from neutrophils in an AKT-dependent manner. Taken together, these results demonstrated that fucoidan delays human neutrophil apoptosis and induces their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This knowledge could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for infectious diseases and neutropenia by controlling neutrophil homeostasis and function with fucoidan.

  13. Delayed-onset heparin-induced thrombocytopenia presenting with multiple arteriovenous thromboses: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omran Abbas

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delayed-onset heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis, albeit rare, is a severe side effect of heparin exposure. It can occur within one month after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG with manifestation of different thrombotic events. Case presentation A 59-year-old man presented with weakness, malaise, bilateral lower limb pitting edema and a suspected diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis 18 days after CABG. Heparin infusion was administered as an anticoagulant. Clinical and paraclinical work-up revealed multiple thrombotic events (stroke, renal failure, deep vein thrombosis, large clots in heart chambers and 48 ×103/μl platelet count, whereupon heparin-induced thrombocytopenia was suspected. Heparin was discontinued immediately and an alternative anticoagulant agent was administered, as a result of which platelet count recovered. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, which causes thrombosis, is a serious side effect of heparin therapy. It is worthy of note that no case of delayed-onset heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis associated with cardiopulmonary bypass surgery has thus far been reported in Iran. Conclusion Delayed-onset heparin-induced thrombocytopenia should be suspected in any patient presenting with arterial or venous thromboembolic disorders after recent heparin therapy, even though the heparin exposure dates back to more than a week prior to presentation; and it should be ruled-out before the initiation of heparin therapy.

  14. Bystander effects in UV-induced genomic instability: Antioxidants inhibit delayed mutagenesis induced by ultraviolet A and B radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahle Jostein

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic instability is characteristic of many types of human cancer. Recently, we reported that ultraviolet radiation induced elevated mutation rates and chromosomal instability for many cell generations after ultraviolet irradiation. The increased mutation rates of unstable cells may allow them to accumulate aberrations that subsequently lead to cancer. Ultraviolet A radiation, which primarily acts by oxidative stress, and ultraviolet B radiation, which initially acts by absorption in DNA and direct damage to DNA, both produced genomically unstable cell clones. In this study, we have determined the effect of antioxidants on induction of delayed mutations by ultraviolet radiation. Delayed mutations are indicative of genomic instability. Methods Delayed mutations in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt gene were detected by incubating the cells in medium selectively killing hprt mutants for 8 days after irradiation, followed by a 5 day period in normal medium before determining mutation frequencies. Results The UVB-induced delayed hprt mutations were strongly inhibited by the antioxidants catalase, reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase, while only reduced glutathione had a significant effect on UVA-induced delayed mutations. Treatment with antioxidants had only minor effects on early mutation frequenies, except that reduced glutathione decreased the UVB-induced early mutation frequency by 24 %. Incubation with reduced glutathione was shown to significantly increase the intracellular amount of reduced glutathione. Conclusion The strong effects of these antioxidants indicate that genomic instability, which is induced by the fundamentally different ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B radiation, is mediated by reactive oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide and downstream products. However, cells take up neither catalase nor SOD, while incubation with glutathione resulted in increased intracellular levels of

  15. Ectopic expression of Capsicum-specific cell wall protein Capsicum annuum senescence-delaying 1 (CaSD1) delays senescence and induces trichome formation in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eunyoung; Yeom, Seon-In; Jo, Sunghwan; Jeong, Heejin; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Choi, Doil

    2012-04-01

    Secreted proteins are known to have multiple roles in plant development, metabolism, and stress response. In a previous study to understand the roles of secreted proteins, Capsicum annuum secreted proteins (CaS) were isolated by yeast secretion trap. Among the secreted proteins, we further characterized Capsicum annuum senescence-delaying 1 (CaSD1), a gene encoding a novel secreted protein that is present only in the genus Capsicum. The deduced CaSD1 contains multiple repeats of the amino acid sequence KPPIHNHKPTDYDRS. Interestingly, the number of repeats varied among cultivars and species in the Capsicum genus. CaSD1 is constitutively expressed in roots, and Agrobacterium-mediated transient overexpression of CaSD1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves resulted in delayed senescence with a dramatically increased number of trichomes and enlarged epidermal cells. Furthermore, senescence- and cell division-related genes were differentially regulated by CaSD1-overexpressing plants. These observations imply that the pepper-specific cell wall protein CaSD1 plays roles in plant growth and development by regulating cell division and differentiation.

  16. Autophagic flux, a possible mechanism for delayed gentamicin-induced ototoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Ju; Tian, Chunjie; Kim, Jangho; Shin, Beomyong; Choo, Oak-Sung; Kim, You-Sun; Choung, Yun-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics including gentamicin (GM) induce delayed ototoxic effects such as hearing loss after long-term use, unlike the early-onset ototoxicity caused by cisplatin. The purpose of the study was to identify the mechanism of the delayed GM-induced ototoxicity by exploring the role of autophagy in vitro and in vivo. Treating HEI-OC1 auditory cells with GM led to a time-dependent increase of the autophagosome marker LC3-II, which was accompanied by cell death. In contrast, cisplatin and penicillin caused a rapid increase and had no effect on LC3-II levels, respectively. LC3-II-expressing autophagosomes co-localized with the labeled GM. GM-treated autophagosomes expressed reduced levels of Rab7, which is necessary for the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. When the autophagic flux enhancer rapamycin was applied to GM-treated cells, Rab7 and the lysosomal enzyme cathepsin D were upregulated, and increased cell survival was observed. In animal studies, the intraperitoneal injection of GM worsened hearing thresholds and induced the accumulation of LC3 in the organ of Corti. This hearing impairment was attenuated by rapamycin. These findings suggest that the delayed onset-ototoxicity of GM may be closely related to the accumulation of autophagosomes via impaired autophagy. This GM-induced auditory cell death could be inhibited by enhancing autophagic flux. PMID:28145495

  17. Mechanisms mediating nitroglycerin-induced delayed-onset hyperalgesia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, L F; Levine, J D; Green, P G

    2016-03-11

    Nitroglycerin (glycerol trinitrate, GTN) induces headache in migraineurs, an effect that has been used both diagnostically and in the study of the pathophysiology of this neurovascular pain syndrome. An important feature of this headache is a delay from the administration of GTN to headache onset that, because of GTN's very rapid metabolism, cannot be due to its pharmacokinetic profile. It has recently been suggested that activation of perivascular mast cells, which has been implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine, may contribute to this delay. We reported that hyperalgesia induced by intradermal GTN has a delay to onset of ∼ 30 min in male and ∼ 45 min in female rats. This hyperalgesia was greater in females, was prevented by pretreatment with the anti-migraine drug, sumatriptan, as well as by chronic pretreatment with the mast cell degranulator, compound 48/80. The acute administration of GTN and compound 48/80 both induced hyperalgesia that was prevented by pretreatment with octoxynol-9, which attenuates endothelial function, suggesting that GTN and mast cell-mediated hyperalgesia are endothelial cell-dependent. Furthermore, A-317491, a P2X3 antagonist, which inhibits endothelial cell-dependent hyperalgesia, also prevents GTN and mast cell-mediated hyperalgesia. We conclude that delayed-onset mechanical hyperalgesia induced by GTN is mediated by activation of mast cells, which in turn release mediators that stimulate endothelial cells to release ATP, to act on P2X3, a ligand-gated ion channel, in perivascular nociceptors. A role of the mast and endothelial cell in GTN-induced hyperalgesia suggests potential novel risk factors and targets for the treatment of migraine.

  18. Theory of oscillatory firing induced by spatially correlated noise and delayed inhibitory feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Benjamin; Doiron, Brent; Longtin, André

    2005-12-01

    A network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with global inhibitory feedback and under the influence of spatially correlated noise is studied. We calculate the spectral statistics of the network (power spectrum of the population activity, cross spectrum between spike trains of different neurons) as well as of a single neuron (power spectrum of spike train, cross spectrum between external noise and spike train) within the network. As shown by comparison with numerical simulations, our theory works well for arbitrary network size if the feedback is weak and the amount of external noise does not exceed that of the internal noise. By means of our analytical results we discuss the quality of the correlation-induced oscillation in a large network as a function of the transmission delay and the internal noise intensity. It is shown that the strongest oscillation is obtained in a system with zero internal noise and adiabatically long delay (i.e., the delay period is longer than any other time scale in the system). For a neuron with a strong intrinsic frequency, the oscillation becomes strongly anharmonic in the case of a long delay time. We also discuss briefly the kind of synchrony introduced by the feedback-induced oscillation.

  19. S-phase delay in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells induced by overexpression of integrin β1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Long Liang; Ting-Wen Lei; Heng Wu; Jian-Min Sn; Li-Ying Wang; Qun-Ying Lei; Xi-Liang Zha

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To clarify the mechanisms of integrin overexpression in negatively regulating the cell cycle control of hepatocellular carcinoma cells SMMC-7721.METHODS: The cell cycle pattern was determined by flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression levels were assayed by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Stable transfection was performed by Lipofectamine 2000 reagent,and cells were screened by G418.RESULTS: Overexpression of α5β1 or β1 integrin induced S-phase delay in SMMC-7721 cells, and this delay was possibly due to the accumulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) p21cip1 and p27kip1. The decrease of protein kinase B (PKB) phosphorylation was present in this signaling pathway, but focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was not involved.When phosphorylation of PKB was solely blocked by wortmannin, p27kip1 protein level was increased. Moreover,S-phase delay was recurred when attachment of the parental SMMC-7721 cells was inhibited by the preparation of polyHEME, and this cell cycle pattern was similar to that of β1-7721 or α5β1-7721 cells.CONCLUSION: S-phase delay induced by overexpression of integrin β1 subunit is attributed to the decrease of PKB phosphorylation and subsequent increases of p21cip1 and p27kip1 proteins, and may be involved in the unoccupied α5β1because of lack of its ligands.

  20. Testing Cross-Talk Induced Delay Faults in Digital Circuit Based on Transient Current Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Youren; DENG Xiaoqian; CUI Jiang; YAO Rui; ZHANG Zhai

    2006-01-01

    The delay fault induced by cross-talk effect is one of the difficult problems in the fault diagnosis of digital circuit. An intelligent fault diagnosis based on IDDT testing and support vector machines (SVM) classifier was proposed in this paper. Firstly, the fault model induced by cross-talk effect and the IDDT testing method were analyzed, and then a delay fault localization method based on SVM was presented. The fault features of the sampled signals were extracted by wavelet packet decomposition and served as input parameters of SVM classifier to classify the different fault types. The simulation results illustrate that the method presented is accurate and effective, reaches a high diagnosis rate above 95%.

  1. Delayed leaf senescence induces extreme drought tolerance in a flowering plant

    OpenAIRE

    Rivero, Rosa M.; Kojima, Mikiko; Gepstein, Amira; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Mittler, Ron; Gepstein, Shimon; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Drought, the most prominent threat to agricultural production worldwide, accelerates leaf senescence, leading to a decrease in canopy size, loss in photosynthesis and reduced yields. On the basis of the assumption that senescence is a type of cell death program that could be inappropriately activated during drought, we hypothesized that it may be possible to enhance drought tolerance by delaying drought-induced leaf senescence. We generated transgenic plants expressing an isopentenyltransfera...

  2. Noise-Induced Phase Locking and Frequency Mixing in an Optical Bistable System with Delayed Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misono, Masatoshi; Miyakawa, Kenji

    2011-11-01

    The interplay between stochastic resonance (SR) and coherence resonance (CR) is experimentally studied in an optical bistable system with a time-delayed feedback loop. We demonstrate that the phase of the noise-induced motion is locked to that of the periodic input when the ratio of their frequencies is a simple rational number. We also demonstrate that the interplay between SR and CR generates frequency-mixed modes, and that the efficiency of frequency mixing is enhanced by the optimum noise.

  3. Relative efficacy of some prokinetic drugs in morphine-induced gastrointestinal transit delay in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AD Suchitra; SA Dkhar; DG Shewade; CH Shashindran

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the relative efficacy of cisapride,metoclopramide, domperidone, erythromycin and mosapride on gastric emptying (GE) and small intestinal transit (SIT)in morphine treated mice.METHODS: Phenol red marker meal was employed to estimate GE and SIT in Swiss albino mice of either sex. The groups included were control, morphine 1 mg/kg (s.c. 15min before test meal) alone or with (45 min before test meal p.o.) cisapride 10 mg/kg, metoclopramide 20 mg/kg,domperidone 20 mg/kg, erythromycin 6 mg/kg and mosapride 20 mg/kg.RESULTS: Cisapride, metoclopramide and mosapride were effective in enhancing gastric emptying significantly (P<0.001)whereas other prokinetic agents failed to do so in normal mice. Metoclopramide completely reversed morphine induced delay in gastric emptying followed by mosapride.Metoclopramide alone was effective when given to normal mice in increasing the SIT. Cisapride, though it did not show any significant effect on SIT in normal mice, was able to reverse morphine induced delay in SIT significantly (P<0.001)followed by metoclopramide and mosapride.CONCLUSION: Metoclopramide and cisapride are most effective in reversing morphine-induced delay in gastric emptying and small intestinal transit in mice respectively.

  4. Neuregulin-1 is neuroprotective in a rat model of organophosphate-induced delayed neuronal injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yonggang [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Institute, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 30310 (United States); Lein, Pamela J. [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616 (United States); Liu, Cuimei [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Institute, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 30310 (United States); Bruun, Donald A.; Giulivi, Cecilia [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616 (United States); Ford, Gregory D. [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Institute, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 30310 (United States); Department of Biology, Morehouse College, Atlanta, GA, 30310 (United States); Tewolde, Teclemichael [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Institute, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 30310 (United States); Ross-Inta, Catherine [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616 (United States); Ford, Byron D., E-mail: bford@msm.edu [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Institute, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 30310 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Current medical countermeasures against organophosphate (OP) nerve agents are effective in reducing mortality, but do not sufficiently protect the CNS from delayed brain damage and persistent neurological symptoms. In this study, we examined the efficacy of neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) in protecting against delayed neuronal cell death following acute intoxication with the OP diisopropylflurophosphate (DFP). Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were pretreated with pyridostigmine (0.1 mg/kg BW, i.m.) and atropine methylnitrate (20 mg/kg BW, i.m.) prior to DFP (9 mg/kg BW, i.p.) intoxication to increase survival and reduce peripheral signs of cholinergic toxicity but not prevent DFP-induced seizures or delayed neuronal injury. Pretreatment with NRG-1 did not protect against seizures in rats exposed to DFP. However, neuronal injury was significantly reduced in most brain regions by pretreatment with NRG-1 isoforms NRG-EGF (3.2 μg/kg BW, i.a) or NRG-GGF2 (48 μg/kg BW, i.a.) as determined by FluroJade-B labeling in multiple brain regions at 24 h post-DFP injection. NRG-1 also blocked apoptosis and oxidative stress-mediated protein damage in the brains of DFP-intoxicated rats. Administration of NRG-1 at 1 h after DFP injection similarly provided significant neuroprotection against delayed neuronal injury. These findings identify NRG-1 as a promising adjuvant therapy to current medical countermeasures for enhancing neuroprotection against acute OP intoxication. -- Highlights: ► NRG-1 blocked DFP induced neuronal injury. ► NRG-1 did not protect against seizures in rats exposed to DFP. ► NRG-1 blocked apoptosis and oxidative stress in the brains of DFP-intoxicated rats. ► Administration of NRG-1 at 1 h after DFP injection prevented delayed neuronal injury.

  5. Auxin as an inducer of asymmetrical division generating the subsidiary cells in stomatal complexes of Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanos, Pantelis; Giannoutsou, Eleni; Apostolakos, Panagiotis; Galatis, Basil

    2015-01-01

    The data presented in this work revealed that in Zea mays the exogenously added auxins indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA), promoted the establishment of subsidiary cell mother cell (SMC) polarity and the subsequent subsidiary cell formation, while treatment with auxin transport inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 1-napthoxyacetic acid (NOA) specifically blocked SMC polarization and asymmetrical division. Furthermore, in young guard cell mother cells (GMCs) the PIN1 auxin efflux carriers were mainly localized in the transverse GMC faces, while in the advanced GMCs they appeared both in the transverse and the lateral ones adjacent to SMCs. Considering that phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is an active component of auxin signal transduction and that phospholipid signaling contributes in the establishment of polarity, treatments with the specific inhibitor of the PI3K LY294002 were carried out. The presence of LY294002 suppressed polarization of SMCs and prevented their asymmetrical division, whereas combined treatment with exogenously added NAA and LY294002 restricted the promotional auxin influence on subsidiary cell formation. These findings support the view that auxin is involved in Z. mays subsidiary cell formation, probably functioning as inducer of the asymmetrical SMC division. Collectively, the results obtained from treatments with auxin transport inhibitors and the appearance of PIN1 proteins in the lateral GMC faces indicate a local transfer of auxin from GMCs to SMCs. Moreover, auxin signal transduction seems to be mediated by the catalytic function of PI3K.

  6. Adaptation to delayed auditory feedback induces the temporal recalibration effect in both speech perception and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kosuke; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2014-12-01

    We ordinarily speak fluently, even though our perceptions of our own voices are disrupted by various environmental acoustic properties. The underlying mechanism of speech is supposed to monitor the temporal relationship between speech production and the perception of auditory feedback, as suggested by a reduction in speech fluency when the speaker is exposed to delayed auditory feedback (DAF). While many studies have reported that DAF influences speech motor processing, its relationship to the temporal tuning effect on multimodal integration, or temporal recalibration, remains unclear. We investigated whether the temporal aspects of both speech perception and production change due to adaptation to the delay between the motor sensation and the auditory feedback. This is a well-used method of inducing temporal recalibration. Participants continually read texts with specific DAF times in order to adapt to the delay. Then, they judged the simultaneity between the motor sensation and the vocal feedback. We measured the rates of speech with which participants read the texts in both the exposure and re-exposure phases. We found that exposure to DAF changed both the rate of speech and the simultaneity judgment, that is, participants' speech gained fluency. Although we also found that a delay of 200 ms appeared to be most effective in decreasing the rates of speech and shifting the distribution on the simultaneity judgment, there was no correlation between these measurements. These findings suggest that both speech motor production and multimodal perception are adaptive to temporal lag but are processed in distinct ways.

  7. Delayed luminescence induced by complex domains in water and in aqueous solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Colleoni, C; Grasso, R; Gulino, M; Musumeci, F; Romeli, D; Rosace, G; Salesi, G; Scordino, A

    2016-01-01

    Many recent studies on water have conjectured a complex structure composed of hydrogen bonded low- and high-density domains. In this work the structure of pure water and aqueous solutions of silica gel (TEOS) has been investigated by using delayed luminescence, which previously have showed significant increase in aqueous salt solutions where low-density domain formation is expected. Photon emission shows an Arrhenius trend with an activation energy in water-TEOS solutions larger than in pure water and salt-water solutions. Moreover, delayed photon emission decay shows an intrinsic lifetime of about 5 microseconds both in solutions and in pure water that, along with secondary lifetimes induced by the presence of TEOS, could be related to the formation of different domains.

  8. Delayed auditory conduction in diabetes: is metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattar, Deepti; Khaliq, Farah; Vaney, Neelam; Madhu, Sri Venkata

    2016-01-01

    Summary The present study aims to evaluate the functional integrity of the auditory pathway in patients with diabetes taking metformin. A further aim is to assess its association with vitamin B12 deficiency induced by metformin. Thirty diabetics taking metformin and 30 age-matched non-diabetic controls were enrolled. Stimulus-related potentials and vitamin B12 levels were evaluated in all the subjects. The diabetics showed deficient vitamin B12 levels and delayed wave III latency and III–V interpeak latency in the right ear and delayed Na and Pa wave latencies in the left ear compared with the controls. The dose and duration of metformin showed no association with the stimulus-related potentials. Therefore, although vitamin B12 levels were deficient and auditory conduction impairment was present in the diabetics on metformin, this impairment cannot be attributed to the vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:27358222

  9. Noise-induced standing waves in oscillatory systems with time-delayed feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Stich, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In oscillatory reaction-diffusion systems, time-delay feedback can lead to the instability of uniform oscillations with respect to formation of standing waves. Here, we investigate how the presence of additive, Gaussian white noise can induce the appearance of standing waves. Combining analytical solutions of the model with spatio-temporal simulations, we find that noise can promote standing waves in regimes where the deterministic uniform oscillatory modes are stabilized. As the deterministic phase boundary is approached, the spatio-temporal correlations become stronger, such that even small noise can induce standing waves in this parameter regime. With larger noise strengths, standing waves could be induced at finite distances from the (deterministic) phase boundary. The overall dynamics is defined through the interplay of noisy forcing with the inherent reaction-diffusion dynamics.

  10. Novel DNA damage checkpoint in mitosis: Mitotic DNA damage induces re-replication without cell division in various cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Sun-Yi; Rosen, Eliot M; Jang, Young-Joo

    2012-07-06

    DNA damage induces multiple checkpoint pathways to arrest cell cycle progression until damage is repaired. In our previous reports, when DNA damage occurred in prometaphase, cells were accumulated in 4 N-DNA G1 phase, and mitosis-specific kinases were inactivated in dependent on ATM/Chk1 after a short incubation for repair. We investigated whether or not mitotic DNA damage causes cells to skip-over late mitotic periods under prolonged incubation in a time-lapse study. 4 N-DNA-damaged cells re-replicated without cell division and accumulated in 8 N-DNA content, and the activities of apoptotic factors were increased. The inhibition of DNA replication reduced the 8 N-DNA cell population dramatically. Induction of replication without cell division was not observed upon depletion of Chk1 or ATM. Finally, mitotic DNA damage induces mitotic slippage and that cells enter G1 phase with 4 N-DNA content and then DNA replication is occurred to 8 N-DNA content before completion of mitosis in the ATM/Chk1-dependent manner, followed by caspase-dependent apoptosis during long-term repair. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A new in vitro model to delay high phosphate-induced vascular calcification progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciceri, Paola; Elli, Francesca; Cappelletti, Laura; Tosi, Delfina; Braidotti, Paola; Bulfamante, Gaetano; Cozzolino, Mario

    2015-12-01

    An increasing amount of patients affected by advanced chronic kidney disease suffer from vascular calcification (VC) that associates with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this study, we created a new experimental in vitro model, trying to better elucidate high phosphate (Pi)-induced VC pathogenic mechanisms. Rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were challenged for 7-10 days with high Pi with a repeated and short suspensions of high Pi treatment (intermittent suspension, IS) that was able to induce a significant inhibition of high Pi calcification, maximal at 5 h. Interestingly, the delay in calcification is a consequence of either the absence of free Pi or calcium-phosphate crystals being comparable to the total effect obtained during the 5 h-IS. The protective effect of IS was mediated by the reduction of apoptosis as demonstrated by the action of 20 μmol/L Z-VAD-FMK and by the preservation of the pro-survival receptor Axl expression. Furthermore, autophagy, during IS, was potentiated by increasing the autophagic flux, evaluated by LC3IIB western, while treating VSMCs with 1 mmol/L valproic acid did not affect VC. Finally, IS prevented VSMC osteoblastic differentiation by preserving smooth muscle lineage markers expression. Our data support the hypothesis that to delay significantly VC is necessary and sufficient the IS of high Pi challenge. The IS was able to prevent significantly apoptosis, to induce a potentiation in autophagy, and to prevent osteoblastic differentiation by preserving SM lineage markers.

  12. Effect of the GABA B agonist baclofen on dipyrone-induced delayed gastric emptying in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Collares

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipyrone administered intravenously (iv or intracerebroventricularly (icv delays gastric emptying (GE in rats. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is the most potent inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of icv baclofen, a GABA B receptor agonist, on delayed GE induced by dipyrone. Adult male Wistar rats received a saline test meal containing phenol red as a marker. GE was indirectly evaluated by determining the percent of gastric retention (%GR of the meal 10 min after orogastric administration. In the first experiment, the animals were injected iv with vehicle (Civ or 80 mg/kg (240 µmol/kg dipyrone (Dp iv, followed by icv injection of 10 µl vehicle (bac0, or 0.5 (bac0.5, 1 (bac1 or 2 µg (bac2 baclofen. In the second experiment, the animals were injected icv with 5 µl vehicle (Cicv or an equal volume of a solution containing 4 µmol (1333.2 µg dipyrone (Dp icv, followed by 5 µl vehicle (bac0 or 1 µg baclofen (bac1. GE was determined 10 min after icv injection. There was no significant difference between control animals from one experiment to another concerning GR values. Baclofen at the doses of 1 and 2 µg significantly reduced mean %GR induced by iv dipyrone (Dp iv bac1 = 35.9% and Dp iv bac2 = 26.9% vs Dp iv bac0 = 51.8%. Similarly, baclofen significantly reduced the effect of dipyrone injected icv (mean %GR: Dp icv bac1 = 30.4% vs Dp icv bac0 = 54.2%. The present results suggest that dipyrone induces delayed GE through a route in the central nervous system that is blocked by the activation of GABA B receptors.

  13. Development of a novel mouse model of amodiaquine-induced liver injury with a delayed onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metushi, Imir G; Cai, Ping; Dervovic, Dzana; Liu, Feng; Lobach, Alexandra; Nakagawa, Tetsuya; Uetrecht, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Amodiaquine (AQ) treatment is associated with a high incidence of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) and agranulocytosis. Evidence suggests that AQ-induced IDILI is immune mediated. A significant impediment to mechanistic studies of IDILI is the lack of valid animal models. This study reports the first animal model of IDILI with characteristics similar to mild IDILI in humans. Treatment of female C57BL/6 mice with AQ led to liver injury with delayed onset, which resolved despite continued treatment. Covalent binding of AQ was detected in the liver, which was greater in female than in male mice, and higher in the liver than in other organs. Covalent binding in the liver was maximal by Day 3, which did not explain the delayed onset of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation. However, coincident with the elevated serum ALT, infiltration of liver and splenic mononuclear cells and activation of CD8 T-cells within the liver were identified. By Week 7, when ALT levels had returned close to normal, down-regulation of several inflammatory cytokines and up-regulation of PD-1 on T-cells suggested induction of immune tolerance. Treatment of Rag1(-/-) mice with AQ resulted in higher ALT activities than C57BL/6 mice, which suggested that the adaptive immune response was responsible for immune tolerance. In contrast, depletion of NK cells significantly attenuated the increase in ALT, which implied a role for NK cells in mild AQ-induced IDILI. This is the first example of a delayed-onset animal model of IDILI that appears to be immune-mediated.

  14. Organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy: case report Neuropatia tardia por organofosforado: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe R Vasconcellos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN is an uncommon clinical condition. It occurs in association with the ingestion of great amounts of organophosphate after the stimulation of cholinergic receptor. The clinical picture is characterized by a distal paresis in lower limbs associated with sensitive symptoms. Electrodiagnostic studies show a motor axonal neuropathy. Involvement of the central nervous system may occur. We describe a 39 years-old female patient who developed hyperesthesia associated with lower limbs paresis, fourteen days after she had ingested a Dichlorvos-based insecticide. Electrophysiological study was characterized by an axonal polyneuropathy pattern. Pyramidal tract dysfunction was observed later in upper limbs. Considering that both peripheral and central nervous systems are involved we believe that the more appropriated term would be organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN instead of organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP.A neuropatia tardia dos organofosforados (NTOF é condição clinica incomum. Geralmente ocorre após a intoxicação aguda por organofosforados, seguindo-se a fase de hiperestimulação colinérgica. O quadro clínico é caracterizado por déficit motor distal nos membros inferiores associado a sintomas sensitivos. O estudo eletroneuromiográfico tem demonstrado padrão axonal motor na maioria dos casos. Podem ocorrer sinais de comprometimento do sistema nervoso central. Descrevemos o caso de uma paciente de 39 anos que ingeriu inseticida a base de Dichlorvos e quatorze dias após apresentou quadro de hiperestesia associado a paresia distal nos membros inferiores. Realizou eletroneuromiografia que se caracterizou por padrão compatível com polineuropatia axonal. Sinais piramidais, de aparecimento mais tardio, foram observados nos membros superiores. Diante do comprometimento do sistema nervoso periférico e central, também consideramos o termo neuropatia tardia por

  15. Opioid-induced delay in gastric emptying: a peripheral mechanism in humans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, D B

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Opioids delay gastric emptying, which in turn may increase the risk of vomiting and pulmonary aspiration. Naloxone reverses this opiate action on gastric emptying, but it is not known whether this effect in humans is mediated by central or peripheral opiate antagonism. The importance of peripheral opioid receptor antagonism in modulating opioid-induced delay in gastric emptying was evaluated using methylnaltrexone, a quaternary derivative of the opiate antagonist naltrexone, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, crossover placebo-controlled study, 11 healthy volunteers were given either placebo (saline), 0.09 mg\\/kg morphine, or 0.09 mg\\/kg morphine plus 0.3 mg\\/kg methylnaltrexone on three separate occasions before ingesting 500 ml deionized water. The rate of gastric emptying was measured by two methods: a noninvasive epigastric bioimpedance technique and the acetaminophen absorption test. RESULTS: The epigastric bioimpedance technique was sufficiently sensitive to detect opioid-induced changes in the rate of gastric emptying. The mean +\\/- SD time taken for the gastric volume to decrease to 50% (t0.5) after placebo was 5.5 +\\/- 2.1 min. Morphine prolonged gastric emptying to (t0.5) of 21 +\\/- 9.0 min (P < 0.03). Methylnaltrexone given concomitantly with morphine reversed the morphine-induced delay in gastric emptying to a t0.5 of 7.4 +\\/- 3.0 (P < 0.04). Maximum concentrations and area under the concentration curve from 0 to 90 min of serum acetaminophen concentrations after morphine were significantly different from placebo and morphine administered concomitantly with methylnaltrexone (P < 0.05). No difference in maximum concentration or area under the concentration curve from 0 to 90 min was noted between placebo and methylnaltrexone coadministered with morphine. CONCLUSIONS: The attenuation of morphine-induced delay in gastric emptying by methylnaltrexone suggests that the opioid effect is

  16. Transplanted adipose-derived stem cells delay D-galactose-induced aging in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Yang; Ou Sha; Jingxing Dai; Lin Yuan; Dongfei Li; Zhongqiu Wen; Huiying Yang; Meichun Yu; Hui Tao; Rongmei Qu; Yikuan Du; Yong Huang

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of allogeneically transplanted, adipose-derived stem cells in aging rats, in the present study, we established a rat model of subacute aging using continuous subcutaneous injections of D-galactose. Two weeks after the adipose-derived stem cells transplantations, serum superoxide dismutase activity was significantly increased, malondialdehyde content was significantly reduced, hippocampal neuronal degeneration was ameliorated, the apoptotic index of hippocampal neurons was decreased, and learning and memory function was significantly improved in the aging rats. These results indicate that allogeneic transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells may effectively delay D-galactose-induced aging.

  17. Taurine supplementation attenuates delayed increase in exercise-induced arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Ohmori, Hajime; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-06-01

    There is a delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise that is possibly mediated by the concurrent delayed increase in circulating oxidative stress. Taurine has anti-oxidant action, and taurine supplementation may be able to attenuate the increase in oxidative stress after exercise. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether taurine supplementation attenuates the delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise. In the present double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial, we divided 29 young, healthy men into 2 groups. Subjects received either 2.0 g of placebo (n = 14) or taurine (n = 15) 3 times per day for 14 days prior to the exercise, on the day of exercise, and the following 3 days. The exercise consisted of 2 sets of 20 maximal-effort eccentric repetitions with the nondominant arm only. On the morning of exercise and for 4 days thereafter, we measured serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) as indices of oxidative stress and arterial stiffness, respectively. On the third and fourth days after exercise, both MDA and cfPWV significantly increased in the placebo group. However, these elevations were significantly attenuated in the taurine group. The increase in MDA was associated with an increase in cfPWV from before exercise to 4 days after exercise (r = 0.597, p taurine group. Our results suggest that delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise was probably affected by the exercise-induced oxidative stress and was attenuated by the taurine supplementation.

  18. Electromagnetically induced transparency with large delay-bandwidth product induced by magnetic resonance near field coupling to electric resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hai-ming; Liu, Shao-bin, E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Liu, Si-yuan; Zhang, Hai-feng; Bian, Bo-rui; Kong, Xiang-kun [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Shen-yun [Research Center of Applied Electromagnetics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China)

    2015-03-16

    In this paper, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like spectral response with magnetic resonance near field coupling to electric resonance. Six split-ring resonators and a cut wire are chosen as the bright and dark resonator, respectively. An EIT-like transmission peak located between two dips can be observed with incident magnetic field excitation. A large delay bandwidth product (0.39) is obtained, which has potential application in quantum optics and communications. The experimental results are in good agreement with simulated results.

  19. Food-grade micro-encapsulation systems that may induce satiety via delayed lipolysis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corstens, Meinou N; Berton-Carabin, Claire C; de Vries, Renko; Troost, Freddy J; Masclee, Ad A M; Schroën, Karin

    2017-07-03

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity requires new, effective prevention and treatment strategies. One approach to reduce energy intake is by developing novel foods with increased satiating properties, which may be accomplished by slowing down lipolysis to deliver substrates to the ileum, thereby enhancing natural gut-brain signaling pathways of satiety that are normally induced by meal intake. To develop slow release food additives, their processing in the gastrointestinal tract has to be understood; therefore, we start from a general description of the digestive system and relate that to in vitro modeling, satiety, and lipolytic mechanisms. The effects of physicochemical lipid composition, encapsulation matrix, and interfacial structure on lipolysis are emphasized. We give an overview of techniques and materials used, and discuss partitioning, which may be a key factor for encapsulation performance. Targeted release capsules that delay lipolysis form a real challenge because of the high efficiency of the digestive system; hardly any proof was found that intact orally ingested lipids can be released in the ileum and thereby induce satiety. We expect that this challenge could be tackled with structured o/w-emulsion-based systems that have some protection against lipase, e.g., by hindering bile salt adsorption and/or delaying lipase diffusion.

  20. Hydrogen-Induced Delayed Cracking in TRIP-Aided Lean-Alloyed Ferritic-Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Papula

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of three lean-alloyed ferritic-austenitic stainless steels to hydrogen-induced delayed cracking was examined, concentrating on internal hydrogen contained in the materials after production operations. The aim was to study the role of strain-induced austenite to martensite transformation in the delayed cracking susceptibility. According to the conducted deep drawing tests and constant load tensile testing, the studied materials seem not to be particularly susceptible to delayed cracking. Delayed cracks were only occasionally initiated in two of the materials at high local stress levels. However, if a delayed crack initiated in a highly stressed location, strain-induced martensite transformation decreased the crack arrest tendency of the austenite phase in a duplex microstructure. According to electron microscopy examination and electron backscattering diffraction analysis, the fracture mode was predominantly cleavage, and cracks propagated along the body-centered cubic (BCC phases ferrite and α’-martensite. The BCC crystal structure enables fast diffusion of hydrogen to the crack tip area. No delayed cracking was observed in the stainless steel that had high austenite stability. Thus, it can be concluded that the presence of α’-martensite increases the hydrogen-induced cracking susceptibility.

  1. Hydrogen-Induced Delayed Cracking in TRIP-Aided Lean-Alloyed Ferritic-Austenitic Stainless Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papula, Suvi; Sarikka, Teemu; Anttila, Severi; Talonen, Juho; Virkkunen, Iikka; Hänninen, Hannu

    2017-06-03

    Susceptibility of three lean-alloyed ferritic-austenitic stainless steels to hydrogen-induced delayed cracking was examined, concentrating on internal hydrogen contained in the materials after production operations. The aim was to study the role of strain-induced austenite to martensite transformation in the delayed cracking susceptibility. According to the conducted deep drawing tests and constant load tensile testing, the studied materials seem not to be particularly susceptible to delayed cracking. Delayed cracks were only occasionally initiated in two of the materials at high local stress levels. However, if a delayed crack initiated in a highly stressed location, strain-induced martensite transformation decreased the crack arrest tendency of the austenite phase in a duplex microstructure. According to electron microscopy examination and electron backscattering diffraction analysis, the fracture mode was predominantly cleavage, and cracks propagated along the body-centered cubic (BCC) phases ferrite and α'-martensite. The BCC crystal structure enables fast diffusion of hydrogen to the crack tip area. No delayed cracking was observed in the stainless steel that had high austenite stability. Thus, it can be concluded that the presence of α'-martensite increases the hydrogen-induced cracking susceptibility.

  2. The enteropathogenic Escherichia coli effector Cif induces delayed apoptosis in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samba-Louaka, Ascel; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Watrin, Claude; Oswald, Eric; Taieb, Frédéric

    2009-12-01

    The cycle inhibiting factor (Cif) belongs to a family of bacterial toxins, the cyclomodulins, which modulate the host cell cycle. Upon injection into the host cell by the type III secretion system of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), Cif induces both G(2) and G(1) cell cycle arrests. The cell cycle arrests correlate with the accumulation of p21(waf1) and p27(kip1) proteins that inhibit CDK-cyclin complexes, whose activation is required for G(1)/S and G(2)/M transitions. Increases of p21 and p27 levels are independent of p53 transcriptional induction and result from protein stabilization through inhibition of the ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathway. In this study, we show that Cif not only induces cell cycle arrest but also eventually provokes a delayed cell death. Indeed, 48 h after infection with EPEC expressing Cif, cultured IEC-6 intestinal cells were positive for extracellular binding of annexin V and exhibited high levels of cleaved caspase-3 and lactate dehydrogenase release, indicating evidence of apoptosis. Cif was necessary and sufficient for inducing this late apoptosis, and the cysteine residue of the catalytic site was required for Cif activity. These results highlight a more complex role of Cif than previously thought, as a cyclomodulin but also as an apoptosis inducer.

  3. The Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Effector Cif Induces Delayed Apoptosis in Epithelial Cells▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samba-Louaka, Ascel; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Watrin, Claude; Oswald, Eric; Taieb, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    The cycle inhibiting factor (Cif) belongs to a family of bacterial toxins, the cyclomodulins, which modulate the host cell cycle. Upon injection into the host cell by the type III secretion system of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), Cif induces both G2 and G1 cell cycle arrests. The cell cycle arrests correlate with the accumulation of p21waf1 and p27kip1 proteins that inhibit CDK-cyclin complexes, whose activation is required for G1/S and G2/M transitions. Increases of p21 and p27 levels are independent of p53 transcriptional induction and result from protein stabilization through inhibition of the ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathway. In this study, we show that Cif not only induces cell cycle arrest but also eventually provokes a delayed cell death. Indeed, 48 h after infection with EPEC expressing Cif, cultured IEC-6 intestinal cells were positive for extracellular binding of annexin V and exhibited high levels of cleaved caspase-3 and lactate dehydrogenase release, indicating evidence of apoptosis. Cif was necessary and sufficient for inducing this late apoptosis, and the cysteine residue of the catalytic site was required for Cif activity. These results highlight a more complex role of Cif than previously thought, as a cyclomodulin but also as an apoptosis inducer. PMID:19786559

  4. Ghrelin improves delayed gastrointestinal transit in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Cai Qiu; Zhi-Gang Wang; Ran Lv; Wei-Gang Wang; Xiao-Dong Han; Jun Yan; Yu Wang; Qi Zheng; Kai-Xing Ai

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of ghrelin on delayed gastrointestinal transit in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.METHODS: A diabetic mouse model was established by intraperitoneal injection with alloxan.Mice were randomized into two main groups: normal mice group and diabetic mice group treated with ghrelin at doses of 0, 20, 50, 100 and 200 μg/kg ip.Gastric emptying (GE), intestinal transit (IT), and colonic transit (CT)were studied in mice after they had a phenol red meal following injection of ghrelin.Based on the most effective ghrelin dosage, atropine was given at 1 mg/kg 15 min before the ghrelin injection for each measurement.The mice in each group were sacrificed 20 min later and their stomachs, intestines, and colons were harvested immediately.The amount of phenol red was measured.Percentages of GE, IT, and CT were calculated.RESULTS: Percentages of GE, IT, and CT were significantly decreased in diabetic mice as compared to control mice (22.9±1.4 vs 28.1±1.3, 33.5±1.2 vs 43.2±1.9, 29.5±1.9 vs 36.3±1.6, P < 0.05).In the diabetic mice, ghrelin improved both GE and IT, but not CT.The most effective dose of ghrelin was 100 μg/kg and atropine blocked the prokinetic effects of ghrelin on GE and IT.CONCLUSION: Ghrelin accelerates delayed GE and IT but has no effect on CT in diabetic mice.Ghrelin may exert its prokinetic effects via the cholinergic pathway in the enteric nervous system, and therefore has therapeutic potential for diabetic patients with delayed upper gastrointestinal transit.

  5. Ghrelin improves delayed gastrointestinal transit in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wen-Cai; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Lv, Ran; Wang, Wei-Gang; Han, Xiao-Dong; Yan, Jun; Wang, Yu; Zheng, Qi; Ai, Kai-Xing

    2008-04-28

    To investigate the effects of ghrelin on delayed gastrointestinal transit in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. A diabetic mouse model was established by intraperitoneal injection with alloxan. Mice were randomized into two main groups: normal mice group and diabetic mice group treated with ghrelin at doses of 0, 20, 50, 100 and 200 mug/kg ip. Gastric emptying (GE), intestinal transit (IT), and colonic transit (CT) were studied in mice after they had a phenol red meal following injection of ghrelin. Based on the most effective ghrelin dosage, atropine was given at 1 mg/kg 15 min before the ghrelin injection for each measurement. The mice in each group were sacrificed 20 min later and their stomachs, intestines, and colons were harvested immediately. The amount of phenol red was measured. Percentages of GE, IT, and CT were calculated. Percentages of GE, IT, and CT were significantly decreased in diabetic mice as compared to control mice (22.9 +/- 1.4 vs 28.1 +/- 1.3, 33.5 +/- 1.2 vs 43.2 +/- 1.9, 29.5 +/- 1.9 vs 36.3 +/- 1.6, P CT. The most effective dose of ghrelin was 100 mug/kg and atropine blocked the prokinetic effects of ghrelin on GE and IT. Ghrelin accelerates delayed GE and IT but has no effect on CT in diabetic mice. Ghrelin may exert its prokinetic effects via the cholinergic pathway in the enteric nervous system, and therefore has therapeutic potential for diabetic patients with delayed upper gastrointestinal transit.

  6. A consensus dynamics with delay-induced instability can self-regulate for stability via agent regrouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyong Koh, M; Sipahi, Rifat

    2016-11-01

    Dynamics of many multi-agent systems is influenced by communication/activation delays τ. In the presence of delays, there exists a certain margin called the delay margin τ(*), less than which system stability holds. This margin depends strongly on agents' dynamics and the agent network. In this article, three key elements, namely, the delay margin, network graph, and a distance threshold conditioning two agents' connectivity are considered in a multi-agent consensus dynamics under delay τ. We report that when the dynamics is unstable under this delay, its states can be naturally bounded, even for arbitrarily large threshold values, preventing agents to disperse indefinitely. This mechanism can also make the system recover stability in a self-regulating manner, mainly induced by network separation and enhanced delay margin. Under certain conditions, unstable consensus dynamics can keep separating into smaller stable subnetwork dynamics until all agents stabilize in their respective subnetworks. Results are then demonstrated on a previously validated robot coordination model, where specifically robustness of τ(*) is studied against the delay τinh inherently present in the orientation measurements of the robots. To this end, a mathematical framework to compute τ(*) with respect to τinh in quasi-state is developed, demonstrating that τ(*) can be sensitive to τinh, yet robot regrouping and stabilization of subnetworks is still possible.

  7. Chiral Primordial Gravitational Waves from Dilaton Induced Delayed Chromo-natural Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Obata, Ippei

    2016-01-01

    We study inflation driven by a dilaton and an axion, both of which are coupled to a SU(2) gauge field. We find that the inflation driven by the dilaton occurs in the early stage of inflation during which the gauge field grows due to the gauge kinetic function. When the energy density of magnetic fields catches up with that of electric fields, chromo-natural inflation takes over in the late stage of inflation, which we call delayed chromo-natural inflation. Thus, the delayed chromo-natural inflation driven by the axion and the gauge field is induced by the dilaton. The interesting outcome of the model is generation of chiral primordial gravitational waves on small scales. Since the gauge field is inert in the early stage of inflation, it is viable in contrast to the conventinal chromo-natural inflation. We find the parameter region where chiral gravitational waves are generated in a frequency range higher than nHz, which are potentially detectable in future gravitational wave interferometers and pulsar timing ...

  8. Neural mechanisms and delayed gastric emptying of liquid induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Wilson Ranu Ramirez; Ozaki, Michiko Regina; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Collares, Edgard Ferro; Almeida, Eros Antonio de

    2015-02-01

    In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABAB receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABAB receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1 mA/10 s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABAB receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN.

  9. Partial hepatectomy induces delayed hepatocyte proliferation and normal liver regeneration in ovariectomized mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umeda M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Makoto Umeda,1 Masaki Hiramoto,1,2 Takeshi Imai1 1Department of Aging Intervention, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Biochemistry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Estrogens play central roles in sexual development, reproduction, and hepatocyte proliferation. The ovaries are one of the main organs for estradiol (E2 production. Ovariectomies (OVXs were performed on the female mice, and hepatocyte proliferation was analyzed. The ovariectomized mice exhibited delayed hepatocyte proliferation after partial hepatectomy (PH and also exhibited delayed and reduced E2 induction. Both E2 administration and PH induced the gene expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα. The transcripts of ERα were detected specifically in periportal hepatocytes after E2 administration and PH. Moreover, the E2 concentrations and hepatocyte proliferation rates were highest in the proestrus period of the estrous cycle. Taken together, these findings indicate that E2 accelerated ERα expression in periportal hepatocytes and hepatocyte proliferation in the female mice.Keywords: estrogen, ER, estrous cycle, hepatocyte proliferation, liver regeneration

  10. EFFECTS OF MESSAGE VS ACTIVE EXERCISES ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED DELAYED ONSET OF MUSCLE SORENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chaturvedi Pilladi *,

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:To evaluate the effect of massage of versus active exercises on experimentally induced delayedonset of muscle soreness.Method:30 subjects were divided into two groups, Experimental group received Massage and control groupreceived active exercises, results were taken by measurement of pain and functional stair climbing capacity ofknee joint were taken by visual analog score and functional knee rating score.Results:obtained results were analyzed with the use of Paired T-test, which has been carried out to observethetreatment impact between the groups before and after the treatment. After a 4 week treatment period,thesubjects in the Group I (Quadriceps message compared with the subjects in the Group II (Active exercise hadshown a statistically significant improvement with the outcome measures at 0.05 level.Conclusion:Quadriceps massagewas found much effective in decreasing Delayed onset of muscle sorenessthan active exercises.

  11. The Influence of Acquisition Delay for Calibration-Free Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hongbo; Dong, Fengzhong; Ni, Zhibo; Wang, Jingge

    2016-03-01

    Time-resolved spectra of neutral and ionized atomic emissions from slag sample are measured by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Various factors affecting the calibration-free CF-LIBS method are carefully analyzed, and subsequently these factors are either avoided or corrected. Plasma temperature and electron density are calculated by Saha-Boltzmann plot and Stark broadening of Ca, respectively. At the same time, self-absorption and local thermodynamic equilibrium have been carefully studied. An automatic spectral lines elimination algorithm is applied to calculate plasma temperature and element concentration. The calculated element concentrations show marked changes with acquisition time increasing. Due to the influence of continuous spectrum at early times and self-absorption at late times, the large absolute errors sum is obtained in these two periods. The smallest absolute errors sum corresponds to the gate delay time 1.5 μs < td < 2 μs for our experimental setup.

  12. How-to-Do-It: Cytokinin Induced Cell Division & Differentiation Using Intact Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnsack, Charles W.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a procedure by which cytokinins are used to induce a population of dividing and differentiating cells on the cut surface of the roots of an intact plant. Includes the method used, results, and suggestions for a variety of variables that may be tested. (RT)

  13. Stability analysis and compensation of network-induced delays in communication-based power system control: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shichao; Liu, Peter Xiaoping; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    This survey is to summarize and compare existing and recently emerging approaches for the analysis and compensation of the effects of network-induced delays on the stability and performance of communication-based power control systems. Several important communication-based power control systems are briefly introduced. The deterministic and stochastic methodologies of analyzing the impacts of network-induced delays on the stability of the communication-based power control systems are summarized and compared. A variety of control approaches are reviewed and compared for mitigating the effects of network-induced delays, depending on several design requirements, such as model dependence and design difficulty. The summary and comparison of these control approaches in this survey provide researchers and utilities valuable guidance for designing advanced communication-based power control systems in the future.

  14. Effects of infection-induced migration delays on the epidemiology of avian influenza in wild mallard populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Galsworthy

    Full Text Available Wild waterfowl populations form a natural reservoir of Avian Influenza (AI virus, and fears exist that these birds may contribute to an AI pandemic by spreading the virus along their migratory flyways. Observational studies suggest that individuals infected with AI virus may delay departure from migratory staging sites. Here, we explore the epidemiological dynamics of avian influenza virus in a migrating mallard (Anas platyrhynchos population with a specific view to understanding the role of infection-induced migration delays on the spread of virus strains of differing transmissibility. We develop a host-pathogen model that combines the transmission dynamics of influenza with the migration, reproduction and mortality of the host bird species. Our modeling predicts that delayed migration of individuals influences both the timing and size of outbreaks of AI virus. We find that (1 delayed migration leads to a lower total number of cases of infection each year than in the absence of migration delay, (2 when the transmission rate of a strain is high, the outbreak starts at the staging sites at which birds arrive in the early part of the fall migration, (3 when the transmission rate is low, infection predominantly occurs later in the season, which is further delayed when there is a migration delay. As such, the rise of more virulent AI strains in waterfowl could lead to a higher prevalence of infection later in the year, which could change the exposure risk for farmed poultry. A sensitivity analysis shows the importance of generation time and loss of immunity for the effect of migration delays. Thus, we demonstrate, in contrast to many current transmission risk models solely using empirical information on bird movements to assess the potential for transmission, that a consideration of infection-induced delays is critical to understanding the dynamics of AI infection along the entire flyway.

  15. Effects of time delay and space on herbivore dynamics: linking inducible defenses of plants to herbivore outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gui-Quan; Wang, Su-Lan; Ren, Qian; Jin, Zhen; Wu, Yong-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Empirical results indicate that inducible defenses of plants have effects on herbivore populations. However, little is known about how inducible defenses of plants have influences on herbivore outbreak when space effect is considered. To reveal the relationship between inducible defenses and herbivore outbreak, we present a mathematical model to describe the interaction of them. It was found that time delay plays dual effects in the persistence of herbivore populations: (i) large value of time delay may be associated with small density of herbivore populations, and thus causes the populations to run a higher risk of extinction; (ii) moderate value of time delay is beneficial for maintaining herbivore density in a determined range which may promote the persistence of herbivore populations. Additionally, we revealed that interaction of time delay and space promotes the growth of average density of herbivore populations during their outbreak period which implied that time delay may drive the resilience of herbivore populations. Our findings highlight the close relationship between inducible defenses of plants and herbivore outbreak. PMID:26084812

  16. Effects of time delay and space on herbivore dynamics: linking inducible defenses of plants to herbivore outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gui-Quan; Wang, Su-Lan; Ren, Qian; Jin, Zhen; Wu, Yong-Ping

    2015-06-18

    Empirical results indicate that inducible defenses of plants have effects on herbivore populations. However, little is known about how inducible defenses of plants have influences on herbivore outbreak when space effect is considered. To reveal the relationship between inducible defenses and herbivore outbreak, we present a mathematical model to describe the interaction of them. It was found that time delay plays dual effects in the persistence of herbivore populations: (i) large value of time delay may be associated with small density of herbivore populations, and thus causes the populations to run a higher risk of extinction; (ii) moderate value of time delay is beneficial for maintaining herbivore density in a determined range which may promote the persistence of herbivore populations. Additionally, we revealed that interaction of time delay and space promotes the growth of average density of herbivore populations during their outbreak period which implied that time delay may drive the resilience of herbivore populations. Our findings highlight the close relationship between inducible defenses of plants and herbivore outbreak.

  17. Inhibition of cell division induced by external guide sequences (EGS Technology targeting ftsZ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Davies Sala

    Full Text Available EGS (external guide sequence technology is a promising approach to designing new antibiotics. EGSs are short antisense oligoribonucleotides that induce RNase P-mediated cleavage of a target RNA by forming a precursor tRNA-like complex. The ftsZ mRNA secondary structure was modeled and EGSs complementary to two regions with high probability of being suitable targets were designed. In vitro reactions showed that EGSs targeting these regions bound ftsZ mRNA and elicited RNase P-mediated cleavage of ftsZ mRNA. A recombinant plasmid, pEGSb1, coding for an EGS that targets region "b" under the control of the T7 promoter was generated. Upon introduction of this plasmid into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3(pLysS the transformant strain formed filaments when expression of the EGS was induced. Concomitantly, E. coli harboring pEGSb1 showed a modest but significant inhibition of growth when synthesis of the EGSb1 was induced. Our results indicate that EGS technology could be a viable strategy to generate new antimicrobials targeting ftsZ.

  18. Modelling and control of Zigbee-based wireless networked control system with both network-induced delay and packet dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-ning; Su, Hong-ye; Wu, Zheng-guang; Chu, Jian

    2013-06-01

    A new stochastic switched linear model is established to describe the Zigbee-based wireless networked control system (WNCS) with both network-induced delay and packet dropout. The network-induced delay can be less or longer than one sampling period. A sufficient condition is presented for the exponentially mean square stability of the closed-loop WNCS, and corresponding state feedback controller is designed by using the augmenting technique and multi-Lyapunov approach. Then, combined with carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA-CA) algorithm, a method is given to choose proper parameter values. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Delayed effort-induced swelling with myofasciitis and systemic manifestations: A so far unrecognized type of pressure-induced urticaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztejn, Anne-Claire; Lipsker, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Diseases characterized by recurrent symptoms with prolonged intervals without any clinical manifestations can pose diagnostic difficulties. Some diagnoses will be obvious but other situations can be very challenging. To nosologically delineate a new entity characterized by recurrent flares of induration of the forearms and legs with swelling of the extremities accompanied by intense fatigue and variable other symptoms. Retrospective observational study of patients recorded from 2000 to 2015. All patients included were seen during a consultation at the Dermatology Department of the University Hospital of Strasbourg, France. We retrieved the medical records from patients seen and recorded over the last 16 years having induration of the extremities, the forearm and the legs occurring between 4 and 12 hours after a physical effort accompanied by systemic signs that lasted for a few days. We analyzed in detail the clinical and biological features, evolution, and treatments of these patients. We included 6 males, with a mean age of 47 years; mean age at disease onset was 42. All patients were initially misdiagnosed as having rheumatic disorders. The mean delay before diagnosis was 5 years. The main complaint was painful induration or muscle soreness of the forearms and the legs associated with transient functional impairment and prolonged asthenia for a mean duration of 3.5 days. Induration of the deep soft tissues was very suggestive of myofasciitis. The delay between the triggering physical effort and the swelling was between 6 and 12 hours. Physical effort as triggering factor was never spontaneously mentioned. Two patients had partial response to high dose antihistamines and 2 other patients to the interleukin-1 inhibitor anakinra. One patient responded to hydroxychloroquine. The very stereotypical presentation in those 6 patients suggests that this is a recognizable entity characterized by effort-induced induration of forearms and/or legs, due to deep

  20. The nonequilibrium phase transition and the symmetry revival induced by time delay in an asymmetric bistable system with correlated noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Fei; Du Lu-Chun; Mei Dong-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    The nonequilibrium phase transition and the symmetry revival induced by time delay in a bistable system are investigated. The stationary probability distribution function (SPDF) of the bistable system with time delay and correlated noises are calculated by an analytical method and stochastic simulation respectively. The analytical and simulative results indicate that: (1) There is a certain value of λ(λ denotes the strength of correlations between the multiplicative and additive noises) to make the SPDF symmetric under some time delay; however, above or below the given value, the symmetry will be broken; (2) With the monotonic change of λ, the unimodal peak structure of SPDF becomes bimodal at the beginning, then it becomes unimodal again; this means that there is a reentrance phenomenon in the process; (3) There is a critical value of delay time, which makes the lower peak of SPDF equal to the higher one under the critical condition. This means that the symmetry revival phenomenon emerges.

  1. Suppression of phase-induced intensity noise in fibre optic delay line signal processors using an optical phase modulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Erwin H W

    2010-10-11

    A technique that can suppress the dominant phase-induced intensity noise in fibre optic delay line signal processors is presented. It is based on phase modulation of the optical carrier to distribute the phase noise at the information band into a high frequency band which can be filtered out. This technique is suitable for suppressing the phase noise in various delay line structures and for integrating in the conventional fibre optic links. It can also suppress the coherent interference effect at the same time. A model for predicting the amount of phase noise reduction in various delay line structures using the optical phase modulation technique is presented for the first time and is experimentally verified. Experimental results demonstrate the technique can achieve a large phase noise reduction in various fibre optic delay line signal processors.

  2. Synchronization transitions induced by the fluctuation of adaptive coupling strength in delayed Newman-Watts neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Gong, Yubing; Wu, Yanan

    2015-11-01

    Introducing adaptive coupling in delayed neuronal networks and regulating the dissipative parameter (DP) of adaptive coupling by noise, we study the effect of fluctuations of the changing rate of adaptive coupling on the synchronization of the neuronal networks. It is found that time delay can induce synchronization transitions for intermediate DP values, and the synchronization transitions become strongest when DP is optimal. As the intensity of DP noise is varied, the neurons can also exhibit synchronization transitions, and the phenomenon is delay-dependent and is enhanced for certain time delays. Moreover, the synchronization transitions change with the change of DP and become strongest when DP is optimal. These results show that randomly changing adaptive coupling can considerably change the synchronization of the neuronal networks, and hence could play a crucial role in the information processing and transmission in neural systems.

  3. Cesium blockade of delayed outward currents and electrically induced pacemaker activity in mammalian ventricular myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, C F; Katzung, B G

    1981-05-01

    The effects of Cs+, 5-25 mM, were studied in cat and guinea pig papillary muscles using voltage clamp and current clamp techniques. In solutions containing normal K+, the major effects of Cs+ were depolarization of the resting potential and reduction of the delayed outward current (ixl) between -80 and -20 mV. Both inward and outward portions of the isochronal current voltage relation (l-s clamps) were reduced by extracellular Cs+. This resulted in a substantial reduction of inward rectification and, by subtraction from the normal I-V relationship, the definition of a Cs+-sensitive component of current. Under current clamp conditions, 5-10 mM Cs+ produced a dose-dependent slowing of repetitive firing induced by depolarization. At higher concentrations (25 mM) the resting potential was depolarized and repetitive activity could not be induced by further depolarization. However, release of hyperpolarizing pulses was followed by prolonged bursts of repetitive action potentials, suggesting partial reversal of blockade or participation of another pacemaker process. The experimental results and a numerical simulation show that under readily attainable conditions, reduction in an outward pacemaker current may slow pacemaker activity.

  4. Effects of Lipoteichoic Acid induced Delayed Preconditioning on Ischemia-reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Hearts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马世玉; 向继洲; 吴基良; 胡本容

    2003-01-01

    To explore the potential of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) induced cardioprotection against is-chemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in isolated rat hearts and whether endogenous nitric oxide (NO)participates-in the protection, the rats were pretreated with LTA (1 mg/kg, i. p. ) 24 h before theexperiment, and the isolated hearts were subjected to 30 min no-flow normothermic global ischemiaand 60 min reperfusion after a 20-min stabilization period by the langendorff method. Cardiac func-tions were evaluated at the end of stabilization, and at 30 min, 60 min of reperfusion. The amountsof MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) and total NO oxidationproducts in the coronary effluent were measured spectrophotometrically at the end of reperfusion. Itwas revealed that pretreatment with LTA could significantly improve the recovery of cardiac func-tion, reduce the release of CK-MB and LDH, and increase the concentrations of NO in coronary ef-fluent. The protective effects were abrogated by pretreatment of the rats with L-NAME. It wasconcluded that LTA could induce the delayed cardioprotection against I/R injury, and endogenousNO may be involved in the mechanisms.

  5. Delayed luminescence to monitor programmed cell death induced by berberine on thyroid cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordino, Agata; Campisi, Agata; Grasso, Rosaria; Bonfanti, Roberta; Gulino, Marisa; Iauk, Liliana; Parenti, Rosalba; Musumeci, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    Correlation between apoptosis and UVA-induced ultraweak photon emission delayed luminescence (DL) from tumor thyroid cell lines was investigated. In particular, the effects of berberine, an alkaloid that has been reported to have anticancer activities, on two cancer cell lines were studied. The FTC-133 and 8305C cell lines, as representative of follicular and anaplastic thyroid human cancer, respectively, were chosen. The results show that berberine is able to arrest cell cycle and activate apoptotic pathway as shown in both cell lines by deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation, caspase-3 cleavage, p53 and p27 protein overexpression. In parallel, changes in DL spectral components after berberine treatment support the hypothesis that DL from human cells originates mainly from mitochondria, since berberine acts especially at the mitochondrial level. The decrease of DL blue component for both cell lines could be related to the decrease of intra-mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and may be a hallmark of induced apoptosis. In contrast, the response in the red spectral range is different for the two cell lines and may be ascribed to a different iron homeostasis.

  6. Delayed Onset Vascular Stiffening Induced by Eccentric Resistance Exercise and Downhill Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Fu; Chou, Chun-Chung; Cheng, Hao-Min; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2017-07-01

    Eccentric exercise induces muscle stiffening and soreness as well as unfavorable changes in macrovascular function. We tested the hypothesis that systemic eccentric exercise could evoke greater arterial stiffening than local eccentric resistance exercise. Twenty healthy young men were randomly assigned into either the downhill running (DR) and the eccentric resistance exercise (RE) group followed by a crossover design with an exercise and sham control trial. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), central hemodynamic measures, and biomarkers were obtained. Muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase concentrations increased similarly after exercise in both groups. The cfPWV increased significantly at 48 hours post-exercise in both groups and remained elevated at 72 hours in DR. C-reactive protein (CRP) was elevated at 24 and 48 hours in DR, and 48 hours in RE. The increases in cfPWV were associated with the corresponding elevations in CRP in DR (r = 0.70, P < 0.05). There were no changes in arterial wave reflection measures. Both systemic and localized eccentric exercise modes induced delayed onset vascular stiffening with more prolonged changes observed in downhill running. The effect on arterial stiffening was associated, at least in part, with systemic inflammatory responses.

  7. Neural Mechanisms and Delayed Gastric Emptying of Liquid Induced Through Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Wilson Ranu Ramirez; Ozaki, Michiko Regina; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Collares, Edgard Ferro; Almeida, Eros Antonio de, E-mail: erosaa@cardiol.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABA{sub B} receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABA{sub B} receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABA{sub B} receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN.

  8. Delayed adaptive immunity is related to higher MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömbeck, Anna; Lundell, Anna-Carin; Nordström, Inger; Andersson, Kerstin; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Wold, Agnes E; Rudin, Anna

    2016-04-01

    There are notable inter-individual variations in vaccine-specific antibody responses in vaccinated children. The aim of our study was to investigate whether early-life environmental factors and adaptive immune maturation prior and close to measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunization relate to magnitudes of vaccine-specific antibody titers. In the FARMFLORA birth cohort, including both farming and non-farming families, children were immunized with the MMR vaccine at 18 months of age. MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers were measured in plasma samples obtained at 36 months of age. Infants' blood samples obtained at birth, 3-5 days and at 4 and 18 months of age were analyzed for T- and B-cell numbers, proportions of naive and memory T and B cells, and fractions of putative regulatory T cells. Multivariate factor analyses show that higher anti-MMR antibody titers were associated with a lower degree of adaptive immune maturation, that is, lower proportions of memory T cells and a lower capacity of mononuclear cells to produce cytokines, but with higher proportions of putative regulatory T cells. Further, children born by cesarean section (CS) had significantly higher anti-measles titers than vaginally-born children; and CS was found to be associated with delayed adaptive immunity. Also, girls presented with significantly higher anti-mumps and anti-rubella antibody levels than boys at 36 months of age. These results indicate that delayed adaptive immune maturation before and in close proximity to immunization seems to be advantageous for the ability of children to respond with higher anti-MMR antibody levels after vaccination.

  9. Neural Mechanisms and Delayed Gastric Emptying of Liquid Induced Through Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Ranu Ramirez Nunez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE of liquid in rats. Objective: Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABAB receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC in infarcted rats. Methods: Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABAB receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular. Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR of a saline meal. Results: No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABAB receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Conclusion: Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN.

  10. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition delays low-frequency stimulation-induced satellite cell activation in rat fast-twitch muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Karen J B; MacLean, Ian; Murdoch, Gordon K; Dixon, Walter T; Putman, Charles T

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the effect of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition via N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) administration on low-frequency stimulation-induced satellite cell (SC) activation in rat skeletal muscle. l-NAME only delayed stimulation-induced increases in SC activity. Also, stimulation-induced increases in hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) mRNA and protein expression were only abrogated at the mRNA level in l-NAME-treated animals. Therefore, early stimulation-induced SC activation appears to be NOS-dependent, while continued activation may involve NOS-independent HGF translational control mechanisms.

  11. Relief of delayed oxidative stress by ascorbic acid can suppress radiation-induced cellular senescence in mammalian fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashigawa, Shinko; Kashino, Genro; Mori, Hiromu; Watanabe, Masami

    2015-03-01

    Ionizing radiation-induced cellular senescence is thought to be caused by nuclear DNA damage that cannot be repaired. However, here we found that radiation induces delayed increase of intracellular oxidative stress after irradiation. We investigated whether the relief of delayed oxidative stress by ascorbic acid would suppress the radiation-induced cellular senescence in Syrian golden hamster embryo (SHE) cells. We observed that the level of oxidative stress was drastically increased soon after irradiation, then declined to the level in non-irradiated cells, and increased again with a peak on day 3 after irradiation. We found that the inductions of cellular senescence after X-irradiation were reduced along with suppression of the delayed induction of oxidative stress by treatment with ascorbic acid, but not when oxidative stress occurred immediately after irradiation. Moreover, treatment of ascorbic acid inhibited p53 accumulation at 3 days after irradiation. Our data suggested a delayed increase of intracellular oxidative stress levels plays an important role in the process of radiation-induced cellular senescence by p53 accumulation.

  12. Hippocampal lesions facilitate instrumental learning with delayed reinforcement but induce impulsive choice in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Timothy HC

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animals must frequently act to influence the world even when the reinforcing outcomes of their actions are delayed. Learning with action-outcome delays is a complex problem, and little is known of the neural mechanisms that bridge such delays. When outcomes are delayed, they may be attributed to (or associated with the action that caused them, or mistakenly attributed to other stimuli, such as the environmental context. Consequently, animals that are poor at forming context-outcome associations might learn action-outcome associations better with delayed reinforcement than normal animals. The hippocampus contributes to the representation of environmental context, being required for aspects of contextual conditioning. We therefore hypothesized that animals with hippocampal lesions would be better than normal animals at learning to act on the basis of delayed reinforcement. We tested the ability of hippocampal-lesioned rats to learn a free-operant instrumental response using delayed reinforcement, and what is potentially a related ability – the ability to exhibit self-controlled choice, or to sacrifice an immediate, small reward in order to obtain a delayed but larger reward. Results Rats with sham or excitotoxic hippocampal lesions acquired an instrumental response with different delays (0, 10, or 20 s between the response and reinforcer delivery. These delays retarded learning in normal rats. Hippocampal-lesioned rats responded slightly less than sham-operated controls in the absence of delays, but they became better at learning (relative to shams as the delays increased; delays impaired learning less in hippocampal-lesioned rats than in shams. In contrast, lesioned rats exhibited impulsive choice, preferring an immediate, small reward to a delayed, larger reward, even though they preferred the large reward when it was not delayed. Conclusion These results support the view that the hippocampus hinders action-outcome learning

  13. Trim32 facilitates degradation of MYCN on spindle poles and induces asymmetric cell division in human neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hideki; Kaneko, Yasuhiko

    2014-10-01

    Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is a physiologic process during development and tissue homeostasis. ACD produces two unequal daughter cells: one has stem/progenitor cell activity and the other has potential for differentiation. Recent studies showed that misregulation of the balance between self-renewal and differentiation by ACD may lead to tumorigenesis in Drosophila neuroblasts. However, it is still largely unknown whether human cancer stem-like cells exhibit ACD or not. Here, using human neuroblastoma cells as an ACD model, we found that MYCN accumulates at spindle poles by GSK-3β phosphorylation during mitosis. In parallel, the ACD-related ubiquitin ligase Trim32 was recruited to spindle poles by CDK1/cyclin B-mediated phosphorylation. Trim32 interacted with MYCN at spindle poles during mitosis, facilitating proteasomal degradation of MYCN at spindle poles and inducing ACD. Trim32 also suppressed sphere formation of neuroblastoma-initiating cells, suggesting that the mechanisms of ACD produce differentiated neuroblastoma cells that will eventually die. Thus, Trim32 is a positive regulator of ACD that acts against MYCN and should be considered as a tumor-suppressor candidate. Our findings offer novel insights into the mechanisms of ACD and clarify its contributions to human tumorigenesis. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. DNA damage in stem cells activates p21, inhibits p53, and induces symmetric self-renewing divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insinga, Alessandra; Cicalese, Angelo; Faretta, Mario; Gallo, Barbara; Albano, Luisa; Ronzoni, Simona; Furia, Laura; Viale, Andrea; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    DNA damage leads to a halt in proliferation owing to apoptosis or senescence, which prevents transmission of DNA alterations. This cellular response depends on the tumor suppressor p53 and functions as a powerful barrier to tumor development. Adult stem cells are resistant to DNA damage-induced apoptosis or senescence, however, and how they execute this response and suppress tumorigenesis is unknown. We show that irradiation of hematopoietic and mammary stem cells up-regulates the cell cycle inhibitor p21, a known target of p53, which prevents p53 activation and inhibits p53 basal activity, impeding apoptosis and leading to cell cycle entry and symmetric self-renewing divisions. p21 also activates DNA repair, limiting DNA damage accumulation and self-renewal exhaustion. Stem cells with moderate DNA damage and diminished self-renewal persist after irradiation, however. These findings suggest that stem cells have evolved a unique, p21-dependent response to DNA damage that leads to their immediate expansion and limits their long-term survival.

  15. Time Delay and Long-Range Connection Induced Synchronization Transitions in Newman-Watts Small-World Neuronal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The synchronization transitions in Newman-Watts small-world neuronal networks (SWNNs) induced by time delay and long-range connection (LRC) probability have been investigated by synchronization parameter and space-time plots. Four distinct parameter regions, that is, asynchronous region, transition region, synchronous region, and oscillatory region have been discovered at certain LRC probability as time delay is increased. Interestingly, desynchronization is observed in oscillatory region. More importantly, we consider the spatiotemporal patterns obtained in delayed Newman-Watts SWNNs are the competition results between long-range drivings (LRDs) and neighboring interactions. In addition, for moderate time delay, the synchronization of neuronal network can be enhanced remarkably by increasing LRC probability. Furthermore, lag synchronization has been found between weak synchronization and complete synchronization as LRC probability is a little less than 1.0. Finally, the two necessary conditions, moderate time delay and large numbers of LRCs, are exposed explicitly for synchronization in delayed Newman-Watts SWNNs. PMID:24810595

  16. Time delay and long-range connection induced synchronization transitions in Newman-Watts small-world neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The synchronization transitions in Newman-Watts small-world neuronal networks (SWNNs) induced by time delay τ and long-range connection (LRC) probability P have been investigated by synchronization parameter and space-time plots. Four distinct parameter regions, that is, asynchronous region, transition region, synchronous region, and oscillatory region have been discovered at certain LRC probability P = 1.0 as time delay is increased. Interestingly, desynchronization is observed in oscillatory region. More importantly, we consider the spatiotemporal patterns obtained in delayed Newman-Watts SWNNs are the competition results between long-range drivings (LRDs) and neighboring interactions. In addition, for moderate time delay, the synchronization of neuronal network can be enhanced remarkably by increasing LRC probability. Furthermore, lag synchronization has been found between weak synchronization and complete synchronization as LRC probability P is a little less than 1.0. Finally, the two necessary conditions, moderate time delay and large numbers of LRCs, are exposed explicitly for synchronization in delayed Newman-Watts SWNNs.

  17. Autaptic self-feedback-induced synchronization transitions in Newman-Watts neuronal network with time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Gong, Yubing; Wu, Yanan

    2015-04-01

    Autapse is a special synapse that connects a neuron to itself. In this work, we numerically study the effect of chemical autapse on the synchronization of Newman-Watts Hodgkin-Huxley neuron network with time delays. It is found that the neurons exhibit synchronization transitions as autaptic self-feedback delay is varied, and the phenomenon enhances when autaptic self-feedback strength increases. Moreover, this phenomenon becomes strongest when network time delay or coupling strength is optimal. It is also found that the synchronization transitions by network time delay can be enhanced by autaptic activity and become strongest when autaptic delay is optimal. These results show that autaptic delayed self-feedback activity can intermittently enhance and reduce the synchronization of the neuronal network and hence plays an important role in regulating the synchronization of the neurons. These findings could find potential implications for the information processing and transmission in neural systems.

  18. Stability analysis and design of amplitude death induced by a time-varying delay connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Keiji, E-mail: konishi@eis.osakafu-u.ac.j [Department of Electrical and Information Systems, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kokame, Hideki; Hara, Naoyuki [Department of Electrical and Information Systems, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2010-01-18

    The present Letter considers amplitude death in a pair of oscillators coupled by a time-varying delay connection. A linear stability analysis is used to derive the boundary curves for amplitude death in a connection parameters space. The delay time can be arbitrarily long for certain amplitude of delay variation and coupling strength. A simple systematic procedure for designing such variation and strength is provided. The theoretical results are verified by a numerical simulation.

  19. Induced mutations in tomato SlExp1 alter cell wall metabolism and delay fruit softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoia, Silvia; Boualem, Adnane; Marcel, Fabien; Troadec, Christelle; Quemener, Bernard; Cellini, Francesco; Petrozza, Angelo; Vigouroux, Jacqueline; Lahaye, Marc; Carriero, Filomena; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening and softening are key traits for many fleshy fruit. Since cell walls play a key role in the softening process, expansins have been investigated to control fruit over ripening and deterioration. In tomato, expression of Expansin 1 gene, SlExp1, during fruit ripening was associated with fruit softening. To engineer tomato plants with long shelf life, we screened for mutant plants impaired in SlExp1 function. Characterization of two induced mutations, Slexp1-6_W211S, and Slexp1-7_Q213Stop, showed that SlExp1 loss of function leads to enhanced fruit firmness and delayed fruit ripening. Analysis of cell wall polysaccharide composition of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant pointed out significant differences for uronic acid, neutral sugar and total sugar contents. Hemicelluloses chemistry analysis by endo-β-1,4-d-glucanase hydrolysis and MALDI-TOF spectrometry revealed that xyloglucan structures were affected in the fruit pericarp of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant. Altogether, these results demonstrated that SlExp1 loss of function mutants yield firmer and late ripening fruits through modification of hemicellulose structure. These SlExp1 mutants represent good tools for breeding long shelf life tomato lines with contrasted fruit texture as well as for the understanding of the cell wall polysaccharide assembly dynamics in fleshy fruits.

  20. Delayed repair of radiation induced clustered DNA damage: Friend or foe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccles, Laura J., E-mail: laura.eccles@rob.ox.ac.uk [DNA Damage Group, Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); O' Neill, Peter, E-mail: peter.oneill@rob.ox.ac.uk [DNA Damage Group, Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Lomax, Martine E., E-mail: martine.lomax@rob.ox.ac.uk [DNA Damage Group, Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-03

    A signature of ionizing radiation exposure is the induction of DNA clustered damaged sites, defined as two or more lesions within one to two helical turns of DNA by passage of a single radiation track. Clustered damage is made up of double strand breaks (DSB) with associated base lesions or abasic (AP) sites, and non-DSB clusters comprised of base lesions, AP sites and single strand breaks. This review will concentrate on the experimental findings of the processing of non-DSB clustered damaged sites. It has been shown that non-DSB clustered damaged sites compromise the base excision repair pathway leading to the lifetime extension of the lesions within the cluster, compared to isolated lesions, thus the likelihood that the lesions persist to replication and induce mutation is increased. In addition certain non-DSB clustered damaged sites are processed within the cell to form additional DSB. The use of E. coli to demonstrate that clustering of DNA lesions is the major cause of the detrimental consequences of ionizing radiation is also discussed. The delayed repair of non-DSB clustered damaged sites in humans can be seen as a 'friend', leading to cell killing in tumour cells or as a 'foe', resulting in the formation of mutations and genetic instability in normal tissue.

  1. Mitigation of Radiation Induced Pulmonary Vascular Injury by Delayed Treatment with Captopril

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOLTHEN, Robert C.; WU, Qingping; FISH, Brian L.; MOULDER, John E.; JACOBS, Elizabeth R.; MEDHORA, Meetha M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective A single dose of 10 Gy radiation to the thorax of rats results in decreased total lung angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, pulmonary artery distensibility and distal vascular density while increasing pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) at 2-months post-exposure. In this study we evaluate the potential of a renin-angiotensin system (RAS) modulator, the ACE inhibitor captopril, to mitigate this pulmonary vascular damage. Methods Rats exposed to 10 Gy thorax only irradiation and age-matched controls were studied 2-months after exposure, during the development of radiation pneumonitis. Rats were treated, either immediately or 2-weeks after radiation exposure, with 2 doses of the ACE inhibitor, captopril, dissolved in their drinking water. To determine pulmonary vascular responses, we measured pulmonary hemodynamics, lung ACE activity, pulmonary arterial distensibility, and peripheral vessel density. Results Captopril, given at a vasoactive but not a lower dose, mitigated radiation-induced pulmonary vascular injury. More importantly these beneficial effects were observed even if drug therapy was delayed for up to two weeks after exposure. Conclusions Captopril resulted in a reduction in pulmonary vascular injury that supports its use as a radiomitigator after an unexpected radiological event such as a nuclear accident. PMID:22882664

  2. Direct formation of millisecond pulsars from rotationally delayed accretion-induced collapse of massive white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, Paulo C C

    2013-01-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are believed to be old neutron stars, formed via Type Ib/c core-collapse supernovae, which have subsequently been spun up to high rotation rates via accretion from a companion star in a highly circularised low-mass X-ray binary. The recent discoveries of Galactic field binary MSPs in eccentric orbits, and mass functions compatible with that expected for helium white dwarf companions, PSR J2234+06 and PSR J1946+3417, therefore challenge this picture. Here we present a hypothesis for producing this new class of systems, where the MSPs are formed directly from a rotationally-delayed accretion-induced collapse of a super-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf. We compute the orbital properties of the MSPs formed in such events and demonstrate that our hypothesis can reproduce the observed eccentricities, masses and orbital periods of the white dwarfs, as well as forecasting the pulsar masses and velocities. Finally, we compare this hypothesis to a triple star scenario.

  3. Yersinia pestis with regulated delayed attenuation as a vaccine candidate to induce protective immunity against plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Roland, Kenneth L; Kuang, Xiaoying; Branger, Christine G; Curtiss, Roy

    2010-03-01

    Two mutant strains of Yersinia pestis KIM5+, a Deltacrp mutant and a mutant with arabinose-dependent regulated delayed-shutoff crp expression (araC P(BAD) crp), were constructed, characterized in vitro, and evaluated for virulence, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy in mice. Both strains were highly attenuated by the subcutaneous (s.c.) route. The 50% lethal doses (LD(50)s) of the Deltacrp and araC P(BAD) crp mutants were approximately 1,000,000-fold and 10,000-fold higher than those of Y. pestis KIM5+, respectively, indicating that both strains were highly attenuated. Mice vaccinated s.c. with 3.8 x 10(7) CFU of the Deltacrp mutant developed high anti-Y. pestis and anti-LcrV serum IgG titers, both with a strong Th2 bias, and induced protective immunity against subcutaneous challenge with virulent Y. pestis (80% survival) but no protection against pulmonary challenge. Mice vaccinated with 3.0 x 10(4) CFU of the araC P(BAD) crp mutant also developed high anti-Y. pestis and anti-LcrV serum IgG titers but with a more balanced Th1/Th2 response. This strain induced complete protection against s.c. challenge and partial protection (70% survival) against pulmonary challenge. Our results demonstrate that arabinose-dependent regulated crp expression is an effective strategy to attenuate Y. pestis while retaining strong immunogenicity, leading to protection against the pneumonic and bubonic forms of plague.

  4. Comparison of the protective action of glutathione and cysteamine on radiation-induced mitotic delay in cultured S-5 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, S; Kobayashi, M; Hashimoto, H; Nakanishi, T

    1979-06-01

    The protective effect of glutathione (GSH) and cysteamine (MEA) on radiation-induced mitotic delay in cultured mammalian L-5 cells was studied. Cells treated with 20 mM of GSH during irradiation with 2 Gy (200 rad) showed faster recovery of the mitotic index than control cells irradiated without chemical treatment; however, GSH had no effect on mitotic delay time. Inhibition of mitosis was observed with 80, 100, and 120 mM of GSH. Cells treated with 5 mM of MEA during irradiation also showed faster recovery of the mitotic index than the controls, but in addition the delay time was shortened. Progression of G2-phase cells treated with 5-fluorouracil to mitosis after irradiation was protected by MEA but not by GSH. Progression of S-phase cells labeled with 3H-thymidine to mitosis was accelerated by both agents during irradiation.

  5. Delay-induced transport in a rocking ratchet under feedback control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Sarah A M; Gernert, Robert; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2014-05-01

    Based on the Fokker-Planck equation we investigate the transport of an overdamped colloidal particle in a static, asymmetric periodic potential supplemented by a time-dependent, delayed feedback force, F(fc). For a given time t, F(fc) depends on the status of the system at a previous time t-τ(D), with τ(D) being a delay time, specifically on the delayed mean particle displacement (relative to some "switching position"). For nonzero delay times F(fc)(t) develops nearly regular oscillations, generating a net current in the system. Depending on the switching position, this current is nearly as large or even larger than that in a conventional open-loop rocking ratchet. We also investigate thermodynamic properties of the delayed nonequilibrium system and we suggest an underlying Langevin equation which reproduces the Fokker-Planck results.

  6. Dynamical properties induced by state-dependent delays in photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Llinàs, Jade; Porte, Xavier; Soriano, Miguel C.; Colet, Pere; Fischer, Ingo

    2015-06-01

    In many dynamical systems and complex networks time delays appear naturally in feedback loops or coupling connections of individual elements. Moreover, in a whole class of systems, these delay times can depend on the state of the system. Nevertheless, so far the understanding of the impact of such state-dependent delays remains poor with a particular lack of systematic experimental studies. Here we fill this gap by introducing a conceptually simple photonic system that exhibits dynamics of self-organised switching between two loops with two different delay times, depending on the state of the system. On the basis of experiments and modelling on semiconductor lasers with frequency-selective feedback mirrors, we characterize the switching between the states defined by the individual delays. Our approach opens new perspectives for the study of this class of dynamical systems and enables applications in which the self-organized switching can be exploited.

  7. Reduction of UV-induced mitotic delay by caffeine in BUdR-substituted plasmodia of Physarum polycephalum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasree, P R; Nair, V R

    1993-02-01

    Chromosomal DNA of the synchronously mitotic plasmodia of P. polycephalum was substituted with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, by growing the plasmodia during S phase, on a medium containing this nucleoside analog. A strong synergism was observed between bromodeoxyuridine and UV-irradiation, in late G2-irradiated plasmodia in that, the mitotic delay obtained in them was much more than a simple sum of the delays induced by these two agents individually. It was also observed that the mitotic delay in this system is reduced significantly by different concentrations of caffeine applied immediately after irradiation and there was a stage specificity in this effect. The reduction in mitotic delay was maximum (80%) in those plasmodia irradiated 20-30 min before control metaphase, when mitogenic factors also reach their maximum activity in this system. It is proposed that the mitotic delay reducing effect of caffeine is due to its ability to promote the activity of the mitogenic factors, largely independent of the system which is responsible for monitoring the state of the chromosomal DNA.

  8. Phenol-soluble modulin α induces G2/M phase transition delay in eukaryotic HeLa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deplanche, Martine; Filho, Rachid Aref El-Aouar; Alekseeva, Ludmila; Ladier, Emilie; Jardin, Julien; Henry, Gwénaële; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson; Beraud, Laetitia; Laurent, Frederic; Lina, Gerard; Vandenesch, François; Steghens, Jean-Paul; Le Loir, Yves; Otto, Michael; Götz, Friedrich; Berkova, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium responsible for a wide range of infections. Host cell cycle alteration is a sophisticated mechanism used by pathogens to hijack the defense functions of host cells. We previously demonstrated that S. aureus MW2 (USA400) bacteria induced a G2/M phase transition delay in HeLa cells. We demonstrate here that this activity is triggered by culture supernatant compounds. Using size exclusion chromatography of the MW2 supernatant, followed by mass spectroscopy analysis of corresponding peaks, we identified phenol-soluble modulin α (PSMα) peptides as the likely candidates for this effect. Indeed, synthetic PSMα1 and PSMα3 caused a G2/M phase transition delay. The implication of PSMα in cell cycle alteration was confirmed by comparison of S. aureus Los Angeles County clone (LAC) wild-type with the isogenic mutant LAC∆psmα, which lacks the psmα operon encoding PSMα1–4. PSMα-induced G2/M transition delay correlated with a decrease in the defensin genes expression suggesting a diminution of antibacterial functions of epithelial cells. By testing the supernatant of S. aureus human clinical isolates, we found that the degree of G2/M phase transition delay correlated with PSMα1 production. We show that PSMs secreted by S. aureus alter the host cell cycle, revealing a newly identified mechanism for fostering an infection.—Deplanche, M., Filho. R. A. E.–A., Alekseeva, L., Ladier, E., Jardin, J., Henry, G., Azevedo, V., Miyoshi, A., Beraud, L., Laurent, F., Lina, G., Vandenesch, F., Steghens, J.-P., Le Loir, Y., Otto, M., Götz, F., Berkova, N. Phenol-soluble modulin α induces G2/M phase transition delay in eukaryotic HeLa cells. PMID:25648996

  9. Delayed Postprandial Hypertriglyceridemia, Slow Gastrointestinal Transit and Possible Links Between Them in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢伟东; 刑东明; 苏慧; 程杰; 金文; 丁怡; 杜力军

    2004-01-01

    Both postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and diabetic gastroparesis are common dysfunctions affecting diabetes mellitus; however,whether diabetic gastroparesis has an influence on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia still remains undetermined.Delayed postprandial hypertriglyceridemia,diabetic gastroparesis,and the possible links between them were investigated using alloxan-induced diabetic mice.After the oral administration of olive oil,delayed and exaggerated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and diabetic gastroparesis were markedly presented in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.Domperidone shortened the time of triglycerides (TG) peak levels in diabetic mice.After intraperitoneal and intraduodenal administration of olive oil,no delay of TG peak levels occurred in diabetic mice.Simultaneously,serum post-heparin lipoprotein lipase activities significantly decreased just at the time of prolonged and elevated TG peak levels resulting from diabetic gastroparesis,and further deteriorated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in diabetic mice.The results indicate that diabetic gastroparesis can be one of the important reasons for delayed and exaggerated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in diabetes mellitus.

  10. Central Autonomic Dysfunction Delays Recovery of Fingolimod Induced Heart Rate Slowing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max J Hilz

    Full Text Available In multiple sclerosis (MS patients, Fingolimod may induce prolonged heart-rate slowing which might be caused by MS-related central autonomic lesions.To evaluate whether MS-patients with prolonged heart-rate slowing (> six hours upon Fingolimod show cardiovascular-autonomic dysfunction before Fingolimod-initiation.Before Fingolimod-initiation, we recorded electrocardiographic RR-intervals (RRIs and blood-pressure (BP at rest, upon standing-up, during metronomic deep-breathing, Valsalva-maneuver, and "sustained-handgrip-exercise" in 21 patients with relapsing-remitting MS, and 20 healthy persons. We calculated sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiovascular parameters, including low- (LF and high-frequency (HF powers of RRI- and BP-oscillations, RRI-RMSSDs, RRI- and BP-changes during handgrip-exercise, parasympathetic heart-rate-slowing in relation to BP-overshoot after Valsalva-strain-release. We compared values of healthy persons and patients with and without prolonged heart-rate slowing after Fingolimod-initiation (ANOVA; significance: p<0.05.Upon Fingolimod-initiation, 7/21 patients had prolonged HR-slowing. Before Fingolimod, these patients had higher resting BP and higher BP increase during handgrip-exercise than had the other participants (p<0.05. They did not reduce parasympathetic HR-parameters upon standing-up. After Valsalva-strain-release, their parasympathetic HR-slowing in response to BP-overshoot was four times higher than in the other participants (p<0.05.The autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction in MS-patients with delayed HR-re-acceleration upon Fingolimod-initiation suggests that MS-related central autonomic lesions compromise HR-re-acceleration upon Fingolimod.German Clinical Trial Register DRKS00004548 http://drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de/drks_web/setLocale_EN.do.

  11. Gas6 increases myelination by oligodendrocytes and its deficiency delays recovery following cuprizone-induced demyelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele D Binder

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a complex demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Current research has shown that at least in some cases, the primary insult in MS could be directed at the oligodendrocyte, and that the earliest immune responses are primarily via innate immune cells. We have identified a family of receptor protein tyrosine kinases, known as the TAM receptors (Tyro3, Axl and Mertk, as potentially important in regulating both the oligodendrocyte and immune responses. We have previously shown that Gas6, a ligand for the TAM receptors, can affect the severity of demyelination in mice, with a loss of signalling via Gas6 leading to decreased oligodendrocyte survival and increased microglial activation during cuprizone-induced demyelination. We hypothesised TAM receptor signalling would also influence the extent of recovery in mice following demyelination. A significant effect of the absence of Gas6 was detected upon remyelination, with a lower level of myelination after 4 weeks of recovery in comparison with wild-type mice. The delay in remyelination was accompanied by a reduction in oligodendrocyte numbers. To understand the molecular mechanisms that drive the observed effects, we also examined the effect of exogenous Gas6 in in vitro myelination assays. We found that Gas6 significantly increased myelination in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that TAM receptor signalling could be directly involved in myelination by oligodendrocytes. The reduced rate of remyelination in the absence of Gas6 could thus result from a lack of Gas6 at a critical time during myelin production after injury. These findings establish Gas6 as an important regulator of both CNS demyelination and remyelination.

  12. Noise-induced decline and propagation of population in the delayed Malthus-Verhulst model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jianchun; Mei, Dongcheng

    2010-06-01

    The effects of multiplicative and additive colored noises on decline and propagation processes of population in the delayed stochastic Malthus-Verhulst model are investigated by numerically computing and stochastically simulating. From the biological point of view, our results indicate that: the increasing correlation time of multiplicative noise strengthens the stability of population, and the correlation time of additive noise does not affect it. The increasing correlation time of multiplicative noise slows down the replacement of old individuals with young ones, while the increasing correlation time of additive noise with short delay time and the optimal correlation time of additive noise with long delay time quicken it.

  13. Directed Current Induced by an Symmetrically ac Force Coexisting with a Time-Delayed Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易述婷; 宋晖; 欧志娥; 艾保全; 熊建文

    2012-01-01

    We study the transport of overdamped Brownian particles in a symmetricaJly periodic potential in the presence of an asymmetrically ac driving force and a time-delayed feedback. It is found that for low frequencies, the average velocity can be negative by changing the driving amplitude, for high frequencies, there exists an optimized driving amplitude at which the average velocity takes its maximum value. Additionally, there is a threshold value of driving amplitude below which no directed transport can be obtained for high frequencies. For the large value of the delay time, the average velocity is independent of the delay time.

  14. In Vitro Studies on Space Radiation-Induced Delayed Genetic Responses: Shielding Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhim, Munira A.; Green, Lora M.; Gridley, Daila S.; Murray, Deborah K.; Tran, Da Thao; Andres, Melba; Pocock, Debbie; Macdonald, Denise; Goodhead, Dudley T.; Moyers, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the radiation risks involved in spaceflight is of considerable importance, especially with the long-term occupation of ISS and the planned crewed exploration missions. Several independent causes may contribute to the overall risk to astronauts exposed to the complex space environment, such as exposure to GCR as well as SPES. Protons and high-Z energetic particles comprise the GCR spectrum and may exert considerable biological effects even at low fluence. There are also considerable uncertainties associated with secondary particle effects (e.g. HZE fragments, neutrons etc.). The interaction of protons and high-LET particles with biological materials at all levels of biological organization needs to be investigated fully in order to establish a scientific basis for risk assessment. The results of these types of investigation will foster the development of appropriately directed countermeasures. In this study, we compared the biological responses to proton irradiation presented to the target cells as a monoenergetic beam of particles of complex composition delivered to cells outside or inside a tissue phantom head placed in the United States EVA space suit helmet. Measurements of chromosome aberrations, apoptosis, and the induction of key proteins were made in bone marrow from CBA/CaJ and C57BL/6 mice at early and late times post exposure to radiation at 0, 0.5, 1 and 2 Gy while inside or outside of the helmet. The data showed that proton irradiation induced transmissible chromosomal/genomic instability in haematopoietic stem cells in both strains of mice under both irradiation conditions and especially at low doses. Although differences were noted between the mouse strains in the degree and kinetics of transforming growth factor-beta 1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion, there were no significant differences observed in the level of the induced instability under either radiation condition, or for both strains of mice. Consequently, when

  15. Effect of methanolic extract of Allium sativum (AS) in delaying cataract in STZ-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, T. Naga; Kanth, V. Rajani; Lavanya, K.

    2008-01-01

    Glycemic-induced stress is a major culprit contributing to oxidative insult that has far-reaching effects in diabetic cataract worldwide. In an attempt to prevent/delay cataract, many therapeutic agents have been identified, and among these, natural dietary sources have gained pharmacological significance. Hence, we investigated the efficacy of the methanolic garlic extract against diabetic cataract in Wistar rats. Methanolic garlic extract scavenged the transition metal ion-generated H2O2 wi...

  16. Staphylococcus aureus-induced G2/M phase transition delay in host epithelial cells increases bacterial infective efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, Ludmila; Rault, Lucie; Almeida, Sintia; Legembre, Patrick; Edmond, Valérie; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson; Even, Sergine; Taieb, Frédéric; Arlot-Bonnemains, Yannick; Le Loir, Yves; Berkova, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a highly versatile, opportunistic pathogen and the etiological agent of a wide range of infections in humans and warm-blooded animals. The epithelial surface is its principal site of colonization and infection. In this work, we investigated the cytopathic effect of S. aureus strains from human and animal origins and their ability to affect the host cell cycle in human HeLa and bovine MAC-T epithelial cell lines. S. aureus invasion slowed down cell proliferation and induced a cytopathic effect, resulting in the enlargement of host cells. A dramatic decrease in the number of mitotic cells was observed in the infected cultures. Flow cytometry analysis revealed an S. aureus-induced delay in the G2/M phase transition in synchronous HeLa cells. This delay required the presence of live S. aureus since the addition of the heat-killed bacteria did not alter the cell cycle. The results of Western blot experiments showed that the G2/M transition delay was associated with the accumulation of inactive cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1, a key inducer of mitosis entry, and with the accumulation of unphosphorylated histone H3, which was correlated with a reduction of the mitotic cell number. Analysis of S. aureus proliferation in asynchronous, G1- and G2-phase-enriched HeLa cells showed that the G2 phase was preferential for bacterial infective efficiency, suggesting that the G2 phase delay may be used by S. aureus for propagation within the host. Taken together, our results divulge the potential of S. aureus in the subversion of key cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, and shed light on the biological significance of S. aureus-induced host cell cycle alteration.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus-induced G2/M phase transition delay in host epithelial cells increases bacterial infective efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Alekseeva

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a highly versatile, opportunistic pathogen and the etiological agent of a wide range of infections in humans and warm-blooded animals. The epithelial surface is its principal site of colonization and infection. In this work, we investigated the cytopathic effect of S. aureus strains from human and animal origins and their ability to affect the host cell cycle in human HeLa and bovine MAC-T epithelial cell lines. S. aureus invasion slowed down cell proliferation and induced a cytopathic effect, resulting in the enlargement of host cells. A dramatic decrease in the number of mitotic cells was observed in the infected cultures. Flow cytometry analysis revealed an S. aureus-induced delay in the G2/M phase transition in synchronous HeLa cells. This delay required the presence of live S. aureus since the addition of the heat-killed bacteria did not alter the cell cycle. The results of Western blot experiments showed that the G2/M transition delay was associated with the accumulation of inactive cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1, a key inducer of mitosis entry, and with the accumulation of unphosphorylated histone H3, which was correlated with a reduction of the mitotic cell number. Analysis of S. aureus proliferation in asynchronous, G1- and G2-phase-enriched HeLa cells showed that the G2 phase was preferential for bacterial infective efficiency, suggesting that the G2 phase delay may be used by S. aureus for propagation within the host. Taken together, our results divulge the potential of S. aureus in the subversion of key cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, and shed light on the biological significance of S. aureus-induced host cell cycle alteration.

  18. Activation delay-induced mechanical dyssynchrony in single-ventricle heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsha, Daniel; Risum, Niels; Barker, Piers

    2017-01-01

    We present the case of an infant with a single functional ventricle who developed ventricular dysfunction and heart failure due to an electrical activation delay and dyssynchrony. Earlier recognition of this potentially reversible aetiology may have changed her poor outcome.......We present the case of an infant with a single functional ventricle who developed ventricular dysfunction and heart failure due to an electrical activation delay and dyssynchrony. Earlier recognition of this potentially reversible aetiology may have changed her poor outcome....

  19. Fluconazole-Induced Ploidy Change in Cryptococcus neoformans Results from the Uncoupling of Cell Growth and Nuclear Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, Sophie; Fang, Diana; Simmons, Charles; Sridhar, Shreyas; Wu, Peipei; Sanyal, Kaustuv; Kozubowski, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that causes lethal cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. One of the challenges in treating cryptococcosis is the development of resistance to azole antifungals. Previous studies linked azole resistance to elevated numbers of copies of critical resistance genes in aneuploid cells. However, how aneuploidy is formed in the presence of azole drugs remains unclear. This study showed that treatment with inhibitory concentrations of an azole drug, fluconazole (FLC), resulted in a significant population of cells with increased DNA content, through the following defects: inhibition of budding, premature mitosis, and inhibition of cytokinesis followed by replication in the mother cell. Inhibition of and/or a delay in cytokinesis led to the formation of cells with two or more daughter cells attached (multimeric cells). To investigate which part of cytokinesis fails in the presence of FLC, the dynamics of the actomyosin ring (AMR), septins, and Cts1, a protein involved in cell separation, were analyzed with time-lapse microscopy. Following the constriction of the AMR, septins assembled and the septum was formed between the mother and daughter cells. However, final degradation of the septum was affected. Enlarged cells with aberrant morphology, including multimeric cells, exhibited an increased potential to proliferate in the presence of FLC. These findings suggest that pleiotropic effects of FLC on growth and mitotic division lead to an increase in DNA content, resulting in cells less sensitive to the drug. Cells with increased DNA content continue to proliferate and therefore increase the chance of forming resistant populations. IMPORTANCE Azoles are antifungals that are widely utilized due to relatively low toxicity and cost of treatment. One of their drawbacks, however, is that azoles are primarily cytostatic, leaving fungal cells capable of developing drug resistance. The human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans

  20. Hybrid Control of Delay Induced Hopf Bifurcation of Dynamical Small-World Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Dawei; ZHANG Xiaoyun; WANG Nian; LIANG Dong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper,we focus on the Hopf bifurcation control of a small-world network model with time-delay.With emphasis on the relationship between the Hopf bifurcation and the time-delay,we investigate the effect of time-delay by choosing it as the bifurcation parameter.By using tools from control and bifurcation theory,it is proved that there exists a critical value of time-delay for the stability of the model.When the time-delay passes through the critical value,the model loses its stability and a Hopf bifurcation occurs.To enhance the stability of the model,we propose an improved hybrid control strategy in which state feedback and parameter perturbation are used.Through linear stability analysis,we show that by adjusting the control parameter properly,the onset of Hopf bifurcation of the controlled model can be delayed or eliminated without changing the equilibrium point of the model.Finally,numerical simulations are given to verify the theoretical analysis.

  1. Bifurcation analysis of delay-induced patterns in a ring of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantner, Markus; Yanchuk, Serhiy

    2013-09-28

    Rings of delay-coupled neurons possess a striking capability to produce various stable spiking patterns. In order to reveal the mechanisms of their appearance, we present a bifurcation analysis of the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) system with delayed feedback as well as a closed loop of HH neurons. We consider mainly the effects of external currents and communication delays. It is shown that typically periodic patterns of different spatial form (wavenumber) appear via Hopf bifurcations as the external current or time delay changes. The Hopf bifurcations are shown to occur in relatively narrow regions of the external current values, which are independent of the delays. Additional patterns, which have the same wavenumbers as the existing ones, appear via saddle-node bifurcations of limit cycles. The obtained bifurcation diagrams are evidence for the important role of communication delays for the emergence of multiple coexistent spiking patterns. The effects of a short-cut, which destroys the rotational symmetry of the ring, are also briefly discussed.

  2. Effect of methanolic extract of Allium sativum (AS) in delaying cataract in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, T Naga; Kanth, V Rajani; Lavanya, K

    2008-03-01

    Glycemic-induced stress is a major culprit contributing to oxidative insult that has far-reaching effects in diabetic cataract worldwide. In an attempt to prevent/delay cataract, many therapeutic agents have been identified, and among these, natural dietary sources have gained pharmacological significance. Hence, we investigated the efficacy of the methanolic garlic extract against diabetic cataract in Wistar rats. Methanolic garlic extract scavenged the transition metal ion-generated H(2)O(2) with an IC(50) of 768.8 +/- 1.76 mug/ml, showing its potential ability as an antioxidant. We have noticed lenticular opacity and oxidative damage in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic rats. This is evident by the elevation of Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Na(+), Mg(2+), thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), and carbonyl content and increased activities of polyol enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and up regulation of iNOS transcript and protein aggregation/cross-linking followed by a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), K(+) content, and tryptophan fluorescence in the cataractous lenses of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Garlic administration in a dose-dependent manner attenuated the glycemia-mediated oxidative stress as all the parameters have been found normalized more or less to that of control rats and thus delaying the progression of the lens opacity. We conclude that garlic extract has hypoglycemic and anti oxidant properties that can delay the progression of cataract as revealed in this study.

  3. Delay time modulation induced oscillating synchronization and intermittent anticipatory/lag and complete synchronizations in time-delay nonlinear dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, D V; Lakshmanan, M

    2007-03-01

    Existence of a new type of oscillating synchronization that oscillates between three different types of synchronizations (anticipatory, complete, and lag synchronizations) is identified in unidirectionally coupled nonlinear time-delay systems having two different time-delays, that is feedback delay with a periodic delay time modulation and a constant coupling delay. Intermittent anticipatory, intermittent lag, and complete synchronizations are shown to exist in the same system with identical delay time modulations in both the delays. The transition from anticipatory to complete synchronization and from complete to lag synchronization as a function of coupling delay with suitable stability condition is discussed. The intermittent anticipatory and lag synchronizations are characterized by the minimum of the similarity functions and the intermittent behavior is characterized by a universal asymptotic -32 power law distribution. It is also shown that the delay time carved out of the trajectories of the time-delay system with periodic delay time modulation cannot be estimated using conventional methods, thereby reducing the possibility of decoding the message by phase space reconstruction.

  4. Activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels delays ischemia-induced cellular uncoupling in rat heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-liangSHEN; Ying-yingCHEN; Xun-dongWU; IainCBRUCE; QiangXIA

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To test the hypothesis that cellular uncoupling induced by myocardial ischemia is mediated by activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels (mitoKATP). METHODS: Rat hearts were perfused on a Langendorff apparatus and subjected to 40-min ischemia followed by 30-min reperfusion (I/R). Changes in cellular coupling were monitored by measuring whole-tissue resistance. RESULTS: (1) In hearts subjected to I/R, the onset of uncoupling started at (13.3± 1.0) min of ischemia; (2) Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) delayed the onset of uncoupling until (22.7±1.3) min. Blocking mitoKATP channels with 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) before the IPC abolishedthe uncoupling delay [(12.6±1.6)min]; (3) Calcium preconditioning (CPC) had the same effect as IPC. And this effect was reversed by blocking the mitoKATP channel again. In the CPC group the onset of uncoupling occurred after (20.6±1.3) min, and this was canceled by 5-HD [(13.6±0.8) min]; (4) In hearts pretreated with the specific mitoKATP channel opener diazoxide before sustained ischemia, the onset was delayed to (18.4±1.4) min; (5) 5-HD canceled the protective effects of diazoxide (12.6±1.0) min; and both the L-type Ca2+ channel inhibitor verapamiland the free radical scavenger N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)glycine, reduced the extended onset time induced by diazoxide[to (13.3±1.8) min and (13.4±2.1) min, respectively]. CONCLUSION: IPC and CPC delay the onset of cellular uncoupling induced by acute ischemia in rat heart, and the underlying mechanism involves activation of the mitoKATP channels.

  5. Local and global synchronization transitions induced by time delays in small-world neuronal networks with chemical synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Du, Jiwei; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile

    2015-02-01

    Effects of time delay on the local and global synchronization in small-world neuronal networks with chemical synapses are investigated in this paper. Numerical results show that, for both excitatory and inhibitory coupling types, the information transmission delay can always induce synchronization transitions of spiking neurons in small-world networks. In particular, regions of in-phase and out-of-phase synchronization of connected neurons emerge intermittently as the synaptic delay increases. For excitatory coupling, all transitions to spiking synchronization occur approximately at integer multiples of the firing period of individual neurons; while for inhibitory coupling, these transitions appear at the odd multiples of the half of the firing period of neurons. More importantly, the local synchronization transition is more profound than the global synchronization transition, depending on the type of coupling synapse. For excitatory synapses, the local in-phase synchronization observed for some values of the delay also occur at a global scale; while for inhibitory ones, this synchronization, observed at the local scale, disappears at a global scale. Furthermore, the small-world structure can also affect the phase synchronization of neuronal networks. It is demonstrated that increasing the rewiring probability can always improve the global synchronization of neuronal activity, but has little effect on the local synchronization of neighboring neurons.

  6. Performance analysis of low-complexity adaptive frequency-domain equalization and MIMO signal processing for compensation of differential mode group delay in mode-division multiplexing communication systems using few-mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi; He, Xuan; Pan, Zhongqi

    2016-02-01

    Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) transmission systems utilizing few-mode fibers (FMF) have been intensively explored to sustain continuous traffic growth. The key challenges of MDM systems are inter-modal crosstalk due to random mode coupling (RMC), and largely-accumulated differential mode group delay (DMGD), whilst hinders mode-demultiplexer implementation. The adaptive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) frequency-domain equalization (FDE) can dynamically compensate DMGD using digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms. The frequency-domain least-mean squares (FD-LMS) algorithm has been universally adopted for high-speed MDM communications, mainly for its relatively low computational complexity. However, longer training sequence is appended for FD-LMS to achieve faster convergence, which incurs prohibitively higher system overhead and reduces overall throughput. In this paper, we propose a fast-convergent single-stage adaptive frequency-domain recursive least-squares (FD-RLS) algorithm with reduced complexity for DMGD compensation at MDM coherent receivers. The performance and complexity comparison of FD-RLS, with signal-PSD-dependent FD-LMS method and conventional FD-LMS approach, are performed in a 3000 km six-mode transmission system with 65 ps/km DMGD. We explore the convergence speed of three adaptive algorithms, including the normalized mean-square-error (NMSE) per fast Fourier transform (FFT) block at 14-30 dB OSNR. The fast convergence of FD-RLS is exploited at the expense of slightly-increased necessary tap numbers for MIMO equalizers, and it can partially save the overhead of training sequence. Furthermore, we demonstrate adaptive FD-RLS can also be used for chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation without increasing the filter tap length, thus prominently reducing the DSP implementation complexity for MDM systems.

  7. Inducing or suppressing chaos in a double-well Duffing oscillator by time delay feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Zhongkui [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnic University, Xi' an 710072 (China)] e-mail: sunzk205@mail.nwpu.edu.cn; Xu Wei [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnic University, Xi' an 710072 (China)] e-mail: weixu@nwpu.edu.cn; Yang Xiaoli [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnic University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Department of Mathematics, Shaan' xi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Fang Tong [Department of Applied Mechanics, Northwestern Polytechnic University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2006-02-01

    The chaotic behavior of a double-well Duffing oscillator with both delayed displacement and velocity feedbacks under a harmonic excitation is investigated. By means of the Melnikov technique, necessary condition for onset of chaos resulting from homoclinic bifurcation is derived analytically. The analytical results reveal that for negative feedback the presence of time delay lowers the threshold and enlarges the possible chaotic domain in parameter space; while for positive feedback the presence of time delay enhances the threshold and reduces the possible chaotic domain in parameter space, which are further verified numerically through Poincare maps of the original system. Furthermore, the effect of the control gain parameters on the chaotic motion of the original system is studied in detail.

  8. Detection of Special Nuclear Material from Delayed Neutron Emission Induced by a Dual-Particle Monoenergetic Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Michael F.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I

    2016-06-30

    Detection of unique signatures of special nuclear materials is critical for their interdiction in a variety of nuclear security and nonproliferation scenarios. We report on the observation of delayed neutrons from fission of uranium induced in dual-particle active interrogation based on the 11B(d,n gamma)12C nuclear reaction. Majority of the fissions are attributed to fast fission induced by the incident quasi-monoenergetic neutrons. A Li-doped glass–polymer composite scintillation neutron detector, which displays excellent neutron/γ discrimination at low energies, was used in the measurements, along with a recoil-based liquid scintillation detector. Time- dependent buildup and decay of delayed neutron emission from 238U were measured between the interrogating beam pulses and after the interrogating beam was turned off, respectively. Characteristic buildup and decay time profiles were compared to the common parametrization into six delayed neutron groups, finding a good agreement between the measurement and nuclear data. This method is promising for detecting fissile and fissionable materials in cargo scanning applications and can be readily integrated with transmission radiography using low-energy nuclear reaction sources.

  9. A DNA damage checkpoint in Caulobacter crescentus inhibits cell division through a direct interaction with FtsW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Joshua W; Hopkins, Alexander C; Laub, Michael T

    2011-06-15

    Following DNA damage, cells typically delay cell cycle progression and inhibit cell division until their chromosomes have been repaired. The bacterial checkpoint systems responsible for these DNA damage responses are incompletely understood. Here, we show that Caulobacter crescentus responds to DNA damage by coordinately inducing an SOS regulon and inhibiting the master regulator CtrA. Included in the SOS regulon is sidA (SOS-induced inhibitor of cell division A), a membrane protein of only 29 amino acids that helps to delay cell division following DNA damage, but is dispensable in undamaged cells. SidA is sufficient, when overproduced, to block cell division. However, unlike many other regulators of bacterial cell division, SidA does not directly disrupt the assembly or stability of the cytokinetic ring protein FtsZ, nor does it affect the recruitment of other components of the cell division machinery. Instead, we provide evidence that SidA inhibits division by binding directly to FtsW to prevent the final constriction of the cytokinetic ring.

  10. Premature ejaculation and serotonergic antidepressants-induced delayed ejaculation : the involvement of the serotonergic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, MD; Berendsen, HHG; Blok, BFM; Olivier, B; Holstege, G

    1998-01-01

    Premature ejaculation has generally been considered a psychosexual disorder with psychogenic aetiology. Although still mainly treated by behavioural therapy, in recent years double-blind studies have indicated the beneficial effects of some of the serotonergic antidepressants (SSRIs) in delaying eja

  11. Fragile X astrocytes induce developmental delays in dendrite maturation and synaptic protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doering Laurie C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited form of mental impairment characterized by cognitive impairment, attention deficit and autistic behaviours. The mouse model of Fragile X is used to study the underlying neurobiology associated with behavioral deficiencies. The effect of Fragile X glial cells on the development of neurons has not been studied. We used a co-culture technique in combination with morphometrics on immunostained neurons to investigate the role of astrocytes in the development delays associated with hippocampal neuron development. Results We found that hippocampal neurons grown on Fragile X astrocytes exhibited a significant difference from the neurons grown with normal astrocytes after 7 days in vitro for many parameters including increases in dendritic branching and in area of the cell body. However, after 21 days in culture, the neurons grown on Fragile X astrocytes exhibited morphological characteristics that did not differ significantly from the neurons grown on normal astrocytes. With antibodies to the pre-synaptic protein, synapsin, and to the excitatory post-synaptic protein, PSD-95, we quantified the number of developing excitatory synapses on the dendrites. In addition to the delays in dendritic patterning, the development of excitatory synapses was also delayed in the hippocampal neurons. Conclusions These experiments are the first to establish a role for astrocytes in the delayed growth characteristics and abnormal morphological features in dendrites and synapses that characterize the Fragile X syndrome.

  12. Notch signaling induces retinal stem-like properties in perinatal neural retina progenitors and promotes symmetric divisions in adult retinal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balenci, Laurent; van der Kooy, Derek

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the mechanisms regulating retinal stem cell (RSC) activity is fundamental for future stem cell-based therapeutic purposes. By combining gain and loss of function approaches, we addressed whether Notch signaling may play a selective role in retinal stem versus retinal progenitor cells in both developing and adult eyes. Inhibition of either Notch or fibroblast growth factor signaling reduced proliferation of retinal stem and retinal progenitor cells, and inhibited RSC self-renewal. Conversely, exogenous Delta-like 3 and direct intrinsic Notch activation stimulated expansionary symmetric divisions in adult RSCs with the concomitant upregulation of Hes5. Knocking down Hes5 expression specifically decreased the numbers, but not the diameters, of adult RSC primary spheres, indicating that HES5 is the downstream effector of Notch receptor in controlling adult RSC proliferation. In addition, constitutive Notch activation induced retinal stem-like asymmetric self-renewal properties, with no expansion (no symmetrical division) in perinatal neural retina progenitor cells. These findings highlight central roles of Notch signaling activity in regulating the modes of division of retinal stem and retinal progenitor cells.

  13. Radiologically determined orthodontically induced external apical root resorption in incisors after non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieu, Long D; Saltaji, Humam; Normando, David; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2014-07-23

    This study aims to critically evaluate orthodontically induced external apical root resorption (OIEARR) in incisors of patients undergoing non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion by a systematic review of the published data. An electronic search of two databases was performed; the bibliographies of relevant articles were also reviewed. Studies were included if they examined the amount of OIEARR in incisors produced during non-surgical orthodontic treatment of individuals with class II division I malocclusion in the permanent dentition. Individuals had no previous history of OIEARR, syndromes, pathologies, or general diseases. Study selections, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction were performed in duplicate. Eight studies of moderate methodological quality were finally included. An increased prevalence (65.6% to 98.1%) and mild to moderate severity of OIEARR (resorption was found. For the maxillary incisors, there was no evidence that either the central or lateral incisor was more susceptible to OIEARR. A weak to moderate positive correlation between treatment duration and root resorption, and anteroposterior apical displacement and root resorption was found. Current limited evidence suggests that non-surgical comprehensive orthodontic treatment to correct class II division 1 malocclusions causes increased prevalence and severity of OIEARR the more the incisor roots are displaced and the longer this movement takes.

  14. Role of TNF-α/TNFR1 in intense acute swimming-induced delayed onset muscle soreness in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Sergio M; Zarpelon, Ana C; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Cardoso, Renato D R; Martins-Pinge, Marli C; Tatakihara, Roberto I; Cunha, Thiago M; Ferreira, Sergio H; Cunha, Fernando Q; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2014-04-10

    The injection of cytokines such as TNF-α induces muscle pain. Herein, it was addressed the role of endogenous TNF-α/TNFR1 signaling in intense acute swimming-induced muscle mechanical hyperalgesia in mice. Mice were exposed to water during 30 s (sham) or to a single session of 30-120 min of swimming. Intense acute swimming induced a dose-dependent (time of exercise-dependent) muscle mechanical hyperalgesia, which peaked after 24 h presenting characteristics of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). The intense acute swimming (120 min)-induced muscle mechanical hyperalgesia was reduced in etanercept (soluble TNF receptor) treated and TNFR1 deficient ((-/-)) mice. TNF-α levels increased 2 and 4 h after intense acute swimming in soleus muscle (but not in gastrocnemius), and spinal cord, respectively. Exercise induced an increase of myeloperoxidase activity and decrease in reduced glutathione levels in an etanercept-sensitive and TNFR1-dependent manners in the soleus muscle, but not in the gastrocnemius muscle. Concluding, TNF-α/TNFR1 signaling mediates intense acute swimming-induced DOMS by an initial role in the soleus muscle followed by spinal cord, inducing muscle inflammatory hyperalgesia and oxidative stress. The knowledge of these mechanisms might contribute to improve the training of athletes, individuals with physical impairment and intense training such as military settings.

  15. Fighting Divisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-12-01

    when it hit the beaches of Morotai to open the drive that later led to the liberation of the Philippines, its Doughboys were alternately whistling...the Dixie Division sailed from Maffin Bay for the reconquest of Morotai , and on the 15th of the month hit the beaches of this Dutch island, less than...quickly secured a beachhead and by noon of D-day had seized Pitoe Airdrome. Morotai gave our forces control of the Halma- hera Sea and cut off 20,000

  16. Evaluation of therapeutically induced hypertension in patients with delayed cerebral vasospasm by xenon-enhanced computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touho, Hajime; Karasawa, Jun; Ohnishi, Hideyuki; Shishido, Hisashi; Yamada, Keisuke; Shibamoto, Keiji (Osaka Neurological Inst., Toyonaka (Japan))

    1992-08-01

    Serial cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurement were made with stable xenon-enhanced computed tomography in 20 patients with angiographically confirmed reputerd intracranial aneurysms, before and during induced hypertension with continuous infusion of dopamine. All patients showed angiogaphic vasospasm during their course. Twelve patients without symptomatic vasospasm (Group 1) had the lowest hemispheric CBF on the craniotomy side of 31.6[+-]6.8 ml/100 gm/min on days 4-9 (control value, 40.1[+-]2.0 ml/100 gm/min), while the other eight patients with symptomatic vasopsasm (Group 2) had the lowest hemispheric CBF on the craniotomy side of 25.0[+-]7.6 ml/100 gm/min on days 10-14. The critical hemispheric CBF inducing neurological deficits was about 20 ml/ 100 gm/min in Group 2. Dysautoregulation was usually present in Groups 1 and 2, but therapeutically induced hypertension could reverse the delayed neurological deficits, it begun early at the stage of delayed vasospasm. (author).

  17. Colorectal distention induces acute and delayed visceral hypersensitivity: role of peripheral corticotropin-releasing factor and interleukin-1 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozu, Tsukasa; Kumei, Shima; Miyagishi, Saori; Takakusaki, Kaoru; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2015-12-01

    Most studies evaluating visceral sensation measure visceromotor response (VMR) to colorectal distention (CRD). However, CRD itself induces visceral sensitization, and little is known about the detailed characteristics of this response. The present study tried to clarify this question. VMR was determined by measuring abdominal muscle contractions as a response to CRD in rats. The CRD set consisted of two isobaric distentions (60 mmHg for 10 min twice, with a 30-min rest), and the CRD set was performed on two separate days, i.e., days 1 and 3, 8. On day 1, VMR to the second CRD was increased as compared with that to the first CRD, which is the acute sensitization. VMR to the first CRD on day 3 returned to the same level as that to the first CRD on day 1, and total VMR, i.e., the whole response to the CRD set, was not different between day 1 and day 3. However, total VMR was significantly increased on day 8 as compared with that on day 1, suggesting CRD induced the delayed sensitization. Intraperitoneally administered astressin (200 µg/kg), a corticotropin-releasing factor receptor antagonist, at the end of the first CRD blocked the acute sensitization, but anakinra (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, did not modify it. Astressin (200 µg/kg, twice before CRD on day 8) did not alter the delayed sensitization, but anakinra (20 mg/kg, twice) abolished it. CRD induced both acute sensitization and delayed sensitization, which were mediated through peripheral corticotropin-releasing factor and interleukin-1 pathways, respectively.

  18. Relativistic features and time delay of laser-induced tunnel-ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Yakaboylu, Enderalp; Bauke, Heiko; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z; Keitel, Christoph H

    2013-01-01

    The electron dynamics in the classically forbidden region during relativistic tunnel-ionization process is investigated. The classical forbidden region in the relativistic regime is identified by defining a gauge invariant total energy operator. Introducing position dependent energy levels inside the tunneling barrier, we demonstrate that the relativistic tunnel-ionization can be well described by a one-dimensional intuitive picture. This picture predicts that, in contrast to the well-known nonrelativisitic regime, the ionized electron wave packet in the relativistic regime arises with a momentum shift along the laser propagation direction. This is compatible with results from a strong field approximation calculation where the binding potential is assumed to be zero-range. Further, the tunneling time delay, stemming from Wigner's definition, is investigated for model configurations of tunneling and compared with results obtained from the exact propagator. By adapting Wigner's time delay definition the tunneli...

  19. Noise-induced attractor annihilation in the delayed feedback logistic map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarchik, A.N., E-mail: apisarch@cio.mx [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Centre for Biomedical Technology, Technical University of Madrid, Campus Montegancedo, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcon, Madrid (Spain); Martínez-Zérega, B.E. [Centro Universitario de los Lagos, Universidad de Guadalajara, Enrique Diaz de Leon 1144, Paseos de la Montaña, Lagos de Moreno, Jalisco 47460 (Mexico)

    2013-12-06

    We study dynamics of the bistable logistic map with delayed feedback, under the influence of white Gaussian noise and periodic modulation applied to the variable. This system may serve as a model to describe population dynamics under finite resources in noisy environment with seasonal fluctuations. While a very small amount of noise has no effect on the global structure of the coexisting attractors in phase space, an intermediate noise totally eliminates one of the attractors. Slow periodic modulation enhances the attractor annihilation.

  20. Anti-apoptotic effect of morphine-induced delayed preconditioning on pulmonary artery endothelial cells with anoxia/reoxygenation injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Weng-ang; ZHOU Hua-cheng; CUI Xiao-guang; LI Wen-zhi; GUO Yue-ping; ZHANG Bing; LIU Wei

    2008-01-01

    Background Opioid preconditioning (PC) reduces anoxiaJreoxygenation (NR) injury to various cells. However, it remains unclear whether opioid-induced delayed PC would show anti-apoptotic effects on pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) suffering from A/R injury. The present study was conducted to elucidate this issue and to investigate the potential mechanism of opioid-induced delayed PC.Methods Cultured porcine PAECs underwent 16-hour anoxia followed by 1-hour reoxygenation 24 hours after pretreatment with saline (NaCI; 0.9%) or morphine (1 μmol/L). To determine the underlying mechanism, a non-selective KATP channel inhibitor glibenclamide (Glib; 10 μmol/L), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase blocker NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 μmol/L), and an opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (Nal; 10 pmol/L) were given 30 minutes before the A/R load. The percentage of apoptotic cells was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, eNOS mRNA level was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). NO content of PAECs supernatants was measured with the Griess reagent.Results Compared to the A/R PAECs, morphine-induced delayed PC significantly reduced PAECs apoptosis ((18.1±1.9)% vs (5.5±0.3)%; P <0.05), increased NO release ((11.4±1.3) μmol/L vs (20.5±2.1) μmol/L, P <0.05), and up-regulated eNOS gene expression nearly 9 times (P<0.05). The anti-apoptosis effect of morphine was abolished by pretreatment with Glib, L-NAME and Nal, but the three agent-selves did not aggravate the A/R injury. Furthermore, L-NAME and Nal offset the enhanced release of NO caused by pretreatment with morphine.Conclusions Morphine-induced delayed PC prevents A/R injury of PAECs. This effect may be mediated by activation of KATP channel via opioid receptor and NO signaling pathways.

  1. Emergent bimodality and switch induced by time delays and noises in a synthetic gene circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; Du, Liping; Xie, Qingshuang; Wang, Tonghuan; Zeng, Chunhua; Nie, Linru; Duan, Weilong; Jia, Zhenglin; Wang, Canjun

    2017-10-01

    Based on the kinetic model for obtaining emergent bistability proposed by Tan et al. (2009), the effects of the fluctuations of protein synthesis rate and maximum dilution rate, the cross-correlation between two noises, and the time delay and the strength of the feedback loop in the synthetic gene circuit have been investigated through theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. Our results show that: (i) the fluctuations of protein synthesis rate and maximum dilution rate enhance the emergent bimodality of the probability distribution phenomenon, while the cross-correlation between two noises(λ), the time delay(τ) and the strength of the feedback loop(K) cause it to disappear; and (ii) the mean first passage time(MFPT) as functions of the noise strengths exhibits a maximum, this maximum is called noise-delayed switching (NDS) of the high concentration state. The NDS phenomenon shows that the noise can modify the stability of a metastable system in a counterintuitive way, the system remains in the metastable state for a longer time compared to the deterministic case. And the τ and the K enhances the stability of the ON state. The physical mechanisms for the switch between the ON and OFF states can be explained from the point of view of the effective potential.

  2. Bifurcation analysis of delay-induced resonances of the El-Nino Southern Oscillation

    CERN Document Server

    Krauskopf, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Models of global climate phenomena of low to intermediate complexity are very useful for providing an understanding at a conceptual level. An important aspect of such models is the presence of a number of feedback loops that feature considerable delay times, usually due to the time it takes to transport energy (for example, in the form of hot/cold air or water) around the globe. In this paper we demonstrate how one can performed a bifurcation analysis of the behaviour of a periodically forced delay differential equation (DDE) in dependence on key parameters. As a concrete example we consider the El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which is a sea surface temperature oscillation on a multi-year scale in the basin of the Pacific Ocean. One can think of ENSO as being generated by an interplay between two feedback effects, one positive and one negative, which act only after some delay that is determined by the speed of transport of sea-surface temperature anomalies across the Pacific. We perform here a case study...

  3. Treating delayed endoscopic sphincterotomy-induced bleeding: Epinephrine injection with or without thermotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yung-Kuan Tsou; Cheng-Hui Lin; Nai-Jen Liu; Jui-Hsiang Tang; Kai-Feng Sung; Chi-Liang Cheng

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To compare the hemostatic efficacy between epinephrine injection alone and epinephrine injection combined with thermotherapy for delayed postendoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) bleeding. METHODS: Cases with delayed post-ES bleeding undergoing epinephrine injection alone (epinephrine injection group, n = 26) or epinephrine combined with thermotherapy (combination therapy group, n = 33) in our institution between 1999 and 2007 were retrospectively investigated. The main outcome measurements were: initial endoscopic hemostasis, rebleeding, complications, requirement of angiographic embolization or surgery, requirement for blood transfusion, and mortality. RESULTS: The initial hemostatic efficacy was 96.2% for epinephrine injection alone and 100% for combination therapy ( P = 0.44). There were four patients with re-bleeding in each group (16.0% vs 12.1%, P = 0.72). There was only one complication of pancreatitis from the combination therapy group. Three patients (11.5%) in the epinephrine injection group and one patient (3%) in the combination therapy group required angiographic embolization or surgery ( P = 0.31). The total number of blood transfusions was not significantly different between the two groups (3.5 ± 4.6 U vs 3.5 ± 4.5 U, P = 0.94). There was no bleeding-related death in either group. CONCLUSION: Epinephrine injection alone is as effective as epinephrine injection combined with thermotherapy for the management of delayed post- ES bleeding.

  4. Direct simulation of phase delay effects on induced-charge electro-osmosis under large ac electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Hideyuki

    2016-08-01

    The standard theory of induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) often overpredicts experimental values of ICEO velocities. Using a nonsteady direct multiphysics simulation technique based on the coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Stokes equations for an electrolyte around a conductive cylinder subject to an ac electric field, we find that a phase delay effect concerning an ion response provides a fundamental mechanism for electrokinetic suppression. A surprising aspect of our findings is that the phase delay effect occurs even at much lower frequencies (e.g., 50 Hz) than the generally believed charging frequency of an electric double layer (typically, 1 kHz) and it can decrease the electrokinetic velocities in one to several orders. In addition, we find that the phase delay effect may also cause a change in the electrokinetic flow directions (i.e., flow reversal) depending on the geometrical conditions. We believe that our findings move toward a more complete understanding of complex experimental nonlinear electrokinetic phenomena.

  5. Anisotropy modulations of femtosecond laser pulse induced periodic surface structures on silicon by adjusting double pulse delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Weina; Jiang, Lan; Li, Xiaowei; Wang, Qingsong; Li, Hao; Lu, YongFeng

    2014-06-30

    We demonstrate that the polarization-dependent anisotropy of the laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) on silicon can be adjusted by designing a femtosecond laser pulse train (800 nm, 50 fs, 1 kHz). By varying the pulse delay from 100 to 1600 fs within a double pulse train to reduce the deposited pulse energy, which weakens the directional surface plasmon polarition (SPP)-laser energy coupling based on the initial formed ripple structure, the polarization-dependent geometrical morphology of the LIPSS evolves from a nearly isotropic circular shape to a somewhat elongated elliptical shape. Meanwhile, the controllable anisotropy of the two-dimensional scanned-line widths with different directions is achieved based on a certain pulse delay combined with the scanning speed. This can effectively realize better control over large-area uniform LIPSS formation. As an example, we further show that the large-area LIPSS can be formed with different scanning times under different pulse delays.

  6. Power Efficient Division and Square Root Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    shows that division and square root units based on the digit-recurrence algorithm offer the best tradeoff delay-area-power. Moreover, the two operations can be combined in a single unit. Here, we present a radix-16 combined division and square root unit obtained by overlapping two radix-4 stages......Although division and square root are not frequent operations, most processors implement them in hardware to not compromise the overall performance. Two classes of algorithms implement division or square root: digit-recurrence and multiplicative (e.g., Newton-Raphson) algorithms. Previous work...

  7. Stochastic stability of networked control systems with network-induced delay and data dropout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomei ZHANG; Yufan ZHENG; Guoping LU

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the stochastic stability of networked control systems with the presence of networkinduced delay and transmitted data dropout.Based on the Lyapunov approach.safficient conditions for the mean-square stability of the networked control system are derived subiect that the sequence of transmission interval is driven by an identicaily independently distributed sequence and by a finite state Markov chain.respectively.Stabilization controllers are constructed in tcrims of linear matrix inequalities correspondingly.An example is provided to illustrate our results.

  8. Delay-induced periodic phenomenon in a diffusive regulated logistic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Kejun; Jia, Gao

    2016-01-01

    The diffusive logistic growth model with time delay and feedback control is considered. First, the well-posedness and permanence of solutions are discussed by using some comparison techniques. Then, the sufficient conditions for stability of nonnegative constant steady states are established, and the occurrence of Hopf bifurcation at positive steady state is performed. Next, the bifurcation properties are derived by computing the normal form on center manifold. Our results not only supplement but also generalized some existing ones. Finally, some numerical simulations show the feasibility of our theoretical analyses.

  9. Cell directional migration and oriented division on three-dimensional laser-induced periodic surface structures on polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Ohlin, Christian A; Lu, Qinghua; Hu, Jun

    2008-05-01

    The extracellular matrix in animal tissues usually provides a three-dimensional structural support to cells in addition to performing various other important functions. In the present study, wavy submicrometer laser-irradiated periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were produced on a smooth polystyrene film by polarized laser irradiation with a wavelength of 266 nm. Rat C6 glioma cells exhibited directional migration and oriented division on laser-irradiated polystyrene, which was parallel to the direction of LIPSS. However, rat C6 glioma cells on smooth polystyrene moved in a three-step invasion cycle, with faster migration speed than that on laser-irradiated polystyrene. In addition, focal adhesions examined by immunostaining focal adhesion kinase in human epithelial carcinoma HeLa cells were punctuated on smooth polystyrene, whereas dash-like on laser-irradiated polystyrene. We hypothesized that LIPSS on laser-irradiated polystyrene acted as an anisotropic and persistent mechanical stimulus to guide cell anisotropic spreading, migration and division through focal adhesions.

  10. Knockdown of Cs-Spook induces delayed larval molting in rice striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Muhammad Faisal; Li, Yao; Ge, Chang; Sun, Yang; Yang, Qiupu; Li, Fei

    2015-03-01

    Spook has essential roles in the biogenesis of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E). The function of spook in the rice striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis remains unclear, prompting our hypothesis that it exerts actions similar to those reported for other insect species. Here we amplified the full-length transcript of spook (Cs-Spook) in SSB by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Cs-Spook has conserved P450 motifs such as Helix-C, Helix-I, Helix-K, and PERF motif (PxxFxPxRF). It was highly expressed in late instar larvae but less so in newly molted larvae. Cs-Spook was highly expressed in prothoracic glands. Cs-Spook was knocked down by dsRNA treatments. Compared with controls, the gene expression level was reduced to 9% at 24 h post injection (PI), 33% at 48 h PI, and 24% at 72 h PI. The ecdysteroid titer decreased significantly in the dsRNA-treated group (P < 0.05), resulting in delayed larval development. The delayed development in dsRNA-treatment group was rescued by treating with 20-E. Our work demonstrates that Cs-Spook participates in the biogenesis of 20-E and regulates the molt of SSB, as seen in other species.

  11. Deficiency of inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthase results in diminished bone formation and delayed union and nonunion development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesters, D M; Neubert, S; Wijnands, K A P; Heyer, F L; Zeiter, S; Ito, K; Brink, P R G; Poeze, M

    2016-02-01

    Between 5% and 10% of all fractures fail to heal adequately resulting in nonunion of the fracture fragments. This can significantly decrease a patient's quality of life and create associated psychosocial and socio-economic problems. Nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthases (NOS) have been found to be involved in fracture healing, but until now it is not known if disturbances in these mechanisms play a role in nonunion and delayed union development. In this study, we explored the role of endothelial and inducible NOS deficiency in a delayed union model in mice. A 0.45mm femur osteotomy with periosteal cauterization followed by plate-screw osteosynthesis was performed in the left leg of 20-24week old wild type, Nos2(-/-) and Nos3(-/-) mice. Contralateral unfractured legs were used as a control. Callus volume was measured using micro-computed tomography (μCT) after 28 and 42days of fracture healing. Immuno histochemical myeloperoxidase (MPO) staining was performed on paraffin embedded sections to assess neutrophil influx in callus tissue and surrounding proximal and distal marrow cavities of the femur. After 7 and 28days of fracture healing, femurs were collected for amino acid and RNA analysis to study arginine-NO metabolism. With μCT, delayed union was observed in wild type animals, whereas in both Nos2(-/-) and Nos3(-/-) mice nonunion development was evident. Both knock-out strains also showed a significantly increased influx of MPO when compared with wild type mice. Concentrations of amino acids and expression of enzymes related to the arginine-NO metabolism were aberrant in NOS deficient mice when compared to contralateral control femurs and wild type samples. In the present study we show for the first time that the absence of nitric oxide synthases results in a disturbed arginine-NO metabolism and inadequate fracture healing with the transition of delayed union into a nonunion in mice after a femur osteotomy. Based on these data we suggest that the

  12. MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE RENAL FAILURE WITH DELAYED HYPERCALCEMIA SECONDARY TO SARCOCYSTIS NEURONA-INDUCED MYOSITIS AND RHABDOMYOLYSIS IN A CALIFORNIA SEA LION (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Amy B; Hanley, Christopher S; Duncan, Mary C; Ulmer, Kyle; Padilla, Luis R

    2015-09-01

    A 3-yr-old captive-born California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) developed Sarcocystis neurona-induced myositis and rhabdomyolysis that led to acute renal failure. The sea lion was successfully managed with fluid therapy, antiprotozoals, antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, antiemetics, gastroprotectants, and diuretics, but developed severe delayed hypercalcemia, a syndrome identified in humans after traumatic or exertion-induced rhabdomyolysis. Treatment with calcitonin was added to the management, and the individual recovered fully. The case emphasizes that animals with rhabdomyolysis-induced renal failure risk developing delayed hypercalcemia, which may be life threatening, and calcium levels should be closely monitored past the resolution of renal failure.

  13. Delayed ischemic electrocortical suppression during rapid repeated cerebral ischemia and kainate-induced seizures in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilie, Andrei; Spulber, Stefan; Avramescu, Sinziana;

    2006-01-01

    Global cerebral ischemia induces, within seconds, suppression of spontaneous electrocortical activity, partly due to alterations in synaptic transmission. In vitro studies have found that repeated brief hypoxic episodes prolong the persistence of synaptic transmission due to weakened adenosine re...

  14. Phenotypic plasticity and effects of selection on cell division symmetry in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttara N Lele

    Full Text Available Aging has been demonstrated in unicellular organisms and is presumably due to asymmetric distribution of damaged proteins and other components during cell division. Whether the asymmetry-induced aging is inevitable or an adaptive and adaptable response is debated. Although asymmetric division leads to aging and death of some cells, it increases the effective growth rate of the population as shown by theoretical and empirical studies. Mathematical models predict on the other hand, that if the cells divide symmetrically, cellular aging may be delayed or absent, growth rate will be reduced but growth yield will increase at optimum repair rates. Therefore in nutritionally dilute (oligotrophic environments, where growth yield may be more critical for survival, symmetric division may get selected. These predictions have not been empirically tested so far. We report here that Escherichia coli grown in oligotrophic environments had greater morphological and functional symmetry in cell division. Both phenotypic plasticity and genetic selection appeared to shape cell division time asymmetry but plasticity was lost on prolonged selection. Lineages selected on high nutrient concentration showed greater frequency of presumably old or dead cells. Further, there was a negative correlation between cell division time asymmetry and growth yield but there was no significant correlation between asymmetry and growth rate. The results suggest that cellular aging driven by asymmetric division may not be hardwired but shows substantial plasticity as well as evolvability in response to the nutritional environment.

  15. Robustness of Diversity Induced Synchronization Transition in a Delayed Small-World Neuronal Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jun; QU Li-Cheng; LUO Jin-Ming

    2011-01-01

    In a diverse and delayed small-world neuronal network, we have identified the oscillatory-like synchronization transition between anti-phase and complete synchronization [Phys. Rev. E 83(2011)046207]. Here we study the influence of the network topology and noise on the synchronization transition. The robustness of this transition is investigated. The results show that: (I) the synchronization transition is robust to the neuron number N in the network; (ii) only when the coupled neighbor number k is in the region [4,10], does the synchronization transition exist; (iii) to some extent, the synchronization is destroyed by noise and the oscillatory-like synchronization transition exists for relatively weak noise (D <0.003).%In a diverse and delayed small-world neuronal network,we have identified the oscillatory-like synchronization transition between anti-phase and complete synchronization [Phys.Rev.E 83 (2011) 046207].Here we study the influence of the network topology and noise on the synchronization transition.The robustness of this transition is investigated.The results show that:(i) the synchronization transition is robust to the neuron number N in the network;(ii) only when the coupled neighbor number k is in the region [4,10],does the synchronization transition exist;(iii) to some extent,the synchronization is destroyed by noise and the oscillatory-like synchronization transition exists for relatively weak noise (D <0.003).In the theoretical study of neuron systems,the synchronized behavior of a population of interacting neurons,namely,a neuronal network,is a hot issue due to its importance to the processing and transmission of information.[1] Many types of synchronization are identified in neuronal networks,such as complete synchronization,phase synchronization,anti-phase synchronization,phase-lock synchronization,cluster synchronization and lag synchronization.[2

  16. Sarin-induced brain damage in rats is attenuated by delayed administration of midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Shira; Yaakov, Guy; Egoz, Inbal; Rabinovitz, Ishai; Raveh, Lily; Kadar, Tamar; Gilat, Eran; Grauer, Ettie

    2015-07-01

    Sarin poisoned rats display a hyper-cholinergic activity including hypersalivation, tremors, seizures and death. Here we studied the time and dose effects of midazolam treatment following nerve agent exposure. Rats were exposed to sarin (1.2 LD50, 108 μg/kg, im), and treated 1 min later with TMB4 and atropine (TA 7.5 and 5 mg/kg, im, respectively). Midazolam was injected either at 1 min (1 mg/kg, im), or 1 h later (1 or 5 mg/kg i.m.). Cortical seizures were monitored by electrocorticogram (ECoG). At 5 weeks, rats were assessed in a water maze task, and then their brains were extracted for biochemical analysis and histological evaluation. Results revealed a time and dose dependent effects of midazolam treatment. Rats treated with TA only displayed acute signs of sarin intoxication, 29% died within 24h and the ECoG showed seizures for several hours. Animals that received midazolam within 1 min survived with only minor clinical signs but with no biochemical, behavioral, or histological sequel. Animals that lived to receive midazolam at 1h (87%) survived and the effects of the delayed administration were dose dependent. Midazolam 5 mg/kg significantly counteracted the acute signs of intoxication and the impaired behavioral performance, attenuated some of the inflammatory response with no effect on morphological damage. Midazolam 1mg/kg showed only a slight tendency to modulate the cognitive function. In addition, the delayed administration of both midazolam doses significantly attenuated ECoG compared to TA treatment only. These results suggest that following prolonged seizure, high dose midazolam is beneficial in counteracting adverse effects of sarin poisoning.

  17. Delay-Induced Triple-Zero Bifurcation in a Delayed Leslie-Type Predator-Prey Model with Additive Allee Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiao; Song, Yongli; Yu, Pei

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a Leslie-type predator-prey model with ratio-dependent functional response and Allee effect on prey is considered. We first study the existence of the multiple positive equilibria and their stability. Then we investigate the effect of delay on the distribution of the roots of characteristic equation and obtain the conditions for the occurrence of simple-zero, double-zero and triple-zero singularities. The formulations for calculating the normal form of the triple-zero bifurcation of the delay differential equations are derived. We show that, under certain conditions on the parameters, the system exhibits homoclinic orbit, heteroclinic orbit and periodic orbit.

  18. N-acylated peptides derived from human lactoferricin perturb organization of cardiolipin and phosphatidylethanolamine in cell membranes and induce defects in Escherichia coli cell division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Zweytick

    Full Text Available Two types of recently described antibacterial peptides derived from human lactoferricin, either nonacylated or N-acylated, were studied for their different interaction with membranes of Escherichia coli in vivo and in model systems. Electron microscopy revealed striking effects on the bacterial membrane as both peptide types induced formation of large membrane blebs. Electron and fluorescence microscopy, however demonstrated that only the N-acylated peptides partially induced the generation of oversized cells, which might reflect defects in cell-division. Further a different distribution of cardiolipin domains on the E. coli membrane was shown only in the presence of the N-acylated peptides. The lipid was distributed over the whole bacterial cell surface, whereas cardiolipin in untreated and nonacylated peptide-treated cells was mainly located at the septum and poles. Studies with bacterial membrane mimics, such as cardiolipin or phosphatidylethanolamine revealed that both types of peptides interacted with the negatively charged lipid cardiolipin. The nonacylated peptides however induced segregation of cardiolipin into peptide-enriched and peptide-poor lipid domains, while the N-acylated peptides promoted formation of many small heterogeneous domains. Only N-acylated peptides caused additional severe effects on the main phase transition of liposomes composed of pure phosphatidylethanolamine, while both peptide types inhibited the lamellar to hexagonal phase transition. Lipid mixtures of phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin revealed anionic clustering by all peptide types. However additional strong perturbation of the neutral lipids was only seen with the N-acylated peptides. Nuclear magnetic resonance demonstrated different conformational arrangement of the N-acylated peptide in anionic and zwitterionic micelles revealing possible mechanistic differences in their action on different membrane lipids. We hypothesized that both peptides kill

  19. N-acylated peptides derived from human lactoferricin perturb organization of cardiolipin and phosphatidylethanolamine in cell membranes and induce defects in Escherichia coli cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweytick, Dagmar; Japelj, Bostjan; Mileykovskaya, Eugenia; Zorko, Mateja; Dowhan, William; Blondelle, Sylvie E; Riedl, Sabrina; Jerala, Roman; Lohner, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Two types of recently described antibacterial peptides derived from human lactoferricin, either nonacylated or N-acylated, were studied for their different interaction with membranes of Escherichia coli in vivo and in model systems. Electron microscopy revealed striking effects on the bacterial membrane as both peptide types induced formation of large membrane blebs. Electron and fluorescence microscopy, however demonstrated that only the N-acylated peptides partially induced the generation of oversized cells, which might reflect defects in cell-division. Further a different distribution of cardiolipin domains on the E. coli membrane was shown only in the presence of the N-acylated peptides. The lipid was distributed over the whole bacterial cell surface, whereas cardiolipin in untreated and nonacylated peptide-treated cells was mainly located at the septum and poles. Studies with bacterial membrane mimics, such as cardiolipin or phosphatidylethanolamine revealed that both types of peptides interacted with the negatively charged lipid cardiolipin. The nonacylated peptides however induced segregation of cardiolipin into peptide-enriched and peptide-poor lipid domains, while the N-acylated peptides promoted formation of many small heterogeneous domains. Only N-acylated peptides caused additional severe effects on the main phase transition of liposomes composed of pure phosphatidylethanolamine, while both peptide types inhibited the lamellar to hexagonal phase transition. Lipid mixtures of phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin revealed anionic clustering by all peptide types. However additional strong perturbation of the neutral lipids was only seen with the N-acylated peptides. Nuclear magnetic resonance demonstrated different conformational arrangement of the N-acylated peptide in anionic and zwitterionic micelles revealing possible mechanistic differences in their action on different membrane lipids. We hypothesized that both peptides kill bacteria by

  20. Protein Phosphatase 2A Inhibition with LB100 Enhances Radiation-Induced Mitotic Catastrophe and Tumor Growth Delay in Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Ira K; Lu, Jie; Graves, Christian A; Huntoon, Kristin; Frerich, Jason M; Hanson, Ryan H; Wang, Xiaoping; Hong, Christopher S; Ho, Winson; Feldman, Michael J; Ikejiri, Barbara; Bisht, Kheem; Chen, Xiaoyuan S; Tandle, Anita; Yang, Chunzhang; Arscott, W Tristram; Ye, Donald; Heiss, John D; Lonser, Russell R; Camphausen, Kevin; Zhuang, Zhengping

    2015-07-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a tumor suppressor whose function is lost in many cancers. An emerging, though counterintuitive, therapeutic approach is inhibition of PP2A to drive damaged cells through the cell cycle, sensitizing them to radiotherapy. We investigated the effects of PP2A inhibition on U251 glioblastoma cells following radiation treatment in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model in vivo. Radiotherapy alone augmented PP2A activity, though this was significantly attenuated with combination LB100 treatment. LB100 treatment yielded a radiation dose enhancement factor of 1.45 and increased the rate of postradiation mitotic catastrophe at 72 and 96 hours. Glioblastoma cells treated with combination LB100 and radiotherapy maintained increased γ-H2AX expression at 24 hours, diminishing cellular repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Combination therapy significantly enhanced tumor growth delay and mouse survival and decreased p53 expression 3.68-fold, compared with radiotherapy alone. LB100 treatment effectively inhibited PP2A activity and enhanced U251 glioblastoma radiosensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Combination treatment with LB100 and radiation significantly delayed tumor growth, prolonging survival. The mechanism of radiosensitization appears to be related to increased mitotic catastrophe, decreased capacity for repair of DNA double-strand breaks, and diminished p53 DNA-damage response pathway activity.

  1. PERSONNEL DIVISION BECOMES HUMAN RESOURCES DIVISION

    CERN Document Server

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    In the years to come, CERN faces big challenges in the planning and use of human resources. At this moment, Personnel (PE) Division is being reorganised to prepare for new tasks and priorities. In order to accentuate the purposes of the operation, the name of the division has been changed into Human Resources (HR) Division, with effect from 1st January 2000. Human Resources DivisionTel.73222

  2. Rhinovirus infection induces cytotoxicity and delays wound healing in bronchial epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantopoulos Andreas G

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human rhinoviruses (RV, the most common triggers of acute asthma exacerbations, are considered not cytotoxic to the bronchial epithelium. Recent observations, however, have questioned this knowledge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of RV to induce epithelial cytotoxicity and affect epithelial repair in-vitro. Methods Monolayers of BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells, seeded at different densities were exposed to RV serotypes 1b, 5, 7, 9, 14, 16. Cytotoxicity was assessed chromatometrically. Epithelial monolayers were mechanically wounded, exposed or not to RV and the repopulation of the damaged area was assessed by image analysis. Finally epithelial cell proliferation was assessed by quantitation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA by flow cytometry. Results RV1b, RV5, RV7, RV14 and RV16 were able to induce considerable epithelial cytotoxicity, more pronounced in less dense cultures, in a cell-density and dose-dependent manner. RV9 was not cytotoxic. Furthermore, RV infection diminished the self-repair capacity of bronchial epithelial cells and reduced cell proliferation. Conclusion RV-induced epithelial cytotoxicity may become considerable in already compromised epithelium, such as in the case of asthma. The RV-induced impairment on epithelial proliferation and self-repair capacity may contribute to the development of airway remodeling.

  3. Effects of mouse genotype on bone wound healing and irradiation-induced delay of healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Julie; Mizuno, Shuichi; Kung, Jason; Goff, Julie; Epperly, Michael; Dixon, Tracy; Wang, Hong; Greenberger, Joel S

    2014-01-01

    We tested the effects of mouse genotype (C57BL/6NHsd, NOD/SCID, SAMR1, and SAMP6) and ionizing irradiation on bone wound healing. Unicortical wounds were made in the proximal tibiae, and the time course of spontaneous healing and effects of irradiation were monitored radiographically and histologically. There was reproducible healing beginning with intramedullary osteogenesis, subsequent bone resorption by osteoclasts, gradual bridging of the cortical wound, and re-population of medullary hematopoietic cells. The most rapid wound closure was noted in SAMR1 mice, followed by SAMP6, C57BL/6NHsd, and NOD/SCID. Ionizing irradiation (20 Gy) to the leg significantly delayed bone wound healing in mice of all four genotypes. Mice with genetically-determined predisposition to early osteopenia (SAMP6) or with immune deficiency (NOD/SCID) had impairments in bone wound healing. These mouse models should be valuable for determining the effects of irradiation on bone healing and also for the design and testing of novel bone growth-enhancing drugs and mitigators of ionizing irradiation.

  4. Delayed Gelatinase Inhibition Induces Reticulon 4 Receptor Expression in the Peri-Infarct Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardai, Sándor; Dobolyi, Arpád; Skopál, Judit; Lakatos, Kinga; Merkely, Béla; Nagy, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition can potentially prevent hemorrhagic transformation following cerebral infarction; however, delayed-phase MMP activity is also necessary for functional recovery after experimental stroke. We sought to identify potential mechanisms responsible for the impaired recovery associated with subacute MMP inhibition in a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model of focal ischemia in CD rats. Gelatinase inhibition was achieved by intracerebral injection of the Fn-439 MMP inhibitor 7 days after stroke. Treatment efficacy was determined on day 9 by in situ gelatin zymography. The peri-infarct cortex was identified by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining, and tissue samples were dissected for TaqMan array gene-expression study. Of 84 genes known to influence poststroke regeneration, we found upregulation of mRNA for the reticulon 4 receptor (Rtn4r), a major inhibitor of regenerative nerve growth in the adult CNS, and borderline expression changes for 3 additional genes (DCC, Jun, and Ngfr). Western blot confirmed increased Rtn4r protein in the peri-infarct cortex of treated animals, and double immunolabeling showed colocalization primarily with the S100 astrocyte marker. These data suggest that increased Rtn4 receptor expression in the perilesional cortex may contribute to the impaired regeneration associated with MMP inhibition in the subacute phase of cerebral infarction. © 2016 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Discretisation and control of polytopic systems with uncertain sampling rates and network-induced delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Márcio F.; Morais, Cecília F.; Tognetti, Eduardo S.; Oliveira, Ricardo C. L. F.; Peres, Pedro L. D.

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates the problems of uncertain sampling rate discretisation and the networked control of uncertain time-invariant continuous-time linear systems in polytopic domains. The sampling period is assumed to be unknown but belonging to a given interval. To avoid the difficulty of dealing with the exponential of uncertain matrices, a discrete-time model is obtained by applying a Taylor series expansion of degree ℓ to the original system. The resulting discrete-time model is composed of homogeneous polynomial matrices with parameters lying in the Cartesian product of simplexes, called a multi-simplex, plus an additive norm-bounded term representing the discretisation residual error. The original continuous-time system is controlled through a communication network that introduces a time delay in the process. Linear matrix inequality relaxations that include a scalar parameter search are proposed for the design of a digital robust state feedback controller that guarantees the closed-loop stability of the networked control system. Numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the versatility of the proposed method, which can be applied to a more general class of networked control problems than the existing approaches in the literature.

  6. Role of delayed gastric emptying in the pathogenesis of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1982-01-01

    Cysteamine is a potent duodenal ulcerogen in rats. It has been demonstrated to inhibit gastric empyting, whose role in ulcer formation is unknown. In the present study the effect of cysteamine on gastric motility and emptying rate in rats was studied by direct fluoroscopic observation. The delayed....... After 4 h this pool of undiluted gastric secretions gradually is emptied into the duodenum, where the mucosal resistance is reduced by inhibition of the secretory activity of Brunner's glands, and ulceration rapidly develops. The time relationship is supported by histopathologic findings...... and measurements of gastric acid secretions after cysteamine. Vagotomy augmented the inhibitory effect of cysteamine on gastric motility. The relaxation was even more pronounced, and contrast medium was not discharged from the stomach within 24 h. In these rats cysteamine induced ulcerations in the stomach....

  7. Inhibition of STAT3 activity delays obesity-induced thyroid carcinogenesis in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Won; Han, Cho Rong; Zhao, Li; Willingham, Mark C; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2016-01-01

    Compelling epidemiologic studies indicate that obesity is a risk factor for many human cancers, including thyroid cancer. In recent decades, the incidence of thyroid cancer has dramatically increased along with a marked rise in obesity prevalence. We previously demonstrated that a high fat diet (HFD) effectively induced the obese phenotype in a mouse model of thyroid cancer (Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice). Moreover, HFD activates the STAT3 signal pathway to promote more aggressive tumor phenotypes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of S3I-201, a specific inhibitor of STAT3 activity, on HFD-induced aggressive cancer progression in the mouse model of thyroid cancer. WT and Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice were treated with HFD together with S3I-201 or vehicle-only as controls. We assessed the effects of S3I-201 on HFD-induced thyroid cancer progression, the leptin-JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway, and key regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). S3I-201 effectively inhibited HFD-induced aberrant activation of STAT3 and its downstream targets to markedly inhibit thyroid tumor growth and to prolong survival. Decreased protein levels of cyclins D1 and B1, cyclin dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), CDK6, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein led to the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in S3I-201-treated Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice. Reduced occurrence of vascular invasion and blocking of anaplasia and lung metastasis in thyroid tumors of S3I-201-treated Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice were mediated via decreased expression of vimentin and matrix metalloproteinases, two key effectors of EMT. The present findings suggest that inhibition of the STAT3 activity would be a novel treatment strategy for obesity-induced thyroid cancer. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  8. Activation of mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway in tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate-induced delayed neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chaoshuang; Kou, Ruirui; Gao, Yuan; Xie, Keqin; Song, Fuyong

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that abnormal neurons death has been implicated in organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN). However, the precise mechanism of neuronal death in OPIDN remains largely unknown. In this study, adult hens were treated with a dosage of 750 mg/kg tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) by gavage, and then sacrificed on the time-points of 1, 5, 10, and 21 days after dosing TOCP, respectively. The apoptotic change of spinal cord neurons induced by TOCP was examined, and the role of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of neurons during OPIDN was investigated. TUNEL assays showed that apoptotic neurons in hen spinal cords began to appear on day 5 following TOCP exposure. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis revealed a translocation of cytochrome C from mitochondria to cytoplasm after dosing TOCP. Moreover, the level of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, Pro-caspase3 and Pro-caspase9 in hen spinal cord was significantly decreased, whereas that of Bax and cleaved-PARP was significantly elevated. Taken together, these findings indicate that the administration of TOCP can induce neuron apoptosis in hen spinal cords, which might be mediated by the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

  9. Leishmania tropica infection, in comparison to Leishmania major, induces lower delayed type hypersensitivity in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh-Niknam, Hamid; Kiaei, Simin Sadat; Iravani, Davood

    2007-06-01

    Leishmania tropica and L. major are etiologic agents of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) is an immunologic response that has been frequently used as a correlate for protection against or sensitization to leishmania antigen. In BALB/c mice, L. tropica infection results in non-ulcerating disease, whereas L. major infection results in destructive lesions. In order to clarify the immunologic mechanisms of these 2 different outcomes, we compared the ability of these 2 leishmania species in induction of DTH response in this murine model. BALB/c mice were infected with L. major or L. tropica, and disease evolution and DTH responses were determined. The results show that the primary L. major infection can exacerbate the secondary L. major infection and is associated with DTH response. Higher doses of the primary L. major infection result in more disease exacerbation of the secondary L. major infection as well as higher DTH response. L. tropica infection induces lower DTH responses than L. major. We have previously reported that the primary L. tropica infection induces partial protection against the secondary L. major infection in BALB/c mice. Induction of lower DTH response by L. tropica suggests that the protection induced against L. major by prior L. tropica infection may be due to suppression of DTH response.

  10. Epidurally administered mepivacaine delays recovery of train-of-four ratio from vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Mizutani, H; Ishikawa, K; Miyake, E; Saeki, S; Ogawa, S

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of epidurally administered mepivacaine on recovery from vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block. Eighty patients were randomly assigned to one of two study groups. They were either given epidurally a bolus of 0.15 ml kg(-1) of mepivacaine 2%, followed by repetitive injections of 0.1 ml kg(-1) h(-1) throughout the study, or were not given epidurally. General anaesthesia was induced and maintained with fentanyl, propofol and nitrous oxide. Neuromuscular block was induced with vecuronium 0.1 mg kg(-1) and monitored using acceleromyographic train-of-four (TOF) at the adductor pollicis. Patients in each treatment group were randomized to receive neostigmine 0.04 mg kg(-1) at 25% recovery of the first twitch of TOF or to recover spontaneously to a TOF ratio of 0.9. The effect of epidural mepivacaine on speed of spontaneous and facilitated recovery of neuromuscular function was evaluated. The time from administration of vecuronium to spontaneous recovery to a TOF ratio of 0.9 was significantly longer in the epidural mepivacaine group [105.4 (14.2) min] as compared with the control group [78.5 (9.1) min, P mepivacaine delays considerably the TOF recovery from neuromuscular block.

  11. Neutralization of interleukin-17A delays progression of silica-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in C57BL/6 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying; Li, Cuiying [Division of Pneumoconiosis, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Weng, Dong [Division of Pneumoconiosis, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Clinical Translational Research Center, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Song, Laiyu; Tang, Wen; Dai, Wujing; Yu, Ye; Liu, Fangwei; Zhao, Ming; Lu, Chunwei [Division of Pneumoconiosis, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Chen, Jie, E-mail: chenjie@mail.cmu.edu.cn [Division of Pneumoconiosis, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China)

    2014-02-15

    Silica exposure can cause lung inflammation and fibrosis, known as silicosis. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and Th17 cells play a pivotal role in controlling inflammatory diseases. However, the roles of IL-17A and Th17 cells in the progress of silica-induced inflammation and fibrosis are poorly understood. This study explored the effects of IL-17A on silica-induced inflammation and fibrosis. We used an anti-mouse IL-17A antibody to establish an IL-17A-neutralized mice model, and mice were exposed to silica to establish an experimental silicosis model. We showed that IL-17A neutralization delayed neutrophil accumulation and progression of silica-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis. IL-17A neutralization reduced the percentage of Th17 in CD4 + T cells, decreased IL-6 and IL-1β expression, and increased Tregs at an early phase of silica-induced inflammation. Neutralization of IL-17A delayed silica-induced Th1/Th2 immune and autoimmune responses. These results suggest that IL-17A neutralization alleviates early stage silica-induced lung inflammation and delays progression of silica-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis. Neutralization of IL-17A suppressed Th17 cell development by decreasing IL-6 and/or IL-1β and increased Tregs at an early phase of silica-induced inflammation. Neutralization of IL-17A also delayed the Th1/Th2 immune response during silica-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis. IL-17A may play a pivotal role in the early phase of silica-induced inflammation and may mediate the Th immune response to influence silica-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in mice. - Highlights: • Neutralization of IL-17A alleviated silica-induced lung inflammation of early stage. • Neutralization of IL-17A decreased Th17 cells and increased Tregs. • IL-17A mediated the reciprocal relationship of Th17/Tregs by IL-6 and/or IL-1β. • Neutralization of IL-17A delayed silica-induced Th1/Th2 immune response. • Neutralization of IL-17A delayed silica-induced lung

  12. Direct Yaw-Moment Control of All-Wheel-Independent-Drive Electric Vehicles with Network-Induced Delays through Parameter-Dependent Fuzzy SMC Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanke Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the robust direct yaw-moment control (DYC through parameter-dependent fuzzy sliding mode control (SMC approach for all-wheel-independent-drive electric vehicles (AWID-EVs subject to network-induced delays. AWID-EVs have obvious advantages in terms of DYC over the traditional centralized-drive vehicles. However it is one of the most principal issues for AWID-EVs to ensure the robustness of DYC. Furthermore, the network-induced delays would also reduce control performance of DYC and even deteriorate the EV system. To ensure robustness of DYC and deal with network-induced delays, a parameter-dependent fuzzy sliding mode control (FSMC method based on the real-time information of vehicle states and delays is proposed in this paper. The results of cosimulations with Simulink® and CarSim® demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller. Moreover, the results of comparison with a conventional FSMC controller illustrate the strength of explicitly dealing with network-induced delays.

  13. LPS-induced delayed preconditioning is mediated by Hsp90 and involves the heat shock response in mouse kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Kaucsár

    Full Text Available We and others demonstrated previously that preconditioning with endotoxin (LPS protected from a subsequent lethal LPS challenge or from renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI. LPS is effective in evoking the heat shock response, an ancient and essential cellular defense mechanism, which plays a role in resistance to, and recovery from diseases. Here, by using the pharmacological Hsp90 inhibitor novobiocin (NB, we investigated the role of Hsp90 and the heat shock response in LPS-induced delayed renal preconditioning.Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with preconditioning (P: 2 mg/kg, i.p. and subsequent lethal (L: 10 mg/kg, i.p. doses of LPS alone or in combination with NB (100 mg/kg, i.p.. Controls received saline (C or NB.Preconditioning LPS conferred protection from a subsequent lethal LPS treatment. Importantly, the protective effect of LPS preconditioning was completely abolished by a concomitant treatment with NB. LPS induced a marked heat shock protein increase as demonstrated by Western blots of Hsp70 and Hsp90. NB alone also stimulated Hsp70 and Hsp90 mRNA but not protein expression. However, Hsp70 and Hsp90 protein induction in LPS-treated mice was abolished by a concomitant NB treatment, demonstrating a NB-induced impairment of the heat shock response to LPS preconditioning.LPS-induced heat shock protein induction and tolerance to a subsequent lethal LPS treatment was prevented by the Hsp90 inhibitor, novobiocin. Our findings demonstrate a critical role of Hsp90 in LPS signaling, and a potential involvement of the heat shock response in LPS-induced preconditioning.

  14. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis of UV-A- and UV-B-induced delayed and early mutations in V79 Chinese hamster cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, Jostein; Noordhuis, Paul; Stokke, Trond; Svendsrud, Debbie Hege; Kvam, Egil

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that approximately 10% of V79 Chinese hamster fibroblast populations clonally derived from single cells immediately after irradiation with either ultraviolet B (UV-B, 290-320 nm, mainly 311 nm) or ultraviolet A (UV-A, 320-400 nm, mainly 350-390 nm) radiation exhibit genomic instability. The instability is revealed by relatively high mutation frequencies in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) gene up to 23 cell generations after irradiation. These delayed mutant clones exhibited higher levels of oxidative stress than normal cells. Therefore, persistently increased oxidative stress has been proposed as a mechanism for UV-induced genomic instability. This study investigates whether this mechanism is reflected in the deletion spectrum of delayed mutant clones. Eighty-eight percent of the delayed mutant clones derived from UV-A-irradiated populations were found to have total deletion of the hprt gene. Correspondingly, 81% of UV-A-induced early mutations (i.e. detected shortly after irradiation) also had total deletions. Among delayed UV-B-induced mutant clones, 23% had total deletions and 8% had deletion of one exon, whereas all early UV-B events were either point mutations or small deletions or insertions. In conclusion, the multiplex polymerase chain reaction deletion screen showed that there were explicit differences in the occurrence of large gene alterations between early and delayed mutations induced by UV-B radiation. For UV-A radiation the deletion spectra were similar for delayed and early mutations. UV-A radiation is, in contrast to UV-B radiation, only weakly absorbed by DNA and probably induces mutation almost solely via production of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, the present results support the hypothesis that persistent increase in oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of UV-induced genomic instability.

  15. Cyclic nucleotide responses and radiation-induced mitotic delay in Physarum polycephalum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, J.W.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1984-02-01

    The response of the plasmodial levels of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in Physarum polycephalum to several putative phosphodiesterase inhibitors and to ionizing radiation has been measured. Isobutylmethylxanthine (2 mM) induces a rapid transient threefold elevation of cyclic AMP alone, with maximum response in about 10 min and return to the base line in about 30 min. Theophylline (2 mM) induces a rapid, sustained twofold elevation of cyclic GMP only. Caffeine (2mM) and Ro-20-1724 (18 ..mu..M) both elicit a rapid transient rise in cyclic AMP, resembling the isobutylmethylxanthine response, and a slow transient elevation of the cyclic GMP level. Of particular interest is the rapid threefold transient elevation of the cyclic AMP, but not of the cyclic GMP, level by ..gamma.. radiation.

  16. Resveratrol-induced augmentation of telomerase activity delays senescence of endothelial progenitor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-bin; ZHU Li; HUANG Jun; YIN Yi-gang; KONG Xiang-qing; RONG Qi-fei; SHI Ai-wu; CAO Ke-jiang

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that resveratrol increases endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) numbers and functional activity.Increased EPC numbers and activity are associated with the inhibition of EPC senescence.In this study,we investigated the effect of resveratrol on the senescence of EPCs,leading to potentiation of cellular function.Methods EPCs were isolated from human peripheral blood and identified immunocytochemically.EPCs were incubated with resveratrol (1,10,and 50 μmol/L) or control for specified times.After in vitro cultivation,acidic β-galactosidase staining revealed the extent of senescence in the cells.To gain further insight into the underlying mechanism of the effect of resveratrol,we measured telomerase activity using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique.Furthermore,we measured the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and the phosphorylation of Akt by immunoblotting.Results Resveratrol dose-dependently inhibited the onset of EPC senescence in culture.Resveratrol also significantly increased telomerase activity.Interestingly,quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that resveratrol dose-dependently increased the expression of the catalytic subunit,hTERT,an effect that was significantly inhibited by pharmacological phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) blockers (wortmannin).The expression of hTERT is regulated by the PI3-K/Akt pathway; therefore,we examined the effect of resveratrol on Akt activity in EPCs.Immunoblotting analysis revealed that resveratrol led to dose-dependent phosphorylation and activation of Akt in EPCs.Conclusion Resveratrol delayed EPCs senescence in vitro,which may be dependent on telomerase activation.

  17. Delayed contrast enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in trastuzumab induced cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkpatrick Iain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trastuzumab (Herceptin, an antagonist to the human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2 receptor significantly decreases the rates of breast cancer recurrence and mortality by 50%. Despite therapeutic benefits, the risk of cardiotoxicity with trastuzumab ranges from 10–15% when administered sequentially following anthraycline chemotherapy. Little is known about the utility of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR in the assessment of trastuzumab mediated cardiomyopathy. Methods and results Between 2005–2006 inclusive, 160 breast cancer patients were identified at a single tertiary care oncology centre. Of the total population, 10 patients (mean age 40 ± 8 years were identified with trastuzumab induced cardiomyopathy, based on a LVEF less than 40% on serial MUGA or echocardiography. CMR was performed in all patients to determine LV volumes, systolic function and evidence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE. At the time of diagnosis of trastuzumab induced cardiomyopathy, the mean LVEF was 29 ± 4%. Subepicardial linear LGE was present in the lateral portion of the left ventricles in all 10 patients. Conclusion LGE-CMR is a novel way of detecting early changes in the myocardium due to trastuzumab induced cardiotoxicity.

  18. Delayed radiation-induced necrosis of the brain stem; A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukawa, Osamu; Kodama, Yasunori; Kyoda, Jun; Yuki, Kiyoshi; Taniguchi, Eiji; Katayama, Shoichi; Hiroi, Tadashi (National Kure Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)); Uozumi, Toru

    1993-03-01

    A 46-year-old man had surgery for a mixed glioma of the frontotemporal lobe. Postoperatively he received 50 Gy of irradiation. Sixteen months later he developed left hemiparesis and left facial palsy. MRI revealed lesion brain stem and basal ganglia. Despite chemotherapy and an additional 50 Gy dose, the patient deteriorated. Autopsy revealed a wide spread radiation-induced necrosis in the right cerebral hemisphere, midbrain and pons. In radiation therapy, great care must be taken to protect the normal brain tissue. (author).

  19. Myocellular enzyme leakage, polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation and delayed onset muscle soreness induced by isokinetic eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croisier, J L; Camus, G; Deby-Dupont, G; Bertrand, F; Lhermerout, C; Crielaard, J M; Juchmès-Ferir, A; Deby, C; Albert, A; Lamy, M

    1996-01-01

    To address the question of whether delayed onset muscular soreness (DOMS) following intense eccentric muscle contraction could be due to increased production of the arachidonic acid derived product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). 10 healthy male subjects were submitted to eccentric and concentric isokinetic exercises on a Kin Trex device at 60 degrees/s angular velocity. Exercise consisted of 8 stages of 5 maximal contractions of the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups of both legs separated by 1 min rest phases. There was an interval of at least 30 days between eccentric and concentric testing, and the order of the two exercise sessions was randomly assigned. The subjective presence and intensity of DOMS was evaluated using a visual analogue scale, immediately, following 24 h and 48 h after each test. Five blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein: at rest before exercise, immediately after, after 30 min recovery, 24 h and 48 h after the tests. The magnitude of the acute inflammatory response to exercise was assessed by measuring plasma levels of polymorphonuclear elastase ([EL]), myeloperoxidase ([MPO]) and PGE2 ([PGE2]). Using two way analysis of variance, it appeared that only eccentric exercise significantly increased [EL] and DOMS, especially of the hamstring muscles. Furthermore, a significant decrease in eccentric peak torque of this muscle group only was observed on day 2 after eccentric work (- 21%; P < 0.002). Serum activity of creatine kinase and serum concentration of myoglobin increased significantly 24 and 48 h after both exercise tests. However, these variables reached significantly higher values following eccentric contractions 48 h after exercise. Mean [PGE2] in the two exercise modes remained unchanged over time and were practically equal at each time point. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that the magnitude of polymorphonuclear (PMN) activation, muscle damage, and DOMS are greater after eccentric than after concentric muscle

  20. Determinantes del retraso de la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo Determinants of induced abortion delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Font-Ribera

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: El momento de la gestación en que se induce una interrupción voluntaria del embarazo (IVE determina el método, el riesgo de complicaciones y el coste económico de la intervención. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue describir los determinantes del retraso de la IVE hasta el segundo trimestre de gestación en Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio transversal de las IVE por motivos de salud física o mental de la mujer (Barcelona, 2004-2005; N=9.175. El registro de IVE de la ciudad proporcionó el tiempo de gestación (variable dependiente, el nivel de estudios, la edad, la convivencia en pareja, el número de hijos, IVE anteriores y tipo de centro. Se calcularon razones de prevalencia ajustadas (RPa mediante modelos de regresión log-binomial. Resultados: El 7,7% de las IVE fueron de segundo trimestre y el 99,3% se realizaron en centros privados. En comparación con las mujeres con estudios universitarios, las que tienen educación primaria o menos tienen una RPa de 1,8 (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 1,4-2,2 de IVE de segundo trimestre. También se registran más IVE de segundo trimestre en las menores de 18 años (RPa=2,6; IC95%: 2,0-3,4, las que no conviven en pareja (RPa=1,4; IC95%: 1,2-1,6 y en los centros públicos (RPa=2,8; IC95%: 2,2-3,7. No hay diferencias en el retraso de la IVE entre las mujeres que han tenido IVE anteriores y las que no. Conclusión: El retraso de la IVE hasta el segundo trimestre se asoció a niveles educativos más bajos, edades jóvenes, no convivencia en pareja y centros públicos, y se demuestra la existencia de desigualdades socioeconómicas en las condiciones de acceso a la IVE.Background: In induced abortion, the method, the risk of complications and the economic cost of the abortion are determined by gestational age. The aim of this study was to describe the determinants of induced abortion delay until the second trimester of pregnancy in Barcelona. Methods: We performed a cross

  1. Preventive Effects of a Chinese Herbal Formula, Shengjiang Xiexin Decoction, on Irinotecan-Induced Delayed-Onset Diarrhea in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan; Liu, Sida; Pan, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Irinotecan is a well-known chemotherapy drug for the treatment of various cancers. However, delayed-onset diarrhea is a common adverse reaction, limiting the application of the drug. The study presented was designed to evaluate the preventive effects of Shengjiang Xiexin decoction (SXD) on irinotecan-induced diarrhea and to explore the possible mechanisms of this action. We established a diarrhea rat model. The condition of the rats was observed. The proliferation and apoptosis of intestinal cells were measured using immunohistochemical assays and a caspase-3 activity assay, respectively. The expression of Lgr5 and CD44 staining were used to observe intestinal stem cells (ISCs). In addition, the activity of β-glucuronidase in the rats' feces was measured. Our results showed that the number of proliferating intestinal cells in the SXD groups was obviously higher, while the activity of caspase-3 was lower. The expression of Lgr5 and the integrated option density (IOD) of CD44 stain were increased significantly by SXD. Additionally, SXD decreased the activity of β-glucuronidase after irinotecan administration. In conclusion, SXD exhibited preventive effects on irinotecan-induced diarrhea, and this action was associated with an inhibitory effect on intestinal apoptosis and β-glucuronidase and a promotive effect on intestinal cell proliferation due to increased maintenance of ISCs. PMID:28167974

  2. Acute and delayed peripheral and central neuromuscular alterations induced by a short and intense downhill trail run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giandolini, M; Horvais, N; Rossi, J; Millet, G Y; Morin, J-B; Samozino, P

    2016-11-01

    Downhill sections are highly strenuous likely contributing to the development of neuromuscular fatigue in trail running. Our purpose was to investigate the consequences of an intense downhill trail run (DTR) on peripheral and central neuromuscular fatigue at knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors (PF). Twenty-three runners performed a 6.5-km DTR (1264-m altitude drop) as fast as possible. The electromyographic activity of vastus lateralis (VL) and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) was continuously recorded. Neuromuscular functions were assessed Pre-, Post-, and 2-day Post-DTR (Post2d). Maximal voluntary torques decreased Post (∼ -19% for KE, ∼ -25% for PF) and Post2d (∼ -9% for KE, ∼ -10% for PF). Both central and peripheral dysfunctions were observed. Decreased KE and PF voluntary activation (VA), evoked forces, VL M-wave amplitude, and KE low-frequency fatigue were observed at Post. Changes in VL M-wave amplitude were negatively correlated to VL activity during DTR. Changes in PF twitch force and VA were negatively correlated to GL activity during DTR. The acute KE VA deficit was about a third of that reported after ultramarathons, although peripheral alterations were similar. The prolonged force loss seems to be mainly associated to VA deficit likely induced by the delayed inflammatory response to DTR-induced ultrastructural muscle damage. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Inhibition of Plk1 and Cyclin B1 expression results in panobinostat-induced G₂ delay and mitotic defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prystowsky, Michael; Feeney, Katherine; Kawachi, Nicole; Montagna, Cristina; Willmott, Michelle; Wasson, Christopher; Antkowiak, Maciej; Loudig, Olivier; Parish, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    The development of clinically useful histone deacetylase inhibitors has expanded greatly. In a preclinical study, we showed that panobinostat (LBH589) inhibits cell cycle progression of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines at G₂/M and an associated decrease in expression of particular genes required for passage through G₂ and mitosis. In this study we sought to analyse the mechanistic underpinnings of panobinostat-induced growth arrest. HNSCC cell lines were synchronised and progression through mitosis monitored. We demonstrate that panobinostat causes a marked G₂ delay and mitotic defects. A loss of G₂-specific Plk1 and Cyclin B1 expression and co-incident increase in p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression is also shown. Furthermore, we show a significant loss of E2F1 recruitment to the promoters of these genes in response to panobinostat treatment. These data provide mechanistic evidence of panobinostat-induced cell cycle arrest and highlight its potential as a chemotherapeutic agent for HNSCC.

  4. Preventive Effects of a Chinese Herbal Formula, Shengjiang Xiexin Decoction, on Irinotecan-Induced Delayed-Onset Diarrhea in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Irinotecan is a well-known chemotherapy drug for the treatment of various cancers. However, delayed-onset diarrhea is a common adverse reaction, limiting the application of the drug. The study presented was designed to evaluate the preventive effects of Shengjiang Xiexin decoction (SXD on irinotecan-induced diarrhea and to explore the possible mechanisms of this action. We established a diarrhea rat model. The condition of the rats was observed. The proliferation and apoptosis of intestinal cells were measured using immunohistochemical assays and a caspase-3 activity assay, respectively. The expression of Lgr5 and CD44 staining were used to observe intestinal stem cells (ISCs. In addition, the activity of β-glucuronidase in the rats’ feces was measured. Our results showed that the number of proliferating intestinal cells in the SXD groups was obviously higher, while the activity of caspase-3 was lower. The expression of Lgr5 and the integrated option density (IOD of CD44 stain were increased significantly by SXD. Additionally, SXD decreased the activity of β-glucuronidase after irinotecan administration. In conclusion, SXD exhibited preventive effects on irinotecan-induced diarrhea, and this action was associated with an inhibitory effect on intestinal apoptosis and β-glucuronidase and a promotive effect on intestinal cell proliferation due to increased maintenance of ISCs.

  5. Ectopic Expression of Capsicum-Specific Cell Wall Protein Capsicum annuum Senescence-Delaying 1 (CaSD1) Delays Senescence and Induces Trichome Formation in Nicotiana benthamiana

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Eunyoung; Yeom, Seon-In; Jo, SungHwan; Jeong, Heejin; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Choi, Doil

    2012-01-01

    Secreted proteins are known to have multiple roles in plant development, metabolism, and stress response. In a previous study to understand the roles of secreted proteins, Capsicum annuum secreted proteins (CaS) were isolated by yeast secretion trap. Among the secreted proteins, we further characterized Capsicum annuum senescence-delaying 1 (CaSD1), a gene encoding a novel secreted protein that is present only in the genus Capsicum. The deduced CaSD1 contains multiple repeats of the amino aci...

  6. Blood Brain Barrier Dysfunction and Delayed Neurological Deficits in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Induced by Blast Shock Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K Shetty

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI resulting from exposure to blast shock waves (BSWs is one of the most predominant causes of illnesses among veterans who served in the recent Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Such mTBI can also happen to civilians if exposed to shock waves of bomb attacks by terrorists. While cognitive problems, memory dysfunction, depression, anxiety and diffuse white matter injury have been observed at both early and/or delayed time-points, an initial brain pathology resulting from exposure to BSWs appears to be the dysfunction or disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB. Studies in animal models suggest that exposure to relatively milder BSWs (123 kPa initially induces free radical generating enzymes in and around brain capillaries, which enhances oxidative stress resulting in loss of tight junction proteins, edema formation, and leakiness of BBB with disruption or loss of its components pericytes and astrocyte end-feet. On the other hand, exposure to more intense BSWs (145-323 kPa causes acute disruption of the BBB with vascular lesions in the brain. Both of these scenarios lead to apoptosis of endothelial and neural cells and neuroinflammation in and around capillaries, which may progress into chronic traumatic encephalopathy and/or a variety of neurological impairments, depending on brain regions that are afflicted with such lesions. This review discusses studies that examined alterations in the brain milieu causing dysfunction or disruption of the BBB and neuroinflammation following exposure to different intensities of BSWs. Furthermore, potential of early intervention strategies capable of easing oxidative stress, repairing the BBB or blocking inflammation for minimizing delayed neurological deficits resulting from exposure to BSWs is conferred.

  7. Immunization against Leishmania major infection using LACK- and IL-12-expressing Lactococcus lactis induces delay in footpad swelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Hugentobler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmania is a mammalian parasite affecting over 12 million individuals worldwide. Current treatments are expensive, cause severe side effects, and emerging drug resistance has been reported. Vaccination is the most cost-effective means to control infectious disease but currently there is no vaccine available against Leishmaniasis. Lactococcus lactis is a non-pathogenic, non-colonizing Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium commonly used in the dairy industry. Recently, L. lactis was used to express biologically active molecules including vaccine antigens and cytokines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the generation of L. lactis strains expressing the protective Leishmania antigen, LACK, in the cytoplasm, secreted or anchored to the bacterial cell wall. L. lactis was also engineered to secrete biologically active single chain mouse IL-12. Subcutaneous immunization with live L. lactis expressing LACK anchored to the cell wall and L. lactis secreting IL-12 significantly delayed footpad swelling in Leishmania major infected BALB/c mice. The delay in footpad swelling correlated with a significant reduction of parasite burden in immunized animals compared to control groups. Immunization with these two L. lactis strains induced antigen-specific multifunctional T(H1 CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells and a systemic LACK-specific T(H1 immune response. Further, protection in immunized animals correlated with a Leishmania-specific T(H1 immune response post-challenge. L. lactis secreting mouse IL-12 was essential for directing immune responses to LACK towards a protective T(H1 response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This report demonstrates the use of L. lactis as a live vaccine against L. major infection in BALB/c mice. The strains generated in this study provide the basis for the development of an inexpensive and safe vaccine against the human parasite Leishmania.

  8. Immunization against Leishmania major infection using LACK- and IL-12-expressing Lactococcus lactis induces delay in footpad swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugentobler, Felix; Yam, Karen K; Gillard, Joshua; Mahbuba, Raya; Olivier, Martin; Cousineau, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Leishmania is a mammalian parasite affecting over 12 million individuals worldwide. Current treatments are expensive, cause severe side effects, and emerging drug resistance has been reported. Vaccination is the most cost-effective means to control infectious disease but currently there is no vaccine available against Leishmaniasis. Lactococcus lactis is a non-pathogenic, non-colonizing Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium commonly used in the dairy industry. Recently, L. lactis was used to express biologically active molecules including vaccine antigens and cytokines. We report the generation of L. lactis strains expressing the protective Leishmania antigen, LACK, in the cytoplasm, secreted or anchored to the bacterial cell wall. L. lactis was also engineered to secrete biologically active single chain mouse IL-12. Subcutaneous immunization with live L. lactis expressing LACK anchored to the cell wall and L. lactis secreting IL-12 significantly delayed footpad swelling in Leishmania major infected BALB/c mice. The delay in footpad swelling correlated with a significant reduction of parasite burden in immunized animals compared to control groups. Immunization with these two L. lactis strains induced antigen-specific multifunctional T(H)1 CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and a systemic LACK-specific T(H)1 immune response. Further, protection in immunized animals correlated with a Leishmania-specific T(H)1 immune response post-challenge. L. lactis secreting mouse IL-12 was essential for directing immune responses to LACK towards a protective T(H)1 response. This report demonstrates the use of L. lactis as a live vaccine against L. major infection in BALB/c mice. The strains generated in this study provide the basis for the development of an inexpensive and safe vaccine against the human parasite Leishmania.

  9. Ultrafast single-shot imaging of laser-produced plasmas via spatial division and routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeola, Sarang; Kuk, Donghoon; Kim, Ki-Yong

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a single-shot imaging camera, which can capture ultrafast events occurring on femtosecond and picosecond time scales. The working principle of this camera relies on spatial division and routing of femtosecond laser pulses. Here we have employed simple optics such as mirrors to produce multiple, time-delayed laser pulses and to project time-evolving images onto separate standard cameras. This spatial division and routing method has been tested with a femtosecond amplified laser in visualizing the evolution of laser-induced ionization in air and ablation in solids in single-shots. The number of frames is currently limited to 4 but can be increased further to N x N by using 3D printed optics for spatial division and routing. Work supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under Award No. 1351455.

  10. Serotonin Transporter Promoter Region (5-HTTLPR) Polymorphism Is Not Associated With Paroxetine-Induced Ejaculation Delay in Dutch Men With Lifelong Premature Ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Paddy K C; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the association between the 5-HT-transporter-gene-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism and 20-mg paroxetine-induced ejaculation delay in men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study of 10 weeks of paroxetine trea

  11. Ultrastructural and biochemical aspects of liver mitochondria during recovery from ethanol-induced alterations. Experimental evidence of mitochondrial division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, O. R.; Roatta de Conti, L. L.; Bolaños, L. P.; Stoppani, A. O.

    1978-01-01

    To study the morphologic and biochemical changes occuring in liver mitochondria during recovery from ethanol-induced injury, rats fed a 6-month high-alcohol regimen plus a nutritionally adequate diet which did not induce fatty liver were compared with isocalorically fed controls. After this period the alcohol-fed animals displayed striking ultrastructural changes of liver mitochondria and a decreased respiratory activity with succinate or malate-glutamate as substrate. On the contrary, the respiratory rate with I-glycerophosphate was 50% increased. Regression changes were studied after alcohol was withdrawn from the diet. Enlarged mitochondria rapidly disappeared (in 24 hours), although a few megamitochondria were still present after 8 days of abstinence. A similar recovery was observed for the functional alterations. At the end of the experimental period, only a slight decrease of the maximal respiratory rate using malate-glutamate as a substrate was noted. The ultrastructural findings and the morphometric data suggest that the way in which mitochondrial normalization takes place is based on partition of these organelles. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 13 PMID:623205

  12. Inter-pulse delay optimization in dual-pulse laser induced breakdown vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of a steel sample in ambient gases at low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, X., E-mail: xi.jiang2@mail.dcu.ie [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); Hayden, P. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); Laasch, R. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitat Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Costello, J.T.; Kennedy, E.T. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland)

    2013-08-01

    Time-integrated spatially-resolved Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to investigate spectral emissions from laser-induced plasmas generated on steel targets. Instead of detecting spectral lines in the visible/near ultraviolet (UV), as investigated in conventional LIBS, this work explored the use of spectral lines emitted by ions in the shorter wavelength vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region. Single-pulse (SP) and dual-pulse LIBS (DP-LIBS) experiments were performed on standardized steel samples. In the case of the double-pulse scheme, two synchronized lasers were used, an ablation laser (200 mJ/15 ns), and a reheating laser (665 mJ/6 ns) in a collinear beam geometry. Spatially resolved and temporally integrated laser induced plasma VUV emission in the DP scheme and its dependence on inter-pulse delay time were studied. The VUV spectral line intensities were found to be enhanced in the DP mode and were significantly affected by the inter-pulse delay time. Additionally, the influence of ambient conditions was investigated by employing low pressure nitrogen, argon or helium as buffer gases in the ablation chamber. The results clearly demonstrate the existence of a sharp ubiquitous emission intensity peak at 100 ns and a wider peak, in the multi-microsecond range of inter-pulse time delay, dependent on the ambient gas conditions. - Highlights: • First dual-pulse and ambient gas deep VUV LIBS plasma emission study • Optimization of inter-pulse delay time for vacuum and ambient gas environments • A sharp intensity peak implies optimal inter-pulse delay of 100 ns for all conditions. • A broad peak appears in the microsecond delay range, but only in ambient gases. • Pressure dependence implies a different enhancement process.

  13. Delayed Treatment with Sodium Hydrosulfide Improves Regional Blood Flow and Alleviates Cecal Ligation and Puncture (CLP)-Induced Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Akbar; Druzhyna, Nadiya; Szabo, Csaba

    2016-08-01

    Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis is a serious medical condition, caused by a severe systemic infection resulting in a systemic inflammatory response. Recent studies have suggested the therapeutic potential of donors of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel endogenous gasotransmitter and biological mediator in various diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of H2S supplementation in sepsis, with special reference to its effect on the modulation of regional blood flow. We infused sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a compound that produces H2S in aqueous solution (1, 3, or 10 mg/kg/h, for 1 h at each dose level) in control rats or rats 24 h after CLP, and measured blood flow using fluorescent microspheres. In normal control animals, NaHS induced a characteristic redistribution of blood flow, and reduced cardiac, hepatic, and renal blood flow in a dose-dependent fashion. In contrast, in rats subjected to CLP, cardiac, hepatic, and renal blood flow was significantly reduced; infusion of NaHS (1 mg/kg/h and 3 mg/kg/h) significantly increased organ blood flow. In other words, the effect of H2S on regional blood flow is dependent on the status of the animals (i.e., a decrease in blood flow in normal controls, but an increase in blood flow in CLP). We have also evaluated the effect of delayed treatment with NaHS on organ dysfunction and the inflammatory response by treating the animals with NaHS (3 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) at 24 h after the start of the CLP procedure; plasma levels of various cytokines and tissue indicators of inflammatory cell infiltration and oxidative stress were measured 6 h later. After 24 h of CLP, glomerular function was significantly impaired, as evidenced by markedly increased (over 4-fold over baseline) blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels; this increase was also significantly reduced by treatment with NaHS. NaHS also attenuated the CLP-induced increases in malondialdehyde levels (an index of

  14. Hyperlipidemia induced by high-fat diet enhances dentin formation and delays dentin mineralization in mouse incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Zhang, Jin; Yang, Pishan

    2016-10-01

    Dyslipidemia has become a serious health problem in children and adolescents worldwide for its high prevalence. Since hard tissues of permanent teeth form mainly during this period and lipids are actively involved in tooth development, the effects of hyperlipidemia on dental tissue formation and mineralization need to be illustrated. In this study, hyperlipidemia model was established in mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Micro-CT and histomorphological analyses were performed on the mandibular bones to assess the morphological changes of the mandibular incisor and first molar. After 4 weeks of HFD feeding, mice had significantly elevated serum lipid levels compared with mice fed with control diet. After 8 weeks, the mandibular incisor presented significantly increased dentin thickness and decreased diameter of pulp cavity in HFD-fed mice compared with control diet-fed mice, while its gross morphology and enamel thickness were not altered. In the mandibular first molar, dentin thickness of root did not show difference between the two groups. Histological section showed that mandibular incisor of HFD-fed mice manifested a wider predentin region and a lower mineral apposition rate compared with that of the control mice. In conclusion, hyperlipidemia induced by HFD feeding enhances dentin formation and delays dentin mineralization in the developing mouse incisor.

  15. The novel dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) derivative BNN27 counteracts delay-dependent and scopolamine-induced recognition memory deficits in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsikas, Nikolaos; Gravanis, Achille

    2017-04-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the neurosteroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) are involved in cognition. BNN27 is a novel 17C spiroepoxy-DHEA derivative, which devoid of steroidogenic activity. The neuroprotective effects of BNN27 have been recently reported. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of BNN27 on recognition memory in rats. For this purpose, the novel object task (NOT), a procedure assessing non-spatial recognition memory and the novel location task (NLT), a procedure evaluating spatial recognition memory were used. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of BNN27 (3 and 10mg/kg) antagonized delay-dependent deficits in the NOT in the normal rat, suggesting that this DHEA derivative affected acquisition, storage and retrieval of information. In addition, BNN27 (3 and 10mg/kg, i.p.) counteracted the scopolamine [0.2mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.)]-induced non-spatial and spatial recognition memory deficits. These findings suggest that BNN27 may modulate different aspects of recognition memory, potentially interacting with the cholinergic system, relevant to cognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Flexion Relaxation Ratio Not Responsive to Acutely Induced Low Back Pain from a Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Maggie E.; Bishop, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The flexion relaxation ratio (FRR) has been suggested as a measure of muscular performance in patients with low back pain (LBP). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the FRR was responsive to acute LBP produced from a delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) protocol. Methods. Fifty-one pain-free volunteers performed DOMS to induce LBP. Current pain intensity, trunk flexion range of motion (ROM), and passive straight leg raise (SLR) were measured at baseline, 24 and 48 hours after DOMS. Participants were categorized into pain groups based on reported current pain intensity. Changes in FRR, trunk flexion ROM, and SLR ROM were examined using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. Results. Pain group was not found to have a significant effect on FRR (F1,29 = 0.054, P = 0.818), nor were there any two-way interactions for changes in FRR. The pain group had decreased trunk flexion ROM compared to the minimal pain group (F1,38 = 7.21, P = 0.011), but no decreases in SLR ROM (F1,38 = 3.51, P = 0.057) over time. Interpretation. There were no differences in FRR based on reported pain intensity of LBP from a DOMS protocol. The responsiveness of FRR might be limited in patients with acute onset LBP of muscular origin. PMID:27335879

  17. Effects of dietary carbohydrate on delayed onset muscle soreness and reactive oxygen species after contraction induced muscle damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, G; Ashton, T; Cable, T; Doran, D; Noyes, C; McArdle, F; MacLaren, D

    2005-01-01

    Background: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) occurs after unaccustomed exercise and has been suggested to be attributable to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previous studies have shown increased ROS after lengthening contractions, attributable to invading phagocytes. Plasma glucose is a vital fuel for phagocytes, therefore carbohydrate (CHO) status before exercise may influence ROS production and DOMS Objective: To examine the effect of pre-exercise CHO status on DOMS, ROS production, and muscle function after contraction induced muscle damage. Method: Twelve subjects performed two downhill runs, one after a high CHO diet and one after a low CHO diet. Blood samples were drawn for analysis of malondialdehyde, total glutathione, creatine kinase, non-esterified fatty acids, lactate, glucose, and leucocytes. DOMS and muscle function were assessed daily. Results: The high CHO diet resulted in higher respiratory exchange ratio and lactate concentrations than the low CHO diet before exercise. The low CHO diet resulted in higher non-esterified fatty acid concentrations before exercise. DOMS developed after exercise and remained for up to 96 hours, after both diets. A biphasic response in creatine kinase occurred after both diets at 24 and 96 hours after exercise. Malondialdehyde had increased 72 hours after exercise after both diets, and muscle function was attenuated up to this time. Conclusions: Downhill running resulted in increased ROS production and ratings of DOMS and secondary increases in muscle damage. CHO status before exercise had no effect. PMID:16306505

  18. In vitro and in vivo effects of ferulic acid on gastrointestinal motility: Inhibition of cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osama A Badary; Azza S Awad; Mohey A Sherief; Farid MA Hamada

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of ferulic acid on gastrointestinal motility both in vitro and in vivo.METHODS: Ferulic acid induced concentrationdependent stimulation of the basal tone of isolated guinea pig ileum (2-20 μmol/L) and isolated rat fundus (0.05-0.4 mmol/L).RESULTS: Ferulic acid significantly accelerated the gastrointestinal transit and gastric emptying in rats in a dose-dependent manner (50-200 mg/kg, po). Cisplatin (2.5-20 mg/kg, ip) induced a dose-dependent delay in gastric emptying in rats. Pretreatment with ferulic acid dose-dependently, significantly reversed the cisplatininduced delay in gastric emptying.CONCLUSION: The endogenous prostaglandins (PGs)are involved in mediating the stimulant effects of ferulic acid. This effect of dietary ferulic acid may help improve other accompanying gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal discomfort and also may protect against emesis induced by cytotoxic drugs.

  19. The cytological changes of tobacco zygote and proembryo cells induced by beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent suggest the involvement of arabinogalactan proteins in cell division and cell plate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Zhao, Jie

    2012-08-01

    beta-GlcY. Furthermore, FM4-64 staining revealed that endosomes were distributed in the cell plates of proembryos, and the localization pattern was also affected by beta-GlcY treatment. These results were further confirmed by subsequent observation with transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the changes to proembryo cell-organelles induced by beta-GlcY reagent were also observed using fluorescent dye staining technique. These results imply that AGPs may not only relate to cell plate position decision, but also to the location of new cell wall components. Correlated with other factors, AGPs further influence the zygotic division and proembryo pattern establishment in tobacco.

  20. A safety evaluation of profound hypothermia-induced suspended animation for delayed resuscitation at 90 or 120 min.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Li, Shu; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Jian; Han, Jin-Song; Zhang, Yong; Yin, Zong-Tao; Wang, Hui-Shan

    2017-01-01

    The successful treatment of military combat casualties with penetrating injuries is significantly dependent on the time needed to get the patient to an adequate treatment facility. Profound hypothermia-induced suspended animation for delayed resuscitation (SADR) is a novel approach for inducing cardiac arrest and buying additional time for such injuries. However, the time used to safely administer circulatory arrest (CA) is controversial. The goal of this study was to evaluate the safety of hypothermia-induced SADR over 90 and 120 min time intervals. Sixteen male BAMA minipigs were randomized into two groups: CA90 group (90 min, n = 8) and CA120 group (120 min, n = 8). Cannulation of the right common carotid arteries and internal jugular veins was performed to establish cardiopulmonary bypass for each animal. Through the perfusion of cold organ preservation solution (OPS), cardioplegia and profound hypothermia (15 °C) were induced. After CA, cardiopumonary bypass (CPB) was restarted, and the animals were gradually re-warmed and resuscitated. The animals were assisted with ventilators until spontaneous breathing was achieved. The index of hemodynamic perioperative serum chemistry values [alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine (CR), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and troponin T (TnT)] and survival were observed from pre-operation to 7 days post-operation. Fifteen animals were enrolled in the experiment, while 1 animal in CA120 group died from surgical error. All 8 animals in CA90 group recovered, with only 1 animal displaying mild disability. However, in CA120 group, only 2 animals survived with severe disability, and the other 5 animals died after 2 days post-operation. In CA90 group, the perioperative serum chemistry values increased at 1 day post-operation (ALT 84.43 ± 18.65 U/L; AST 88.99 ± 23.19 U/L; Cr 87.90 ± 24.49 μmol/L; LDH 1894.13 ± 322.26 U/L; TnT 0.849 ± 0.135 ng/ml) but decreased to normal

  1. Involvement of ethylene and gibberellin signalings in chromosaponin I-induced cell division and cell elongation in the roots of Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A; Tsurumi, S; Amakawa, T; Soga, K; Hoson, T; Goto, N; Kamisaka, S

    2000-01-01

    Chromosaponin I (CSI), a triterpenoid saponin isolated from pea, stimulates the growth of roots in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings on wetted filter paper in the light for 14 d. The growth rates of roots in Columbia (Col) and Landsberg erecta (Ler) wild-types were 0.92 and 0.26 mm d(-1), respectively, and they were accelerated to 3.46 (Col) and 2.20 (Ler) mm d(-1) by treating with 300 microM CSI. The length of mature epidermal cells was increased by 1.8-fold (Col) and 2.81-fold (Ler) compared with control and the number of epidermal cells was increased by a factor of 1.65 (Col) and 2.12 (Ler). Treatment with 2-aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, also increased cell length but not cell number. The effects of CSI on root growth were not detected in the ethylene-insensitive mutant ein2-1. CSI did not inhibit ethylene production but stimulated the growth of roots in ctr1-1, the constitutive triple response mutant for ethylene, indicating that CSI inhibits ethylene signaling, especially downstream of CTR1. In the GA-insensitive mutant gai and the mutant spy-3, in which the basal level of GA signaling is activated, CSI did not increase cell number, although both CSI and AVG stimulated cell elongation in these mutants. These results suggest that the inhibition of ethylene signaling is the cause of CSI-induced cell elongation. A possible involvement of both GA and ethylene signalings is discussed for the CSI-induced cell division.

  2. CT examination, clinical situation and experimental characteristics of infants with intracranial hemorrhage induced by delayed vitamin K deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiqing Lin; Feng Fang; Min Chen; Guoxiang Cai

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delayed vitamin K deficiency is characterized by acute onset, severe illness and high fatality rate. 33%-50% survivors accompany with other various nervous system sequelas. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment of intracranial hemorrhage in time become a key factor for improving healing rate and reducing fatality rate and incidence of sequela.OBJECTTVE: To investigate the clinical situation, experimental characteristics, CT examination and terminative characteristics of infants with intracranial hemorrhage induced by delayed vitamin K deficiency.DESIGN: Case analysis.SETTING: Department of Pediatrics, Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Xiamen University.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 17 infants with intracranial hemorrhage induced by delayed vitamin K deficiency aged 1-3 months including 11 boys and 6 girls were selected from Department of Pediatrics, Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Xiamen University from January 1994 to December 2005. All infants had drowsiness,rejective milk, spiting milk, gaze of both eyes, tic, coma, full anterior fontanelle, high muscular tension and cerebral hernia, etc. Experimental examination demonstrated that infants had anemia at various degrees;prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time were prolonged; platelet count was normal. CT examination indicated that screenages of subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, cerebral parenchyma hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrage were changed. Hemorrhage was stopped by the application of vitamin K. All patients provided informed consent.METHODS: ① Clinical situation and physical sign of infants were observed after hospitalization and scanned with rapid spiral CT scanning system. The thickness and average space of layers were 8-10 mm and the scanning time was 5 s with window width of 30-80 Hu and window position of 28-35 Hu. ② After hospitalization, four items of blood coagulation was measured with Futura meter and biochemical indexes of blood, such as serum calcium, serum

  3. Adaptation to alkalosis induces cell cycle delay and apoptosis in cortical collecting duct cells: role of Aquaporin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivarola, Valeria; Flamenco, Pilar; Melamud, Luciana; Galizia, Luciano; Ford, Paula; Capurro, Claudia

    2010-08-01

    Collecting ducts (CD) not only constitute the final site for regulating urine concentration by increasing apical membrane Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) expression, but are also essential for the control of acid-base status. The aim of this work was to examine, in renal cells, the effects of chronic alkalosis on cell growth/death as well as to define whether AQP2 expression plays any role during this adaptation. Two CD cell lines were used: WT- (not expressing AQPs) and AQP2-RCCD(1) (expressing apical AQP2). Our results showed that AQP2 expression per se accelerates cell proliferation by an increase in cell cycle progression. Chronic alkalosis induced, in both cells lines, a time-dependent reduction in cell growth. Even more, cell cycle movement, assessed by 5-bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase and propidium iodide analyses, revealed a G2/M phase cell accumulation associated with longer S- and G2/M-transit times. This G2/M arrest is paralleled with changes consistent with apoptosis. All these effects appeared 24 h before and were always more pronounced in cells expressing AQP2. Moreover, in AQP2-expressing cells, part of the observed alkalosis cell growth decrease is explained by AQP2 protein down-regulation. We conclude that in CD cells alkalosis causes a reduction in cell growth by cell cycle delay that triggers apoptosis as an adaptive reaction to this environment stress. Since cell volume changes are prerequisite for the initiation of cell proliferation or apoptosis, we propose that AQP2 expression facilitates cell swelling or shrinkage leading to the activation of channels necessary to the control of these processes.

  4. The role of ERK-1/2 in the N/OFQ-induced inhibition of delayed rectifier potassium currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei [Laboratory of Neural Electrophysiology, Department of Physiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China); Cui, Qingbo [Department of Pediatric Surgery, The 2nd Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China); Li, Yurong [Laboratory of Neural Electrophysiology, Department of Physiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China); Li, Baoxin [Institute of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China); Yang, Xu; Cui, Lanwei; Jin, Hongbo [Laboratory of Neural Electrophysiology, Department of Physiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China); Qu, Lihui, E-mail: lihui_qu@yahoo.com.cn [Laboratory of Neural Electrophysiology, Department of Physiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China)

    2010-04-16

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is an endogenous opioid-like heptadecapeptide involved in many neurocognitive functions, including learning and memory. Our previous report showed that N/OFQ inhibits the delayed rectifier potassium current (I{sub K}), and this effect is associated with protein kinase C (PKC) activation. Therefore, we wanted to determine if extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2) signaling is regulated by N/OFQ and associated with the effect of N/OFQ on the I{sub K}. In the current study, we tested if N/OFQ and two PKC activators [phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) and ingenol 3,20-dibenzoate (IDB)] affected the phosphorylation level of ERK-1/2 and its nuclear substrate, ETS-like transcription factor-1 (Elk-1), using western blots. In addition, we tested if ERK-1/2 affected the N/OFQ-induced inhibition of the I{sub K} by using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in acutely dissociated rat parietal cortical neurons. We found that N/OFQ, PDBu, and IDB increased the amount of phosphorylated ERK-1/2 and Elk-1; U0126, a specific inhibitor for ERK-1/2, attenuated the inhibitory effect of N/OFQ on the I{sub K}. These data suggest that the ERK-1/2 pathway, at least in part, mediates the inhibitory effect of N/OFQ on the I{sub K} in acutely dissociated rat cerebral parietal cortical neurons.

  5. The role of ERK-1/2 in the N/OFQ-induced inhibition of delayed rectifier potassium currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Cui, Qingbo; Li, Yurong; Li, Baoxin; Yang, Xu; Cui, Lanwei; Jin, Hongbo; Qu, Lihui

    2010-04-16

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is an endogenous opioid-like heptadecapeptide involved in many neurocognitive functions, including learning and memory. Our previous report showed that N/OFQ inhibits the delayed rectifier potassium current (I(K)), and this effect is associated with protein kinase C (PKC) activation. Therefore, we wanted to determine if extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2) signaling is regulated by N/OFQ and associated with the effect of N/OFQ on the I(K). In the current study, we tested if N/OFQ and two PKC activators [phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) and ingenol 3,20-dibenzoate (IDB)] affected the phosphorylation level of ERK-1/2 and its nuclear substrate, ETS-like transcription factor-1 (Elk-1), using western blots. In addition, we tested if ERK-1/2 affected the N/OFQ-induced inhibition of the I(K) by using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in acutely dissociated rat parietal cortical neurons. We found that N/OFQ, PDBu, and IDB increased the amount of phosphorylated ERK-1/2 and Elk-1; U0126, a specific inhibitor for ERK-1/2, attenuated the inhibitory effect of N/OFQ on the I(K). These data suggest that the ERK-1/2 pathway, at least in part, mediates the inhibitory effect of N/OFQ on the I(K) in acutely dissociated rat cerebral parietal cortical neurons.

  6. Measurements of periods, relative abundances and absolute yields of delayed neutrons from fast neutron induced fission of {sup 237}Np

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piksaikine, V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The experimental method for measurements of the delayed neutron yields and period is presented. The preliminary results of the total yield, relative abundances and periods are shown comparing with the previously reported values. (J.P.N.)

  7. Measurements of periods, relative abundances and absolute yields of delayed neutrons from fast neutron induced fission of {sup 237}Np

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piksaikine, V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The experimental method for measurements of the delayed neutron yields and period is presented. The preliminary results of the total yield, relative abundances and periods are shown comparing with the previously reported values. (J.P.N.)

  8. Inter-pulse delay optimization in dual-pulse laser induced breakdown vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of a steel sample in ambient gases at low pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Hayden, P.; Laasch, R.; Costello, J. T.; Kennedy, E. T.

    2013-08-01

    Time-integrated spatially-resolved Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to investigate spectral emissions from laser-induced plasmas generated on steel targets. Instead of detecting spectral lines in the visible/near ultraviolet (UV), as investigated in conventional LIBS, this work explored the use of spectral lines emitted by ions in the shorter wavelength vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region. Single-pulse (SP) and dual-pulse LIBS (DP-LIBS) experiments were performed on standardized steel samples. In the case of the double-pulse scheme, two synchronized lasers were used, an ablation laser (200 mJ/15 ns), and a reheating laser (665 mJ/6 ns) in a collinear beam geometry. Spatially resolved and temporally integrated laser induced plasma VUV emission in the DP scheme and its dependence on inter-pulse delay time were studied. The VUV spectral line intensities were found to be enhanced in the DP mode and were significantly affected by the inter-pulse delay time. Additionally, the influence of ambient conditions was investigated by employing low pressure nitrogen, argon or helium as buffer gases in the ablation chamber. The results clearly demonstrate the existence of a sharp ubiquitous emission intensity peak at 100 ns and a wider peak, in the multi-microsecond range of inter-pulse time delay, dependent on the ambient gas conditions.

  9. Ecstacy-induced delayed rhabdomyolysis and neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a patient with a novel variant in the ryanodine receptor type 1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, T; Riazi, S; Kraeva, N; Steel, A C; Hawryluck, L A

    2012-09-01

    We present the case of a 20-year-old woman who developed rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and multi-organ failure induced by ecstasy. Following initial improvement, she developed delayed rhabdomyolysis then haloperidol-induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome, which was treated with a total of 50 mg.kg(-1) dantrolene. Subsequent genetic testing revealed a novel potentially pathogenic variant in the ryanodine receptor type 1 gene. However, caffeine-halothane contracture testing of the patient's mother who carried the same gene variant was negative for malignant hyperthermia.

  10. Non-targeted and delayed effects of exposure to ionizing radiation: I. Radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander effects in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William F.

    2003-01-01

    A long-standing dogma in the radiation sciences is that energy from radiation must be deposited in the cell nucleus to elicit a biological effect. A number of non-targeted, delayed effects of ionizing radiation have been described that challenge this dogma and pose new challenges to evaluating potential hazards associated with radiation exposure. These effects include induced genomic instability and non-targeted bystander effects. The in vitro evidence for non-targeted effects in radiation biology will be reviewed, but the question as to how one extrapolates from these in vitro observations to the risk of radiation-induced adverse health effects such as cancer remains open.

  11. Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Delayed puberty can be a source of great concern and anxiety, although it usually is caused by a self-limiting variant of the normal physiological timing named constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). Delayed puberty can, however, also be the first presentation of a permanent condition ...... mineral density) and psychological (e.g., low self-esteem) and underline the importance of careful clinical assessment of the patients.......Delayed puberty can be a source of great concern and anxiety, although it usually is caused by a self-limiting variant of the normal physiological timing named constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). Delayed puberty can, however, also be the first presentation of a permanent condition...

  12. Delayed fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    Delayed fission is a nuclear decay process that couples {beta} decay and fission. In the delayed fission process, a parent nucleus undergoes {beta} decay and thereby populates excited states in the daughter. If these states are of energies comparable to or greater than the fission barrier of the daughter, then fission may compete with other decay modes of the excited states in the daughter. In this paper, mechanism and some experiments of the delayed fission will be discussed. (author)

  13. Cell division cycle 25 homolog c effects on low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity and induced radioresistance at elevated dosage in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanxia; Cui, Yingshan; Han, Jun; Ren, Jinghua; Wu, Gang; Cheng, Jing

    2012-09-01

    The underlying mechanisms behind both low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) and induced radioresistance (IRR), generally occurring at elevated radiation levels, remain unclear; however, elucidation of the relationship between cell cycle division 25 homolog c (Cdc25c) phosphatase and HRS/IRR may provide important insights into this process. Two cell lines with disparate HRS status, A549 and SiHa cells, were selected as cell models for comparison of dose-dependent Cdc25c phosphatase expression subsequent to low-dose irradiation. Knockdown of Cdc25c in A549 cells was mediated by transfection with a pGCsi-RAN-U6neo vector containing hairpin siRNA sequences. S216-phosphorylated Cdc25c protein [p-Cdc25c (Ser216)], cell survival and mitotic ratio were measured by western blot, colony-forming assay and histone H3 phosphorylation analysis. Variant p-Cdc25c (Ser216) expression was observed in the two cell lines after irradiation. The p-Cdc25c (Ser216) expression noted in SiHa cells after administration of 0-1 Gy radiation was similar to the radioresistance model; however, in A549 cells, the dose response for the phosphorylation of the Cdc25c Ser216 residue overlapped the level required to overcome the HRS response. Furthermore, Cdc25c repression prior to low-dose radiation induced more distinct HRS and prevented the development of IRR. The dose required to overcome the HRS response coincided with the effect of early G2-phase checkpoint arrest in A549 cells (approximately 0.3 Gy), and Cdc25c knockdown in A549 cells (approximately 0.5 Gy) corresponded to the phosphorylation of the Cdc25c Ser216 residue. Resultant data confirmed that dose-dependent Cdc25c phosphatase does effectively act as an early G2-phase checkpoint, thus indicating mechanistic importance in the HRS to IRR transition in A549 cells.

  14. Piroxicam fails to reduce myocellular enzyme leakage and delayed onset muscle soreness induced by isokinetic eccentric exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J-L. Croisier

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that delayed onset muscular soreness (DOMS following intense eccentric muscle contraction could be due to increased production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, ten healthy male subjects were studied. Using a double-blind randomized crossover design, each subject performed two isokinetic tests separated by a period of at least 6 weeks: once with placebo, and once with piroxicam (Feldene®. They were given one capsule containing either placebo or piroxicam (20 mg per day for 6 days with initial doses given starting 3 days prior to isokinetic testing. Exercise consisted of eight stages of five maximal contractions of the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups of both legs separated by 1 min rest phases, on a Kin Trex device at 60°/s angular velocity. The subjective presence and intensity of DOMS were evaluated using a visual analogue scale immediately after, and 24 and 48 h after each test. The mean plasma concentration of PGE2 measured at rest and after exercise was significantly lower in the group treated with piroxicam (p < 0.05. However, statistical analysis (two-way ANOVA test revealed that exercise did not cause any significant change of mean plasma PGE2 over time in either of the two groups. Eccentric work was followed by severe muscle pain in extensor and flexor muscle groups. Maximal soreness was noted 48 h postexercise. Serum creatine kinase activity and the serum concentration of myoglobin increased significantly, and reached peak values 48 h after exercise in both experimental conditions (p < 0.001. By paired t-test, it appeared that there were no significant differences in the serum levels of these two markers of muscle damage between the two groups at any time point. We conclude that: (1 oral administration of piroxicam fails to reduce muscle damage and DOMS caused by strenuous eccentric exercise; and (2 the hypothetical role of increased PGE2 production in eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage, DOMS, and reduced

  15. Piroxicam fails to reduce myocellular enzyme leakage and delayed onset muscle soreness induced by isokinetic eccentric exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croisier, J-L.; Monfils, T.; Deby-Dupon, G.; Fafchamps, M.; Venneman, I.; Crielaard, J-M.; Juchmès-Ferir, A.; Lhermerout, C.; Lamy, M.; Deby, C.

    1996-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that delayed onset muscular soreness (DOMS) following intense eccentric muscle contraction could be due to increased production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), ten healthy male subjects were studied. Using a double-blind randomized crossover design, each subject performed two isokinetic tests separated by a period of at least 6 weeks: once with placebo, and once with piroxicam (Feldene®). They were given one capsule containing either placebo or piroxicam (20 mg) per day for 6 days with initial doses given starting 3 days prior to isokinetic testing. Exercise consisted of eight stages of five maximal contractions of the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups of both legs separated by 1 min rest phases, on a Kin Trex device at 60°/s angular velocity. The subjective presence and intensity of DOMS were evaluated using a visual analogue scale immediately after, and 24 and 48 h after each test. The mean plasma concentration of PGE2 measured at rest and after exercise was significantly lower in the group treated with piroxicam (p < 0.05). However, statistical analysis (two-way ANOVA test) revealed that exercise did not cause any significant change of mean plasma PGE2 over time in either of the two groups. Eccentric work was followed by severe muscle pain in extensor and flexor muscle groups. Maximal soreness was noted 48 h postexercise. Serum creatine kinase activity and the serum concentration of myoglobin increased significantly, and reached peak values 48 h after exercise in both experimental conditions (p < 0.001). By paired t-test, it appeared that there were no significant differences in the serum levels of these two markers of muscle damage between the two groups at any time point. We conclude that: (1) oral administration of piroxicam fails to reduce muscle damage and DOMS caused by strenuous eccentric exercise; and (2) the hypothetical role of increased PGE2 production in eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage, DOMS, and reduced isokinetic

  16. Computational Fair Division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina

    Fair division is a fundamental problem in economic theory and one of the oldest questions faced through the history of human society. The high level scenario is that of several participants having to divide a collection of resources such that everyone is satisfied with their allocation -- e.g. two...... heirs dividing a car, house, and piece of land inherited. The literature on fair division was developed in the 20th century in mathematics and economics, but computational work on fair division is still sparse. This thesis can be seen as an excursion in computational fair division divided in two parts...... study alternative and richer models, such as externalities in cake cutting, simultaneous cake cutting, and envy-free cake cutting. The second part of the thesis tackles the fair allocation of multiple goods, divisible and indivisible. In the realm of divisible goods, we investigate the well known...

  17. A small molecule polyamine oxidase inhibitor blocks androgen-induced oxidative stress and delays prostate cancer progression in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Hirak S; Thompson, Todd A; Church, Dawn R; Clower, Cynthia C; Mehraein-Ghomi, Farideh; Amlong, Corey A; Martin, Christopher T; Woster, Patrick M; Lindstrom, Mary J; Wilding, George

    2009-10-01

    High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) present in human prostate epithelia are an important etiologic factor in prostate cancer (CaP) occurrence, recurrence, and progression. Androgen induces ROS production in the prostate by a yet unknown mechanism. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time that androgen induces an overexpression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the polyamine oxidation pathway. As prostatic epithelia produce a large excess of polyamines, the androgen-induced polyamine oxidation that produces H2O2 could be a major reason for the high ROS levels in the prostate epithelia. A small molecule polyamine oxidase inhibitor N,N'-butanedienyl butanediamine (MDL 72,527 or CPC-200) effectively blocks androgen-induced ROS production in human CaP cells, as well as significantly delays CaP progression and death in animals developing spontaneous CaP. These data show that polyamine oxidation is not only a major pathway for ROS production in prostate, but inhibiting this pathway also successfully delays CaP progression.

  18. A Small Molecule Polyamine Oxidase Inhibitor Blocks Androgen-Induced Oxidative Stress and Delays Prostate Cancer Progression in the TRAMP Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Hirak S.; Thompson, Todd A.; Church, Dawn R.; Clower, Cynthia C.; Mehraein-Ghomi, Farideh; Amlong, Corey A.; Martin, Christopher T.; Woster, Patrick M.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Wilding, George

    2009-01-01

    High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) present in human prostate epithelia are an important etiological factor in prostate cancer (CaP) occurrence, recurrence and progression. Androgen induces ROS production in the prostate by a yet unknown mechanism. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time that androgen induces an overexpression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT), the rate-limiting enzyme in the polyamine oxidation pathway. As prostatic epithelia produce a large excess of polyamines, the androgen-induced polyamine oxidation that produces H2O2 could be a major reason for the high ROS levels in the prostate epithelia. A small molecule polyamine oxidase inhibitor N,N'-butanedienyl butanediamine (MDL 72,527 or CPC-200) effectively blocks androgen-induced ROS production in human CaP cells as well as significantly delays CaP progression and death in animals developing spontaneous CaP. These data demonstrate that polyamine oxidation is not only a major pathway for ROS production in prostate, but inhibiting this pathway also successfully delays prostate cancer progression. PMID:19773450

  19. Delay in post-ovariectomy estrogen replacement negates estrogen-induced augmentation of post-exercise muscle satellite cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Gary; Iqbal, Sobia; Hubbard, Andrew; Hamilton, Victoria; Bombardier, Eric; Tiidus, Peter M

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the effects of a delay in post-ovariectomy replacement of 17β-estradiol (estrogen) on the post-exercise proliferation of muscle satellite cells. Nine-week-old, ovariectomized, female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 64) were distributed among 8 groups based on estrogen status (0.25 mg estrogen pellet or sham), exercise status (90 min run at 17 m·min(-1) and a grade of -13.5° or unexercised), and estrogen replacement ("proximal", estrogen replacement within 2 weeks; or "delayed", estrogen replacement at 11 weeks following ovariectomy). Significant increases in satellite cells were found in the soleus and white gastrocnemius muscle (immunofluorescent colocalization of nuclei with Pax7) 72 h following eccentric exercise (p exercised groups. Proximal E2 replacement resulted in a further augmentation of muscle satellite cells in exercised rats (p estrogen replacement group. Expression of PI3K was unaltered and phosphorylation of Akt relative to total Akt increased following estrogen supplementation and exercise. Exercise alone did not alter the expression levels of Akt. An 11 week delay in post-ovariectomy estrogen replacement negated the augmenting influence seen with proximal (2 week delay) post-ovariectomy estrogen replacement on post-exercise muscle satellite cell proliferation. This effect appears to be independent of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.

  20. Premature Ejaculation, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (ssri) Induced Delayed Ejaculation In The Framework Of The Emotional Motor System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Berendsen, Hemmie H.G.; Blok, Bertil F.M.; Olivier, Berend; Holstege, Gert

    1998-01-01

    Premature ejaculation has generally been considered a psychosexual disorder with psychogenic aetiology. Although still mainly treated by behavioural therapy, in recent years double-blind studies have indicated the beneficial effects of some of the serotonergic anti depressants (SSRIs) in delaying ej

  1. Delay-Induced Attenuation of Latent Inhibition with a Conditioned Emotional Response Depends on CS-US Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Casa, Luis G.; Diaz, Estrella; Lubow, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Latent Inhibition (LI) attenuation when a long delay is introduced between acquisition and test phases has been repeatedly observed using aversive conditioning procedures (e.g., Aguado, Symonds, & Hall, 1994). This effect has been used as evidence to support those theories that consider LI to be the result of a retrieval failure. We designed three…

  2. Division: The Sleeping Dragon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Of the four mathematical operators, division seems to not sit easily for many learners. Division is often described as "the odd one out". Pupils develop coping strategies that enable them to "get away with it". So, problems, misunderstandings, and misconceptions go unresolved perhaps for a lifetime. Why is this? Is it a case of "out of sight out…

  3. Division: The Sleeping Dragon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Of the four mathematical operators, division seems to not sit easily for many learners. Division is often described as "the odd one out". Pupils develop coping strategies that enable them to "get away with it". So, problems, misunderstandings, and misconceptions go unresolved perhaps for a lifetime. Why is this? Is it a case of "out of sight out…

  4. Arithmetic of Division Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Brumer, Armand

    2011-01-01

    We study the arithmetic of division fields of semistable abelian varieties A over the rationals. The Galois group of the 2-division field of A is analyzed when the conductor is odd and squarefree. The irreducible semistable mod 2 representations of small conductor are determined under GRH. These results are used in "Paramodular abelian varieties of odd conductor," arXiv:1004.4699.

  5. On infinitely divisible semimartingales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse-O'Connor, Andreas; Rosiński, Jan

    2015-01-01

    are strictly representable due to Hida's multiplicity theorem, the classical Stricker's theorem follows from our result. Another consequence is that the question when an infinitely divisible process is a semimartingale can often be reduced to a path property, when a certain associated infinitely divisible...

  6. A scheme to expand the delay-bandwidth product in the resonator-based delay lines by optical OFDM technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiangbo; Tao, Li; Zhang, Ziran

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme to expand the inherent limit in the product of the optical delay and the transmission bandwidth in resonator-based delay lines, with the optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OOFDM) technique. The optical group delay properties of a single ring resonator we...

  7. Timing mechanism dependent on cell division is invoked by Polycomb eviction in plant stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Looi, Liang-Sheng; Guo, Siyi; He, Zemiao; Gan, Eng-Seng; Huang, Jiangbo; Xu, Yifeng; Wee, Wan-Yi; Ito, Toshiro

    2014-01-31

    Plant floral stem cells divide a limited number of times before they stop and terminally differentiate, but the mechanisms that control this timing remain unclear. The precise temporal induction of the Arabidopsis zinc finger repressor KNUCKLES (KNU) is essential for the coordinated growth and differentiation of floral stem cells. We identify an epigenetic mechanism in which the floral homeotic protein AGAMOUS (AG) induces KNU at ~2 days of delay. AG binding sites colocalize with a Polycomb response element in the KNU upstream region. AG binding to the KNU promoter causes the eviction of the Polycomb group proteins from the locus, leading to cell division-dependent induction. These analyses demonstrate that floral stem cells measure developmental timing by a division-dependent epigenetic timer triggered by Polycomb eviction.

  8. Black tea extract and its thearubigins relieve the sildenafil-induced delayed gut motility in mice: a possible role of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Hussam A S; Abdallah, Hossam M

    2014-11-01

    In this study we hypothesize that a standardized black tea aqueous extract (BTE) and thearubigins, its main polyphenolic pigments, will improve sildenafil-induced delay in gastric emptying (GE) and small intestinal transit (SIT) in mice. Twenty groups of mice (n = 8) were given a phenol red meal, and three sets of experiments were performed. In the first and second sets, effects of different concentrations of BTE, thearubigins (TRs), and sildenafil (SLD), alone and in combinations, on GE and SIT were measured. In the third set, influence of nω -Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) pretreatment on effects of these treatments was tested. Black tea extract (3% and 4.5%) and thearubigins (50 and 60 mg/kg) dose-dependently increased GE and SIT, whereas BTE 6% and thearubigins 70 mg/kg did not affect them. Sildenafil dose-dependently reduced both GE and SIT. Combination of metoclopramide, BTE 4.5%, thearubigins 60, or l-NAME with sildenafil (5 mg/kg) reversed its motility-delaying effects. Pretreatment with l-NAME followed by BTE 4.5%, thearubigins 60, BTE 4.5% + sildenafil 5, or thearubigins 60 + sildenafil 5 only partially affected the accelerating effects of BTE 4.5% and thearubigins 60. In conclusion, a standardized BTE and its thearubigins improve the sildenafil-induced delayed gut motility in mice. This improvement was partially blocked by l-NAME suggesting a possible role of nitric oxide. Thus, BTE 4.5% or TRs 60 mg/kg solution could be considered a reliever therapy for the sildenafil-induced dyspepsia.

  9. The critical phenomenon and the re-entrance phenomenon in the anti-tumor model induced by the time delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Luchun [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 (China); Mei Dongcheng, E-mail: meidch@ynu.edu.c [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 (China)

    2010-07-19

    The effects of time delay {tau} on an anti-tumor model driven by a multiplicative noise and a periodic signal are investigated. The results obtained from the small delay approximation and numerical simulations indicate: (i) For the absence of the periodic signal in the system, the two-peak structure of the stationary probability distribution transforms into the single-peak structure with the increasing {tau}, and {tau} exists a critical value {tau}{sub c}. For {tau}<{tau}{sub c}, the stationary mean value {sub st} of the cell population decreases as the noise intensity D increases, however, for {tau}>{tau}{sub c}, the {sub st} increases as the D increases; (ii) For the presence of the periodic signal in the system, the structure of the signal-to-noise ratio with changes of the D exhibits the transitions of one peak {yields} two peaks {yields} one peak as {tau} increases.

  10. Leishmania tropica infection, in comparison to Leishmania major, induces lower delayed type hypersensitivity in BALB/c mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudzadeh-Niknam, Hamid; Kiaei, Simin Sadat; Iravani, Davood

    2007-01-01

    Leishmania tropica and L. major are etiologic agents of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) is an immunologic response that has been frequently used as a correlate for protection against or sensitization to leishmania antigen. In BALB/c mice, L. tropica infection results in non-ulcerating disease, whereas L. major infection results in destructive lesions. In order to clarify the immunologic mechanisms of these 2 different outcomes, we compared the ability of the...

  11. Global metabolic profiling of Arabidopsis Polyamine Oxidase 4 (AtPAO4 loss-of-function mutants exhibiting delayed dark-induced senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Iranzu Sequera-Mutiozabal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Early and more recent studies have suggested that some polyamines (PAs, and particularly spermine (Spm, exhibit anti-senescence properties in plants. In this work, we have investigated the role of Arabidopsis Polyamine Oxidase 4 (PAO4, encoding a PA back-conversion oxidase, during dark-induced senescence. Two independent PAO4 (pao4-1 and pao4-2 loss-of-function mutants have been found that accumulate 10-fold higher Spm, and this associated with delayed entry into senescence under dark conditions. Mechanisms underlying pao4 delayed senescence have been studied using global metabolic profiling by GC-TOF/MS. pao4 mutants exhibit constitutively higher levels of important metabolites involved in redox regulation, central metabolism and signaling that support a priming status against oxidative stress. During senescence, interactions between PAs and oxidative, sugar and nitrogen metabolism have been detected that additively contribute to delayed entry into senescence. Our results indicate the occurrence of metabolic interactions between PAs, particularly Spm, with cell oxidative balance and transport/biosynthesis of amino acids as a strategy to cope with oxidative damage produced during senescence.

  12. Issues in deep ocean collinear double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: Dependence of emission intensity and inter-pulse delay on solution pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence-Snyder, Marion; Scaffidi, Jonathan P.; Pearman, William F.; Gordon, Christopher M.; Angel, S. Michael

    2014-09-01

    Double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) with a collinear laser beam orientation is shown for high-pressure bulk aqueous solutions (up to 50 bar) along with bubble and plasma images. These investigations reveal that the emission plasma is quenched much more rapidly in solution requiring much shorter detector gate delays than for typical LIBS measurements in air. Also, the emission is inversely proportional to solution pressure, and the most intense emission at all pressures occurs when the laser-induced vapor bubble is at a maximum diameter. It is also shown that the laser-induced bubble grows initially at the same rate for all solution pressures, collapsing more quickly as the pressure is increased. Intense emission is best obtained for conditions where the laser-induced bubble formed by the first laser pulse is small and spherically shaped. - Highlights: • Collinear double-pulse LIBS is shown for 50 bar bulk aqueous solutions. • LIBS plasma in solution is much more rapidly quenched than a LIBS plasma in air. • For DP LIBS, the emission is inversely proportional to solution pressure. • Laser-induced bubble growth rate is the same at all solution pressures. • Large spherical laser-induced bubbles produce the strongest DP LIBS emission.

  13. Divisible ℤ-modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futa Yuichi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we formalize the definition of divisible ℤ-module and its properties in the Mizar system [3]. We formally prove that any non-trivial divisible ℤ-modules are not finitely-generated.We introduce a divisible ℤ-module, equivalent to a vector space of a torsion-free ℤ-module with a coefficient ring ℚ. ℤ-modules are important for lattice problems, LLL (Lenstra, Lenstra and Lovász base reduction algorithm [15], cryptographic systems with lattices [16] and coding theory [8].

  14. Delayed radiation-induced inflammation accompanying a marked carbohydrate antigen 19-9 elevation in a patient with resected pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, Malcolm D.; Cardinal, Jon S.; Jacobson, Geraldine M. [West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Although carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 is a useful tumor marker for pancreatic cancer, it can also become elevated from a variety of benign and malignant conditions. Herein we describe an unusual presentation of elevated CA 19-9 in an asymptomatic patient who had previously undergone adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy for resected early stage pancreatic cancer. The rise in CA 19-9 might be due to delayed radiation-induced inflammation related to previous intra-abdominal radiation therapy with or without radiation recall induced by gemcitabine. After treatment with corticosteroids the CA 19-9 level decreased to normal, and the patient has not developed any evidence of recurrent cancer to date.

  15. Influence of group-delay ripple on timing jitter induced by SPM and IXPM in systems with dispersion compensated by CFBG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Qin; Jihong Cao; Yong Chen; Feng Zhang; Shuisheng Jian

    2007-01-01

    An analytical expression was proposed to analyze the influence of group-delay ripple (GDR) on timing jitter induced by self-phase modulation (SPM) and intra-channel cross-phase modulation (IXPM) in pseudolinear transmission systems when dispersion was compensated by chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG).Effects of ripple amplitude, period, and phase on timing jitter were discussed by theoretical and numerical analysis in detail. The results show that the influence of GDR on timing jitter changes linearly with the amplitude of GDR and whether it decreases or increases the timing jitter relies on the ripple period and ripple phase. Timing jitter induced by SPM and IXPM could be suppressed totally by adjusting the relative phase between the center frequency of the pulse and the ripples.

  16. Non-targeted and delayed effects of exposure to ionizing radiation: II. Radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander effects in vivo, clastogenic factors and transgenerational effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William F.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence for non-targeted and delayed effects of exposure to ionizing radiation in vivo. Currently, human health risks associated with radiation exposures are based primarily on the assumption that the detrimental effects of radiation occur in irradiated cells. Over the years a number of non-targeted effects of radiation exposure in vivo have been described that challenge this concept. These include radiation-induced genomic instability, bystander effects, clastogenic factors produced in plasma from irradiated individuals that can cause chromosomal damage when cultured with nonirradiated cells, and transgenerational effects of parental irradiation that can manifest in the progeny. These effects pose new challenges to evaluating the risk(s) associated with radiation exposure and understanding radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  17. Delayed hyperoxic ventilation attenuates oxygen-induced free radical accumulation during early reperfusion after global brain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Yuan, Li; Liu, Ping; Zhao, Min

    2015-02-11

    To compare the effect of immediate and delayed administration of oxygen on the accumulation of free radicals in ischemia-reperfusion animal models. Thirty-two adult male Mongolian gerbils with microdialysis probes implanted in the right hippocampal CA1 were divided randomly into four groups (eight each). One group was sham-operated (Sham group) whereas the other three groups were subjected to 10 min bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO). BCAO-treated animals were then subjected to the following: (a) immediate 30% O2 (near normoxia, NO group), (b) immediate 100% O2 (hyperoxia, HO group), and (c) 30% O2 for 60 min, followed by 100% O2 for 60 min (delayed hyperoxia, DHO group). Hippocampal accumulation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) during reperfusion was estimated by measuring 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 2,5-DHBA in microdialysis perfusate. Hippocampi were removed 2 h after perfusion to measure malondialdehyde, pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, indices of lipid peroxidation, and cellular respiration. At 24 h after BCAO, the histology of hippocampi was analyzed to rate the injury. Immediately after the onset of reperfusion, all groups showed markedly elevated DHBA, which returned to baseline over 1-2 h. Compared with the NO group, the HO group showed significantly higher peak DHBA and slower recovery. In contrast, the DHO group was not significantly different from the NO group in terms of the DHBA level. DHO animals also showed significantly lower hippocampal malondialdehyde accumulation and higher pyruvate dehydrogenase activity at 2 h after reperfusion versus the HO group. Histology analysis also showed animals in the DHO group with ameliorated injury compared with the HO group. Hydroxyl radical accumulation was more sensitive to O2 during early reperfusion. Delayed hyperoxia may re-establish oxidative metabolism while minimizing oxidative stress after CA.

  18. Expression of orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR174 in CHO cells induced morphological changes and proliferation delay via increasing intracellular cAMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugita, Kazuya; Yamamura, Chiaki; Tabata, Ken-ichi [Laboratory of Pharmacoinformatics, Graduate School of Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Fujita, Norihisa, E-mail: nori@ph.ritsumei.ac.jp [Laboratory of Pharmacoinformatics, Graduate School of Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); School of Pharmacy, Ristumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of GPR174 in CHO cells induces morphological changes and proliferation delay. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These are due to increase in intracellular cAMP concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lysophosphatidylserine was identified to stimulate GPR174 leading to activate ACase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potencies of fatty acid moiety on LysoPS were oleoyl Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To stearoyl > palmitoyl. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose that GPR174 is a lysophosphatidylserine receptor. -- Abstract: We established cell lines that stably express orphan GPCR GPR174 using CHO cells, and studied physiological and pharmacological features of the receptor. GPR174-expressing cells showed cell-cell adhesion with localization of actin filaments to cell membrane, and revealed significant delay of cell proliferation. Since the morphological changes of GPR174-cells were very similar to mock CHO cells treated with cholera toxin, we measured the concentration of intracellular cAMP. The results showed the concentration was significantly elevated in GPR174-cells. By measuring intracellular cAMP concentration in GPR174-cells, we screened lipids and nucleotides to identify ligands for GPR174. We found that lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS) stimulated increase in intracellular cAMP in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, phosphorylation of Erk was elevated by LysoPS in GPR174 cells. These LysoPS responses were inhibited by NF449, an inhibitor of G{alpha}{sub s} protein. These results suggested that GPR174 was a putative LysoPS receptor conjugating with G{alpha}{sub s}, and its expression induced morphological changes in CHO cells by constitutively activating adenylyl cycles accompanied with cell conjunctions and delay of proliferation.

  19. Serotonin Transporter Promoter Region (5-HTTLPR) Polymorphism Is Not Associated With Paroxetine-Induced Ejaculation Delay in Dutch Men With Lifelong Premature Ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Paddy K.C.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Olivier, Berend

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between the 5-HT-transporter-gene-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism and 20-mg paroxetine-induced ejaculation delay in men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE). Materials and Methods This was a prospective study of 10 weeks of paroxetine treatment in 54 men with LPE. Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) was measured by stopwatch. Controls consisted of 92 Caucasian men. All men with LPE were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of short (S) and long (L) variants of the polymorphism were compared between patients and controls. Associations between the LL, SL, and SS genotypes and fold increase of mean IELT were investigated. Results Of the 54 patients, 43 (79.6%) responded to 20-mg paroxetine treatment with an ejaculation delay, whereas 11 patients (20.4%) did not respond; 44%, 18%, and 18% of the patients showed a fold increase in mean IELT of 2-10, 10-20, and more than 20, respectively. Of the 54 men, 14 (25.9%) had the LL genotype, 29 (53.7%) had the SL genotype, and 11 (20.4%) had the SS genotype. In the 92 controls, the LL, SL, and SS genotypes were present in 27 (29.3%), 41 (44.6%), and 24 (26.1%), respectively. No statistically significant differences were found in 5-HTTLPR allelic variations or in 5-HTTLPR gene variations. In all men treated with 20 mg paroxetine, analysis of variance of the natural logarithm of fold increase in the IELT showed no statistically significant difference according to genotype (p=0.83). Conclusions The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is not associated with daily 20-mg paroxetine treatment-induced ejaculation delay in men with LPE. PMID:24578810

  20. Chronic infusions of GABA into the medial frontal cortex of the rat induce a reversible delayed spatial alternation deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Scala, G; Meneses, S; Brailowsky, S

    1990-10-30

    The effects of bilateral infusions of GABA into the medial frontal cortex of the rat were studied in a delayed spatial alternation task. It was found that GABA (500 mM, 1 microliter/h during 7 days) impaired the performance of the rats in the previously learned task. Upon interruption of the treatment, the animals rapidly recovered normal performance scores. The results show that GABA infusions produce functional deficits similar to those produced by lesions of the frontal cortex. Moreover, the deficits are reversible upon interruption of the treatment. This technique may therefore be a useful tool for studying frontal lobe functions and the involvement of GABAergic mechanisms in cognitive processes.

  1. Underwater Sound Reference Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Underwater Sound Reference Division (USRD) serves as the U.S. standardizing activity in the area of underwater acoustic measurements, as the National Institute...

  2. Underwater Sound Reference Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Underwater Sound Reference Division (USRD) serves as the U.S. standardizing activity in the area of underwater acoustic measurements, as the National Institute...

  3. On Geometric Infinite Divisibility

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhya, E.; Pillai, R. N.

    2014-01-01

    The notion of geometric version of an infinitely divisible law is introduced. Concepts parallel to attraction and partial attraction are developed and studied in the setup of geometric summing of random variables.

  4. Formative cell divisions: principal determinants of plant morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarkiewicz, Michalina; Dhonukshe, Pankaj

    2013-03-01

    Formative cell divisions utilizing precise rotations of cell division planes generate and spatially place asymmetric daughters to produce different cell layers. Therefore, by shaping tissues and organs, formative cell divisions dictate multicellular morphogenesis. In animal formative cell divisions, the orientation of the mitotic spindle and cell division planes relies on intrinsic and extrinsic cortical polarity cues. Plants lack known key players from animals, and cell division planes are determined prior to the mitotic spindle stage. Therefore, it appears that plants have evolved specialized mechanisms to execute formative cell divisions. Despite their profound influence on plant architecture, molecular players and cellular mechanisms regulating formative divisions in plants are not well understood. This is because formative cell divisions in plants have been difficult to track owing to their submerged positions and imprecise timings of occurrence. However, by identifying a spatiotemporally inducible cell division plane switch system applicable for advanced microscopy techniques, recent studies have begun to uncover molecular modules and mechanisms for formative cell divisions. The identified molecular modules comprise developmentally triggered transcriptional cascades feeding onto microtubule regulators that now allow dissection of the hierarchy of the events at better spatiotemporal resolutions. Here, we survey the current advances in understanding of formative cell divisions in plants in the context of embryogenesis, stem cell functionality and post-embryonic organ formation.

  5. Negative Selection and Chromosome Instability Induced by Mad2 Overexpression Delay Breast Cancer but Facilitate Oncogene-Independent Outgrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina Rowald

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome instability (CIN is associated with poor survival and therapeutic outcome in a number of malignancies. Despite this correlation, CIN can also lead to growth disadvantages. Here, we show that simultaneous overexpression of the mitotic checkpoint protein Mad2 with KrasG12D or Her2 in mammary glands of adult mice results in mitotic checkpoint overactivation and a delay in tumor onset. Time-lapse imaging of organotypic cultures and pathologic analysis prior to tumor establishment reveals error-prone mitosis, mitotic arrest, and cell death. Nonetheless, Mad2 expression persists and increases karyotype complexity in Kras tumors. Faced with the selective pressure of oncogene withdrawal, Mad2-positive tumors have a higher frequency of developing persistent subclones that avoid remission and continue to grow.

  6. Negative Selection and Chromosome Instability Induced by Mad2 Overexpression Delay Breast Cancer but Facilitate Oncogene-Independent Outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowald, Konstantina; Mantovan, Martina; Passos, Joana; Buccitelli, Christopher; Mardin, Balca R; Korbel, Jan O; Jechlinger, Martin; Sotillo, Rocio

    2016-06-21

    Chromosome instability (CIN) is associated with poor survival and therapeutic outcome in a number of malignancies. Despite this correlation, CIN can also lead to growth disadvantages. Here, we show that simultaneous overexpression of the mitotic checkpoint protein Mad2 with Kras(G12D) or Her2 in mammary glands of adult mice results in mitotic checkpoint overactivation and a delay in tumor onset. Time-lapse imaging of organotypic cultures and pathologic analysis prior to tumor establishment reveals error-prone mitosis, mitotic arrest, and cell death. Nonetheless, Mad2 expression persists and increases karyotype complexity in Kras tumors. Faced with the selective pressure of oncogene withdrawal, Mad2-positive tumors have a higher frequency of developing persistent subclones that avoid remission and continue to grow.

  7. Development and Characterization of Polysulfone/Polyvinylidene Flouride Blend Membrane Induced by Delayed Liquid-Liquid Demixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruwanti Dewi Cahya Ningrum

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polysulfone (PSf-Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF membranes were fabricated via phase inversion method and immersion precipitation technique. In particular, the effect of varied amount of NMP addition into coagulation bath on permeability, mechanical properties, chemical resistance and thermal stability of membranes were investigated. The presence of solvent in coagulation bath caused delayed liquid-liquid demixing that caused increasing chance of disoriented interactions in PSf/PVDF blend membrane thus larger pore and dominated macrovoids membranes resulted. It was found that the increase of solvent addition lead to increasing of flux and decreasing of mechanical strength whereas a remarkably and enhanced chemical resistance has been achieved which showed excellent resistance in H2SO4 but degraded upon exposure to a concentration of 15% NaOH solution. Furthermore, TGA analysis revealed that the membrane exhibit improved thermal stability while the morphology of membrane showed the formation of asymmetry structure.

  8. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Normal-Appearing White Matter as Biomarker for Radiation-Induced Late Delayed Cognitive Decline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Christopher H., E-mail: chchap@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Nagesh, Vijaya [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sundgren, Pia C. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiology, Skane University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Buchtel, Henry [Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chenevert, Thomas L. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Junck, Larry [Department of Neurology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S.; Tsien, Christina I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Cao, Yue [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether early assessment of cerebral white matter degradation can predict late delayed cognitive decline after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Ten patients undergoing conformal fractionated brain RT participated in a prospective diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study. Magnetic resonance imaging studies were acquired before RT, at 3 and 6 weeks during RT, and 10, 30, and 78 weeks after starting RT. The diffusivity variables in the parahippocampal cingulum bundle and temporal lobe white matter were computed. A quality-of-life survey and neurocognitive function tests were administered before and after RT at the magnetic resonance imaging follow-up visits. Results: In both structures, longitudinal diffusivity ({lambda}{sub Double-Vertical-Line }) decreased and perpendicular diffusivity ({lambda}{sub Up-Tack }) increased after RT, with early changes correlating to later changes (p < .05). The radiation dose correlated with an increase in cingulum {lambda}{sub Up-Tack} at 3 weeks, and patients with >50% of cingula volume receiving >12 Gy had a greater increase in {lambda}{sub Up-Tack} at 3 and 6 weeks (p < .05). The post-RT changes in verbal recall scores correlated linearly with the late changes in cingulum {lambda}{sub Double-Vertical-Line} (30 weeks, p < .02). Using receiver operating characteristic curves, early cingulum {lambda}{sub Double-Vertical-Line} changes predicted for post-RT changes in verbal recall scores (3 and 6 weeks, p < .05). The neurocognitive test scores correlated significantly with the quality-of-life survey results. Conclusions: The correlation between early diffusivity changes in the parahippocampal cingulum and the late decline in verbal recall suggests that diffusion tensor imaging might be useful as a biomarker for predicting late delayed cognitive decline.

  9. Heme oxygenase-1 delays gibberellin-induced programmed cell death of rice aleurone layers subjected to drought stress by interacting with nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huangming eWu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cereal aleurone layers undergo a gibberellin (GA-regulated process of programmed cell death (PCD following germination. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is known as a rate-liming enzyme in the degradation of heme to biliverdin IXα (BV, carbon monoxide (CO, and free iron ions (Fe2+. It is a critical component in plant development and adaptation to environment stresses. Our previous studies confirmed that HO-1 inducer hematin (Ht promotes the germination of rice seeds in drought (20% polyethylene glycol-6000, PEG conditions, but the corresponding effects of HO-1 on the alleviation of germination-triggered PCD in GA-treated rice aleurone layers remain unknown. The present study has determined that GA co-treated with PEG results in lower HO-1 transcript levels and HO activity, which in turn results in the development of vacuoles in aleurone cells, followed by PCD. The pharmacology approach illustrated that up- or down-regulated HO-1 gene expression and HO activity delayed or accelerated GA-induced PCD. Furthermore, the application of the HO-1 inducer hematin and nitric oxide (NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP not only activated HO-1 gene expression, HO activity, and endogenous NO content, but also blocked GA-induced rapid vacuolation and accelerated aleurone layers PCD under drought stress. However, both HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX and NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl0-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-l-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO reserved the effects of hematin and SNP on rice aleurone layer PCD under drought stress by down-regulating endogenous HO-1 and NO, respectively. The inducible effects of hematin and SNP on HO-1 gene expression, HO activity, and NO content were blocked by cPTIO. Together, these results clearly suggest that HO-1 is involved in the alleviation of GA-induced PCD of drought-triggered rice aleurone layers by associating with NO.

  10. Heme Oxygenase-1 Delays Gibberellin-Induced Programmed Cell Death of Rice Aleurone Layers Subjected to Drought Stress by Interacting with Nitric Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huangming; Zheng, Yan; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Heting; Chen, Huiping

    2015-01-01

    Cereal aleurone layers undergo a gibberellin (GA)-regulated process of programmed cell death (PCD) following germination. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is known as a rate-liming enzyme in the degradation of heme to biliverdin IXα, carbon monoxide (CO), and free iron ions (Fe(2+)). It is a critical component in plant development and adaptation to environment stresses. Our previous studies confirmed that HO-1 inducer hematin (Ht) promotes the germination of rice seeds in drought (20% polyethylene glycol-6000, PEG) conditions, but the corresponding effects of HO-1 on the alleviation of germination-triggered PCD in GA-treated rice aleurone layers remain unknown. The present study has determined that GA co-treated with PEG results in lower HO-1 transcript levels and HO activity, which in turn results in the development of vacuoles in aleurone cells, followed by PCD. The pharmacology approach illustrated that up- or down-regulated HO-1 gene expression and HO activity delayed or accelerated GA-induced PCD. Furthermore, the application of the HO-1 inducer Ht and nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) not only activated HO-1 gene expression, HO activity, and endogenous NO content, but also blocked GA-induced rapid vacuolation and accelerated aleurone layers PCD under drought stress. However, both HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) and NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl0-4, 4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-l-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO) reserved the effects of Ht and SNP on rice aleurone layer PCD under drought stress by down-regulating endogenous HO-1 and NO, respectively. The inducible effects of Ht and SNP on HO-1 gene expression, HO activity, and NO content were blocked by cPTIO. Together, these results clearly suggest that HO-1 is involved in the alleviation of GA-induced PCD of drought-triggered rice aleurone layers by associating with NO.

  11. Silencing of the CaCP gene delays salt- and osmotic-induced leaf senescence in Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Huai-Juan; Yin, Yan-Xu; Chai, Wei-Guo; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2014-05-12

    Cysteine proteinases have been known to participate in developmental processes and in response to stress in plants. Our present research reported that a novel CP gene, CaCP, was involved in leaf senescence in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The full-length CaCP cDNA is comprised of 1316 bp, contains 1044 nucleotides in open reading frame (ORF), and encodes a 347 amino acid protein. The deduced protein belongs to the papain-like cysteine proteases (CPs) superfamily, containing a highly conserved ERFNIN motif, a GCNGG motif and a conserved catalytic triad. This protein localized to the vacuole of plant cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of CaCP gene was dramatically higher in leaves and flowers than that in roots, stems and fruits. Moreover, CaCP transcripts were induced upon during leaf senescence. CaCP expression was upregulated by plant hormones, especially salicylic acid. CaCP was also significantly induced by abiotic and biotic stress treatments, including high salinity, mannitol and Phytophthora capsici. Loss of function of CaCP using the virus-induced gene-silencing technique in pepper plants led to enhanced tolerance to salt- and osmotic-induced stress. Taken together, these results suggest that CaCP is a senescence-associated gene, which is involved in developmental senescence and regulates salt- and osmotic-induced leaf senescence in pepper.

  12. Silencing of the CaCP Gene Delays Salt- and Osmotic-Induced Leaf Senescence in Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Juan Xiao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine proteinases have been known to participate in developmental processes and in response to stress in plants. Our present research reported that a novel CP gene, CaCP, was involved in leaf senescence in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. The full-length CaCP cDNA is comprised of 1316 bp, contains 1044 nucleotides in open reading frame (ORF, and encodes a 347 amino acid protein. The deduced protein belongs to the papain-like cysteine proteases (CPs superfamily, containing a highly conserved ERFNIN motif, a GCNGG motif and a conserved catalytic triad. This protein localized to the vacuole of plant cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of CaCP gene was dramatically higher in leaves and flowers than that in roots, stems and fruits. Moreover, CaCP transcripts were induced upon during leaf senescence. CaCP expression was upregulated by plant hormones, especially salicylic acid. CaCP was also significantly induced by abiotic and biotic stress treatments, including high salinity, mannitol and Phytophthora capsici. Loss of function of CaCP using the virus-induced gene-silencing technique in pepper plants led to enhanced tolerance to salt- and osmotic-induced stress. Taken together, these results suggest that CaCP is a senescence-associated gene, which is involved in developmental senescence and regulates salt- and osmotic-induced leaf senescence in pepper.

  13. Progesterone-induced changes in the phosphoryl potential during the meiotic divisions in amphibian oocytes: Role of Na/K-ATPase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrill Gene A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progesterone triggers resumption of the first meiotic division in the Rana pipiens oocyte by binding to the N-terminal external loop of the catalytic subunit of Na/K-ATPase, releasing a cascade of lipid second messengers. This is followed by internalization of specific membrane proteins, plasma membrane depolarization and nuclear membrane breakdown, culminating in arrest at second metaphase. Results Progesterone initiates an increase in phosphoryl potential during the first meiotic division, resulting in the accumulation of high energy protein phosphate by second metaphase arrest. 31P-NMR, with saturation transfer, demonstrates that the phosphocreatine level rises ~2 fold and that the "pseudo" first order rate constant for the creatine kinase reaction falls to ~20% of the control by the onset of nuclear membrane breakdown. 32PO4 pulse-labeling reveals a net increase in phosphorylation of yolk protein phosvitin during this period. The increased yolk protein phosphorylation coincides with internalization of membrane Na/K-ATPase and membrane depolarizatio Conclusions These results indicate that progesterone binding to the catalytic subunit of the Na-pump diverts ATP from cation regulation at the plasma membrane to storage of high energy phosphate in yolk protein. Phosvitin serves as a major energy source during fertilization and early cleavage stages and is also a storage site for cations (e.g. Na+, K+, Ca2+, Fe2+/3+ essential for embryonic development.

  14. Citrus auraptene suppresses cyclin D1 and significantly delays N-methyl nitrosourea induced mammary carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grand Robert

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a major problem in the United States leading to tens of thousands of deaths each year. Although citrus auraptene suppresses cancer in numerous rodent models, its role in breast cancer prevention previously has not been reported. Thus, our goal was to determine the anticarcinogenic effects of auraptene against breast cancer. Methods The effects of auraptene on cell proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells in culture was assessed by measuring metabolism of a substrate to a formazan dye. Dietary effects of auraptene on tumor incidence, multiplicity and latency were studied in the N-methyl nitrosourea (MNU induced mammary carcinogenesis model in female Sprague Dawley rats. The concentration of auraptene in rat tissues was analyzed by reverse phase HPLC. Cyclin D1 expression in MCF-7 cells and rat tumors was measured by western blot. Results Auraptene (500 ppm significantly delayed median time to tumor by 39 days compared to the MNU only group (p Conclusion Overall, these observations suggest that the predominant effect of auraptene was to delay the development of tumors possibly through the suppression of cyclin D1 expression. These results point to the potential chemopreventive effects of auraptene in mammary carcinogenesis.

  15. [Clinical examination of 3 patients with delayed neuropsychiatric encephalopathy induced by carbon monoxide poisoning, who recovered from severe neurocognitive impairment by repetitive hyperbaric oxygen therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Toshio; Matsubara, Toshio; Higuchi, Naoko; Higuchi, Fumihiro; Inoue, Koji; Otsuchi, Hironobu; Tsuruta, Ryosuke; Watanabe, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    We performed hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy for 3 patients with delayed neuropsychiatric encephalopathy induced by carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. All patients were male and around 50 years old, and they had not received HBO therapy within 24 h after CO poisoning, even though they showed severe consciousness disturbance. In these patients, delayed neuropsychiatric encephalopathy appeared about 25 days after acute CO poisoning, and HBO therapy was initiated within 8 days after disease onset. Although the condition of 2 of the patients worsened initially, they showed significant improvement of neurocognitive impairment after 30 sessions of HBO therapy. The clinical courses of these patients suggest that the effect of HBO therapy can be evaluated after 30 sessions. To evaluate the validity of the indices of the clinical effect of HBO therapy, we performed brain magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computed tomography, electroencephalography (EEG), and neurocognitive tests (HDS-R, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised or III). Our results showed that changes in EEG signals and neurocognitive tests were closely correlated with the patients' clinical courses.

  16. Sperner's lemma and fair division

    OpenAIRE

    DAKSKOBLER, LARISA

    2016-01-01

    Fair division is an active research area in Mathematics, Economics, Computer Science, etc. There are many different kinds of fair division problems. These are often named after everyday situations: fair resource allocation, fair cake-cutting, fair chore division, room assignment – rent division, and more. Although many exact and approximative methods for finding fair solutions already exist, the area of fair division still expands and tries to find better solutions for everyday problems. The...

  17. Moderately delayed post-insult treatment with normobaric hyperoxia reduces excitotoxin-induced neuronal degeneration but increases ischemia-induced brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haelewyn Benoit

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use and benefits of normobaric oxygen (NBO in patients suffering acute ischemic stroke is still controversial. Results Here we show for the first time to the best of our knowledge that NBO reduces both NMDA-induced calcium influxes in vitro and NMDA-induced neuronal degeneration in vivo, but increases oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced cell injury in vitro and ischemia-induced brain damage produced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in vivo. Conclusions Taken together, these results indicate that NBO reduces excitotoxin-induced calcium influx and subsequent neuronal degeneration but favors ischemia-induced brain damage and neuronal death. These findings highlight the complexity of the mechanisms involved by the use of NBO in patients suffering acute ischemic stroke.

  18. Global deletion of MGL in mice delays lipid absorption and alters energy homeostasis and diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, John D.; Zhou, Yin Xiu; Wu, Amy; Zadrogra, John A.; Gajda, Angela M.; Lackey, Atreju I.; Lang, Wensheng; Chevalier, Kristen M.; Sutton, Steven W.; Zhang, Sui-Po; Flores, Christopher M.; Connelly, Margery A.; Storch, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of monoacylglycerols (MGs) to yield FFAs and glycerol. MGL contributes to energy homeostasis through the mobilization of fat stores and also via the degradation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. To further examine the role of MG metabolism in energy homeostasis, MGL−/− mice were fed either a 10% (kilocalories) low-fat diet (LFD) or a 45% (kilocalories) high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Profound increases of MG species in the MGL−/− mice compared with WT control mice were found. Weight gain over the 12 weeks was blunted in both diet groups. MGL−/− mice were leaner than WT mice at both baseline and after 12 weeks of LFD feeding. Circulating lipids were decreased in HFD-fed MGL−/− mice, as were the levels of several plasma peptides involved in glucose homeostasis and energy balance. Interestingly, MGL−/− mice had markedly reduced intestinal TG secretion following an oral fat challenge, suggesting delayed lipid absorption. Overall, the results indicate that global MGL deletion leads to systemic changes that produce a leaner phenotype and an improved serum metabolic profile. PMID:25842377

  19. Toxicant induced changes on delayed fluorescence decay kinetics of cyanobacteria and green algae: a rapid and sensitive biotest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Leunert

    Full Text Available Algal tests have developed into routine tools for testing toxicity of pollutants in aquatic environments. Meanwhile, in addition to algal growth rates, an increasing number of fluorescence based methods are used for rapid and sensitive toxicity measures. The present study stresses the suitability of delayed fluorescence (DF as a promising parameter for biotests. DF is based on the recombination fluorescence at the reaction centre of photosystem II, which is emitted only by photosynthetically active cells. We analyzed the effects of three chemicals (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU, 3,5 Dichlorophenol (3,5 DCP and copper on the shape of the DF decay kinetics for potential use in phytoplankton toxicity tests. The short incubation tests were done with four phytoplankton species, with special emphasis on the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. All species exhibited a high sensitivity to DCMU, but cyanobacteria were more affected by copper and less by 3,5 DCP than the tested green algae. Analyses of changes in the DF decay curve in response to the added chemicals indicated the feasibility of the DF decay approach as a rapid and sensitive testing tool.

  20. Division algebras and supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Baez, John C

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetry is deeply related to division algebras. Nonabelian Yang--Mills fields minimally coupled to massless spinors are supersymmetric if and only if the dimension of spacetime is 3, 4, 6 or 10. The same is true for the Green--Schwarz superstring. In both cases, supersymmetry relies on the vanishing of a certain trilinear expression involving a spinor field. The reason for this, in turn, is the existence of normed division algebras in dimensions 1, 2, 4 and 8: the real numbers, complex numbers, quaternions and octonions. Here we provide a self-contained account of how this works.

  1. Power Dissipation in Division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    A few classes of algorithms to implement division in hardware have been used over the years: division by digit-recurrence, by reciprocal approximation by iterative methods and by polynomial approximation. Due to the differences in the algorithms, a comparison among their implementation in terms...... of performance and precision is sometimes hard to make. In this work, we use power dissipation and energy consumption as metrics to compare among those different classes of algorithms. There are no previous works in the literature presenting such a comparison....

  2. Altered apoplastic ascorbate redox state in tobacco plants via ascorbate oxidase overexpression results in delayed dark-induced senescence in detached leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulos, Vasileios; Kanellis, Angelos K

    2013-12-01

    Ascorbate oxidase (AO) is an apoplastic enzyme that uses oxygen to catalyse the oxidation of ascorbate (AA) to dehydroascorbate (DHA) via the unstable radical monodehydroascorbate (MDHA). Here, we report that transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) with an in vivo lowered apoplastic AA redox state through increased AO expression demonstrate signs of delayed dark-induced senescence compared with wild-type plants, as shown by chlorophyll loss assay. In situ localization of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) suggests that, although transgenic plants have higher constitutive levels of H2O2 under normal growth conditions, imposed dark-induced senescence results in smaller induction levels of H2O2, an observation which correlates with increased antioxidant enzyme activities and an induction in the expression of AA recycling genes compared with that in wild-type plants. Our current findings, combined with previous studies which showed the contribution of AO in the regulation of AA redox state, suggest that the reduction in AA redox state in the leaf apoplast of these transgenic plants results in an increase in the endogenous levels of H2O2, which provides a form of 'acquired tolerance' to oxidative stress imposed by dark-induced senescence.

  3. Overexpression of eIF5 or its protein mimic 5MP perturbs eIF2 function and induces ATF4 translation through delayed re-initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, Caitlin; Thompson, Brytteny; Hustak, Samantha; Moore, Chelsea; Nakashima, Akio; Singh, Chingakham Ranjit; Reid, Megan; Cox, Christian; Papadopoulos, Evangelos; Luna, Rafael E.; Anderson, Abbey; Tagami, Hideaki; Hiraishi, Hiroyuki; Slone, Emily Archer; Yoshino, Ken-ichi; Asano, Masayo; Gillaspie, Sarah; Nietfeld, Jerome; Perchellet, Jean-Pierre; Rothenburg, Stefan; Masai, Hisao; Wagner, Gerhard; Beeser, Alexander; Kikkawa, Ushio; Fleming, Sherry D.; Asano, Katsura

    2016-01-01

    ATF4 is a pro-oncogenic transcription factor whose translation is activated by eIF2 phosphorylation through delayed re-initiation involving two uORFs in the mRNA leader. However, in yeast, the effect of eIF2 phosphorylation can be mimicked by eIF5 overexpression, which turns eIF5 into translational inhibitor, thereby promoting translation of GCN4, the yeast ATF4 equivalent. Furthermore, regulatory protein termed eIF5-mimic protein (5MP) can bind eIF2 and inhibit general translation. Here, we show that 5MP1 overexpression in human cells leads to strong formation of 5MP1:eIF2 complex, nearly comparable to that of eIF5:eIF2 complex produced by eIF5 overexpression. Overexpression of eIF5, 5MP1 and 5MP2, the second human paralog, promotes ATF4 expression in certain types of human cells including fibrosarcoma. 5MP overexpression also induces ATF4 expression in Drosophila. The knockdown of 5MP1 in fibrosarcoma attenuates ATF4 expression and its tumor formation on nude mice. Since 5MP2 is overproduced in salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma, we propose that overexpression of eIF5 and 5MP induces translation of ATF4 and potentially other genes with uORFs in their mRNA leaders through delayed re-initiation, thereby enhancing the survival of normal and cancer cells under stress conditions. PMID:27325740

  4. Hair Regenerative Mechanisms of Red Ginseng Oil and Its Major Components in the Testosterone-Induced Delay of Anagen Entry in C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Long Truong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hair loss (alopecia is a universal problem for numerous people in the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of red ginseng oil (RGO and its major components on hair re-growth using testosterone (TES-induced delay of anagen entry in C57BL/6 mice and their mechanisms of action. Seven-week-old C57BL/6 mice were daily treated with TES for 1 h prior to topical application of 10% RGO, 1% linoleic acid (LA, 1% β-sitosterol (SITOS, or 1% bicyclo(10.1.0tridec-1-ene (BICYCLO once a day for 28 days. Hair regenerative capacity was significantly restored by treatment of RGO and its major compounds in the TES-treated mice. Histological analysis showed that RGO along with LA and SITOS but not BICYCLO promoted hair growth through early inducing anagen phase that was delayed by TES in mice. Treatment of mice with RGO, LA, or SITOS up-regulated Wnt/β-catenin and Shh/Gli pathways-mediated expression of genes such as β-catenin, Lef-1, Sonic hedgehog, Smoothened, Gli-1, Cyclin D1, and Cyclin E in the TES-treated mice. In addition, RGO and its major components reduced the protein level of TGF-β but enhanced the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These results suggest that RGO is a potent novel therapeutic natural product for treatment of androgenic alopecia possibly through hair re-growth activity of its major components such as LA and SITOS.

  5. Transcriptome changes associated with delayed flower senescence on transgenic petunia by inducing expression of etr1-1, a mutant ethylene receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available Flowers of ethylene-sensitive ornamental plants transformed with ethylene-insensitive 1-1(etr1-1, a mutant ethylene receptor first isolated from Arabidopsis, are known to have longer shelf lives. We have generated petunia plants in which the etr1-1 gene was over-expressed under the control of a chemically-inducible promoter, which would allow expression of etr1-1 to be initiated at the desired time and stage of development. Here, we showed that transgenic plants grew and developed normally without a chemical inducer. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the abundance of transcripts of Arabidopsis etr1-1 gene was substantially induced in flowers with 30 μM dexamethasone (DEX. Consequently, t he life of the flowers was almost doubled and the peak of ethylene production was delayed. We compared gene expression changes of petals with DEX to those without DEX at 24 h and 48 h by microarray. Our results indicated that transcripts of many putative genes encoding transcription factors were down-regulated by etr1-1 induced expression at the early stage. In addition, putative genes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis, response to jasmonic acid/gibberellins stimulus, cell wall modification, ethylene biosynthesis, and cell death were down-regulated associating with etr1-1 induced expression. We investigated time-course gene expression profiles and found two profiles which displayed totally opposite expression patterns under these two treatments. In these profiles, 'the regulation of transcription' was predominant in GO categories. Taking all results together, we concluded those transcription factors down-regulated at early stage might exert a major role in regulating the senescence process which were consequently characterized by cell wall modification and cell death.

  6. 部分时滞诱发Watts-Strogatz小世界神经元网络产生随机多共振∗%Sto chastic multi-resonance induced by partial time delay in a Watts-Strogatz small-world neuronal network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓娟; 李国芳

    2016-01-01

    In a neuronal system, propagation speed of neuronal information is mainly determined by the length, the diameter, and the kind of the axons between the neurons. Thus, some communications between neurons are not instantaneous, and others are instantaneous or with some negligible delay. In the past years, effects of time delay on neuronal dynamics, such as synchronization, stochastic resonance, firing regularity, etc., have been investigated. For stochastic resonance, it has been reported recently that stochastic multi-resonance in a neuronal system can be induced by time delay. However, in these studies, time delay has been introduced to every connection of the neuronal system. As mentioned in the beginning, in a real neuronal system, communication between some neurons can be instantaneous or with some negligible delays. Thus, considering the effect of partial time delay (time delay is called as partial time delay if only part of connections are delayed) on neuronal dynamics could be more meaningful. In this paper, we focus on discussing effect of partial time delay on response amplitude of a Watts-Strogatz neuronal network which is locally modeled by Rulkov map. With the numerically obtained results, we can see that partial time delay can induce a stochastic multi-resonance which is indicated by the multi-peak characteristics in the variation of response amplitude with partial time delay. Namely, partial time delay could also induce stochastic multi-resonance in a neuronal system. Moreover, we also find that optimal response amplitude can be reached in much wider range of the partial time delay value when delayed connections are less (i.e., the partial time delay probability is small). This is different from the case in which all connections are delayed, where response amplitude become optimal only when time delay is nearly the multiples of external signal’s period. But the range of the partial time delay value becomes narrower and narrower with the increasing of

  7. HIMALAIA (Hypertension Induction in the Management of AneurysmaL subArachnoid haemorrhage with secondary IschaemiA) : a randomized single- blind controlled trial of induced hypertension vs. no induced hypertension in the treatment of delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gathier, C. S.; van den Bergh, W. M.; Slooter, A. J. C.

    2014-01-01

    RationaleDelayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a major complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). One option to treat delayed cerebral ischemia is to use induced hypertension, but its efficacy on the eventual outcome has not been proven in a randomized clinical trial. This article des

  8. HIMALAIA (Hypertension Induction in the Management of AneurysmaL subArachnoid haemorrhage with secondary IschaemiA) : a randomized single- blind controlled trial of induced hypertension vs. no induced hypertension in the treatment of delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gathier, C. S.; van den Bergh, W. M.; Slooter, A. J. C.

    RationaleDelayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a major complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). One option to treat delayed cerebral ischemia is to use induced hypertension, but its efficacy on the eventual outcome has not been proven in a randomized clinical trial. This article

  9. p53 dependent apoptosis and cell cycle delay induced by heteroleptic complexes in human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gunjan; Rana, Nishant Kumar; Singh, Priya; Dubey, Pradeep; Pandey, Daya Shankar; Koch, Biplob

    2017-04-01

    We previously reported synthesis of novel arene ruthenium (Ru) complexes and evaluated their antitumor activity in murine lymphoma (DL) cells. In this present study we further investigated the mechanism of action of two ruthenium complexes [complex 1 (η6-arene)RuCl(2-pcdpm)] and complex 2 (η6-arene)RuCl(4-mtdpm)] in cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). Our studies demonstrate that anticancer property of these two complexes was due to induction of apoptosis through p53 mediated pathway as well as arrest of cells in G2/M phase of cell cycle. It is worth to note that the complexes did not cause any substantial cytotoxic effect on normal cells. Further in comprehensive studies, apoptosis inducing property of both complexes were established in accordance with array of morphological changes ranging from membrane blebbing to formation of apoptotic bodies and followed by DNA fragmentation assay. Furthermore, Flow cytometry by Annexin V/PI staining delineate that complex 1 and 2 have strident impact to induce apoptosis in HeLa cells. The complex 1 and 2 treated cells show increased level of intracellular ROS generation which was preceded by p53 activation. Apoptosis induced by 1 and 2 was preceded by mitochondrial aggregations which were monitored by mitotracker. In addition flow cytometry analysis showed that both complexes also effectively arrest cells at G2/M phase of cell cycle. Western blot, RT-PCR as well as Real Time analysis were used to further confirm that the complexes induced apoptosis in p53 dependent pathway. Thus, our promising results can contribute to the rational design of novel potential anticancer agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Delayed germination of Arabidopsis seeds under chilling stress by overexpressing an abiotic stress inducible GhTPS11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cai-Li; Zhang, Shi-Cai; Qi, Sheng-Dong; Zheng, Cheng-Chao; Wu, Chang-Ai

    2016-01-10

    Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) plays an important role in metabolic regulation and stress responses in a variety of organisms. However information about cotton TPS is poor. Here a cotton TPS gene GhTPS11 was isolated and characterized. Expression analysis revealed that GhTPS11 was induced in 20-day old cotton seedlings by heat drought and high salt stresses as well as GA and ABA. Moreover GhTPS11 was induced by chilling stress and mannitol while was depressed by sucrose. Tissue expression analysis indicated that GhTPS11 expressed higher in leaves than in stems and roots of 20-day old cotton seedlings. The GhTPS11 overexpressing Arabidopsis seeds germinated slower than the wild-type (WT) under chilling stress. Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) and trehalose contents were evidently higher in GhTPS11 overexpressing lines 3, 5, and 22 than in WT under normal germination condition as well as chilling stress. Further analysis demonstrated that the expression of ICE1 CBF3 and RCI2A was induced lower whereas that of CBF1 and CBF2 was induced higher under chilling stress in the GhTPS11 overexpressing seeds than WT respectively. These results suggested that GhTPS11 encoded a stress-responsive TPS protein and functioned in chilling stress during seed germination. Perhaps the chilling stress sensitivity of transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was caused by the expression changes of at least some chilling-related genes such as ICE1 CBFs and RCI2A other than HOS1. So this article provided the useful information for GhTPS11 usage for crop molecular breeding.

  11. Delayed degradation of chlorophylls and photosynthetic proteins in Arabidopsis autophagy mutants during stress-induced leaf yellowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraba, Yasuhito; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Ye-Sol; Park, Ohkmae K; Hörtensteiner, Stefan; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2014-07-01

    Plant autophagy, one of the essential proteolysis systems, balances proteome and nutrient levels in cells of the whole plant. Autophagy has been studied by analysing Arabidopsis thaliana autophagy-defective atg mutants, but the relationship between autophagy and chlorophyll (Chl) breakdown during stress-induced leaf yellowing remains unclear. During natural senescence or under abiotic-stress conditions, extensive cell death and early yellowing occurs in the leaves of atg mutants. A new finding is revealed that atg5 and atg7 mutants exhibit a functional stay-green phenotype under mild abiotic-stress conditions, but leaf yellowing proceeds normally in wild-type leaves under these conditions. Under mild salt stress, atg5 leaves retained high levels of Chls and all photosystem proteins and maintained a normal chloroplast structure. Furthermore, a double mutant of atg5 and non-functional stay-green nonyellowing1-1 (atg5 nye1-1) showed a much stronger stay-green phenotype than either single mutant. Taking these results together, it is proposed that autophagy functions in the non-selective catabolism of Chls and photosynthetic proteins during stress-induced leaf yellowing, in addition to the selective degradation of Chl-apoprotein complexes in the chloroplasts through the senescence-induced STAY-GREEN1/NYE1 and Chl catabolic enzymes.

  12. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. On infinitely divisible semimartingales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse-O'Connor, Andreas; Rosiński, Jan

    2015-01-01

    processes, including linear fractional processes, mixed moving averages, and supOU processes, as particular cases. The proof of the main theorem relies on series representations of jumps of cadlag infinitely divisible processes given in Basse-O'Connor and Rosinski [2013, Ann. Probab. 41(6)] combined...

  14. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  15. Encrypted integer division

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugen, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    When processing signals in the encrypted domain, homomorphic encryption can be used to enable linear operations on encrypted data. Integer division of encrypted data however requires an additional protocol with the server and will be relatively expensive. We present new solutions for dividing encryp

  16. The Problem with Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Of the "big four", division is likely to regarded by many learners as "the odd one out", "the difficult one", "the one that is complicated", or "the scary one". It seems to have been that way "for ever", in the perception of many who have trodden the learning pathways through the world of number. But, does it have to be like this? Clearly the…

  17. Unilateral low-frequency stimulation of central piriform cortex delays seizure development induced by amygdaloid kindling in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L-X; Jin, C-L; Zhu-Ge, Z-B; Wang, S; Wei, E-Q; Bruce, I C; Chen, Z

    2006-01-01

    Low-frequency stimulation of the kindling site interferes with the course of kindling epileptogenesis. The present study examined the effect of unilateral low-frequency stimulation of the central piriform cortex on seizure development induced by amygdaloid kindling in rats. The ipsilateral or contralateral central piriform cortex received low-frequency stimulation (15 min train of 0.1 ms pulses at 1 Hz and 50-150 muA) immediately after termination of once daily kindling stimulation (2 s train of 1 ms pulses at 60 Hz and 150-300 microA) in the right amygdala for 30 days. Low-frequency stimulation of either the ipsilateral or contralateral central piriform cortex significantly suppressed the progression of seizure stages and reduced afterdischarge duration throughout the course of amygdaloid kindling. The marked suppression induced by low-frequency stimulation of the central piriform cortex on either side was predominantly due to the significant retardation of progression from stage 0 to stage 1 and stage 3 to stage 4 seizures. In addition, the suppressive effect of low-frequency stimulation did not disappear when the stimulation was stopped; it could persist for at least 10 days. These findings indicate that brain areas other than the kindling focus, such as the central piriform cortex on both sides, can also be used as reasonable targets for low-frequency stimulation to retard seizure development induced by amygdaloid kindling. Secondly, like the ipsilateral central piriform cortex, the contralateral central piriform cortex may also participate in the progression and secondary generalization of focal seizures. The study suggests that unilateral low-frequency stimulation of the central piriform cortex may have a significant antiepileptogenic effect, and may be helpful for exploring effective and long-lasting therapies for human temporal lobe epilepsy.

  18. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 activation mediates sildenafil induced delayed cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Shalwala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been well documented that phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, sildenafil (SIL protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I-R injury. SIRT1 is part of the class III Sirtuin family of histone deacetylases that deacetylates proteins involved in cellular stress response including those related to I-R injury. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We tested the hypothesis that SIL-induced cardioprotection may be mediated through activation of SIRT1. METHODS: Adult male ICR mice were treated with SIL (0.7 mg/kg, i.p., Resveratrol (RSV, 5 mg/kg, a putative activator of SIRT1 used as the positive control, or saline (0.2 mL. The hearts were harvested 24 hours later and homogenized for SIRT1 activity analysis. RESULTS: Both SIL- and RSV-treated mice had increased cardiac SIRT1 activity (P<0.001 as compared to the saline-treated controls 24 hours after drug treatment. In isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes, pretreatment with SIL (1 µM or RSV (1 µM for one hour in vitro also upregulated SIRT1 activity (P<0.05. We further examined the causative relationship between SIRT1 activation and SIL-induced late cardioprotection. Pretreatment with SIL (or RSV 24 hours prior to 30 min ischemia and 24 hours of reperfusion significantly reduced infarct size, which was associated with a significant increase in SIRT1 activity (P<0.05. Moreover, sirtinol (a SIRT1 inhibitor, 5 mg/kg, i.p. given 30 min before I-R blunted the infarct-limiting effect of SIL and RSV (P<0.001. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that activation of SIRT1 following SIL treatment plays an essential role in mediating the SIL-induced cardioprotection against I-R injury. This newly identified SIRT1-activating property of SIL may have enormous therapeutic implications.

  19. Chronic psychosocial stress causes delayed extinction and exacerbates reinstatement of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bahi, Amine; Dreyer, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Here, we examined the impact of chronic subordinate colony (CSC) exposure on EtOH-CPP extinction, as well as ethanol-induced reinstatement of CPP.Methods: Mice were conditioned with saline or 1.5 g/kg ethanol and were tested in the EtOH-CPP model. In the first experiment, the mice were subjected to 19 days of chronic stress, and EtOH-CPP extinction was assessed during seven daily trials without ethanol injection. In the second experiment and after the EtOH-CPP test, the mice were s...

  20. Dietary CLA-induced lipolysis is delayed in soy oil-fed mice compared to coconut oil-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippagunta, S; Angius, Z; Sanda, M; Barnes, K M

    2013-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to cause a reduction in obesity in several species. CLA-induced body fat loss is enhanced when mice are fed coconut oil (CO) and involves increased lipolysis. The objective of this paper was to determine if the CLA-induced lipolysis in mice fed with different oil sources was time-dependent. Mice were fed 7 % soybean oil (SO) or CO diets for 6 week and then supplemented with 0 or 0.5 % CLA for 3, 7, 10 or 14 days. Body fat and ex-vivo lipolysis was determined. Body fat was reduced by CO on day 7 (P Lipolysis was increased by CLA in CO-fed mice (P lipolysis in both CO- and SO-fed mice (P lipolysis and lipogenesis was determined by western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. No significant differences were detected in protein expression. CO-fed mice had greater fatty acid synthase and stearyl CoA desaturase 1 mRNA expression and less acetyl CoA carboxylase mRNA expression (P lipolysis occurs more rapidly in CO vs SO-fed mice and lipogenesis is decreased in CO-fed mice with CLA supplementation.

  1. CD44-deficiency attenuates the immunologic responses to LPS and delays the onset of endotoxic shock-induced renal inflammation and dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rampanelli

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common complication during systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, a potentially deadly clinical condition characterized by whole-body inflammatory state and organ dysfunction. CD44 is a ubiquitously expressed cell-surface transmembrane receptor with multiple functions in inflammatory processes, including sterile renal inflammation. The present study aimed to assess the role of CD44 in endotoxic shock-induced kidney inflammation and dysfunction by using CD44 KO and WT mice exposed intraperitoneally to LPS for 2, 4, and 24 hours . Upon LPS administration, CD44 expression in WT kidneys was augmented at all time-points. At 2 and 4 hours, CD44 KO animals showed a preserved renal function in comparison to WT mice. In absence of CD44, the pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in plasma and kidneys were lower, while renal expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was higher. The cytokine levels were associated with decreased leukocyte influx and endothelial activation in CD44 KO kidneys. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrated a role of CD44 in enhancing macrophage cytokine responses to LPS and leukocyte migration. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that lack of CD44 impairs the early pro-inflammatory cytokine response to LPS, diminishes leukocyte migration/chemotaxis and endothelial activation, hence, delays endotoxic shock-induced AKI.

  2. Delayed persistence of giant-nucleated cells induced by X-ray and proton irradiation in the progeny of replicating normal human f ibroblast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahwasi, A. A.; Jeynes, J. C.; Merchant, M. J.; Bradley, D. A.; Regan, P. H.

    2017-08-01

    Ionising radiation can induce giant-nucleated cells (GCs) in the progeny of irradiated populations, as demonstrated in various cellular systems. Most in vitro studies have utilised quiescent cancerous or normal cell lines but it is not clear whether radiation-induced GCs persist in the progeny of normal replicated cells. In the current work we show persistent induction of GCs in the progeny of normal human-diploid skin fibroblasts (AG1522). These cells were originally irradiated with a single equivalent clinical dose of 0.2, 1 or 2 Gy of either X-ray or proton irradiation and maintained in an active state for various post-irradiation incubation interval times before they were replated for GC analysis. The results demonstrate that the formation of GCs in the progeny of X-ray or proton irradiated cells was increased in a dose-dependent manner when measured 7 days after irradiation and this finding is in agreement with that reported for the AG1522 cells using other radiation qualities. For the 1 Gy X-ray doses it was found that the GC yield increased continually with time up to 21 days post-irradiation. These results can act as benchmark data for such work and may have important implications for studies aimed at evaluating the efficacy of radiation therapy and in determining the risk of delayed effects particularly when applying protons.

  3. H∞ State Feedback Delay-dependent Control for Discrete Systems with Multi-time-delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai-Da Qu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper,H∞ state feedback control with delay information for discrete systems with multi-time-delay is discussed. Making use of linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, a time-delay-dependent criterion for a discrete system with multi-time-delay to satisfy H∞ performance indices is induced, and then a strategy for H∞ state feedback control with delay values for plant with multi-time-delay is obtained. By solving corresponding LMI, a delay-dependent state feedback controller satisfying H∞ performance indices is designed. Finally, a simulation example demonstrates the validity of the proposed approach.

  4. Inflammatory responses are not sufficient to cause delayed neuronal death in ATP-induced acute brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hey-Kyeong Jeong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain inflammation is accompanied by brain injury. However, it is controversial whether inflammatory responses are harmful or beneficial to neurons. Because many studies have been performed using cultured microglia and neurons, it has not been possible to assess the influence of multiple cell types and diverse factors that dynamically and continuously change in vivo. Furthermore, behavior of microglia and other inflammatory cells could have been overlooked since most studies have focused on neuronal death. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the precise roles of microglia and brain inflammation in the injured brain, and determine their contribution to neuronal damage in vivo from the onset of injury. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Acute neuronal damage was induced by stereotaxic injection of ATP into the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc and the cortex of the rat brain. Inflammatory responses and their effects on neuronal damage were investigated by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, quantitative RT-PCR, and stereological counting, etc. ATP acutely caused death of microglia as well as neurons in a similar area within 3 h. We defined as the core region the area where both TH(+ and Iba-1(+ cells acutely died, and as the penumbra the area surrounding the core where Iba-1(+ cells showed activated morphology. In the penumbra region, morphologically activated microglia arranged around the injury sites. Monocytes filled the damaged core after neurons and microglia died. Interestingly, neither activated microglia nor monocytes expressed iNOS, a major neurotoxic inflammatory mediator. Monocytes rather expressed CD68, a marker of phagocytic activity. Importantly, the total number of dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc at 3 h (∼80% of that in the contralateral side did not decrease further at 7 d. Similarly, in the cortex, ATP-induced neuron-damage area detected at 3 h did not increase for up to 7 d. CONCLUSIONS: Different cellular

  5. Delayed reversible methotrexate-induced leucoencephalopathy in a four-year-old child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Roy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous/intrathecal methotrexate (MTX has been implicated as a major cause of treatment-related neurotoxicity particularly leukoencephalopathy in children with hematological malignancy. We report a 4-year-old boy who presented with apathy and aphasia for 1 day while on the maintenance-phase chemotherapy according to MCP 841 protocol. MRI of brain revealed bilateral symmetrical FLAIR hyperintensities in caudate and putaminal region with FLAIR hypersignal in subcortical U-fiber in left frontal lobe consistent with MTX-induced toxic leucoencephalopathy. There was spontaneous resolution of symptoms within 1 week of onset. So, in Pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with subtle neurological deficit, this diagnosis should be kept in mind and further treatment with MTX should be carefully decided.

  6. Evidence for the involvement of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in delayed liquid gastric emptying induced by dipyrone, 4-aminoantipyrine, and antipyrine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, A M; Collares, E F

    2013-09-01

    Dipyrone (Dp), 4-aminoantipyrine (AA), and antipyrine (At) delay liquid gastric emptying (GE) in rats. We evaluated adrenergic participation in this phenomenon in a study in male Wistar rats (250-300 g) pretreated subcutaneously with guanethidine (GUA), 100 mg·kg-1·day-1, or vehicle (V) for 2 days before experimental treatments. Other groups of animals were pretreated intravenously (iv) 15 min before treatment with V, prazosin (PRA; 1 mg/kg), yohimbine (YOH; 3 mg/kg), or propranolol (PRO; 4 mg/kg), or with intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of 25 µg PRO or V. The groups were treated iv with saline or with 240 µmol/kg Dp, AA, or At. GE was determined 10 min later by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (%GR) of saline labeled with phenol red 10 min after gavage. %GR (mean ± SE, n=8) indicated that GUA abolished the effect of Dp (GUA vs V=31.7 ± 1.6 vs 47.1 ± 2.3%) and of At (33.2 ± 2.3 vs 54.7 ± 3.6%) on GE and significantly reduced the effect of AA (48.1 ± 3.2 vs 67.2 ± 3.1%). PRA and YOH did not modify the effect of the drugs. %GR (mean ± SE, n=8) indicated that iv, but not icv, PRO abolished the effect of Dp (PRO vs V=29.1 ± 1.7 vs 46.9 ± 2.7%) and At (30.5 ± 1.7 vs 49 ± 3.2%) and significantly reduced the effect of AA (48.4 ± 2.6 vs 59.5 ± 3.1%). These data suggest activation of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in the delayed GE induced by phenylpyrazolone derivatives.

  7. Tuberculin-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in a model of hu-PBMC-SCID mice grafted with autologous skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsicopoulos, A.; Pestel, J.; Fahy, O.; Vorng, H.; Vandenbusche, F.; Porte, H.; Eraldi, L.; Wurtz, A.; Akoum, H.; Hamid, Q.; Wallaert, B.; Tonnel, A. B.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed an animal model to study human delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Previous studies in humans have shown after tuberculin injection the presence of a mononuclear cell infiltration, with almost no eosinophils, associated with a preferential Th-1-type cytokine profile. Human skin graft obtained from tuberculin-reactive donors was grafted onto the back of severe combined immunodeficient mice. After healing, mice were reconstituted intraperitoneally with peripheral mononuclear cells. Tuberculin and diluent were injected intradermally, and skin biopsies were performed 72 hours later. Skin grafts were divided into two parts, one for immunohistochemistry and one for in situ hybridization studies. Immunohistochemistry was performed on cryostat sections using the alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase technique. In the tuberculin-injected sites as compared with the diluent-injected sites, there were significant increases in the number of CD45+ pan leukocytes and CD4+, CD8+, CD45RO+ T cells but not in CD68+ monocytes/macrophages and EG2 or MBP+ eosinophils. The activation markers CD25 and HLA-DR were up-regulated in the tuberculin-injected sites. In situ hybridization was performed using 35S-labeled riboprobes for interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-4, and IL-5. After tuberculin injection, a preferential Th-1-type cytokine profile was observed with significant increases in the numbers of IL-2 and IFN-gamma mRNA-expressing cells. These results are similar to those reported after tuberculin-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity in humans, suggesting that this model might be useful to study cutaneous inflammatory reaction. Images Figure 4 PMID:9626072

  8. Evidence for the involvement of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in delayed liquid gastric emptying induced by dipyrone, 4-aminoantipyrine, and antipyrine in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinagre, A.M. [Núcleo de Medicina e Cirurgia Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Collares, E.F. [Departamento de Pediatria, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Núcleo de Medicina e Cirurgia Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-27

    Dipyrone (Dp), 4-aminoantipyrine (AA), and antipyrine (At) delay liquid gastric emptying (GE) in rats. We evaluated adrenergic participation in this phenomenon in a study in male Wistar rats (250-300 g) pretreated subcutaneously with guanethidine (GUA), 100 mg·kg{sup −1}·day{sup −1}, or vehicle (V) for 2 days before experimental treatments. Other groups of animals were pretreated intravenously (iv) 15 min before treatment with V, prazosin (PRA; 1 mg/kg), yohimbine (YOH; 3 mg/kg), or propranolol (PRO; 4 mg/kg), or with intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of 25 µg PRO or V. The groups were treated iv with saline or with 240 µmol/kg Dp, AA, or At. GE was determined 10 min later by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (%GR) of saline labeled with phenol red 10 min after gavage. %GR (mean±SE, n=8) indicated that GUA abolished the effect of Dp (GUA vs V=31.7±1.6 vs 47.1±2.3%) and of At (33.2±2.3 vs 54.7±3.6%) on GE and significantly reduced the effect of AA (48.1±3.2 vs 67.2±3.1%). PRA and YOH did not modify the effect of the drugs. %GR (mean±SE, n=8) indicated that iv, but not icv, PRO abolished the effect of Dp (PRO vs V=29.1±1.7 vs 46.9±2.7%) and At (30.5±1.7 vs 49±3.2%) and significantly reduced the effect of AA (48.4±2.6 vs 59.5±3.1%). These data suggest activation of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in the delayed GE induced by phenylpyrazolone derivatives.

  9. Small interfering RNA targeted to IGF-IR delays tumor growth and induces proinflammatory cytokines in a mouse breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiphanie Durfort

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I and its type I receptor (IGF-IR play significant roles in tumorigenesis and in immune response. Here, we wanted to know whether an RNA interference approach targeted to IGF-IR could be used for specific antitumor immunostimulation in a breast cancer model. For that, we evaluated short interfering RNA (siRNAs for inhibition of in vivo tumor growth and immunological stimulation in immunocompetent mice. We designed 2'-O-methyl-modified siRNAs to inhibit expression of IGF-IR in two murine breast cancer cell lines (EMT6, C4HD. Cell transfection of IGF-IR siRNAs decreased proliferation, diminished phosphorylation of downstream signaling pathway proteins, AKT and ERK, and caused a G0/G1 cell cycle block. The IGF-IR silencing also induced secretion of two proinflammatory cytokines, TNF- α and IFN-γ. When we transfected C4HD cells with siRNAs targeting IGF-IR, mammary tumor growth was strongly delayed in syngenic mice. Histology of developing tumors in mice grafted with IGF-IR siRNA treated C4HD cells revealed a low mitotic index, and infiltration of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils, suggesting activation of an antitumor immune response. When we used C4HD cells treated with siRNA as an immunogen, we observed an increase in delayed-type hypersensitivity and the presence of cytotoxic splenocytes against wild-type C4HD cells, indicative of evolving immune response. Our findings show that silencing IGF-IR using synthetic siRNA bearing 2'-O-methyl nucleotides may offer a new clinical approach for treatment of mammary tumors expressing IGF-IR. Interestingly, our work also suggests that crosstalk between IGF-I axis and antitumor immune response can mobilize proinflammatory cytokines.

  10. Podcast: The Electronic Crimes Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sept 26, 2016. Chris Lukas, the Special Agent in Charge of the Electronic Crimes Division within the OIG's Office of Investigations talks about computer forensics, cybercrime in the EPA and his division's role in criminal investigations.

  11. 2016 T Division Lightning Talks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, Marilyn Leann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Adams, Luke Clyde [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Ferre, Gregoire Robing [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Grantcharov, Vesselin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Iaroshenko, Oleksandr [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Krishnapriyan, Aditi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Kurtakoti, Prajvala Kishore [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Le Thien, Minh Quan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Lim, Jonathan Ng [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Low, Thaddeus Song En [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Lystrom, Levi Aaron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Ma, Xiaoyu [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Nguyen, Hong T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Pogue, Sabine Silvia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Orandle, Zoe Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Reisner, Andrew Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Revard, Benjamin Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Roy, Julien [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Sandor, Csanad [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Slavkova, Kalina Polet [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Weichman, Kathleen Joy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Wu, Fei [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Yang, Yang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division

    2016-11-29

    These are the slides for all of the 2016 T Division lightning talks. There are 350 pages worth of slides from different presentations, all of which cover different topics within the theoretical division at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  12. 75 FR 16178 - Antitrust Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Joint... Director of Operations, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE 4410-11-M...

  13. Novel coumarin- and quinolinone-based polycycles as cell division cycle 25-A and -C phosphatases inhibitors induce proliferation arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwergel, Clemens; Czepukojc, Brigitte; Evain-Bana, Emilie; Xu, Zhanjie; Stazi, Giulia; Mori, Mattia; Patsilinakos, Alexandros; Mai, Antonello; Botta, Bruno; Ragno, Rino; Bagrel, Denise; Kirsch, Gilbert; Meiser, Peter; Jacob, Claus; Montenarh, Mathias; Valente, Sergio

    2017-07-07

    Cell division cycle phosphatases CDC25 A, B and C are involved in modulating cell cycle processes and are found overexpressed in a large panel of cancer typology. Here, we describe the development of two novel quinone-polycycle series of CDC25A and C inhibitors on the one hand 1a-k, coumarin-based, and on the other 2a-g, quinolinone-based, which inhibit either enzymes up to a sub-micro molar level and at single-digit micro molar concentrations, respectively. When tested in six different cancer cell lines, compound 2c displayed the highest efficacy to arrest cell viability, showing in almost all cell lines sub-micro molar IC50 values, a profile even better than the reference compound NCS95397. To investigate the putative binding mode of the inhibitors and to develop quantitative structure-activity relationships, molecular docking and 3-D QSAR studies were also carried out. Four selected inhibitors, 1a, 1d, 2a and 2c have been also tested in A431 cancer cells; among them, compound 2c was the most potent one leading to cell proliferation arrest and decreased CDC25C protein levels together with its splicing variant. Compound 2c displayed increased phosphorylation levels of histone H3, induction of PARP and caspase 3 cleavage, highlighting its contribution to cell death through pro-apoptotic effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. DipM, a new factor required for peptidoglycan remodelling during cell division in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möll, Andrea; Schlimpert, Susan; Briegel, Ariane; Jensen, Grant J; Thanbichler, Martin

    2010-07-01

    In bacteria, cytokinesis is dependent on lytic enzymes that facilitate remodelling of the cell wall during constriction. In this work, we identify a thus far uncharacterized periplasmic protein, DipM, that is required for cell division and polarity in Caulobacter crescentus. DipM is composed of four peptidoglycan binding (LysM) domains and a C-terminal lysostaphin-like (LytM) peptidase domain. It binds to isolated murein sacculi in vitro, and is recruited to the site of constriction through interaction with the cell division protein FtsN. Mutational analyses showed that the LysM domains are necessary and sufficient for localization of DipM, while its peptidase domain is essential for function. Consistent with a role in cell wall hydrolysis, DipM was found to interact with purified murein sacculi in vitro and to induce cell lysis upon overproduction. Its inactivation causes severe defects in outer membrane invagination, resulting in a significant delay between cytoplasmic compartmentalization and final separation of the daughter cells. Overall, these findings indicate that DipM is a periplasmic component of the C. crescentus divisome that facilitates remodelling of the peptidoglycan layer and, thus, coordinated constriction of the cell envelope during the division process.

  15. Division of Labor

    KAUST Repository

    Oke, Muse

    2014-09-12

    The first assignment of DNA polymerases at the eukaryotic replication fork was possible after the in vitro reconstitution of the simian virus 40 (SV40) replication system. In this system, DNA polymerase α (Pol α) provides both leading and lagging strands with RNA-DNA primers that are extended by DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). Extrapolating the architecture of the replication fork from the SV40 model system to an actual eukaryotic cell has been challenged by the discovery of a third DNA polymerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε). A division of labor has been proposed for the eukaryotic replication fork whereby Pol ε replicates the leading strand and Pol δ replicates the lagging strand. However, an alternative model of unequal division of labor in which Pol δ can still participate in leading-strand synthesis is plausible.

  16. Quantifying lip-read-induced suppression and facilitation of the auditory N1 and P2 reveals peak enhancements and delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, Martijn

    2016-09-01

    Lip-read speech suppresses and speeds up the auditory N1 and P2 peaks, but these effects are not always observed or reported. Here, the robustness of lip-read-induced N1/P2 suppression and facilitation in phonetically congruent audiovisual speech was assessed by analyzing peak values that were taken from published plots and individual data. To determine whether adhering to the additive model of AV integration (i.e., A+V ≠ AV, or AV-V ≠ A) is critical for correct characterization of lip-read-induced effects on the N1 and P2, auditory data was compared to AV and to AV-V. On average, the N1 and P2 were consistently suppressed and sped up by lip-read information, with no indication that AV integration effects were significantly modulated by whether or not V was subtracted from AV. To assess the possibility that variability in observed N1/P2 amplitudes and latencies may explain why N1/P2 suppression and facilitation are not always found, additional correlations between peak values and size of the AV integration effects were computed. These analyses showed that N1/P2 peak values correlated with the size of AV integration effects. However, it also became apparent that a portion of the AV integration effects was characterized by lip-read-induced peak enhancements and delays rather than suppressions and facilitations, which, for the individual data, seemed related to particularly small/early A-only peaks and large/late AV(-V) peaks.

  17. An S-domain receptor-like kinase, OsSIK2, confers abiotic stress tolerance and delays dark-induced leaf senescence in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Juan; Wuriyanghan, Hada; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Duan, Kai-Xuan; Chen, Hao-Wei; Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; He, Si-Jie; Ma, Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Lin, Qing; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2013-12-01

    Receptor-like kinases play important roles in plant development and defense responses; however, their functions in other processes remain unclear. Here, we report that OsSIK2, an S-domain receptor-like kinase from rice (Oryza sativa), is involved in abiotic stress and the senescence process. OsSIK2 is a plasma membrane-localized protein with kinase activity in the presence of Mn(2+). OsSIK2 is expressed mainly in rice leaf and sheath and can be induced by NaCl, drought, cold, dark, and abscisic acid treatment. Transgenic plants overexpressing OsSIK2 and mutant sik2 exhibit enhanced and reduced tolerance to salt and drought stress, respectively, compared with the controls. Interestingly, a truncated version of OsSIK2 without most of the extracellular region confers higher salt tolerance than the full-length OsSIK2, likely through the activation of different sets of downstream genes. Moreover, seedlings of OsSIK2-overexpressing transgenic plants exhibit early leaf development and a delayed dark-induced senescence phenotype, while mutant sik2 shows the opposite phenotype. The downstream PR-related genes specifically up-regulated by full-length OsSIK2 or the DREB-like genes solely enhanced by truncated OsSIK2 are all induced by salt, drought, and dark treatments. These results indicate that OsSIK2 may integrate stress signals into a developmental program for better adaptive growth under unfavorable conditions. Manipulation of OsSIK2 should facilitate the improvement of production in rice and other crops.

  18. ROLES OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF-A) IN MEDIATION OF DIOXIN (TCDD)-INDUCED DELAYS IN DEVELOPMENT OF THE MOUSE MAMMARY GLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roles of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Transforming Growth Factor-alpha (TGF-a) in Mediation of Dioxin (TCDD)-Induced Delays in Development of the Mouse Mammary Gland.Suzanne E. Fenton, Barbara Abbott, Lamont Bryant, and Angela Buckalew. U.S. EPA, NHEERL, Reproductive Tox...

  19. HLA-DR EXPRESSION IS INDUCED ON KERATINOCYTES IN DELAYED-HYPERSENSITIVITY BUT NOT IN ALLERGEN-INDUCED LATE-PHASE REACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WELLER, FR; DEJONG, MCJM; WELLER, MS; HEERES, WK; DEMONCHY, JGR; JANSEN, HM

    In view of increasing evidence suggesting an active immunoregulatory role of the skin keratinocytes and the observation that the differentiation of allergen specific T lymphocytes is critical in the development of allergy, we evaluated epidermal expression of HLA-DR antigen in skin reactions induced

  20. Biorepositories- | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carefully collected and controlled high-quality human biospecimens, annotated with clinical data and properly consented for investigational use, are available through the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories listed in the charts below. Biorepositories Managed by the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories Supported by the Division of Cancer Prevention Related Biorepositories | Information about accessing biospecimens collected from DCP-supported clinical trials and projects.

  1. Division Quilts: A Measurement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Sarah S.; Lupton, Tina M.; Richardson, Kerri

    2015-01-01

    As teachers seek activities to assist students in understanding division as more than just the algorithm, they find many examples of division as fair sharing. However, teachers have few activities to engage students in a quotative (measurement) model of division. Efraim Fischbein and his colleagues (1985) defined two types of whole-number…

  2. Blast overpressure waves induce transient anxiety and regional changes in cerebral glucose metabolism and delayed hyperarousal in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hibah Omar Awwad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Physiological alterations, anxiety and cognitive disorders are strongly associated with blast-induced traumatic brain injury (blast TBI and are common symptoms in service personnel exposed to blasts. Since 2006, 25-30,000 new TBI cases are diagnosed annually in U.S. Service members; increasing evidence confirms that primary blast exposure causes diffuse axonal injury and is often accompanied by altered behavioral outcomes. Behavioral and acute metabolic effects resulting from blast to the head in the absence of thoracic contributions from the periphery were examined following a single blast wave directed to the head of male Sprague-Dawley rats protected by a lead shield over the torso. An 80 psi head blast produced cognitive deficits that were detected in working memory. Blast TBI rats displayed increased anxiety as determined by elevated plus maze at day 9 post-blast compared to sham rats; blast TBI rats spent significantly more time than the sham controls in the closed arms (p<0.05; n=8-11. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms were absent at days 22 and 48 post-blast. Instead, blast TBI rats displayed hyperactivity and increased rearing behavior at day 48 post-blast compared to sham rats. Blast TBI rats also exhibited suppressed acoustic startle responses, but similar pre-pulse inhibition at day 15 post-blast compared to sham rats. Acute physiological alterations in cerebral glucose metabolism were determined by positron emission tomography 1 and 9 days post-blast using F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose. Global glucose uptake in blast TBI rat brains increased at day 1 post-blast (p<0.05; n=4-6 and returned to sham levels by day 9. Our results indicate a transient increase in cerebral metabolism following a blast injury. Markers for reactive astrogliosis and neuronal damage were noted by immunoblotting motor cortex tissue from day 10 post-blast in blast TBI rats compared to sham controls (p<0.05; n=5-6.

  3. Optogenetics reveal delayed afferent synaptogenesis on grafted human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avaliani, Natalia; Sørensen, Andreas Toft; Ledri, Marco; Bengzon, Johan; Koch, Philipp; Brüstle, Oliver; Deisseroth, Karl; Andersson, My; Kokaia, Merab

    2014-12-01

    Reprogramming of somatic cells into pluripotency stem cell state has opened new opportunities in cell replacement therapy and disease modeling in a number of neurological disorders. It still remains unknown, however, to what degree the grafted human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) differentiate into a functional neuronal phenotype and if they integrate into the host circuitry. Here, we present a detailed characterization of the functional properties and synaptic integration of hiPSC-derived neurons grafted in an in vitro model of hyperexcitable epileptic tissue, namely organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs), and in adult rats in vivo. The hiPSCs were first differentiated into long-term self-renewing neuroepithelial stem (lt-NES) cells, which are known to form primarily GABAergic neurons. When differentiated in OHSCs for 6 weeks, lt-NES cell-derived neurons displayed neuronal properties such as tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium currents and action potentials (APs), as well as both spontaneous and evoked postsynaptic currents, indicating functional afferent synaptic inputs. The grafted cells had a distinct electrophysiological profile compared to host cells in the OHSCs with higher input resistance, lower resting membrane potential, and APs with lower amplitude and longer duration. To investigate the origin of synaptic afferents to the grafted lt-NES cell-derived neurons, the host neurons were transduced with Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and optogenetically activated by blue light. Simultaneous recordings of synaptic currents in grafted lt-NES cell-derived neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp technique at 6 weeks after grafting revealed limited synaptic connections from host neurons. Longer differentiation times, up to 24 weeks after grafting in vivo, revealed more mature intrinsic properties and extensive synaptic afferents from host neurons to the lt-NES cell-derived neurons, suggesting that these cells require extended time for differentiation

  4. Imitation dynamics with time delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Chang; Yu, Jie-Ru; Kurokawa, Shun; Tao, Yi

    2017-05-07

    Based on the classic imitation dynamics (Hofbauer and Sigmund, 1998, Evolutionary Games and Population Dynamics, Cambridge University Press), the imitation dynamics with time delay is investigated, where the probability that an individual will imitate its opponent's own strategy is assumed to depend on the comparison between the past expected payoff of this individual's own strategy and the past expected payoff of its opponent's own strategy, i.e. there is a time delay effect. For the two-phenotype model, we show that if the system has an interior equilibrium and this interior equilibrium is stable when there is no time delay, then there must be a critical value of time delay such that the system tends to a stable periodic solution when the time delay is larger than the critical value. On the other hand, for three-phenotype (rock-scissors-paper) model, the numerical analysis shows that for the stable periodic solution induced by the time delay, the amplitude and the period will increase with the increase of the time delay. These results should help to understand the evolution of behavior based on the imitation dynamics with time delay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. CAS Academic Divisions in 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1.Election of New Members In 2001, 56 scientists were elected new CAS members, including l0 in the Division of Mathematics & Physics, 10 in the Division of Chemistry, 12 in the Division of Biology, nine in the Division of Earth Sciences and 15 in the Division of Engineering Sciences.The average age of the new members is 60.4, and the youngest one is 38 years old. They are now working in nine provinces or municipalities, or governmental departments under the State Council, including 23 outstanding experts working for the CAS.

  6. Antiemetic Therapy With or Without Olanzapine in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients With Cancer Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase III trial studies antiemetic therapy with olanzapine to see how well they work compared to antiemetic therapy alone in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with cancer receiving highly emetogenic (causes vomiting) chemotherapy. Antiemetic drugs, such as palonosetron hydrochloride, ondansetron, and granisetron hydrochloride, may help lessen or prevent nausea and vomiting in patients treated with chemotherapy. |

  7. Comparative effects of 60Co gamma-rays and neon and helium ions on cycle duration and division probability of EMT 6 cells. A time-lapse cinematography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyn-d'Hooghe, M; Hemon, D; Gilet, R; Curtis, S B; Valleron, A J; Malaise, E P

    1981-03-01

    Exponentially growing cultures of EMT 6 cells were irradiated in vitro with neon ions, helium ions or 60Co gamma-rays. Time-lapse cinematography allowed the determination, for individual cells, of cycle duration, success of the mitotic division and the age of the cell at the moment of irradiation. Irradiation induced a significant mitotic delay increasing proportionally with the delivered dose. Using mitotic delay as an endpoint, the r.b.e. for neon ions with respect to 60Co gamma-rays was 3.3 +/- 0.2 while for helium ions it was 1.2 +/- 0.1. Mitotic delay was greatest in those cells that had progressed furthest in their cycle at the time of irradiation. No significant mitotic delay was observed in the post-irradiation generation. Division probability was significantly reduced by irradiation both in the irradiated and in the post-irradiated generation. The reduction in division probability obtained with 3 Gy of neon ions was similar to that obtained after irradiation with 6 Gy of helium ions or 60Co gamma-rays.

  8. Additional effects of taurine on the benefits of BCAA intake for the delayed-onset muscle soreness and muscle damage induced by high-intensity eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Miyazaki, Teruo; Ishikura, Keisuke; Nagayama, Hisashi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Maeda, Seiji; Ito, Masaharu; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Ohmori, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Taurine (TAU) has a lot of the biological, physiological, and pharmocological functions including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress. Although previous studies have appreciated the effectiveness of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on the delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), consistent finding has not still convinced. The aim of this study was to examine the additional effect of TAU with BCAA on the DOMS and muscle damages after eccentric exercise. Thirty-six untrained male volunteers were equally divided into four groups, and ingested a combination with 2.0 g TAU (or placebo) and 3.2 g BCAA (or placebo), thrice a day, 2 weeks prior to and 4 days after elbow flexion eccentric exercise. Following the period after eccentric exercise, the physiological and blood biochemical markers for DOMS and muscle damage showed improvement in the combination of TAU and BCAA supplementation rather than in the single or placebo supplementations. In conclusion, additional supplement of TAU with BCAA would be a useful way to attenuate DOMS and muscle damages induced by high-intensity exercise.

  9. Inhibition of Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Release and Suppression of Caspases by Gamma-Tocotrienol Prevent Apoptosis and Delay Aging in Stress-Induced Premature Senescence of Skin Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Makpol

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the molecular mechanism of γ-tocotrienol (GTT in preventing cellular aging by focusing on its anti-apoptotic effect in stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS model of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs. Results obtained showed that SIPS exhibited senescent-phenotypic characteristic, increased expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal and promoted G0/G1 cell cycle arrest accompanied by shortening of telomere length with decreased telomerase activity. Both SIPS and senescent HDFs shared similar apoptotic changes such as increased Annexin V-FITC positive cells, increased cytochrome c release and increased activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 (P<0.05. GTT treatment resulted in a significant reduction of Annexin V-FITC positive cells, inhibited cytochrome c release and decreased activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 (P<0.05. Gene expression analysis showed that GTT treatment down regulated BAX mRNA, up-regulated BCL2A1 mRNA and decreased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression (P<0.05 in SIPS. These findings suggested that GTT inhibits apoptosis by modulating the upstream apoptosis cascade, causing the inhibition of cytochrome c release from the mitochondria with concomitant suppression of caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. In conclusion, GTT delays cellular senescence of human diploid fibroblasts through the inhibition of intrinsic mitochondria-mediated pathway which involved the regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes and proteins.

  10. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Plus Glucose Supplement Reduces Exercise-Induced Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in College-Age Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Danielle T.; Pintauro, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) has been used to stimulate muscle protein synthesis following exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if supplementation with BCAAs in combination with glucose would reduce exercise-induced delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Using a double-blind crossover design, 20 subjects (11 females, 9 males) were randomly assigned to either BCAA (n = 10) or placebo (n = 10) groups. Subjects performed a squatting exercise to elicit DOMS and rated their muscle soreness every 24 hours for four days following exercise while continuing to consume the BCAA or placebo. Following a three-week recovery period, subjects returned and received the alternate BCAA or placebo treatment, repeating the same exercise and DOMS rating protocol for the next four days. BCAA supplementation in female subjects resulted in a significant decrease in DOMS versus placebo at 24 hours following exercise (P = 0.018). No significant effect of BCAA supplementation versus placebo was noted in male subjects nor when male and female results were analyzed together. This gender difference may be related to dose per body weight differences between male and female subjects. PMID:24967261

  11. Mulifunctional Dendritic Emitter: Aggregation-Induced Emission Enhanced, Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescent Material for Solution-Processed Multilayered Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Kenichi; Albrecht, Ken; Yamamoto, Kimihisa; Fujita, Katsuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials emerged as promising light sources in third generation organic light-emitting diodes (OLED). Much effort has been invested for the development of small molecular TADF materials and vacuum process-based efficient TADF-OLEDs. In contrast, a limited number of solution processable high-molecular weight TADF materials toward low cost, large area, and scalable manufacturing of solution processed TADF-OLEDs have been reported so far. In this context, we report benzophenone-core carbazole dendrimers (GnB, n = generation) showing TADF and aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AIEE) properties along with alcohol resistance enabling further solution-based lamination of organic materials. The dendritic structure was found to play an important role for both TADF and AIEE activities in the neat films. By using these multifunctional dendritic emitters as non-doped emissive layers, OLED devices with fully solution processed organic multilayers were successfully fabricated and achieved maximum external quantum efficiency of 5.7%.

  12. Biopsychosocial Influence on Exercise-induced Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness at the Shoulder: Pain Catastrophizing and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Diplotype Predict Pain Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Steven Z.; Dover, Geoffrey C.; Wallace, Margaret R.; Sack, Brandon K.; Herbstman, Deborah M.; Aydog, Ece; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The experience of pain is believed to be influenced by psychologic and genetic factors. A previous study suggested pain catastrophizing and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype influenced clinical pain ratings for patients seeking operative treatment of shoulder pain. This study investigated whether these same psychologic and genetic factors predicted responses to induced shoulder pain. Methods Participants (n=63) completed self-report questionnaires and had COMT genotype determined before performing a standardized fatigue protocol to induce delayed onset muscle soreness. Then, shoulder pain ratings, self-report of upper-extremity disability ratings, and muscle torque production were reassessed 24, 48, and 72 hours later. Results This cohort consisted of 35 women and 28 men, with a mean age of 20.9 years (SD=1.7). The frequency of COMT diplotypes was 42 with “high COMT enzyme activity” (low pain sensitivity group) and 21 with “low COMT enzyme activity” (average pain sensitivity/high pain sensitivity group). A hierarchical regression model indicated that an interaction between pain catastrophizing and COMT diplotype was the strongest unique predictor of 72-hour pain ratings. The same interaction was not predictive of self-report of disability or muscle torque production at 72 hours. The pain catastrophizing × COMT diplotype interaction indicated that participants with high pain catastrophizing and low COMT enzyme activity (average pain sensitivity/high pain sensitivity group) were more likely (relative risk=3.5, P=0.025) to have elevated pain intensity ratings (40/100 or higher). Discussion These findings from an experimental model converge with those from a surgical cohort and provide additional evidence that the presence of elevated pain catastrophizing and COMT diplotype indicative of low COMT enzyme activity have the potential to increase the risk of developing chronic pain syndromes. PMID:18936597

  13. Glucose delays the insulin-induced increase in thyroid hormone-mediated signaling in adipose of prolong-fasted elephant seal pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Bridget; Soñanez-Organis, José G; Viscarra, Jose A; Jaques, John T; MacKenzie, Duncan S; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2016-03-15

    Prolonged food deprivation in mammals typically reduces glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations, as well as tissue deiodinase (DI) content and activity, which, collectively, suppress metabolism. However, in elephant seal pups, prolonged fasting does not suppress TH levels; it is associated with upregulation of adipose TH-mediated cellular mechanisms and adipose-specific insulin resistance. The functional relevance of this apparent paradox and the effects of glucose and insulin on TH-mediated signaling in an insulin-resistant tissue are not well defined. To address our hypothesis that insulin increases adipose TH signaling in pups during extended fasting, we assessed the changes in TH-associated genes in response to an insulin infusion in early- and late-fasted pups. In late fasting, insulin increased DI1, DI2, and THrβ-1 mRNA expression by 566%, 44%, and 267% at 60 min postinfusion, respectively, with levels decreasing by 120 min. Additionally, we performed a glucose challenge in late-fasted pups to differentiate between insulin- and glucose-mediated effects on TH signaling. In contrast to the insulin-induced effects, glucose infusion did not increase the expressions of DI1, DI2, and THrβ-1 until 120 min, suggesting that glucose delays the onset of the insulin-induced effects. The data also suggest that fasting duration increases the sensitivity of adipose TH-mediated mechanisms to insulin, some of which may be mediated by increased glucose. These responses appear to be unique among mammals and to have evolved in elephant seals to facilitate their adaptation to tolerate an extreme physiological condition. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Time Delay Tracking for Multiuser Synchronization in CDMA Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Ali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Multipath propagation, multiple access interference and non-line of sight propagation, etc. have impeded the accuracy in mobile data measurements. Multiuser receivers in asynchronous Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA systems require the knowledge of several parameters such as timing delay between users. In this paper, the problem of time delay estimation for CDMA systems is examined by proposing an approach based on blind nonlinear least mean squares (LMS based early-late delay tracker. A system model is developed and a delay tracking algorithm is presented. The simulation results of the proposed delay tracker are compared with the classical delay-locked loop (DLL approach in a multipath scenario and these show that the proposed delay tracker provides very good performance in challenging cases of closely spaced multipath delays.

  15. An APC:WNT counter-current-like mechanism regulates cell division along the colonic crypt axis: a mechanism that explains how APC mutations induce proliferative abnormalities that drive colon cancer development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce M Boman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available APC normally down-regulates WNT signaling in human colon, and APC mutations cause proliferative abnormalities in premalignant crypts leading to colon cancer, but the mechanisms are unclear at the level of spatial and functional organization of the crypt. Accordingly, we postulated a counter-current-like mechanism based on gradients of factors (APC;WNT that regulate colonocyte proliferation along the crypt axis. During crypt renewal, stem cells (SCs at the crypt bottom generate non-SC daughter cells that proliferate and differentiate while migrating upwards. The APC concentration is low at the crypt bottom and high at the top (where differentiated cells reside. WNT signaling, in contrast, is high at the bottom (where SCs reside and low at the top. Given that WNT and APC gradients are counter to one another, we hypothesized that a counter-current-like mechanism exists. Since both APC and WNT signaling components (e.g. survivin are required for mitosis, this mechanism establishes a zone in the lower crypt where conditions are optimal for maximal cell division and mitosis orientation (symmetric versus asymmetric. APC haploinsufficiency diminishes the APC gradient, shifts the proliferative zone upwards, and increases symmetric division, which causes SC overpopulation. In homozygote mutant crypts, these changes are exacerbated. Thus, APC-mutation-induced changes in the counter-current-like mechanism cause expansion of proliferative populations (SCs, rapidly-proliferating cells during tumorigenesis. We propose this mechanism also drives crypt fission, functions in the crypt cycle, and underlies adenoma development. Novel chemoprevention approaches designed to normalize the two gradients and readjust the proliferative zone downwards, might thwart progression of these premalignant changes.

  16. The Fz-Dsh Planar Cell Polarity Pathway Induces Oriented Cell Division via Mud/NuMA in Drosophila and Zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Frizzled receptor and Dishevelled effector regulate mitotic spindle orientation in both vertebrates and invertebrates, but how Dishevelled orients the mitotic spindle is unknown. Using the Drosophila S2 cell "induced polarity" system, we find that Dishevelled cortical polarity is sufficient to orient the spindle, and that Dishevelled's DEP domain mediates this function. This domain binds a C-terminal domain of Mud (the Drosophila NuMA ortholog), and Mud is required for Dishevelled-mediate...

  17. Neuron division or enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, O S; Laktionova, A A; Solovieva, I A; Krasnova, T V

    2010-10-01

    The classical Bielschowsky-Gross neurohistological method was used to reproduce all the morphological phenomena interpreted by many authors as signs of neuron division, budding, and fission. It is suggested that these signs are associated with the effects of enucleation, which occurs in many cells of other tissue types in response to a variety of chemical and physical treatments. Studies were performed using neurons isolated from the mollusk Lymnaea stagnalis and exposed in tissue culture to the actin microfilament inhibitor cytochalasin B. Phase contrast time-lapse video recording over periods of 4-8 h demonstrated nuclear displacement, ectopization, and budding, to the level of almost complete fission of the neuron body. This repeats the pattern seen in static fixed preparations in "normal" conditions and after different experimental treatments. Budding of the cytoplasm was also sometimes seen at the early stages of the experiments. Control experiments in which cultured neurons were exposed to the solvent for cytochalasin B, i.e., dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), did not reveal any changes in neurons over a period of 8 h. We take the view that the picture previously interpreted as neuron division and fission can be explained in terms of the inhibition of actin microfilaments, sometimes developing spontaneously in cells undergoing individual metabolic changes preventing the maintenance of cytoskeleton stability.

  18. Deconstructing Calculation Methods, Part 4: Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ian

    2008-01-01

    In the final article of a series of four, the author deconstructs the primary national strategy's approach to written division. The approach to division is divided into five stages: (1) mental division using partition; (2) short division of TU / U; (3) "expanded" method for HTU / U; (4) short division of HTU / U; and (5) long division. [For part…

  19. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hung Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression, the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression.

  20. Virtual unit delay for digital frequency adaptive T/4 delay phase-locked loop system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    -controller/processor with a fixed sampling rate considering the cost and complexity, where the number of unit delays that have been adopted should be an integer. For instance, in conventional digital control systems, a single-phase T/4 Delay Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) system takes 50 unit delays (i.e., in a 50-Hz system...... Delay PLL system should be done in its implementation. This process will result in performance degradation in the digital control system, as the exactly required number of delays is not realized. Hence, in this paper, a Virtual Unit Delay (VUD) has been proposed to address such challenges to the digital...... T/4 Delay PLL system. The proposed VUD adopts linear interpolation polynomial to approximate the fractional delay induced by the varying grid frequency in such a way that the control performance is enhanced. The proposed VUD has been demonstrated on a digitally controlled T/4 Delay PLL system...

  1. Synergistic effect of heat-shock and UV-irradiation on mitosis and protein synthesis in G2-phase plasmodia of Physarum polycephalum Schw--reduction in UV-induced mitotic delay in a preheat-shocked system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P R; Nair, R V

    1991-04-01

    The synergistic effect of UV irradiation and heat-shock during the last 3 hr of G2 phase of the cell cycle in the plasmodia of P. polycephalum, in terms of mitotic delay and inhibition of protein synthesis, has been evaluated. The mitotic delay due to both perturbers coordinately increased closer to mitosis. Maximum mitotic delay was obtained in plasmodia heat-shocked after UV irradiation, indicating the presence in this system of either a heat-labile mitogenic substance which is comparatively less susceptible to UV or a substance which is made more susceptible to hyperthermia by UV. A protective role for heat-shock applied before irradiation has been observed in that, radiation-induced mitotic delay is significantly reduced in this combination. There was severe inhibition of translation in all the perturbed classes. Organelle level effects which are independent of major protein synthetic activities or different levels of heat-shock protein production could be the reason for the lack of correlation between percentage inhibition of general protein synthesis and the extent of mitotic delay with respect to the two double-perturbed systems.

  2. Earth Sciences Division annual report 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-06-01

    This Annual Report presents summaries of selected representative research activities grouped according to the principal disciplines of the Earth Sciences Division: Reservoir Engineering and Hydrogeology, Geology and Geochemistry, and Geophysics and Geomechanics. Much of the Division`s research deals with the physical and chemical properties and processes in the earth`s crust, from the partially saturated, low-temperature near-surface environment to the high-temperature environments characteristic of regions where magmatic-hydrothermal processes are active. Strengths in laboratory and field instrumentation, numerical modeling, and in situ measurement allow study of the transport of mass and heat through geologic media -- studies that now include the appropriate chemical reactions and the hydraulic-mechanical complexities of fractured rock systems. Of particular note are three major Division efforts addressing problems in the discovery and recovery of petroleum, the application of isotope geochemistry to the study of geodynamic processes and earth history, and the development of borehole methods for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface using seismic and electromagnetic waves. In 1989 a major DOE-wide effort was launched in the areas of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Many of the methods previously developed for and applied to deeper regions of the earth will in the coming years be turned toward process definition and characterization of the very shallow subsurface, where man-induced contaminants now intrude and where remedial action is required.

  3. Bipolarity and the relational division

    OpenAIRE

    Tamani, Nouredine; Lietard, Ludovic; Rocacher, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    International audience; A fuzzy bipolar relation is a relation defined by a fuzzy bipolar condition, which could be interpreted as an association of a constraint and a wish. In this context, the extension of the relational division operation to bipolarity is studied in this paper. Firstly, we define a bipolar division when the involved relations are crisp. Then, we define, from the semantic point of view, several forms of bipolar division when the involved relations are defined by fuzzy bipol...

  4. Delayed childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, H H

    1985-06-01

    In many Western nations, including England and Wales, Sweden, and the US, there is a current trend towards delayed childbearing because of women's pursuit of a career, later marriage, a longer interval between marriage and the 1st birth, and the increasing number of divorcees having children in a 2nd marriage. Wives of men in social classes I and II in England and Wales are, on average, having their 1st child at 27.9 years, 1.6 years later than in 1973, and in social classes IV and V, 1.0 years later than in 1973, at a mean age of 23.7 years. Consequently, the total period fertility rate for British women aged 30-34 years, 35-39 years, and 40 and over increased by 4%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, between 1982-83, in contrast to reductions of 2% and 3%, respectively, in the 15-19 year and 20-24 year age groups, with the 25-29-year-olds remaining static. The average maternal mortality for all parties in England and Wales during 1976-78 was 106/million for adolescents, 70.4/million for 20-24 year-olds, and 1162/million for those aged 40 years and older. The specific obstetric and allied conditions which increase with age are the hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, abortion, cardiac disease, caesarean section, ruptured uterus, and amniotic fluid embolism. The Swedish Medical Birth Registry of all live births and perinatal deaths since 1973 has shown that the risk of late fetal death is significantly greater in women aged 30-39 years than in those of the same parity and gravidity aged 20-24 years. The risk of giving birth to low birth weight babies preterm and at term and of premature labor are similarly increased. The early neonatal death rate also was increased for primigravidas and nulliparas in the 30-39 year age group but not in parous women. This is, in part, due to the rise in incidence of fetal abnormalities with advancing maternal age because of chromosomal and nonchromosomal anomalies. These also appear to be the cause of the

  5. Situational Awareness and Logistics Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Situational Awareness and Logistics Division researches, develops, implements, and analyzes advanced systems to protect, enhance, and ensure resilienceof the...

  6. Systems Safety and Engineering Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Systems Safety and Engineering Division conducts engineering, research, and analysis to improve transportation safety, capacity, and resiliency. We provide...

  7. Security and Emergency Management Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Security and Emergency Management Division identifies vulnerabilities, risks, and opportunities to improve the security of transportation systems, critical...

  8. Infrastructure Engineering and Deployment Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Infrastructure Engineering and Deployment Division advances transportation innovation by being leaders in infrastructure technology, including vehicles and...

  9. Accelerator Technology Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1991, the Accelerator Technology (AT) division continued fulfilling its mission to pursue accelerator science and technology and to develop new accelerator concepts for application to research, defense, energy, industry, and other areas of national interest. This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; (Phi) Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  10. Salt-induced delay in cotyledonary globulin mobilization is abolished by induction of proteases and leaf growth sink strength at late seedling establishment in cashew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Luiz Ferreira Aguiar; Silva, André Luis Coelho da; Carvalho, Fabrício Eulálio Leite; Maia, Josemir Moura; Voigt, Eduardo Luiz; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio Gomes

    2014-09-15

    Seedling establishment in saline conditions is crucial for plant survival and productivity. This study was performed to elucidate the biochemical and physiological mechanisms involved with the recovery and establishment of cashew seedlings subjected to salinity. The changes in the Na+ levels and K/Na ratios, associated with relative water content, indicated that osmotic effects were more important than salt toxicity in the inhibition of seedling growth and cotyledonary protein mobilization. Salinity (50mM NaCl) induced a strong delay in protein breakdown and amino acid accumulation in cotyledons, and this effect was closely related to azocaseinolytic and protease activities. In parallel, proline and free amino acids accumulated in the leaves whereas the protein content decreased. Assays with specific inhibitors indicated that the most important proteases in cotyledons were of serine, cysteine and aspartic types. Proteomic analysis revealed that most of the cashew reserve proteins are 11S globulin-type and that these proteins were similarly degraded under salinity. In the late establishment phase, the salt-treated seedlings displayed an unexpected recovery in terms of leaf growth and N mobilization from cotyledon to leaves. This recovery coordinately involved a great leaf expansion, decreased amino acid content and increased protein synthesis in leaves. This response occurred in parallel with a prominent induction in the cotyledon proteolytic activity. Altogether, these data suggest that a source-sink mechanism involving leaf growth and protein synthesis may have acted as an important sink for reserve mobilization contributing to the seedling establishment under salinity. The amino acids that accumulated in the leaves may have exerted negative feedback to act as a signal for the induction of protease activity in the cotyledon. Overall, these mechanisms employed by cashew seedlings may be part of an adaptive process for the efficient rescue of cotyledonary proteins

  11. Intramyocardial VEGF-B167 gene delivery delays the progression towards congestive failure in dogs with pacing-induced dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Martino; Mamdani, Mohammed; Zentilin, Lorena; Csiszar, Anna; Qanud, Khaled; Zacchigna, Serena; Ungvari, Zoltan; Puligadda, Uday; Moimas, Silvia; Xu, Xiaobin; Edwards, John G; Hintze, Thomas H; Giacca, Mauro; Recchia, Fabio A

    2010-06-25

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-B selectively binds VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1, a receptor that does not mediate angiogenesis, and is emerging as a major cytoprotective factor. To test the hypothesis that VEGF-B exerts non-angiogenesis-related cardioprotective effects in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. AAV-9-carried VEGF-B(167) cDNA (10(12) genome copies) was injected into the myocardium of chronically instrumented dogs developing tachypacing-induced dilated cardiomyopathy. After 4 weeks of pacing, green fluorescent protein-transduced dogs (AAV-control, n=8) were in overt congestive heart failure, whereas the VEGF-B-transduced (AAV-VEGF-B, n=8) were still in a well-compensated state, with physiological arterial Po(2). Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure in AAV-VEGF-B and AAV-control was, respectively, 15.0+/-1.5 versus 26.7+/-1.8 mm Hg and LV regional fractional shortening was 9.4+/-1.6% versus 3.0+/-0.6% (all P<0.05). VEGF-B prevented LV wall thinning but did not induce cardiac hypertrophy and did not affect the density of alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive microvessels, whereas it normalized TUNEL-positive cardiomyocytes and caspase-9 and -3 activation. Consistently, activated Akt, a major negative regulator of apoptosis, was superphysiological in AAV-VEGF-B, whereas the proapoptotic intracellular mediators glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta and FoxO3a (Akt targets) were activated in AAV-control, but not in AAV-VEGF-B. Cardiac VEGFR-1 expression was reduced 4-fold in all paced dogs, suggesting that exogenous VEGF-B(167) exerted a compensatory receptor stimulation. The cytoprotective effects of VEGF-B(167) were further elucidated in cultured rat neonatal cardiomyocytes exposed to 10(-8) mol/L angiotensin II: VEGF-B(167) prevented oxidative stress, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and, consequently, apoptosis. We determined a novel, angiogenesis-unrelated cardioprotective effect of VEGF-B(167) in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy

  12. Autoimmune response and repression of mitotic cell division occur in inter-specific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii Coss. that show low temperature-induced hybrid necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Shitsukawa, Naoki; Hosogi, Naoki; Park, Pyoyun; Takumi, Shigeo

    2011-10-01

    Common wheat is an allohexaploid species originating from a naturally occurring inter-specific cross between tetraploid wheat and the diploid wild wheat Aegilops tauschii Coss. Artificial allopolyploidization can produce synthetic hexaploid wheat. However, synthetic triploid hybrids show four types of hybrid growth abnormalities: type II and III hybrid necrosis, hybrid chlorosis, and severe growth abortion. Of these hybrid abnormalities, type II necrosis is induced by low temperature. Under low temperature, elongation of stems and expansion of new leaves is repressed in type II necrosis lines, which later exhibit necrotic symptoms. Here, we characterize type II necrosis in detail. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that a number of defense-related genes were highly up-regulated in seedling leaves that showed type II necrosis. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive cell death in the leaves under low-temperature conditions, accompanied by abundant generation of reactive oxygen species. In addition, down-regulation of cell cycle-related genes was observed in shoot apices of type II necrosis lines under low-temperature conditions. Quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization showed repression of accumulation of histone H4 transcripts in the shoot apical meristem of type II necrosis lines. These results strongly suggest that an autoimmune response-like reaction and repression of cell division in the shoot apical meristem are associated with the abnormal growth phenotype in type II necrosis lines.

  13. Developmental control of cell division

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxem, M. (Mike)

    2002-01-01

    During development of multicellular organisms, cell divisions need to be coordinated with the developmental program of the entire organism. Although the mechanisms that drive cells through the division cycle are well understood, very little is known about the pathways that link extracellular signals

  14. Lightning Talks 2015: Theoretical Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlachter, Jack S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-25

    This document is a compilation of slides from a number of student presentations given to LANL Theoretical Division members. The subjects cover the range of activities of the Division, including plasma physics, environmental issues, materials research, bacterial resistance to antibiotics, and computational methods.

  15. Developmental control of cell division

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxem, M. (Mike)

    2002-01-01

    During development of multicellular organisms, cell divisions need to be coordinated with the developmental program of the entire organism. Although the mechanisms that drive cells through the division cycle are well understood, very little is known about the pathways that link extracellular signals

  16. Division of Analytical Chemistry, 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1999-01-01

    The article recounts the 1998 activities of the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC- formerly the Working Party on Analytical Chemistry, WPAC), which body is a division of the Federation of European Chemical Societies (FECS). Elo Harald Hansen is the Danish delegate, representing The Danish...... Chemical Society/The Society for Analytical Chemistry....

  17. 78 FR 17431 - Antitrust Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... January 2, 2013 (78 FR 117). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING...) of the Act on July 30, 2001 (66 FR 39336). The last notification was filed with the Department on... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  18. 77 FR 54611 - Antitrust Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... on June 8, 2012 (77 FR 34067). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division... Section 6(b) of the Act on June 30, 2000 (65 FR 40693). The last notification was filed with the... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  19. Cell division cycle 45 promotes papillary thyroid cancer progression via regulating cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Shi, Run; Zhao, Sha; Li, Xiaona; Lu, Shan; Bu, Hemei; Ma, Xianghua

    2017-05-01

    Cell division cycle 45 was reported to be overexpressed in some cancer-derived cell lines and was predicted to be a candidate oncogene in cervical cancer. However, the clinical and biological significance of cell division cycle 45 in papillary thyroid cancer has never been investigated. We determined the expression level and clinical significance of cell division cycle 45 using The Cancer Genome Atlas, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. A great upregulation of cell division cycle 45 was observed in papillary thyroid cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Furthermore, overexpression of cell division cycle 45 positively correlates with more advanced clinical characteristics. Silence of cell division cycle 45 suppressed proliferation of papillary thyroid cancer cells via G1-phase arrest and inducing apoptosis. The oncogenic activity of cell division cycle 45 was also confirmed in vivo. In conclusion, cell division cycle 45 may serve as a novel biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for papillary thyroid cancer.

  20. HBx-induced MiR-1269b in NF-κB dependent manner upregulates cell division cycle 40 homolog (CDC40) to promote proliferation and migration in hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiao-Xiao; Lv, Yan-Ru; Shao, Li-Ping; Nong, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Guang-Ling; Zhang, Yi; Fan, Hong-Xia; Liu, Min; Li, Xin; Tang, Hua

    2016-06-27

    Occurrence and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. miR-1269b is up-regulated in HCC cells and tissues. However, the regulation of miR-1269b expression by HBV and the mechanism underlying the oncogenic activity of miR-1269b in HCC are unclear. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to measure the expression of miR-1269b and target genes in HCC tissues and cell lines. Western blot analysis was used to assess the expression of miR-1269b target genes and related proteins. Using luciferase reporter assays and EMSA, we identified the factors regulating the transcriptional level of miR-1269b. Colony formation, flow cytometry and cell migration assays were performed to evaluate the phenotypic changes caused by miR-1269b and its target in HCC cells. We demonstrated that the expression levels of pre-miR-1269b and miR-1269b in HBV-positive HepG2.2.15 cells were dramatically increased compared with HBV-negative HepG2 cells. HBx was shown to facilitate translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, and NF-κB binds to the promoter of miR-1269b to enhance its transcription. miR-1269b targets and up-regulates CDC40, a cell division cycle 40 homolog. CDC40 increases cell cycle progression, cell proliferation and migration. Rescue experiment indicated that CDC40 promotes malignancy induced by miR-1269b in HCC cells. We found that HBx activates NF-κB to promote the expression of miR1269b, which augments CDC40 expression, contributing to malignancy in HCC. Our findings provide insights into the mechanisms underlying HBV-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

  1. Optical micromanipulation inside the cell: a focus in cell division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacconi, Leonardo; Tolic-Nørrelykke, Iva M.; Stringari, Chiara; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2006-02-01

    In eukaryotic cells, proper position of the mitotic spindle and the division plane is necessary for successful cell division and development. In this work the nature of forces governing the positioning and elongation of the mitotic spindle and the spatio-temporal regulation of the division plane positioning in fission yeast was studied. By using a mechanical perturbations induced by laser dissection of the spindle and astral microtubules, we found that astral microtubules push on the spindle poles. Further, laser dissection of the spindle midzone induced spindle collapse inward. This suggests that the spindle is driven by the sliding apart of antiparallel microtubules in the spindle midzone. Exploiting a combination of non-linear microscopy and optical trapping, we performed an optical manipulation procedure designed to displace the cell nucleus away from its normal position in the center of the cell. After the laser-induced displacement, the nucleus typically returned towards the cell center, in a manner correlated with the extension of a microtubule from the nucleus to the closer tip of the cell. This observation suggests that the centering of the nucleus is provided by microtubule pushing force. Moreover the cells in which the nucleus was displaced during interphase displayed asymmetric division, whereas when the nucleus was displaced during late prophase or metaphase, the division plane formed at the cell center as in non-manipulated cells. This result suggests that in fission yeast the division plane is selected before pro-metaphase and that the signal is not provided by the mitotic spindle.

  2. Physics Division computer facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyborski, D.R.; Teh, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    The Physics Division maintains several computer systems for data analysis, general-purpose computing, and word processing. While the VMS VAX clusters are still used, this past year saw a greater shift to the Unix Cluster with the addition of more RISC-based Unix workstations. The main Divisional VAX cluster which consists of two VAX 3300s configured as a dual-host system serves as boot nodes and disk servers to seven other satellite nodes consisting of two VAXstation 3200s, three VAXstation 3100 machines, a VAX-11/750, and a MicroVAX II. There are three 6250/1600 bpi 9-track tape drives, six 8-mm tapes and about 9.1 GB of disk storage served to the cluster by the various satellites. Also, two of the satellites (the MicroVAX and VAX-11/750) have DAPHNE front-end interfaces for data acquisition. Since the tape drives are accessible cluster-wide via a software package, they are, in addition to replay, used for tape-to-tape copies. There is however, a satellite node outfitted with two 8 mm drives available for this purpose. Although not part of the main cluster, a DEC 3000 Alpha machine obtained for data acquisition is also available for data replay. In one case, users reported a performance increase by a factor of 10 when using this machine.

  3. Distributed Time Delay Goodwin's Models of the Business Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, A. O.; Reznik, S. N.; Todorov, M. D.

    2011-11-01

    We consider continuously distributed time delay Goodwin's model of the business cycle. We show that the delay induced sawtooth oscillations, similar to those detected by R. H. Strotz, J. C. McAnulty, J. B. Naines, Econometrica, 21, 390-411 (1953) for Goodwin's model with fixed investment time lag, exist only for very narrow delay distribution when the variance of the delay distribution much less than the average delay.

  4. Recovery of train-of-four ratio to 0.70 and 0.90 is delayed in type 2 diabetes with vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitahara, Keiichi; Sugi, Yasuyuki; Shigematsu, Kenji; Haraga, Isamu; Abe, Shintaro; Higa, Kazuo

    2013-02-01

    The recovery profile of train-of-four ratio to more than 0.70 in patients with diabetes mellitus has not been well investigated. Our primary objective was to evaluate the spontaneous recovery profile of neuromuscular block by vecuronium until train-of-four ratio more than 0.90 in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with controls, using first dorsal interosseous electromyography. Single-centre prospective case-control study. The operating theatres of Fukuoka University Hospital. Fourteen adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (diabetes mellitus group) and 14 control patients (control group) were included in this study. Evoked responses to train-of-four stimuli were measured by electromyography at the first dorsal interosseous muscle. General anaesthesia was induced with propofol, fentanyl and remifentanil. Vecuronium (0.1  mg kg) was administered to all patients. Anaesthesia was maintained with propofol, fentanyl and remifentanil. The neuromuscular block was assessed until spontaneous recovery to train-of-four ratio more than 0.90. Recovery times to train-of-four ratio 0.70 and 0.90. Recovery times to train-of-four ratio 0.70 and 0.90 were significantly longer in the diabetes mellitus group than the control group (P = 0.041 and P = 0.027, respectively). The time from train-of-four ratio 0.25 to 0.90 was also significantly longer in the diabetes mellitus group than the control group (P = 0.029). In five of 14 patients in the diabetes mellitus group, the time from train-of-four ratio 0.25 to 0.90 was longer than 60  min, which is longer than the duration of action of neostigmine. The time from train-of-four ratio 0.25 to 0.90 was longer than 60  min in only one of 14 in the control group. Recovery times to train-of-four ratio 0.70 and 0.90 were delayed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Neuromuscular block by vecuronium should be carefully monitored in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus until recovery of train-of-four ratio to

  5. Feasibility study of 235U and 239Pu characterization in radioactive waste drums using neutron-induced fission delayed gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, T.; Pérot, B.; Carasco, C.; Brackx, E.; Mariani, A.; Passard, C.; Mauerhofer, E.; Collot, J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports a feasibility study of 235U and 239Pu characterization in 225 L bituminized waste drums or 200 L concrete waste drums, by detecting delayed fission gamma rays between the pulses of a deuterium-tritium neutron generator. The delayed gamma yields were first measured with bare samples of 235U and 239Pu in REGAIN, a facility dedicated to the assay of 118 L waste drums by Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) at CEA Cadarache, France. Detectability in the waste drums is then assessed using the MCNPX model of MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation), another PGNAA cell dedicated to 200 L drums at FZJ, Germany. For the bituminized waste drum, performances are severely hampered by the high gamma background due to 137Cs, which requires the use of collimator and shield to avoid electronics saturation, these elements being very penalizing for the detection of the weak delayed gamma signal. However, for lower activity concrete drums, detection limits range from 10 to 290 g of 235U or 239Pu, depending on the delayed gamma rays of interest. These detection limits have been determined by using MCNPX to calculate the delayed gamma useful signal, and by measuring the experimental gamma background in MEDINA with a 200 L concrete drum mock-up. The performances could be significantly improved by using a higher interrogating neutron emission and an optimized experimental setup, which would allow characterizing nuclear materials in a wide range of low and medium activity waste packages.

  6. Multiplexing photons with a binary division strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiegelow, Christian Tomás; Larotonda, Miguel Antonio

    2014-08-01

    We present a scheme to produce clock-synchronized photons from a single parametric downconversion source with a binary division strategy. The time difference between a clock and detections of the herald photons determines the amount of delay that must be imposed to a photon by actively switching different temporal segments, so that all photons emerge from the output with their wavepackets temporally synchronized with the temporal reference. The operation is performed using a binary division configuration which minimizes the passages through switches. Finally, we extend this scheme to the production of many synchronized photons and find expressions for the optimal amount of correction stages as a function of the pair generation rate and the target coherence time. Our results show that, for the generation of this heralded single-photon per output state at an optimized input photon flux, the output rate of our scheme scales essentially with the reciprocal of the target output photon number. With current technology, rates of up to 104 synchronized pairs per second could be observed with only 7 correction stages.

  7. Physics division annual report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, J.; Physics

    2008-02-28

    This report highlights the activities of the Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory in 2006. The Division's programs include the operation as a national user facility of ATLAS, the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System, research in nuclear structure and reactions, nuclear astrophysics, nuclear theory, investigations in medium-energy nuclear physics as well as research and development in accelerator technology. The mission of nuclear physics is to understand the origin, evolution and structure of baryonic matter in the universe--the core of matter, the fuel of stars, and the basic constituent of life itself. The Division's research focuses on innovative new ways to address this mission.

  8. ftsZ gene and plastid division

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Plastid is one of the most important cellular organelles, the normal division process of plastid is essential for the differentiation and development of plant cells. For a long time, morphological observations and genetic analyses to special mutants are the major research fields of plastid division, but the molecular mechanisms underlying plastid division are largely unknown. Because of the endosymbiotic origin, plastid division might have mechanisms in common with those involved in bacterial cell division. It has been proved that several prokaryotic cell division genes also participate in the plastid division. Recently, the mechanisms of prokaryotic cell division have been well documented, which provides a valuable paradigm for understanding the plastid division mechanisms. In plants, the functional analyses of ftsZ, a key gene involved both in bacteria and plastid division, have established the solid foundation for people to understand the plastid division in molecular level. In this paper we will make a review for the research history and progress of plastid division.

  9. Overlapping and non-overlapping functions of condensins I and II in neural stem cell divisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Nishide

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During development of the cerebral cortex, neural stem cells (NSCs divide symmetrically to proliferate and asymmetrically to generate neurons. Although faithful segregation of mitotic chromosomes is critical for NSC divisions, its fundamental mechanism remains unclear. A class of evolutionarily conserved protein complexes, known as condensins, is thought to be central to chromosome assembly and segregation among eukaryotes. Here we report the first comprehensive genetic study of mammalian condensins, demonstrating that two different types of condensin complexes (condensins I and II are both essential for NSC divisions and survival in mice. Simultaneous depletion of both condensins leads to severe defects in chromosome assembly and segregation, which in turn cause DNA damage and trigger p53-induced apoptosis. Individual depletions of condensins I and II lead to slower loss of NSCs compared to simultaneous depletion, but they display distinct mitotic defects: chromosome missegregation was observed more prominently in NSCs depleted of condensin II, whereas mitotic delays were detectable only in condensin I-depleted NSCs. Remarkably, NSCs depleted of condensin II display hyperclustering of pericentric heterochromatin and nucleoli, indicating that condensin II, but not condensin I, plays a critical role in establishing interphase nuclear architecture. Intriguingly, these defects are taken over to postmitotic neurons. Our results demonstrate that condensins I and II have overlapping and non-overlapping functions in NSCs, and also provide evolutionary insight into intricate balancing acts of the two condensin complexes.

  10. Kinetics of cell division in epidermal maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Allon M; Jones, Philip H; Simons, Benjamin D

    2007-01-01

    The rules governing cell division and differentiation are central to understanding the mechanisms of development, aging and cancer. By utilising inducible genetic labelling, recent studies have shown that the clonal population in transgenic mouse epidermis can be tracked in vivo. Drawing on these results, we explain how clonal fate data may be used to infer the rules of cell division and differentiation underlying the maintenance of adult murine tail-skin. We show that the rates of cell division and differentiation may be evaluated by considering the long-time and short-time clone fate data, and that the data is consistent with cells dividing independently rather than synchronously. Motivated by these findings, we consider a mechanism for cancer onset based closely on the model for normal adult skin. By analysing the expected changes to clonal fate in cancer emerging from a simple two-stage mutation, we propose that clonal fate data may provide a novel method for studying the earliest stages of the disease.

  11. Division 1137 property control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An automated data processing property control system was developed by Mobile and Remote Range Division 1137. This report describes the operation of the system and examines ways of using it in operational planning and control.

  12. Observation of small sub-pulses out of the delayed-interference signal-wavelength converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakaguchi, J.; Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Ohira, T.;

    2005-01-01

    The generation of small sub-pulses in the delayed-interference signal-wavelength converter (DISC), which has been studied for use in future 160-Gb/s optical time division multiplexing-wavelength division multiplexing (OTDM-WDM) communication systems, was recently predicted as a potential problem....

  13. Simulation of delayed γ-ray emission following photofission reactions induced by pulsed bremsstrahlung x-rays using MCNPX and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xianfei; Yang, Haori

    2016-12-01

    There is a great demand to develop non-destructive techniques to identify and quantify Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) in homeland security and nuclear safeguards applications. Passive assay could be extremely challenging in some scenarios. Active interrogation technique based on photofission has been identified as one of the promising approaches. In radiation detection system design based on such technique, it is highly desired to have abilities to accurately and efficiently simulate delayed γ-rays emitted from photofission reactions. In this work, simulation results were compared with measurement outcomes to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the code MCNPX 2.7.0 in the simulation of delayed γ-rays from photofission of uranium and plutonium samples. First, high-energy delayed γ-rays (Eγ 2.7-4.5 MeV) from photofission of 238U were simulated and validated against the energy spectra measured in between linac pulses. Second, low-energy delayed γ-ray spectra (Eγ 0.6-2.7 MeV) measured with a list-mode system after irradiation of 239Pu were used in the validation.

  14. High division of sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Shrivastava

    2014-04-01

    Results: In all except two cadavers, the nerve divided at the apex of the popliteal fossa. In two cadavers the sciatic nerve divided bilaterally in the upper part of thigh. Conclusion: The high division presented in this study can make popliteal nerve blocks partially ineffective. The high division of sciatic nerve must always be borne in mind as they have important clinical implications. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 686-688

  15. Novel Coiled-Coil Cell Division Factor ZapB Stimulates Z Ring Assembly and Cell Division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, Gitte; Galli, Elizabeth; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    Formation of the Z ring is the first known event in bacterial cell division. However, it is not yet known how the assembly and contraction of the Z ring is regulated. Here, we identify a novel cell division factor ZapB in Escherichia coli that simultaneously stimulates Z ring assembly and cell...... division. Deletion of zapB resulted in delayed cell division and the formation of ectopic Z rings and spirals whereas overexpression of ZapB resulted in nucleoid condensation and aberrant cell divisions. Localization of ZapB to the divisome depended on FtsZ but not FtsA, ZipA or FtsI and ZapB interacted...... with FtsZ in a bacterial two-hybrid analysis. The simultaneous inactivation of FtsA and ZipA prevented Z ring assembly and ZapB localization. Time lapse microscopy showed that ZapB-GFP is present at mid-cell in a pattern very similar to that of FtsZ. Cells carrying a zapB deletion and the ftsZ84ts allele...

  16. Feasibility study of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu characterization in radioactive waste drums using neutron-induced fission delayed gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, T. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); FZJ, Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety, Wilhelm-Johnen-Straße, d-52425 Jülich (Germany); Pérot, B., E-mail: bertrand.perot@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Carasco, C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Brackx, E. [CEA, DEN, Marcoule, Metallography and Chemical Analysis Laboratory, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Mariani, A.; Passard, C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Mauerhofer, E. [FZJ, Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety, Wilhelm-Johnen-Straße, d-52425 Jülich (Germany); Collot, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3 Grenoble (France)

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports a feasibility study of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu characterization in 225 L bituminized waste drums or 200 L concrete waste drums, by detecting delayed fission gamma rays between the pulses of a deuterium-tritium neutron generator. The delayed gamma yields were first measured with bare samples of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu in REGAIN, a facility dedicated to the assay of 118 L waste drums by Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) at CEA Cadarache, France. Detectability in the waste drums is then assessed using the MCNPX model of MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation), another PGNAA cell dedicated to 200 L drums at FZJ, Germany. For the bituminized waste drum, performances are severely hampered by the high gamma background due to {sup 137}Cs, which requires the use of collimator and shield to avoid electronics saturation, these elements being very penalizing for the detection of the weak delayed gamma signal. However, for lower activity concrete drums, detection limits range from 10 to 290 g of {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu, depending on the delayed gamma rays of interest. These detection limits have been determined by using MCNPX to calculate the delayed gamma useful signal, and by measuring the experimental gamma background in MEDINA with a 200 L concrete drum mock-up. The performances could be significantly improved by using a higher interrogating neutron emission and an optimized experimental setup, which would allow characterizing nuclear materials in a wide range of low and medium activity waste packages.

  17. Mechanical stretch triggers rapid epithelial cell division through Piezo1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudipaty, S A; Lindblom, J; Loftus, P D; Redd, M J; Edes, K; Davey, C F; Krishnegowda, V; Rosenblatt, J

    2017-03-02

    Despite acting as a barrier for the organs they encase, epithelial cells turn over at some of the fastest rates in the body. However, epithelial cell division must be tightly linked to cell death to preserve barrier function and prevent tumour formation. How does the number of dying cells match those dividing to maintain constant numbers? When epithelial cells become too crowded, they activate the stretch-activated channel Piezo1 to trigger extrusion of cells that later die. However, it is unclear how epithelial cell division is controlled to balance cell death at the steady state. Here we show that mammalian epithelial cell division occurs in regions of low cell density where cells are stretched. By experimentally stretching epithelia, we find that mechanical stretch itself rapidly stimulates cell division through activation of the Piezo1 channel. To stimulate cell division, stretch triggers cells that are paused in early G2 phase to activate calcium-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2, thereby activating the cyclin B transcription that is necessary to drive cells into mitosis. Although both epithelial cell division and cell extrusion require Piezo1 at the steady state, the type of mechanical force controls the outcome: stretch induces cell division, whereas crowding induces extrusion. How Piezo1-dependent calcium transients activate two opposing processes may depend on where and how Piezo1 is activated, as it accumulates in different subcellular sites with increasing cell density. In sparse epithelial regions in which cells divide, Piezo1 localizes to the plasma membrane and cytoplasm, whereas in dense regions in which cells extrude, it forms large cytoplasmic aggregates. Because Piezo1 senses both mechanical crowding and stretch, it may act as a homeostatic sensor to control epithelial cell numbers, triggering extrusion and apoptosis in crowded regions and cell division in sparse regions.

  18. The Right Delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datadien, A.H.R.; Haselager, W.F.G.; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.

    2011-01-01

    Axonal conduction delays should not be ignored in simulations of spiking neural networks. Here it is shown that by using axonal conduction delays, neurons can display sensitivity to a specific spatio-temporal spike pattern. By using delays that complement the firing times in a pattern, spikes can ar

  19. Detection of postischemic regional left ventricular delayed outward wall motion or diastolic stunning after exercise-induced ischemia in patients with stable effort angina by using color kinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Katsuhisa; Miwa, Kunihisa; Sakurai, Takahiro; Kataoka, Kazuaki; Imai, Makoto; Kintaka, Aya; Aoyama, Takeshi; Kawanami, Masaki

    2008-04-01

    To determine whether postischemic diastolic stunning could be detected using color kinesis, we evaluated regional left ventricular (LV) diastolic wall motion in 36 patients with stable effort angina and a coronary stenosis (> or = 70% of luminal diameter), and in 30 control subjects. Regional LV filling fraction in the short-axis view during the first 30% of the LV filling time (color kinesis diastolic index) was determined before, 20 minutes, 1 hour, and 24 hours after the treadmill exercise test. In 33 of the 36 patients (92%), new regional LV delayed outward motion during early diastole (color kinesis diastolic index < or = 40%) was detected at 20 minutes after exercise. The regional LV delayed diastolic wall motion showed significant improvement but persisted 1 hour afterward in 20 of 36 patients (56%), and disappeared 24 hours after exercise. Detection of regional stunned myocardium with impaired diastolic function may be a useful tool for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease.

  20. Beyond Cookies: Understanding Various Division Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Cindy; Magruder, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Having a deeper understanding of division derived from multiple models is of great importance for teachers and students. For example, students will benefit from a greater understanding of division contexts as they study long division, fractions, and division of fractions. The purpose of this article is to build on teachers' and students'…

  1. An Analytical Delay Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Yinghua; LI Zhongcheng

    1999-01-01

    Delay consideration has been a majorissue in design and test of high performance digital circuits. Theassumption of input signal change occurring only when all internal nodesare stable restricts the increase of clock frequency. It is no longertrue for wave pipelining circuits. However, previous logical delaymodels are based on the assumption. In addition, the stable time of arobust delay test generally depends on the longest sensitizable pathdelay. Thus, a new delay model is desirable. This paper explores thenecessity first. Then, Boolean process to analytically describe thelogical and timing behavior of a digital circuit is reviewed. Theconcept of sensitization is redefined precisely in this paper. Based onthe new concept of sensitization, an analytical delay model isintroduced. As a result, many untestable delay faults under thelogical delay model can be tested if the output waveforms can be sampledat more time points. The longest sensitizable path length is computedfor circuit design and delay test.

  2. Phase and Complete Synchronizations in Time-Delay Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, D. V.; Manju Shrii, M.; Kurths, J.

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization is a fundamental nonlinear phenomenon that has been intensively investigated during a couple of decades. Recently, synchronization of time-delay systems with or without delay coupling and even synchronization of low-dimensional dynamical systems described by ordinary differential equations and maps with delay coupling have become an active area of research in view of its potential applications. In this article, we provide an overview of our recent results on phase synchronization in time-delay systems, which usually exhibits hyperchaotic attractors with complex topological properties, noise-enhanced phase and noise-induced complete synchronizations in time-delay systems. Further, we demonstrate the phenomena of delay-enhanced and delay-induced stable synchronous chaos in a delay coupled network of time continuous dynamical system using the framework of master stability formalism (MSF) for the first time.

  3. DSP complexity of mode-division multiplexed receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Beril; Spinnler, Bernhard; Ferreira, Filipe; van den Borne, Dirk; Lobato, Adriana; Adhikari, Susmita; Sleiffer, Vincent A J M; Kuschnerov, Maxim; Hanik, Norbert; Jansen, Sander L

    2012-05-07

    The complexities of common equalizer schemes are analytically analyzed in this paper in terms of complex multiplications per bit. Based on this approach we compare the complexity of mode-division multiplexed digital signal processing algorithms with different numbers of multiplexed modes in terms of modal dispersion and distance. It is found that training symbol based equalizers have significantly lower complexity compared to blind approaches for long-haul transmission. Among the training symbol based schemes, OFDM requires the lowest complexity for crosstalk compensation in a mode-division multiplexed receiver. The main challenge for training symbol based schemes is the additional overhead required to compensate modal crosstalk, which increases the data rate. In order to achieve 2000 km transmission, the effective modal dispersion must therefore be below 6 ps/km when the OFDM specific overhead is limited to 10%. It is concluded that for few mode transmission systems the reduction of modal delay is crucial to enable long-haul performance.

  4. Cell division control by the Chromosomal Passenger Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waal, Maike S. van der; Hengeveld, Rutger C.C.; Horst, Armando van der; Lens, Susanne M.A., E-mail: s.m.a.lens@umcutrecht.nl

    2012-07-15

    The Chromosomal Passenger Complex (CPC) consisting of Aurora B kinase, INCENP, Survivin and Borealin, is essential for genomic stability by controlling multiple processes during both nuclear and cytoplasmic division. In mitosis it ensures accurate segregation of the duplicated chromosomes by regulating the mitotic checkpoint, destabilizing incorrectly attached spindle microtubules and by promoting the axial shortening of chromosomal arms in anaphase. During cytokinesis the CPC most likely prevents chromosome damage by imposing an abscission delay when a chromosome bridge connects the two daughter cells. Moreover, by controlling proper cytoplasmic division, the CPC averts tetraploidization. This review describes recent insights on how the CPC is capable of conducting its various functions in the dividing cell to ensure chromosomal stability.

  5. Home | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Research The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into cancer. |

  6. Environmental Transport Division: 1979 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Schubert, J.F.; Bowman, W.W.; Adams, S.E.

    1980-03-01

    During 1979, the Environmental Transport Division (ETD) of the Savannah River Laboratory conducted atmospheric, terrestrial, aquatic, and marine studies, which are described in a series of articles. Separate abstracts were prepared for each. Publications written about the 1979 research are listed at the end of the report.

  7. 78 FR 17430 - Antitrust Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on April 4, 2003 (68 FR 16552). The last notification was filed with... Section 6(b) of the Act on March 23, 2012 (77 FR 17095). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  8. Proper division plane orientation and mitotic progression together allow normal growth of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Anding; Sylvester, Anne

    2017-01-01

    How growth, microtubule dynamics, and cell-cycle progression are coordinated is one of the unsolved mysteries of cell biology. A maize mutant, tangled1, with known defects in growth and proper division plane orientation, and a recently characterized cell-cycle delay identified by time-lapse imaging, was used to clarify the relationship between growth, cell cycle, and proper division plane orientation. The tangled1 mutant was fully rescued by introduction of cortical division site localized TANGLED1-YFP. A CYCLIN1B destruction box was fused to TANGLED1-YFP to generate a line that mostly rescued the division plane defect but still showed cell-cycle delays when expressed in the tangled1 mutant. Although an intermediate growth phenotype between wild-type and the tangled1 mutant was expected, these partially rescued plants grew as well as wild-type siblings, indicating that mitotic progression delays alone do not alter overall growth. These data indicate that division plane orientation, together with proper cell-cycle progression, is critical for plant growth. PMID:28202734

  9. Delayed emergence after anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzabazis, Alexander; Miller, Christopher; Dobrow, Marc F; Zheng, Karl; Brock-Utne, John G

    2015-06-01

    In most instances, delayed emergence from anesthesia is attributed to residual anesthetic or analgesic medications. However, delayed emergence can be secondary to unusual causes and present diagnostic dilemmas. Data from clinical studies is scarce and most available published material is comprised of case reports. In this review, we summarize and discuss less common and difficult to diagnose reasons for delayed emergence and present cases from our own experience or reference published case reports/case series. The goal is to draw attention to less common reasons for delayed emergence, identify patient populations that are potentially at risk and to help anesthesiologists identifying a possible cause why their patient is slow to wake up.

  10. Vedic division methodology for high-speed very large scale integration applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabir Saha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Transistor level implementation of division methodology using ancient Vedic mathematics is reported in this Letter. The potentiality of the ‘Dhvajanka (on top of the flag’ formula was adopted from Vedic mathematics to implement such type of divider for practical very large scale integration applications. The division methodology was implemented through half of the divisor bit instead of the actual divisor, subtraction and little multiplication. Propagation delay and dynamic power consumption of divider circuitry were minimised significantly by stage reduction through Vedic division methodology. The functionality of the division algorithm was checked and performance parameters like propagation delay and dynamic power consumption were calculated through spice spectre with 90 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The propagation delay of the resulted (32 ÷ 16 bit divider circuitry was only ∼300 ns and consumed ∼32.5 mW power for a layout area of 17.39 mm^2. Combination of Boolean arithmetic along with ancient Vedic mathematics, substantial amount of iterations were reduced resulted as ∼47, ∼38, 34% reduction in delay and ∼34, ∼21, ∼18% reduction in power were investigated compared with the mostly used (e.g. digit-recurrence, Newton–Raphson, Goldschmidt architectures.

  11. Operational Characterization of Divisibility of Dynamical Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Joonwoo; Chruściński, Dariusz

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we show the operational characterization to the divisibility of dynamical maps in terms of the distinguishability of quantum channels. It is proven that the distinguishability of any pair of quantum channels does not increase under divisible maps, in which the full hierarchy of divisibility is isomorphic to the structure of entanglement between system and environment. This shows that (i) channel distinguishability is the operational quantity signifying (detecting) divisibility (indivisibility) of dynamical maps and (ii) the decision problem for the divisibility of maps is as hard as the separability problem in entanglement theory. We also provide the information-theoretic characterization to the divisibility of maps with conditional min-entropy.

  12. Isolation, culture and division of olive (Olea europaea L.) protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas, L A; Wyssmann, A M; Benbadis, M C

    1987-10-01

    Protoplasts from Olea europaea L. have been compared in terms of their yield, viability, cell division and callus differentiation. Viable protoplasts were isolated from in vitro cultured leaves and cotyledons by an overnight incubation in an enzyme solution containing 1-1.5% driselase and 0.5M sucrose. This method allowed high yield of purified protoplasts, which floated and formed a dark green band at the meniscus, after centrifugation. Purified protoplasts were diluted to 3×10(4) protoplasts·ml(-1) in culture medium. After cell wall regeneration, protoplasts gradually increased their volumes under appropriate conditions. The first divisions occurred during the second week in culture. Division efficiency ranged from 5.2 to 9.8% after 20 days in culture. Two weeks later visible microcolonies developed only from cotyledon protoplasts. After 6 weeks in culture, the microcalli were transferred to a solidified culture medium with 0.6% agarose, which induced active callus growth.

  13. American Dream Delayed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia; Miller, Robert A.

    This paper investigates the delay in homeownership and a subsequent reduction in homeownership rate observed over the past decades. We focus on the delay in giving birth to children and increased labor market participation as contributing factors to homeownership dynamics for prime-age female hou...

  14. Effect of selective β-adrenoceptor blockade and surgical resection of the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex on delayed liquid gastric emptying induced by dipyrone, 4-aminoantipyrine, and antipyrine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, A M; Collares, E F

    2016-03-01

    There is evidence for participation of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in delayed liquid gastric emptying (GE) induced in rats by dipyrone (Dp), 4-aminoantipyrine (AA), and antipyrine (At). The present study aimed to determine whether β-adrenoceptors are involved in delayed GE induced by phenylpyrazole derivatives and the role of the prevertebral sympathetic nervous system in this condition. Male Wistar rats weighing 220-280 g were used in the study. In the first experiment rats were intravenously pretreated with vehicle (V), atenolol 30 mg/kg (ATE, β1-adrenergic antagonist), or butoxamine 25 mg/kg (BUT, β2-adrenergic antagonist). In the second experiment, rats were pretreated with V or SR59230A 2 mg/kg (SRA, β3-adrenergic antagonist). In the third experiment, rats were subjected to surgical resection of the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex or to sham surgery. The groups were intravenously treated with saline (S), 240 µmol/kg Dp, AA, or At, 15 min after pretreatment with the antagonists or V and nine days after surgery. GE was determined 10 min later by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (%GR) of saline labeled with phenol red 10 min after gavage. The %GR (means±SE, n=6) values indicated that BUT abolished the effect of Dp (BUT+Dp vs V+Dp: 35.0%±5.1% vs 56.4%±2.7%) and At (BUT+At vs V+At: 33.5%±4.7% vs 52.9%±2.6%) on GE, and significantly reduced (P<0.05) the effect of AA (BUT+AA vs V+AA: 48.0%±5.0% vs 65.2%±3.8%). ATE, SRA, and sympathectomy did not modify the effects of treatments. These results suggest that β2-adrenoceptor activation occurred in delayed liquid gastric emptying induced by the phenylpyrazole derivatives dipyrone, 4-aminoantipyrine, and antipyrine. Additionally, the released neurotransmitter did not originate in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex.

  15. Physiographic divisions of the conterminous U. S.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of Physiographic Divisions in the conterminous United States. It was automated from Fenneman's 1:7,000,000-scale map, "Physical Divisions...

  16. Health, Safety, and Environment Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, C [comp.

    1992-01-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environmental (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environmental protection. These activities are designed to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. Meeting these responsibilities requires expertise in many disciplines, including radiation protection, industrial hygiene, safety, occupational medicine, environmental science and engineering, analytical chemistry, epidemiology, and waste management. New and challenging health, safety, and environmental problems occasionally arise from the diverse research and development work of the Laboratory, and research programs in HSE Division often stem from these applied needs. These programs continue but are also extended, as needed, to study specific problems for the Department of Energy. The results of these programs help develop better practices in occupational health and safety, radiation protection, and environmental science.

  17. Cell division in apicomplexan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Maria E; Striepen, Boris

    2014-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum are important human pathogens. These parasites and many of their apicomplexan relatives undergo a complex developmental process in the cells of their hosts, which includes genome replication, cell division and the assembly of new invasive stages. Apicomplexan cell cycle progression is both globally and locally regulated. Global regulation is carried out throughout the cytoplasm by diffusible factors that include cell cycle-specific kinases, cyclins and transcription factors. Local regulation acts on individual nuclei and daughter cells that are developing inside the mother cell. We propose that the centrosome is a master regulator that physically tethers cellular components and that provides spatial and temporal control of apicomplexan cell division.

  18. Involvement of δ-and μ-opioid receptors in the delayed cerebral ischemic tolerance induced by repeated electroacupuncture preconditioning in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Li-ze; YANG Jing; WANG Qiang; LU Zhi-hong

    2007-01-01

    Background Preconditioning with repeated electroacupuncture (EA) could mimic ischemic preconditioning to induce cerebral ischemic tolerance in rats. The present study was designed to investigate whether mu(μ)-, delta(δ)- or kappa(κ)-opioid receptors are involved in the neuroprotection induced by repeated EA preconditioning.Methods The rats were pretreated with naltrindole (NTI), nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) or D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTOP), which is a highly selective δ-, κ- or μ-opioid receptor antagonist respectively, before each EA preconditioning (30 minutes per day, 5 days). Twenty-four hours after the last EA treatment, the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced for 120 minutes. The brain infarct volume was determined with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining at 24 hours after MCAO and compared with that in rats which only received EA preconditioning. In another experiment, the met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in rat brain was investigated by immunohistochemistry in both EA preconditioning and control rats.Results The EA preconditioning reduced brain infarct volume compared with the control rats (P=0.000). Administration of both NTI and CTOP attenuated the brain infarct volume reduction induced by EA preconditioning, presenting with larger infarct volume than that in the EA preconditioning rats (P<0.001). But nor-BNI administration did not block the infarct volume reduction induced by EA preconditioning, presenting with smaller infarct volume than the control group rats(P=0.000). The number of met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity positive neurons in the EA preconditioning rats was more than that of the control rats (P=0.000).Conclusion Repeated EA preconditioning stimulates the release of enkephalins, which may bind δ- and μ-opioid receptors to induce the tolerance against focal cerebral ischemia.

  19. PRIMA-1Met/APR-246 induces apoptosis and tumor growth delay in small cell lung cancer expressing mutant p53

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandi, Roza; Selivanova, Galina; Christensen, Camilla Laulund;

    2011-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant disease with poor prognosis, necessitating the need to develop new and efficient treatment modalities. PRIMA-1(Met) (p53-dependent reactivation of massive apoptosis), also known as APR-246, is a small molecule, which restores tumor suppressor...... function to mutant p53 and induces cancer cell death in various cancer types. Since p53 is mutated in more than 90% of SCLC, we investigated the ability of PRIMA-1(Met) to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth in SCLC with different p53 mutations....

  20. Biophysical modelling of early and delayed radiation damage at chromosome level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, S.; Eidelman, Y.

    Exposure by ionising radiation increases cancer risk in human population Cancer is thought to originate from an altered expression of certain number of specific genes It is now widely recognised that chromosome aberrations CA are involved in stable change in expression of genes by gain or loss of their functions Thus CA can contribute to initiation or progression of cancer Therefore understanding mechanisms of CA formation in the course of cancer development might be valuable tool for quantification and prognosis of different stages of radiation carcinogenesis Early CA are defined as aberrations induced in first post-irradiation mitotic cycle The present work describes the original biophysical technique for early CA modelling It includes the following simulation steps the ionising particle track structure the structural organisation of all chromosomes in G 0 G 1 cell nucleus spatial distribution of radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks dsb within chromosomes dsb rejoining and misrejoining modelling cell cycle taking into account mitotic delay which results in complex time dependence of aberrant cells in first mitosis The results on prediction of dose-response curves for simple and complex CA measured in cells undergoing first division cycle are presented in comparison with recent experimental data There is increasing evidence that CA are also observed in descendents of irradiated cells many generations after direct DNA damage These delayed CA or chromosome instability CI are thought to be a manifestation of genome

  1. Division of household tasks and financial management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.

    2011-01-01

    Both the standard economic model and bargaining theory make predictions about financial management and the division of household labor between household partners. Using a large Internet survey, we have tested several predictions about task divisions reported by Dutch household partners. The division

  2. Prokaryotic cell division: flexible and diverse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Blaauwen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria have different approaches to position the cell division initiating Z-ring at the correct moment in their cell division cycle. The subsequent maturation into a functional division machine occurs in vastly different species in two steps with appreciable time in

  3. Algebraic divisibility sequences over function fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, Patrick; Silverman, Joseph H; Stange, Katherine E; Streng, Marco

    2011-01-01

    We study the existence of primes and of primitive divisors in classical divisibility sequences defined over function fields. Under various hypotheses, we prove that Lucas sequences and elliptic divisibility sequences over function fields defined over number fields contain infinitely many irreducible elements. We also prove that an elliptic divisibility sequence over a function field has only finitely many terms lacking a primitive divisor.

  4. Take a Bite out of Fraction Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Nesrin; Rathouz, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Division of fractions is often considered the most mechanical and least understood topic in elementary school. Enacting fraction division tasks in meaningful ways requires that teachers know not only "how" fraction division works but also "why" it works. The authors have created materials to help preservice teachers develop that knowledge. To…

  5. 77 FR 40586 - Coastal Programs Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... request for comments in the Federal Register at 77 FR 12245 on the request of Lockheed Martin Corp. to... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Programs Division AGENCY: Coastal Programs Division... licenses. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kerry Kehoe, Coastal Programs Division (NORM/3), Office of...

  6. 7 CFR 29.16 - Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.16 Division. Tobacco Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Division. 29.16 Section 29.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  7. Combined action of MK-801 and ceftriaxone impairs the acquisition and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference,and delays morphine extinction in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaodong Fan; Haichen Niu; Joshua D.Rizak; Ling Li; Guimei Wang; Liqi Xu; He Ren; Hao Lei; Hualin Yu

    2012-01-01

    Objective It is well established that glutamate and its receptors,particularly the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR),play a significant role in addiction and that the inhibition of glutamatergic hyperfunction reduces addictive behaviors in experimental animals.Specifically,NMDAR antagonists such as MK-801,and an inducer of the expression of glutamate transporter subtype-1 (GLT-1) (cefiriaxone) are known to inhibit addictive behavior.The purpose of this study was to determine whether the combined action of a low dose of MK-801 and a low dose of ceftriaxone provides better inhibition of the acquisition,extinction,and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) than either compound alone.Methods A morphine-paired CPP experiment was used to study the effects of low doses of MK-801,ceftriaxone and a combination of both on reward-related memory (acquisition,extinction,and reinstatement of morphine preference) in rats.Results A low dose of neither MK-801 (0.05 mg/kg,i.p.) nor ceftriaxone (25 mg/kg,i.p.) alone effectively impaired CPP behaviors.However,when applied in combination,they reduced the acquisition of morphine-induced CPP and completely prevented morphine reinstatement.Their combination also notably impaired the extinction of morphine-induced CPP.Conclusion The combined action of a low dose of an NMDAR antagonist (MK-801)and GLT-1 activation by ceftriaxone effectively changed different phases of CPP behavior.

  8. Nitric oxide prevents wound-induced browning and delays senescence through inhibition of hydrogen peroxide accumulation in fresh-cut lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Woltering, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    As a source of bioactive ingredients, lettuce is a preferable component of a healthy diet. In recent years the production of fresh-cut produce has become a fast growing business. However, the shreds are highly sensitive to wound-induced browning and premature senescence that substantially reduces th

  9. Time delay and excitation mode induced tunable red/near-infrared to green emission ratio of Er doped BiOCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, Daniel; Florea, Mihaela; Tiseanu, Ion; Tiseanu, Carmen

    2015-09-01

    Herein, we report on the emission color tunability of Er doped BiOCl measured under up—conversion as well as x-ray excitation modes. The dependence of red (670 nm) to green emission (543 nm) ratio on Er concentration (1 and 5%), excitation wavelength into different (656.4, 802 and 976 nm) or across single Er absorption levels (965 ÷ 990 nm) and delay after the laser pulse (0.001 ÷ 1 ms) is discussed in terms of ground state absorption/excited state absorption and energy transfer up-conversion mechanisms. A first example of extended Er x-ray emission measured in the range of 500 to 1700 nm shows comparable emission intensities corresponding to 543 nm and 1500 nm based transitions. The present results together with our earlier report on the upconversion emission of Er doped BiOCl excited at 1500 nm, suggest that Er doped BiOCl may be considered an attractive system for optical and x-ray imaging applications.

  10. Overexpression of Medicago sativa TMT elevates the α-tocopherol content in Arabidopsis seeds, alfalfa leaves, and delays dark-induced leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishan; Jia, Huili; Feng, Guangyan; Wang, Zan; Li, Jun; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin

    2016-08-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a major forage legume for livestock and a target for improving their dietary quality. Vitamin E is an essential vitamin that animals must obtain from their diet for proper growth and development. γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT), which catalyzes the conversion of δ- and γ-tocopherols (or tocotrienols) to β- and α-tocopherols (or tocotrienols), respectively, is the final enzyme involved in the vitamin E biosynthetic pathway. The overexpression of M. sativa L.'s γ-TMT (MsTMT) increased the α-tocopherol content 10-15 fold above that of wild type Arabidopsis seeds without altering the total content of vitamin E. Additionally, in response to osmotic stress, the biomass and the expression levels of several osmotic marker genes were significantly higher in the transgenic lines compared with wild type. Overexpression of MsTMT in alfalfa led to a modest, albeit significant, increase in α-tocopherol in leaves and was also responsible for a delayed leaf senescence phenotype. Additionally, the crude protein content was increased, while the acid and neutral detergent fiber contents were unchanged in these transgenic lines. Thus, increased α-tocopherol content occurred in transgenic alfalfa without compromising the nutritional qualities. The targeted metabolic engineering of vitamin E biosynthesis through MsTMT overexpression provides a promising approach to improve the α-tocopherol content of forage crops.

  11. 28 Cases of Delayed Polyneuropathy Acute Induced by Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning%急性有机磷农药中毒致迟发性多发性神经病28例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅继荣; 史家安

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨急性有机磷农药中毒后迟发性多发性神经病的临床特点、发病机制,以提高早期诊断及治疗效果.方法 回顾28例迟发性多发性神经病发生的时间、症状及体症,结合辅助检查,进行系统分析.结果 28例迟发性多发性神经病患者均为口服中毒,潜伏期为10~32 d,平均18 d.主要表现为肢体末端开始的感觉和运动障碍,表现为疼痛、麻木、无力、肌肉萎缩、腱反射减弱或消失,肌电图示神经源性损害.用糖皮质激素、B族维生素等综合治疗,大部分预后良好.结论 迟发性多发性神经病经早期诊断,积极治疗,预后一般良好,激素治疗可加速神经功能恢复.%Objective To explore the clinical features and pathogenesis of the delayed polyneuropathy induced by acute organ-ophosphorus pesticide poisoning,and improve the curative effects of early diagnosis and treatment. Methods The onset time,symptoms and physical signs of 28 eases of delayed polyneuropathy were recalled and analyzed combined with supplementary ex-amination retrospectively. Results 28 delayed polyneuropathy were all oral poisoning, the incubation period was of 10 to 32 days, with an average of 18 days. Dyskinesia and abnormity of sense started from the end of limbs, such as pain, numbness, weak-ness, muscle atrophy, weakening or disappearance of tendon reflexes, neurogenie damage showed by electromyography, were the main clinical manifestation. The comprehensive treatment with glueocortieoid and B vitamins eould improve prognosis.Conclusion The delayed polyneuropathy has a good prognosis by early diagnosis and active treatment, and hormone therapy may accelerate the recovery of neurological function.

  12. Fission yeast APC/C activators Slp1 and Fzr1 sequentially trigger two consecutive nuclear divisions during meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikashige, Yuji; Yamane, Miho; Okamasa, Kasumi; Osakada, Hiroko; Tsutsumi, Chihiro; Nagahama, Yuki; Fukuta, Noriko; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Hiraoka, Yasushi

    2017-04-01

    In meiosis, two rounds of nuclear division occur consecutively without DNA replication between the divisions. We isolated a fission yeast mutant in which the nucleus divides only once to generate two spores, as opposed to four, in meiosis. In this mutant, we found that the initiation codon of the slp1(+) gene is converted to ATA, producing a reduced amount of Slp1. As a member of the Fizzy family of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) activators, Slp1 is essential for vegetative growth; however, the mutant allele shows a phenotype only in meiosis. Slp1 insufficiency delays degradation of maturation-promoting factor at the first meiotic division, and another APC/C activator, Fzr1, which acts late in meiosis, terminates meiosis immediately after the delayed first division to produce two viable spores. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  13. Delay time and Hartman effect in strain engineered graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xi, E-mail: xchen@shu.edu.cn; Deng, Zhi-Yong [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, 200444 Shanghai (China); Ban, Yue, E-mail: yban@shu.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Information Materials, Shanghai University, 200444 Shanghai (China)

    2014-05-07

    Tunneling times, including group delay and dwell time, are studied for massless Dirac electrons transmitting through a one-dimensional barrier in strain-engineered graphene. The Hartman effect, the independence of group delay on barrier length, is induced by the strain effect, and associated with the transmission gap and the evanescent mode. The influence of barrier height/length and strain modulus/direction on the group delay is also discussed, which provides the flexibility to control the group delay with applications in graphene-based devices. The relationship between group delay and dwell time is finally derived to clarify the nature of the Hartman effect.

  14. 75 FR 16843 - Core Manufacturing, Multi-Plastics, Inc., Division, Sipco, Inc., Division, Including Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration Core Manufacturing, Multi-Plastics, Inc., Division, Sipco, Inc..., 2009, applicable to workers of Core Manufacturing, Multi-Plastics, Inc., Division and Sipco, Inc... of Core Manufacturing, Multi-Plastics, Inc., Division and Sipco, Inc., Division, including...

  15. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-05-14

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal of proposed method is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Since motion estimation can be unreliable between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Observing more frames before declaring a detection may lead to a more accurate detection and segmentation, since more motion may be observed leading to a stronger motion cue. However, this leads to greater delay. The proposed method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms, defined as declarations of detection before the object moves or incorrect or inaccurate segmentation at the detection time. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  16. Efficacy of intraoperative monitoring of transcranial electrical stimulation-induced motor evoked potentials and spontaneous electromyography activity to identify acute-versus delayed-onset C-5 nerve root palsy during cervical spine surgery: clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalodia, Vidya M; Schwartz, Daniel M; Sestokas, Anthony K; Bloomgarden, Gary; Arkins, Thomas; Tomak, Patrick; Gorelick, Judith; Wijesekera, Shirvinda; Beiner, John; Goodrich, Isaac

    2013-10-01

    Deltoid muscle weakness due to C-5 nerve root injury following cervical spine surgery is an uncommon but potentially debilitating complication. Symptoms can manifest upon emergence from anesthesia or days to weeks following surgery. There is conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of spontaneous electromyography (spEMG) monitoring in detecting evolving C-5 nerve root compromise. By contrast, transcranial electrical stimulation-induced motor evoked potential (tceMEP) monitoring has been shown to be highly sensitive and specific in identifying impending C-5 injury. In this study the authors sought to 1) determine the frequency of immediate versus delayed-onset C-5 nerve root injury following cervical spine surgery, 2) identify risk factors associated with the development of C-5 palsies, and 3) determine whether tceMEP and spEMG neuromonitoring can help to identify acutely evolving C-5 injury as well as predict delayed-onset deltoid muscle paresis. The authors retrospectively reviewed the neuromonitoring and surgical records of all patients who had undergone cervical spine surgery involving the C-4 and/or C-5 level in the period from 2006 to 2008. Real-time tceMEP and spEMG monitoring from the deltoid muscle was performed as part of a multimodal neuromonitoring protocol during all surgeries. Charts were reviewed to identify patients who had experienced significant changes in tceMEPs and/or episodes of neurotonic spEMG activity during surgery, as well as those who had shown new-onset deltoid weakness either immediately upon emergence from the anesthesia or in a delayed fashion. Two hundred twenty-nine patients undergoing 235 cervical spine surgeries involving the C4-5 level served as the study cohort. The overall incidence of perioperative C-5 nerve root injury was 5.1%. The incidence was greatest (50%) in cases with dual corpectomies at the C-4 and C-5 spinal levels. All patients who emerged from anesthesia with deltoid weakness had significant and unresolved

  17. Terms in elliptic divisibility sequences divisible by their indices

    CERN Document Server

    Stange, Katherine E

    2010-01-01

    Let D = (D_n)_{n\\ge1} be an elliptic divisibility sequence. We study the set S(D) of indices n satisfying n | D_n. In particular, given an index n in S(D), we explain how to construct elements nd in S(D), where d is either a prime divisor of D_n, or d is the product of the primes in an aliquot cycle for D. We also give bounds for the exceptional indices that are not constructed in this way.

  18. Resource Allocation for Delay Differentiated Traffic in Multiuser OFDM Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Meixia; Zhang, Fan

    2007-01-01

    Most existing work on adaptive allocation of subcarriers and power in multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems has focused on homogeneous traffic consisting solely of either delay-constrained data (guaranteed service) or non-delay-constrained data (best-effort service). In this paper, we investigate the resource allocation problem in a heterogeneous multiuser OFDM system with both delay-constrained (DC) and non-delay-constrained (NDC) traffic. The objective is to maximize the sum-rate of all the users with NDC traffic while maintaining guaranteed rates for the users with DC traffic under a total transmit power constraint. Through our analysis we show that the optimal power allocation over subcarriers follows a multi-level water-filling principle; moreover, the valid candidates competing for each subcarrier include only one NDC user but all DC users. By converting this combinatorial problem with exponential complexity into a convex problem or showing that it can be solved in the dual...

  19. Conditional loss of ErbB3 delays mammary gland hyperplasia induced by mutant PIK3CA without affecting mammary tumor latency, gene expression, or signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christian D; Pfefferle, Adam D; Owens, Philip; Kuba, María G; Rexer, Brent N; Balko, Justin M; Sánchez, Violeta; Cheng, Hailing; Perou, Charles M; Zhao, Jean J; Cook, Rebecca S; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-07-01

    Mutations in PIK3CA, the gene encoding the p110α catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), have been shown to transform mammary epithelial cells (MEC). Studies suggest this transforming activity requires binding of mutant p110α via p85 to phosphorylated YXXM motifs in activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) or adaptors. Using transgenic mice, we examined if ErbB3, a potent activator of PI3K, is required for mutant PIK3CA-mediated transformation of MECs. Conditional loss of ErbB3 in mammary epithelium resulted in a delay of PIK3CA(H1047R)-dependent mammary gland hyperplasia, but tumor latency, gene expression, and PI3K signaling were unaffected. In ErbB3-deficient tumors, mutant PI3K remained associated with several tyrosyl phosphoproteins, potentially explaining the dispensability of ErbB3 for tumorigenicity and PI3K activity. Similarly, inhibition of ErbB RTKs with lapatinib did not affect PI3K signaling in PIK3CA(H1047R)-expressing tumors. However, the p110α-specific inhibitor BYL719 in combination with lapatinib impaired mammary tumor growth and PI3K signaling more potently than BYL719 alone. Furthermore, coinhibition of p110α and ErbB3 potently suppressed proliferation and PI3K signaling in human breast cancer cells harboring PIK3CA(H1047R). These data suggest that PIK3CA(H1047R)-driven tumor growth and PI3K signaling can occur independently of ErbB RTKs. However, simultaneous blockade of p110α and ErbB RTKs results in superior inhibition of PI3K and mammary tumor growth, suggesting a rational therapeutic combination against breast cancers harboring PIK3CA activating mutations.

  20. Eccentric exercise and delayed onset muscle soreness of the quadriceps induce adjustments in agonist-antagonist activity, which are dependent on the motor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Chã, C; Hassanlouei, H; Farina, D; Falla, D

    2012-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of eccentric exercise and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) of the quadriceps on agonist-antagonist activity during a range of motor tasks. Ten healthy volunteers (age, mean ± SD, 24.9 ± 3.2 years) performed maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) and explosive isometric contractions of the knee extensors followed by isometric contractions at 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30% MVC at baseline, immediately after and 24 h after eccentric exercise of the quadriceps. During each task, force of the knee extensors and surface EMG of the vasti and hamstrings muscles were recorded concurrently. Rate of force development (RFD) was computed from the explosive isometric contraction, and the coefficient of variation of the force (CoV) signal was estimated from the submaximal contractions. Twenty-four hours after exercise, the subjects rated their perceived pain intensity as 4.1 ± 1.2 (score out of 10). The maximum RFD and MVC of the knee extensors was reduced immediately post- and 24 h after eccentric exercise compared to baseline (average across both time points: 19.1 ± 17.1% and 11.9 ± 9.8% lower, respectively, P eccentric exercise (up to 66% higher than baseline, P exercise during the presence of DOMS (P exercise and was accompanied by increased antagonist EMG for the explosive contraction only. On the contrary, reduced force steadiness was accompanied by a general increase in EMG amplitude of the vasti muscles and was accompanied by increased antagonist activity, but only at higher force levels (>15% MVC). This study shows that eccentric exercise and subsequent DOMS of the quadriceps reduce the maximal force, rate of force development and force steadiness of the knee extensors, and is accompanied by different adjustments of agonist and antagonist muscle activities.

  1. Functional Inactivation of Putative Photosynthetic Electron Acceptor Ferredoxin C2 (FdC2) Induces Delayed Heading Date and Decreased Photosynthetic Rate in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan; Qiu, Zhennan; Ruan, Banpu; Kang, Shujing; He, Lei; Zhang, Sen; Dong, Guojun; Hu, Jiang; Zeng, Dali; Zhang, Guangheng; Gao, Zhenyu; Ren, Deyong; Hu, Xingming; Chen, Guang; Guo, Longbiao; Qian, Qian; Zhu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Ferredoxin (Fd) protein as unique electron acceptor, involved in a variety of fundamental metabolic and signaling processes, which is indispensable for plant growth. The molecular mechanisms of Fd such as regulation of electron partitioning, impact of photosynthetic rate and involvement in the carbon fixing remain elusive in rice. Here we reported a heading date delay and yellowish leaf 1 (hdy1) mutant derived from Japonica rice cultivar "Nipponbare" subjected to EMS treatment. In the paddy field, the hdy1 mutant appeared at a significantly late heading date and had yellow-green leaves during the whole growth stage. Further investigation indicated that the abnormal phenotype of hdy1 was connected with depressed pigment content and photosynthetic rate. Genetic analysis results showed that the hdy1 mutant phenotype was caused by a single recessive nuclear gene mutation. Map-based cloning revealed that OsHDY1 is located on chromosome 3 and encodes an ortholog of the AtFdC2 gene. Complementation and overexpression, transgenic plants exhibited the mutant phenotype including head date, leaf color and the transcription levels of the FdC2 were completely rescued by transformation with OsHDY1. Real-time PCR revealed that the expression product of OsHDY1 was detected in almost all of the organs except root, whereas highest expression levels were observed in seeding new leaves. The lower expression levels of HDY1 and content of iron were detected in hdy1 than WT's. The FdC2::GFP was detected in the chloroplasts of rice. Real-time PCR results showed that the expression of many photosynthetic electron transfer related genes in hdy1 were higher than WT. Our results suggest that OsFdC2 plays an important role in photosynthetic rate and development of heading date by regulating electron transfer and chlorophyll content in rice.

  2. Functional Inactivation of Putative Photosynthetic Electron Acceptor Ferredoxin C2 (FdC2 Induces Delayed Heading Date and Decreased Photosynthetic Rate in Rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhao

    Full Text Available Ferredoxin (Fd protein as unique electron acceptor, involved in a variety of fundamental metabolic and signaling processes, which is indispensable for plant growth. The molecular mechanisms of Fd such as regulation of electron partitioning, impact of photosynthetic rate and involvement in the carbon fixing remain elusive in rice. Here we reported a heading date delay and yellowish leaf 1 (hdy1 mutant derived from Japonica rice cultivar "Nipponbare" subjected to EMS treatment. In the paddy field, the hdy1 mutant appeared at a significantly late heading date and had yellow-green leaves during the whole growth stage. Further investigation indicated that the abnormal phenotype of hdy1 was connected with depressed pigment content and photosynthetic rate. Genetic analysis results showed that the hdy1 mutant phenotype was caused by a single recessive nuclear gene mutation. Map-based cloning revealed that OsHDY1 is located on chromosome 3 and encodes an ortholog of the AtFdC2 gene. Complementation and overexpression, transgenic plants exhibited the mutant phenotype including head date, leaf color and the transcription levels of the FdC2 were completely rescued by transformation with OsHDY1. Real-time PCR revealed that the expression product of OsHDY1 was detected in almost all of the organs except root, whereas highest expression levels were observed in seeding new leaves. The lower expression levels of HDY1 and content of iron were detected in hdy1 than WT's. The FdC2::GFP was detected in the chloroplasts of rice. Real-time PCR results showed that the expression of many photosynthetic electron transfer related genes in hdy1 were higher than WT. Our results suggest that OsFdC2 plays an important role in photosynthetic rate and development of heading date by regulating electron transfer and chlorophyll content in rice.

  3. Anharmonic resonances with recursive delay feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldobin, Denis S., E-mail: Denis.Goldobin@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, UB RAS, Perm 614013 (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-12

    We consider application of time-delayed feedback with infinite recursion for control of anharmonic (nonlinear) oscillators subject to noise. In contrast to the case of a single delay feedback, recursive delay feedback exhibits resonances between feedback and nonlinear harmonics, leading to a resonantly strong or weak oscillation coherence even for a small anharmonicity. Remarkably, these small-anharmonicity induced resonances can be stronger than the harmonic ones. Analytical results are confirmed numerically for van der Pol and van der Pol-Duffing oscillators. -- Highlights: → We construct general theory of noisy limit-cycle oscillators with linear feedback. → We focus on coherence and 'reliability' of oscillators. → For recursive delay feedback control the theory shows importance of anharmonicity. → Anharmonic resonances are studied both numerically and analytically.

  4. commensurate point delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de la Sen

    2005-01-01

    nominal controller is maintained. In the current approach, the finite spectrum assignment is only considered as a particular case of the designer's choice of a (delay-dependent arbitrary spectrum assignment objective.

  5. Oriented cell division affects the global stress and cell packing geometry of a monolayer under stretch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guang-Kui; Liu, Yang; Zheng, Zhaoliang

    2016-02-08

    Cell division plays a vital role in tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis, and the division plane is crucial for cell fate. For isolated cells, extensive studies show that the orientation of divisions is sensitive to cell shape and the direction of extrinsic mechanical forces. However, it is poorly understood that how the cell divides within a cell monolayer and how the local stress change, due to the division, affects the global stress of epithelial monolayers. Here, we use the vertex dynamics models to investigate the effects of division orientation on the configurations and mechanics of a cell monolayer under stretch. We examine three scenarios of the divisions: dividing along the stretch axis, dividing along the geometric long axis of cells, and dividing at a random angle. It is found that the division along the long cell axis can induce the minimal energy difference, and the global stress of the monolayer after stretch releases more rapidly in this case. Moreover, the long-axis division can result in more random cell orientations and more isotropic cell shapes within the monolayer, comparing with other two cases. This study helps understand the division orientation of cells within a monolayer under mechanical stimuli, and may shed light on linking individual cell's behaviors to the global mechanics and patterns of tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Emergence of homeostatic epithelial packing and stress dissipation through divisions oriented along the long cell axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tom P. J.; Harris, Andrew R.; Lam, Maxine; Cheng, Qian; Bellis, Julien; Dimitracopoulos, Andrea; Kabla, Alexandre J.; Charras, Guillaume T.; Baum, Buzz

    2015-01-01

    Cell division plays an important role in animal tissue morphogenesis, which depends, critically, on the orientation of divisions. In isolated adherent cells, the orientation of mitotic spindles is sensitive to interphase cell shape and the direction of extrinsic mechanical forces. In epithelia, the relative importance of these two factors is challenging to assess. To do this, we used suspended monolayers devoid of ECM, where divisions become oriented following a stretch, allowing the regulation and function of epithelial division orientation in stress relaxation to be characterized. Using this system, we found that divisions align better with the long, interphase cell axis than with the monolayer stress axis. Nevertheless, because the application of stretch induces a global realignment of interphase long axes along the direction of extension, this is sufficient to bias the orientation of divisions in the direction of stretch. Each division redistributes the mother cell mass along the axis of division. Thus, the global bias in division orientation enables cells to act collectively to redistribute mass along the axis of stretch, helping to return the monolayer to its resting state. Further, this behavior could be quantitatively reproduced using a model designed to assess the impact of autonomous changes in mitotic cell mechanics within a stretched monolayer. In summary, the propensity of cells to divide along their long axis preserves epithelial homeostasis by facilitating both stress relaxation and isotropic growth without the need for cells to read or transduce mechanical signals. PMID:25908119

  7. Time Delay Cosmography

    OpenAIRE

    Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational time delays, observed in strong lens systems where the variable background source is multiply-imaged by a massive galaxy in the foreground, provide direct measurements of cosmological distance that are very complementary to other cosmographic probes. The success of the technique depends on the availability and size of a suitable sample of lensed quasars or supernovae, precise measurements of the time delays, accurate modeling of the gravitational potential of the main deflector,...

  8. Caveolin-1/PTRF upregulation constitutes a mechanism for mediating p53-induced cellular senescence: implications for evidence-based therapy of delayed wound healing in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Milad S; Abdel-Halim, Samy M; Al-Mulla, Fahd

    2013-10-15

    A heightened state of oxidative stress and senescence of fibroblasts constitute potential therapeutic targets in nonhealing diabetic wounds. Here, we studied the underlying mechanism mediating diabetes-induced cellular senescence using in vitro cultured dermal fibroblasts and in vivo circular wounds. Our results demonstrated that the total antioxidant capacity and mRNA levels of thioredoxinreductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase as well as the ratio of NADPH/NADP were decreased markedly in fibroblasts from patients with type 2 diabetes (DFs). Consistent with this shift in favor of excessive reactive oxygen species, DFs also displayed a significant increase in senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and phospho-γ-histone H2AX (pH2AX) level. Moreover, the ability of PDGF to promote cell proliferation/migration and regulate the phosphorylation-dependent activation of Akt and ERK1/2 appears to be attenuated as a function of diabetes. Mechanistically, we found that diabetes-induced oxidative stress upregulated caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and PTRF expression, which in turn sequestered Mdm2 away from p53. This process resulted in the activation of a p53/p21-dependent pathway and the induction of premature senescence in DFs. Most of the aforementioned oxidative stress and senescence-based features observed in DFs were recapitulated in a 10-day-old diabetic wound. Intriguingly, we confirmed that the targeted depletion of Cav-1 or PTRF using siRNA- or Vivo-Morpholino antisense-based gene therapy markedly inhibited diabetes/oxidative stress-induced premature senescence and also accelerated tissue repair in this disease state. Overall, our data illuminate Cav-1/PTRF-1 as a key player of a novel signaling pathway that may link a heightened state of oxidative stress to cellular senescence and impaired wound healing in diabetes.

  9. Heparan sulfate and cell division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porcionatto M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate is a component of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues which appears during the cytodifferentiation stage of embryonic development. Its structure varies according to the tissue and species of origin and is modified during neoplastic transformation. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that heparan sulfate plays a role in cellular recognition, cellular adhesion and growth control. Heparan sulfate can participate in the process of cell division in two distinct ways, either as a positive or negative modulator of cellular proliferation, or as a response to a mitogenic stimulus.

  10. A division's worth of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Christopher; Shearer, Marianne; Gardner, Karina; Kelly, Jill

    2011-03-01

    Throughout the international community there is an increasing focus on the benefits of collecting, pooling and analysing patient data. General practice provides a great opportunity to create a comprehensive database of the Australian population as 90% of Australians visit their general practitioner each year and general practices are increasingly computerised. This article discusses the facilitatory role divisions of general practice can play in harnessing quality data from general practice and the benefits that may follow. It describes experience from 3 years of data pooling by the Melbourne East General Practice Network in Victoria and makes recommendations for other organisations interested in data collection.

  11. Code division multiple access (CDMA)

    CERN Document Server

    Buehrer, R Michael

    2006-01-01

    This book covers the basic aspects of Code Division Multiple Access or CDMA. It begins with an introduction to the basic ideas behind fixed and random access systems in order to demonstrate the difference between CDMA and the more widely understood TDMA, FDMA or CSMA. Secondly, a review of basic spread spectrum techniques are presented which are used in CDMA systems including direct sequence, frequency-hopping and time-hopping approaches. The basic concept of CDMA is presented, followed by the four basic principles of CDMA systems that impact their performance: interference averaging, universa

  12. Construction of New Delay-Tolerant Space-Time Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkiss, Mireille; Damen, Mohamed Oussama; Belfiore, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    Perfect Space-Time Codes (STC) are optimal codes in their original construction for Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems. Based on Cyclic Division Algebras (CDA), they are full-rate, full-diversity codes, have Non-Vanishing Determinants (NVD) and hence achieve Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff (DMT). In addition, these codes have led to optimal distributed space-time codes when applied in cooperative networks under the assumption of perfect synchronization between relays. However, they loose their diversity when delays are introduced and thus are not delay-tolerant. In this paper, using the cyclic division algebras of perfect codes, we construct new codes that maintain the same properties as perfect codes in the synchronous case. Moreover, these codes preserve their full-diversity in asynchronous transmission.

  13. Effect of delayed intrathecal administration of capsaicin on neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kun Zhang,1 Somayaji Ramamurthy,1 Thomas J Prihoda,2 Maxim S Eckmann1 1Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA Purpose: The current study was designed to examine the antinociceptive effect of intrathecally administered capsaicin, a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor agonist, in a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by unilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury. Methods: Male adult Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to six groups, and all rats underwent unilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury. Two weeks after injury, five groups received intrathecal administration of either capsaicin in three different dosing regimens or equal volumes of vehicle. The other group received intrathecal capsaicin on the third day after nerve injury. The antinociceptive effect of capsaicin was assessed by measuring the capsaicin-induced change in thermal and mechanical response thresholds. Results: Capsaicin (150–300 µg/100–200 µL, when administered by fast infusion or chronic infusions at 8 µL/hour or 1 µL/hour, attenuated thermal hyperalgesia as indicated by significantly prolonging paw withdrawal latency to noxious thermal stimulation. The antinociceptive effect of capsaicin was more profound in the injured limb compared to that in the uninjured limb. When capsaicin was administered on the third day after nerve injury, it failed to attenuate thermal hyperalgesia. No significant effect on the mechanical response threshold was observed with intrathecally administered capsaicin. Conclusion: Our data suggest that intrathecal capsaicin could significantly attenuate thermal hyperalgesia, depending on the time when the drug is given after nerve injury, and that the antinociceptive efficacy of intrathecal capsaicin positively correlates with the previously reported dynamic profile of spinal transient receptor potential

  14. Lactaptin induces p53-independent cell death associated with features of apoptosis and autophagy and delays growth of breast cancer cells in mouse xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A Koval

    Full Text Available Lactaptin, the proteolytic fragment of human milk kappa-casein, induces the death of various cultured cancer cells. The mechanisms leading to cell death after lactaptin treatment have not been well characterized. In this study the in vivo and in vitro effects of a recombinant analogue of lactaptin (RL2 were examined. Following treatment with the recombinant analogue of lactaptin strong caspase -3, -7 activation was detected. As a consequence of caspase activation we observed the appearance of a sub-G1 population of cells with subdiploid DNA content. Dynamic changes in the mRNA and protein levels of apoptosis-related genes were estimated. No statistically reliable differences in p53 mRNA level or protein level were found between control and RL2-treated cells. We observed that RL2 constitutively suppressed bcl-2 mRNA expression and down regulated Bcl-2 protein expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. We demonstrated that RL2 penetrates cancer and non-transformed cells. Identification of the cellular targets of the lactaptin analogue revealed that α/β-tubulin and α-actinin-1 were RL2-bound proteins. As the alteration in cellular viability in response to protein stimulus can be realized not only by way of apoptosis but also by autophagy, we examined the implications of autophagy in RL2-dependent cell death. We also found that RL2 treatment induces LC3-processing, which is a hallmark of autophagy. The autophagy inhibitor chloroquine enhanced RL2 cytotoxicity to MDA-MB-231 cells, indicating the pro-survival effect of RL2-dependent autophagy. The antitumour potential of RL2 was investigated in vivo in mouse xenografts bearing MDA-MB-231 cells. We demonstrated that the recombinant analogue of lactaptin significantly suppressed the growth of solid tumours. Our results indicate that lactaptin could be a new molecule for the development of anticancer drugs.

  15. [Cell apoptosis and expression of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 alpha in kidney tissue after severe burn with delayed fluid resuscitation in rats in areas of different altitude].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Shi-fan; Cai, Qian; Zhang, Xian-ying; Zhang, Bin; Xiao, Bin

    2008-07-01

    To explore the relationship of cell apoptosis and expression regularity of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1 alpha after severe burn with delayed fluid resuscitation in areas of different altitude. A total of 240 male Wistar rats, which were raised in areas of different altitude (1,517 and 3,840 meters), were employed as the experimental models [They received a 30% total body surface area (TBSA)III degree scald injury], and then they were randomly divided into 3 groups: delayed fluid resuscitation group (DFR, n=50), immediate fluid resuscitation group (IFR, n=60) and control group (CG, n=10). Renal tissue samples were harvested at 1, 6, 12, 24, 72 and 168 hours after burn, respectively. Cell apoptosis was detected by tissue chip technology and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL). The expression of HIF-1 alpha was assessed by immunohistochemistry and image analysis. With increase in altitude, cellular edema, degeneration, necrosis and disintegration of renal tissue were gradually worsening, the capillaries of renal glomeruli became dilated and engorged, with degeneration and necrosis of endothelial cells, engorgement and edema of renal interstitium, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Pathological changes in DFR group were more serious than that of IFR group. Cell apoptosis and the expression of HIF-1 alpha were both enhanced, the latter mainly appeared in nuclei of renal cells, and they were more marked at 3,840 meters compared with those at 1,517 meters. They were more marked in experimental groups than in control group, especially so in DFR group (Pkidney cell apoptosis.

  16. Reconstruction of time-delay systems from chaotic time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezruchko, B P; Karavaev, A S; Ponomarenko, V I; Prokhorov, M D

    2001-11-01

    We propose a method that allows one to estimate the parameters of model scalar time-delay differential equations from time series. The method is based on a statistical analysis of time intervals between extrema in the time series. We verify our method by using it for the reconstruction of time-delay differential equations from their chaotic solutions and for modeling experimental systems with delay-induced dynamics from their chaotic time series.

  17. Asymmetric cell division of stem cells in the lung and other systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berika, Mohamed; Elgayyar, Marwa E; El-Hashash, Ahmed H K

    2014-01-01

    New insights have been added to identification, behavior and cellular properties of embryonic and tissue-specific stem cells over the last few years. The modes of stem cell division, asymmetric vs. symmetric, are tightly regulated during development and regeneration. The proper choice of a stem cell to divide asymmetrically or symmetrically has great consequences for development and disease because inappropriate asymmetric division disrupts organ morphogenesis, whereas uncontrolled symmetric division induces tumorigenesis. Therefore, understanding the behavior of lung stem cells could identify innovative solutions for restoring normal morphogenesis and/or regeneration of different organs. In this concise review, we describe recent studies in our laboratory about the mode of division of lung epithelial stem cells. We also compare asymmetric cell division (ACD) in the lung stem cells with other tissues in different organisms.

  18. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials and electrified interfaces. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division`s activities during 1997 are presented.

  19. Clinical Observation on Dingchen Touge Powder for Delayed Chemotherapy-induced Vomiting%丁沉透膈散治疗化疗延迟呕吐临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏飞; 陈红侠

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the therapeutic effect of Dingchen Touge powder for chemotherapy induced gastrointestinal reaction . Methods:A total of 136 patients with delayed chemotherapy-induced vomiting were randomly divided into two groups , in chemotherapy cycle, treatment group was given Dingchen Touge powder orally;while control group was given methoxychlor tome amine and dexametha -sone.Clinical effect and adverse reaction in two groups were observed and compared .Results:The effect for symptoms of anorexia , nau-sea and vomiting in treatment group was obviously superior to control group , and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion:Dingchen Touge powder has good comprehensive effect on chemotherapy -induced gastrointestinal reaction , and is worthy to be clinically popularized and applied .%目的:观察中药丁沉透膈散治疗肿瘤化疗所致消化道反应的疗效。方法:将136例化疗所致延迟呕吐的患者随机分为2组,在化疗周期中实验组以中药丁沉透膈散汤剂口服;对照组予甲氧氯普胺+地塞米松,比较2组的临床效果与药物不良反应。结果:实验组在治疗食欲不振、抑制恶心、呕吐等方面明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P值均小于0.05)。结论:中药丁沉透膈散防治化疗药物所致消化道反应综合疗效较好,值得临床推广应用。

  20. Inflammasome-induced IL-1β secretion in microglia is characterized by delayed kinetics and is only partially dependent on inflammatory caspases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burm, Saskia M; Zuiderwijk-Sick, Ella A; 't Jong, Anke E J; van der Putten, Céline; Veth, Jennifer; Kondova, Ivanela; Bajramovic, Jeffrey J

    2015-01-14

    Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that link pathogen recognition and cellular stress to the processing of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Whereas inflammasome-mediated activation is heavily studied in hematopoietic macrophages and dendritic cells, much less is known about microglia, resident tissue macrophages of the brain that originate from a distinct progenitor. To directly compare inflammasome-mediated activation in different types of macrophages, we isolated primary microglia and hematopoietic macrophages from adult, healthy rhesus macaques. We analyzed the expression profile of NOD (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain)-like receptors, adaptor proteins, and caspases and characterized inflammasome activation and regulation in detail. We here demonstrate that primary microglia can respond to the same innate stimuli as hematopoietic macrophages. However, microglial responses are more persistent due to lack of negative regulation on pro-IL-1β expression. In addition, we show that while caspase 1, 4, and 5 activation is pivotal for inflammasome-induced IL-1β secretion by hematopoietic macrophages, microglial secretion of IL-1β is only partially dependent on these inflammatory caspases. These results identify key cell type-specific differences that may aid the development of strategies to modulate innate immune responses in the brain.

  1. Time Delay Cosmography

    CERN Document Server

    Treu, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational time delays, observed in strong lens systems where the variable background source is multiply-imaged by a massive galaxy in the foreground, provide direct measurements of cosmological distance that are very complementary to other cosmographic probes. The success of the technique depends on the availability and size of a suitable sample of lensed quasars or supernovae, precise measurements of the time delays, accurate modeling of the gravitational potential of the main deflector, and our ability to characterize the distribution of mass along the line of sight to the source. We review the progress made during the last 15 years, during which the first competitive cosmological inferences with time delays were made, and look ahead to the potential of significantly larger lens samples in the near future.

  2. Prediction of delayed subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K.

    A predictive model of delayed subsidence is discussed. A numerical implementation is tested on one of the best-described study areas, Allegheny County in Pennsylvania. In planning insurance of restitution measures, a predictive model is of value in estimating the magnitude of the problem and the size of long-term budgetary commitments. Contrary to active subsidence, which occurs concurrently with mining operations, or is completed within a few days following coal extraction, delayed subsidence may take many years to appear at the surface after coal mines are abandoned. There are two principal morphological types of delayed subsidence: troughs, which are shallow depressions, and sinks, which are steep-sided crown pits. Both types are damaging to surface structures, and a variety of methods were introduced to deal with the problem, ranging from subsidence insurance to site restitution.

  3. Time delay cosmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Philip J.

    2016-07-01

    Gravitational time delays, observed in strong lens systems where the variable background source is multiply imaged by a massive galaxy in the foreground, provide direct measurements of cosmological distance that are very complementary to other cosmographic probes. The success of the technique depends on the availability and size of a suitable sample of lensed quasars or supernovae, precise measurements of the time delays, accurate modeling of the gravitational potential of the main deflector, and our ability to characterize the distribution of mass along the line of sight to the source. We review the progress made during the last 15 years, during which the first competitive cosmological inferences with time delays were made, and look ahead to the potential of significantly larger lens samples in the near future.

  4. Divisions Panel Discussion: Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Kevin; Hemenway, Mary Kay; Wolter, Anna; Haghighipour, Nader; Yan, Yihua; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Silva, David; Guinan, Edward

    2016-10-01

    The main purpose of this panel discussion was to encourage conversation around potential collaborations between the IAU Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) and IAU Divisions. The discussion was facilitated by the OAD and the conversation revolved mainly around two questions: (i) What should the OAD be doing to enhance the work of the Divisions? (ii) What could the Divisions (both members and respective scientific discipline in general) contribute towards the implementation of the IAU strategic plan?

  5. Bayesian Network Assessment Method for Civil Aviation Safety Based on Flight Delays

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Flight delays and safety are the principal contradictions in the sound development of civil aviation. Flight delays often come up and induce civil aviation safety risk simultaneously. Based on flight delays, the random characteristics of civil aviation safety risk are analyzed. Flight delays have been deemed to a potential safety hazard. The change rules and characteristics of civil aviation safety risk based on flight delays have been analyzed. Bayesian networks (BN) have been used to build ...

  6. Delayed Random Relays

    CERN Document Server

    Ohira, Toru

    2016-01-01

    We present here a system with collection of random walks relaying a signal in one dimension with a presence of a delay. We are interested in the time for a signal to travel from one end (start) to the other end (finish) of the lined group of random walkers. It is found that there is an optimal number of walkers for the signal to travel fastest if the delay is present. We discuss implications of this model and associated behaviors to physical and biological systems.

  7. Approximation of distributed delays

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Hao; Eberard, Damien; Simon, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    We address in this paper the approximation problem of distributed delays. Such elements are convolution operators with kernel having bounded support, and appear in the control of time-delay systems. From the rich literature on this topic, we propose a general methodology to achieve such an approximation. For this, we enclose the approximation problem in the graph topology, and work with the norm defined over the convolution Banach algebra. The class of rational approximates is described, and a constructive approximation is proposed. Analysis in time and frequency domains is provided. This methodology is illustrated on the stabilization control problem, for which simulations results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  8. Major Programs | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations, research networks, investigator-initiated grants, postdoctoral training, and specialized resources across the United States. |

  9. Fair division theory and climate change policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, C. [Technical University Darmstadt (Germany). Department of Law and Economics

    2008-09-30

    This paper analyzes the fair division of common property resources when monetary compensations are feasible. A prominent example is the fair division of the atmosphere's limited absorptive capacity for greenhouse gases. I propose a solution that is Pareto efficient and satisfies the axiomatic fair division criteria of individual rationality, stand-alone upper bound, and a version of envy-freeness. The latter criterion is adapted to problems where monetary compensations can be used to facilitate the fair division of the common resource. Applied to climate change, the solution implies that developing countries should participate in emission reduction efforts, but should be fully compensated for their incremental abatement costs.

  10. Division Unit for Binary Integer Decimals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Tomas; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    -recurrence algorithm to BID representation and implement the division unit in standard cell technology. The implementation of the proposed BID division unit is compared to that of a BCD based unit implementing the same algorithm. The comparison shows that for normalized operands the BID unit has the same latency......In this work, we present a radix-10 division unit that is based on the digit-recurrence algorithm and implements binary encodings (binary integer decimal or BID) for significands. Recent decimal division designs are all based on the binary coded decimal (BCD) encoding. We adapt the radix-10 digit...

  11. Division Algebras and Quantum Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Baez, John C

    2011-01-01

    Quantum theory may be formulated using Hilbert spaces over any of the three associative normed division algebras: the real numbers, the complex numbers and the quaternions. Indeed, these three choices appear naturally in a number of axiomatic approaches. However, there are internal problems with real or quaternionic quantum theory. Here we argue that these problems can be resolved if we treat real, complex and quaternionic quantum theory as part of a unified structure. Dyson called this structure the "three-fold way". It is perhaps easiest to see it in the study of irreducible unitary representations of groups on complex Hilbert spaces. These representations come in three kinds: those that are not isomorphic to their own dual (the truly "complex" representations), those that are self-dual thanks to a symmetric bilinear pairing (which are "real", in that they are the complexifications of representations on real Hilbert spaces), and those that are self-dual thanks to an antisymmetric bilinear pairing (which are...

  12. Physics division annual report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, J.; Physics

    2007-03-12

    This report highlights the research performed in 2005 in the Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The Division's programs include operation of ATLAS as a national user facility, nuclear structure and reaction research, nuclear theory, medium energy nuclear research and accelerator research and development. The mission of Nuclear Physics is to understand the origin, evolution and structure of baryonic matter in the universe--the matter that makes up stars, planets and human life itself. The Division's research focuses on innovative new ways to address this mission and 2005 was a year of great progress. One of the most exciting developments is the initiation of the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade, CARIBU. By combining a Cf-252 fission source, the gas catcher technology developed for rare isotope beams, a high-resolution isobar separator, and charge breeding ECR technology, CARIBU will make hundreds of new neutron-rich isotope beams available for research. The cover illustration shows the anticipated intensities of low-energy beams that become available for low-energy experiments and for injection into ATLAS for reacceleration. CARIBU will be completed in early 2009 and provide us with considerable experience in many of the technologies developed for a future high intensity exotic beam facility. Notable results in research at ATLAS include a measurement of the isomeric states in {sup 252}No that helps pin down the single particle structure expected for superheavy elements, and a new low-background measurement of {sup 16}N beta-decay to determine the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O reaction rate that is so important in astrophysical environments. Precise mass measurements shed new light on the unitarity of the quark weak-mixing matrix in the search for physics beyond the standard model. ATLAS operated for 4686 hours of research in FY2005 while achieving 95% efficiency of beam delivery for experiments. In Medium-Energy Physics, radium

  13. S20098 affects the free-running rhythms of body temperature and activity and decreases light-induced phase delays of circadian rhythms of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, J; Strubbe, J H; Mocaër, E; Koolhaas, J M

    2001-09-01

    Mammalian endogenous circadian rhythms are entrained to the environmental day-night cycle by light exposure. Melatonin is involved in this entrainment by signaling the day-night information to the endogenous circadian pacemaker. Furthermore, melatonin is known to affect the circadian rhythm of body temperature directly. A striking property of the endogenous melatonin signal is its synthesis pattern, characterized by long-term elevated melatonin levels throughout the night. In the present study, the influence of prolonged treatment with the melatonin agonist S20098 during the activity phase of free-running rats was examined. This was achieved by giving S20098 in the food. The free-running body temperature and activity rhythms were studied. The present study shows that enhancement of the melatonin signal, using S20098, affected the free-running rhythm by gradual phase advances of the start of the activity phase, consequently causing an increase in length of the activity phase. A well-known feature of circadian rhythms is its time-dependent sensitivity for light. Light pulse exposure of an animal housed under continuous dark conditions can cause a phase shift of the circadian pacemaker. Therefore, in a second experiment, the influence of melatonin receptor stimulation on the sensitivity of the pacemaker to light was examined by giving the melatonin agonist S20098 in the food during 1 day prior to exposure to a 60-min light pulse of 0, 1.5, 15, or 150 lux given at circadian time (CT) 14. S20098 pretreatment caused a diminished light pulse-induced phase shift when a light pulse of low light intensity (1.5 lux) was given. S20098 treatment via the food was sufficient to exert chronobiotic activity, and S20098 treatment resulting in prolonged overstimulation of melatonin receptors is able to attenuate the effect of light on the circadian timing system.

  14. Noc protein binds to specific DNA sequences to coordinate cell division with chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling Juan; Ishikawa, Shu; Kawai, Yoshikazu; Oshima, Taku; Ogasawara, Naotake; Errington, Jeff

    2009-07-08

    Coordination of chromosome segregation and cytokinesis is crucial for efficient cell proliferation. In Bacillus subtilis, the nucleoid occlusion protein Noc protects the chromosomes by associating with the chromosome and preventing cell division in its vicinity. Using protein localization, ChAP-on-Chip and bioinformatics, we have identified a consensus Noc-binding DNA sequence (NBS), and have shown that Noc is targeted to about 70 discrete regions scattered around the chromosome, though absent from a large region around the replication terminus. Purified Noc bound specifically to an NBS in vitro. NBSs inserted near the replication terminus bound Noc-YFP and caused a delay in cell division. An autonomous plasmid carrying an NBS array recruited Noc-YFP and conferred a severe Noc-dependent inhibition of cell division. This shows that Noc is a potent inhibitor of division, but that its activity is strictly localized by the interaction with NBS sites in vivo. We propose that Noc serves not only as a spatial regulator of cell division to protect the nucleoid, but also as a timing device with an important role in the coordination of chromosome segregation and cell division.

  15. BOLD delay times using group delay in sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloigner, Julie; Vu, Chau; Bush, Adam; Borzage, Matt; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Lepore, Natasha; Wood, John

    2016-03-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder that effects red blood cells, which can lead to vasoocclusion, ischemia and infarct. This disease often results in neurological damage and strokes, leading to morbidity and mortality. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive technique for measuring and mapping the brain activity. Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) signals contain also information about the neurovascular coupling, vascular reactivity, oxygenation and blood propagation. Temporal relationship between BOLD fluctuations in different parts of the brain provides also a mean to investigate the blood delay information. We used the induced desaturation as a label to profile transit times through different brain areas, reflecting oxygen utilization of tissue. In this study, we aimed to compare blood flow propagation delay times between these patients and healthy subjects in areas vascularized by anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries. In a group comparison analysis with control subjects, BOLD changes in these areas were found to be almost simultaneous and shorter in the SCD patients, because of their increased brain blood flow. Secondly, the analysis of a patient with a stenosis on the anterior cerebral artery indicated that signal of the area vascularized by this artery lagged the MCA signal. These findings suggest that sickle cell disease causes blood propagation modifications, and that these changes could be used as a biomarker of vascular damage.

  16. Mechanism of antiemetic effect of Xiaotan Hewei Decoction on chemotherapy-induced delay emesis%消痰和胃方防治化疗延迟性呕吐的机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施俊; 魏品康

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism and effect of Xiaotan Hewei Decoction in preventing chemotherapy-induced delay emesis. Methods: Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with cisplatin 6mg/kg to induce pica. The Xiaotan Hewei Decoction was administered intragastrically (2.448g/kg) for 3d before and after injection respectively with granisetron hydrochloride (2.70mg/kg) as control drug. Kaolin and common feed consumption were recorded in the following 72h.The content of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in brain stem, small intestine and serum were determined by ELISA. Results: The Xiaotan Hewei Decoction could significantly improve anorexia induced by cisplatin in rats more than granisetron hydrochloride (P<0.01). The Xiaotan Hewei Decoction could reduce the high content of 5-HT in serum and brain stem (P=0.0119 and P=0.0000). The content of 5-HT in the Xiaotan Hewei Decoction group was lower than that in the granisetron hydrochloride group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The Xiaotan Hewei Decoction can improve chemotherapy-induced , anorexia. The mechanism of Xiaotan Hewei Decoction in preventing chemotherapy-induced delay emesis may be on the base of regulating the content of 5-HT in brain stem and serum.%目的:探索消痰和胃方防治化疗诱导延迟性呕吐的作用机制.方法:大鼠分为空白组、模型组、格拉司琼组(盐酸格拉司琼灌胃2.70mg/kg)和消痰和胃组(消痰和胃方灌胃2.448g/kg),观察顺铂(6mg/kg)腹腔注射造模后0-72h高岭土与正常饲料摄食量;采用双抗体夹心酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)法检测72h时大鼠血清、脑干、小肠组织中5-羟色胺(5-HT)及其代谢产物5-羟基吲哚乙酸(5-HIAA)的含量.结果:顺铂干预后0-72h各组正常饲料摄食量存在统计学差异(P<0.01),消痰和胃组与模型组比较可明显增加大鼠正常饲料摄入量,并且优于格拉司琼组(P<0.01);各组血清与脑干5-HT含量存在统计学意义(P=0

  17. Cell shape and Wnt signaling redundantly control the division axis of C. elegans epithelial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildwater, Marjolein; Sander, Nicholas; de Vreede, Geert; van den Heuvel, Sander

    2011-10-01

    Tissue-specific stem cells combine proliferative and asymmetric divisions to balance self-renewal with differentiation. Tight regulation of the orientation and plane of cell division is crucial in this process. Here, we study the reproducible pattern of anterior-posterior-oriented stem cell-like divisions in the Caenorhabditis elegans seam epithelium. In a genetic screen, we identified an alg-1 Argonaute mutant with additional and abnormally oriented seam cell divisions. ALG-1 is the main subunit of the microRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) and was previously shown to regulate the timing of postembryonic development. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of developing larvae revealed that reduced alg-1 function successively interferes with Wnt signaling, cell adhesion, cell shape and the orientation and timing of seam cell division. We found that Wnt inactivation, through mig-14 Wntless mutation, disrupts tissue polarity but not anterior-posterior division. However, combined Wnt inhibition and cell shape alteration resulted in disordered orientation of seam cell division, similar to the alg-1 mutant. Our findings reveal additional alg-1-regulated processes, uncover a previously unknown function of Wnt ligands in seam tissue polarity, and show that Wnt signaling and geometric cues redundantly control the seam cell division axis.

  18. Mammalian aPKC/Par polarity complex mediated regulation of epithelial division orientation and cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorhagen, Susanne; Niessen, Carien M

    2014-11-01

    Oriented cell division is a key regulator of tissue architecture and crucial for morphogenesis and homeostasis. Balanced regulation of proliferation and differentiation is an essential property of tissues not only to drive morphogenesis but also to maintain and restore homeostasis. In many tissues orientation of cell division is coupled to the regulation of differentiation producing daughters with similar (symmetric cell division, SCD) or differential fate (asymmetric cell division, ACD). This allows the organism to generate cell lineage diversity from a small pool of stem and progenitor cells. Division orientation and/or the ratio of ACD/SCD need to be tightly controlled. Loss of orientation or an altered ratio can promote overgrowth, alter tissue architecture and induce aberrant differentiation, and have been linked to morphogenetic diseases, cancer and aging. A key requirement for oriented division is the presence of a polarity axis, which can be established through cell intrinsic and/or extrinsic signals. Polarity proteins translate such internal and external cues to drive polarization. In this review we will focus on the role of the polarity complex aPKC/Par3/Par6 in the regulation of division orientation and cell fate in different mammalian epithelia. We will compare the conserved function of this complex in mitotic spindle orientation and distribution of cell fate determinants and highlight common and differential mechanisms in which this complex is used by tissues to adapt division orientation and cell fate to the specific properties of the epithelium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mammalian aPKC/Par polarity complex mediated regulation of epithelial division orientation and cell fate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorhagen, Susanne; Niessen, Carien M., E-mail: carien.niessen@uni-koeln.de

    2014-11-01

    Oriented cell division is a key regulator of tissue architecture and crucial for morphogenesis and homeostasis. Balanced regulation of proliferation and differentiation is an essential property of tissues not only to drive morphogenesis but also to maintain and restore homeostasis. In many tissues orientation of cell division is coupled to the regulation of differentiation producing daughters with similar (symmetric cell division, SCD) or differential fate (asymmetric cell division, ACD). This allows the organism to generate cell lineage diversity from a small pool of stem and progenitor cells. Division orientation and/or the ratio of ACD/SCD need to be tightly controlled. Loss of orientation or an altered ratio can promote overgrowth, alter tissue architecture and induce aberrant differentiation, and have been linked to morphogenetic diseases, cancer and aging. A key requirement for oriented division is the presence of a polarity axis, which can be established through cell intrinsic and/or extrinsic signals. Polarity proteins translate such internal and external cues to drive polarization. In this review we will focus on the role of the polarity complex aPKC/Par3/Par6 in the regulation of division orientation and cell fate in different mammalian epithelia. We will compare the conserved function of this complex in mitotic spindle orientation and distribution of cell fate determinants and highlight common and differential mechanisms in which this complex is used by tissues to adapt division orientation and cell fate to the specific properties of the epithelium.

  20. Delay Bounds for Multiclass FIFO

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yuming; Misra, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    FIFO is perhaps the simplest scheduling discipline. For single-class FIFO, its delay guarantee performance has been extensively studied: The well-known results include a stochastic delay bound for $GI/GI/1$ by Kingman and a deterministic delay bound for $D/D/1$ by Cruz. However, for multiclass FIFO, few such results are available. To fill the gap, we prove delay bounds for multiclass FIFO in this work, considering both deterministic and stochastic cases. Specifically, delay bounds are present...

  1. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....

  2. Delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Wang, Bo; Che, Xiangming; Li, Xuqi; Qiu, Guanglin; He, Shicai; Fan, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (TDHs) are sometimes difficult to identify at an early stage and can consequently result in diagnostic delays with life-threatening outcomes. It is the aim of this case study to highlight the difficulties encountered with the earlier detection of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias. Methods: Clinical data of patients who received treatment for delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernias in registers of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University from 1998 to 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Six patients were included in this study. Left hemidiaphragm was affected in all of them. Most of the patients had a history of traffic accident and 1 a stab-penetrating injury. The interval from injury to developing symptoms ranged from 2 to 11 years (median 5 years). The hernial contents included the stomach, omentum, small intestine, and colon. Diaphragmatic injury was missed in all of them during the initial managements. All patients received operations once the diagnosis of delayed TDH was confirmed, and no postoperative mortality was detected. Conclusions: Delayed TDHs are not common, but can lead to serious consequences once occurred. Early detection of diaphragmatic injuries is crucial. Surgeons should maintain a high suspicion for injuries of the diaphragm in cases with abdominal or lower chest traumas, especially in the initial surgical explorations. We emphasize the need for radiographical follow-up to detect diaphragmatic injuries at an earlier stage. PMID:27512848

  3. 'No delays achiever'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  4. Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper wants to investigate the optimal retailer's lot-sizing policy with two warehouses under partially permissible delay in payments within the economic order quantity (EOQ framework. In this paper, we want to extend that fully permissible delay in payments to the supplier would offer the retailer partially permissible delay in payments. That is, the retailer must make a partial payment to the supplier when the order is received. Then the retailer must pay off the remaining balance at the end of the permissible delay period. In addition, we want to add the assumption that the retailer's storage space is limited. That is, the retailer will rent the warehouse to store these exceeding items when the order quantity is larger than retailer's storage space. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer's optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Three theorems are developed to efficiently determine the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems and obtained a lot of managerial insights.

  5. Asymmetric cell division in polyploid giant cancer cells and low eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Wang, Yijia; Zhang, Shiwu

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division is critical for generating cell diversity in low eukaryotic organisms. We previously have reported that polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) induced by cobalt chloride demonstrate the ability to use an evolutionarily conserved process for renewal and fast reproduction, which is normally confined to simpler organisms. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which reproduces by asymmetric cell division, has long been a model for asymmetric cell division studies. PGCCs produce daughter cells asymmetrically in a manner similar to yeast, in that both use budding for cell polarization and cytokinesis. Here, we review the results of recent studies and discuss the similarities in the budding process between yeast and PGCCs.

  6. Knockdown of dystrophin Dp71 impairs PC12 cells cycle: localization in the spindle and cytokinesis structures implies a role for Dp71 in cell division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Villarreal-Silva

    Full Text Available The function of dystrophin Dp71 in neuronal cells remains to be established. Previously, we revealed the involvement of this protein in both nerve growth factor (NGF-induced neuronal differentiation and cell adhesion by isolation and characterization of PC12 neuronal cells with depleted levels of Dp71. In this work, a novel phenotype of Dp71-knockdown cells was characterized, which is their delayed growth rate. Cell cycle analyses revealed an altered behavior of Dp71-depleted cells, which consists of a delay in G0/G1 transition and an increase in apoptosis during nocodazole-induced mitotic arrest. Dp71 associates with lamin B1 and β-dystroglycan, proteins involved in aspects of the cell division cycle; therefore, we compared the distribution of Dp71 with that of lamin B1 and β-dystroglycan in PC12 cells at mitosis and cytokinesis by means of immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy analysis. All of these three proteins exhibited a similar immunostaining pattern, localized at mitotic spindle, cleavage furrow, and midbody. It is noteworthy that a drastic decreased staining in mitotic spindle, cleavage furrow, and midbody was observed for both lamin B1 and β-dystroglycan in Dp71-depleted cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated the interaction of Dp71 with lamin B1 in PC12 cells by immunoprecipitation and pull-down assays, and importantly, we revealed that knockdown of Dp71 expression caused a marked reduction in lamin B1 levels and altered localization of the nuclear envelope protein emerin. Our data indicate that Dp71 is a component of the mitotic spindle and cytokinesis multi-protein apparatuses that might modulate the cell division cycle by affecting lamin B1 and β-dystroglycan levels.

  7. [Delayed post effort muscle soreness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudreuse, J M; Dupont, P; Nicol, C

    2004-08-01

    Muscle intolerance to exercise may result from different processes. Diagnosis involves confirming first the source of pain, then potential pathological myalgia. Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), commonly referred as tiredness, occurs frequently in sport. DOMS usually develops 12-48 h after intensive and/or unusual eccentric muscle action. Symptoms usually involve the quadriceps muscle group but may also affect the hamstring and triceps surae groups. The muscles are sensitive to palpation, contraction and passive stretch. Acidosis, muscle spasm and microlesions in both connective and muscle tissues may explain the symptoms. However, inflammation appears to be the most common explanation. Interestingly, there is strong evidence that the progression of the exercise-induced muscle injury proceeds no further in the absence of inflammation. Even though unpleasant, DOMS should not be considered as an indicator of muscle damage but, rather, a sign of the regenerative process, which is well known to contribute to the increased muscle mass. DOMS can be associated with decreased proprioception and range of motion, as well as maximal force and activation. DOMS disappears 2-10 days before complete functional recovery. This painless period is ripe for additional joint injuries. Similarly, if some treatments are well known to attenuate DOMS, none has been demonstrated to accelerate either structural or functional recovery. In terms of the role of the inflammatory process, these treatments might even delay overall recovery.

  8. Delayed fluorescence in photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsev, Vasilij; Zaharieva, Ivelina; Chernev, Petko; Strasser, Reto J

    2009-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a very efficient photochemical process. Nevertheless, plants emit some of the absorbed energy as light quanta. This luminescence is emitted, predominantly, by excited chlorophyll a molecules in the light-harvesting antenna, associated with Photosystem II (PS II) reaction centers. The emission that occurs before the utilization of the excitation energy in the primary photochemical reaction is called prompt fluorescence. Light emission can also be observed from repopulated excited chlorophylls as a result of recombination of the charge pairs. In this case, some time-dependent redox reactions occur before the excitation of the chlorophyll. This delays the light emission and provides the name for this phenomenon-delayed fluorescence (DF), or delayed light emission (DLE). The DF intensity is a decreasing polyphasic function of the time after illumination, which reflects the kinetics of electron transport reactions both on the (electron) donor and the (electron) acceptor sides of PS II. Two main experimental approaches are used for DF measurements: (a) recording of the DF decay in the dark after a single turnover flash or after continuous light excitation and (b) recording of the DF intensity during light adaptation of the photosynthesizing samples (induction curves), following a period of darkness. In this paper we review historical data on DF research and recent advances in the understanding of the relation between the delayed fluorescence and specific reactions in PS II. An experimental method for simultaneous recording of the induction transients of prompt and delayed chlorophyll fluorescence and decay curves of DF in the millisecond time domain is discussed.

  9. Morphogenesis is coordinated with nuclear division in germinating Aspergillus nidulans conidiospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S D

    1999-10-01

    Germinating Aspergillus nidulans conidiospores switch to polarized apical growth following an initial period of isotropic expansion. At the same time, they re-enter the nuclear division cycle. The relationship between spore polarization and nuclear division was investigated by testing the effect of cell cycle inhibitors and temperature-sensitive cell cycle mutations on spore morphogenesis. On rich media, it was found that spore polarization is delayed if completion of the first mitosis is blocked. The observed delay may be dependent upon the activity of the mitosis-promoting NIMA kinase. An additional mechanism appears to prevent polarization as the spore progresses through its first S phase. In contrast, on poor media, spore polarization does not require completion of the first mitosis. These observations suggest that spore morphogenesis is influenced by cell cycle signals in a growth-dependent manner.

  10. Port-a-Cath-related complications in 252 patients with solid tissue tumours and the first report of heparin-induced delayed hypersensitivity after Port-a-Cath heparinisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garajová, I; Nepoti, G; Paragona, M; Brandi, G; Biasco, G

    2013-01-01

    The use of the subcutaneous Port-a-Catheters (Port-a-Caths) provides an important mean of venous access for oncological patients. The aim of our retrospective consecutive single-centre study was to investigate Port-a-Cath-related complications in 252 cancer patients. Overall period of Port-a-Caths maintenance was 25 months. The strategy of our centre is to keep Port-a-Caths in situ up to the end of follow-up in adjuvant cancer patients. A total of 22 complications were recorded (8.73%). Interventional complications occurred in four patients. The main complications during Port-a-Cath use included thrombosis (4 patients, 1.58%), infections (4 patients, 1.58%), persistent pain or discomfort (3 patients, 1.19%) and dislocations (2 patients, 0.79%). Median time to the occurrence of any type of complications was 4.5 months. Eleven Port-a-Caths were removed due to complications (4.36%). Similar rate of Port-a-Cath-related thrombosis/infection was seen in adjuvant and advanced cancer patients (no statistical significance). Continuous infusion of anticancer therapy via a Port-a-Cath system is a relatively safe procedure, although major complications might occur. We are first to describe heparin-induced delayed hypersensitivity after heparinisation of Port-a-Cath. This fact should influence the preference to keep the Port-a-Cath after completion of adjuvant anticancer treatment. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Inducement of mitosis delay by cucurbitacin E, a novel tetracyclic triterpene from climbing stem of Cucumis melo L., through GADD45γ in human brain malignant glioma (GBM) 8401 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Y-C; Chen, M-J; Huang, T-Y

    2014-02-27

    Cucurbitacin E (CuE) is a natural compound previously shown to have anti-feedant, antioxidant and antitumor activities as well as a potent chemo-preventive action against cancer. The present study investigates its anti-proliferative property using MTT assay; CuE demonstrated cytotoxic activity against malignant glioma GBM 8401 cells and induced cell cycle G2/M arrest in these cells. CuE-treated cells accumulated in metaphase (CuE 2.5-10 μM) as determined using MPM-2 by flow cytometry. We attempted to characterize the molecular pathways responsible for cytotoxic effects of CuE in GBM 8401 cells. We studied the genome-wide gene expression profile on microarrays and molecular networks by using pathway analysis tools of bioinformatics. The CuE reduced the expression of 558 genes and elevated the levels of 1354 genes, suggesting an existence of the common pathways involved in induction of G2/M arrest. We identified the RB (GADD45β and GADD45γ) and the p53 (GADD45α) signaling pathways as the common pathways, serving as key molecules that regulate cell cycle. Results indicate that CuE produced G2/M arrest as well as the upregulation of GADD45 γ and binding with CDC2. Both effects increased proportionally with the dose of CuE, suggesting that the CuE-induced mitosis delay is regulated by GADD45γ overexpression. Our findings suggest that, in addition to the known effects on cancer prevention, CuE may have antitumor activity in glioma therapy.

  12. 8-60hIPP5(m)-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest involves activation of ATM/p53/p21(cip1/waf1) pathways and delayed cyclin B1 nuclear translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qi-Yan; Zeng, Lin-Jie; Huang, Yu; Huang, Yong-Qi; Zhu, Qi-Fang; Liao, Zhi-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a major serine/threonine phosphatase that controls gene expression and cell cycle progression. The active mutant IPP5 (8-60hIPP5(m)), the latest member of the inhibitory molecules for PP1, has been shown to inhibit the growth of human cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa). In order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, the present study assessed overexpression of 8-60hIPP5(m) in HeLa cells. Flow cytometric and biochemical analyses showed that overexpression of 8-60hIPP5(m) induced G2/M-phase arrest, which was accompanied by the upregulation of cyclin B1 and phosphorylation of G2/M-phase proteins ATM, p53, p21(cip1/waf1) and Cdc2, suggesting that 8-60hIPP5(m) induces G2/M arrest through activation of the ATM/p53/p21(cip1/waf1)/Cdc2/ cyclin B1 pathways. We further showed that overexpression of 8-60hIPP5(m) led to delayed nuclear translocation of cyclin B1. 8-60hIPP5(m) also could translocate to the nucleus in G2/M phase and interact with pp1α and Cdc2 as demonstrated by co-precipitation assay. Taken together, our data demonstrate a novel role for 8-60hIPP5(m) in regulation of cell cycle in HeLa cells, possibly contributing to the development of new therapeutic strategies for cervix carcinoma.

  13. Physics Division annual report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, J.

    2006-04-06

    This report highlights the research performed in 2004 in the Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The Division's programs include operation of ATLAS as a national user facility, nuclear structure and reaction research, nuclear theory, medium energy nuclear research and accelerator research and development. The intellectual challenges of this research represent some of the most fundamental challenges in modern science, shaping our understanding of both tiny objects at the center of the atom and some of the largest structures in the universe. A great strength of these efforts is the critical interplay of theory and experiment. Notable results in research at ATLAS include a measurement of the charge radius of He-6 in an atom trap and its explanation in ab-initio calculations of nuclear structure. Precise mass measurements on critical waiting point nuclei in the rapid-proton-capture process set the time scale for this important path in nucleosynthesis. An abrupt fall-off was identified in the subbarrier fusion of several heavy-ion systems. ATLAS operated for 5559 hours of research in FY2004 while achieving 96% efficiency of beam delivery for experiments. In Medium Energy Physics, substantial progress was made on a long-term experiment to search for the violation of time-reversal invariance using trapped Ra atoms. New results from HERMES reveal the influence of quark angular momentum. Experiments at JLAB search for evidence of color transparency in rho-meson production and study the EMC effect in helium isotopes. New theoretical results include a Poincare covariant description of baryons as composites of confined quarks and non-point-like diquarks. Green's function Monte Carlo techniques give accurate descriptions of the excited states of light nuclei and these techniques been extended to scattering states for astrophysics studies. A theoretical description of the phenomena of proton radioactivity has been extended to triaxial nuclei. Argonne

  14. "American Gothic" and the Division of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Provides historical review of gender-based division of labor. Argues that gender-based division of labor served a purpose in survival of tribal communities but has lost meaning today and may be a handicap to full use of human talent and ability in the arts. There is nothing in various art forms which make them more appropriate for males or…

  15. Distinguishing division algebras by finite splitting fields

    CERN Document Server

    Krashen, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of determining the number of division algebras which share the same collection of finite splitting fields. As a corollary we are able to determine when two central division algebras may be distinguished by their finite splitting fields over certain fields.

  16. On Durkheim's Explanation of Division of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueschemeyer, Dietrich

    1982-01-01

    In De la Division du Travail Social, Durkheim's causal explanation for secular increases in the division of labor and the differentiation of social structure is flawed. His metatheoretical concerns expressed in the critique of utilitarian social theory flawed his contributions to a causal explanation of social differentiation. (Author/AM)

  17. Introduction to JPL's Mechanical Systems Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Kendra

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Mechanical Systems Division. It reviews the projects, both past and current that the engineers of this division have worked on. It also reviews the work environment as an exciting place for the entry level engineer.

  18. The Division of Labor as Social Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidson, Eliot

    1976-01-01

    Three different principles and ideologies by which the division of labor can be organized are sketched, along with their consequences for variation in structure and content. It is noted that the reality of the division of labor lies in the social interaction of its participants. (Author/AM)

  19. Teaching Cell Division: Basics and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mike U.; Kindfield, Ann C. H.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a concise overview of cell division that includes only the essential concepts necessary for understanding genetics and evolution. Makes recommendations based on published research and teaching experiences that can be used to judge the merits of potential activities and materials for teaching cell division. Makes suggestions regarding the…

  20. Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Yasser; Ouellette, Scot P.; Belland, Robert J.; Cox, John V.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments. PMID:27505160