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Sample records for dithiocarbamate tiniv complex

  1. Thermolysis of lanthanide dithiocarbamate complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncher, William L.; Regulacio, Michelle D.; Stoll, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline lanthanide sulfide materials were formed at low temperatures using a single-source precursor based on the lanthanide dithiocarbamate complex. The synthesis temperatures are generally lower than standard solid state preparations, avoid toxic sulfurizing gases and provide a convenient route to prepare lanthanide chalcogenide nanoparticles. Depending on the reaction conditions and oxophilicity of the lanthanide, the sulfide material was formed with oxidized products including oxysulfides, oxysulfates and the oxide.

  2. Tin(IV) complexes of pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate: synthesis, characterisation and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, D C; Vieira, F T; de Lima, G M; Porto, A O; Cortés, M E; Ardisson, J D; Albrecht-Schmitt, T E

    2005-12-01

    The reaction of ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, [NH4{S2CN(CH2)4}], with SnCl2, [Sn(C6H5)2Cl2], [Sn(C6H5)3Cl], [Sn(C4H9)2Cl2] and [Sn(C6H11)3Cl] produced in good yield the compounds [Sn{S2CN(CH2)4}2Cl2] (1), [Sn{S2CN(CH2)4}2Ph2] (2), [Sn{S2CN(CH2)4}Ph3] (3), [Sn{S2CN(CH2)4}2 n-Bu2] (4) and [Sn{S2CN(CH2)4}Cy3] (5). The complexes were characterised by infrared, multinuclear NMR (1H, 13C{1H} and 119Sn{1H}) and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopies. In addition, the crystal structure of 4 was determined by X-ray crystallography. The in vitro antifungal activity of the tin(IV) complexes as well of the ligand was performed on human pathogenic fungi, Candida albicans, in concentrations of 0.025; 0.050; 0.100; 0.200; 0.400; 0.800; 1.600 and 3.200 mM. The microorganism presented resistance to the dithiocarbamate ligand and all tin(IV) complexes tested were actives. The highest activity was found for compounds 1 and 4.

  3. Lanthanide dithiocarbamate complexes: efficient catalysts for the cyanosilylation of aldehydes

    OpenAIRE

    VALE, JULIANA A.; FAUSTINO, WAGNER M.; Menezes, Paulo H.; Sá,Gilberto F. de

    2006-01-01

    A new class of lanthanide dithiocarbamate complexes was used to promote the cyanosilylation of aldehydes at high yields at room temperature. This represents the first application of lanthanide dithiocarbamate acting as Lewis acid.

  4. In Situ XAS of the Solvothermal Decomposition of Dithiocarbamate Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Husn-Ubayda; Roffey, Anna; Hollingsworth, Nathan; Catlow, Richard; Wolthers, Mariette; De Leeuw, Nora; Bras, Wim; Sankar, Gopinathan; Hogarth, Graeme

    2013-04-01

    An in situ XAS study of the solvothermal decomposition of iron and nickel dithiocarbamate complexes was performed in order to gain understanding of the decomposition mechanisms. This work has given insight into the steps involved in the decomposition, showing variation in reaction pathways between the iron and nickel dithiocarbamates, and the non-innocent role of oleylamine as the solvent and capping agent in the reaction.

  5. In vitro antitumour and antibacterial studies of some Pt(IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manav, N.; Mishra, A. K.; Kaushik, N. K.

    2006-09-01

    A few Pt(IV) complexes of the type [Pt(L) 2Cl 2] [where L = morpholine dithiocarbamate (L 1), aniline dithiocarbamate (L 2), N-(methyl, cyclohexyl) dithiocarbamate (L 3) and N-(ethyl, cyclohexyl) dithiocarbamate (L 4)] were synthesized. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, IR, electronic, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic studies. The ligands found to act in monobasic bidentate fashion. Cyclicvoltammetric studies, antibacterial and in vitro antitumour studies were also carried out.

  6. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim

    2014-09-01

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S2CNR'R″]2 (R= Ph, CH3, R' = CH3, C2H5, C7H7 and R″ = C2H5, C6H11, iC3H7, C7H7). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(CN), ν(CS) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444-1519, 954-1098 and 318-349 cm-1 respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of NCS group in the range of 253 - 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The 13C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N13CS2) in the range of 196.8 - 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S2CN(Et)(i-Pr)]2, MeSnCl[S2CN(Me)(Cy)]2 and MeSnCl[S2CN(i-Pr)(CH2Ph)]2. All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS4 donor atom from the two chelating dithiocarbamate ligands.

  7. In situ XAS of the solvothermal decomposition of dithiocarbamate complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, H.-U.; Roffey, A.; Hollingsworth, N.; Catlow, R.; Wolthers, M.; de Leeuw, N.H.; Bras, W.; Sankar, G.; Hogarth, G.

    2012-01-01

    An in situ XAS study of the solvothermal decomposition of iron and nickel dithiocarbamate complexes was performed in order to gain understanding of the decomposition mechanisms. This work has given insight into the steps involved in the decomposition, showing variation in reaction pathways between t

  8. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S{sub 2}CNR′R″]{sub 2} (R= Ph, CH{sub 3}, R′ = CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7} and R″ = C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 11}, iC{sub 3}H{sub 7}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7}). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(CN), ν(CS) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444–1519, 954–1098 and 318–349 cm{sup −1} respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of NCS group in the range of 253 – 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The {sup 13}C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N{sup 13}CS{sub 2}) in the range of 196.8 – 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Et)(i−Pr)]{sub 2}, MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Me)(Cy)]{sub 2} and MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(i−Pr)(CH{sub 2}Ph)]{sub 2}. All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS{sub 4} donor atom from the two

  9. RECOVERY OF URANIUM BY AROMATIC DITHIOCARBAMATE COMPLEXING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, O.K.

    1959-08-11

    A selective complexing organic solvent extraction process is presented for the separation of uranium values from an aqueous nitric acid solution of neutron irradiated thorium. The process comprises contacting the solution with an organic aromatic dithiccarbamaie and recovering the resulting urancdithiccarbamate complex with an organic solvent such as ethyl acetate.

  10. Detection of basal NO production in rat tissues using iron-dithiocarbamate complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Faassen, Ernst E.; Koeners, Maarten P.; Joles, Jaap A.; Vanin, Anatoly F.

    2008-01-01

    We probe endogenous NO production in WKY rats by trapping NO with iron-dithiocarbamate complexes. The aim was to detect non-stimulated NO production in small organs like kidneys of juvenile rats. The yields of mononitrosyl Fe-dithiocarbamate complexes are small and difficult to quantify in the prese

  11. Detection of basal NO production in rat tissues using iron-dithiocarbamate complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Faassen, Ernst E.; Koeners, Maarten P.; Joles, Jaap A.; Vanin, Anatoly F.

    We probe endogenous NO production in WKY rats by trapping NO with iron-dithiocarbamate complexes. The aim was to detect non-stimulated NO production in small organs like kidneys of juvenile rats. The yields of mononitrosyl Fe-dithiocarbamate complexes are small and difficult to quantify in the

  12. Redox-active nickel and cobalt tris(pyrazolyl)borate dithiocarbamate complexes: air-stable Co(II) dithiocarbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David J; Harding, Phimphaka; Dokmaisrijan, Supaporn; Adams, Harry

    2011-02-14

    A series of new cobalt(II) and nickel(II) tris(3,5-diphenylpyrazolyl)borate (Tp(Ph2)) dithiocarbamate complexes [Tp(Ph2)M(dtc)] (M = Co, dtc = S₂CNEt₂ 1, S₂CNBz₂ 2 and S₂CN(CH₂)₄ 3; M = Ni, dtc = S₂CNEt₂ 4, S₂CNBz₂ 5 and S₂CN(CH₂)₄ 6) have been prepared by the reaction of [Tp(Ph2)MBr] with Nadtc in CH₂Cl₂. IR spectroscopy indicates that the Tp(Ph2) ligand is κ³ coordinated while the dithiocarbamate ligand is κ² coordinated. ¹H NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy are consistent with high spin, five-coordinate metal centres. X-ray crystallographic studies of 1, 3 and 6 confirm the κ³ coordination of the Tp(Ph2) ligand and reveal an intermediate five-coordinate geometry with an asymmetrically coordinated dithiocarbamate ligand. Electrochemical studies of 1-6 reveal a metal centred reversible one-electron oxidation to M(III). Attempted oxidation of [Tp(Ph2)Co(dtc)] with [FeCpCp(COMe)]BF₄ yields [Co(dtc)₃], Hpz(Ph2) and a further product which may be [Tp(Ph2)CoBp(Ph2)]. DFT calculations indicate that the low redox potentials in these complexes result from a strongly antibonding M-S σ* HOMO.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxic activity of palladium (II) dithiocarbamate complexes with α,ω-diamines

    OpenAIRE

    Montagner, Diego; Marzano, Cristina; Gandin, Valentino

    2011-01-01

    The polymeric [PdCl(dithiocarbamate)]n complexes, in which the ligand ion is dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDT), pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PyDT, (CH2)4NCS2−) and sarcosine ethyl ester dithiocarbamate (ESDT, EtO2CCH2N(CH3)CS2−), have been reacted with chelating diamines, like ethylenediamine (en) or 1,3-diaminopropane (dap) and long chain diamines, like 1,4-diaminobutane (dab) or 1,7-diaminoheptane (dah). The reaction products depend on either diamine chain length or molar ratio. By operating a...

  14. Polynuclear transition metal complexes with thiocarbohydrazide and dithiocarbamates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, K. S.; Khan, Sadaf; Nami, Shahab A. A.; El-ajaily, M. M.

    2007-07-01

    Sn(tch) 2{MCl 2} 2 was prepared from the precursor Sn(tch) 2 and MCl 2. It was subsequently allowed to react with diethyldithiocarbamate which yielded the trinuclear complexes of the type Sn(tch) 2{M 2(dtc) 4}, where tch = thiocarbohydrazide, M = Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and dtc = diethyldithiocarbamate. They were characterized on the basis of microanalytical, thermal (TGA/DSC), spectral (IR, UV-vis, EPR, 1H NMR) studies, conductivity measurement and magnetic moment data. On the basis of spectral data a tetrahedral geometry has been proposed for the halide complexes, Sn(tch) 2{MCl 2} 2 except for Cu(II) which exhibits a square planar coordination although the transition metal ion in Sn(tch) 2{M 2(dtc) 4} achieves an octahedral geometry where the dithiocarbamato moiety acts as a symmetrical bidentate ligand. The bidentate nature has been established by the appearance of a sharp single ν(C-S) around 1000 cm -1. A downfield shift observed in NH a and NH b protons on moving from Sn(tch) 2 to Sn(tch) 2{MCl 2} 2 is due to the drift of electrons toward metal atoms. A two-step pyrolysis has been observed in the Sn(tch) 2{MCl 2} 2 complexes while their dithiocarbamato derivatives exhibit a three-stage degradation pattern. Finally, the in vitro antibacterial activity of Sn(tch) 2{M 2(dtc) 4} and the mononuclear Sn(tch) 2 has been carried out on bacterial strains Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. The compounds were found to be active against the test organisms. The activity of the complexes is enhanced with increasing concentration. The maximum activity in both the strains was achieved by cobalt(II) dithiocarbamate complex. Minimum activity was found for Sn(tch) 2 which generally increases with the introduction of transition metal ion in the complex.

  15. Triphenyl phosphine adducts of platinum(IV) and palladium(II) dithiocarbamates complexes: a spectral and in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manav, N.; Mishra, A. K.; Kaushik, N. K.

    2004-11-01

    Triphenyl phosphine adducts of dithiocarbamate complexes of platinum(IV) and palladium(II) of the type [Pt(L) 2PPh 3Cl 2] and [Pd(L) 2PPh 3] [L: morpholine dithiocarbamate (L 1), aniline dithiocarbamate (L 2) and N-(methyl, cyclohexyl) dithiocarbamate (L 3)] were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, electronic, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies. Thermal studies of the complexes were carried out. In vitro antitumor activity has been screened towards human adenocarcinoma cell lines and showed significant inhibition even at very low concentration.

  16. A 119Sn Mössbauer Study of Tin(IV) Complexes of 2- and 4-Benzoylpyridine Thiosemicarbazone and 4-Benzoylpyridine Semicarbazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rebolledo, Anayive; Ardisson, José D.; de Lima, Geraldo M.; Macedo, Waldemar A. A.; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2005-06-01

    A 119Sn Mössbauer study was carried out of tin(IV) complexes with 2-benzoylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (H2Bz4DH) and its N(4)-methyl (H2Bz4M) and N(4)-phenyl (H2Bz4Ph) derivatives: [Sn(2Bz4DH)Cl3] (1), [Sn(2Bz4DH)PhCl2] (2), [Sn(2Bz4M)Cl3] (3), [H22Bz4M]2[Ph2SnCl4] (4), [Sn(2Bz4Ph)PhCl2] (5), [Sn(2Bz4Ph)Ph2Cl] (6), in which H2Bz4R stands for the neutral ligand and 2Bz4R stands for the anionic thiosemicarbazone. In addition, 119Sn Mössbauer studies of the tin(IV) complexes [Sn(H4Bz4DH)2Cl4H2O] (7), [Sn(H4BzPS)2Cl4H2O] (8) with 4-benzoylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (H4Bz4DH) and the correspondent semicarbazone (H4BzPS) were performed. The isomer shifts decrease upon coordination due to the variation in the percentage of s character as tin changes from approximately sp3 hybridization in the tin salts to sp3d2 in the octahedral or sp3d3 in the heptahedral complexes. The Mössbauer parameters of compound (4) showed the existence of two tin(IV) sites, which have been attributed to the presence of the cis and trans isomers.

  17. A {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer Study of Tin(IV) Complexes of 2- and 4-Benzoylpyridine Thiosemicarbazone and 4-Benzoylpyridine Semicarbazone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Rebolledo, Anayive [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Quimica (Brazil); Ardisson, Jose D., E-mail: jdr@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Laboratorio de Fisica Aplicada (LFA/CDTN) (Brazil); Lima, Geraldo M. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Quimica (Brazil); Macedo, Waldemar A. A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Laboratorio de Fisica Aplicada (LFA/CDTN) (Brazil); Beraldo, Heloisa, E-mail: hberaldo@ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Quimica (Brazil)

    2005-06-15

    A {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer study was carried out of tin(IV) complexes with 2-benzoylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (H2Bz4DH) and its N(4)-methyl (H2Bz4M) and N(4)-phenyl (H2Bz4Ph) derivatives: [Sn(2Bz4DH)Cl{sub 3}] (1), [Sn(2Bz4DH)PhCl{sub 2}] (2), [Sn(2Bz4M)Cl{sub 3}] (3), [H{sub 2}2Bz4M]{sub 2}[Ph{sub 2}SnCl{sub 4}] (4), [Sn(2Bz4Ph)PhCl{sub 2}] (5), [Sn(2Bz4Ph)Ph{sub 2}Cl] (6), in which H2Bz4R stands for the neutral ligand and 2Bz4R stands for the anionic thiosemicarbazone. In addition, {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer studies of the tin(IV) complexes [Sn(H4Bz4DH){sub 2}Cl{sub 4}H{sub 2}O] (7), [Sn(H4BzPS){sub 2}Cl{sub 4}H{sub 2}O] (8) with 4-benzoylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (H4Bz4DH) and the correspondent semicarbazone (H4BzPS) were performed. The isomer shifts decrease upon coordination due to the variation in the percentage of s character as tin changes from approximately sp{sup 3} hybridization in the tin salts to sp{sup 3}d{sup 2} in the octahedral or sp{sup 3}d{sup 3} in the heptahedral complexes. The Moessbauer parameters of compound (4) showed the existence of two tin(IV) sites, which have been attributed to the presence of the cis and trans isomers.

  18. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Nickel (II and Palladium (II Complex with Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate (PDTC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk Imadul Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of square planar Ni(II and Pd(II complexes with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC was characterized by elemental, physiochemical, and spectroscopic methods. Two complexes were prepared by the reaction of nickel acetate and palladium acetate with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC in 1 : 2 molar ratio. The bovine serum albumin (BSA interaction with complexes was examined by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques at pH 7.4. All the spectral data suggest that coordination of the pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC takes place through the two sulphur atoms in a symmetrical bidentate fashion. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity against some species of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Bacillus cereus. It has been observed that complexes have higher activity than the free ligand.

  19. Synthesis, NMR spectral and structural studies on mixed ligand complexes of Pd(II) dithiocarbamates: First structural report on palladium(II) dithiocarbamate with SCN-ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakasam, Balasubramaniam Arul; Lahtinen, Manu; Peuronen, Anssi; Muruganandham, Manickavachagam; Kolehmainen, Erkki; Haapaniemi, Esa; Sillanpää, Mika

    2016-03-01

    Three new mixed ligand complexes of palladium(II) dithiocarbamates; [Pd(4-dpmpzdtc)(PPh3)(SCN)] (1), [Pd(4-dpmpzdtc)(PPh3)Cl] (2) and [Pd(bzbudtc)(PPh3)Cl] (3), (where, 4-dpmpzdtc = 4-(diphenylmethyl)piperazinecarbodithioato anion, bzbudtc = N-benzyl-N-butyldithiocarbamato anion and PPh3 = triphenylphosphine) have been synthesized from their respective parent dithiocarbamates by ligand exchange reactions and characterized by IR and NMR (1H, 13C and 31P) spectroscopy. IR and NMR spectral data support the isobidentate coordination of the dithiocarbamate ligands in all complexes (1-3) in solid and in solution, respectively. Single crystal diffraction analysis of complexes 1-3 evidences that all three complexes are exhibiting distorted square planar geometry. The Pd-S distances in 1-3 vary in accordance with the differences in trans influences of PPh3, SCN- and Cl- and it is in the order of PPh3 > SCN- > and Cl-. Interchange of the anionic auxiliary ligand (SCN- to Cl-) induces asymmetry to the dithiocarbamate-metal bonds. Thioureide C-N bond distances are short in 1-3, supporting a contribution of thioureide form to the structures. The observed distortions in the square planar geometry for 1-3, are in the order of 1 > 2 > 3.

  20. Tin(IV) and lead(IV) complexes with a tetradentate redox-active ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, Alexandr V; Trofimova, Olesya Yu; Fukin, Georgy K; Ketkov, Sergei Yu; Smolyaninov, Ivan V; Cherkasov, Vladimir K

    2012-08-28

    The coordination chemistry of a tetradentate redox-active ligand, glyoxal-bis(2-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylanil) (H(2)L), was investigated with the diorganotin(IV) and diphenyllead(IV) moieties. Complexes R(2)SnL (R = Me (1), Et (2), (t)Bu (3), Ph (4)) and Ph(2)PbL (5) have been prepared and characterized. The molecular structures of compounds 1, 3, and 5 have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The diamagnetic octahedral complexes bear a tetradentate O,N,N,O redox-active ligand with a nearly planar core. Complexes 1-5 demonstrate solvatochromism in solution. The CV of complexes 1-5 reveals four one-electron redox processes. The spin density distribution in the chemically generated cations and anions of 1-5 was studied by X-band EPR spectroscopy. The experimental data agree well with the results of DFT calculations of electronic structures for 1, its pyridine adduct 1·Py, cation 1(+) and anion 1(-).

  1. Spectral, thermal and in vitro antimicrobial studies of cyclohexylamine- N-dithiocarbamate transition metal complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamba, Saul M.; Mishra, Ajay K.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Njobeh, Patrik B.; Dutton, Mike F.; Fosso-Kankeu, Elvis

    2010-10-01

    Transition metal complexes of the type [M(L) 2] and those containing monodentate phosphines of the type [M(L) 2(PPh 3)] {M = Ni, Co, Cu and Zn; L = cyclohexylamine- N-dithiocarbamate; PPh 3 = triphenylphosphine} have been synthesized. The complexes were characterized using IR, UV-vis, NMR spectroscopy, and thermal analysis (TGA). The 1H NMR, 13C NMR and 31P NMR showed the expected signals for the dithiocarbamate and triphenylphosphine moieties. The spectral studies in all compounds revealed that the coordination of metals occurs via the sulphur atom of the dithiocarbamate ligand in a bidentate fashion. Thermal behavior of the complexes showed that the complexes were more stable than their parent ligands. The ligand moiety is lost in the first step and the rest of the organic moiety decomposes in the subsequent steps. Furthermore, the ligand and their metal complexes were screened in vitro for their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus and antifungal activities against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus. The metal complexes exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than the parent ligands. Generally, the zinc complexes were effective against the growth of bacteria with Zn(L) 2 displaying broad spectrum bacteriocidal activity at concentrations of 50 μg/mL; and Ni(L) 2 was more effective against the growth of fungi at concentrations of 100-400 μg/mL under laboratory conditions.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and anticancer studies of mixed ligand dithiocarbamate palladium(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hizbullah; Badshah, Amin; Murtaz, Ghulam; Said, Muhammad; Rehman, Zia-ur-; Neuhausen, Christine; Todorova, Margarita; Jean-Claude, Bertrand J; Butler, Ian S

    2011-09-01

    Six mixed ligand dithiocarbamate Pd(II) complexes (1-6) of general formula [(DT)Pd(PR(3))Cl], where DT = dimethyldithiocarbamate (1, 5), diethyldithiocarbamate (2, 3), dicyclohexyldithiocarbamate (4), bis(2-methoxyethyl)dithiocarbamate (6); PR(3) = benzyldiphenylphosphine (1), diphenyl-2-methoxyphenylphosphine (2), diphenyl-p-tolylphosphine (3), diphenyl-m-tolylphosphine (4), tricyclohexylphosphine (5), diphenyl-2-pyridylphosphine (6) have been synthesized and characterised using Elemental analysis, FT-IR, Raman and multinuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Compounds 1 and 2 were also characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique (XRD). The XRD study reveals that the Pd(II) moiety has a pseudo square-planar geometry, in which two positions are occupied by the dithiocarbamate ligand in a bidentate fashion, while at the remaining two positions organophosphine and chloride are present. The anticancer activity of the synthesized metallodrugs was checked against DU145 human prostate carcinoma (HTB-81) cells, the IC(50) values indicate that the compounds are highly active against these cells. These Pd(II) complexes also show moderate antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

  3. Synthesis and structural characterization of new dithiocarbamate complexes from Sb(III) and Bi(III)

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    Jamaluddin, Nur Amirah; Baba, Ibrahim [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Twenty new antimony and bismuth dithiocarbamate complexes which employed ten different type of amines have been successfully synthesized. The synthesized complexes with metal to dithiocarbamate ratio at 1:3. Elemental analysis of the complexes gave the general formula of MCl[S{sub 2}CNR’R”]{sub 2} where M = Sb(III), Bi(III); R’ = methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, sec-butyl, benzyl; R” = ethanol, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, cyclohexyl, benzyl. The complexes were analysed by IR and NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of five-coordinated antimony (III) complex have been determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies on SbCl[S{sub 2}CN(C{sub 4}H{sub 9})(C{sub 2}H{sub 5})]{sub 2} adopted a triclinic system with a space group P1 with a = 10.0141(8) Å, b = 10.1394(7) Å, c = 11.8665(9) Å, α = 67.960°, β =87.616°, γ = 80.172°.

  4. Synthesis and structural characterization of new dithiocarbamate complexes from Sb(III) and Bi(III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaluddin, Nur Amirah; Baba, Ibrahim

    2013-11-01

    Twenty new antimony and bismuth dithiocarbamate complexes which employed ten different type of amines have been successfully synthesized. The synthesized complexes with metal to dithiocarbamate ratio at 1:3. Elemental analysis of the complexes gave the general formula of MCl[S2CNR'R"]2 where M = Sb(III), Bi(III); R' = methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, sec-butyl, benzyl; R" = ethanol, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, cyclohexyl, benzyl. The complexes were analysed by IR and NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of five-coordinated antimony (III) complex have been determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies on SbCl[S2CN(C4H9)(C2H5)]2 adopted a triclinic system with a space group P1 with a = 10.0141(8) Å, b = 10.1394(7) Å, c = 11.8665(9) Å, α = 67.960°, β =87.616°, γ = 80.172°.

  5. Fluorescence turn-on detection of gaseous nitric oxide using ferric dithiocarbamate complex functionalized quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Yan, Yehan; Sun, Mingtai; Yu, Huan; Zhang, Kui; Huang, Dejian; Wang, Suhua

    2014-06-17

    Functional quantum dots (QDs) grafted with ferric dithiocarbamate complex layers (QDs-Fe(III)(DTC)3) were fabricated and demonstrated to be selectively reactive to nitric oxide. The dithiocarbamate (DTC) was covalently conjugated to the amine-coated QDs by a condensation reaction of the carboxyl in DTC and the amino polymer in surface of QDs. The weak fluorescence of QDs-Fe(III)(DTC)3 was attributed to the energy transfer between CdSe/ZnS and Fe(III)(DTC)3 complex at the surface of the functionalized quantum dots. Nitric oxide could greatly switch on the fluorescence of QDs-Fe(III)(DTC)3 by displacing the DTC in the Fe(III)(DTC)3 accompanied by reducing Fe(III) to Fe(II), thus shutting off the energy transfer way. The limit of detection for nitric oxide was estimated to be 3.3 μM and the specific detection was not interfered with other reactive oxygen species. Moreover, the probe was demonstrated for the sensing of gaseous nitric oxide, and the visual detection limit was as low as 10 ppm, showing the potential for sensing nitric oxide by the naked eye.

  6. Nickel(II) dithiocarbamate complexes containing sulforhodamine B as fluorescent probes for selective detection of nitrogen dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Krishnakumar, Saarangan; Yu, Huan; Ramishetti, Srinivas; Deng, Lih-Wen; Wang, Suhua; Huang, Leaf; Huang, Dejian

    2013-04-10

    We synthesized complexes of Ni(II) with dithiocarbamate ligands derived from the ortho and para isomers of sulforhodamine B fluorophores and demonstrated they are highly selective in reactions with nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Compared with the para isomer, the ortho isomer showed a much greater fluorescence increase upon reaction with NO2, which led to oxidation and decomplexation of the dithiocarbamate ligand from Ni(II). We applied this probe for visual detection of 1 ppm NO2 in the gas phase and fluorescence imaging of NO2 in macrophage cells treated with a nitrogen dioxide donor.

  7. Synthesis, Biological, and Quantum Chemical Studies of Zn(II and Ni(II Mixed-Ligand Complexes Derived from N,N-Disubstituted Dithiocarbamate and Benzoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C. Ekennia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some mixed-ligand complexes of Zn(II and Ni(II derived from the sodium salt of N-alkyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamate and benzoic acid have been prepared. The complexes are represented as ZnMDBz, ZnEDBz, NiMDBz, and NiEDBz (MD: N-methyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamate, ED: N-ethyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamate, and Bz: benzoate; and their coordination behavior was characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, IR, electronic spectra, magnetic and conductivity measurements, and quantum chemical calculations. The magnetic moment measurement and electronic spectra were in agreement with the four proposed coordinate geometries for nickel and zinc complexes and were corroborated by the theoretical quantum chemical calculations. The quantum chemically derived thermodynamics parameters revealed that the formation of N-methyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamate complexes is more thermodynamically favourable than that of the N-ethyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamate complexes. The bioefficacy of the mixed-ligand complexes examined against different microbes showed moderate to high activity against the test microbes. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant studies of the metal complexes showed that the ethyl substituted dithiocarbamate complexes exhibited better anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties than the methyl substituted dithiocarbamate complexes.

  8. Multimetallic complexes and functionalized nanoparticles based on unsymmetrical dithiocarbamate ligands with allyl and propargyl functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtubise, Venesia L; McArdle, James M; Naeem, Saira; Toscani, Anita; White, Andrew J P; Long, Nicholas J; Wilton-Ely, James D E T

    2014-11-03

    The new, unsymmetrical dithiocarbamate ligands, KS2CN(CH2CH═CH2)Me and KS2CN(CH2C≡CH)Me, are formed from the respective amines on reaction with KOH and carbon disulfide. The homoleptic complexes [Ni{S2CN(CH2CH═CH2)Me}2] and [M{S2CN(CH2C≡CH)Me}2] (M = Ni, Pd, Pt) are formed on reaction with suitable metal precursors. Conversion between the two pendant functionalities was confirmed by hydrogenation of [Ni{S2CN(CH2C≡CH)Me}2] to yield [Ni{S2CN(CH2CH═CH2)Me}2]. The monodithiocarbamate compounds of group 8, 10, and 11 metals, [Ru{S2CN(CH2CH═CH2)Me}(dppm)2](+), [Ru(CH═CHC6H4Me-4){S2CN(CH2CH═CH2)Me}(CO)(PPh3)2], [Ni{S2CN(CH2CH═CH2)Me}(dppp)](+), and [Au{S2CN(CH2CH═CH2)Me}(PPh3)] were formed successfully. Using KS2CN(CH2C≡CH)Me, the complex [Ru{S2CN(CH2C≡CH)Me}(dppm)2](+) was obtained from cis-[RuCl2(dppm)2]. One palladium example, [Pd{S2CN(CH2C≡CH)Me}(PPh3)2](+), was also isolated in low yield. However, under the typical conditions employed, a rearrangement reaction prevented isolation of further group 10 propargyl-dithiocarbamate products. Over the extended reaction time required, Me(HC≡CCH2)NCS2(-) was found to undergo a remarkable, atom-efficient cyclization to form the thiazolidine-2-thione, H2C═CCH2N(Me)C(═S)S, in high yield, with MeC═CHN(Me)C(═S)S as the minor product. The reactivity of the pendant triple bonds in [Ni{S2CN(CH2C≡CH)Me}2] was probed in the reaction with [RuH(CO)(S2P(OEt)2)(PPh3)2] to form the trimetallic example [Ni{S2CN(Me)CH2CH═CHRu(CO)(S2P(OEt)2)(PPh3)2}2], while the copper(I) catalyzed reaction with benzylazide yielded the triazole product, [Ni{S2CN(Me)CH2(C2HN3)Bz}2]. KS2CN(CH2C≡CH)Me was also used to prepare the gold nanoparticles, Au@S2CN(CH2C≡CH)Me. Structural studies are reported for [Ru(CH═CHC6H4Me-4){S2CN(CH2CH═CH2)Me}(CO)(PPh3)2] and [Ru{S2CN(CH2C≡CH)Me}(dppm)2]PF6.

  9. Synthesis and biodistribution of a novel {sup 99m}Tc nitrido dithiocarbamate complex containing aromatic group for cerebral imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Junbo [Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals (Beijing Normal University), Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: zhjunbo@bnu.edu.cn; Lin Xiao; Ren Jialei; Liu Jing; Wang Xuebin [Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals (Beijing Normal University), Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2010-01-15

    In the present study, the N-benzyl dithiocarbamate (BZDTC) was synthesized and radiolabeled with [{sup 99m}TcN]{sup 2+} intermediate to form the bis(N-benzyl dithiocarbamato) nitrido technetium-99m complex [{sup 99m}TcN(BZDTC){sub 2}]. The radiochemical purity of the complex was over 90% by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It was stable over 6 h at room temperature. The partition coefficient and electrophoresis results indicated that this complex was lipophilic and neutral. Biodistribution in mice showed that the complex accumulated in the brain with high uptake. The brain uptake (ID%/g) was 1.87, 1.21 and 0.85 and the brain/blood ratio was 0.75, 1.55 and 1.12 at 5, 30 and 60 min post-injection, respectively. These results suggest that this complex could be a potential brain perfusion imaging agent.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and anticancer activity of gold(I) complexes that contain tri-tert-butylphosphine and dialkyl dithiocarbamate ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Muhammad; Monim-ul-Mehboob, M; Seliman, Adam A A; Sohail, Manzar; Wazeer, Mohammed I M; Isab, Anvarhusein A; Li, L; Dhuna, V; Bhatia, G; Dhuna, K

    2015-05-05

    Two new gold(I) complexes that contain tri-ter-butylphosphine and dialkyl dithiocarbamate ligands were synthesized and characterized by FTIR, NMR spectroscopy, Cyclic voltammetry, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction. The in vitro cytotoxicity of both complexes was examined against A549 (lung cancer), MCF7 (breast cancer), and HeLa (cervical cancer) human cancer cell lines. Both complexes exhibit very strong in vitro cytotoxic effects against A549, MCF7 and HeLa cell lines. The screening of the cytotoxic activity based on IC50 data against the A549, MCF7, and HeLa lines shows that the synthesized gold(I) complexes are highly effective, particularly against HeLa cancer cell line. Based on IC50 data, the cytotoxic activity of both complexes is better than well-known commercial anticancer drug cisplatin against all the three cancer lines tested.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and anticancer activity of gold(I) complexes that contain tri-tert-butylphosphine and dialkyl dithiocarbamate ligands

    KAUST Repository

    Altaf, Muhammad

    2015-03-10

    Two new gold(I) complexes that contain tri-ter-butylphosphine and dialkyl dithiocarbamate ligands were synthesized and characterized by FTIR, NMR spectroscopy, Cyclic voltammetry, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction. The in vitro cytotoxicity of both complexes was examined against A549 (lung cancer), MCF7 (breast cancer), and HeLa (cervical cancer) human cancer cell lines. Both complexes exhibit very strong in vitro cytotoxic effects against A549, MCF7 and HeLa cell lines. The screening of the cytotoxic activity based on IC50 data against the A549, MCF7, and HeLa lines shows that the synthesized gold(I) complexes are highly effective, particularly against HeLa cancer cell line. Based on IC50 data, the cytotoxic activity of both complexes is better than well-known commercial anticancer drug cisplatin against all the three cancer lines tested.

  12. 氨荒酸基二丁基锡配合物的波谱分析%Spectra Analysis of Di-n-Butyltin Complexes of Dithiocarbamate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立云; 雷风芹; 尹汉东

    2001-01-01

    Twelve di-n-butyltin complexes of dithiocarbamate were synthesized and characterized by IR,UV and 1H NMR.The results reveale that the dithiocarbamate ligands are in bidentate coordination with Sn.%合成了12种新的氨荒酸基二丁基锡配合物(n-C4H9)2Sn(S2CNRR′)2。利用UV、IR和1H NMR表征了它们的结构,结果表明,氨荒酸是以双齿形式与锡原子配位的。

  13. Group 12 dithiocarbamate complexes: Synthesis, spectral studies and their use as precursors for metal sulfides nanoparticles and nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajibade, Peter A.; Ejelonu, Benjamin C.

    2013-09-01

    Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) dithiocarbamate complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, UV-Vis, FTIR, 1H- and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The complexes were thermolysed at 180 °C and used as single molecule precursors for the synthesis of HDA capped ZnS, CdS and HgS nanoparticles and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanocomposites. The optical and structural properties of the nanoparticles and nanocomposites were studied by UV-Vis, PL, XRD and SEM. The crystallites sizes of the nanoparticles varied between 3.03 and 23.45 nm. SEM and EDX analyses of the nanocomposites confirmed the presence of the nanoparticles in the polymer matrix.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and light harvesting properties of Sb(III) and Bi(III) ferrocenyl dithiocarbamate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ratna; Trivedi, Manoj; Yadav, Reena; Kumar, Abhinav; Amalnerkar, Dinesh P; Gosavi, Suresh W

    2015-11-05

    New Sb(III) and Bi(III) ferrocenyl dithiocarbamate complexes viz. [Sb(FcCH2Bzdtc)3] (Sb) and [Bi(FcCH2Bzdtc)3] (Bi) (Fc=C5H5FeC5H4-; Bz=C6H5CH2-) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopies. The optical, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties of the synthesized complexes were investigated. The light harvesting properties of both of the compounds have been studied using these compounds as photosensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs. The photovoltaic devices fabricated by Sb and Bi showed a maximum current conversion efficiency of 1.51% and 0.97%, respectively under 1.5 AM illumination (100 mW cm(-2)) and having incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) of 38% and 31%, respectively. The reason for the higher efficiency of Sb is due its higher dye loading.

  15. Synthesis of zinc sulphide nanoparticles from thermal decomposition of zinc N-ethyl cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Nurul Hidayah [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zainal, Zulkarnain, E-mail: zulkar@upm.edu.my [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Silong, Sidik [UiTM Negeri Sembilan, Kampus Kuala Pilah, Pekan Parit Tinggi, 72000 Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia); Tahir, Mohamed Ibrahim Mohamed; Tan, Kar-Ban [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Chang, Sook-Keng [Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-04-15

    Synthesis of nanostructured semiconductor materials from various single source precursors has been massively explored for potential applications in modern technology. Thermal decomposition method has been employed to prepare nanoparticles zinc sulphide from zinc N-ethyl cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate precursor. Effect of heat treatment at different calcination duration on the structural, morphological, compositional and band gap properties of zinc sulphide were investigated. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. XRD showed the precursor was decomposed to hexagonal zinc sulphide after 2–6 h of calcination duration at 400 °C. The sizes of zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanoparticles obtained from TEM analysis were about 6–11 nm. The existence of the hexagonal ZnS phase is not affected by the calcination duration, while only a slight difference in the crystallinity and crystallite size of ZnS is observed from XRD analysis. EDX analyses reveal that the as-prepared ZnS nanoparticles have an approximate composition of Zn and S close to 1:1, giving a possible composition of ZnS. Besides, direct band gap energy of ZnS was found to be around 3.78–3.95 eV. - Highlights: • Zinc N-ethyl cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate was used as single source precursor. • No surfactant was used in the preparation of ZnS nanoparticles. • Pure phase nanostructured ZnS is obtained. • A good stoichiometric sample with an average atomic ratio of Zn:S close to 1:1.

  16. Mixed Ligand Complexes of N-Methyl-N-phenyl Dithiocarbamate: Synthesis, Characterisation, Antifungal Activity, and Solvent Extraction Studies of the Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekennia, Anthony C; Onwudiwe, Damian C; Ume, Cyril; Ebenso, Eno E

    2015-01-01

    A series of mixed ligand dithiocarbamate complexes with a general formula [ML2(py)2], where M = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II), py = pyridine, and L = N-methyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamate have been prepared and characterised by elemental analysis, FTIR and Uv spectroscopy, magnetic moment, and thermogravimetric and conductance analysis. The infrared spectra showed that symmetrical bidentate coordination occurred with the dithiocarbamate moiety through the sulfur atoms, while neutral monodentate coordination occurred through the nitrogen atom for the pyridine molecule in the complexes. The electronic spectra, elemental analysis, and magnetic moment results proved that the complexes adopted octahedral geometry. The conductance measurement showed that the complexes are nonelectrolytes proving their nonionic nature. The compounds were screened for three human pathogenic fungi: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans. The cobalt complex showed the best antifungal activity among the test compounds. Liquid-liquid extractive abilities of the ligand towards copper and nickel ions in different solvent media were investigated. The ligand showed a strong binding affinity towards the metals ions with an extractive efficiency of about 99%.

  17. Tris dithiocarbamate of Co(III) complexes: Synthesis, characterization, thermal decomposition studies and experimental and theoretical studies on their crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia, Ayyavoo Sait; Bhaskaran, Ramalingam

    2017-04-01

    New homoleptic complexes of the form [Co(L1)3] & [Co(L2)3] where L1 = (ethylaminoethanol dithiocarbamate) 1 and L2 = (methylaminoethanol dithiocarbamate) 2 have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-visible absorption spectra, Cyclic voltammetry,1H and C13 NMR. The thermal properties were studied using a simultaneous thermal analyzer, and showed two main steps of decomposition. In addition, structures for 1 and 2 have been elucidated by X-ray crystallography. The single-crystal X-ray analysis for both the complexes showed distorted octahedral geometry. The optimized molecular structure, natural bond orbital analysis, electrostatic potential map, HOMO-LUMO energies, molecular properties, and atomic charges of these molecules have been studied by performing DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory in gas phase.

  18. Synthesis of (99m)TcN-clinafloxacin Dithiocarbamate Complex and Comparative Radiobiological Evaluation in Staphylococcus aureus Infected Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Qaiser; Khan, Mohammad Rafiullah

    2014-09-01

    Clinafloxacin dithiocarbamate (CNND) preparation and radiolabeling through [(99m)Tc ≡ N](2+) core with the gamma (γ) emitter ((99m)Tc) was assessed. The potentiality of the (99m)Tc(V) ≡ N-CNND complex was investigated as perspective a Staphylococcus aureus (S.a.) in vivo infection radiotracer in terms of radiochemical stability in normal saline (n.s.), human serum (h.s.), binding efficacy with live and heat killed S.a. and biodistribution in female nude mice model (FNMD). More than 90% stability was observed in n.s. for 4 h with the highest yield of 98.70 ± 0.26% at 30 min after reconstitution. In h.s., the (99m)Tc(V) ≡ N-CNND complex was found stable up to 16 h with 15.35% side products. Maximum in vitro binding (68.75 ± 0.80%, 90 min) with S.a. was observed after 90 min of incubation. In FNMD, (infected with live strain) approximately six-fold higher uptakes was noted in the infected to inflamed and normal muscles. The higher stability in n.s., h.s., higher S.a. (live) up take with specific and targeted in vivo distribution confirmed potentiality of the (99m)Tc(V) ≡ N-CNND complex as perspective S.a. in vivo infection radiotracer.

  19. A novel slurry sampling analysis of lead in different water samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after coprecipitated with cobalt/pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baysal, A. [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Akman, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: akmans@itu.edu.tr; Calisir, F. [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-10-30

    A preconcentration/separation technique based on the coprecipitation of lead with cobalt/pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex (Co(PDC){sub 2}) and subsequently its direct slurry sampling determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was described. For this purpose, at first, lead was coprecipitated with cobalt/pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex formed using ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) as a chelating agent and cobalt as a carrier element. The supernatant was then separated and the slurry of the precipitate prepared in Triton X-100 was directly analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with respect to lead concentration. The effects of experimental conditions on coprecipitation of lead with gathering precipitate as well as homogeneity and stability of the slurry were investigated. After the optimization of experimental parameters, a 100-fold enrichment of the analyte with quantitative recovery (>90%) and high precision (<10% R.S.D.) were obtained. By using the proposed technique, the lead concentrations in heavy matrices of Certified Sea-water and wastewater samples could be practically and rapidly determined in the range of 95% confidence level. The detection limit of the described method for lead using sample-matching blanks was 1.5 ng/L (3{sigma}, N = 10)

  20. Synthesis and anti-fungicidal activity of some transition metal complexes with benzimidazole dithiocarbamate ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; Ibrahim, Nasser A.; Attia, Hanaa A. E.

    2009-04-01

    Seven transition metal complexes of benzimidazole ligand (HL) are reported and characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, solid reflectance, magnetic moment, molar conductance and thermal analyses (TGA and DTA). From the obtained data, the complexes were proposed to have the general formulae [MX 2(HL)(H 2O)]· yH 2O, where M = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cr(III); X = Cl -, SO 42- and y = 0-4. The molar conductance data revealed that all the metal chelates were non-electrolytes. From the magnetic and solid reflectance spectra, it was found that the geometrical structure of these complexes is octahedral. The thermal behaviour of these chelates showed that the hydrated complexes loss water molecules of hydration in the first step followed immediately by decomposition of the anions and ligand molecules in the subsequent steps. Fungicidal activity of the prepared complexes and free ligand was evaluated against three soil borne fungi. Data obtained showed the higher biological activity of the prepared complexes than the parent Schiff base ligand. Formulation of the most potent complex was carried out in the form of 25% WP. Fungicidal activity of the new formulation was evaluated and compared with the standard fungicide Pencycuron (Monceren 25% WP). In most cases, the new formulation possessed higher fungicidal activity than the standard fungicide under the laboratory conditions.

  1. In Vitro Studies of the Activity of Dithiocarbamate Organoruthenium Complexes against Clinically Relevant Fungal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio L. Donnici

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antifungal activity of nine dirutheniumpentadithiocarbamate complexes C1–C9 was investigated and assessed for its activity against four different fungal species with clinical interest and related to invasive fungal infections (IFIs, such as Candida spp. [C. albicans (two clinical isolates, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsolisis, C. tropicalis, C.dubliniensis (six clinical isolates], Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (seven clinical isolates, Cryptococcus neoformans and Sporothrix schenckii. All synthesized complexes C1–C9 and also the free ligands L1–L9 were submitted to in vitro tests against those fungi and the results are very promising, since some of the obtained MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration values were very low (from 10−6 mol mL−1 to 10−8 mol mL−1 against all investigated clinically relevant fungal pathogens, except for C. glabrata, that the MIC values are close to the ones obtained for fluconazole, the standard antifungal agent tested. Preliminary structure-activity relations (SAR might be suggested and a strong influence from steric and lipophilic parameters in the antifungal activity can be noticed. Cytotoxicity assays (IC50 showed that the complexes are not as toxic (IC50 values are much higher—30 to 200 fold—than MIC values. These ruthenium complexes are very promising lead compounds for novel antifungal drug development, especially in IFIs, one of most harmful emerging infection diseases (EIDs.

  2. Dithiocarbamate Assembly on Gold

    OpenAIRE

    Yan ZHAO; Perez-Segarra, Waleska; Shi, Qicun; Wei, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Metal surfaces are functionalized by stable dithiocarbamate ligands when exposed to carbon disulfide and secondary amines. The adsorbed dithiocarbamates are robust under a wide pH range and can resist displacement by other chemisorptive surfactants, providing an attractive method for conjugating sensitive molecules onto metal surfaces.

  3. Synthesis and spectral studies on Pb(II) dithiocarbamate complexes containing benzyl and furfuryl groups and their use as precursors for PbS nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyaraj, Ethiraj; Thirumaran, Subbiah

    2012-11-01

    Nine lead bis(dithiocarbamate) complexes based on benzyl and furfuryl groups have been prepared. The complexes were characterized using IR and NMR spectroscopy. All the complexes showed the expected signals in 1H and 13C NMR spectra associated with the dithiocarbamate ligands. IR and 13C NMR spectral studies indicate that the S2Cpdbdtd N double bond character increases with increase in length of alkyl chain bonded to nitrogen atom. Bis(N-benzyl-N-(2-phenylethyl)dithiocarbamato-S,S')lead(II) (3) and bis(N-furfuryl-N-(2-phenylethyl)dithiocarbamato-S,S')lead(II) (4) have been used as single source precursors for the synthesis of ethylenediamine capped PbS nanoparticles. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FTIR, UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy have been used to characterize the as-prepared lead sulfide nanoparticles. The PXRD measurements suggest that PbS nanoparticles are single phase with face-centered-cubic structure.

  4. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of tin(II) and tin(IV) complexes containing 2,3,5,6-tetrakis({alpha}-pyridyl)pyrazine as a bridging ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitzer, Rodrigo S.; Filgueiras, Carlos A.L. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: calf@iq.ufrj.br; Teles, Wagner M. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Abras, Anuar [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Ardisson, Jose Domingos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2005-09-15

    In this work we investigated the reactivity of the nitrogen heterocyclic ligand 2,3,5,6-tetrakis({alpha}-pyridyl)pyrazine, TPP, towards six tin-containing reagents, namely SnCl{sub 2}, SnX{sub 4} (X = Cl or Br), SnRCl{sub 3} (R = Ph or Me), and SnPh{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. The products were characterized by microanalysis (C, H, N, and Sn), IR spectroscopy (4000-200 cm{sup -1}), {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C{l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace}, {sup 13}C-CP/MAS, {sup 119}Sn, and {sup 119}Sn-MAS NMR spectroscopy, as well as by {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy. All reactions yielded bimetallic adducts, in which TPP behaved as a bis-bidentate bridging ligand, binding to each metallic center through two pyridine nitrogen atoms. This coordination mode is so far quite rare and, for the first time, is reported for main group metal-TPP complexes. (author)

  5. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial study of cyclometalated rhodium(III) complex containing dithiocarbamate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Ghobad; Heidarizadi, Fateme; Naghipour, Ali; Notash, Behrouz

    2016-10-01

    The novel cyclometalated Rh(III) complex, [Rh(phpy)2(SˆS)], Where phpy is 2-phenylpyridine and (SˆS) is diethyldithiocarbamate, has been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 13C and 1H NMR, electronic absorption and Fluorescence spectroscopies, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure of [Rh(phpy)2(SˆS)] shows that the coordination geometry around the Rh(III) is a distorted octahedron, with bite angles of 71.19-81.04° for all three bidentate ligands. Electrochemical analysis by cyclic voltammetry reveals irreversible redox behavior of the rhodium centre. Antibacterial activity of the complex has also been studied by agar disc diffusion method against three Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli) and two Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium renale).

  6. Crystal Structure and Spectroscopic Studies of Bis (morpholine dithiocarbamate) Nickel (II) Complex, Ni (C4H8ONCS2) 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN,Su(潘苏); PAN,Su; WANG,Ying(王瑛); WANG,Ying

    2001-01-01

    The title compound has been prepared and characterized by EA, IR and TG spectralstudies. The crystal structure of nickel (IⅡ) bis(morpholine dithiocarbamate) Ni(C4HsONC S2)2 is determied by X-ray diffraction methods. It crystal lizes in the monoclinic system, space groun P2n/n, with lat tice parameters a = 0.4288(1), b = 2.0526(4), c = 0.8333(2) nn, β = 97.43(3)°, and Z = 2. In the structure, central Ni atom coordination geometry is slightly distorted square-planar with the four S atoms from two morpholine dithiocarbamate ligands. The four Ni-S bond distancs are in the range of 0.2199(5)0.2201(2) nm. The IR spectral data are in agreement with the structural ones. The TG data indicate that it decomposed completely at the 766.89°C.

  7. Dithiocarbamate toxicity - An appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dithiocarbamates are used as agricultural pesticides and general biocides in a variety of applications. However, acute or chronic exposure to these chemicals can produce neurotoxicity, developmental deformities, endocrine disruption, hypersensitivity, and metabolic dysfunctions in animals and human...

  8. Synthesis and biodistribution of a novel (⁹⁹m)TcN complex of norfloxacin dithiocarbamate as a potential agent for bacterial infection imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shijian; Zhang, Weifang; Wang, Yue; Jin, Zhonghui; Wang, Xuebin; Zhang, Junbo; Zhang, Yanyan

    2011-03-16

    Achieving a (⁹⁹m)Tc-labeled fluoroquinolone derivative as a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracer is considered to be of great interest. The norfloxacin dithiocarbamate (NFXDTC) was synthesized and radiolabeled with a [(⁹⁹m)TcN]²(+) intermediate to form the (⁹⁹m)TcN-NFXDTC complex in high yield. The radiochemical purity of (⁹⁹m)TcN-NFXDTC was over 90%, as measured by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), without any notable decomposition at room temperature over a period of 6 h. The partition coefficient and electrophoresis results indicated that (⁹⁹m)TcN-NFXDTC was lipophilic and neutral. The bacterial binding assay studies showed tht (⁹⁹m)TcN-NFXDTC had a good binding affinity. Biodistribution results in bacterial infected mice showed that (⁹⁹m)TcN-NFXDTC had a higher uptake at the sites of infection and better abscess/blood and abscess/muscle ratios than those of (⁹⁹m)Tc-ciprofloxacin and (⁹⁹m)TcN-CPFXDTC (CPFXDTC = ciprofloxacin dithiocarbamate). The biodistribution results of (⁹⁹m)TcN-NFXDTC in bacterially infected mice and in mice with turpentine-induced abscesses indicated that (⁹⁹m)TcN-NFXDTC was suited to be a bacteria-specific infection imaging agent. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image studies showed there was a visible accumulation in infection sites, suggesting that it would be a promising candidate for bacterial infection imaging.

  9. Preparation and biodistribution of a (99m)Tc tricarbonyl complex with deoxyglucose dithiocarbamate as a tumor imaging agent for SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao; Chao, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Junbo; Jin, Zhonghui; Zhang, Yanyan

    2014-08-15

    The deoxyglucose dithiocarbamate (DGDTC) was successfully labeled with the (99m)Tc(CO)3 core to provide the corresponding (99m)Tc(CO)3-DGDTC complex in good yields. The radiochemical purity of the (99m)Tc(CO)3-DGDTC complex was over 90%, as measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The complex possessed good stability in saline at room temperature and in mouse plasma at 37 °C. Its partition coefficient result indicated that it was a hydrophilic complex. The electrophoresis results showed the complex was neutral. The biodistribution of (99m)Tc(CO)3-DGDTC in mice bearing S 180 tumor showed that the complex clearly accumulated in tumor, exhibiting high tumor/blood and tumor/muscle ratios and good tumor retention. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image studies showed there was a visible uptake in tumor sites, suggesting (99m)Tc(CO)3-DGDTC could be considered as a potential tumor imaging agent.

  10. Theoretical investigations of the structures and electronic spectra of Zn(II) and Ni(II) complexes with cyclohexylamine-N-dithiocarbamate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaohan; Wang, Na; He, Hongqing; Wang, Li

    2014-03-01

    The ground-state structures of two ligands cyclohexylamine-N-dithiocarbamate (L) and PPh3 and four complexes [Zn(L)2] (A), [Ni(L)2] (B), [Zn(L)2PPh3] (C), and [Ni(L)2PPh3] (D) are optimized by M06, B3LYP, and B3PW91 methods with the same mixed basis set. As compared with the experimental data of other complexes containing the Ni-P bond, the result obtained by M06/6-31+G(d)-LANL2DZ method is finally regarded as accurate and reliable for this project. Based on the optimized geometries, the compositions of molecular orbitals are analyzed and the absorption spectra are simulated. When one more ligand PPh3 is coordinated, the lowest-lying transition energy presents red-shift; while it shows blue-shift when the metal coordination center change from Ni to Zn with the same ligands. The detailed transition characters related with the absorption spectrum are assigned. In all the key transitions, it is hard to find the contribution from Zn atom. On the contrary, the d orbital of Ni atom contributes a lot for the HOMO and LUMO of complexes B and D. Consequently, the transition characters of Zn(II) and Ni(II) complexes are different.

  11. Oxidation by oxygen and sulfur of Tin(IV) derivatives containing a redox-active o-amidophenolate ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, Alexandr V; Mescheryakova, Irina N; Fukin, Georgii K; Baranov, Evgenii V; Hummert, Markus; Shavyrin, Andrei S; Cherkasov, Vladimir K; Abakumov, Gleb A

    2008-01-01

    Oxidation of tin(IV) o-amidophenolate complexes [Sn(ap)Ph(2)] (1) and [Sn(ap)Et(2)(thf)] (2) (ap=dianion of 4,6-di-tert-butyl-N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-o-iminobenzoquinone (ImQ)) with molecular oxygen and sulfur in toluene solutions was investigated. The reaction of oxygen with 1 at room temperature forms a paramagnetic derivative [Sn(isq)(2)Ph(2)] (3) (isq=radical anion of ImQ) and diphenyltin(IV) oxide [{Ph(2)SnO}(n)]. Interaction of 1 with sulfur gives another monophenyl-substituted paramagnetic tin(IV) complex, [Sn(ap)(isq)Ph] (4), and the sulfide, [Ph(3)Sn](2)S. The oxidation of 2 with oxygen and with sulfur proceeds through the derivative [Sn(isq)(2)Et(2)] (7), which undergoes alkyl elimination to give two new tin(IV) compounds, [Sn(ap)(isq)Et] (5) and [Sn(ap)(EtImQ)Et] (6) (EtImQ=2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-(2,6-diisopropylphenylimino)-3-ethylcyclohexa-1,4-dienolate ligand), respectively, along with the corresponding alkyltin(IV) oxide and sulfide. Complexes 3-5 and 7 were studied by EPR spectroscopy. The structures of 3, 4 and 6 were investigated by X-ray analysis.

  12. Separation of heavy metal from water samples--The study of the synthesis of complex compounds of heavy metal with dithiocarbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Sonila; Lazo, Pranvera; Ylli, Fatos; Stafilov, Trajce; Qarri, Flora; Marku, Elda

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity and persistence of heavy metal (HM) ions may cause several problems to marine organisms and human beings. For this reason, it is growing the interest in the chemistry of sulphur donor ligands such as dithiocarbamates (DDTC), due to their applications particularly in analytical chemistry sciences. The aim of this work has been the study of heavy metal complexes with DDTC and their application in separation techniques for the preconcentration and/or removing of heavy metals from the water solutions or the water ecosystems prior to their analysis. The HM-DDTC complexes were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods. The elemental analysis and the yield of the synthesis (97.5-99.9%) revealed a good purity of the complexes. High values of complex formation yields of HM-DDTC complexes is an important parameter for quantitatively removing/and or preconcentration of heavy metal ions from water solution even at low concentration of heavy metals. Significant differences founded between the characteristic parameters of UV/Vis (λmax and ϵmax) and FTIR absorption spectra of the parent DDTC and HM-DDTC complexes revealed the complex formation. The presence of the peaks at the visible spectral zone is important to M(nd(10-m))-L electron charge transfer of the new complexes. The (C=N) (1450-1500 cm(-1)) and the un-splitting (C-S) band (950-1002 cm(-1)) in HM-DDTC FTIR spectra are important to the identification of their bidentate mode (HM[S2CNC4H10]2). The total CHCl3 extraction of trace level heavy metals from water samples after their complex formation with DDTC is reported in this article.

  13. Cadmium (II) pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex as single source precursor for the preparation of CdS nanocrystals by microwave irradiation and conventional heating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx Nirmal, R.; Pandian, K.; Sivakumar, K.

    2011-01-01

    The complex of cadmium with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate Cd(pdtc)2 has been used as single source precursor for the synthesis of CdS nanoparticles. The formation of CdS nanostructures was achieved by thermal decomposition of the complex under microwave irradiation and conventional heating in presence of hexadecylamine. The CdS nanoparticles with disordered close-packed structure were obtained under microwave irradiation, whereas wurtzite hexagonal phase CdS nanorods were obtained by conventional heating method (up to 150 °C). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies also were carried out to study the structure and morphology of nanoparticles. The optical property of the CdS nanoparticles was studied by UV-visible and fluorescence emission spectral studies. Fluorescence measurements on the CdS nanoparticles show a strong emission spectrum with two sub bands that are attributed to band-edge and surface-defect emissions. The reduction of a suitable cadmium metal complex is considered to be one of the single pot methods to generate CdS semiconductor nanoparticles with different shapes and high yield.

  14. Synthesis and Application of Metal Dithiocarbamic Complex%金属二硫代氨基甲酸配合物的合成与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯兰凤; 陈少峰

    2015-01-01

    The atom of S、N was included in dithiocarbamic complex, which had excellent adsorbability to metal ions. Moreover the metal ions generally belonged to soft acid or middle acid, organic sulfur and amines belonged to soft base or middle base, the two were easily combined to stable complex. The synthesismethod and application in chemistry,mining industry, environment protec-tion, rubber, petroleum, agriculture, medicine area and so on of this kind of complex were summarized in this text.%二硫代氨基甲酸盐类化合物含有S、N等配位原子,对金属离子具有良好的吸附性能.而且金属离子一般属于软酸或中间酸,有机硫化物和胺类属于软碱或中间碱,二者容易结合成稳定的络合物.本文综述了此类化合物的合成方法及其在化学、矿业、环境保护、橡胶、石油、农业、医药等领域的广泛应用.

  15. Cadmium (II) pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex as single source precursor for the preparation of CdS nanocrystals by microwave irradiation and conventional heating process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx Nirmal, R. [Department of Physics, Anna University Chennai, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600025 (India); Pandian, K. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Sivakumar, K., E-mail: ksivakumar@annauniv.edu [Department of Physics, Anna University Chennai, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600025 (India)

    2011-01-15

    The complex of cadmium with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate Cd(pdtc){sub 2} has been used as single source precursor for the synthesis of CdS nanoparticles. The formation of CdS nanostructures was achieved by thermal decomposition of the complex under microwave irradiation and conventional heating in presence of hexadecylamine. The CdS nanoparticles with disordered close-packed structure were obtained under microwave irradiation, whereas wurtzite hexagonal phase CdS nanorods were obtained by conventional heating method (up to 150 deg. C). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies also were carried out to study the structure and morphology of nanoparticles. The optical property of the CdS nanoparticles was studied by UV-visible and fluorescence emission spectral studies. Fluorescence measurements on the CdS nanoparticles show a strong emission spectrum with two sub bands that are attributed to band-edge and surface-defect emissions. The reduction of a suitable cadmium metal complex is considered to be one of the single pot methods to generate CdS semiconductor nanoparticles with different shapes and high yield.

  16. Radiosynthesis and biological evaluation of the {sup 99m}Tc-tricarbonyl moxifloxacin dithiocarbamate complex as a potential Staphylococcus aureus infection radiotracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Syed Qaiser, E-mail: ssqaiser2002@yahoo.co [Nuclear Medicine Research Laboratory (NMRL), University of Peshawar, Peshawar, KPK (Pakistan); Khan, Muhammad Rafiullah [Phytopharmaceutical and Neutraceuticals Research Laboratory (PNRL), University of Peshawar, Peshawar, KPK (Pakistan)

    2011-04-15

    In the present investigation, radiosynthesis of the {sup 99m}Tc-tricarbonyl moxifloxacin dithiocarbamate complex ({sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-MXND) and its biological evaluation in male Wister rats (MWR) artificially infected with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was assessed. The {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-MXND complex was radiochemically examined in terms of stability in saline and in serum and biologically its in-vitro binding with S. aureus and percent absorption in MWR models. Radiochemically the {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-MXND complex showed more than 90% stability in saline up to 240 min and in serum 14.95% undesirable species was appeared within 16 h. In-vitro the {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-MXND complex showed saturated binding with S. aureus. In MWR artificially infected with live S. aureus the complex showed about six fold higher uptakes in the infected muscle as compared to the normal muscle. However, insignificant change in the uptake of {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-MXND complex in the infected and inflamed or normal muscle was observed in the MWR infected with heat killed S. aureus. The {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-MXND complex disappeared from the circulatory system and appeared in the urinary system within 60-90 min followed by excretion through normal route of urinary system. Based on the elevated and stable radiochemical succumb in saline, serum, saturated in-vitro binding with S. aureus and higher accumulation in the target organ of the MWR, we recommend the {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-MXND complex for radio-localization of the infection induced by S. aureus in human.

  17. Crystal structure of a one-dimensional coordination polymer of tin(IV bromide with 1,4-dithiane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Reuter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [SnBr4(C4H8S2] {systematic name: catena-poly[[tetrabromidotin(IV]-μ-1,4-dithiane-κ2S:S′]}, represents the first 1,4-dithiane complex with tin as coordination centre. The asymmetric unit consist of half a formula unit with the tin(IV atom at the centre of symmetry at 0,0,1/2 (Wyckoff symbol b and a centrosymmetric 1,4-dithiane molecule with the centre of symmetry in 1/2,0,1 (Wyckoff symbol c. The tin(IV atom is coordinated in a distorted octahedral manner by the four bromine atoms and two sulfur atoms of two 1,4-dithiane molecules in a trans-position. Sn—Br [mean value: 2.561 (5 Å] and Sn—S distances [2.6546 (6 Å] are in the typical range for octahedrally coordinated tin(IV atoms and the dithiane molecule adopts a chair conformation. The one-dimensional polymeric chains propagate along the [101] direction with weak intermolecular Br...Br [3.5724 (4 Å] between parallel chains and weak Br...H interactions [2.944–2.993 Å] within the chains.

  18. Safety assessment of Tin(IV) oxide as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wilbur; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    Tin(IV) oxide functions as an abrasive, bulking, and opacifying agent in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations up to 0.4% in rinse-off products and up to 1.3% in leave-on products. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) noted that tin(IV) oxide is a water-insoluble inorganic metal compound and should not be percutaneously absorbed; therefore, systemic exposure is not likely. Studies of dermal application of tin(IV) oxide were considered to determine toxicity at the site of application. The Panel concluded that tin(IV) oxide is safe in the present practices of use and concentration.

  19. Nitrogen substituent polarity influences dithiocarbamate-mediated lipid oxidation, nerve copper accumulation, and myelin injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Holly L; Viquez, Olga M; Amarnath, Kalyani; Amarnath, Venkataraman; Zyskowski, Justin; Kassa, Endalkachew N; Valentine, William M

    2009-01-01

    Dithiocarbamates have a wide spectrum of applications in industry, agriculture, and medicine, with new applications being investigated. Past studies have suggested that the neurotoxicity of some dithiocarbamates may result from copper accumulation, protein oxidative damage, and lipid oxidation. The polarity of a dithiocarbamate's nitrogen substituents influences the lipophilicity of the copper complexes that it generates and thus potentially determines its ability to promote copper accumulation within nerve and induce myelin injury. In the current study, a series of dithiocarbamate-copper complexes differing in their lipophilicity were evaluated for their relative abilities to promote lipid peroxidation determined by malondialdehyde levels generated in an ethyl arachidonate oil-in-water emulsion. In a second component of this study, rats were exposed to either N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate or sarcosine dithiocarbamate; both generated dithiocarbamate-copper complexes that were lipid- and water-soluble, respectively. Following the exposures, brain, tibial nerve, spinal cord, and liver tissue copper levels were measured by inductively coupled mass spectroscopy to assess the relative abilities of these two dithiocarbamates to promote copper accumulation. Peripheral nerve injury was evaluated using grip strengths, nerve conduction velocities, and morphologic changes at the light microscope level. Additionally, the protein expression levels of glutathione transferase alpha and heme-oxygenase-1 in nerve were determined, and the quantity of protein carbonyls was measured to assess levels of oxidative stress and injury. The data provided evidence that dithiocarbamate-copper complexes are redox active and that the ability of dithiocarbamate complexes to promote lipid peroxidation is correlated to the lipophilicity of the complex. Consistent with neurotoxicity requiring the formation of a lipid-soluble copper complex, significant increases in copper accumulation, oxidative

  20. Synthesis and X-ray structure of nickel(II) benzylpiperazine-dithiocarbamate complex [Ni(bpdtc)(PPh3)2]ClO4·PPh3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trávníček, Zdeněk; Štarha, Pavel; Pastorek, Richard

    2013-10-01

    A mixed-ligand nickel(II) dithiocarbamate complex of the composition [Ni(bpdtc)(PPh3)2]ClO4·PPh3 was synthesized, characterized (elemental analysis, UV-Vis, IR and NMR spectroscopy and molar conductivity measurements) and its X-ray structure was determined. The three ligands are arranged in a distorted square-planar geometry (an S2P2 donor set), with the bond lengths and angles within the vicinity of the central atom as follows: Nisbnd P = 2.2150(6) and 2.2529(6) Å, Nisbnd S = 2.2267(6) and 2.2129(6) Å, Psbnd Nisbnd P = 105.11(2)°, Ssbnd Nisbnd S = 78.26(2)°. The Psbnd Nisbnd P angle of the studied complex falls outside the interval of 98.37-102.92° determined for thirteen formerly reported structural analogues involving the [Ni(ndtc)(PPh3)2]+ moiety with a combination of dithiocarbamate (ndtc) and triphenylphosphine (PPh3) ligands. In the crystal, the complex cations, perchlorate anions and PPh3 molecules of crystallization are linked through intramolecular Csbnd H⋯O and Csbnd H⋯π and intermolecular Csbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯C and Csbnd H⋯π contacts to a three-dimensional architecture.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Tin(IV) Oxide Obtained by Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagirnyak, Svitlana V.; Lutz, Victoriya A.; Dontsova, Tatiana A.; Astrelin, Igor M.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of precursors on the characteristics of tin oxide obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was investigated. The synthesis of nanosized tin(IV) oxide was carried out with the use of two different precursors: tin(II) oxalate obtained using tin chloride(II) and oxalic acid; tin(II) oxalate obtained using tin chloride(II); and ammonium oxalate. The synthesized tin(IV) oxide samples were studied by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and optical spectra. The lattice parameters of tin(IV) oxide samples were defined, the bandgap of samples were calculated.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of oxovanadium (IV) dithiocarbamates with pyridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doadrio, Antonio L.; Sotelo, Jose; Fernandez-Ruano, Ana [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Farmacia. Dept. de Quimica Inorganica y Bioinorganica]. E-mail: antoniov@farm.ucm.es

    2002-07-01

    We report the synthesis and study of a new series of oxovanadium (IV) dithiocarbamate adducts and derivatives with pyridine and cyclohexyl, di-iso-butyl, di-n-propyl, aniline, morpholine, piperidine and di-iso-propyl amines. The complexes have been characterized by analytical, magneto chemical, IR, visible-UV spectral and thermal studies, and are assigned the formulas [VO(L){sub 2}].py, where L=cyclohexyl, di-iso-butyl, di-n-propyl, aniline dithiocarbamate and [VO(OH)(L)(py){sub 2}] OH.H{sub 2}O (L=morpholine, piperidine and di-iso-propyl dithiocarbamate). The effect of the adduct formation on the p{sub V=0} bound is discussed in terms of the IR (V=O, V-S and V-N stretching frequencies) and electronic spectra (d-d transitions). (author)

  3. Synthesis and characterization of oxovanadium (IV dithiocarbamates with pyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio L. Doadrio

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis and study of a new series of oxovanadium (IV dithiocarbamate adducts and derivatives with pyridine and cyclohexyl, di-iso-butyl, di-n-propyl, anilin, morpholin, piperidin and di-iso-propyl amines. The complexes have been characterized by analytical, magnetochemical, IR, visible-UV spectral and thermal studies, and are assigned the formulas [VO(L2].py, where L=cyclohexyl, di-iso-butyl, di-n-propyl, anilin dithiocarbamate and [VO(OH(L(py2]OH.H2O (L=morpholin, piperidin and di-iso-propyl dithiocarbamate. The effect of the adduct formation on the pV=0 bound is discussed in terms of the IR (V=O, V-S and V-N stretching frequencies and electronic spectra (d-d transitions.

  4. 40 CFR 721.6186 - Polyamine dithiocarbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyamine dithiocarbamate. 721.6186... Substances § 721.6186 Polyamine dithiocarbamate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyamine dithiocarbamate (PMN No....

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes of (furan-2-yl)methyl(2-(thiophen-2-yl)ethyl)dithiocarbamate (ftpedtc): X-ray structures of [Zn(ftpedtc)2(py)] and [Zn(ftpedtc)Cl(1,10-phen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamuna Rani, Palanisamy; Thirumaran, Subbiah; Ciattini, Samuele

    2015-02-01

    Seven complexes of a new dithiocarbamate ligand (ftpedtc = (furan-2-yl)methyl(2-(thiophen-2-yl)ethyl)dithiocarbamate) namely [Ni(ftpedtc)2] (1), [Ni(ftpedtc)(NCS)(PPh3)] (2), [Ni(ftpedtc)(PPh3)2]ClO4 (3), [Zn(ftpedtc)2] (4), [Zn(ftpedtc)2(py)] (5), [Zn(ftpedtc)2(1,10-phen)] (6) and [Zn(ftpedtc)2(2,2‧-bipy] (7) have been prepared. The complexes were characterized by IR, UV-Vis and NMR (1H and 13C) spectroscopy. Single crystal X-ray structural analysis was carried out for complexes 5 and [Zn(ftpedtc)Cl(1,10-phen)] (8). Electronic spectral studies suggest square planar geometry for nickel complexes. The 13C NMR peaks of the group N13CS2 are found in all the cases, at around 205.0 ppm, which indicates the bidentate character of the dithiocarbamate ligand. X-ray structures of 5 and 8 show bidentate coordination by dithiocarbamate ligands and a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry for zinc, defined by NS4 and ClN2S2 donor sets, respectively. The packing in 8 involves π-π stacking interactions involving the 1,10-phenanthroline ring systems with the distance between ring centroids being 3.587 Å.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and thermal studies of Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes of N-methyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamate: the single crystal structure of [(C(6)H(5))(CH(3))NCS(2)](4)Hg(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwudiwe, Damian C; Ajibade, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes of N-methyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamate have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectral studies (IR, (1)H and (13)C-NMR). The single crystal X-ray structure of the mercury complex revealed that the complex contains a Hg centre with a distorted tetrahedral coordination sphere in which the dinuclear Hg complex resides on a crystallographic inversion centre and each Hg atom is coordinated to four S atoms from the dithiocarbamate moiety. One dithiocarbamate ligand acts as chelating ligand while the other acts as chelating bridging ligand between two Hg atoms, resulting in a dinuclear eight-member ring. The course of the thermal degradation of the complexes has been investigated using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses techniques. Thermogravimetric analysis of the complexes show a single weight loss to give MS (M = Zn, Cd, Hg) indicating that they might be useful as single source precursors for the synthesis of MS nanoparticles and thin films.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Tin(IV) Oxide Obtained by Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

    OpenAIRE

    Nagirnyak, Svitlana V.; Lutz, Victoriya A.; Dontsova, Tatiana A.; Astrelin, Igor M.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of precursors on the characteristics of tin oxide obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was investigated. The synthesis of nanosized tin(IV) oxide was carried out with the use of two different precursors: tin(II) oxalate obtained using tin chloride(II) and oxalic acid; tin(II) oxalate obtained using tin chloride(II); and ammonium oxalate. The synthesized tin(IV) oxide samples were studied by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and optical spectra. The lattice parame...

  8. A Tin(IV) Porphyrin with Two Axial Organometallic NCN-Pincer Platinum Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijkerbuijk, B.M.J.M.; Tooke, D.M.; Spek, A.L.; van Koten, G.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    A tin(IV) porphyrin was combined with two axial NCN-pincer platinum(II) fragments by utilizing the oxophilicity of the apical positions on the tin atom and the acidic nature of the NCN-pincer platinum derived benzoic acid. The solid-state structure determined by X-ray crystallography revealed some

  9. Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) derivatives with dithiocarbamates derived from α-amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Anita; Sengupta, Soumitra K.; Pandey, Om P.

    2006-06-01

    Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes with dithiocarbamates have been synthesized by the reactions of lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) chloride with barium dithiocarbamate and complexes of type [LnCl(L)H 2O] n have been obtained (where Ln = La(III) or Pr(III); L = barium salt of dithiocarbamate derived from glycine, L-leucine, L-valine, DL-alanine). The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, electronic absorption and fluorescence, infrared, far infrared, 1H NMR spectral studies. The presence of coordinated water molecule is inferred from thermogravimetric analysis which indicates the loss of one water molecule at 150-170 °C. The oscillator strength, Judd-Ofelt intensity parameter, stimulated emission cross-section, etc. have been obtained for different transitions of Pr 3+.

  10. The characteristic long-term upregulation of hippocampal NF-κB complex in PTSD-like behavioral stress response is normalized by high-dose corticosterone and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate administered immediately after exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hagit; Kozlovsky, Nitsan; Matar, Michael A; Zohar, Joseph; Kaplan, Zeev

    2011-10-01

    Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor for genes involved in cell survival, differentiation, inflammation, and growth. This study examined the role of NF-κB pathway in stress-induced PTSD-like behavioral response patterns in rats. Immunohistochemical technique was used to detect the expression of the NF-κB p50 and p65 subunits, I-κBα, p38, and phospho-p38 in the hippocampal subregions at 7 days after exposure to predator scent stress. Expression of p65 nuclear translocation was quantified by western blot as the level of NF-κB activation. The effects of intraperitoneally administered corticosterone or a selective NF-κB inhibitor (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC)) at 1 h post exposure on behavioral tests (elevated plus-maze and acoustic startle response) were evaluated 7 days later. Hippocampal expressions of those genes were subsequently evaluated. All data were analyzed in relation to individual behavior patterns. Extreme behavioral responder animals displayed significant upregulation of p50 and p65 with concomitant downregulation of I-κBα, p38, and phospho-p38 levels in hippocampal structures compared with minimal behavioral responders and controls. Immediate post-exposure treatment with high-dose corticosterone and PDTC significantly reduced prevalence rates of extreme responders and normalized the expression of those genes. Stress-induced upregulation of NF-κB complex in the hippocampus may contribute to the imbalance between what are normally precisely orchestrated and highly coordinated physiological and behavioral processes, thus associating it with stress-related disorders.

  11. Investigation of the interaction between human serum albumin and antitumor palladium(II) complex containing 1,10-phenanthroline and dithiocarbamate ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidifar, Maryam; Mansouri-Torshizi, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between [Pd(But-dtc)(phen)]NO3 (where But-dtc = butyldithiocarbamate and phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) with HSA (Human Serum Albumin) was investigated by applying fluorescence, UV-Vis and circular dichroism techniques under physiological conditions. The results of fluorescence spectra indicated that the Pd(II) complex could effectively quench the fluorescence intensity of HSA molecules via static mechanism. The number of binding sites and binding constant of HSA-Pd(II) complex were calculated. Analysis of absorption titration data on the interaction between Pd(II) complex and HSA revealed the formation of HSA-Pd(II) complex with high-binding affinity. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that hydrophobic forces play a major role in this interaction. Furthermore, CD measurements were taken to explore changes in HSA secondary structure induced by the Pd(II) complex.

  12. ZnS, CdS and HgS Nanoparticles via Alkyl-Phenyl Dithiocarbamate Complexes as Single Source Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Ajibade

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles obtained by the thermolysis of certain group 12 metal complexes as precursors is reported. Thermogravimetric analysis of the single source precursors showed sharp decomposition leading to their respective metal sulfides. The structural and optical properties of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the prepared ZnS nanoparticles have a cubic sphalerite structure; the CdS indicates a hexagonal phase and the HgS show the presence of metacinnabar phase. The TEM image demonstrates that the ZnS nanoparticles are dot-shaped, the CdS and the HgS clearly showed a rice and spherical morphology respectively. The UV-Vis spectra exhibited a blue-shift with respect to that of the bulk samples which is attributed to the quantum size effect. The band gap of the samples have been calculated from absorption spectra and werefound to be about 4.33 eV (286 nm, 2.91 eV (426 nm and 4.27 eV (290 nm for the ZnS, CdS and HgS samples respectively.

  13. The chick embryo test as used in the study of the toxicity of certain dithiocarbamates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebhardt, D.O.E.; Logten, M.J. van

    1968-01-01

    The toxicities of six dithiocarbamates: bis(dimethyl thiocarbamoyl) disulfide (thiram), zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ziram), ferric dimethyldithiocarbamate (ferbam), bis(dimethyl thiocarbamoyl) ethylene bis(dithiocarbamate) (triaram), sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate (NaDEDC), and sodium ethylene bis

  14. UV-visible spectroscopic estimation of photodegradation of rhodamine-B dye using tin(IV) oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangami, G; Dharmaraj, N

    2012-11-01

    Nanocrystalline, tin(IV) oxide (SnO(2)) particles has been prepared by thermal decomposition of tin oxalate precursor obtained from the reactions of tin(IV) chloride and sodium oxalate using eggshell membrane (ESM). The as-prepared SnO(2) nanoparticles were characterized by thermal studies, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, FT-IR and UV-visible studies and used as a photocatalyst for the degradation of rhodamine-B (Rh-B) dye. The size of the prepared nanoparticles was in the range of 5-12nm as identified from the TEM images. Powder XRD data revealed the presence of a tetragonal, rutile crystalline phase of the tin(IV) oxide nanoparticles. Thermal analysis showed that the decomposition of tin oxalate precursor to yield the titled tin(IV) oxide nanoparticles was completed below 500°C. The extent of degradation of Rh-B in the presence of SnO(2) monitored by absorption spectral measurements demonstrated that 94.48% of the selected dye was degraded upon irradiation with UV light for 60 min. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A kinetic study of jack-bean urease denaturation by a new dithiocarbamate bismuth compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, D. C.; Borges, E.; Torres, M. F.; Braga, J. P.

    2012-10-01

    A kinetic study concerning enzymatic inhibitory effect of a new bismuth dithiocarbamate complex on jack-bean urease is reported. A neural network approach is used to solve the ill-posed inverse problem arising from numerical treatment of the subject. A reaction mechanism for the urease denaturation process is proposed and the rate constants, relaxation time constants, equilibrium constants, activation Gibbs free energies for each reaction step and Gibbs free energies for the transition species are determined.

  16. Studies of solvent extraction properties of s-ethyl-N-(diisopropylthiophosphoryl) dithiocarbamate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropova, V.F.; Lazareva, G.A.; Zimin, M.G.; Kamalov, R.M. (Kazanskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1983-09-01

    The results of studying compleXing and solvent extraction properties of thiophosphorylated derivative of dithiocarbamate-S-ethyl-N-(diisopropylthiophosphoryl) dithiocarbomate (TPDTC) and possibilities of its use as analytical reagent are presented. Metal complexes formed by TPDTC are readily extracted by organic solvents. The study of complex extraction by chloroform solution of the reagent versus the medium acidity has shown that the Hg-(2), Ag-, Bi-. Sn-(2), Cu(2) complexes are quantitatively extracted from acid media. Co-(2), Ni-, Cd-, Zn-, Pb(2) complexes are extractable from weakly acid and neutral solutions. Such elements as Fe, Mn, As, Cr, Sb are not extractable from either acid or neutral media.

  17. Synthesis and adsorption performance of dithiocarbamate-modified glycidyl methacrylate starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiumei; Cheng, Rumei; Ou, Shengju; Li, Yijiu

    2013-07-01

    The design of chelating polymers with fast complexation of the metal ions is particularly interest. In this work, the dithiocarbamate-modified glycidyl methacrylate starch was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, (13)C NMR and XRD spectra. Its sorption performance for heavy metals fixation was studied. It was found that the removal process of metal ions involved a fast increase stage followed by a slower stage. There was a higher match between the pseudo-second-order equation and the experimental data. The sorption rate constants were related to the substitution rates of hydrated metal ions in aqueous solutions, showing typical chemisorption. The Langmuir isotherm gave satisfying fits to equilibrium data of metals adsorption. And the capacities followed the sequence Cu(2+)>Cd(2+)>Co(2+)>Zn(2+)>Ni(2+)>Mn(2+), which could be well demonstrated with chelating interaction caused by sulfur atoms. Such understanding provides new insights as how to synthesize and use the dithiocarbamate-based polysaccharides.

  18. Self assembled homodinuclear dithiocarbamates: One pot synthesis and spectral characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nami, Shahab A. A.; Husain, Ahmad; Ullah, Irfan

    2014-01-01

    Several self assembled homodinuclear complexes of the type [M2(Ldtc)2·4H2O] derived from quadridentate ligand (Ldtc), where Ldtc = 2-aminobenzoylhydrazidebis(dithiocarbamate) and M = Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) have been reported. The in situ procedure gives high yield with the formation of single product as evident by TLC and various other physicochemical techniques. Elemental analysis, TGA, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, ESI mass spectrometry, EPR, UV-vis. and IR spectroscopy were used to characterize the homodinuclear complexes. The spectroscopic evidences and room temperature magnetic moment values suggest that all the complexes have octahedral geometry around the transition metal atom. A symmetrical bidentate coordination of the dithiocarbamato moiety has been observed in all the complexes. The energy-minimized structure of the molecule also showed that each metal atom acquires a distorted octahedral geometry. The complexes exhibit a three-step thermolytic pattern and are non-electrolyte in nature.

  19. Transition metal ferrocenyl dithiocarbamates functionalized dye-sensitized solar cells with hydroxy as an anchoring group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Reena; Waghadkar, Yogesh; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele; Kumar, Abhinav; Rane, Sunit B.; Chauhan, Ratna

    2016-12-01

    Three new transition-metal dithiocarbamates involving ferrocene (Fc), namely [Co(FcCH2EtOHdtc)3] (Co), [M(FcCH2EtOHdtc)2] M = Ni (Ni), Cu (Cu) (EtOHdtc = N-ethanol dithiocarbamate), have been synthesized and characterized by microanalyses, FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies and single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The peak broadening in the 1H spectrum of the copper complex indicates the paramagnetic behavior of this compound. The observed single quasi-reversible cyclic voltammograms for the complexes indicate the stabilization of a metal center (except copper) other than Fe in their characteristic oxidation state. These complexes have been used as photo-sensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cells which indicates that Co displays the best photosensitization property with an overall conversion efficiency of 3.25 ± 0.04%. The low cell efficiency of Ni and Cu complexes may be due to slow regeneration of the dye by iodine/iodide redox couple followed by charge injection into TiO2.

  20. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of mononuclear/binuclear organotin(IV complexes with 1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol: Comparative studies of their antibacterial/antifungal potencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Bushra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of di and triorganotin(IV complexes of the general formula, R2(ClSnL (R= Me: 1; Bu: 2 and R3SnL (R = Bu: 3; Ph: 4 have been synthesized by refluxing equivalent molar ratios of orgnotin(IV chlorides (R2SnCl2/R3SnCl with the 1H-1,2,4-Triazole-3-thiol (LH in dry methanol. The synthesized complexes (1-4 were further treated with CS2 and R2SnCl2/R3SnCl in 1:1:1 molar ratio to yield the homobimetallic complexes of the types R2(ClSnLCS2Sn(ClR2 (R = Me: 5; Bu: 6 and R3SnLCS2SnR3 (R = Bu: 7; Ph: 8. The ligand and the complexes have been characterized by elemental microanalysis (CHNS, FT-IR and multinuclear NMR (1H&13C, and electron ionization mass spectrometry. IR data demonstrates that the dithiocarbamate donor site of the ligand acts in a bidentate manner and there isa trigonal bipyramidal geometry around Sn(IV in solid state. 1H and 13C NMR data supports the tetrahedralgeometry with thiol donor sites of the ligand while tetra and penta coordinated environments around dithiocarboxylate bound tin(IV in solution state. Mass spectrometric data supported well the structures of the synthesized complexes. The homobimetallic derivatives were found more active than mononuclear organotin(IV compounds and free ligand against various strains of bacteria and fungus.

  1. Metabolism and metabolites of dithiocarbamates in the plant pathogenic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Sarma-Mamillapalle, Vijay K

    2012-08-15

    Synthetic compounds containing a dithiocarbamate group are known to have a variety of biological effects and applications including antifungal, herbicidal, and insecticidal application. Leptosphaeria maculans is a fungal pathogen of crucifers able to detoxify efficiently the only plant natural product containing a dithiocarbamate group, the phytoalexin brassinin. To evaluate the effects of dithiocarbamates on L. maculans, a number of structurally diverse S-methyl dithiocarbamates containing indolyl, biphenyl, and benzimidazolyl moieties were synthesized, and their antifungal activities and metabolism by L. maculans were investigated. All dithiocarbamates were transformed by L. maculans through hydrolysis to the corresponding amines, which were less antifungal than the parent compounds. Two dithiocarbonates were shown to be much less antifungal than the corresponding dithiocarbamates. Results of this investigation indicate that S-methyl dithiocarbamates are not useful inhibitors of L. maculans and that their rates of transformation by L. maculans did not correlate with the antifungal activity of the particular compound.

  2. Interaction studies between a 1,10-phenanthroline adduct of palladium(II) dithiocarbamate anti-tumor complex and calf thymus DNA. A synthesis spectral and in-vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri-Torshizi, Hassan; Saeidifar, Maryam; Divsalar, Adeleh; Saboury, Ali. Akbar

    2010-09-01

    The interaction of calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with a novel synthesized and characterized Palladium (II) complex with the formula of [Pd (Et-dtc) (phen)] NO 3 (where phen is 1,10-phenanthroline and Et-dtc is ethyldithiocarbamate) was extensively studied by various spectroscopic techniques. UV-vis studies imply that there is a set of 6 binding sites for the complex on DNA with positive cooperativity in the binding process. This complex unexpectedly denatures the DNA at very low concentration (˜9.8 μM). Gel filtration studies indicate that the binding of metal complex with DNA is strong enough not to readily break. Fluorescence studies show that the palladium complex intercalates in DNA through the planar 1,10-phenanthroline ligand presented in its structure. Several binding and thermodynamic parameters are also described. Furthermore, anti-tumor studies of this water soluble complex against human cell tumor lines (K562) have been done. It shows 50% cytotoxic concentration (Ic 50) value much lower than that of cisplatin.

  3. Sediment washing by EDTA and its reclamation by sodium polyamidoamine-multi dithiocarbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tianlin; Zhang, Bingru; Li, Fengting; Jin, Luyao

    2017-02-01

    Sodium polyamidoamine-multi dithiocarbamate (PAMAM-DTC) is a kind of heavy metals capturing agent, containing functional groups of dithiocarbamate that could strongly chelate heavy metals. In this paper, it was applied to precipitate heavy metal ions from meal-EDTA and reclaim EDTA during sediment washing process. The extracting performance of fresh EDTA was studied as a function of EDTA concentration, liquid/sediment (L/S), pH, and extraction time. Then the EDTA effluents were treated with PAMAM-DTC, Na2S and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) to compare their effectiveness on capturing metals from metal-EDTA complexes. Four divalent heavy metals were investigated (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn). PAMAM-DTC shows much better performance. Pb, Cd and Cu could almost be precipitated completely by PAMAM-DTC under the dosage of 350 mg L(-1), while Zn could be only partly precipitated which may due to its failure in competition with the other three metal ions on chelation with PAMAM-DTC. The reclaimed EDTA was reused in three cycles of sediment washing, and the amount of heavy metals extracted just slightly decreased in each cycle.

  4. The ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate fungicide Mancozeb activates voltage-gated KCNQ2 potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhu, Jin; Kong, Qingya; Jiang, Baifeng; Wan, Xia; Yue, Jinfeng; Li, Min; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jian; Gao, Zhaobing

    2013-06-07

    Mancozeb (manganese/zinc ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate) is an organometallic fungicide that has been associated with human neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration. In a high-throughput screen for modulators of KCNQ2 channel, a fundamental player modulating neuronal excitability, Mancozeb, was found to significantly potentiate KCNQ2 activity. Mancozeb was validated electrophysiologically as a KCNQ2 activator with an EC50 value of 0.92±0.23μM. Further examination showed that manganese but not zinc ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate is the active component for the positive modulation effects. In addition, the compounds are effective when the metal ions are substituted by iron but lack potentiation activity when the metal ions are substituted by sodium, signifying the importance of the metal ion. However, the iron (Fe(3+)) alone, organic ligands alone or the mixture of iron with the organic ligand did not show any potentiation effect, suggesting as the active ingredient is a specific complex rather than two separate additive or synergistic components. Our study suggests that potentiation on KCNQ2 potassium channels might be the possible mechanism of Mancozeb toxicity in the nervous system.

  5. Coordination Nature of 4-Mercaptoaniline to Sn(II Ion: Formation of a One Dimensional Coordination Polymer and Its Decomposition to a Mono Nuclear Sn(IV Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eon S. Burkett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The coordination of the bifunctional ligand 4-mercaptoaniline with aqueo us tin(II metal ion was studied. A coordination polymer was synthesized when an aqueous solution of SnCl2 was treated with 4-MA. The crystalline material is stable under atmospheric conditions retaining its oxidation state. However, when submerged in a solution saturated with oxygen, the compound oxidizes to a mononuclear tin(IV complex. Both the compounds were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Although the structure of the tin(IV complex was previously reported, crystal structure of this compound was redetermined.

  6. Gold nanoparticles assembled with dithiocarbamate-anchored molecular wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeler, Nini E. A.; Lerstrup, Knud A.; Somerville, Walter; Speder, Jozsef; Petersen, Søren V.; Laursen, Bo W.; Arenz, Matthias; Qiu, Xiaohui; Vosch, Tom; Nørgaard, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    A protocol for the bottom-up self-assembly of nanogaps is developed through molecular linking of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Two π-conjugated oligo(phenylene ethynylene) molecules (OPE) with dithiocarbamate anchoring groups are used as ligands for the AuNPs. OPE-4S with a dithiocarbamate in each end of the molecule and a reference molecule OPE-2S with only a single dithiocarbamate end group. The linking mechanism of OPE-4S is investigated by using a combination of TEM, UV-Vis absorption and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as well as studying the effect of varying the OPE-4S to AuNP concentration ratio. UV-Vis absorption confirms the formation of AuNP aggregates by the appearance of an extended plasmon band (EPB) for which the red shift and intensity depend on the OPE-4S:AuNP ratio. SERS confirms the presence of OPE-4S and shows a gradual increase of the signal intensity with increasing OPE-4S:AuNP ratios up to a ratio of about 4000, after which the SERS intensity does not increase significantly. For OPE-2S, no linking is observed below full coverage of the AuNPs indicating that the observed aggregate formation at high OPE-2S:AuNP ratios, above full AuNP coverage, is most likely of a physical nature (van der Waals forces or π-π interactions). PMID:26471461

  7. Gold nanoparticles assembled with dithiocarbamate-anchored molecular wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeler, Nini E. A.; Lerstrup, Knud A.; Somerville, Walter; Speder, Jozsef; Petersen, Søren V.; Laursen, Bo W.; Arenz, Matthias; Qiu, Xiaohui; Vosch, Tom; Nørgaard, Kasper

    2015-10-01

    A protocol for the bottom-up self-assembly of nanogaps is developed through molecular linking of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Two π-conjugated oligo(phenylene ethynylene) molecules (OPE) with dithiocarbamate anchoring groups are used as ligands for the AuNPs. OPE-4S with a dithiocarbamate in each end of the molecule and a reference molecule OPE-2S with only a single dithiocarbamate end group. The linking mechanism of OPE-4S is investigated by using a combination of TEM, UV-Vis absorption and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as well as studying the effect of varying the OPE-4S to AuNP concentration ratio. UV-Vis absorption confirms the formation of AuNP aggregates by the appearance of an extended plasmon band (EPB) for which the red shift and intensity depend on the OPE-4S:AuNP ratio. SERS confirms the presence of OPE-4S and shows a gradual increase of the signal intensity with increasing OPE-4S:AuNP ratios up to a ratio of about 4000, after which the SERS intensity does not increase significantly. For OPE-2S, no linking is observed below full coverage of the AuNPs indicating that the observed aggregate formation at high OPE-2S:AuNP ratios, above full AuNP coverage, is most likely of a physical nature (van der Waals forces or π-π interactions).

  8. Anti-inflammatory effect of thalidomide dithiocarbamate and dithioate analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, Roba; El-Sayed, Waheba; Agwa, Hussein S; Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; Moawia, Shaden; Zahran, Magdy A H

    2015-08-05

    Thalidomide has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anti-angiogenic properties. It has been used to treat a variety of cancers and autoimmune diseases. This study aimed to characterize anti-inflammatory activities of novel thalidomide analogs by exploring their effects on splenocytes proliferation and macrophage functions and their antioxidant activity. MTT assay was used to assess the cytotoxic effect of thalidomide analogs against splenocytes. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB-P65) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nitric oxide (NO) was estimated by colorimetric assay. Antioxidant activity was examined by ORAC assay. Our results demonstrated that thalidomide dithioate analog 2 and thalidomide dithiocarbamate analog 4 produced a slight increase in splenocyte proliferation compared with thalidomide. Thalidomide dithiocarbamate analog 1 is a potent inhibitor of TNF-α production, whereas thalidomide dithiocarbamate analog 5 is a potent inhibitor of both TNF-α and NO. Analog 2 has a pronounced inhibitory effect on NF-κB-P65 production level. All thalidomide analogs showed prooxidant activity against hydroxyl (OH) radical. Analog 1 and thalidomide dithioate analog 3 have prooxidant activity against peroxyl (ROO) radical in relation to thalidomide. On the other hand, analog 4 has a potent scavenging capacity against peroxyl (ROO) radical compared with thalidomide. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that thalidomide analogs might have valuable anti-inflammatory activities with more pronounced effect than thalidomide itself.

  9. Ferrocene-Functionalized Cu(I)/Ag(I) Dithiocarbamate Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Pilli V V N; Liao, Jian-Hong; Hou, Hsing-Nan; Lin, Yan-Ru; Liu, C W

    2016-04-04

    A series of compounds, namely, [Cu8(μ4-H){S2CNMeCH2Fc}6](PF6) (1), [Cu7(μ4-H) {S2CN(i)PrCH2Fc}6] (2), [Cu3{S2CN(Bz) (CH2Fc)}2(dppf)2](PF6) (3), and [Ag2{S2CNMe(CH2Fc)}2(PPh3)2] (4) (dppf = 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene), supported by multiferrocene assemblies, were synthesized. All the compounds were characterized by (1)H NMR, Fourier transform infrared, elemental analysis, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry techniques. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis revealed that 1 is a monocationic octanuclear Cu(I) cluster and that 2 is a neutral heptanuclear Cu(I) cluster with tetracapped tetrahedral (1) and tricapped tetrahedral (2) geometries entrapped with an interstitial hydride, anchored by six ferrocene units at the periphery of the core. Compounds 3 and 4 comprise trimetallic Cu(I) and dimetallic Ag(I) cores enfolded by four and two ferrocene moieties. Interestingly both chelating and bridging modes of binding are observed for dppf ligand in 3. Further the formation and isolation of polyhydrido copper clusters [Cu28H15{S2CN(i)PrCH2Fc}12](PF6) (5) and [Cu28H15{S2CN(n)Bu2}12](PF6) (7), stabilized by bulky ferrocenyl and n-butyl dithiocarbamate ligands, was demonstrated. They are readily identified by (2)H NMR studies on their deuterium analogues, [Cu28D15{S2CN(i)PrCH2Fc}12](PF6) (6) and [Cu28D15{S2CN(n)Bu2}12](PF6) (8). Though the structure details as well as spectroscopic characterizations of 5 are yet to be investigated, the compound 7 is fully characterized by variety of spectroscopy including single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The cyclic voltammetry studies for compounds 1, 2, and 4 display irreversible redox peaks for Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) couple wherein the reduction peaks are not well-resolved due to some adsorption of the complex onto the electrode surface.

  10. Characterization studies and cyclic voltammetry on nickel(II amino acid dithiocarbamates with triphenylphosphine in the coordination sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUBBIAH THIRUMARAN

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Nickel(II amino acid dithiocarbamate complexes of the composition [Ni(AAdtc(PPh3(NCS], [Ni(AAdtc(PPh3(CN] and [Ni(AAdtc(PPh32]ClO4 [(AAdtc = dithiocarbamate derivatives of amino acids, i.e., glycine (glydtc, L-iso-leucine (i-leudtc and L-proline (prodtc] were synthesized. The compounds were characterized by IR and electronic spectroscopy, thermal analysis, cyclic voltammetry and conductivity measurements. In the case of the mixed ligand complexes, the thioureide n(C−N values were shifted to higher wave numbers compared to [Ni(AAdtc2]. This observation shows the increased strength of the thioureide bond due to the presence of the p-accepting phosphine. Electronic spectral studies suggest square planar geometry for the complexes. Thermal analyses of the complexes are in keeping with the proposed formulae. Almost all the complexes showed signs of decay above 170 °C. At around 390 °C, the final mass corresponded to NiS. Cyclic voltammetry showed a decrease of the electron density on the nickel in the mixed ligand complexes compared to [Ni(AAdtc2].

  11. Dithiocarbamate Self-Assembled Monolayers as Efficient Surface Modifiers for Low Work Function Noble Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dominik; Schäfer, Tobias; Schulz, Philip; Jung, Sebastian; Rittich, Julia; Mokros, Daniel; Segger, Ingolf; Maercks, Franziska; Effertz, Christian; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Wuttig, Matthias

    2016-09-06

    Tuning the work function of the electrode is one of the crucial steps to improve charge extraction in organic electronic devices. Here, we show that N,N-dialkyl dithiocarbamates (DTC) can be effectively employed to produce low work function noble metal electrodes. Work functions between 3.1 and 3.5 eV are observed for all metals investigated (Cu, Ag, and Au). Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) reveals a maximum decrease in work function by 2.1 eV as compared to the bare metal surface. Electronic structure calculations elucidate how the complex interplay between intrinsic dipoles and dipoles induced by bond formation generates such large work function shifts. Subsequently, we quantify the improvement in contact resistance of organic thin film transistor devices with DTC coated source and drain electrodes. These findings demonstrate that DTC molecules can be employed as universal surface modifiers to produce stable electrodes for electron injection in high performance hybrid organic optoelectronics.

  12. Dithiocarbamate Self-Assembled Monolayers as Efficient Surface Modifiers for Low Work Function Noble Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Dominik; Schäfer, Tobias; Schulz, Philip; Jung, Sebastian; Rittich, Julia; Mokros, Daniel; Segger, Ingolf; Maercks, Franziska; Effertz, Christian; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Wuttig, Matthias

    2016-09-06

    Tuning the work function of the electrode is one of the crucial steps to improve charge extraction in organic electronic devices. Here, we show that N,N-dialkyl dithiocarbamates (DTC) can be effectively employed to produce low work function noble metal electrodes. Work functions between 3.1 and 3.5 eV are observed for all metals investigated (Cu, Ag, and Au). Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) reveals a maximum decrease in work function by 2.1 eV as compared to the bare metal surface. Electronic structure calculations elucidate how the complex interplay between intrinsic dipoles and dipoles induced by bond formation generates such large work function shifts. Subsequently, we quantify the improvement in contact resistance of organic thin film transistor devices with DTC coated source and drain electrodes. These findings demonstrate that DTC molecules can be employed as universal surface modifiers to produce stable electrodes for electron injection in high performance hybrid organic optoelectronics.

  13. Gold nanoparticle-based fluorescent sensor for the analysis of dithiocarbamate pesticides in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senkbeil, Silja; Lafleur, Josiane P.; Jensen, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    and environmental health. This paper demonstrates the potential of a gold nanoparticle-based microfluidic sensor for in field detection of dithiocarbamate pesticides at remote locations. Combining the attractive optical properties of gold nanoparticles with on chip mixing and detection, using a simple digital...... camera, a detection limit of 16 μg L-1 for Ziram, a dithiocarbamate pesticide, was obtained....

  14. Effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on hepatic vascular stress gene expression during ischemia and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan-Ho; Kim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2008-10-24

    Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an antioxidant and a potent inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), is known to have protective effect against ischemia and reperfusion injury. This study examined the cytoprotective mechanism of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate against the microcirculatory failure caused by hepatic ischemia and reperfusion. Rats were subjected to 60 min of hepatic ischemia followed by 5 h of reperfusion. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (100 mg/kg) or the vehicle was administered intraperitoneally 24 h before ischemia. The level of serum aminotransferases and hepatic lipid peroxides significantly increased, and the glutathione contents fell in the ischemia/reperfusion group. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate prevented the increase in the level of serum enzymes and hepatic lipid peroxides, and the decrease in the glutathione contents. The NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity was inhibited by a pre-treatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. Ischemia and reperfusion significantly increased the mRNA expression of the endothelin-1 and endothelin ET(B) receptor, which was prevented by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. There were significant increases in the mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and cyclooxygenase-2, in the livers after ischemia and reperfusion. These increases were attenuated by the pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate treatment. In a rat model of hepatic ischemia and reperfusion, our results suggest that the hepatoprotective actions of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate may be mediated in part through the modulation of imbalanced expression of vascular stress genes.

  15. A modular synthesis of dithiocarbamate pendant unnatural α-amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnatural α-amino acids containing dithiocarbamate side chains were synthesized by a one-pot reaction of in-situ generated dithiocarbamate anions with sulfamidates. A wide range of these anions participated in the highly regio- and stereo-selective ring opening of sulfamidates to...

  16. Gold nanoparticle-based fluorescent sensor for the analysis of dithiocarbamate pesticides in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senkbeil, Silja; Lafleur, Josiane P.; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam;

    2012-01-01

    and environmental health. This paper demonstrates the potential of a gold nanoparticle-based microfluidic sensor for in field detection of dithiocarbamate pesticides at remote locations. Combining the attractive optical properties of gold nanoparticles with on chip mixing and detection, using a simple digital...... camera, a detection limit of 16 μg L-1 for Ziram, a dithiocarbamate pesticide, was obtained....

  17. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. 二烷基氨荒酸二苯基锗盐的合成及性质研究%Synthesis and Properties of Diphenylgermanium Bis-Dithiocarbamates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张如芬; 朱德中; 尹汉东; 马春林

    2002-01-01

    The diphenylgermanium bis-dithiocarbamates Ph2Ge(S2CR)2 (Ⅰ~Ⅷ) have been synthesized by the reaction of Ph2GeCl2 with RCS2Na in CH2Cl2 solvent.Their structures were characterized with IR,1H NMR,UV spectra and the in vitro antitumour activity are tested.In mentioned germanium complexes (Ⅰ~Ⅷ) the dithiocarbamatyl groups are monodentate ligands.

  19. Local Atomic Structure of Piperidyl Nd Dithiocarbamate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴忠华; 李前树; 等

    1999-01-01

    The atomic structure of a novel rare earth complex consisting of Nd and the sulfur-containing ligand pipdtc (C5H10NCS2-) has been studied with extended x-ray absortpiton fine structure(EXAFS) and x-ray diffraction techniques.The complex of formula Nd(pipdtc)4N(CH3)4 crystallizaes in the monoclinic space group P21/n with the following lattice parameters,a=22.685(2),b=20.332(2),c=17.1270(10)A,β=100.570(10)°.Z=8,the calculated density is 1.47g/cm3,A new derivative method is used to remove the piost-edge absorption background including the multielectron excitation effect.The EXAFS results demonstrate that there are about eight S and four O atoms around Nd with the Nd-S bond length of 2.916A and the Nd-O bond length of 2.415A,respectively.This implies that the powder of this complex is not stable and is easy to oxidize in air.The possible change of structure before and after oxidation is discussed.

  20. Copper Ion Attenuated the Antiproliferative Activity of Di-2-pyridylhydrazone Dithiocarbamate Derivative; However, There Was a Lack of Correlation between ROS Generation and Antiproliferative Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Fu, Yun; Huang, Tengfei; Liu, Youxun; Wu, Meihao; Yuan, Yanbin; Li, Shaoshan; Li, Changzheng

    2016-08-20

    The use of chelators for cancer treatment has been an alternative option. Dithiocarbamates have recently attracted considerable attention owning to their diverse biological activities; thus, the preparation of new dithiocarbamate derivatives with improved antitumor activity and selectivity as well as probing the underlying molecular mechanism are required. In this study, di-2-pyridylhydrazone dithiocarbamate S-propionic acid (DpdtpA) and its copper complex were prepared and characterized, and its antiproliferative activity was evaluated. The proliferation inhibition assay showed that DpdtpA exhibited excellent antiproliferative effect in hepatocellular carcinoma (IC50 = 1.3 ± 0.3 μM for HepG2, and 2.5 ± 0.6 μM for Bel-7402). However, in the presence of copper ion, the antiproliferative activity of DpdtpA was dramatically attenuated (20-30 fold) owing to the formation of copper chelate. A preliminarily mechanistic study revealed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation mediated the antiproliferative activity of DpdtpA, and accordingly induced apoptosis, DNA cleavage, and autophagy. Surprisingly, the cytotoxicity of DpdtpA copper complex (DpdtpA-Cu) was also involved in ROS generation; however, a paradoxical relation between cellular ROS level and cytotoxicity was observed. Further investigation indicated that DpdtpA could induce cell cycle arrest at the S phase; however, DpdtpA-Cu lacked this effect, which explained the difference in their antiproliferative activity.

  1. Copper Ion Attenuated the Antiproliferative Activity of Di-2-pyridylhydrazone Dithiocarbamate Derivative; However, There Was a Lack of Correlation between ROS Generation and Antiproliferative Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of chelators for cancer treatment has been an alternative option. Dithiocarbamates have recently attracted considerable attention owning to their diverse biological activities; thus, the preparation of new dithiocarbamate derivatives with improved antitumor activity and selectivity as well as probing the underlying molecular mechanism are required. In this study, di-2-pyridylhydrazone dithiocarbamate S-propionic acid (DpdtpA and its copper complex were prepared and characterized, and its antiproliferative activity was evaluated. The proliferation inhibition assay showed that DpdtpA exhibited excellent antiproliferative effect in hepatocellular carcinoma (IC50 = 1.3 ± 0.3 μM for HepG2, and 2.5 ± 0.6 μM for Bel-7402. However, in the presence of copper ion, the antiproliferative activity of DpdtpA was dramatically attenuated (20–30 fold owing to the formation of copper chelate. A preliminarily mechanistic study revealed that reactive oxygen species (ROS generation mediated the antiproliferative activity of DpdtpA, and accordingly induced apoptosis, DNA cleavage, and autophagy. Surprisingly, the cytotoxicity of DpdtpA copper complex (DpdtpA–Cu was also involved in ROS generation; however, a paradoxical relation between cellular ROS level and cytotoxicity was observed. Further investigation indicated that DpdtpA could induce cell cycle arrest at the S phase; however, DpdtpA–Cu lacked this effect, which explained the difference in their antiproliferative activity.

  2. The interplay of thiophilic and hydrogen bonding interactions in the supramolecular architecture of phenylmercury 4-hydroxypiperidine dithiocarbamate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Yadav, Reena; Trivedi, Manoj; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele; Kumar, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    A new phenylmercury(II) dithiocarbamate complex [PhHg(S2CN(CH2)4CH(OH)], (1) has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure of 1 shows a linear arrangement at the Hg(II) centre of the molecule through bonding of the sulphur atom of the dithiocarbamate ligand and the carbon atom of the aromatic ring. Weak intermolecular thiophilic Hg···S interactions lead to a "head-to-tail" dimer and the presence of a hydroxyl group at the periphery of piperidine moiety generates a 1D-chain network through intermolecular O···H interactions. The nature of weak intra- and intermolecular Hg···S, H···S and intermolecular O···H interactions have been assessed with the help of ab initio calculations and atoms-in-molecules (AIM) approach.

  3. Detection and quantification of dithiocarbamate pesticides by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saute, Benjamin Calvin

    Dithiocarbamates are a subclass of carbamate pesticides that are widely used as insecticidal agents on food crops in the US and abroad. Quantitative determination of trace quantities of dithiocarbamates is necessary in order to mitigate potential human exposure via pesticide residues left on inadequately washed food items as well as groundwater contamination from agricultural runoff. The focus of this research is on the development and optimization of a Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) based analytical technique for the quantitative determination of trace amounts of dithiocarbamate pesticides in different matrices. Gold nanoparticles of different shapes and sizes will be investigated to determine the suitability of these materials as SERS active substrates for the trace analysis of dithiocarbamate pesticides. Analytical sensitivity will be evaluated by determining the limits of detection using established statistical methods.

  4. A new family of donor-acceptor systems comprising tin(IV) porphyrin and anthracene subunits: Synthesis, spectroscopy and energy transfer studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ashok Kumar; L Giribabu; Bhaskar G Maiya

    2002-12-01

    A new family of covalently linked `Sn(IV) porphyrin-anthracene’ diad (1), triad (2) and tetrad (3) donor-acceptor (D-A) systems have been designed and synthesized in good-to-moderate yields. While diad 1 possesses one anthracene subunit at the peripheral (meso) position of the tin(IV) porphyrin scaffold, triad 2 possesses two trans axial anthracene subunits at the tin(IV) centre. On the other hand, tetrad 3 is endowed with both the peripheral and axial anthracene subunits in its architecture. These D-A systems have been fully characterised by elemental analysis, FAB-MS, UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR and electrochemical methods. UV-Vis, NMR and redox data suggest the absence of intramolecular - interaction between the porphyrin and the anthracene/s in 1-3. Fluorescence from the anthracene subunit in 1 and 3 is found to be quenched in comparison with the fluorescence of free anthracene in four different solvents. This is not the case with compound 2. Excitation spectral data provides evidence for an intramolecular excitation energy transfer (EET) from the singlet anthracene to the porphyrin in 1 and 3. The energy transfer efficiency is in the order: 2 (almost negligible) < 3 (∼ 30%) < 1 (nearly quantitative), with the peripheral anthracene → porphyrin pathway being largely favoured. This orientation dependence of EET could be analysed using Forster’s dipole dipole mechanism.

  5. Photo-Physical Behaviour of CdSe Nanocrystals/Bis(dithiocarbamate) Linker Multilayered Hybrid Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercelli, B; Angella, G; Virgili, T; López Suarez, I; Pasini, M

    2015-05-01

    Multilayered films composed by CdSe Nanocrystals (NCs) interlinked by ethylene-1,2-bis(dithiocarbamate) or adipate anions were prepared on ITO glass via layer-by-layer alternation. The films were analyzed by UV-vis, TEM, Photoluminescence (PL) emission and Pump-Probe spectroscopy. While the PL emission of the two samples present no differences, femtosecond Pump-probe experiments reveal an higher charge generation efficiency in bis(dithiocarbamate) based films than in dicarboxylate ones.

  6. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Some Novel Dithiocarbamate Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begüm Nurpelin Sağlık

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 18 novel dithiocarbamate derivatives were synthesized in order to investigate their inhibitory potency on acetylcholinesterase enzyme and antimicrobial activity. Structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated by spectral data and elemental analyses. The synthesized compounds showed low enzyme inhibitory activity. However, they displayed good antimicrobial activity profile. Antibacterial activity of compounds 4a, 4e, and 4p (MIC = 25 μg/mL was equal to that of chloramphenicol against Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 700603 and Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218. Most of the compounds exhibited notable antifungal activity against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231, Candida glabrata (ATCC 90030, Candida krusei (ATCC 6258, and Candida parapsilosis (ATCC 7330. Moreover, compound 4a, which carries piperidin-1-yl substituent and dimethylthiocarbamoyl side chain as variable group, showed twofold better anticandidal effect against all Candida species than reference drug ketoconazole.

  7. Developmental toxicity of the dithiocarbamate pesticide sodium metam in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haendel, Melissa A; Tilton, Fred; Bailey, George S; Tanguay, Robert L

    2004-10-01

    Sodium metam (NaM), a dithiocarbamate, is a general agricultural biocide applied prior to planting for the elimination of nematodes, soil pathogens, and weeds. There is a remarkable paucity of information about the mechanism of action and the risk that dithiocarbamates may pose to developing vertebrates. We have characterized NaM toxicity during early life stage exposure in zebrafish. Zebrafish embryos are most sensitive to NaM exposure during gastrulation and early segmentation (4-14 hours post fertilization, hpf). For mortality, the dose response curve is steep with an LC(50) estimate of 1.95 microM (248 ppb) at 48 hpf. The most notable malformation among surviving embryos was a severely twisted notochord, which became evident by 24 hpf. Surprisingly, this notochord defect was not immediately lethal and the animals continued to grow despite delays in hatching, apparent paralysis, and an inability to feed. We have characterized the notochord malformation using histological and in situ hybridization techniques. collagen 2a1 mRNA expression is normally localized to the notochord sheath cells at 24 hpf, whereas in NaM-exposed embryos it is misexpressed in the notochord cells. Histological staining and myoD expression indicate that the myotomes of the NaM-exposed embryos are less defined, compacted and block-shaped compared to controls. The degradation product of NaM, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), causes similar malformations at similar concentrations as NaM, suggesting that MITC or another common product may be the active toxicant. Our results indicate that developing zebrafish are sensitive to NaM and MITC and we believe that this model is ideal to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) and etiology of NaM toxicity in vertebrates.

  8. Interactions of nitric oxide with copper(II) dithiocarbamates in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Alicia; Ortiz, Mayreli; Sánchez, Ileana; Cao, Roberto; Mederos, Alfredo; Sanchiz, Joaquin; Brito, Felipe

    2003-07-01

    This is the first report on the formation of air-stable copper nitrosyl complexes. The interaction of nitric oxide, NO, with Cu(DTC)(2).3H(2)O (DTC: dithiocarbamate) and was studied in aqueous solution at pH 7.4 and 293 K. The stability constants were determined from UV-Vis data, using LETAGROP program. The high values obtained, log beta(1)=9.743(5) and log beta(2)=15.44(2) for Cu(ProDTC)(2)-NO, (ProDTC=L-prolinedithiocarbamate) and log beta(1)=8.723(5) and log beta(2)=11.45(2) for Cu(MorDTC)(2)-NO system, (MorDTC=morpholyldithiocarbamate), indicate the formation of two stable nitrosyl complexes, Cu(DTC)(2)NO and Cu(DTC)(2)(NO)(2). Coordinated NO is neither affected by the presence of air nor when the solution is purged with Ar. Cu(MorDTC)(2)NO.3H(2)O was isolated in the solid state and its nuNO (IR) band at 1682 cm(-1), but affected by temperature variations over 333 K.

  9. Synthesis, characterization, structural and biological aspects of copper(II) dithiocarbamate complexes - Part II, [Cu{S2CN(Me)(R1)}2], [Cu{S2CN(Me)(R2)}2] and [Cu{S2CN(R3)(R4)}2] {R1 = CH2CH(OMe)2, R2 = 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane, R3 = CH2(CH2)2NCHPhOCH2Ph and R4 = CH2CH2OH}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabella P.; de Lima, Geraldo M.; Paniago, Eucler B.; Takahashi, Jacqueline A.; Krambrock, Klaus; Pinheiro, Carlos B.; Wardell, James L.; Visentin, Lorenzo C.

    2013-09-01

    Three new copper(II) dithiocarbamates (DTC), [Cu{S2CN(Me)(R1)}2] (1), [Cu{S2CN(Me)(R2)}2] (2) and [Cu{S2CN(R3)(R4)}2] (3) with R1 = CH2CH(OMe)2, R2 = 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane, R3 = CH2(CH2)2NCHPhOCH2Ph and R4 = CH2CH2OH, have been synthesized and characterized by different spectroscopic techniques. Complexes (1) and (2) display typical EPR spectra for separated Cu(II) centers, and the spectrum of (3) is characteristic of two magnetically coupled Cu(II) ions with S = 1. The X-ray crystallographic determination has shown that complexes (1) and (2) crystallise in the triclinic and monoclinic systems. In addition both complexes are monomers in which the geometry at each Cu(II) is square planar. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the sodium salts of ligands, and of the Cu(II)-DTC complexes have been screened against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Penicillium citrinum and Curvularia senegalensis, as well as Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Finally, the toxic effects of complexes (1)-(3) were performed using Chlorella vulgaris.

  10. The Effect of Washing and Peeling on Reduction of Dithiocarbamates Residues in Cucumber and Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mehrasebi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dithiocarbamates, the main group of fungicides, are used to control about 400 pathogens in more than 70 crops. These pesticides are widely applied to crops including potato, cereal, apple, pear and leafy vegetables throughout the world since 1960. From the late 1980s, using these fungicides has caused much debate among regulators about their long-term effects on consumers and occupational users. Method: In this study the residues of Dithiocarbamates in cucumber and tomato using the colorimetric method (Keppel method was measured. Respectively 80 and 45 samples of greenhouse cucumber and tomato were collected from Zanjan vegetables center in autumns and winter 2013. The samples were analyzed in 4 treatments of: unwashed, washing with water, washing whit detergent and peeling. Result: The results showed that the average concentration of Dithiocarbamates residues in unwashed greenhouse cucumber and tomatoes were 384.5 µg/kg and 65 µg/kg respectively. 35% and 5% of unwashed and water washed cucumber and tomato samples (respectively had higher Dithiocarbamates residue than MRL recommended by Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (0.5mg/kg. Conclusion: The treatments of washing and peeling had significant effect on the reduction of Dithiocarbamates residues in the all samples.

  11. Design, synthesis and cytotoxicity studies of dithiocarbamate ester derivatives of emetine in prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboye, Emmanuel S; Bamji, Zebalda D; Kwabi-Addo, Bernard; Ejeh, David; Copeland, Robert L; Denmeade, Samuel R; Bakare, Oladapo

    2015-09-01

    A small library of emetine dithiocarbamate ester derivatives were synthesized in 25-86% yield via derivatization of the N2'- position of emetine. Anticancer evaluation of these compounds in androgen receptor positive LNCaP and androgen receptor negative PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines revealed time dependent and dose-dependent cytotoxicity. With the exception of compound 4c, all the dithiocarbamate ester analogs in this study showed appreciable potency in all the prostate cancer cell lines (regardless of whether it is androgen receptor positive or negative) with a cytotoxicity IC50 value ranging from 1.312 ± 0.032 μM to 5.201 ± 0.125 μM by day 7 of treatment. Compared to the sodium dithiocarbamate salt 1, all the dithiocarbamate ester analogs (2 and 4a-4 g) displayed lower cytotoxicity than compound 1 (PC3, IC50 = 0.087 ± 0.005 μM; DU145, IC50 = 0.079 ± 0.003 μM and LNCaP, IC50 = 0.079 ± 0.003 μM) on day 7 of treatment. Consequently, it appears that S-alkylation of compound 1 leads to a more stable dithiocarbamate ester derivative that resulted in lower anticancer activity in the prostate cancer cell lines.

  12. Effect of thalidomide dithiocarbamate analogs on the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirgis, Adel A; Zahran, Magdy A H; Mohamed, Amr S; Talaat, Roba M; Abdou, Bishoy Y; Agwa, Hussein S

    2010-07-01

    Thalidomide has been reported to have anti-angiogenic and antimetastatic effects. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was shown to be involved in monocyte adherence to epithelial cells and cancer cell invasion. Novel thalidomide dithiocarbamate analogs (containing 2 sulfur atoms) were designed and synthesized as potential anti-tumor agents. The aim of this work is to investigate their anti-tumor effect against transplantable experimental tumor, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC), in mice by studying the changes in cell's biochemical profile, the expression of ICAM-1 and nitric oxide (NO) and their association with tumor burden. As shown in our results, treatment of solid tumor-bearing mice with thalidomide 1 resulted in a significant reduction in tumor volume with 75.4% inhibition, a significant decrease in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ICAM-1 expression and NO. Thalidomide dithiocarbamate analogs 2 and 3 exhibited a potent effect to reduce the volume of solid tumor with 96.7% and 96.5% inhibition, respectively, a significant ability to increase the albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and glucose levels and to diminish LDH, ICAM-1 expression and NO. Thalidomide dithiocarbamate analog 3 has more potent anti-tumor activity as compared with thalidomide 1 or its dithiocarbamate analog 2. Taken together, our study improved that the dithiocarbamate analogs 2 and 3 are more potent anti-tumor agents with more pronounced effect than thalidomide 1 itself.

  13. Robust dithiocarbamate-anchored amine functionalization of Au nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Robinson, Hans D.

    2011-02-01

    We introduce an effective and facile technique that achieves robust amine functionalization of Au nanoparticles by binding the polyamine poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) to the surface using a dithiocarbamate (DTC) modification of the side group amines. The DTC anchor confers superior short- and long-term colloidal stability compared to a physisorbed layer of the same polymer. We also demonstrate that the surface amines are available for further functionalization and that at least four alternately charged polyelectrolyte layers can be assembled onto the particles. The latter modification could not be performed on a physisorbed functional layer, so this demonstrates the effectiveness of the DTC groups in robustly anchoring the polymer to the particle surface. At the same time, the DTC-anchored polymer layer is less than 2 nm thick in the dry state. This is one-third of the thickness of a physisorbed polyamine layer deposited under the same conditions, and sufficiently thin that the plasmonic field enhancement on the metal particle remains accessible to the outside environment. We attribute the difference in thickness to multiple DTC bonds on each polymer chain forcing it into much closer conformity to the particle surface than in the physisorbed case.

  14. Novel [99mTcIII(PS)2(Ln)] mixed-ligand compounds (PS = phosphino-thiolate; L = dithiocarbamate) useful in design and development of TcIII-based agents: synthesis, in vitro, and ex vivo biodistribution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvarese, Nicola; Morellato, Nicolò; Rosato, Antonio; Meléndez-Alafort, Laura; Refosco, Fiorenzo; Bolzati, Cristina

    2014-11-13

    A general procedure for the preparation of a new class of neutral six-coordinated mixed ligand [(99m)Tc(III)(PS)2(Ln)] compounds (PS = trisalkyl-phosphino-thiolate; Ln = dithiocarbamate) is reported as well as their in vitro stability and the ex vivo tissue distribution studies. [(99m)Tc(PS)2(Ln)] complexes were prepared in high yield in nearly physiologic conditions following a one-pot procedure. For instance, the chemical identity of [(99m)Tc(PSiso)2(L1)] (PSiso = 2-(diisopropylphosphino)ethanethiol; L1 = pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate) was determined by HPLC comparison with the corresponding (99g)Tc-complex. All complexes comprise the stable [(99m)Tc(III)(PS)2](+) moiety, where the remaining two coordination positions are saturated by a dithiocarbamate chelate, also carrying bioactive molecules (e.g., 2-methoxyphenylpiperazine). [(99m)Tc(PS)2(Ln)] complexes were inert toward ligand exchange reactions. No significant in vitro and in vivo biotransformation were observed, underlining their remarkable thermodynamic stability and kinetic inertness. These results could be conveniently utilized to devise a novel class of (99m)Tc(III)-based compounds useful in radiopharmaceutical applications.

  15. Design, structural and spectroscopic elucidation, and the in vitro biological activities of new diorganotin dithiocarbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabella P; de Lima, Geraldo M; Paniago, Eucler B; Rocha, Willian R; Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Pinheiro, Carlos B; Ardisson, José D

    2012-12-01

    The reaction of 2,2-dimethoxy-N-methylethyllamine or 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane with CS(2) in alkaline media produced two novel dithiocarbamate salts. Subsequent reactions with organotin halides yielded six new complexes: [SnMe(2){S(2)CNR(R(1))(2)}(2)] (1), [Sn(n-Bu)(2){S(2)CNR(R(1))(2)}(2)] (2), [SnPh(2){S(2)CNR(R(1))(2)}(2)] (3), [SnMe(2){S(2)CNR(R(2))(2)}(2)] (4), [Sn(n-Bu)(2){S(2)CNR(R(2))(2)}(2)] (5), [SnPh(2){S(2)CNR(R(2))(2)}(2)] (6), where R = methyl, R(1) = CH(2)CH(OMe)(2), and R(2) = 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane. All compounds were identified in terms of infrared, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and the complexes were also characterized using (119)Sn NMR, (119)Sn Mössbauer and X-ray crystallography. The biological activity of all derivatives has been screened in terms of IC(90) and IC(50) against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Penicillium citrinum, Curvularia senegalensis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus sanguinis, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, Salmonella typhimurium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the results correlated well with a performed study of structure-activity relationship (SAR). Complexes (3), (5) and (6) displayed the best IC(90) and IC(50) in the presence of the fungi, greater than that of miconazole, used as control drug.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of dithiocarbamate chitosan derivatives with enhanced antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yukun; Liu, Song; Xing, Ronge; Yu, Huahua; Li, Kecheng; Meng, Xiangtao; Li, Rongfeng; Li, Pengcheng

    2012-06-20

    In this study, ammonium dithiocarbamate chitosan (ADTCCS) and triethylene diamine dithiocarbamate chitosan (TEDADTCCS) derivatives were obtained respectively by mixing chitosan with carbon disulfide and ammonia (triethylenediamine). Their structures were confirmed by FT-IR, 1H NMR, XRD, DSC, SEM, and elemental analysis. Antifungal properties of them against the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria porri were investigated at concentrations ranged from 31.25 to 500 mg/L. The dithiocarbamate chitosan derivatives had enhanced antifungal activity compared with chitosan. Particularly, they showed obvious inhibitory effect on Fusarium oxysporum. At 500 mg/L, TEDADTCCS inhibited growth of F. oxysporum at 60.4%, stronger than polyoxin and triadimefon whose antifungal indexes were found to be 25.3% and 37.7%. The chitosan derivatives described here deserve further study for use in crop protection.

  17. Efficient electronic coupling and improved stability with dithiocarbamate-based molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wrochem, Florian; Gao, Deqing; Scholz, Frank; Nothofer, Heinz-Georg; Nelles, Gabriele; Wessels, Jurina M.

    2010-08-01

    Molecular electronic devices require stable and highly conductive contacts between the metal electrodes and molecules. Thiols and amines are widely used to attach molecules to metals, but they form poor electrical contacts and lack the robustness required for device applications. Here, we demonstrate that dithiocarbamates provide superior electrical contact and thermal stability when compared to thiols on metals. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory show the presence of electronic states at 0.6 eV below the Fermi level of Au, which effectively reduce the charge injection barrier across the metal-molecule interface. Charge transport measurements across oligophenylene monolayers reveal that the conductance of terphenyl-dithiocarbamate junctions is two orders of magnitude higher than that of terphenyl-thiolate junctions. The stability and low contact resistance of dithiocarbamate-based molecular junctions represent a significant step towards the development of robust, organic-based electronic circuits.

  18. Dithiocarbamates residues in Brazilian food and the potential risk for consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, E D; Miranda, M C C; Conceição, M H; de Souza, L C K R

    2004-11-01

    Dithiocarbamates are a non-systemic group of pesticides widely used to protect crops from fungal diseases. The current methodology used by monitoring laboratories to determine dithiocarbamates in food involves the analysis of CS(2) generated after hydrolysis of the compound present in the sample. This method does not identify the origin of the CS(2) detected, which may or may not be related to the presence of pesticides leading to a potential overestimation of the dietary dithiocarbamate intake. In this paper, 520 food samples (papaya, banana, apple, strawberry, orange, potato, tomato, rice and dry beans) collected in the local market of the Federal District, Brazil, were analyzed for dithiocarbamate content. Detectable levels (> or =10.10 mg/kg CS(2)) were found in 60.8% of the samples, with the highest levels (up to 3.8 mg/kg) found in strawberry, papaya and banana. No residues were found in rice (polished) and only one dry bean sample had detectable levels of the fungicides. Detectable residues were found in the pulp of banana, papaya (including the seeds) and orange (50-62% of the analyzed samples). An exposure assessment, based on dithiocarbamate levels detected in the food crops analyzed in this study, confirms that the intake of dithiocarbamates through food consumption in the country does not represent a health risk to consumers, i.e., the estimated daily intake is less than the acceptable daily intake. Furthermore, the implementation of more selective methodologies to individually analyze these compounds in food monitoring programs in Brazil is not necessary.

  19. Gold nanoparticle-based fluorescent sensor for the analysis of dithiocarbamate pesticides in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senkbeil, Silja; Lafleur, Josiane P.; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides play a key role in the high yields achieved in modern agricultural food production. Besides their positive effect on increasing productivity they are intentionally toxic, often towards non-target organisms and contaminated food products can have a serious impact on human...... and environmental health. This paper demonstrates the potential of a gold nanoparticle-based microfluidic sensor for in field detection of dithiocarbamate pesticides at remote locations. Combining the attractive optical properties of gold nanoparticles with on chip mixing and detection, using a simple digital...... camera, a detection limit of 16 μg L-1 for Ziram, a dithiocarbamate pesticide, was obtained....

  20. In vito Effect of Dithiocarbamate Pesticides and of CaNa2 EDTA on Human Serum Dopamine-β-hydroxylase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Serum dopamine-β-hydroxylase(DBH)inhibition has been reported in lead workers treated with CaNa2EDTA and in alcoholic patients repatedly treated with the alcohol aversive drug Disulfiram.The mechanism of inhibition involves Cu++ chelation at the active site of DBH.The effect of CaNa2EDTA and Disulfiram on serum DBH has been compared to the effect of dithiocarbamate pesticides in vitro for the possible use of serum DBH determination for the biological monitoring or workers exposed to these pesticides. Most dithiocarbamates inhibit human serum DBH at miromolar concentrtion(range of I50,0.027-1.6μmol/L).The inhibitory potency increased from methyl-and dimethyl dithiocarbamates to diethyl dithiocarbamates up to the most potent ethylene bisdithiocarbamates.The I50 of CaNa2 EDTA was 3.8μmol/L,higher than those of dithiocarbamates,Copper additin to the test system reactivated at stoichiometric concentrations dithiocarbamate-inhibited DBH indicating that both base line values and percent of inhibition can be calculated in a single blood sample.Results suggest that serum DBH determination could be useful in case of acute poisoning involving high doses of dithiocarbamate pesticides.

  1. Radiosynthesis of 9{sup 9mT}c(CO){sup 3C}linafloxacin Dithiocarbamate and Its Biological Evaluation as a Potential staphylococcus aureus Infection Radiotracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Syed Qaiser; Khan, Mohammad Rafiullah; Ali, Syed Mohammad [Univ. of Peshawar/Univ. of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan)

    2011-12-15

    Clinafloxacin dithiocarbamate (CNND) was radiolabeled with technetium 99m ({sup 99mT}c) using [{sup 99mT}c(CO){sub 3}(H{sub 2O}){sub 3]}{sup +a}nd assessed for its radiochemical stability in saline and serum, its in vitro binding with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and biodistribution in female nude mice (FNM) artificially infected with live and heat killed MRSA. In normal saline (NS) the {sup 99mT}c(CO){sub 3c}linafloxacin dithiocarbamate ({sup 99mT}c(CO){sub 3C}NND) showed radiochemical stability with a maximum value of 99.10{+-}0.20% and remained stable up to 4 h (92.65{+-}0.18%). In human serum at 37.deg.C within 16 h of incubation, 14.85% side products as a result of de tagging developed. Incubation with MRSA gave saturated binding with a maximum value of 72.75{+-}1.20%. Almost six fold higher uptake was seen in the infected and normal muscle. The {sup 99mT}c (CO){sub 3C}NND complex showed a normal route of excretion from the body of the FNM model. The higher stability in NS, HS, saturated in vitro binding with a live strain of MRSA and six fold higher uptake in the target organ showed the {sup 99mT}c(CO){sub 3C}NND complex to be a potential MRSA infection radiotracer.

  2. Optical Sensing Properties of Dithiocarbamate-Functionalized Microspheres, Using a Polyvinylpyridine-Polyvinylbenzyl Chloride Copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad M. Shakhsher

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new modified optical chemical sensor based on swellable polymer microspheres is developed using a 5% copolymer of polyvinylpyridine-polyvinyl -benzyl chloride microspheres functionalized as the corresponding dithiocarbamate. This sensor demonstrated significant enhancements in sensitivity, dynamic range and response time. These improvements are related to the presence of pyridine in the polymer backbone, which is believed to increase the space between the groups, thus decreasing steric hindrance, and hence increasing substitution of the dithiocarbamate group. The hydrophilicity of pyridine also allows free movement of the solvent and analyte to and from the inside of the microspheres. These dithiocarbamate-derivatized polymer microspheres were embedded in a hydrogel matrix of polyvinylalcohol cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. This sensor responded selectively to Hg2+ solutions of different concentrations (1 × 10−5 M to 0.1 M. The observed turbidity measured as absorbance varied between 1.05 and 1.75 units at a wavelength of 700 nm. The response is based on the interaction between the metal cations with the negative charges of the deprotonated dithiocarbamate functional group, which led to neutratization of the charges and thus to polymer shrinking. As a result, an increase in the turbidity of the sensing element due to a change in the refractive index between the hydrogel and the polymer microspheres occured. The changes in the turbidity of the sensing element were measured as absorbance using a conventional spectrophotometer.

  3. TFFH as an excellent reagent for acylation of alcohols, thiols and dithiocarbamates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittelkow, M.; Kamounah, F. S.; Boas, Ulrik;

    2004-01-01

    A convenient and easy procedure to synthesize esters and thioesters from the corresponding carboxylic acid using TFFH as the coupling reagent is described. The preparation of N-acyl-dithiocarbamates from carboxylic acids and 1,3-thiazolidine-2-thione with TFFH as the coupling reagent is also desc...

  4. Direct analysis of dithiocarbamate fungicides in fruit by ambient mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cajka, T.; Riddelova, K.; Zomer, P.; Mol, J.G.J.; Hajslova, J.

    2011-01-01

    Dithiocarbamates (DTCs) are fungicides that require a specific single-residue method for detection and verification of compliance with maximum residue limits (MRLs) as established for fruit and vegetables in the EU. In this study, the use of ambient mass spectrometry was investigated for specific de

  5. Carbon disulfide formation in papaya under conditions of dithiocarbamate residue analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakerli, R B; Sparrapan, R; Sawaya, A C H F; Eberlin, M N; Jara, J L P; Rodrigues, N R; Fay, E F; Luiz, A J B; Galvão, T D L; Martins, D dos S; Yamanishi, O K; Toledo, H H B

    2015-12-01

    Golden, Sunrise Solo and Tainung cultivars of papaya were found to release CS2 when submitted to experimental conditions of dithiocarbamate residue analysis. Three common analytical methods were used to quantitate CS2; one spectrophotometric method and two chromatographic methods. All three methods gave positive CS2 results for all three papaya varieties. Other endogenous compounds present in isooctane extracts of papaya fractions detected via gas chromatography (GC/ITD) using electron ionization (EI) were: carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, 2-methylthiophene, 3-methylthiophene, 2-ethylthiophene, 3-ethylthiophene, benzylisothiocyanate, benzylthiocyanate and benzonitrile. Control samples were obtained from papaya plantations cultivated in experimental areas, in which no treatment with fungicides of the dithiocarbamate group was applied. Endogenous CS2 levels were compared with true dithiocarbamate residues measured in papaya samples from the field trials following applications of the mancozeb fungicide. Three days after application, true dithiocarbamate residues, measured by the procedure with isooctane partitioning and GC-ITD, were at the average level of 2 mg kg(-1).

  6. Optical sensing properties of dithiocarbamate-functionalized microspheres, using a polyvinylpyridine-polyvinylbenzyl chloride copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhsher, Ziad M; Odeh, Imad M A; Rajabi, Inas M S; Khatib, Mahmoud K

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a new modified optical chemical sensor based on swellable polymer microspheres is developed using a 5% copolymer of polyvinylpyridine-polyvinyl-benzyl chloride microspheres functionalized as the corresponding dithiocarbamate. This sensor demonstrated significant enhancements in sensitivity, dynamic range and response time. These improvements are related to the presence of pyridine in the polymer backbone, which is believed to increase the space between the groups, thus decreasing steric hindrance, and hence increasing substitution of the dithiocarbamate group. The hydrophilicity of pyridine also allows free movement of the solvent and analyte to and from the inside of the microspheres. These dithiocarbamate-derivatized polymer microspheres were embedded in a hydrogel matrix of polyvinylalcohol cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. This sensor responded selectively to Hg(2+) solutions of different concentrations (1 × 10(-5) M to 0.1 M). The observed turbidity measured as absorbance varied between 1.05 and 1.75 units at a wavelength of 700 nm. The response is based on the interaction between the metal cations with the negative charges of the deprotonated dithiocarbamate functional group, which led to neutratization of the charges and thus to polymer shrinking. As a result, an increase in the turbidity of the sensing element due to a change in the refractive index between the hydrogel and the polymer microspheres occurred. The changes in the turbidity of the sensing element were measured as absorbance using a conventional spectrophotometer.

  7. Inhibition of polyprotein processing and RNA replication of human rhinovirus by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate involves metal ions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krenn, B.M.; Holzer, B.; Gaudernak, E.; Triendl, A.; Kuppeveld, F.J.M. van; Seipelt, J.

    2005-01-01

    Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is an antiviral compound that was shown to inhibit the replication of human rhinoviruses (HRVs), poliovirus, and influenza virus. To elucidate the mechanism of PDTC, the effects on the individual steps of the infection cycle of HRV were investigated. PDTC did not i

  8. Dietary exposure of Brazilian consumers to dithiocarbamate pesticides : a probabilistic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldas, E.D.; Tressou, J.; Boon, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    A probabilistic estimation of the exposure of the Brazilian population to the dithiocarbamate pesticides was performed using the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment program (MCRA 3.5). Residue data, as CS(2), for 3821 samples were obtained from the Brazilian national monitoring program on pesticide residues

  9. Synthesis of quarternary ammonium salts with dithiocarbamate moiety and their antifungal activities against Helminthosporium oryzae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mandeep Singh; Anita Garg; Anjali Sidhu; Vineet Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts containing dithiocarbamate moiety were synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal activities against Helminthosporium oryzae. All the synthesized compounds showed moderate to promising fungitoxicity against the test. Some of the synthesized compounds inflicted antifungal activity greater than the standard fungicide.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and Processing of Copper, Indium, and Gallium Dithiocarbamates for Energy Conversion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraj, S. A.; Duffy, N. V.; Hepp, A. F.; Cowen, J. E.; Hoops, M. D.; Brothrs, S. M.; Baird, M. J.; Fanwick, P. E.; Harris, J. D.; Jin, M. H.-C.

    2009-01-01

    Ten dithiocarbamate complexes of indium(III) and gallium(III) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra and melting point. Each complex was decomposed thermally and its decomposition products separated and identified with the combination of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Their potential utility as photovoltaic materials precursors was assessed. Bis(dibenzyldithiocarbamato)- and bis(diethyldithiocarbamato)copper(II), Cu(S2CN(CH2C6H5)2)2 and Cu(S2CN(C2H5)2)2 respectively, have also been examined for their suitability as precursors for copper sulfides for the fabrication of photovoltaic materials. Each complex was decomposed thermally and the products analyzed by GC/MS, TGA and FTIR. The dibenzyl derivative complex decomposed at a lower temperature (225-320 C) to yield CuS as the product. The diethyl derivative complex decomposed at a higher temperature (260-325 C) to yield Cu2S. No Cu containing fragments were noted in the mass spectra. Unusual recombination fragments were observed in the mass spectra of the diethyl derivative. Tris(bis(phenylmethyl)carbamodithioato-S,S'), commonly referred to as tris(N,N-dibenzyldithiocarbamato)indium(III), In(S2CNBz2)3, was synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1(bar) with two molecules per unit cell. The material was further characterized using a novel analytical system employing the combined powers of thermogravimetric analysis, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to investigate its potential use as a precursor for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of thin film materials for photovoltaic applications. Upon heating, the material thermally decomposes to release CS2 and benzyl moieties in to the gas phase, resulting in bulk In2S3. Preliminary spray CVD experiments indicate that In(S2CNBz2)3 decomposed on a Cu substrate reacts to produce

  11. Monitoring dithiocarbamate fungicide residues in greenhouse and non-greenhouse tomatoes in Iran by HPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, A; Shoeibi, S; Amini, M; Amirahmadi, M; Rastegar, H; Ghaffarian, A; Ghazi-Khansari, M

    2012-01-01

    The simultaneous analysis of dithiocarbamate fungicide residues on greenhouse and non-greenhouse tomatoes was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. A calibration curve with spiked samples was plotted to determine dithiocarbamate residues in tomato samples. Limits of detection and quantification were approximately 0.05 and 0.2 µg g(-1), respectively. The ranges of mean recoveries at five spiking levels for all dithiocarbamates of interest were between 88.2%-95.7% and 99.5%-100.8% in standards and spiked samples, respectively. In this study, 40 greenhouse and 40 non-greenhouse tomato samples were analysed. None of the samples analysed contained dithiocarbamates in excess of the maximum residue levels established by the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues, except for one greenhouse sample, with ethylenebisdithiocarbamates at 3.2 µg g(-1).

  12. Modification of Gold Surface with Gold Nanoparticles and Cyclohexyl Dithiocarbamate as a Selective Sensor for Cysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab AlShamaileh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The self-assembly of cyclohexylamine dithiocarbamate (C6DTC on gold (Au and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs was studied electrochemically using cyclic voltammetry (CV. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the system Fe(CN63-/Fe(CN64- at the electrode surface of (C6DTC/Au and (C6DTC/AuNPs. The application of the resulting chemically modified surface as a selective sensor for cysteine, among other amino acids, was investigated. Linear oxidative desorption technique was used to characterize the modified electrode that consists of the self-assembled monolayer of cyclohexylamine dithiocarbamate on gold nanoparticles deposited on Au electrode (C6DTC/AuNPs/Au. The results showed an enhancement in the oxidation peak of cysteine on the modified electrode and hence a greater sensitivity.

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of anti-tubercular activity of new dithiocarbamate sugar derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Yasuhiro; Takii, Takemasa; Kuroishi, Ryuji; Chiba, Taku; Ogawa, Kenji; Kremer, Laurent; Sato, Yasuo; Lee, YooSa; Hasegawa, Tomohiro; Onozaki, Kikuo

    2011-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to optimize the anti-tubercular activity of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate (OCT313, Glc-NAc-DMDC), a lead compound previously reported by us. Structural modifications of OCT313 included the replacements of the DMDC group at C-1 by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and the acetyl group at C-2 by either propyl, butyl, benzyl or oleic acid groups. The antimycobacterial activities of these derivatives were evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Glc-NAc-pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (OCT313HK, Glc-NAc-PDTC) exhibited the most potent anti-tubercular activity with the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 6.25-12.5 μg/ml. The antibacterial activity of OCT313HK was highly specific to MTB and Mycobacterium bovis BCG, but not against Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli. Importantly, OCT313HK was also effective against MTB clinical isolates, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains. Interestingly, OCT313HK was exerted the primary bactericidal activity, and it was also exhibited the bacteriolytic activity at high concentrations. We next investigated whether the mycobacterial monooxygenase EthA, a common activator of thiocarbamide-containing anti-tubercular drugs, also activated OCT313HK. Contrary to our expectations, the anti-tubercular activity of dithiocarbamate sugar derivatives and dithiocarbamates were not dependent on ethA expression, in contrast to thiocarbamide-containing drugs. Overall, this study presents OCT313HK as a novel and potent compound against MTB, particularly promising to overcome drug resistance.

  14. Triton-B catalyzed, efficient and solvent-free approach for the synthesis of dithiocarbamates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Zaidi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel one-pot, solvent-free method for the synthesis of dithiocarbamates was developed through the reaction of corresponding alkyl halides, amines and carbon disulfide employing catalytic amount of benzyl trimethyl ammonium hydroxide (Triton-B. The reaction conditions are milder with extremely simple work-up procedures than the reported methods, afforded high yields (82-98% of the desired products.

  15. A simple biphasic route to water soluble dithiocarbamate functionalized quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Xu, J.; Goodman, M.; Chen, Y.; Cai, M.; Shinar, J.; Lin, Z.

    2008-06-11

    Hydrophobic trioctylphosphine oxide-functionalized CdSe quantum dots (CdSe-TOPO QDs) were transferred from organic solvent to aqueous solution via a simple yet novel biphasic ligand exchange process in one step, which involved the in-situ formation of hydrophilic dithiocarbamate moieties and subsequent ligand exchange with TOPO at the chloroform/water interface. The resulting water dispersible, dithiocarbamate functionalized CdSe QDs (i.e., D-CdSe) exhibited an increased photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield as compared to the original CdSe-TOPO QDs, suggesting an effective passivation of dithiocarbamate ligands on the QD surface. The D-CdSe QDs were then mixed with hydroxyl terminated TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. A decrease in the PL of the mixture was observed, indicating a possible charge transfer from the D-CdSe QDs to the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The reaction of the carboxyl group on the D-CdSe surface with the hydroxyl group on the TiO{sub 2} rendered QDs in direct contact with TiO{sub 2}, thereby facilitating the electronic interaction between them.

  16. Removal of mercury (II) by dithiocarbamate surface functionalized magnetite particles: application to synthetic and natural spiked waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, P; Lopes, C B; Daniel-da-Silva, A L; Pereira, E; Duarte, A C; Trindade, T

    2011-11-01

    In order to take advantage of the high affinity between mercury and sulphur, magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) particles functionalized with dithiocarbamate groups (CS(2)(-)), were synthesized to be used as a new type of sorbent to remove Hg (II) from synthetic and natural spiked waters. The effectiveness of this type of sorbent was studied, and its potential as cleanup agent for contaminated waters was assessed. Batch stirred tank experiments were carried out by contacting a volume of solution with known amounts of functionalized Fe(3)O(4) particles, in order to study the effect of sorbent dose, salinity, and the kinetics and the equilibrium of this unit operation. A complete Hg (II) removal (ca. 99.8%) was attained with 6 mg/L of magnetic particles for an initial metal concentration of 50 μg/L. It was confirmed that highly complex matrices, such as seawater (ca. 99%) and river water (ca. 97%), do not affect the removal capacity of the functionalized magnetic particles. Concerning isotherms, no significant differences were observed between two- and three-parameter models (P = 0.05%); however, Sips isotherm provided the lowest values of SS and S(x/y), predicting a maximum sorption capacity of 206 mg/g, in the range of experimental conditions under study. The solid loadings measured in this essay surmount the majority of the values found in literature for other type of sorbents.

  17. Dithiocarbamate fungicides increase intracellular Zn(2+) levels by increasing influx of Zn(2+) in rat thymic lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto-Kataoka, Yumiko; Oyama, Tomohiro M; Ishibashi, Hitoshi; Oyama, Yasuo

    2015-07-25

    Dithiocarbamate fungicides are used as alternative antifouling agents to highly toxic organotin antifouling agents, such as tri-n-butyltin and triphenyltin. There are some concerns regarding their environmental and health risks. It has been shown that tri-n-butyltin increases intracellular Zn(2+) levels of mammalian lymphocytes. Therefore, we examined the effects of dithiocarbamate fungicides (Ziram, Thiram, and Zineb) on rat thymic lymphocytes using a flow-cytometric technique to elucidate how these fungicides affect intracellular Zn(2+) levels. We further determined whether the agents increase intracellular Zn(2+) and/or Ca(2+), because both Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) are intracellular signals in lymphocytes, and excessive increases in their intracellular concentrations can have adverse effects. Dithiocarbamate fungicides increased intracellular Zn(2+) levels, without affecting intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Ziram was the most potent compound, increasing intracellular Zn(2+) levels via Zn(2+) influx. Ziram (1μM) greatly decreased the cellular nonprotein thiol content, and Zn(2+) chelators attenuated the Ziram-induced decrease. Ziram increased the population of annexin V-positive cells in a Zn(2+)-dependent manner. Therefore, we propose that dithiocarbamate fungicides induce Zn(2+) influx, resulting in an excessive elevation of intracellular Zn(2+) levels, leading to the induction of apoptosis. This study gives a basic insight into the mechanisms of dithiocarbamate fungicide-induced adverse events.

  18. Phase control during the synthesis of nickel sulfide nanoparticles from dithiocarbamate precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffey, Anna; Hollingsworth, Nathan; Islam, Husn-Ubayda; Mercy, Maxime; Sankar, Gopinathan; Catlow, C. Richard A.; Hogarth, Graeme; de Leeuw, Nora H.

    2016-05-01

    Square-planar nickel bis(dithiocarbamate) complexes, [Ni(S2CNR2)2], have been prepared and utilised as single source precursors to nanoparticulate nickel sulfides. While they are stable in the solid-state to around 300 °C, heating in oleylamine at 230 °C, 5 mM solutions afford pure α-NiS, where the outcome is independent of the substituents. DFT calculations show an electronic effect rather than steric hindrance influences the resulting particle size. Decomposition of the iso-butyl derivative, [Ni(S2CNiBu2)2], has been studied in detail. There is a temperature-dependence of the phase of the nickel sulfide formed. At low temperatures (150 °C), pure α-NiS is formed. Upon raising the temperature, increasing amounts of β-NiS are produced and at 280 °C this is formed in pure form. A range of concentrations (from 5-50 mM) was also investigated at 180 °C and while in all cases pure α-NiS was formed, particle sizes varied significantly. Thus at low concentrations average particle sizes were ca. 100 nm, but at higher concentrations they increased to ca. 150 nm. The addition of two equivalents of tetra-iso-butyl thiuram disulfide, (iBu2NCS2)2, to the decomposition mixture was found to influence the material formed. At 230 °C and above, α-NiS was generated, in contrast to the results found without added thiuram disulfide, suggesting that addition of (iBu2NCS2)2 stabilises the metastable α-NiS phase. At low temperatures (150-180 °C) and concentrations (5 mM), mixtures of α-NiS and Ni3S4, result. A growing proportion of Ni3S4 is noted upon increasing precursor concentration to 10 mM. At 20 mM a metastable phase of nickel sulfide, NiS2 is formed and as the concentration is increased, α-NiS appears alongside NiS2. Reasons for these variations are discussed.Square-planar nickel bis(dithiocarbamate) complexes, [Ni(S2CNR2)2], have been prepared and utilised as single source precursors to nanoparticulate nickel sulfides. While they are stable in the solid-state to

  19. Dietary Exposure Assessment of Danish Consumers to Dithiocarbamate Residues in Food: a Comparison of the Deterministic and Probabilistic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Andersen, Jens Hinge; Petersen, Annette;

    2008-01-01

    Probabilistic and deterministic estimates of the acute and chronic exposure of the Danish populations to dithiocarbamate residues were performed. The Monte Carlo Risk Assessment programme (MCRA 4.0) was used for the probabilistic risk assessment. Food consumption data were obtained from the natio......Probabilistic and deterministic estimates of the acute and chronic exposure of the Danish populations to dithiocarbamate residues were performed. The Monte Carlo Risk Assessment programme (MCRA 4.0) was used for the probabilistic risk assessment. Food consumption data were obtained from...... the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-02. Residue data for 5721 samples from the monitoring programme conducted in the period 1998-2003 were used for dithiocarbamates, which had been determined as carbon disulphide. Contributions from 26 commodities were included in the calculations. Using...

  20. The Effectiveness of Dibutyltin (IV and Di-tert-butyltin (IV Alkyl-phenyl Dithiocarbamate Compounds as Larvicide against Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae in Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normah Awang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of insecticides to control dengue vectors has led to the development of mosquito resistance, environmental pollution and undesirable effects on non target organisms. Thus, the potential of organotin (IV compounds has been explored to be developed as insecticides to obviate the existing problems. The aim of this study was to examine the larvicidal effect of dibutylt in (IV and di-tert-butyltin (IV alkyl-phenyl dithiocarbamate compounds against Aedes aegypti Linn. in laboratory. Larvicidal bioassay test of four compounds dibutyltin (IV ethyl phenyl dithiocarbamate, di-tert-butyltin (IV ethyl phenyl dithiocarbamate, dibutyltin (IV butyl phenyl dithiocarbamate and di-tert-butyltin (IV butyl phenyl dithiocarbamate against third instar larvae of A. aegypti was carried out. The study indicated that dibutyltin (IV butyl phenyl dithiocarbamate showed the highest larvicidal effect with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.59 and 3.91 ppm, respectively. However, the other three compounds showed lower larvicidal effects. Dibutyltin (IV ethyl phenyl dithiocarbamate showed moderate larvicidal effect with LC50 and LC90 values of 4.45 and 11.08 ppm, respectively, followed by di-tert-butyltin (IV butyl phenyl dithiocarbamate compound with LC50 and LC90 values of 5.08 and 11.50 ppm, respectively. Di-tert-butyltin (IV ethyl phenyl dithiocarbamate compound showed the least larvicidal effect with LC50 and LC90 values of 8.59 and 36.74 ppm, respectively. Morphological anomalies such as elongated neck region, shortened length and destructed digestive tract in the larvae were observed and recorded during the larvicidal bioassay testing. As a conclusion, dibutyltin (IV butyl phenyl dithiocarbamate compound is the most effective compound against the dengue vector, A. aegypti and has the potential to be explored as a larvicide. Further study is needed to ensure that this compound can be used safely as a larvicide.

  1. Interpreting effects of structure variations induced by temperature and pressure on luminescence spectra of platinum(II) bis(dithiocarbamate) compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Stéphanie; Roberts, Ryan J; Le, Debbie; Leznoff, Daniel B; Reber, Christian

    2015-04-20

    Luminescence spectra of two square-planar dithiocarbamate complexes of platinum(II) with different steric bulk, platinum(II) bis(dimethyldithiocarbamate) (Pt(MeDTC)2) and platinum(II) bis(di(o-pyridyl)dithiocarbamate) (Pt(dopDTC)2), are presented at variable temperature and pressure. The spectra show broad d-d luminescence transitions with maxima at approximately 13500 cm(-1) (740 nm). Variations of the solid-state spectra with temperature and pressure reveal intrinsic differences due to subtle variations of molecular and crystal structures, reported at 100 and 296 K for Pt(dopDTC)2. Luminescence maxima of Pt(MeDTC)2 shift to higher energy as temperature increases by +320 cm(-1) for an increase by 200 K, mainly caused by a bandwidth increase from 3065 to 4000 cm(-1) on the high-energy side of the band over the same temperature range. Luminescence maxima of Pt(dopDTC)2 shift in the opposite direction by -460 cm(-1) for a temperature increase by 200 K. The bandwidth of approximately 2900 cm(-1) does not vary with temperature. Both ground and emitting-state properties and subtle structural differences between the two compounds lead to this different behavior. Luminescence maxima measured at variable pressure show shifts to higher energy by +47 ± 3 and +11 ± 1 cm(-1)/kbar, for Pt(MeDTC)2 and Pt(dopDTC)2, respectively, a surprising difference by a factor of 4. The crystal structures indicate that decreasing intermolecular interactions with increasing pressure are likely to contribute to the exceptionally high shift for Pt(MeDTC)2.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of [M(III)(PS)2(L)] mixed-ligand compounds (M = Re, 99Tc; PS = phosphinothiolate; L = dithiocarbamate) as potential models for the development of new agents for SPECT imaging and radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvarese, N; Morellato, N; Venzo, A; Refosco, F; Dolmella, A; Bolzati, C

    2013-06-03

    The synthesis and characterization of a new series of neutral, six-coordinated mixed-ligand compounds [M(III)(PS)2(L)] (M = Re; (99)Tc), where PS is bis(arylalkyl)- or trialkylphosphinothiolate and L is dithiocarbamate, are reported. Stable [M(III)(PS)2(L)] complexes were easily synthesized, in good yield, starting from precursors where the metal was in different oxidation states (III, V, and VII), involving ligand-exchange and/or redox-substitution reactions. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, positive-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray diffraction analysis. All complexes are constituted by the presence of the [M(III)(PS)2](+) moiety, where two phosphinothiolate ligands are tightly bound to the metal and the remaining two positions are saturated by a dithiocarbamate chelate, also carrying bulky bioactive molecules [e.g., (2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine]. X-ray analyses were performed on crystalline specimens of four different Re/(99)Tc compounds sharing a distorted trigonal-prismatic geometry, with a P2S4 coordination donor set. The possibility of easily preparing these [M(III)(PS)2(L)] complexes, starting from the corresponding permetalate anions, in mild reaction conditions and in high yield, lays the first stone to the preparation of a new series of M(III)-based (M = (99m)Tc/(188)Re) compounds potentially useful in theragnostic applications.

  3. Feasible Management of Southern Corn Leaf Blight via Induction of Systemic Resistance by Bacillus cereus C1L in Combination with Reduced Use of Dithiocarbamate Fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Ru; Lin, Pei-Yu; Chen, Chao-Ying; Huang, Chien-Jui

    2016-10-01

    Dithiocarbamate fungicides such as maneb and mancozeb are widely used nonsystemic protectant fungicides to control various plant fungal diseases. Dithiocarbamate fungicides should be frequently applied to achieve optimal efficacy of disease control and avoid either decline in effectiveness or wash-off from leaf surface. Dithiocarbamates are of low resistance risk but have the potential to cause human neurological diseases. The objective of this study was to develop a strategy to effectively control plant disease with reduced use of dithiocarbamtes. Southern corn leaf blight was the model pathosystem for the investigation. When corn plants were drench-treated with Bacillus cereus C1L, a rhizobacterium able to induce systemic resistance in corn plants against southern leaf blight, frequency of spraying dithiocarbamate fungicides could be decreased. The treatment of B. cereus C1L was able to protect maize from southern leaf blight while residues of dithiocarbamates on leaf surface were too low to provide sufficient protection. On the other hand, frequent sprays of mancozeb slightly but significantly reduced growth of corn plants under natural conditions. In contrast, application of B. cereus C1L can significantly promote growth of corn plants whether sprayed with mancozeb or not. Our results provide the information that plant disease can be well controlled by rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance in combination with reduced but appropriate application of dithiocarbamate fungicides just before a heavy infection period. An appropriate use of rhizobacteria can enhance plant growth and help plants overcome negative effects caused by dithiocarbamates.

  4. Feasible Management of Southern Corn Leaf Blight via Induction of Systemic Resistance by Bacillus cereus C1L in Combination with Reduced Use of Dithiocarbamate Fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ru Lai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dithiocarbamate fungicides such as maneb and mancozeb are widely used nonsystemic protectant fungicides to control various plant fungal diseases. Dithiocarbamate fungicides should be frequently applied to achieve optimal efficacy of disease control and avoid either decline in effectiveness or wash-off from leaf surface. Dithiocarbamates are of low resistance risk but have the potential to cause human neurological diseases. The objective of this study was to develop a strategy to effectively control plant disease with reduced use of dithiocarbamtes. Southern corn leaf blight was the model pathosystem for the investigation. When corn plants were drench-treated with Bacillus cereus C1L, a rhizobacterium able to induce systemic resistance in corn plants against southern leaf blight, frequency of spraying dithiocarbamate fungicides could be decreased. The treatment of B. cereus C1L was able to protect maize from southern leaf blight while residues of dithiocarbamates on leaf surface were too low to provide sufficient protection. On the other hand, frequent sprays of mancozeb slightly but significantly reduced growth of corn plants under natural conditions. In contrast, application of B. cereus C1L can significantly promote growth of corn plants whether sprayed with mancozeb or not. Our results provide the information that plant disease can be well controlled by rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance in combination with reduced but appropriate application of dithiocarbamate fungicides just before a heavy infection period. An appropriate use of rhizobacteria can enhance plant growth and help plants overcome negative effects caused by dithiocarbamates.

  5. Feasible Management of Southern Corn Leaf Blight via Induction of Systemic Resistance by Bacillus cereus C1L in Combination with Reduced Use of Dithiocarbamate Fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Ru; Lin, Pei-Yu; Chen, Chao-Ying; Huang, Chien-Jui

    2016-01-01

    Dithiocarbamate fungicides such as maneb and mancozeb are widely used nonsystemic protectant fungicides to control various plant fungal diseases. Dithiocarbamate fungicides should be frequently applied to achieve optimal efficacy of disease control and avoid either decline in effectiveness or wash-off from leaf surface. Dithiocarbamates are of low resistance risk but have the potential to cause human neurological diseases. The objective of this study was to develop a strategy to effectively control plant disease with reduced use of dithiocarbamtes. Southern corn leaf blight was the model pathosystem for the investigation. When corn plants were drench-treated with Bacillus cereus C1L, a rhizobacterium able to induce systemic resistance in corn plants against southern leaf blight, frequency of spraying dithiocarbamate fungicides could be decreased. The treatment of B. cereus C1L was able to protect maize from southern leaf blight while residues of dithiocarbamates on leaf surface were too low to provide sufficient protection. On the other hand, frequent sprays of mancozeb slightly but significantly reduced growth of corn plants under natural conditions. In contrast, application of B. cereus C1L can significantly promote growth of corn plants whether sprayed with mancozeb or not. Our results provide the information that plant disease can be well controlled by rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance in combination with reduced but appropriate application of dithiocarbamate fungicides just before a heavy infection period. An appropriate use of rhizobacteria can enhance plant growth and help plants overcome negative effects caused by dithiocarbamates. PMID:27721698

  6. Copper zinc tin sulfide layers prepared from solution processable metal dithiocarbamate precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, Michael [Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Nanocomposite Solar Cells, Graz University of Technology and NanoTecCenter Weiz, Forschungsgesellschaft mbH (Austria); Rath, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.rath@tugraz.at [Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Nanocomposite Solar Cells, Graz University of Technology and NanoTecCenter Weiz, Forschungsgesellschaft mbH (Austria); Schenk, Alexander [Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Fischereder, Achim [Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Nanocomposite Solar Cells, Graz University of Technology and NanoTecCenter Weiz, Forschungsgesellschaft mbH (Austria); Haas, Wernfried [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Nanocomposite Solar Cells, Graz University of Technology and NanoTecCenter Weiz, Forschungsgesellschaft mbH (Austria); Institute for Electron Microscopy and Fine Structure Research, Graz University of Technology, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz (Austria); Edler, Matthias [Chair of Chemistry of Polymeric Materials, University of Leoben, Otto Gloeckel-Strasse 2, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Chernev, Boril [Institute for Electron Microscopy and Fine Structure Research, Graz University of Technology, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz (Austria); Kunert, Birgit [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria); Hofer, Ferdinand [Institute for Electron Microscopy and Fine Structure Research, Graz University of Technology, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz (Austria); and others

    2012-10-15

    In this contribution we present a solution based route toward copper zinc tin sulfide - CZTS - layers using metal dithiocarbamate precursors. We focus on the synthesis of the precursor materials as well as on the fabrication of thin CZTS layers at low temperatures of 350 Degree-Sign C and their characterization. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements show that a precursor solution containing an excess of the zinc precursor, compared to the Cu and Sn precursors, has to be used to obtain CZTS films without secondary phases. Thus, the prepared films are Zn-rich, which is beneficial for solar cell applications. Raman as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm the formation of CTZS. No clear evidence for free ZnS has been found. Electron microscopy shows agglomerates of 10 nm-sized crystallites forming spherical particles with a diameter between 50 nm and 400 nm. The prepared films possess high optical absorption (>1.10{sup 4} cm{sup -1}) and an optical band gap of approximately 1.6 eV. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CZTS layers are prepared from metal dithiocarbamate precursor solu-tions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No additional sulfur sources or capping agents are necessary. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prepared CZTS layers are zinc rich. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CZTS layers show a high absorption coefficient and a band gap of 1.6 eV.

  7. Synergistic effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and cisplatin in human cervical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Lv, Jieqiang; Shen, Qi; Chen, Yumei; Zhou, Qingfeng; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to delineate how pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) affects nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and to determine its antitumor activity alone and in combination with cisplatin in human cervical cancer SiHa cells. The SiHa cells were treated with various concentrations of PDTC and/or cisplatin at various time intervals. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined using a water-soluble tetrazolium salt 8 assay and flow cytometry. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to assess NF-κB activity. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (2.5-100 µmol/L) was found to inhibit the growth of SiHa cell lines. Cisplatin (0.01-20.0 μg/mL) and PDTC (2.5-20.0 µmol/L) combined demonstrated additive inhibitive effects on cell growth and increased the level of apoptosis. In addition, PDTC blocked cisplatin-induced activation of NF-κB, leading to enhanced apoptosis and increased chemosensitivity to cisplatin. Taken together, PDTC has significant potential as a chemotherapy agent, alone or in combination with cisplatin.

  8. In vitro anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic activities of thalidomide dithiocarbamate analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Aarag, Bishoy Y A; Kasai, Tomonari; Zahran, Magdy A H; Zakhary, Nadia I; Shigehiro, Tsukasa; Sekhar, Sreeja C; Agwa, Hussein S; Mizutani, Akifumi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kakuta, Hiroki; Seno, Masaharu

    2014-08-01

    Inhibition of angiogenesis is currently perceived as a promising strategy in the treatment of cancer. The anti-angiogenicity of thalidomide has inspired a second wave of research on this teratogenic drug. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic activities of two thalidomide dithiocarbamate analogs by studying their anti-proliferative effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. Their action on the expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, VEGF165, and MMP-2 was also assessed. Furthermore, their effect on angiogenesis was evaluated through wound healing, migration, tube formation, and nitric oxide (NO) assays. Results illustrated that the proliferation of HUVECs and MDA-MB-231 cells was not significantly affected by thalidomide at 6.25-100μM. Thalidomide failed to block angiogenesis at similar concentrations. By contrast, thalidomide dithiocarbamate analogs exhibited significant anti-proliferative action on HUVECs and MDA-MB-231 cells without causing cytotoxicity and also showed powerful anti-angiogenicity in wound healing, migration, tube formation, and NO assays. Thalidomide analogs 1 and 2 demonstrated more potent activity to suppress expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, VEGF165, and MMP-2 than thalidomide. Analog 1 consistently, showed the highest potency and efficacy in all the assays. Taken together, our results support further development and evaluation of novel thalidomide analogs as anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic agents.

  9. Quantum chemical study of a derivative of 3-substituted dithiocarbamic flavanone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosav, Steluta; Paduraru, Nicoleta; Maftei, Dan; Birsa, Mihail Lucian; Praisler, Mirela

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize a quite novel 3-dithiocarbamic flavonoid by vibrational spectroscopy in conjunction with Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. Quantum mechanics calculations of energies, geometries and vibrational wavenumbers in the ground state were carried out by using hybrid functional B3LYP with 6-311G(d,p) as basis set. The results indicate a remarkable agreement between the calculated molecular geometries, as well as vibrational frequencies, and the corresponding experimental data. In addition, a complete assignment of all the absorption bands present in the vibrational spectrum has been performed. In order to assess its chemical potential, quantum molecular descriptors characterizing the interactions between the 3-dithiocarbamic flavonoid and its biological receptors have been computed. The frontier molecular orbitals and the HOMO-LUMO energy gap have been used in order to explain the way in which the new molecule can interact with other species and to characterize its molecular chemical stability/reactivity. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) map, computed in order to identify the sites of the studied flavonoid that are most likely to interact with electrophilic and nucleophilic species, is discussed.

  10. Dithiocarbamate promoted practical synthesis of N-Aryl-2-aminobenzazoles: Synthesis of novel Aurora-A kinase inhibitor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naresh Kumar Katari; M Venkatanarayana; Kummari Srinivas

    2015-03-01

    Various N-aryl-2-aminobenzoxazoles and N-aryl-2-aminobenzothiazoles were synthesized from o-aminophenol and o-aminothiophenol, respectively, mediated by dithiocarbamate in one step. The salient features of this method include mild reaction condition, high yield and large scale synthesis. Application of this methodology has been demonstrated by synthesizing potent Aurora kinase-A inhibitors.

  11. Chemopreventive effects of dithiocarbamates on aflatoxin B1 metabolism and formation of AFB1 adducts with glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalaswamy, U V; Frei, E; Frank, N; Kliem, H C; Wiessler, M; Bertram, B; Bhattacharya, R K

    1998-01-01

    Several agents with anticarcinogenic potential such as diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC), lactose-DDTC, proline-dithiocarbamate (PDTC), its dimer proline-thiuramdisulfide (PTDS) and 4-carboxy-piperazine-TDS (4-pip-TDS) were investigated for their influence on the metabolism and the detoxication of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in vitro and in vivo. Aflatoxins are a group of mycotoxins produced by aspergillus species and are among the most important risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in certain areas of the world. AFB1 metabolism measured by the formation of tris-diol adducts showed that the thiuramdisulfides 4-carboxy-piperazine-TDS and PTDS were better inhibitors in vitro than the corresponding dithiocarbamates. Ex vivo studies in rats showed that dithiocarbamates (DTCs) including sugar linked lactose-DDTC decreased the formation of tris-diol adducts. Among the dithiocarbamates administered, DDTC showed a 40% inhibition whereas the other compounds showed only marginal effects. In vivo experiments on the formation of glutathione-adducts derived from AFB1-endo- and exo-epoxides showed that lactose-DDTC enhanced the formation of AFB1-GSH adducts, whereas PDTC, 4-pip-TDS, PTDS and DDTC displayed inhibitory effects. We conclude that DTCs may be promising agents in the chemoprevention of liver carcinogenesis caused by AFB1.

  12. Design, synthesis, molecular docking and biological evaluation of new dithiocarbamates substituted benzimidazole and chalcones as possible chemotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacharaju, Keerthana; Jambula, Swathi Reddy; Sivan, Sreekanth; Jyostnatangeda, Saritha; Manga, Vijjulatha

    2012-05-01

    A series of novel dithiocarbamates with benzimidazole and chalcone scaffold have been designed synthesised and evaluated for their antimitotic activity. Compounds 4c and 9d display the most promising antimitotic activity with IC(50) of 1.66 μM and 1.52 μM respectively.

  13. Tin(IV) derivatives of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate: A 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopic investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Luiz C. M.; Maia, José Roberto da S.; de Lima, Geraldo M.; Ardisson, José D.

    2006-02-01

    A series of organotin(IV) derivatives of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate has been investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy in order to elucidate aspects concerning bonding and structural features in the solid state. A geometrical pattern of five-fold coordination at the metal centre has been revealed for SnCl 3Bu and SnClBu 3 derivatives. Trans stereochemistry for the butyl and vinyl groups of SnCl 2Bu 2 and SnCl 2(Vin) 2 derivatives has also been identified by this method. The isomer shift for the divinyl derivative is concurrent to a 7-coordinate metal centre contrasting to that for the dibutyl one. Although there is a discrepancy in isomer shift between these compounds, both have seven-fold coordination at the Sn(IV) nucleus. The resulting data has given evidence that 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate is acting as a tridentate ligand through pyridil and carbolxylate moiety to all derivatives except for SnClBu 3. For the latter, the coordination mode occurs via carboxylate groups. The overall data support distorted geometrical pattern to all complexes in solid state.

  14. Assessment of Dithiocarbamate Residues on Tomatoes Conventionally Grown in Uganda and the Effect of Simple Washing to Reduce Exposure Risk to Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atuhaire, Aggrey; Kaye, Emmanuel; Mutambuze, Innocent Louis

    2017-01-01

    such tomatoes. Results revealed that mancozeb was the only reported dithiocarbamate, and 47.4% and 14% of farm and market samples, respectively, had dithiocarbamate residues exceeding the Codex alimentarius maximum residue limit of 2 mgCS2/kg. Mixing concentration had a positive significant effect......Pesticide misuse by farmers poses health risks to consumers. This study assessed the level of dithiocarbamate residues in tomatoes acquired from 20 farmers and 25 market vendors in Wakiso District, how simple washing affects these residues, and the potential chronic health risk for Ugandans eating...

  15. Effect of phenyl and benzyl group in heterocyclic dithiocarbamates on the ZnS 4N chromophore: Synthesis, spectral, valence-bond parameters and single crystal X-ray structural studies on (pyridine)bis(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolinedithiocarbamato)zinc(II) and (pyridine)bis(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolinedithiocarbamato)zinc(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, N.; Thirumaran, S.; Ciattini, Samuele

    2009-03-01

    Two Zn(II)dithiocarbamates with ZnS 4N chromophores have been synthesized ([Zn(thqdtc) 2(py)] ( 1) and [Zn(thiqdtc) 2(py)] ( 2) (where thqdtc = 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolinedithiocarbamate, thiqtc = 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolinedithiocarbamate and py = pyridine)) from [Zn(thqdtc) 2] ( 3) and [Zn(thiqdtc) 2] ( 4), respectively. Their structures and properties have been characterized by IR and NMR spectra. The structures of both the complexes were determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The observed deshielding of the H-2 protons for 1 and 3 and H-1 and H-3 protons for 2 and 4 in the 1H NMR spectra is attributed to the drift of electrons from the nitrogen of the NR 2 group, forcing a high electron density towards sulfur via the thioureide π-system. In the 13C NMR spectra, the most important thioureide (N 13CS 2) carbon signals are observed in the region 204-207 ppm. The upfield shift of NCS 2 carbon signal for 1 (204.2 ppm) from the chemical shift value of 2 (206.9 ppm) is due to electron withdrawing resonance effect of phenyl ring thereby decreasing the double bond character in tetrahydroquinolinedithiocarbamate, whereas benzyl group in tetrahydroisoquinolinedithiocarbamate cannot participate in resonance delocalization in the same way. Single crystal X-ray structural analysis of 1 and 2 showed that the zinc atom is pentacoordinated with four sulfur atoms from the dithiocarbamate ligands and one nitrogen atom from the pyridine. VBS values support the correctness of the determined structure. The lower VBS value of 2 is due to the steric effect exerted by the thiqdtc. The phenyl and benzyl group in the heterocyclic dithiocarbamates influences the electronic properties of 1 and 2. The shift of ν C- N(thioureide) and thioureide N 13CS 2 carbon signals are correlated with the electronic effects of the dithiocarbamate ligands.

  16. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new [Tc(N)(PS)]-based mixed-ligand compounds useful in the design of target-specific radiopharmaceuticals: the 2-methoxyphenylpiperazine dithiocarbamate derivatives as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzati, Cristina; Salvarese, Nicola; Carta, Davide; Refosco, Fiorenzo; Dolmella, Alessandro; Pietzsch, Hans Jürgen; Bergmann, Ralf; Bandoli, Giuliano

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the first application of a general procedure based on the use of the [Tc(N)Cl(PS)(PPh(3))] species (PS is an alkyl phosphinothiolate ligand) for the preparation of Tc(N) target-specific compounds. [Tc(N)Cl(PS)(PPh(3))] selectively reacts with an appropriate dithiocarbamate ligand (S(∧)Y) to give [Tc(N)(PS)(S(∧)Y)] compounds. 1-(2-Methoxyphenyl)piperazine, which displays a potent and specific affinity for 5HT(1A) receptors, was selected as a functional group and conjugated to the dithiocarbamate unit through different spacers (L( n )). [(99m)Tc(N)(PS)(L( n ))] complexes were prepared in high yield (more than 90%). The chemical identity of (99m)Tc complexes was determined by high performance liquid chromatography comparison with the corresponding (99g)Tc complexes. All complexes were found to be inert toward transchelation with an excess of glutathione and cysteine. No notable biotransformation of the native compound into different species by the in vitro action of the serum and liver enzymes was shown. Nanomolar affinity for the 5HT(1A) receptor was obtained for [(99m)Tc(N)(PSiso)L(3)] (IC(50) = 1.5 nM); a reduction of the affinity was observed for the other complexes as a function of the shortening of the alkyl chain interposed between the dithiocarbamate and the pharmacophore. Negligible brain uptake was found from in vivo distribution data of [(99m)Tc(N)(PSiso)L(3)]. The key finding of this study is that the complexes maintained good affinity and selectivity for 5HT(1A) receptors, and the IC(50) value for [(99g)Tc(N)(PSiso)L(3)] being comparable to the IC(50) value found for WAY 100635. This result confirmed the possibility of preparing [(99m)Tc(N)(PS)]-based target-specific compounds without affecting the affinity and selectivity of the bioactive molecules for the corresponding receptors.

  17. Synthesis, spectral, structural and computational studies on NiS4 and NiS2NP chromophores: Anagostic and C-H⋯π (chelate) interactions in [Ni(dtc)(PPh3)(NCS)] (dtc = N-(2-phenylethyl)-N-(4-methoxybenzyl)- dithiocarbamate and N-(2-phenylethyl)-N-(4-chlorobenzyl)dithiocarbamate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyaraj, E.; Selvaganapathi, P.; Thirumaran, S.; Ciattini, Samuele

    2016-09-01

    Bis(N-(2-phenylethyl)-N-substituted benzyldithiocarbamato-S,S‧)nickel(II) (1-6) and (N-(2-phenylethyl)-N-substituted benzyldithiocarbamato-S,S‧)(thiocyanato-N) (triphenylphosphine)nickel(II) (7-12) [substituted benzyl = 2HO-C6H4-CH2- (1,7), 3HO-C6H4-CH2- (2,8), 4HO-C6H4-CH2- (3,9), 4CH3O-C6H4-CH2- (4,10), 4F-C6H4-CH2- (5,11), 4Cl-C6H4-CH2- (6,12)] complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis and NMR (1H and 13C) spectroscopy. In the case of heteroleptic complexes 7-12, the shift in vC-N values to higher wavenumber and the NCS2 carbon signals are shifted to downfield compared to the homoleptic complexes indicating the increasing strength of thioureide vC-N bond due to the presence of π-accepting triphenylphosphine ligand in heteroleptic complexes. Electronic spectral studies on all the complexes (1-12) suggest square planar geometry around the nickel(II). Structures of 10 and 12 have been elucidated by X-ray crystallography. The dithiocarbamate anions in 10 and 12 chelate to the nickel atom. Both the structures reveal C-H⋯Ni intramolecular anagostic interaction. C-H⋯π (chelate) is observed in complexes 10. Supramolecular frame works are stabilised by C-H⋯S, C-H⋯π and C-H⋯Cl non-covalent interaction. The molecular geometry, HOMO-LUMO in the ground state and MEP have been calculated for 10 and 12 using Hartree-Fock (HF) method with LANL2DZ basic set. Molecular electrostatic potential diagram of complexes 10 and 12 support the partial double bond character of C-N (thioureide) bond in dithiocarbamate ligands.

  18. Tribological performance and chemistry of films for di-n-butyl dithiocarbamate derivatives in rapeseed oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hua; ZENG XiangQiong; LU LingBo; REN TianHui

    2007-01-01

    Two di-n-butyl dithiocarbamate derivatives were easily synthesized. Their tribological performances as lubricating oil additives in rapeseed oil were evaluated using a four-ball machine, and their chemistry of films was analyzed with X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES). The results indicate that the two compounds possess excellent anti-wear property and good load-carrying capacity. According to the XANES results, for the thermal films, the outer surfaces are mainly composed of N, S-containing polymer and ferric sulfate, and the near-surface and the bulk are composed of ferrous sulfate, while for the anti-wear films, the outer surfaces are only composed of ferric sulfate, but the near-surface and the bulk are mainly composed of ferrous sulfate.

  19. Method validation and analysis of nine dithiocarbamates in fruits and vegetables by LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Bjørn; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Petersen, Annette

    2013-01-01

    An analytical method for separation and quantitative determination of nine dithiocarbamates (DTCs) in fruits and vegetables by using LC-MS/MS was developed, validated and applied to samples purchased in local supermarkets. The nine DTCs were ziram, ferbam, thiram, maneb, zineb, nabam, metiram......, mancozeb and propineb. Validation parameters of mean recovery for two matrices at two concentration levels, relative repeatability (RSDr), relative within-laboratory reproducibility (RSDR) and LOD were obtained for the nine DTCs. The results from the analysis of fruits and vegetables served as the basis...... the various DTCs in the LC-MS/MS analysis was lacking. The exposure and risk assessment showed that only for maneb in the case of apples and apple juice, the acute reference dose was exceeded for infants in the United Kingdom and for children in Germany, respectively....

  20. Bioconcentration and Elimination of the Dithiocarbamate Fungicide Polycarbamate in Marine Teleost Fish and Polychaete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hano, Takeshi; Ohkubo, Nobuyuki; Kono, Kumiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the bioconcentration and elimination of polycarbamate, a popular antifoulant classified as a dithiocarbamate fungicide, in a marine teleost fish, mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus), and a polychaete (Perinereis nuntia). Following polycarbamate exposure and depuration, the calculated bioconcentration factor (BCF) and elimination rate constant (k2) were 3.1 and 0.17 day(-1) in fish and 1.5-7.8 and 0.13-0.18 day(-1) in the polychaete, indicating that the fungicide has low bioconcentration potential in both organisms. Given the BCF of 3.1, the permissible environmental concentration level of polycarbamate in water was calculated to be 6.1 µg L(-1) to satisfy the threshold pesticide residue levels in fish permitted by law, which is far below the permissible levels in Hiroshima Bay, Japan. Therefore, we consider that the current polycarbamate contamination level in terms of bioconcentration is not likely to be an alarming issue in coastal environments.

  1. Tribological performances of 3-(N, N- dialkyl dithiocarbamate-y1) propionic acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Three kind of water-soluble additives, 3-(N, N- dialkyl dithiocarbamate-y1) propionicacid, were synthesized. Their tribological performances when added to water were evaluated on afour-ball tester and a ring-on-block machine. Results indicate that the hydrocarbon chain length ofthese compounds has significant influence on their tribological properties. When the number ofcarbon atom in alkyl group is equal to (or more than) 4, the compounds exhibit excellentload-carrying capacity, antiwear property and weld load. The antiwear action mechanisms of thepropionic acid compounds can be ascribed to the formation of adsorption film and chemical reac-tion film. The cooperation action of these films plays an important role in the prevention of tri-bological failure.

  2. Design, synthesis and antiproliferative activity studies of novel dithiocarbamate-chalcone derivates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dong-Jun; Zhang, Sai-Yang; Liu, Ying-Chao; Zhang, Li; Liu, Jun-Ju; Song, Jian; Zhao, Ruo-Han; Li, Feng; Sun, Hui-Hui; Liu, Hong-Min; Zhang, Yan-Bing

    2016-08-15

    A series of novel dithiocarbamate-chalcone derivates were designed, synthesized and evaluated for antiproliferative activity against three selected cancer cell lines (EC-109, SK-N-SH and MGC-803). Majority of the synthesized compounds exhibited moderate to potent activity against all the cancer cell lines assayed. Particularly, compounds II2 and II5 exhibited the excellent growth inhibition against SK-N-SH with IC50 values of 2.03μM and 2.46μM, respectively. Further mechanism studies revealed that compound II2 could obviously inhibit the proliferation of SK-N-SH cells by inducing apoptosis and arresting the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase.

  3. Reducing the bioavailability of cadmium in contaminated soil by dithiocarbamate chitosan as a new remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zheng; Cao, Jingjing; Li, Zhen; Qiu, Dong

    2015-07-01

    Dithiocarbamate chitosan (DTC-CTS) was used as a new amendment for remediation of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils to reduce the Cd bioavailability. Arabidopsis thaliana was chosen as a model plant to evaluate its efficiency. It was found that DTC-CTS could effectively improve the growth of A. thaliana. The amount of Cd up-taken by A. thaliana could be decreased by as much as 50% compared with that grown in untreated Cd-contaminated soil samples. The chlorophyll content and the aerial biomass of Arabidopsis also increased substantially and eventually returned to a level comparable to plants grown in non-contaminated soils, with the addition of DTC-CTS. These findings suggested that DTC-CTS amendment could be effective in immobilizing Cd and mitigating its accumulation in plants grown in Cd-contaminated soils, with potential application as an in situ remediation of Cd-polluted soils.

  4. Field screening method for above-tolerance residues of dithiocarbamate fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, D E; Gunther, F A

    1982-07-01

    A field screening method has been developed for detecting above-tolerance residues of dithiocarbamate (DTC) fungicides on fruits and vegetables. A harvested crop might be condemned as unfit for market if above-tolerance DTC residues are present; however, by using this screening method, a grower might be able to postpone harvesting a crop until the screening test indicates that residues have dissipated below the tolerance level. The method depends on carbon disulfide generated from DTC fungicides at an elevated temperature into the headspace gas above the contents of a septum-sealed reaction flask, with hydrochloric acid and stannous chloride present. The syringe-withdrawn, headspace carbon disulfide then reacts with the appropriate chromophore reagent already in the syringe. The lower limit of detectability is about 2 ppm DTC fungicide from 30 g chopped crop. A single test can be completed in about 90 min; the average time per test when several are conducted sequentially is considerably shorter.

  5. Gallium(III) and indium(III) dithiolate complexes: Versatile precursors for metal sulfides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shamik Ghoshal; Vimal K Jain

    2007-11-01

    The chemistry of classical and organometallic complexes of gallium and indium with dithiolate ligands, i.e., dithiocarboxylates, xanthates, dithiocarbamates, dithiophosphates, dithiophophinates and dithioarsenates, has been reviewed. Synthesis, spectroscopic and structural aspects of these complexes are described. Their emerging role as single source molecular precursors for the preparation of metal sulfide thin films and nano-particles has been discussed.

  6. Study of sulfur adlayers on Au(1 1 1) from basic hydrolysis of piperazine bis(dithiocarbamate) sodium salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Javier A. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales (IMRE), Universidad de La Habana, Zapata y G, El Vedado, Plaza de la Revolución, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Valenzuela, José [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología (CNyN), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, BC 22860 (Mexico); Hernandez-Tamargo, Carlos E. [Laboratorio de Química Computacional y Teórica (LQCT), Facultad de Química, Universidad de La Habana, Zapata y G, El Vedado, Plaza de la Revolución, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Cao-Milán, Roberto [Laboratorio de Bioinorgánica (LBI), Facultad de Química, Universidad de La Habana, Zapata y G, El Vedado, Plaza de la Revolución, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Herrera, José A. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales (IMRE), Universidad de La Habana, Zapata y G, El Vedado, Plaza de la Revolución, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Díaz, Jesús A.; Farías, Mario H. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología (CNyN), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, BC 22860 (Mexico); Mikosch, Hans [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/E164-EC, 1060 Vienna (Austria); and others

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • S adlayer formation from descomposition of piperazine bis(dithiocarbamate) sodium salt under alkaline conditions. • Quasi-rectangular octomers (eight sulfur atoms) coexist with another phase. • A DFT surface model of four S-dimers arranged as octomers reproduced real STM images. - Abstract: Sulfur adlayers on Au(1 1 1) were obtained after the interaction of a gold substrate with an alkaline solution of piperazine bis(dithiocarbamate) sodium salt. Characterization of the sulfur modified gold surface was performed by means of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. XPS signals indicated the presence of S–Au bonds, monomeric and polymeric sulfur, and absence of nitrogen and sodium. Images from STM showed the formation of quasi-rectangular octomers in coexistence with another phase. A DFT model using the arrangement of sulfur dimers on the Au(1 1 1) surface effectively reproduced the experimental STM images.

  7. Synthesis of a novel silica-supported dithiocarbamate adsorbent and its properties for the removal of heavy metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Lan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Hu, Huiping, E-mail: phuhuiping@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Fu, Weng; Wan, Jia [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Cheng, Xiliang; Zhuge, Lei; Xiong, Lei [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chen, Qiyuan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} A new silica-supported dithiocarbamate adsorbent (Si-DTC) was synthesized following a novel synthesis route by anchoring the chelating agent of macromolecular dithiocarbamate (MDTC) to the chloro-functionalized silica matrix(SiCl). {yields} By adopting this method, it could make more efforts to increase the nucleophilic reactivity of polyamine with carbon disulfide under strong alkaline condition and avoid the degradation of silica matrix. {yields} The new adsorbent were used to absorb Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) which are known to be common heavy metal ions from polluted aqueous solutions. {yields} The dithiocarbamate groups and the amino groups in Si-DTC both take part in the adsorption process for M(II) from aqueous solutions but the adsorption mechanism of Hg(II) onto Si-DTC is quite different from that of Pb(II), Cd(II) or Cu(II) onto Si-DTC, which is testified by the XPS and FT-IR results. - Abstract: Silica-supported dithiocarbamate adsorbent (Si-DTC) was synthesized by anchoring the chelating agent of macromolecular dithiocarbamate (MDTC) to the chloro-functionalized silica matrix (SiCl), as a new adsorbent for adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) from aqueous solution. The surface characterization was performed by FT-IR, XPS, SEM and elemental analysis indicating that the modification of the silica surface was successfully performed. The effects of media pH, adsorption time, initial metal ion concentration and adsorption temperature on adsorption capacity of the adsorbent had been investigated. Experimental data were exploited for kinetic and thermodynamic evaluations related to the adsorption processes. The characteristics of the adsorption process were evaluated by using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption isotherms and adsorption capacities were found to be 0.34 mmol g{sup -1}, 0.36 mmol g{sup -1}, 0.32 mmol g{sup -1} and 0.40 mmol g{sup -1} for Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Hg

  8. Microwave-assisted synthesis, characterization and biological screening of nitrogen-sulphur and nitrogen-oxygen donor ligands and their organotin(IV) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R V; Chaudhary, Pratibha; Poonia, Kavita; Chauhan, Shikha

    2008-08-01

    Series of new trigonal bipyramidal and octahedral complexes of tin(IV) have been synthesized by the reaction of dimethyltin(IV) dichloride with 4-nitro-benzanilidethiosemicarbazone (L(1)H), 4-chlorobenzanilidethiosemicarbazone (L(2)H), 4-nitrobenzanilidesemicarbazone (L(3)H) and 4-chlorobenzanilidesemicarbazone (L(4)H). The unimolecular and bimolecular reactions of dimethyltin(IV) dichloride and monobasic bidentate ligands were carried out using microwave irradiations as the thermal energy source and the complexes so formed were characterized by elemental analysis, conductance measurements, molecular weight determinations and spectral data, viz. IR, UV-vis, (1)H and (13)C NMR. The complexes have also been prepared by the general thermal methods for comparison purposes. The comparison data support the synthesis using the microwave route, i.e. green chemistry route. The tin(IV) complexes show penta-coordinated structure for 1:1 complexes and hexa-coordinated for 1:2 complexes. The antifungal, antibacterial and antifertility activities have been examined and the results were indeed very encouraging.

  9. Gemcitabine response in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells is synergistically enhanced by dithiocarbamate derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Pozza, Elisa; Donadelli, Massimo; Costanzo, Chiara; Zaniboni, Tatyana; Dando, Ilaria; Franchini, Marta; Arpicco, Silvia; Scarpa, Aldo; Palmieri, Marta

    2011-04-15

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a common malignancy that remains refractory to all available therapies, including the gold standard drug gemcitabine (GEM). We investigated the effect of the combination of GEM and each of the ionophore compounds pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and disulfiram [DSF; 1-(diethylthiocarbamoyldisulfanyl)-N,N-diethylmethanethioamide] on p53(-/-) pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell growth. PDTC or DSF synergistically inhibited cell proliferation when used in combination with GEM by inducing apoptotic cell death. This effect was associated with an increased mitochondrial O(2)(•-) production and was further enhanced by zinc ions. Basal levels of mitochondrial O(2)(•-) or manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) strictly correlated with the IC(50) for GEM or the percentage of synergism. Thus, the most relevant values of the antiproliferative synergism were obtained in GEM-resistant pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines. Interestingly, the GEM-sensitive T3M4 cells transfected with MnSOD expression vector showed mitochondrial O(2)(•-) and IC(50) for GEM similar to those of resistant cell lines. In vivo experiments performed on nude mice xenotransplanted with the GEM-resistant PaCa44 cell line showed that only the combined treatment with GEM and DSF/Zn completely inhibited the growth of the tumoral masses. These results and the consideration that DSF is already used in clinics strongly support the GEM and DSF/Zn combination as a new approach to overcoming pancreatic cancer resistance to standard chemotherapy.

  10. Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate Prevents Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Dysfunction after Endotoxemia in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Min Hui; Yang, Ting; Fu, Hui Qun; Fan, Long; Wu, Yan; Terrando, Niccolò; Wang, Tian-Long

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation, for example as a result of infection, often contributes to long-term complications. Neuroinflammation and cognitive decline are key hallmarks of several neurological conditions, including advance age. The contribution of systemic inflammation to the central nervous system (CNS) remains not fully understood. Using a model of peripheral endotoxemia with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) we investigated the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity in mediating long-term neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction in aged rats. Herein we describe the anti-inflammatory effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a selective NF-κB inhibitor, in modulating systemic cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and CNS markers after LPS exposure in aged rats. In the hippocampus, PDTC not only reduced neuroinflammation by modulating canonical NF-κB activity but also affected IL-1β expression in astrocytes. Parallel effects were observed on behavior and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95), a marker of synaptic function. Taken together these changes improved acute and long-term cognitive function in aged rats after LPS exposure. PMID:27493629

  11. Synergistic cytotoxic effect of sulindac and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate against ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowska-Mućka, Anna; Sieńko, Jacek; Zapała, Łukasz; Wolny, Rafał; Lasek, Witold

    2012-04-01

    Sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, suppresses carcinogenesis and inhibits growth of tumor cells. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a potent NF-κB inhibitor, has been also identified as a potential anti-neoplastic agent. We hypothesized that combination of sulindac and PDTC could result in augmentation of cytotoxicity against ovarian cancer cells. The effect of sulindac and PDTC was examined on several ovarian cancer lines. Tumor cell viability was assessed using the MTT assay. Annexin-V/PI staining was used to detect apoptosis, cell cycle distribution was analyzed in FACS, and expression of cellular proteins was detected by western blotting. Incubation of OVA-14, OVP-10 and CAOV-1 ovarian cancer cells with sulindac and PDTC resulted in significantly greater inhibition of cell viability compared to either compound alone. In a model of OVA-14 cells it was evident that this effect was not related to the expression of COX enzymes since both active (sulindac sulfide) and inactive (sulindac) in vitro compounds affected the growth of tumor cells to a similar extent and synergized in cytotoxicity with PDTC. Combination of sulindac and PDTC lead to G0 arrest and massive apoptosis in co-treated cultures. Western blotting analysis argued for induction of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. These data demonstrate the synergistic cytotoxic effect of sulindac and PDTC on ovarian cancer cells through apoptosis and cell cycle arrest and prompt to test the efficacy of this combination in animal models.

  12. Dithiocarbamate-modified starch derivatives with high heavy metal adsorption performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Bo; Fan, Wen; Yi, Xiaowei; Wang, Zuohua; Gao, Feng; Li, Yijiu; Gu, Hongbo

    2016-01-20

    In this work, three types of dithiocarbamate (DTC)-modified starch derivatives including DTC starch (DTCS), DTC enzymolysis starch (DTCES) and DTC mesoporous starch (DTCMS) were developed, which showed the significant heavy metal adsorption performance. The adsorption ability of these three DTC modified starch derivatives followed the sequences: DTCMS>DTCES>DTCS. In single metal aqueous solutions, the uptake amount of heavy metal ions onto the modified starches obeyed the orders: Cu(II)>Ni(II)>Cr(VI)>Zn(II)>Pb(II). The adsorption mechanism was proved by the chelating between DTC groups and heavy metal ions through the pH effect measurements. A monolayer adsorption of Langmuir isotherm model for the adsorption of Cu(II) onto DTCMS was well fitted rather than the multilayer adsorption of Freundlich isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics of Cu(II) onto starch derivatives was found to be fit well with the pseudo-second-order model. Additionally, in the presence of EDTA, the adsorption ability and uptake amount of heavy metal ions onto these three DTC modified starch derivatives is identical with the results obtained in the absence of EDTA.

  13. Towards a Dithiocarbamate Ligand for CdS Nanoparticle-based Photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Andrew; Lacroix, Andrew D.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; MacDonald, Janet E.

    Photocatalysis of water into H2 and O2 presents a clean, renewable route for energy storage and production. Traditionally, most semiconducting nanoparticle research on photocatalysis has focused on the ability to reduce chemical systems using the photoexcited electron. Here we employ a combination of theory and experiments to develop a possible route towards the oxidation of chemical systems via the hole from photoexcitation using an asymmetric bipyridine ligand with conjugated dithiocarbamate ligand bound to the surface of cadmium sulfide nanorods. In particular, we use density functional theory to calculate the electronic levels and optical absorption of the designer ligand, free from the cadmium sulfide surface as well as attached to the surface, with and without the copper center. These calculations are compared with experimental UV/VIS absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements to understand the role of copper chelation. Furthermore, theoretical comparisons are made with a related ligand known to oxidize water under an applied potential bias. Finally, we discuss whether we expect photocatalysis from the ligand and possible improvements to its design.

  14. Dithiocarbamate-protected ruthenium nanoparticles: Synthesis, spectroscopy, electrochemistry and STM studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei; Ghosh, Debraj; Sun, Jia; Tong, Moony C.; Deng, Fengjun; Chen, Shaowei [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2007-12-20

    Stable ruthenium nanoparticles were synthesized in a biphasic system with a protecting monolayer of dithiocarbamate derivatives. The core size of the resulting Ru particles was found to vary with the initial ligand-metal feed ratio. UV-vis spectroscopic measurements showed a Mie scattering profile, with no obvious surface-plasmon resonance. The size and crystal structures of the particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopic (TEM) measurements. A significant fraction of the nanoparticles was found within the size range of 2-4 nm in diameter and of spherical shape from the TEM measurements. Clear lattice fringes could be observed in high-resolution TEM images with the fringe spacing consistent with the Ru(1 0 1) lattice planes. Electrochemical studies of Ru particles with different core size exhibited the solution-phase quantized charging of the particle double layers, analogous to those reported for gold and other transition-metal particles. The potential spacing between adjacent quantized charging peaks was found to vary with the particle core size, corresponding to the variation of the particle molecular capacitance. These charge-transfer properties were very consistent with the STM measurements of isolated nanoparticles which exhibit clear Coulomb blockade and staircase features. (author)

  15. Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate Prevents Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Dysfunction after Endotoxemia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Min Hui; Yang, Ting; Fu, Hui Qun; Fan, Long; Wu, Yan; Terrando, Niccolò; Wang, Tian-Long

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation, for example as a result of infection, often contributes to long-term complications. Neuroinflammation and cognitive decline are key hallmarks of several neurological conditions, including advance age. The contribution of systemic inflammation to the central nervous system (CNS) remains not fully understood. Using a model of peripheral endotoxemia with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) we investigated the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity in mediating long-term neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction in aged rats. Herein we describe the anti-inflammatory effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a selective NF-κB inhibitor, in modulating systemic cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and CNS markers after LPS exposure in aged rats. In the hippocampus, PDTC not only reduced neuroinflammation by modulating canonical NF-κB activity but also affected IL-1β expression in astrocytes. Parallel effects were observed on behavior and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95), a marker of synaptic function. Taken together these changes improved acute and long-term cognitive function in aged rats after LPS exposure.

  16. Dithiocarbamate-protected ruthenium nanoparticles: Synthesis, spectroscopy, electrochemistry and STM studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Wei; Ghosh, Debraj; Sun Jia; Tong, Moony C.; Deng Fengjun [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Chen Shaowei [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)], E-mail: schen@chemistry.ucsc.edu

    2007-12-20

    Stable ruthenium nanoparticles were synthesized in a biphasic system with a protecting monolayer of dithiocarbamate derivatives. The core size of the resulting Ru particles was found to vary with the initial ligand-metal feed ratio. UV-vis spectroscopic measurements showed a Mie scattering profile, with no obvious surface-plasmon resonance. The size and crystal structures of the particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopic (TEM) measurements. A significant fraction of the nanoparticles was found within the size range of 2-4 nm in diameter and of spherical shape from the TEM measurements. Clear lattice fringes could be observed in high-resolution TEM images with the fringe spacing consistent with the Ru(1 0 1) lattice planes. Electrochemical studies of Ru particles with different core size exhibited the solution-phase quantized charging of the particle double layers, analogous to those reported for gold and other transition-metal particles. The potential spacing between adjacent quantized charging peaks was found to vary with the particle core size, corresponding to the variation of the particle molecular capacitance. These charge-transfer properties were very consistent with the STM measurements of isolated nanoparticles which exhibit clear Coulomb blockade and staircase features.

  17. Cobalt Dithiocarbamate Coordination Polymeric Nanoparticles: Morphology Dependent Magnetic and Antimicrobial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujjain, Sanjeev K; Ahuja, Preety; Bhatia, Rohit; Sharma, Meenakshi; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Sinqh, Gurmeet

    2015-12-01

    Various synthetic methods were employed on a single precursor to synthesize magnetic cobalt dithiocarbamate (Co(dtc-SB)) coordination polymer nanoparticles (MCP NPs) having different morphologies. When subjected to hydrothermal method, the precursor led to the formation of nanosheets (NSs) of MCP (100 x 80 nm), whereas the same precursor when set to slow diffusion precipitation, formed nanowires (NWs) with 30 nm diameter. Further, on micro-emulsion ultrasonication, uniform MCP nanocubes (NCs) -5 nm were obtained. MCP NPs are weakly ferromagnetic in nature with a narrow hysteresis loop opening. In addition, the magnetic properties of MCP NPs are shown to be highly dependent on size. Further, the antimicrobial activity of MCP NPs against various microbes was also shown to be highly size dependent. The biocompatible MCP NCs were found to have the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 6.25 μg/ml against S. aureus and K. pneumoneae, which demonstrate that NPs are equally effective against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

  18. Performance of dithiocarbamate-type flocculant in treating simulated polymer flooding produced water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoyu Gao; Yuyan Jia; Yongqiang Zhang; Qian Li; Qinyan Yue

    2011-01-01

    Produced water from polymer flooding is difficult to treat due to its high polymer concentration, high viscosity, and emulsified characteristics. The dithiocarbamate flocculant, DTC (T403), was prepared by the amine-terminated polyoxypropane-ether compound known as Jeffamine-T403. The product was characterized by IR spectra and elemental analysis. The DTC agent chelating with Fe2+produced a network polymer matrix, which captured and removed oil droplets efficiently. Oil removal by the flocculent on simulated produced water with 0, 200, 500, 900 mg/L of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) was investigated for aspects of effectiveness of DTC (T403) dosage and concentrations of HPAM and Fe2+ ions in the wastewater. Results showed that HPAM had a negative influence on oil removal efficiency when DTC (T403) dosage was lower than 20 mg/L. However, residual oil concentrations in tested samples with different concentrations of HPAM all decreased below 10 mg/L when DTC (T403) dosage reached 30 mg/L.The concentration of Fe2+ in the initial wastewater had a slight effect on oil removal at the range of 2-12 mg/L. Results showed that Fe3+ could not be used in place of Fe2+ as Fc3+ could not react with DTC under flocculated conditions. The effects of mineral salts ions were also investigated.

  19. [Treatment of simulated produced wastewater from polymer flooding in oil production using dithiocarbamate-type flocculant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Jia, Yu-Yan; Gao, Bao-Yu; Cao, Bai-Chuan; Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Lu, Lei

    2010-10-01

    A dithiocarbamate flocculant, DTC (T403), was prepared by the reaction of amine-terminated polyoxypropane-ether compound known as Jeffamine-T403 and carbon disulfide in alkaline solution. The oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) for simulated produced wastewater from polymer flooding in oil production was studied by Jar-test. The effect of the dosage of DTC (T403), hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM), Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions, and pH on the oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) was investigated. The results showed that the chelate polymer formed by DTC (T403) and Fe2+ ion has good oil removal performance by net capturing mechanism. HPAM had a negative effect on oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403). For the treatment of the simulated wastewater containing 0-900 mg/L of HPAM and 300 mg/L of oil, the residual oil concentrations in water samples decreased below 10 mg/L when the dosage of Fe2+ and DTC (T403) was 10 mg/L and 25 mg/L, respectively. The oil removal efficiency of DTC (T403) was affected by pH and good oil removal efficiency was obtained when the pH was below 7.5. DTC (T403) is appropriate for the treatment of oily wastewater containing Fe2+ ion.

  20. Application of dithiocarbamate-modified starch for dyes removal from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rumei; Xiang, Bo; Li, Yijiu; Zhang, Mingzhen

    2011-04-15

    The present study shows that the dithiocarbamate-modified starch (DTCS) is a commercially promising sorbent for the removal of anionic dyes from aqueous solutions. It is more effective than activated carbon for this purpose. At the appropriate solution pH of 4, kinetic studies indicate that the sorption of the dyes tends to follow pseudo-first-order equation. The sorption equilibrium is best described by the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model at 298 K. The capacities for individual dyes follow the sequence acid orange 7 > acid orange 10 > acid red 18 > acid black 1 > acid green 25, which is consistent with the inverse order of molecular size. The negative enthalpy change for the adsorption process confirms the exothermic nature of adsorption, and a free energy change confirms the spontaneity of the process. The FT-IR spectra and thermogravimetric analyses verify the sorption based on starch-NH(2)(+)CSSH⋯(-)O(3)S-dye electrostatic attraction. The DTCS can be regenerated from the dye loaded DTCS in a weak basic solution containing sodium sulfate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Validation of a GC-MS method for the estimation of dithiocarbamate fungicide residues and safety evaluation of mancozeb in fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujawar, Sumaiyya; Utture, Sagar C; Fonseca, Eddie; Matarrita, Jessie; Banerjee, Kaushik

    2014-05-01

    A sensitive and rugged residue analysis method was validated for the estimation of dithiocarbamate fungicides in a variety of fruit and vegetable matrices. The sample preparation method involved reaction of dithiocarbamates with Tin(II) chloride in aqueous HCl. The CS2 produced was absorbed into an isooctane layer and estimated by GC-MS selected ion monitoring. Limit of quantification (LOQ) was ⩽40μgkg(-1) for grape, green chilli, tomato, potato, brinjal, pineapple and chayote and the recoveries were within 75-104% (RSD<15% at LOQ). The method could be satisfactorily applied for analysis of real world samples. Dissipation of mancozeb, the most-used dithiocarbamate fungicide, in field followed first+first order kinetics with pre-harvest intervals of 2 and 4days in brinjal, 7 and 10days in grapes and 0day in chilli at single and double dose of agricultural applications. Cooking practices were effective for removal of mancozeb residues from vegetables.

  2. Thermoanalytical studies of dithiocarbamate of sodium and potassium salts in an oxidizing atmosphere; Estudos termoanaliticos de sais de sodio e potassio de ditiocarbamatos em atmosfera oxidante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Luiz Antonio; Cavalheiro, Eder Tadeu Gomes; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: cavalheiro@iqsc.usp.br

    2008-07-01

    Thermoanalytical behavior of sodium and potassium salts of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (pyr), piperidinedithiocarbamate (pip), morpholine dithiocarbamate (mor), hexametileneiminedithiocarbamate (hex), were investigated. In a first step the salts were synthesized and characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and elementary analysis. Finally, thermal analytical (TG/DTG and DSC) studies were performed in order to evaluate the thermal stability, as well as the pathways of the thermal decomposition based in the intermediate and final decomposition products. (author)

  3. The effect of selected fungicides on the chemical composition of strawberry fruits and contamination with dithiocarbamate residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wysocki Karol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a four-year field experiment, fenhexamid, iprodione, pyrimethanil and thiram were applied in four different series as fungicides recommended for the control of grey mold (Botrytis cinerea in strawberries. The plant protection products had no significant effect on the chemical composition of strawberry fruits of the Kent and Senga Sengana cultivars with the exception of an increase in the vitamin C level in ‘Kent’ strawberries. They also contributed to minor variations in the content of extract, total sugars, organic acids, polyphenols and anthocyanins. Dithiocarbamate residues were detected in all samples from the first harvest of strawberries that had been treated with the thiram fungicide

  4. Conveniently assembling dithiocarbamate and gold nanoparticles onto the gold electrode: A new type of electrochemical sensors for biomolecule detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maoguo; Gao, Feng; Yang, Ping; Wang, Lun; Fang, Bin

    Dithiocarbamate and gold nanoparticles have been successfully assembled onto the surface of the gold electrode and a novel ultrastable chemical modified electrode (CME) was fabricated conveniently. The as-prepared CME was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and its electrochemical behaviors for catalytic oxidation of dopamine (DA) was also observed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric i- t curve. The results indicated that the novel surface has endowed the electrode with not only ultrastability but also the advantages of organic ligands and gold nanoparticles, which open up a new way to design high efficient and utility electrochemical sensors for biomolecule detection.

  5. Study of sulfur adlayers on Au(1 1 1) from basic hydrolysis of piperazine bis(dithiocarbamate) sodium salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Javier A.; Valenzuela, José; Hernandez-Tamargo, Carlos E.; Cao-Milán, Roberto; Herrera, José A.; Díaz, Jesús A.; Farías, Mario H.; Mikosch, Hans; Hernández, Mayra P.

    2015-08-01

    Sulfur adlayers on Au(1 1 1) were obtained after the interaction of a gold substrate with an alkaline solution of piperazine bis(dithiocarbamate) sodium salt. Characterization of the sulfur modified gold surface was performed by means of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. XPS signals indicated the presence of S-Au bonds, monomeric and polymeric sulfur, and absence of nitrogen and sodium. Images from STM showed the formation of quasi-rectangular octomers in coexistence with another phase. A DFT model using the arrangement of sulfur dimers on the Au(1 1 1) surface effectively reproduced the experimental STM images.

  6. Molecular Mechanisms of Allosteric Inhibition of Brain Glycogen Phosphorylase by Neurotoxic Dithiocarbamate Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Cécile; Bui, Linh-Chi; Petit, Emile; Haddad, Iman; Agbulut, Onnik; Vinh, Joelle; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2017-02-03

    Dithiocarbamates (DTCs) are important industrial chemicals used extensively as pesticides and in a variety of therapeutic applications. However, they have also been associated with neurotoxic effects and in particular with the development of Parkinson-like neuropathy. Although different pathways and enzymes (such as ubiquitin ligases or the proteasome) have been identified as potential targets of DTCs in the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying their neurotoxicity remain poorly understood. There is increasing evidence that alteration of glycogen metabolism in the brain contributes to neurodegenerative processes. Interestingly, recent studies with N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate suggest that brain glycogen phosphorylase (bGP) and glycogen metabolism could be altered by DTCs. Here, we provide molecular and mechanistic evidence that bGP is a target of DTCs. To examine this system, we first tested thiram, a DTC pesticide known to display neurotoxic effects, observing that it can react rapidly with bGP and readily inhibits its glycogenolytic activity (kinact = 1.4 × 10(5) m(-1) s(-1)). Using cysteine chemical labeling, mass spectrometry, and site-directed mutagenesis approaches, we show that thiram (and certain of its metabolites) alters the activity of bGP through the formation of an intramolecular disulfide bond (Cys(318)-Cys(326)), known to act as a redox switch that precludes the allosteric activation of bGP by AMP. Given the key role of glycogen metabolism in brain functions and neurodegeneration, impairment of the glycogenolytic activity of bGP by DTCs such as thiram may be a new mechanism by which certain DTCs exert their neurotoxic effects.

  7. Morphological and structural characterization of Sm–O–S compounds prepared by thermolysis of dithiocarbamate precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signore, M.A. [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, Lecce (Italy); Taurino, A., E-mail: antonietta.taurino@cnr.it [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, Lecce (Italy); Catalano, M. [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, Lecce (Italy); Bellini, E., E-mail: Eleonora.Bellini@le.infn.it [Mathematical and Physics Department “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Di Girolamo, G., E-mail: giovanni.digirolamo@enea.it [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, Lecce (Italy); Laera, A.M., E-mail: anna.laera@unisalento.it [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, Lecce (Italy); Quaranta, F. [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, Lecce (Italy); Vasanelli, L. [Dipartimento Ingegneria Innovazione, University of Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Siciliano, P. [Italian National Research Council, Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, Lecce (Italy)

    2014-04-01

    Deposition and structural characterization of Sm{sub x}S{sub y}O{sub z}-based thin films are reported. The chemical synthesis of the Sm{sub x}S{sub y}O{sub z} compounds is performed by thermolysis of dithiocarbamate precursors, followed by the drop casting deposition of the synthesized material, and by the thermal treatment at different temperatures (250 °C, 500 °C and 900 °C) and atmospheric conditions (nitrogen and air). Structural and morphological properties have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and were found to depend closely on the treatment conditions. In particular, the treatment at temperatures as high as 900 °C and in a nitrogen atmosphere enhances the crystalline nature of the films and increases the samarium content in comparison to the oxygen content. Therefore, the temperature of 900 °C and the nitrogen atmosphere represent the optimal treatment conditions, among the process parameters, to obtain a single phase of Sm{sub 2}SO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Sm–O–S compounds have been synthesized by a simple and low cost chemical route. • The films were treated at different temperatures and different atmospheres. • The film structure and chemical composition were studied. • SmxOySz physical properties were tuned with temperature and atmosphere treatment. • At 900 °C in nitrogen atmosphere a single phase of Sm2O2S is obtained.

  8. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate protects the piriform cortex in the pilocarpine status epilepticus model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soerensen, Jonna; Pekcec, Anton; Fuest, Christina; Nickel, Astrid; Potschka, Heidrun

    2009-12-01

    Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) has a dual mechanism of action as an antioxidant and an inhibitor of the transcription factor kappa-beta. Both, production of reactive oxygen species as well as activation of NF-kappaB have been implicated in severe neuronal damage in different sub-regions of the hippocampus as well as in the surrounding cortices. The effect of PDTC on status epilepticus-associated cell loss in the hippocampus and piriform cortex was evaluated in the rat fractionated pilocarpine model. Treatment with 150 mg/kg PDTC before and following status epilepticus significantly increased the mortality rate to 100%. Administration of 50 mg/kg PDTC (low-dose) did not exert major effects on the development of a status epilepticus or the mortality rate. In vehicle-treated rats, status epilepticus caused pronounced neuronal damage in the piriform cortex comprising both pyramidal cells and interneurons. Low-dose PDTC treatment almost completely protected from lesions in the piriform cortex. A significant decrease in neuronal density of the hippocampal hilar formation was identified in vehicle- and PDTC-treated rats following status epilepticus. In conclusion, the NF-kappaB inhibitor and antioxidant PDTC protected the piriform cortex, whereas it did not affect hilar neuronal loss. These data might indicate that the generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of NF-kappaB plays a more central role in seizure-associated neuronal damage in the temporal cortex as compared to the hippocampal hilus. However, future investigations are necessary to exactly analyze the biochemical mechanisms by which PDTC exerted its beneficial effects in the piriform cortex.

  9. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate protects against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Fattah, Mai A; Abdelakader, Noha F; Zaki, Hala F

    2014-01-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder that leads to disturbances of cognitive functions. Although the primary cause of AD remains unclear, brain acetylcholine deficiency, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation may be considered the principal pathogenic factors. The present study was constructed to investigate the anti-amnestic effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on scopolamine-induced behavioral, neurochemical and biochemical changes in rats. PDTC (50 and 100mg/kg) and donepezil (2.5mg/kg) were orally administered for 14 successive days. Dementia was induced at the end of the treatment period by a single injection of scopolamine (20mg/kg; i.p.), and Y-maze test was conducted 30min thereafter. Rats were then sacrificed and homogenates of cortical and hippocampal tissues were used for the estimation of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin and heat shock protein 70 contents along with acetylcholinesterase activity. In addition, certain oxidative stress markers, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were assessed. Histological examination of cortical and hippocampal tissues was also performed. Scopolamine resulted in memory impairment that was coupled by alterations in the estimated neurotransmitters, heat shock protein 70, acetylcholinesterase activity, oxidative stress as well as inflammatory biomarkers. Histological analysis revealed serious damaging effects of scopolamine on the structure of cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Pretreatment of rats with PDTC in both doses mitigated scopolamine-induced behavioral, biochemical, neurochemical and histological changes in a manner comparable to donepezil. The observed anti-amnestic effect of PDTC makes it a promising candidate for clinical trials in patients with cognitive impairment.

  10. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate restores gastric damages and suppressive autophagy induced by hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, J L; Yin, J; Ren, W K; Wu, M M; Chen, S; Cui, Z J; Wu, X; Huang, R L; Li, T J; Yin, Y L

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that gastric barrier is very important for protecting host from various insults. Simultaneously, autophagy serving as a prominent cytoprotective and survival pathway under oxidative stress conditions is being increasingly recognized. Thus, this study was conducted for investigating the effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on gastric barrier function and autophagy under oxidative stress induced by intragastric administration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The gastric tight junction proteins [zonula occludens-1 (ZO1), occludin, and claudin1], autophagic proteins [microtubule-associated protein light chain 3I(LC3I), LC3II, and beclin1], and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway (p65 and IκB kinase α/β) were determined by Western blot. The results showed that H2O2 exposure disturbed gastric barrier function with decreased expression of ZO1, occludin, and claudin1, and reduced gastric autophagy with decreased conversion of LC3I into LC3II in mice. However, treatment with PDTC restored these adverse effects evidenced by increased expression of ZO1 and claudin1 and increased conversion of LC3I into LC3II. Meanwhile, H2O2 exposure decreased normal human gastric epithelial mucosa cell line (GES-1) viability in a concentration-dependent way. However, after being exposed to H2O2, GES-1 exhibited autophagic response which was inconsistent with our in vivo results in mice, while PDTC failed to decrease autophagy in GES-1 induced by H2O2. Simultaneously, the beneficial effect of PDTC on gastric damage and autophagy in mice might be independent of inhibition of NF-κB. In conclusion, PDTC treatment restores gastric damages and reduced autophagy induced by H2O2. Therefore, PDTC may serve as a potential adjuvant therapy for gastric damages.

  11. A new ATL xenograft model and evaluation of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate as a potential ATL therapeutic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Daisuke; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Kuroki, Ayako; Hachiman, Miho; Kamada, Yuhei; Ezinne, Chibueze C; Arai, Akihiko; Inoue, Hirosaka; Hamada, Heiichirou; Hayashida, Maiko; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Fujino, Satoshi; Arima, Naosuke; Arima, Mamiko; Tabuchi, Tomohisa; Okada, Seiji; Arima, Naomichi

    2015-11-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is caused by human T-lymphotrophic virus type 1 infection and is one of the most refractory malignant T-cell lymphomas. Improvement of ATL therapy options requires the establishment of appropriate ATL animal models. In this study, we successfully generated an ATL mouse model by xenotransplantation of primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from ATL patients (ATL cells) into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency/Jak3-null mice (NOJ mice). To generate the model, the ATL S1T cell line was subcutaneously injected into mice. Primary ATL cells were then transplanted subcutaneously, intraperitoneally, or intravenously. ATL cells infiltrated multiple organs, and elevated human soluble interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) levels were detected in peripheral blood. Injection of one million primary ATL cells was needed for successful engraftment into host mice. Thawed cells, frozen long-term in liquid nitrogen, could also be transplanted; however, more cells were required to achieve similar results. The median mouse survival time was proportional to the number of cells injected. Successful secondary transplantation of ATL cells from one NOJ mouse into another was achieved and confirmed by T-cell receptor analysis. Finally, we examined the effects of the antioxide pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) as an antitumor agent in vivo. PDTC administration inhibited the increase of soluble IL-2R and improved mouse survival, suggesting that this compound has potential as an anti-ATL agent. We demonstrated that ATL cells could be stably xenotransplanted into NOJ mice using primary cells. This model will be useful in the establishment of novel therapies to treat ATL.

  12. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury of the small intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismail H Mallick; Wen-Xuan Yang; Marc C Winslet; Alexander M Seifalian

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), an enhancer of HO production, attenuates intestinal IR injury.METHODS: Eighteen male rats were randomly allocated into three groups: (a) sham; (b) IR, consisting of 30 min of intestinal ischemia, followed by 2-h period of reperfusion; and (c) PDTC treatment before IR. Intestinal microvascular perfusion (IMP) was monitored continuously by laser Doppler fiowmetry. At the end of the reperfusion, serum samples for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and biopsies of ileum were obtained. HO activity in the ileum was assessed at the end of the reperfusion period.RESULTS: At the end of the reperfusion in the IR group,IMP recovered partially to 42.5% of baseline (P<0.05vs sham), whereas PDTC improved IMP to 67.3% of baseline (P<0.01 vs IR). There was a twofold increase in HO activity in PDTC group (2 062.66±106.11) as compared to IR (842.3±85.12) (P<0.001). LDH was significantly reduced (P<0.001) in PDTC group (585.6±102.4)as compared to IR group (1 973.8±306.5). Histological examination showed that the ileal mucosa was significantly less injured in PDTC group as compared with IR group.CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that PDTC improves the IMP and attenuates IR injury of the intestine possibly via HO production. Additional studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical efficacy of PDTC in the prevention of IR injury of the small intestine.

  13. Biomimetic synthesis of highly biocompatible gold nanoparticles with amino acid-dithiocarbamate as a precursor for SERS imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Jianbo; Yang, Xiaohai; Huang, Jin; He, Dinggeng; Guo, Xi; Wan, Lan; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin

    2016-03-01

    Amino acid-dithiocarbamate (amino acid-DTC) was developed as both the reductant and ligand stabilizer for biomimetic synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which served as an excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) contrast nanoprobe for cell imaging. Glycine (Gly), glutamic acid (Glu), and histidine (His) with different isoelectric points were chosen as representative amino acid candidates to synthesize corresponding amino acid-DTC compounds through mixing with carbon disulfide (CS2), respectively. The pyrogenic decomposition of amino acid-DTC initiated the reduction synthesis of AuNPs, and the strong coordinating dithiocarbamate group of amino acid-DTC served as a stabilizer that grafted onto the surface of the AuNPs, which rendered the as-prepared nanoparticles a negative surface charge and high colloidal stability. MTT cell viability assay demonstrated that the biomimetic AuNPs possessed neglectful toxicity to the human hepatoma cell, which guaranteed them good biocompatibility for biomedical application. Meanwhile, the biomimetic AuNPs showed a strong SERS effect with an enhancement factor of 9.8 × 105 for the sensing of Rhodamine 6G, and two distinct Raman peaks located at 1363 and 1509 cm-1 could be clearly observed in the cell-imaging experiments. Therefore, biomimetic AuNPs can be explored as an excellent SERS contrast nanoprobe for biomedical imaging, and the amino acid-DTC mediated synthesis of the AuNPs has a great potential in bio-engineering and biomedical imaging applications.

  14. Design and synthesis of dithiocarbamate linked β-carboline derivatives: DNA topoisomerase II inhibition with DNA binding and apoptosis inducing ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ahmed; Sathish, Manda; Nayak, V Lakshma; Srinivasulu, Vunnam; Kavitha, Botla; Tangella, Yellaiah; Thummuri, Dinesh; Bagul, Chandrakant; Shankaraiah, Nagula; Nagesh, Narayana

    2015-09-01

    A series of new β-carboline-dithiocarbamate derivatives bearing phenyl, dithiocarbamate and H/methyl substitutions at position-1, 3 and 9, respectively, were designed and synthesized. These derivatives 8a-l and 13a-l and their starting precursors (7 a-d and 12 a-d) have been evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activity on selected human cancer cell lines. Among the derivatives tested, 7 c, 12 c, 8 a, 8 d, 8 i, 8 j, 8 k, 8l and 13 d-l exhibited considerable cytotoxicity against most of the tested cancer cell lines (IC50dithiocarbamate with β-carboline enhances the cytotoxicity of 8 a-l and 13 a-l. Moreover, the derivatives 8 j and 13 g exhibited significant cytotoxic activity with IC50 values of 1.34 μM and 0.79 μM on DU-145 cancer cells, respectively. Further, the induction of apoptosis by these derivatives was confirmed by Annexin V-FITC and Hoechst staining assays. However, both biophysical as well as molecular docking studies suggested a combilexin-type of interaction between these derivatives and DNA, unlike simple β-carbolines. With a view to understand their mechanism of action, DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) inhibition assay was also performed. Overall, the present study emphasizes the importance of linking a dithiocarbamate moiety to the β-carboline scaffold for exhibiting profound activity.

  15. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate inhibits enterovirus 71 replication by down-regulating ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lexun; Qin, Ying; Wu, Heng; Chen, Yang; Wu, Shuo; Si, Xiaoning; Wang, Hui; Wang, Tianying; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Zhai, Xia; Tong, Lei; Pan, Bo; Zhang, Fengmin; Zhong, Zhaohua; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Wenran

    2015-01-02

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). The severe neurological complications caused by EV71 infection and the lack of effective therapeutic medicine underline the importance of searching for antiviral substances. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), an antioxidant, has been reported to inhibit the replication of coxsackievirus B (CVB) through dysregulating ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). In this study, we demonstrated that PDTC exerted potent antiviral effect on EV71. Viral RNA synthesis, viral protein expression, and the production of viral progeny were significantly reduced by the treatment of PDTC in Vero cells infected with EV71. Similar to the previous report about the inhibitory effect of PDTC on UPS, we found that PDTC treatment led to decreased levels of polyubiquitinated proteins in EV71-infected cells. The inhibitory effect of PDTC on UPS was further confirmed by the increased accumulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins p21 and p53, which are normally degraded through UPS, while the expression levels of both proteins remained unchanged. We also showed that PDTC had no impact on the activity of proteasome. Thus, we demonstrated that the down-regulation of PDTC on UPS was the result of its inhibition on ubiquitination. More importantly, this study provides evidence that the inhibition on UPS was required for the antiviral activity of PDTC, since MG132, a potent proteasome inhibitor, significantly inhibited the cytopathic effect and viral protein synthesis in EV71-infected cells. We also found that the antioxidant property of PDTC did not contribute to its antiviral effect, since N-acetyl-l-cysteine, a potent antioxidant, could not inhibit viral replication. In addition, CPE and viral protein synthesis were not inhibited in the cells pretreated with PDTC 2h before viral infection and then cultured in the media with no PDTC supplement, while the antioxidant effect of PDTC was retained. PDTC also

  16. Dithiocarbamate functionalized or surface sorbed Merrifield resin beads as column materials for on line flow injection-flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination of lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, R S; Naidu, G R K; Prasada Rao, T

    2007-09-26

    This article describes the preparation of dithiocarbamate immobilized/functionalized and diethylammonium dithiocarbamate (DDTC) sorbed Merrifield Chloromethylated Resin (MCR) beads and comparison of these materials for on-line flow injection (FI)-flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) determination of lead. The above two materials enrich lead quantitatively over an identical optimal pH range (8.0-9.0), a preconcentration/loading time (up to 4 min) and elution with acidified methanol (a minimum of 0.01 molL(-1) HNO(3) in methanol). However, the detection limit for lead using dithiocarbamate functionalized MCR beads is 1.3 microgL(-1) compared to 3 microgL(-1) for DDTC sorbed MCR beads. Again, the sensitivity enhancement over direct FAAS signal is 48- and 27-fold, respectively. In addition, dithiocarbamate functionalized MCR beads offers better precision compared to DDTC sorbed MCR beads as the corresponding relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) values for five successive determinations of 0.20 microgmL(-1) are 1.44 and 4.36%, respectively. The accuracy of the developed on-line FI-FAAS procedure employing dithiocarbamate functionalized MCR beads as column material was tested by analyzing Certified Reference Material (CRM) of soil (IAEA soil-7) and marine sediment reference material (MESS-3) supplied by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna and National Research Council (NRC), Canada, respectively. Furthermore, the developed procedure has been successfully tested for the analysis of surface, pond, ground and effluent water and soil samples collected from the vicinity of lead acid battery industry in India.

  17. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  18. Syntheses, characterization and antifungal activity of novel dimethylbis(N-R-sulfonyldithiocarbimato)stannate(IV) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfim Filho, Lucius F. O.; Oliveira, Marcelo R. L.; Miranda, Liany D. L.; Vidigal, Antonio E. C.; Guilardi, Silvana; Souza, Rafael A. C.; Ellena, Javier; Ardisson, José D.; Zambolim, Laércio; Rubinger, Mayura M. M.

    2017-02-01

    Four new complexes of the general formula: (Ph4P)2[Sn(CH3)2(RSO2Ndbnd CS2)2], where Ph4P = tetraphenylphosphonium cation and R = CH3, (1), CH3CH2 (2), C6H5 (3), 4-FC6H4 (4), were prepared by the reaction of the appropriate potassium N-R-sulfonyldithiocarbimates, K2(RSO2Ndbnd CS2), and tetraphenylphosphonium chloride with dimethyltin dichloride. The compounds 1-4 were characterized by 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR, 119Sn Mössbauer, vibrational spectroscopy and by elemental analyses of C, H, N and Sn. The crystal structure of 1 was determined by X-ray diffraction techniques. The in vitro antifungal activity of the tin(IV) complexes were evaluated against the fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Botrytis cinerea by the Poisoned food test. The new compounds showed comparable activities to the fungicides manzate and ziram.

  19. Investigation of interface dipole formation of dithiocarbamate molecules on gold by density functional theory and photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Tobias; Schulz, Philip; Meyer, Dominik; Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Mazzarello, Riccardo [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik C, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    One of the main challenges in constructing organic optoelectronic devices is to control the charge carrier injection between the active organic material and metal contact electrodes. The insertion of a self assembled monolayer (SAM) between the organic/inorganic interface depicts an advantageous way to align the metal work function to the frontier molecular orbitals of adjacent organic species. In this study Dithiocarbamate terminated molecules (DTC) on gold have been investigated as a potential SAM building block. Photoelectron Spectroscopy reveals a strong lowering of the metal work function upon adsorption of DTC molecules. Hence, calculations employing density functional theory (DFT) have been conducted in order to correlate this effect to the formation of a layer of permanent as well as induced dipoles.

  20. A calorimetric investigation for the bindings of mushroom tyrosinase to p-phenylene-bis dithiocarbamate and xanthates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaei Behbehani Gholam Reza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive, simple and rapid thermodynamic study on the interaction of Mushroom Tyrosinase, MT, with three iso-alkyldithiocarbonates (xanthates, as sodium salts, C3H7OCS2Na (I, C4H9OCS2Na (II, C5H11OCS2Na (III and p-phenylene-bis dithiocarbamate (IV, by using isothermal titration calorimetry was carried out to clarify thermodynamics of these bindings as well as structural changes of the enzyme due to its interaction with inhibitors at 300K in phosphate buffer (10 m molL-1; pH 6.8.The extended solvation theory was used to elucidate the effect of the inhibitors on the stability of enzyme. The obtained results indicate that there are two identical and non-cooperative binding sites for these inhibitors.

  1. Visual Identification of Light-Driven Breakage of the Silver-Dithiocarbamate Bond by Single Plasmonic Nanoprobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng Fei; Yuan, Bin Fang; Gao, Ming Xuan; Li, Rong Sheng; Ma, Jun; Zou, Hong Yan; Li, Yuan Fang; Li, Ming; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2015-10-01

    Insight into the nature of metal-sulfur bond, a meaningful one in life science, interface chemistry and organometallic chemistry, is interesting but challenging. By utilizing the localized surface plasmon resonance properties of silver nanoparticles, herein we visually identified the photosensitivity of silver-dithiocarbamate (Ag-DTC) bond by using dark field microscopic imaging (iDFM) technique at single nanoparticle level. It was found that the breakage of Ag-DTC bond could be accelerated effectively by light irradiation, followed by a pH-dependent horizontal or vertical degradation of the DTC molecules, in which an indispensable preoxidation process of the silver was at first disclosed. These findings suggest a visualization strategy at single plasmonic nanoparticle level which can be excellently applied to explore new stimulus-triggered reactions, and might also open a new way to understand traditional organic reaction mechanisms.

  2. Dithiocarbamate-thiourea hybrids useful as vaginal microbicides also show reverse transcriptase inhibition: design, synthesis, docking and pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Veenu; Jangir, Santosh; Mandalapu, Dhanaraju; Gupta, Sonal; Chhonker, Yashpal S; Lal, Nand; Kushwaha, Bhavana; Chandasana, Hardik; Krishna, Shagun; Rawat, Kavita; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Bhatta, Rabi S; Siddiqi, Mohammad I; Tripathi, Rajkamal; Gupta, Gopal; Sharma, Vishnu L

    2015-02-15

    Prophylactic prevention is considered as the most promising strategy to tackle STI/HIV. Twenty-five dithiocarbamate-thiourea hybrids (14-38) were synthesized as woman controlled topical vaginal microbicides to counter Trichomonas vaginalis and sperm along with RT inhibition potential. The four promising compounds (18, 26, 28 and 33) were tested for safety through cytotoxic assay against human cervical cell line (HeLa) and compatibility with vaginal flora, Lactobacillus. Docking study of most promising vaginal microbicide (33) revealed that it docked in a position and orientation similar to known reverse transcriptase inhibitor Nevirapine. The preliminary in vivo pharmacokinetics of compound 33 was performed in NZ-rabbits to evaluate systemic toxicity in comparison to Nonoxynol-9.

  3. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate reduces the progression of total kidney volume and cyst enlargement in experimental polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Michelle H T; Rao, Padmashree; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh; Foster, Sheryl F; Peduto, Anthony; Harris, David C H; Rangan, Gopala K

    2014-12-01

    Heterocyclic dithiocarbamates have anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects in rodent models of chronic kidney disease. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) reduces the progression of polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Male Lewis polycystic kidney (LPK) rats (an ortholog of Nek8/NPHP9) received intraperitoneal injections of either saline vehicle or PDTC (40 mg/kg once or twice daily) from postnatal weeks 4 until 11. By serial magnetic resonance imaging at weeks 5 and 10, the relative within-rat increase in total kidney volume and cyst volume were 1.3-fold (P = 0.01) and 1.4-fold (P < 0.01) greater, respectively, in LPK + Vehicle compared to the LPK + PDTC(40 mg/kg twice daily) group. At week 11 in LPK rats, PDTC attenuated the increase in kidney weight to body weight ratio by 25% (P < 0.01) and proteinuria by 66% (P < 0.05 vs. LPK + Vehicle) but did not improve renal dysfunction. By quantitative whole-slide image analysis, PDTC did not alter interstitial CD68+ cell accumulation, interstitial fibrosis, or renal cell proliferation in LPK rats at week 11. The phosphorylated form of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB subunit, p105, was increased in cystic epithelial cells of LPK rats, but was not altered by PDTC. Moreover, PDTC did not significantly alter nuclear expression of the p50 subunit or NF-κB (p65)-DNA binding. Kidney enlargement in LPK rats was resistant to chronic treatment with a proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib. In conclusion, PDTC reduced renal cystic enlargement and proteinuria but lacked anti-inflammatory effects in LPK rats.

  4. Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Schiff bases and their complex compounds have been studied for their .... establishing coordination of the N–(2 – hydroxybenzyl) - L - α - valine Schiff base ..... (1967); “Spectrophotometric Identification of Organic Compounds”, Willey, New.

  5. A highly selective chemodosimeter for fast detection and intracellular imaging of Hg2+ ions based on a dithiocarbamate-isothiocyanate conversion in aqueous ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Suman; Hatai, Joydev; Samanta, Mousumi; Shaurya, Alok; Bandyopadhyay, Subhajit

    2014-02-21

    A new naphthalene diimide-dithiocarbamate based fluorescence probe was synthesized and its fluorogenic behavior towards various metal ions was studied. Upon addition of various metal ions, the probe afforded an irreversible change only with Hg(2+) ions in aqueous-ethanol media (4 : 1 v/v) with a fourfold enhancement of the fluorescence (Φ = 0.03 → 0.11) along with a distinct 43 nm blue shift of the emission maxima. The mechanism of the chemodosimetric behavior of the probe has been attributed to a Hg(2+) induced transformation of a weakly fluorescent dithiocarbamate to a highly fluorescent isothiocyanate which has been characterized by a number of spectroscopic techniques and a crystal structure. Intracellular detection of Hg(2+) ions was achieved using the probe.

  6. The synthesis of poly(thienylene vinylene) derivatives via the dithiocarbamate route: low band gap p-type conjugated polymers for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banishoeib, F.; Fourier, S.; Cleij, T. J.; Lutsen, L.; Vanderzande, D.

    2007-03-01

    Poly(2,5-thienylene vinylene), PTV and its soluble alkyl derivatives were synthesised using the dithiocarbamate precursor route (DTC-route) in a good yield, with high molecular weight (Mw), low polydispersity (PD), and with a high maximum absorption peak, λmax. The polymers were characterised by absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and, X-ray diffraction. This paper has been presented at “ECHOS06”, Paris, 28 30 juin 2006.

  7. Determination of dithiocarbamate pesticides in occupational hygiene sampling devices using the isooctane method and comparison with an automatic thermal desorption (ATD) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, Matthew R; Pengelly, Ian; Rimmer, Duncan A

    2003-01-10

    Two new methods for the determination of dithiocarbamate pesticides in occupational hygiene sampling devices are described. Dithiocarbamate spiked occupational hygiene sampling devices, consisting of glass fibre (GF/A) filters, cotton pads, cotton gloves and disposable overalls, were reduced under acidic conditions and the CS2 evolved as a decomposition product was extracted into isooctane. The isooctane was then analysed using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, for CS2, which provided a quantitative result for dithiocarbamates. Recoveries obtained were generally within a 70-110% range and reproducibilities better than 15% RSD were typically achieved. The method has been successfully applied to samples collected during occupational exposure surveys. A second method employing automatic thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (ATD-GC-MS) has also been developed and applied to the direct analysis of GF/A (airborne) samples. The method relies on the thermal degradation of dithiocarbamates to release CS2, which is used to quantify the analytes. Thiram spiked GF/A filters gave an average recovery of 107% with an RSD of 4%. The performance of the two analytical methods were directly compared by analysing sub-portions of GF/A filters collected during a survey to evaluate occupational exposures to thiram during seed treatment operations. Both methods performed well for the analysis of airborne (GF/A) samples and produced results in good agreement. ATD-GC-MS is the preferred method for studies involving GF/A (airborne) samples only. Because of the wider applicability of the isooctane method for other sampling devices, it is the preferred choice when carrying out surveys which require a dermal as well as respirable exposure assessment.

  8. RECOVERY OF URANIUM BY CYCLOALKYLDITHIO-CARBAMATE COMPLEXING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, O.K.

    1959-06-30

    The separation of uranium-233 from an aqueous nitric acid solution of neutron irradiated thorium by selectively complexing the uranium is described. The separation is carried out by contacting the thorium solution with a non- aromatic organic dithiocarbamate selected from the group which consists of alkali and alkaline earth cycloalkyldithiocarbamates and recovering the resulting uranyl cycloalkyldithiocarbamate complex by organic solvent extraction such as with methyl ethyl ketone. The complexed uranium may be stripped from the separated organic phase by scrubbing with one normal nitric acid solution.

  9. N,N-二正丁基二硫代氨基甲酸锑的合成与表征%Synthesis and characterization of N, N-dibutyl dithiocarbamate antimony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李来兴; 吴兵; 章于川

    2012-01-01

    A complex N, N - dibutyl dithiocarbamate antimony ( SDBC ) was synthesized by one-step method. The results of IR, 13C-NMR, EA and ICP test indicated that the composition and structure of the product accord with the target product and the coordination number of SDBC is 3. Moreover, the DSC curve showed a single and narrow peak at 73 ℃, which indicates that the melting point of the product is 73 ℃ and the purity of the product is extremely high. Finally, the TGA curve showed that there is an obvious weight loss when the temperature is above 220 ℃ , SDBC exhibits a good thermal stability.%应用一步法合成配合物N,N-二正丁基二硫代氨基甲酸锑(SDBC).通过IR.13C-NMR、元素分析EA和等离子发射光谱ICP等对产物的分子结构进行表征.表征结果显示合成产物符合目标物SDBC的组成与结构,其配位数n=3;DSC测定SDBC的熔点为73℃,熔程较短,纯度较高;TGA表明SDBC有较好的热稳定性,当温度高于220℃时,它有个明显的热失重区域.

  10. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Molybdenum Carbonyl Compound with Thiolate and Dithiocarbamate Ligands,[Bu4N][(OC)4Mo(μ-SC6H5)2Mo(C5H10CNS2)(CO)2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Bo-Tao; PAN Guo-Hua; ZHOU Zhang-Feng; HE Ling-Jie; Wu Ke-Chen

    2006-01-01

    A di-molybdenum carbonyl compound containing thiolate and dithiocarbamate li- gands, [Bu4N][(CO)4Mo(μ-SC6H5)2Mo(C5H10dtc)(CO)2] 1 (C5H10dtc = S2CNC5H10), has been pre- pared by reaction of [Mo2(SC6H5)2(CO)8] with C5H10dtcNa and [NBu4]Br in acetone. It crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/n with a = 13.162(3), b = 17.466(2), c = 20.453(4)(A),β = 100.77(1)°, Z = 4, V = 4619(2)(A)3, C40H56Mo2N2O6S4, Mr = 980.95, Dc = 1.389 g/cm3, μ= 7.66 cm-1, F(000) = 1988 and R = 0.0746 for 5161 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). The complex contains a [Mo2S2]2- planar core in which one Mo atom is chelated by a C5H10dtc ligand, leading to different coordination environments of the two Mo atoms. 95Mo NMR measurement indicates that the two Mo atoms are in different oxidation states.

  11. Suppression of prolactin signaling by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate is alleviated by N-acetylcysteine in mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jen-Hsing; Du, Jyun-Yi; Wu, Yi-Ying; Chen, Meng-Chi; Huang, Chun-Hao; Shen, Hsin-Ju; Lee, Chin-Feng; Lin, Ting-Hui; Lee, Yi-Ju

    2014-09-05

    Prolactin is the key hormone to stimulate milk synthesis in mammary epithelial cells. It signals through the Jak2-Stat5 pathway to induce the expression of β-casein, a milk protein which is often used as a marker for mammary differentiation. Here we examined the effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on prolactin signaling. Our results show that PDTC downregulates prolactin receptor levels, and inhibits prolactin-induced Stat5 tyrosine phosphorylation and β-casein expression. This is not due to its inhibitory action on NF-κB since application of another NF-κB inhibitor, BAY 11-7082, and overexpression of I-κBα super-repressor do not lead to the same results. Instead, the pro-oxidant activity of PDTC is involved as inclusion of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine restores prolactin signaling. PDTC triggers great extents of activation of ERK and JNK in mammary epithelial cells. These do not cause suppression of prolactin signaling but confer serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1, thereby perturbing insulin signal propagation. As insulin facilitates optimal β-casein expression, blocking insulin signaling by PDTC might pose additional impediment to β-casein expression. Our results thus imply that lactation will be compromised when the cellular redox balance is dysregulated, such as during mastitis.

  12. Primary risk assessment of dimethyldithiocarbamate, a dithiocarbamate fungicide metabolite, based on their probabilistic concentrations in a coastal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hano, Takeshi; Ito, Katsutoshi; Mochida, Kazuhiko; Ohkubo, Nobuyuki; Kono, Kumiko; Onduka, Toshimitsu; Ito, Mana; Ichihashi, Hideki; Fujii, Kazunori; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    The primary ecological risk of dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDC), a dithiocarbamate fungicide (DTC) metabolite, was evaluated based on their probabilistic environmental concentration distributions (ECDs) in the coastal environment, Hiroshima Bay, Japan. And their behavior and temporal trends was further considered. This is the first report of the identification of DMDC from environmental seawater and sediment samples. DMDC concentrations in bottom seawater were substantially higher than those in surface seawater, which are associated with the leachability from sediments in bottom seawaters, and with photodegradation in surface seawaters. Furthermore, seasonal risks are dominated by higher concentrations from April to June, indicating temporal variation in the risk to exposed species. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis offered DMDC ECD medians and range (5th to 95th percentiles) of 0.85 ng L(-1) (0.029, 22), 12 ng L(-1) (3.2, 48) and 110 ng kg dry(-1) (9.5, 1200) in surface seawater, bottom seawater and sediment, respectively. Considering that DMDC and DTCs have similar toxicological potential to aquatic organisms, the occurrence of the compound in water is likely to be of biological relevance. In summary, this work provides the first demonstration that the ecological risk of DMDC and its derived DTCs in Hiroshima Bay is relatively high, and that DTCs should be a high priority for future research on marine contamination, especially in bottom seawaters.

  13. Intranasal pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate decreases brain inflammatory mediators and provides neuroprotection after brain hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Zhao, Huijuan; Peng, Shuling; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2013-11-01

    Brain injury due to birth asphyxia is the major cause of death and long-term disabilities in newborns. We determined whether intranasal pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) could provide neuroprotection in neonatal rats after brain hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Seven-day old male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to brain HI. They were then treated with intranasal PDTC. Neurological outcomes were evaluated 7 or 30 days after the brain HI. Brain tissues were harvested 6 or 24 h after the brain HI for biochemical analysis. Here, PDTC dose-dependently reduced brain HI-induced brain tissue loss with an effective dose (ED)50 at 27 mg/kg. PDTC needed to be applied within 45 min after the brain HI for this neuroprotection. This treatment reduced brain tissue loss and improved neurological and cognitive functions assessed 30 days after the HI. PDTC attenuated brain HI-induced lipid oxidative stress, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, and various inflammatory mediators in the brain tissues. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase after brain HI reduced brain tissue loss. Our results suggest that intranasal PDTC provides neuroprotection possibly via reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Intranasal PDTC may have a potential to provide neuroprotection to human neonates after birth asphyxia.

  14. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate Inhibits NF- κB Activation and Enhance TNFα- Induced Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Gang(涂刚); YAO Zhenxiang(姚榛祥); DONG Pujiang(董浦江)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Tumor necrosis factor α(TNFα) induced apoptosis is limited by its coactivation of nuclear factor kappa B(NF- κB) -dependent antiapoptosis genes. We examined whether pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) enhance TNFα - induced apoptosis in cultured breast cancer cells and explored the role of NF - κB in TNFα - induced apoptosis. Methods: Human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA - MB -435s were treated with TNFα、 PDTC and combination therapy . Induction of apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining and flow cytometry. NF- κB DNA binding activity was detected using electrophoresis mobility shift assay(EMSA) . Western blots of cytoplasmic lysates were performed to demonstrate IκBα (Inhibitor protein of nuclear factor κB) phosphorylation and degradation. Results:TNFα-induced IκBo phosphorylation and degradation, which was inhibited by PDTC in both cell lines. TNFα-induced apoptosis (TUNEL) increased significantly when both cells were pretreated with PDTC. Flow cytometry also confirmed this. EMSA showed that PDTC continuously inhibited TNFo-induced NF- κB DNA binding activity . Conclusions:PDTC enhances TNFo-induced apoptosis whileinhibiting IκBα phosphorylation and degradation in human breast cancer cells. NF - κB has a protective role on TNFα-induced apoptosis.

  15. Evaluation of the effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate in suppressing inflammation in mice with dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ichiro Hirata; Shingo Yasumoto; Ken Toshina; Takuya Inoue; Takashi Nishikawa; Naoko Murano; Mitsuyuki Murano; Fang-Yu Wang; Ken-ichi Katsu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC; an NF-κB inhibitor) administered at low (50 mg/kg) and high (100 mg/kg) doses in suppressing colitis in mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis.METHODS: Mice were divided into a DSS-untreated group (normal group), DSS-treated control group, DSS+PDTC-treated group Ⅰ (low-dose group), and DSS+PDTC-treated groupⅡ (high-dose group). In each group, the disease activity index score (DAI score), intestinal length, histological score, and the levels of activated NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) in tissue were measured.RESULTS: The DSS+PDTC-treated group Ⅱ exhibited suppression of shortening of intestinal length and reduction of DAI score. Activated NF-kB level and IL-1β and TNF-α levels were significantly lower in DSS+PDTC-treated group Ⅱ.CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that PDTC is useful for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  16. Protective effects of the nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on experimental testicular torsion and detorsion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabay, Sahin; Ozden, Hilmi; Guven, Gul; Burukoglu, Dilek; Ustuner, Mehmet Cengiz; Topal, Fatma; Gunes, Hasan Veysi; Ustuner, Derya; Ozbayer, Cansu

    2014-08-01

    Testicular torsion results with the damage of the testis and it is a surgical emergency. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a low-molecular-weight antioxidant and potent inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of PDTC to testicular torsion-detorsion (T/D) injury. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into four groups. A sham operation was performed in group I. In group II, torsion is performed 2 hours by 720 degree extravaginally testis. In group III, 4 h reperfusion of the testis was performed after 2 h of testicular torsion. In group IV, after performing the same surgical procedures as in group III, PDTC (100 mg/kg, intravenous's) was administered before 30 min of detorsion. The testes tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase (CAT) level was evaluated. Histological evaluations were performed after hematoxylin and eosin staining. Testicular tissue MDA levels were the highest in the T/D groups compared with treatment group. Administration of PDTC prevented a further increase in MDA levels. Significant decrease occurred in CAT and SOD levels in treatment group compared with the control group. The rats in the treatment group had normal testicular architecture. The results suggest that PDTC can be a potential protective agent for preventing the biochemical and histological changes related to oxidative stress in testicular injury caused by testis torsion.

  17. Triazole-dithiocarbamate based selective lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) inactivators inhibit gastric cancer cell growth, invasion, and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi-Chao; Duan, Ying-Chao; Ma, Jin-Lian; Xu, Rui-Min; Zi, Xiaolin; Lv, Wen-Lei; Wang, Meng-Meng; Ye, Xian-Wei; Zhu, Shun; Mobley, David; Zhu, Yan-Yan; Wang, Jun-Wei; Li, Jin-Feng; Wang, Zhi-Ru; Zhao, Wen; Liu, Hong-Min

    2013-11-14

    Lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), the first identified histone demethylase, plays an important role in epigenetic regulation of gene activation and repression. The up-regulated LSD1's expression has been reported in several malignant tumors. In the current study, we designed and synthesized five series of 1,2,3-triazole-dithiocarbamate hybrids and screened their inhibitory activity toward LSD1. We found that some of these compounds, especially compound 26, exhibited the most specific and robust inhibition of LSD1. Interestingly, compound 26 also showed potent and selective cytotoxicity against LSD1 overexpressing gastric cancer cell lines MGC-803 and HGC-27, as well as marked inhibition of cell migration and invasion, compared to 2-PCPA. Furthermore, compound 26 effectively reduced the tumor growth bared by human gastric cancer cells in vivo with no signs of adverse side effects. These findings suggested that compound 26 deserves further investigation as a lead compound in the treatment of LSD1 overexpressing gastric cancer.

  18. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE)-acid hydrolysis of dithiocarbamates for trace analysis in tobacco and peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vryzas, Zisis; Papadakis, Emmanouil N; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2002-04-10

    A simple and rapid method is presented for the analysis of residues of ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate) (maneb, zineb, and mancozeb) and N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate (thiram and ziram) fungicides in dry tobacco leaves and peaches. Residues are extracted and hydrolyzed to CS(2) in a single step by use of microwave energy in a closed-vessel system while the evolved CS(2) trapped in a layer of iso-octane overlaying the reaction mixture is taken for gas chromatographic-flame photometric analysis. This combined extraction-hydrolysis step is carried out in 10 and 15 min for sets of 12 samples of tobacco and peach matrices, respectively. Total sample preparation time for GC analysis is 40 min. The limits of detection (LOD) are 0.005 mg/kg for thiram and ziram on peaches and 0.1 mg/kg for maneb, zineb, and mancozeb on tobacco. The respective LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ) levels in CS(2) equivalents are 0.003 and 0.006 mg/kg on peaches and 0.04 and 0.2 mg/kg on tobacco, respectively. Recoveries in the 0.01-60 mg/kg fortification range are 80-100% with respective relative standard deviations 3000 commercial tobacco samples including also different marketed cigarette brands.

  19. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate inhibits UVB-induced skin inflammation and oxidative stress in hairless mice and exhibits antioxidant activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Ana L M; Campanini, Marcela Z; Martinez, Renata M; Ferreira, Vitor S; Steffen, Vinicius S; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Vilela, Fernanda M P; Martins, Frederico S; Zarpelon, Ana C; Cunha, Thiago M; Fonseca, Maria J V; Baracat, Marcela M; Georgetti, Sandra R; Verri, Waldiceu A; Casagrande, Rúbia

    2014-09-05

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation may cause oxidative stress- and inflammation-dependent skin cancer and premature aging. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is an antioxidant and inhibits nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. In the present study, the mechanisms of PDTC were investigated in cell free oxidant/antioxidant assays, in vivo UVB irradiation in hairless mice and UVB-induced NFκB activation in keratinocytes. PDTC presented the ability to scavenge 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical (OH); and also efficiently inhibited iron-dependent and -independent lipid peroxidation as well as chelated iron. In vivo, PDTC treatment significantly decreased UVB-induced skin edema, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), increase of reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and antioxidant capacity of the skin tested by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ABTS assays. PDTC also reduced UVB-induced IκB degradation in keratinocytes. These results demonstrate that PDTC presents antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro, which line up well with the PDTC inhibition of UVB irradiation-induced skin inflammation and oxidative stress in mice. These data suggest that treatment with PDTC may be a promising approach to reduce UVB irradiation-induced skin damages and merits further pre-clinical and clinical studies.

  20. Spectral and thermal studies with anti-fungal aspects of some organotin(IV) complexes with nitrogen and sulphur donor ligands derived from 2-phenylethylamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajeev; Kaushik, N. K.

    2008-11-01

    Some complexes of 2-phenylethyl dithiocarbamate, thiohydrazides and thiodiamines with dibenzyltin(IV) chloride, tribenzyltin(IV) chloride and di( para-chlorobenzyl)tin(IV) dichloride have been synthesized and investigated in 1:2 and 1:1 molar ratio. The dithiocarbamate ligand act as monoanionic bidentate and thiohydrazide, thiodiamines act as neutral bidentate ligand. The synthesized complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis and molecular weight determination studies and their bonding pattern suggested on the basis of electronic, infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Using thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) various thermodynamic and kinetic parameters viz. reaction order ( n), apparent activation energy ( Ea), apparent activation entropy ( S#) and heat of reaction (Δ H) have been calculated and correlated with the structural aspects for solid-state decomposition of complexes. The ligands and their tin complexes have also been screened for their fungitoxicity activity against Rhizoctonia solanii and Sclerotium rolfsii and their ED 50 values calculated.

  1. A new fluorescent pyrene–pyridine dithiocarbamate probe: A chemodosimeter to detect Hg{sup 2+} in pure aqueous medium and in live cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Vikram; Srivastava, Priyanka [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India); PrakashVerma, Shiv [Centre for Genetic Disorders, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India); Misra, Arvind [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India); Das, Parimal [Centre for Genetic Disorders, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India); Singh, Nanhai, E-mail: nsinghbhu@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India)

    2014-10-15

    A new pyrene–pyridine dithiocarbamate based fluorescent chemodosimeter, potassium (pyren-1-ylmethyl)(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)dithiocarbamate (L1) has been designed and synthesized. The chemodosimeter shows high selectivity and sensitivity (5.2 ppb) for Hg{sup 2+} in pure aqueous medium in which emission intensity was quenched by ≈80% due to the formation of new cyclized species, 1. The probe behaves as a chemodosimeter for Hg{sup 2+} ions and forms Hg{sup 2+} triggered cyclised imidazoline species with approximate detection time of 50 s and exhibits both colorimetric and fluorometric changes on detection of Hg{sup 2+} ion. Color of the probe (L1) changed from green to colorless visible to the naked eye and from green to dark blue upon the addition of Hg{sup 2+} ions under UV light. The Hg{sup 2+} triggered cyclization reaction was confirmed by spectral data analysis and a single crystal structure determination of the cyclised entity 2 obtained from the model compound potassium benzyl(pyridin-2-ylmethyl) dithiocarbamate (L2). L1 finds its application for detection of Hg{sup 2+} ions on paper strips, and in BSA (bovine serum albumin) medium. L1 is also applicable for the monitoring of Hg{sup 2+} ion in NIH3T3 live cells. - Highlights: • Efficient chemodosimeter to detect Hg{sup 2+} ions in pure aqueous medium. • Hg{sup 2+} triggered cyclisation and formation of imidazoline species. • Probe exhibit both colorimetric and fluorometric changes • Probe is applicable to detect Hg{sup 2+} in live cells and on cellulose paper strips.

  2. Protection from spontaneous hepatocellular damage by N-benzyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate in Long-Evans Cinnamon rats, an animal model of Wilson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shimada, Hideaki; Takahashi, Makiko; SHIMADA, Akinori; Okawara, Tadashi; Yasutake, Akira; Imamura, Yorishige; Kiyozumi, Morio; シマダ, ヒデアキ; タカハシ, マキコ; シマダ, アキノリ; オオカワラ, タダシ; ヤスタケ, アキラ; イマムラ, ヨリシゲ; キヨズミ, モリオ; 島田, 秀昭

    2005-01-01

    The Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat is a mutant strain that accumulates excessive tissue copper (Cu) and models the clinical symptoms and biological features of Wilson’s disease in humans. We compared the effects of three metal chelating agents, N-benzyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate (BGD), D-penicillamine (D-PEN), and triethylenetetramine (TETA) on the biliary and urinary excretions of Cu using LEC rats. The animals were treated ip with each chelating agent (1 mmol/kg body weight) and then the...

  3. Single crystal structures and fluorescent properties of dithiocarbamates%二硫代酯的单晶结构及荧光性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡丽华; 周弟

    2009-01-01

    Two dithiocarbamates were synthesized and characterized.The crystal structure of dithiocarbamate 1 belongs to monoclinic system with the space group P21/n,C23H20NS2,with Mr=398.55,a=15.630(3),b=9.7536(17),c=26.959(5)(A),α=90,β=93.375(5),γ=90 °,V=4102.9(14) (A)=3,Z=8,F(000)=1672,and the final R1=0.1037,wR2=0.2221.And that of dithiocarbamate 2 is of orthorhombic system with space group Pbca,C17H13NO2S2,with Mr=327.40,a=16.598(5),b=7.490(2),c=24.249(6)(A),α=90,β=90,γ=90 °,V=3014.6(14)(A)=3,Z=8,F(000)=1360,and the final R1=0.0887,wR2 =0.1376.The fluorescent properties of dithiocarbamates 1 and 2 in solution and in solid state were both investigated.Two compounds in acetonitrile solution have strong fluorescence,whereas have no fluorescence in solid state.It may be due to that the molecular aggregation in solid state led to short π-π contacts between the fluorophores in molecular aggregation states and thus caused self-quench of fluorescence intensity.%合成了两种单晶化合物二硫代酯1 和2,并对其经行了表征.二硫代酯1属于单斜晶系,空间群是P21/n; 二硫代酯2属于正交晶系,空间群是Pbca.此外,分别研究了两种二硫代酯在液态和固态中的荧光性能,发现二硫代酯1和2在乙腈溶剂中有很强的荧光,而在固体状态下没有荧光.这可能是由于在固态下分子间的堆积造成了荧光团发生迅速的π-π碰撞,从而导致荧光的自身淬灭.

  4. Ensaio de proficiência para análise de ditiocarbamatos em polpa de banana Proficiency assay of the dithiocarbamates in banana pulp analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Helena Pinto Bastos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A proficiency assay of the determination of dithiocarbamate pesticide residues in banana was carried out. Fourteen laboratories participated in this study. Homogeneity and stability testing were performed by INCQS on the samples sent to the laboratories. Analytical results supplied by the pesticide residues laboratory of the VWA/KvW, Amsterdam, Holland, were used to define the designated value for the thiram concentration in the study samples. RESULTS: Fifty percent of the participating laboratories had satisfactory results. Efforts are needed to improve the precision of the analytical results and to decrease the number of false negative results observed.

  5. Chemoprotective effect of a nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, against cisplatin-induced testicular damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem; Ozbek, Emin; Simsek, Abdulmuttalip; Cekmen, Mustafa; Otunctemur, Alper; Somay, Adnan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitor (NF-kappaB) expression and the potential chemoprotective effects of an NF-kappaB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), against cisplatin-induced testicular damage in rats. Rats were divided into 4 equal groups: group 1, control; group 2, injected with cisplatin (CIS) for 5 days (7 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally [IP]); group 3, injected with PDTC alone; group 4, injected with CIS plus PDTC (100 mg/kg IP). Body and testicular weights, plasma testosterone levels, and histopathologic structure of the testicular tissue were determined. The iNOS and NF-kappaB activity were evaluated immunohistochemically by staining p65 to define NF-kappaB activity. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and nitric oxide (NO) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were assessed in testicular tissue. Body and testicular weights, plasma testosterone levels, activity of GSH-Px, and GSH levels were all significantly decreased, whereas the levels of MDA and NO were significantly increased in rats of the CIS group. PDTC treatment increased plasma testosterone levels. A significant increase in GSH levels and GSH-Px activity and a decrease in MDA and NO levels in testicular tissue were observed in the CIS + PDTC group. Immunohistochemically, there was a marked staining for iNOS and NF-kappaB/p65 expression in rats injected with CIS compared with the control (P < .001). CIS caused irregular seminiferous tubules, reduction of seminiferous epithelial layers, significant arrest of maturation, and perivascular fibrosis. Moreover, PDTC administration to CIS-treated rats significantly prevented these histopathologic chances, as well. CIS induces iNOS expression through activation of NF-kappaB/p65, and CIS-induced testicular toxicity may be prevented by PDTC, which is a selective NF-kappaB inhibitor.

  6. The neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid and the dithiocarbamate fungicide mancozeb disrupt the pituitary-thyroid axis of a wildlife bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Surya Prakash; Mohanty, Banalata

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid is an important homeostatic regulator of metabolic activities as well as endocrine mechanisms including those of reproduction. Present investigation elucidated the thyroid disrupting potential of a neonicotinoid imidacloprid and a dithiocarbamate mancozeb in a seasonally breeding wildlife bird, Red Munia (Amandava amandava) who is vulnerable to these two pesticides through diet (seed grains and small insects). Adult male birds were exposed to 0.5% LD50 mgkg(-1)bwd(-1) of both the pesticides through food for 30days during the preparatory and breeding phases. Weight, volume and histopathology of thyroid gland were distinctly altered. Disruption of thyroid follicles reflected in nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio (N/C) in epithelial and stromal cells, epithelial cell hypertrophy and altered colloid volume. Impairment of thyroid axis was pesticide and phase specific as evident from the plasma levels of thyroid (T4 and T3) and pituitary (TSH) hormones. In preparatory phase, plasma TSH was increased in response to decrease of T4 on mancozeb exposure showing responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis to feedback regulation. On imidacloprid exposure, however, plasma levels of both T4 and TSH were decreased indicating non-functioning of negative feedback mechanism. Increased plasma T3 in response to both the pesticides exposure might be due to synthesis from non-thyroidal source(s) in a compensatory response to decrease level of T4. In breeding phase, impairment of HPT axis was more pronounced as plasma T4, T3 and TSH were significantly decreased in response to both mancozeb and imidacloprid. Thus, low dose pesticide exposure could affect the thyroid homeostasis and reproduction.

  7. Regulatory mechanism of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate is mediated by nuclear factor-κB and inhibits neutrophil accumulation in ARDS mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongman; Xu, Lisheng; Zhao, Jiping; Wang, Donghui; Guo, Ranran; Wang, Junfei; Gong, Wenbin; Liu, Tian; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Dong, Liang

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulatory mechanism of nuclear factor (NF)-κB on polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) accumulation and the inflammatory response in lung tissues with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), as well as the therapeutic effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). Mouse models of ARDS were established by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). BALB/c mice were divided into control, LPS and PDTC + LPS groups. The expression of PMN adhesion molecules, CD11b/CD18 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), were detected by immunohistochemistry, while the protein expression levels of NF-κB p65 in the lung tissue were analyzed by western blot analysis. In addition, flow cytometry was used to investigate the apoptosis rate of PMNs in the bronchoalveolar fluid, and the expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were also determined. Following an intraperitoneal injection of LPS, alveolar septum rupture, pulmonary interstitial hyperemia and PMN infiltration in the alveolar was observed. The protein expression of p65 in the pulmonary cytoplasm decreased, while the expression of p65 in the nucleus increased. The levels of IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α increased and the high expression status was maintained for 24 h. As the time increased, CD11b/CD18 and ICAM-1 expression increased, as well as MPO activity, while the apoptosis of PMNs was delayed. Compared with the LPS group, the expression of p65 in the pulmonary cytoplasm and the PMN apoptosis rate increased following PDTC intervention, while the expression of p65 in the nucleus decreased, as well as the expression levels of the cytokines and MPO activity. Therefore, PDTC reduced the production of inflammatory cytokines via the NF-κB pathway, which reduced the activation of PMNs in the lung tissue and promoted PMN apoptosis.

  8. A New Fluorescence Sensor for Cerium (III) Ion Using Glycine Dithiocarbamate Capped Manganese Doped ZnS Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofouei, Mohammad Kazem; Tajarrod, Narjes; Masteri-Farahani, Majid; Zadmard, Reza

    2015-11-01

    A new fluorescence sensor for Ce(3+)ions is reported in this paper. This sensor is based on the fluorescence quenching of glycine dithiocarbamate (GDTC)-functionalized manganese doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in the presence of Ce(3+)ions. The synthesis of ultra-small GDTC-Mn:ZnS quantum dots (QDs) is based on the co-precipitation of nanoparticles in aqueous Solution. The nanoparticles are characterized with fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectra, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray power diffraction (XRD), and infrared spectroscopy. In the test carried out, it was found that the interaction between Ce(3+)ions and GDTC capped Mn:ZnS QDs quenches the original fluorescence of QDs according to the Stern-Volmer equation and the results show the existence of collisional quenching process. A linear relationship was observed between the extent of quenching and the concentration of Ce(3+)in the range of 2.0 × 10(-6) to 3.2 × 10(-5) mol.L(-1), with a detection limit of 2.29 × 10(-7) mol.L(-1). The relative standard deviation of 1.61% was obtained for five replicate measurements. The possible quenching mechanism was also examined by fluorescence and UV-vis absorption spectra. The interference of other cations was negligible on the quantitative determination of Ce(3+). This method proved to be simple, sensitive, low cost, and also reliable for practical applications.

  9. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate attenuates surgery-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction possibly via inhibition of nuclear factor κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Jiang, W; Zuo, Z

    2014-03-07

    Surgery induces learning and memory impairment. Neuroinflammation may contribute to this impairment. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is an important transcription factor to regulate the expression of inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesize that inhibition of NF-κB by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) reduces neuroinflammation and the impairment of learning and memory. To test this hypothesis, four-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were subjected to right carotid exploration under propofol and buprenorphine anesthesia. Some rats received two doses of 50mg/kg PDTC given intraperitoneally 30min before and 6h after the surgery. Rats were tested in the Barnes maze and fear conditioning paradigm begun 6days after the surgery. Expression of various proteins related to inflammation was examined in the hippocampus at 24h or 21days after the surgery. Here, surgery, but not anesthesia alone, had a significant effect on prolonging the time needed to identify the target hole during the training sessions of the Barnes maze. Surgery also increased the time for identifying the target hole in the long-term memory test and decreased context-related learning and memory in fear conditioning test. Also, surgery increased nuclear expression of p65, a NF-κB component, decreased cytoplasmic amount of inhibitor of NF-κB, and increased the expression of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 and active matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). Finally, surgery enhanced IgG extravasation in the hippocampus. These surgical effects were attenuated by PDTC. These results suggest that surgery, but not propofol-based anesthesia, induces neuroinflammation and impairment of learning and memory. PDTC attenuates these effects possibly by inhibiting NF-κB activation and the downstream MMP-9 activity.

  10. Preconcentration method for trace metals in natural waters using 4-morpholine dithiocarbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SABO

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimum conditions were found for the preconcentration of trace metals in natural waters and model samples with standard metals concentrations by using 4-morpholinedithiocarbamate. The formed complexes were extracted with chloroform. Different methods for recovering the metals from the organic solvent were studied and compared before AAS metal analysis. The developed preconcentration method was successfully applied to the determination of trace metals concentrations in water samples from the “Barje” lake (Leskovac, Yugoslavia.

  11. Synthesis and Characterisation of Phenanthroline Adducts of Pb(II Complexes of BisN-alkyl-N-ethyldithiocarbamates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normah Awang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dithiocarbamates are a class of metal-chelating compounds with various applications in medicine. They have been used for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections, possible treatment of AIDS, and most recently cancer. Dithiocarbamates are well-known compounds to bind strongly and selectively to many metal ions.Dithiocarbamateligands readily form chelates withmetal ions through its two donor sulphur atoms.A new series of plum bum(II complexes with mixed ligands, dithiocarbamate, and 1,10-phenanthroline were successfully synthesised using in situ method. Microelemental analysis data of the complexes were in agreement with the general formula, Pb[S2CNR’R”]3phen (R’ = ethyl, R” = butyl, cyclohexyl; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline. Infrared spectra of the complexes showed that the thioureide ν(C-N band was in the region 1450–1500 cm-1. The unsplitting band of ν(C-S in the region 930–1000 cm-1indicatedthe bidentate nature of the chelated dithiocarbama to ligands. The 13C NMR chemical shift of the carbon atom of the N-CS2 group appeared in the range of 202–207 ppm.

  12. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate inhibits herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 replication, and its activity may be mediated through dysregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Min; Chen, Yu; Cheng, Lin; Chu, Ying; Song, Hong-Yong; Wu, Zhi-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is widely used as an antioxidant or an NF-κB inhibitor. It has been reported to inhibit the replication of human rhinoviruses, poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and influenza virus. In this paper, we report that PDTC could inhibit the replication of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2). PDTC suppressed the expression of HSV-1 and HSV-2 viral immediate early (IE) and late (membrane protein gD) genes and the production of viral progeny. This antiviral property was mediated by the dithiocarbamate moiety of PDTC and required the presence of Zn(2+). Although PDTC could potently block reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, it was found that this property did not contribute to its anti-HSV activity. PDTC showed no activity in disrupting the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation induced by viral infection that was vital for the virus's propagation. We found that PDTC modulated cellular ubiquitination and, furthermore, influenced HSV-2-induced IκB-α degradation to inhibit NF-κB activation and enhanced PML stability in the nucleus, resulting in the inhibition of viral gene expression. These results suggested that the antiviral activity of PDTC might be mediated by its dysregulation of the cellular ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS).

  13. Synthesis and biological evaluation of quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives bearing dithiocarbamate side chain at C2-position as potential antitumor agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Pan-Pan; Gao, Man; Mao, Bei-Bei; Cao, Sheng-Li; Liu, Cui-Huan; Yang, Chao-Rui; Li, Zhong-Feng; Liao, Ji; Zhao, Hongchang; Li, Zheng; Li, Jing; Wang, Hailong; Xu, Xingzhi

    2016-01-27

    A series of quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives bearing dithiocarbamate side chain at the C2-position were synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against A549, MCF-7, HeLa, HT29 and HCT-116 cell lines. Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited broad spectrum antitproliferative activity against five cell lines, of which 5c was the most potent against HT29 cell line with an IC50 value of 5.53 μM, inducing a G2/M phase arrest in HT29 cells. Treatment of HT29 cells with 5c resulted in BubR1 phosphorylation and an increase of mitotic index in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, 5c promoted tubulin polymerization in vitro. These results demonstrate that quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives bearing dithiocarbamate side chain at C2-position may be potentially novel antitumor agents targeting tubulin to activate the spindle assembly checkpoint.

  14. Advances in the synthesis and application of dithiocarbamates%二硫代氨基甲酸盐(酯)的合成方法及应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡元; 钟宏; 王帅; 马鑫

    2013-01-01

    对二硫代氨基甲酸盐(酯)的几种合成主要方法进行了综述,探讨了各种方法的优缺点,认为仲胺-二硫化碳法制备二硫代氨基甲酸盐(酯)具有原料廉价易得、工艺简单、收率高等优点,是一种比较适宜的方法,并介绍了二硫代氨基甲酸盐(酯)在矿物浮选中的新进展.%The main methods to synthesize dithiocarbamates are summarized. Their advantages and disadvantages are also compared. It is pointed out that secondary amine-carbon sulfide method is a promising method which is characterized by benign environment, high yield, simple process and low cost. Besides, the application of dithiocarbamates in the flotation of mineral has been introduced.

  15. A deeper Insight into the Dithiocarbamate Precursor Route Synthesis of Soluble Poly(thienylene vinylene) Derivatives for Photovoltaic Applications : Synthesis of Soluble Poly(thienylene vinylene) Derivatives for Photovoltaic Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dilien, Hanne; Palmaerts, Arne; Lenes, Martijin; de Boer, Bert; Blom, Paul; Cleij, Thomas J.; Lutsen, Laurence; Vanderzande, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of, two new poly(thienylene vinylene) derivatives is described, i e poly(3 octyl-2,5 thienylene vinylene) (O-PTV) and poly(bis[octylpheny1-2,5 thienylene vinylene]) (BOP-PTV) Both polymers have been prepared via the dithiocarbamate (DTC) precursor route The polymerization protocol of t

  16. A deeper Insight into the Dithiocarbamate Precursor Route Synthesis of Soluble Poly(thienylene vinylene) Derivatives for Photovoltaic Applications : Synthesis of Soluble Poly(thienylene vinylene) Derivatives for Photovoltaic Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dilien, Hanne; Palmaerts, Arne; Lenes, Martijin; de Boer, Bert; Blom, Paul; Cleij, Thomas J.; Lutsen, Laurence; Vanderzande, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of, two new poly(thienylene vinylene) derivatives is described, i e poly(3 octyl-2,5 thienylene vinylene) (O-PTV) and poly(bis[octylpheny1-2,5 thienylene vinylene]) (BOP-PTV) Both polymers have been prepared via the dithiocarbamate (DTC) precursor route The polymerization protocol of

  17. Study on the Tribological Performance of Borated Dibutyl Dithiocarbamate%硼化二正丁基二硫代氨基甲酸酯的摩擦学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟九; 李芬芳; 陈波水; 董浚修

    2000-01-01

    合成了硼化二正丁基二硫代氨基甲酸酯,采用四球实验机和HQ-l摩擦磨损实验机研究了其抗磨减摩性能,并采用X-射线光电子能谱仪(XPS)分析了磨斑表面组成和元素价态。实验结果表明:硼化二正丁基二硫代氨基甲酸酯具有良好的抗磨减摩性能和承载能力,其作用机理可能是添加剂在摩擦过程中与金属表面作用,形成含有机硼、有机氮、FeS和FeSO4的复合膜,从而起到抗磨减摩作用。%Borated dibutyl dithiocarbamate was synthesized. The tribological properties were evaluated using a four-ball test machine and HQ-1 ring-on-block tribotester at different additive concentration and load. The rubbed surface was investigated using X-ray photoelectron specopy. The results showed that the additive possessed good anti-wear, friction-reducing and load carrying capacity. The antiwear mechanism might be that the additive reacted with the metal surface in friction process and formed a complex film composed of organic nitrogen, organic boron, iron disulfide and ferrous sulfate, which played an important role in antiwear and friction reducing.

  18. Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on TNBS-induced rat colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ken Chen; You-Ming Long; Hui Wang; Lei Lan; Zhen-He Lin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the changes of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) DNA-binding activity, the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) regulated by NF-κB at various times and to evaluate the effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat colitis.METHODS: TNBS of 0.6 mL was mixed with ethanol of 0.3 mL solution and instilled into the lumen of the rat colon. The rat models were divided into 6 groups, which were killed at 24 h, 3, 7, 14, and 21 d after enema. Colonic inflammation and damage were assessed by macroscopical and histological criteria. Activity of NF-κB DNA-binding was analyzed by electrophoresis mobility shift assays (EMSA).Expression of ICAM-1 was detected by in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IH). Then various doses of PDTC were injected into rat abdomen 30 min before enema with TNBS/ethanol as pretreatment. The rats were killed 4 h after enema and the colonic inflammation,myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA)level, and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB were assessed.Finally, PDTC was injected intraperitoneally after colitis was induced. Changes of morphology were assayed.RESULTS: During the first week, hyperemia, hemorrhage,edema and ulceration of the colonic mucosa appeared with predominant infiltration of leukocytes. Neutrophils,macrophages, lymphocytes infiltrated in mucosa and submucosa 14 d later. Fibroblasts and granuloma-like structures were also obviously seen. The binding activity of NF-κB began to increase at 24 h time point and reached a peak at 14 d, then decreased but still was higher than control group at 21 d (P<0.01). Levels of tCAM-1 mRNA and protein significantly elevated at 24 h and the peak was at 21 d. Pretreatment with PDTC could attenuate the development of inflammation but not by reducing NF-κB activity. This attenuation of inflammation had a positive relationship with the dose of PDTC. PDTC at the dose of 100 mg/kg had no

  19. Ligand-free gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probes for the non-destructive determination of total dithiocarbamate pesticides after solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoulis, Kyriakos M; Giokas, Dimosthenis L; Tsogas, George Z; Vlessidis, Athanasios G

    2014-02-01

    In this work, we describe a simple and sensitive non-destructive method for the determination of the total concentration of dithiocarbamate fungicides (DTCs) in real samples. The proposed method combines for the first time the benefits of an extraction method for sample clean-up and preconcentration with a sensitive colorimetric assay based on gold nanoparticle probes. In this two-step procedure, the target DTCs are isolated from the matrix and preconcentrated by solid phase extraction onto commercially available C18 sorbents. Following elution, the extract containing the target dithiocarbamates, free from most interferences and matrix components, is delivered into an aqueous dispersion of plain citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) which aggregate in response to DTCs coordination on AuNPs surface through multiple gold thiolate bonds. This aggregation is evidenced by changes in the spectral properties of the solution involving a decrease in the original absorbance of Au nanoparticles at 522 nm and the appearance of a new absorption band above 700 nm. An ensuing chromatic shift of the solution from wine-red to purple-blue is observed which is visual by naked eye at concentrations as low as 50 μg L(-1). Further improvement in the detection limits can be accomplished by scaling-down the method to micro-volume conditions alleviating the need to preconcentrate larger sample volumes. Overall, by combining sample clean-up and preconcentration with the strong affinity of DTC thiol group for the gold surface, the total concentration of dithiocarbamate pesticides was successfully determined in various water samples at the low and ultra-low μg L(-1) levels without resorting to destructive techniques, sophisticated instrumentation or post-synthetic modification of gold nanoparticles. Method application in real samples showed good analytical features in terms of recoveries (81.0-94.0%), precision (5.6-8.9%) and reproducibility (~9%) rendering the method as an attractive

  20. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Electroconducting Properties of a 1D Mixed-Valence Cu(I–Cu(II Coordination Polymer with a Dicyclohexyl Dithiocarbamate Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Nakatani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new mixed-valence Cu(I–Cu(II 1D coordination polymer, [CuI4CuIIBr4(Cy2dtc2]n, with an infinite chain structure is synthesized by the reaction of Cu(Cy2dtc2 (Cy2dtc− = dicyclohexyl dithiocarbamate, C13H22NS2 with CuBr·S(CH32. The as-synthesized polymer consists of mononuclear copper(II units of CuII(Cy2dtc2 and tetranuclear copper(I cluster units, CuI4Br4. In the cluster unit, all the CuI ions have distorted trigonal pyramidal coordination geometries, and the CuI–CuI or CuI–CuII distances between the nearest copper ions are shorter than the sum of van der Waals radii for Cu–Cu.

  1. Gold nanorods as surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates for sensitive and selective detection of ultra-low levels of dithiocarbamate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saute, Benjamin; Premasiri, Ranjith; Ziegler, Lawrence; Narayanan, Radha

    2012-11-07

    We report the use of gold nanorods as solution-based SERS substrates for the detection of ultralow-levels of three different dithiocarbamate fungicides: thiram, ferbam and ziram. Gold nanorods are attractive to use as SERS substrates due to the ability to tune the surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles to the laser excitation wavelength of the Raman spectrometer equipped with a 785 nm diode laser. The gold nanorods are synthesized using a seed-mediated growth method and characterized using UV-Visible spectroscopy, zeta potential, and TEM. The gold nanorods have an aspect ratio of 2.19 ± 0.21 and have an average length of 37.81 ± 4.83 nm. SERS spectra are acquired at different concentrations of each fungicide and calibration curves are obtained by monitoring the intensity of the band arising from the ν(C-N) stretching mode coupled to the symmetric δ(CH(3)) motion. The limits of detection and limits of quantitation are obtained for each fungicide. The limits of detection are 11.00 ± 0.95 nM, 8.00 ± 1.01 nM, and 4.20 ± 1.22 nM for thiram, ferbam, and ziram respectively. The limits of quantitation are 34.43 ± 0.95 nM, 25.61 ± 1.01 nM, and 12.94 ± 1.22 nM for thiram, ferbam, and ziram respectively. It can be seen that the three different dithiocarbamates can be detected in the low nM range based on the limits of detection that are achieved.

  2. Adsorption performances and mechanisms of the newly synthesized N,N'-di (carboxymethyl) dithiocarbamate chelating resin toward divalent heavy metal ions from aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing Xiaosheng [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu Fuqiang, E-mail: jogia@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China) and Engineering Technology Research Center of Organic Toxic Substance Control and Resource Reuse of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210046 (China); Yang Xin; Ling Panpan; Li Lanjuan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Long Chao; Li Aimin [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Engineering Technology Research Center of Organic Toxic Substance Control and Resource Reuse of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2009-08-15

    N,N'-di (carboxymethyl) dithiocarbamate chelating resin (PSDC) was synthesized by anchoring the chelating agent of N,N'-di (carboxymethyl) dithiocarbamate to the chloromethylated PS-DVB (Cl-PS-DVB) matrix, as a new adsorbent for removing divalent heavy metal ions from waste-stream. The physicochemical structures of Cl-PS-DVB and PSDC were elaborately characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), elemental analysis (EA), and were further morphologically characterized using BET and BJH methods. The adsorption performances of PSDC towards heavy metals such as Cu(II), Pb(II) and Ni(II) were systematically investigated, based upon which the adsorption mechanisms were deeply exploited. For the above target, the classic batch adsorption experiments were conducted to explore the kinetics and isotherms of the removal processes with pH-value, initial concentration, temperature, and contact time as the controlling parameters. The kinetic and isotherm data could be well elucidated with Lagergren-second-order equation and Langmuir model respectively. The strong affinity of PSDC toward these target soft acids could be well demonstrated with the electrostatic attraction and chelating interaction caused by IDA moiety and sulphur which were namely soft bases on the concept of hard and soft acids and bases (HASB). Thermodynamic parameters, involving {Delta}H{sup o}, {Delta}S{sup o} and {Delta}G{sup o} were also calculated from graphical interpretation of the experimental data. The standard heats of adsorption ({Delta}H{sup o}) were found to be endothermic and the entropy change values ({Delta}S{sup o}) were calculated to be positive for the adsorption of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Ni(II) ions onto the tested adsorbents. Negative values of {Delta}G{sup o} indicated that adsorption processes for all tested metal ions onto PSDC were spontaneous.

  3. Comparison Between Three Chromatographic (GC-ECD, GC-PFPD and GC-ITD-MS) Methods and a UV-Vis Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Dithiocarbamates in Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzutti,Ionara R.; Kok,André de; Silva,Rosselei C. da; Rohers,Graciele N.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of gas chromatographic with electron capture detector, pulsed flame photometric detector and mass spectrometry (GC-ECD, GC-PFPD and GC-MS) and UV-Vis spectrophotometric methods, based on acidic hydrolysis with tin(II) chloride of dithiocarbamate and analysis of the evolved CS2. For the validation studies were assessed linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), accuracy and precision. Recovery experiments were pe...

  4. A New and Facile Protocol for the Synthesis of Dithiocarbamate-linked 3,4-Dihydro-2H-pyran Using N-Halo Catalysts Under Mild Conditions Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramin, Ghorbanivaghei; Amiri, Mostafa [Bu-Ali-Sina Univ., Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Veisi, Hojat [Payame Noor Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    A new and facile protocol for the synthesis of dithiocarabamate in EtOH/H{sub 2}O is described. Reaction of aromatic and aliphatic amines with CS{sub 2} and 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran in the presence of N,N,N',N'-tetrabromo-benzene-1,3-disulfonamide [TBBDA] and poly(N-bromo-N-ethylbenzene-1,3-disulfonamide) [PBBS] gives the corresponding dithiocarbamates in good to high yields.

  5. Synthesis, structural characterization and crystal structure of some dimethyltin complexes containing substituted 1,10-phenanthroline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Badri Z.; Haghshenas, Fahimeh; Hadi, Saba

    2017-08-01

    The reaction of dimethyltin dichloride with four substituted 1, 10- phenanthroline has been studied. The reactions of dimethyltin dichloride with 5-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Mephen); 5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Me2phen); 5-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline (NO2phen); 5-chloro-1,10-phenanthroline (Clphen) resulted in the formation of the hexa-coordinated complexes of [SnMe2Cl2(NN)] {Mephen (1), Me2phen (2), NO2phen (3), Clphen (4)}. The resulting products have been fully characterized by elemental analysis, multinuclear (1H, 13C, 119Sn) NMR, DEPT-135, HHCOSY and HSQC NMR spectroscopy. The solid state X-ray determination of complexes [SnMe2Cl2(Mephen)] (1) and [SnMe2Cl2(Me2phen)] (2) revealed that the complexes 1 and 2 contain the hexa-coordinated tin(IV) atom in an octahedral geometry with the trans-[SnMe2] configuration. The Snsbnd N bond distances in 1-2 are 2.47-2.48 Å which are almost among the largest values.

  6. Organotin(IV) complexes of 2-pyridineformamide-derived thiosemicarbazones: antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Isolda C; Moreira, Juliana P; Ardisson, José D; Santos, Raquel Gouvea Dos; da Silva, Paulo Roberto O; Garcia, Isabel; Castiñeiras, Alfonso; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2008-07-01

    Reaction of n-butyltin trichloride [(n-Bu)SnCl(3)] with 2-pyridineformamide thiosemicarbazone (H2Am4DH) and its N(4)-methyl (H2Am4Me) and N(4)-ethyl (H2Am4Et) derivatives gave [(n-Bu)Sn(2Am4DH)Cl(2)] (1), [(n-Bu)Sn(2Am4Me)Cl(2)] (2), and [(n-Bu)Sn(2Am4Et)Cl(2)] (3). Thiosemicarbazones as well as their tin complexes are active as antimicrobials against the growth of Candida albicans and Salmonella typhimurium and were highly active against malignant glioblastoma. The cytotoxic activity of complexes 1-3 is similar. Among the studied compounds [(n-Bu)Sn(2Am4DH)Cl(2)] (1) was the most active as antiproliferative (cytostatic) agent. Thiosemicarbazones and their tin(IV) complexes proved to be more potent as cytotoxic agents than cisplatin. All the compounds were able to induce apoptosis.

  7. 新显色剂吗啉荒酸吗啉萃取光度法 测定Ni(Ⅱ)的研究和应用%Study and Application of Determining Ni (Ⅱ) by a New Reagent Morpholine Dithiocarbamate Morpholine Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨水平; 黄德超; 杨女卓

    2001-01-01

    The conditions of the color reaction of morpholine dithiocarbamate morpholine chloride(MDMC) with Ni (Ⅱ) are studied in this paper. The yellow complex is formed when pH value is at 9.0. The maximum absorption peak is at 400 nm and the apparent molar absorption coefficient is 1.42×10+4 L*mol+{-1}*cm+{-1} . The method is applied to determine trace Ni (Ⅱ) in synthetical water sample with satisfactory results.%研究了吗啉荒酸吗啉与Ni(Ⅱ)显色反应的条件,确定了当pH=9.0左右时形成黄色配合物。可见光区最大吸收波长λ--{max}=400 nm,表观摩尔吸光系数ε=1.42×10+4 L*mol+{-1}*cm+{-1}。应用拟定方法测定合成水样中Ni(Ⅱ)含量,结果满意。

  8. Novel Organotin(IV) Schiff Base Complexes with Histidine Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Ortiz, Ariadna; Camacho-Camacho, Carlos; Sainz-Espuñes, Teresita; Rojas-Oviedo, Irma; Gutiérrez-Lucas, Luis Raúl; Gutierrez Carrillo, Atilano; Vera Ramirez, Marco A.

    2013-01-01

    Five novel tin Schiff base complexes with histidine analogues (derived from the condensation reaction between L-histidine and 3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde) have been synthesized and characterized. Characterization has been completed by IR and high-resolution mass spectroscopy, 1D and 2D solution NMR (1H, 13C  and 119Sn), as well as solid state 119Sn NMR. The spectroscopic evidence shows two types of structures: a trigonal bipyramidal stereochemistry with the tin atom coordinated to five donating atoms (two oxygen atoms, one nitrogen atom, and two carbon atoms belonging to the alkyl moieties), where one molecule of ligand is coordinated in a three dentate fashion. The second structure is spectroscopically described as a tetrahedral tin complex with four donating atoms (one oxygen atom coordinated to the metal and three carbon atoms belonging to the alkyl or aryl substituents), with one molecule of ligand attached. The antimicrobial activity of the tin compounds has been tested against the growth of bacteria in vitro to assess their bactericidal properties. While pentacoordinated compounds 1, 2, and 3 are described as moderate effective to noneffective drugs against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, tetracoordinated tin(IV) compounds 4 and 5 are considered as moderate effective and most effective compounds, respectively, against the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (Gram-positive). PMID:23864839

  9. Novel Organotin(IV Schiff Base Complexes with Histidine Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Garza-Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Five novel tin Schiff base complexes with histidine analogues (derived from the condensation reaction between L-histidine and 3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde have been synthesized and characterized. Characterization has been completed by IR and high-resolution mass spectroscopy, 1D and 2D solution NMR (1H, 13C  and 119Sn, as well as solid state 119Sn NMR. The spectroscopic evidence shows two types of structures: a trigonal bipyramidal stereochemistry with the tin atom coordinated to five donating atoms (two oxygen atoms, one nitrogen atom, and two carbon atoms belonging to the alkyl moieties, where one molecule of ligand is coordinated in a three dentate fashion. The second structure is spectroscopically described as a tetrahedral tin complex with four donating atoms (one oxygen atom coordinated to the metal and three carbon atoms belonging to the alkyl or aryl substituents, with one molecule of ligand attached. The antimicrobial activity of the tin compounds has been tested against the growth of bacteria in vitro to assess their bactericidal properties. While pentacoordinated compounds 1, 2, and 3 are described as moderate effective to noneffective drugs against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, tetracoordinated tin(IV compounds 4 and 5 are considered as moderate effective and most effective compounds, respectively, against the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (Gram-positive.

  10. Determination of lead in blood by chelation with ammonium pyrrolidine dithio-carbamate followed by tungsten-coil atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salido, Arthur; Sanford, Caryn L.; Jones, Bradley T.

    1999-08-01

    An inexpensive, bench-top blood Pb analyzer has been developed. The system is based on tungsten-coil atomic absorption spectrometry. Pb atomization occurs on W-coils extracted from commercially available slide projector bulbs. The system has minimal power requirements: 120 ACV and 15 A. A small, computer-controlled CCD spectrometer is used as the detector. A Pb hollow cathode lamp is used as the source. Blood Pb is chelated with ammonium pyrrolidine dithio-carbamate and extracted into methyl iso-butyl ketone (4-methyl 2-pentanone). Twenty-microliter volumes of the organic phase are deposited on the W-coil, dried at 1.4 A, charred at 2.3 A and atomized at 6.0 A. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry is used as a comparison for W-coil results. Levels 1-4 of a NIST standard reference material 955b ‘lead in bovine blood’ are used to test accuracy and precision. The analytical figures of merit for the system are: 12-pg instrument detection limit, 24-pg blood detection limit and a characteristic mass of 28 pg.

  11. Cyclen dithiocarbamate-functionalized silver nanoparticles as a probe for colorimetric sensing of thiram and paraquat pesticides via host-guest chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohit, Jigneshkumar V.; Kailasa, Suresh Kumar

    2014-11-01

    We have developed a simple and rapid colorimetric method for on-site analysis of thiram and paraquat using cyclen dithiocarbamate-functionalized silver nanoparticles (CN-DTC-Ag NPs) as a colorimetric probe. The synthesized CN-DTC-Ag NPs were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopic techniques. The CN-DTC molecules provide good supramolecular self assembly on the surfaces of Ag NPs to encapsulate thiram and paraquat selectively via "host-guest" chemistry, resulting in red-shift in surface plasmon resonance peak of CN-DTC-Ag NPs from 396 to 530 nm and 510 nm and color change from yellow to pink for thiram and to orange for paraquat, which can be naked-eye detected. The present method shows good linearity in the range of 10.0-20.0 µM and of 50.0-250 µM with limits of detection 2.81 × 10-6 M and 7.21 × 10-6 M for thiram and paraquat, respectively. This method was proved as a promising tool for on-site and real-time monitoring of thiram and paraquat in environmental water, potato, and wheat samples.

  12. Protection from spontaneous hepatocellular damage by N-benzyl-d-glucamine dithiocarbamate in Long-Evans Cinnamon rats, an animal model of Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Takahashi, Makiko; Shimada, Akinori; Okawara, Tadashi; Yasutake, Akira; Imamura, Yorishige; Kiyozumi, Morio

    2005-01-01

    The Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat is a mutant strain that accumulates excessive tissue copper (Cu) and models the clinical symptoms and biological features of Wilson's disease in humans. We compared the effects of three metal chelating agents, N-benzyl-d-glucamine dithiocarbamate (BGD), d-penicillamine (D-PEN), and triethylenetetramine (TETA), on the biliary and urinary excretions of Cu using LEC rats. The animals were treated ip with each chelating agent (1 mmol/kg body weight) and then the bile and urine samples were collected for 3 h. Because single treatment with BGD markedly stimulated biliary excretion of Cu, the protective effect of repeated BGD injection on spontaneous hepatocellular damage was further examined. Separate groups received two weekly injections of BGD starting at 11 weeks of age and were compared to saline-injected controls. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and bilirubin level were significantly increased in control LEC rats by 19 weeks of age and histopathological analysis demonstrated extensive hepatic damage in these rats. However, repeated BGD injections prevented the increases in serum ALT and bilirubin and blocked the histopathological changes in the liver. Furthermore, although Cu rapidly accumulated in the liver, kidney, spleen, and serum of control LEC rats during the test period, repeated BGD injection largely prevented these increases. These results indicate that BGD treatment is effective in blocking excessive Cu accumulation in LEC rats that, in turn, provides protection from spontaneous liver damage.

  13. Self-assembled monolayer of ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on copper detected using electrochemical methods, surface enhanced Raman scattering and quantum chemistry calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Q.-Q., E-mail: liaoqq1971@yahoo.com.cn [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy-Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Yue, Z.-W.; Yang, D. [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy-Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Wang, Z.-H. [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li, Z.-H. [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ge, H.-H. [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy-Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Li, Y.-J. [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2011-07-29

    Ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDTC) monolayer was self-assembled on fresh copper surface obtained after oxidation-reduction cycle treatment in 0.1 mol L{sup -1} potassium chloride solution at ambient temperature. The APDTC self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on copper surface was investigated by surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy and the results show that APDTC SAM is chemisorbed on copper surface by its sulfur atoms with perpendicular orientation. The optimum immersing period for SAM formation is 4 h at 0.01 mol L{sup -1} concentration of APDTC. The impedance results indicate that APDTC SAM has good corrosion inhibition effects for copper in 0.5 mol L{sup -1} hydrochloric acid solution and its maximum inhibition efficiency could reach 95%. Quantum chemical calculations show that APDTC has relatively small {Delta}E between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and large negative charge in its two sulfur atoms, which facilitate formation of an insulating Cu/APDTC film on copper surface.

  14. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate inhibits superoxide anion-induced pain and inflammation in the paw skin and spinal cord by targeting NF-κB and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Fattori, Victor; Zarpelon, Ana C; Borghi, Sergio M; Staurengo-Ferrari, Larissa; Carvalho, Thacyana T; Alves-Filho, Jose C; Cunha, Fernando Q; Cunha, Thiago M; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) in superoxide anion-induced inflammatory pain. Male Swiss mice were treated with PDTC and stimulated with an intraplantar or intraperitoneal injection of potassium superoxide, a superoxide anion donor. Subcutaneous PDTC treatment attenuated mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia, paw oedema and leukocyte recruitment (neutrophils and macrophages). Intraplantar injection of superoxide anion activated NF-κB and increased cytokine production (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10) and oxidative stress (nitrite and lipid peroxidation levels) at the primary inflammatory foci and in the spinal cord (L4-L6). PDTC treatment inhibited superoxide anion-induced NF-κB activation, cytokine production and oxidative stress in the paw and spinal cord. Furthermore, intrathecal administration of PDTC successfully inhibited superoxide anion-induced mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia and inflammatory response in peripheral foci (paw). These results suggest that peripheral stimulus with superoxide anion activates the local and spinal cord oxidative- and NF-κB-dependent inflammatory nociceptive mechanisms. PDTC targets these events, therefore, inhibiting superoxide anion-induced inflammatory pain in mice.

  15. Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate Inhibits NF-KappaB Activation and Upregulates the Expression of Gpx1, Gpx4, Occludin, and ZO-1 in DSS-Induced Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Wu, Miaomiao; Duan, Jielin; Liu, Gang; Cui, Zhijie; Zheng, Jie; Chen, Shuai; Ren, Wenkai; Deng, Jinping; Tan, Xiangwen; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Liao, Peng; Li, Tiejun; Yulong, Yin

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) correlates with oxidative stress, inflammation, and alteration in several signal pathways, including nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB). Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), an inhibitor of NF-κB, has been widely demonstrated to exhibit an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory function. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that NF-κB inhibitor PDTC confers a beneficial role in a colitis model induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in mouse. The results showed that DSS decreased daily weight gain, induced colonic inflammation, suppressed the expression of antioxidant enzymes and tight junctions, and activated NF-κB and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Nrf2/Keap1) signaling pathways. PDTC significantly upregulated (P < 0.05) Gpx1, Gpx4, occludin, and ZO-1 expressions in the DSS-induced colitis model. Meanwhile, PDTC reversed (P < 0.05) the activation of NF-κB signal pathway caused by DSS treatment. In conclusion, PDTC could serve as an adjuvant therapy for the patient with IBD.

  16. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) inhibits the overexpression of MCP-1 and attenuates microglial activation in the hippocampus of a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Rilang; Xu, Xiaoyun; Luo, Zheng; Shen, Nan; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Yongbo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on MCP-1 expression and microglial activation in the hippocampus of a rat model of pilocarpine (PILO)-induced status epilepticus (SE). Moreover, seizure susceptibility, frequency and severity as well as brain damage were analyzed and changes in behavior were recorded. Chemokine MCP-1 expression and microglial activation were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Fluoro-Jade C (FJC) and NeuN staining were used for the evaluation of tissue damage. Our results showed that although SE resulted in the upregulation of MCP-1 and microglial activation in the rat hippocampus 24 h after seizure onset, pretreatment with PDTC significantly inhibited the MCP-1 overexpression and attenuated the microglial activation. These effects were accompanied by neurodegenerative amelioration. To the best of our knowledge, these findings indicated for the first time that the activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway may contribute to MCP-1 upregulation and microglial activation in the context of epilepsy. PDTC was also shown to exert anticonvulsant activity and to have a neuroprotective effect on the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, potentially through attenuating microglial activation.

  17. Sulfur crosslinks from thermal degradation of chitosan dithiocarbamate derivatives and thermodynamic study for sorption of copper and cadmium from aqueous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Soon Kong; Skinner, William M; Bolan, Nanthi S; Lombi, Enzo; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-01-01

    Pristine chitosan beads were modified with sulfur (S)-containing functional groups to produce thiolated chitosan beads (ETB), thereby increasing S donor ligands and crosslinks. The effect of temperature, heating time, carbon disulfide (CS2)/chitosan ratio, and pH on total S content of ETB was examined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The total S content of ETB increased with increasing CS2/chitosan ratio and decreased with decreasing pH and increasing temperature (>60 °C) and heating time (at 60 °C). Spectroscopic analyses revealed the presence of thiol (-SH)/thione, disulfide (-S-S-), and sulfonate groups in ETB. The thiolation mechanism involves decomposition of dithiocarbamate groups, thereby forming thiourea crosslinks and trithiocarbonate, resulting in -SH oxidation to produce -S-S- crosslinks. The partially formed ETB crosslinks contribute to its acid stability and are thermodynamically feasible in adsorbing Cd and Cu. The S-containing functional groups added to chitinous wastes act as sorbents for metal remediation from acidic environments.

  18. THE COORDINATION COMPOUNDS OF COBALT (II, III WITH DITHIOCARBAMIC ACID DERIVATIVES — MODIFICATORS OF HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Varbanets

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chloride, bromide and isothiocyanate complexes of cobalt(II with N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-N?-pentamethylenesulfenamides (1–(12, and also complexes of cobalt(II, Ш with derivatives of morpholine-4-carbodithioic acid (13–(18 have been used as modificators of enzymes of hydrolytic action — Bacillus thurin-giensis ІМВ В-7324 peptidases, Bacillus subtilis 147 and Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae 80428 amylases, Eupenicillium erubescens 248 and Cryptococcus albidus 1001 rhamnosidases. It was shown that cobalt (II, Ш compounds influence differently on the activity of enzymes tested, exerted both inhibitory and stimulatory action. It gives a possibility to expect that manifestation of activity by complex molecule depends on ligand and anion presence — Cl–, Br– or NCS–. The high activating action of cobalt(II complexes with N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-N?-pentamethylenesulphenamides (1–(12 on elastase and fibrinolytic activity of peptidases compared to tris(4-morpholinecarbodithioatocobalt(ІІІ (14 and products of its interaction with halogens (15–(17, causes inhibitory effect that is probably due to presence of a weekly S–N link, which is easy subjected to homolytic breaking. The studies of influences of cobalt(II complexes on activity of C. аlbidus and E. еrubescens ?-Lrhamnosidases showed, that majority of compounds inhibits of its activity, at that the most inhibitory effect exerts to C. аlbidus enzyme.To sum up, it is possible to state that character of influence of cobalt(II complexes with N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-N?-pentamethylenesulphenamides, and also cobalt(II, Ш complexes with derivatives of morpholine-4-carbodithioic acid varies depending on both strain producer and enzyme tested. The difference in complex effects on enzymes tested are due to peculiarities of building and functional groups of their active centers, which are also responsible for binding with modificators.

  19. Molecular structure, supramolecular association and anion sensing by chlorodiorganotin(IV) methylferrocenyldithiocarbamates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Reena; Awasthi, Mahendra Kumar; Singh, Amita; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele; Trivedi, Manoj; Prasad, Rajendra; Shahid, Mohammad; Kumar, Abhinav

    2017-10-01

    Three new chlorodiorganotin(IV) methylferrocenyl dithiocarbamate complexes viz. [(FcCH2)(CH2CH2OH)NCS2SnMe2(Cl)] (1), [(FcCH2)(CH2CH2OH)NCS2SnnBu2(Cl)] (2) and [(FcCH2)(CH2CH2OH)NCS2SnPh2(Cl)] (3) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis, 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure of 1 indicates that the coordination geometries around the tin(IV) center is intermediate between ideal trigonal-bipyramidal and square pyramidal coordination polyhedra bonded through two sulfur atoms of the dithiocarbamate ligand in an isobidentate mode, two CH3 groups and one chlorine atom. Since, in 2 and 3 only alkyl and aryl fragments have been changed we infer that both 2 and 3 would also have the same behaviors in the solution state as observed in 1. Ionic interactions abilities of 1-3 are examined in acetonitrile through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy which offers reasonably good selectivity and sensitivity towards the detection of the acetate ion. Compounds 1-3 exhibit a bathochromic shift with the acetate ion with a moderate association constant.

  20. Determination of Dithiocarbamate Pesticide Residues in Tobacco by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy%烟草中二硫代氨基甲酸酯农药残留量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边照阳; 唐纲岭; 张洪非; 李中皓; 胡清源

    2011-01-01

    为提高烟草中农药残留量的检测效率,建立了一种快速测定二硫代氨基甲酸酯类农药的方法.在密闭系统中,试样中的二硫代氨基甲酸酯在加热、超声条件下与还原性酸溶液反应,分解产生的二硫化碳经过异辛烷吸收后用气相色谱/质谱联用法(GC/MS)检测,以二硫化碳的含量表示二硫代氨基甲酸酯残留量.结果表明:方法的回收率在90.4%~106.O%之间,相对标准偏差(RSD)在3.2%~9.5%之间,定量限为0.017 mg/kg.该法可用于批量烟草样品中二硫代氨基甲酸酯类农药残留量的快速检测.%A method was presented for the analysis of dithiocarbamate pesticide residues in tobacco, in which tobacco was put into a closed-conical flask, the residues of dithiocarbamate pesticides in tobacco were extracted and hydrolyzed to CS2 under ultrasonic conditions, then CS2 trapped in a layer of iso-octane overlaying the reaction mixture was taken for gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis.The recoveries ranged from 90.4% to 106.0% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 3.2% to 9.5% and the limit of quantification ( LOQ).of 0.017 mg/kg.This method can be used for the fast analysis of the dithiocarbamate pesticide residues in tobacco.

  1. A novel dithiocarbamate derivative induces cell apoptosis through p53-dependent intrinsic pathway and suppresses the expression of the E6 oncogene of human papillomavirus 18 in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhong; Qi, Hongxue; Li, Xiaobo; Hou, Xueling; Lu, Xueying; Xiao, Xiangwen

    2015-06-01

    Dithiocarbamates (DTCs) exhibit a broad spectrum of antitumor activities, however, their molecular mechanisms of antitumor have not yet been elucidated. Previously, we have synthesized a series of novel dithiocarbamate derivatives. These DTCs were examined for cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines. In this study, one of dithiocarbamate (DTC1) with higher potential for HeLa cells was chosen to investigate molecular mechanisms for its anti-tumor activities. DTC1 could inhibit proliferation, and highly induce apoptosis in HeLa cells by activating caspase-3, -6 and -9; moreover, activities of caspase-3, -6 and -9 were inhibited by pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK. Furthermore, DTC1 decreased the levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and increased expression of cytosol cytochrome c, Bak, Bax and p53 in a time-dependent manner but had no effect on the level of Rb. It was shown that DTC1 induced HeLa cells apoptosis through a p53-dependent pathway as tested by the wild type p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α. Additionally, the relative expression of E6 and E7 were evaluated in HPV18-positive (HeLa cells) by real-time PCR and western blotting. The results firstly demonstrated that DTC1 suppressed both expression of E6 mRNA and E6 oncoprotein, but had no effect on the expression of E7 mRNA and protein in HPV18. Our results suggested that DTC1 may serve as novel chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cervical cancer and potential anti-HPV virus candidates that merit further studies.

  2. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate protects pancreatic β-cells from oxidative damage through regulation of FoxO1 activity in type 2 diabetes rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Haiyan; Zhu, Tienian; Yin, Xiaomei; Liu, Jiankun; Zhang, Lizhong; Bernier, Michel; Zhao, Ruijing

    2014-07-01

    Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) can lower the blood glucose level and improve the insulin sensitivity in diabetic rats. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect of PDTC treatment in diabetic rats remained uncertain. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms by which PDTC conferred protection against oxidative damage to pancreatic islet β-cells in rats with experimental type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). DM in the rats was elicited by long-term high-fat diet accompanied with a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a low dose of streptozotocin. After a 7-day administration of PDTC (50 mg/kg/day i.p.), blood glucose levels were measured and pancreatic tissues were collected for the determination of various biochemical and enzymatic activities using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and western blot techniques. The percentage of apoptotic pancreatic islet β-cells was detected by flow cytometry. The results showed that diabetic rats had elevated blood glucose levels and insulin resistance, accompanied with an increase in malondialdehyde content, nitrotyrosine production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. A decrease in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities was also observed in DM rats, culminating with elevated β-cell apoptosis. PDTC treatment significantly reduced the oxidative damage and the β-cell apoptosis, and also increased the insulin production through down-regulating FoxO1 acetylation and up-regulating nuclear PDX-1 level. These data suggested that PDTC can protect islet β-cells from oxidative damage and improve insulin production through regulation of PDX-1 and FoxO1 in a DM rat model.

  3. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate inhibited nuclear factor-кB activation in alveolar macrophages by different mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-qing LI; Zhen-xiang ZHANG; Yong-jian XU; Wang NI; Shi-xin CHEN; Zhao YANG; Dan MA

    2006-01-01

    Aim:To study the effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine(NAC)and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate(PDTC)on the phosphorylation of IκB kinase(IKK)β,IKKα,and IκBa in alveolar macrophages(AM),and to explore the pharmacological mechanisms of NAC and PDTC as inhibitors of NF-κB activation.Methods:AM were collected from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.The AM were incubated for 1.5h with NAC and PDTC,and then stimulated for 90 min by either tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α or interleukin(IL)-1.Western blotting was used to detect the protein phosphorylation levels of IKKβ,IKKα,and IκBα.NF-κB activity was analyzed by using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay.Resuits:NAC inhibited the phosphorylation of IKKβ,IKKα,and IκBα induced by TNF-α,but had no effect on the phosphorylation of IKKβ,IKKα and IκBα induced by IL-1.PDTC did not inhibit the phosphorylation of IκBα induced by TNF-α or IL-1.Similarly,NAC inhibited the activation of NF-κB induced by TNF-α,but had no effect on the activation of NF-κB induced by IL-1.PDTC significantly inhibited the activation of NF-κB induced by TNF-α and IL-1.The electrophoretic mobility shift assay also showed that PDTC and NAC do not directly inhibit NF-κB DNA binding activity in vitro.Conclusion:PDTC prevents the degradation of IκBα via the ubiquitylation-proteasome proteolytic pathway.NAC can inhibit the processes upstream of IKK activation induced by TNF-α,which results in the decline of NF-κB activity.

  4. The Nuclear Factor kappaB Inhibitor Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate Prevents Cardiac Remodelling and Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Up-Regulation in Renovascular Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau, Stefany B A; Guimaraes, Danielle A; Rizzi, Elen; Ceron, Carla S; Gerlach, Raquel F; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2015-10-01

    Imbalanced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity is involved in hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy. Pharmacological inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-кB) with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) can prevent MMP up-regulation. We suggested that treatment with PDTC could prevent 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) hypertension-induced left ventricular remodelling. Sham-operated controls or 2K1C rats with hypertension received either vehicle or PDTC (100 mg/kg/day) by gavage for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was monitored every week. Histological assessment of left ventricles was carried out with haematoxylin/eosin sections, and fibrosis was quantified in picrosirius red-stained sections. Oxidative stress was evaluated in heart samples with the dihydroethidium probe. Cardiac MMP activity was determined by in situ zymography, and cardiac MMP-2 was assessed by immunofluorescence. 2K1C surgery significantly increased systolic blood pressure in the 2K1C vehicle. PDTC exerted antihypertensive effects after 2 weeks of treatment. Histology revealed increased left ventricular and septum wall thickness associated with augmented myocyte diameter in hypertensive rats, which were reversed by treatment with PDTC. Hypertensive rats developed pronounced cardiac fibrosis with increased interstitial collagen area, increased cardiac reactive oxygen species levels, gelatinase activity and MMP-2 expression. PDTC treatment decreased these alterations. These findings show that PDTC modulates myocardial MMP-2 expression and ameliorates cardiac remodelling in renovascular hypertension. These results suggest that interfering with MMP expression at transcriptional level may be an interesting strategy in the therapy of organ damage associated with hypertension.

  5. Amelioration of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) with an inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamei, Hirokuni; Iwabuchi, Kazuya; Namba, Kenichi; Yoshida, Kazuhiko; Yanagawa, Yoshiki; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Kitamura, Mizuki; Ohno, Shigeaki; Onoé, Kazunori

    2006-06-01

    Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) is a T helper type 1 cell-mediated autoimmune disease, which serves as a model of human chronic uveitis. In this model, cells of a monocyte/macrophage lineage and retinal antigen (Ag)-specific T cells infiltrate into the retina and cause inflammatory lesion, where proinflammatory cytokines and various stimuli activate a transcriptional factor, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which modulates inflammation and enhances immune responses. In the present study, the therapeutic effect of administration of a NF-kappaB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), was examined in a murine EAU model. It was shown that PDTC ameliorated the clinical symptoms of EAU mice and significantly reduced the histopathological score compared with those in untreated mice. mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1beta were suppressed in eyes of PDTC-treated EAU mice. However, when T cells from PDTC-treated EAU mice, Ag-presenting cells (APC), and the retinal Ag peptides were cocultured, these T cells showed the same level of proliferation as those from control mice. Furthermore, addition of PDTC in the culture of T cells from EAU mice, Ag, and APC completely abrogated the T cell-proliferative response and cytokine production. Pretreatment of Ag-primed T cells or APC with PDTC in vitro also reduced these responses. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of PDTC is attributed mainly to the suppression of effector-phase responses including inflammation but not to the inhibition of T cell priming. Regulation of NF-kappaB pathway in the lesion could be a novel target for the successful control of uveoretinitis.

  6. Synthsis of salicylidene condensation hydrazine dithiocarbamate benzyl ester%水杨醛缩肼基二硫代甲酸苄酯类Schiff碱配体的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏新立; 贾真; 刘秋平; 强根荣

    2011-01-01

    由水合肼、CS2与取代的溴化苄在低温条件下反应,合成肼基二硫代甲酸苄酯类化合物,再在无水乙醇体系中及高温回流条件下与取代的水杨醛进行反应,合成了一系列标题化合物,其结构经质谱、紫外光谱、红外光谱、元素分析及1H核磁共振等进行表征.%Hydrazine dithiocarbamate benzyl ester was synthesized by reaction of the hydrazine hydrate, CS2 and substituted benzyl bromide at low temperature.Then a series of substituted salicylidene condensation hydrazine dithiocarbamate benzyl esters were synthesized at high temperature reflowing with absolute ethanol as solvent.The structures of samples were confirmed by MS, UV, IR and elemental analysis.

  7. Highly Efficient Catalyst-Free One-Pot Synthesis of Dithiocarbamates under Solvent-Free Conditions%二硫代氨基甲酸酯衍生物的绿色合成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪凯伟; 张佩君

    2012-01-01

    A highly efficient and simple synthesis of dithiocarbamates was possible based on the one-pot reaction of amines,CS2,and alkyl halides without using a catalyst under solvent-free conditions.The mild reaction conditions,high yields,and broad scope of the reaction illustrate the good synthetic utility of the method.The reaction was a highly atom-economic process for production of dithiocarbamates and can be successfully used in large quantities in the pharmaceutical or agrochemical industries.%文章主要研究了二硫代氨基甲酸酯衍生物的合成,将脂肪胺,CS2与α,β-不饱和羰基化合物或卤代烃在无溶剂无催化剂室温条件下,"一锅法"进行了Michael-type的加成反应,合成了二硫代氨基甲酸酯衍生物,该方法产率高,操作简单,是一种原子经济的合成方法,并可大规模的用于制药及农药方面。

  8. TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MORPHOLINE-DITHIOCARBAMATE DERIVATIVES AS ADDITIVES IN RAPESEED OIL%吗啡啉二硫代氨基甲酸酯衍生物在菜籽油中的摩擦学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芬芳; 黄伊辉; 尤建伟; 陈波水

    2010-01-01

    合成了2种无灰无磷的吗啡啉二硫代氨基甲酸酯衍生物2-(morpholine-1-dithiocarbamate)butyl acetate(MCTB)和2-(morpholine-1-dithiocarbamate)hexyl acetate(MCTH),探讨了其在菜籽油中的油溶性、抗腐蚀性,并利用四球摩擦磨损试验机考察了其在菜籽油中的抗磨减摩性能,采用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)分析钢球表面磨斑形貌.结果表明,MCTB和MCTH添加剂在菜籽油中具有良好的油溶性、抗腐蚀性,可以显著地提高菜籽油的承载能力;四球试验钢球磨斑表面平整、光滑、犁沟浅,无腐蚀剥落,具有较好的抗磨性能.MCTH的抗磨减摩性能均优于MCTB.

  9. Synthesis, antimycobacterial and antitumor activities of new (1,1-dioxido-3-oxo-1,2-benzisothiazol-2(3H)-yl)methyl N,N-disubstituted dithiocarbamate/O-alkyldithiocarbonate derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Ozlen; Salman, Aydin

    2006-12-01

    Reaction of 2-chloromethylsaccharin with substituted potassium dithiocarbamates and substituted potassium dithiocarbonates furnished (1,1-dioxido-3-oxo-1,2-benzisothiazol-2(3H)-yl)methyl N,N-disubstituted dithiocarbamates (4-15) and (1,1-dioxido-3-oxo-1,2-benzisothiazol-2(3H)-yl)methyl O-alkyldithiocarbonates (16-20). The new derivatives were evaluated for in vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Compounds 4-13, 15, and 16-20 described herein showed moderate to good inhibitory activity. In particular, seven analogs 4, 5, 6, 13, and 7, 8, and 12 exhibited excellent MIC values of 1.56 and 0.78 microg/mL, respectively. Compounds 4, 5, 10, 12, 13, and 16 were selected and screened for antitumor activity. Among the tested compounds, 4 and 5 were found to be cytotoxic, especially against leukemia cell lines CCRF-CEM, HL-60(TB), RPMI-8226, and SR with log10GI50 values lower than -6.69, and against non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H522 cell line with log10GI50 values lower than -6.31. Compound 10 was cytotoxic against leukemia cell line HL-60(TB), whereas 16 displayed favorable cytotoxicity against ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3 with log10GI50 values of -6.31 and -7.45, respectively.

  10. An analytical method for hydrogeochemical surveys: Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry after using enrichment coprecipitation with cobalt and ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Trace metals that are commonly associated with mineralization were concentrated and separated from natural water by coprecipitation with ammonium pyrollidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) and cobalt and determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The method is useful in hydrogeochemical surveys because it permits preconcentration near the sample sites, and selected metals are preserved shortly after the samples are collected. The procedure is relatively simple: (1) a liter of water is filtered; (2) the pH is adjusted; (3) Co chloride and APDC are added to coprecipitate the trace metals; and (4) later, the precipitate is filtered, dissolved, and diluted to 10 ml for a 100-fold concentration enrichment of the separated metals. Sb(III), As(III), Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mo, Ni, Ag, V, and Zn can then be determined simultaneously by ICP-AES. In an experiment designed to measure the coprecipitation efficiency, Sb(III), Cd and Ag were recovered at 70 to 75% of their original concentration. The remaining metals were recovered at 85 to 100% of their original concentrations, however. The range for the lower limits of determination for the metals after preconcentration is 0.1 to 3.0 ??g/l. The precision of the method was evaluated by replicate analyses of a Colorado creek water and two simulated water samples. The accuracy of the method was estimated using a water reference standard (SRM 1643a) certified by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards. In addition, the method was evaluated by analyzing groundwater samples collected near a porphyry copper deposit in Arizona and by analyzing meltwater from glacier-covered areas favorable for mineralization in south-central Alaska. The results for the ICP-AES analyses compared favorably with those obtained using the sequential technique of GFAAS on the acidified but unconcentrated water samples. ICP-AES analysis of trace-metal preconcentrates for hydrogeochemical surveys is more efficient than GFAAS because a

  11. Synthesis and characterization of highly conductive charge-transfer complexes using positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Abdel Majid A.; Refat, Moamen S.; Sharshar, T.; Heiba, Z. K.

    Molecular charge-transfer complexes of the tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA) with picric acid (Pi-OH), benzene-1,4-diol (QL), tin(IV) tetrachloride (SnCl4), iodine, bromine, and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) have been synthesized and investigated by elemental and thermal analysis, electronic, infrared, Raman and proton-NMR, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. In this work, three types of acceptors π-acceptors (Pi-OH and QL), σ-acceptors (iodine and bromine), and vacant orbital acceptors (SnCl4 and ZnCl2) were covered. The results of elemental analysis indicated that the CT complexes were formed with ratios 1:1 and 1:2 for QL, SnCl4, and ZnCl2 acceptors and iodine, Pi-OH, and Br2 acceptors, respectively. The type of chelating between the TMEDA donor and the mentioned acceptors depends upon the behavior of both items. The positron annihilation lifetime parameters were found to be dependent on the structure, electronic configuration, and the power of acceptors. The correlation between these parameters and the molecular weight and biological activities of studied complexes was also observed. Regarding the electrical properties, the AC conductivity and the dielectric coefficients were measured as a function of frequency at room temperature. The TMEDA charge-transfer complexes were screened against antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and antifungal (Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans) activities.

  12. Determination of Dithiocarbamate Residues in Vegetable Powder by GC-μECD%GC-μECD测定蔬菜粉中二硫代氨基甲酸盐(酯)类农药残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田海; 吴琼; 张月; 赵方方; 吕岱竹; 李建国

    2015-01-01

    二硫代氨基甲酸盐(酯)(DTCs)类农药在SnCl2-HCl溶液中酸解生成CS2气体,CS2气体被正己烷吸收后,使用气相色谱-电子捕获检测器测定CS2含量,即可得到DTCs农药的残留量。采用该方法测定蔬菜粉中代森锰锌、代森联、丙森锌残留,在添加水平为10μg时,平均回收率为79.8%~93.4%,相对标准偏差为1.9%~4.6%。方法的检出限为0.01~0.04 mg/kg,定量限为0.3~1.0 mg/kg。该方法简单、准确,适用于农产品中DTCs农药的残留检测。%The dithiocarbamate residues were decomposed to carbon disulfide (CS2) in SnCl2-HCI solution.The liberated CS2 was absorbed by hexane,and then determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (μECD), the results were expressed as the residues of dithiocabamates. The residues of mancozeb, metiram and propineb in vegetable powder were determined by GC-μECD. The results showed that at the fortified level of 10μg, the average recoveries ranged from 79.8% to 93.4% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1.9%-4.6%. The limits of detection of the 3 dithiocarbamates residues in the vegetable powder were 0.01-0.04 mg/kg, and the limits of quantification were 0.3-1.0 mg/kg. The method was simple, accurate, reproducible, and suitable for the determination of the dithiocarbamate residues in agricultural products.

  13. The synthesis and characterization of complexes of zinc(II, cadmium(II, platinum(II and palladium(II with potassium 3-dithiocarboxy-3-aza-5-aminopentanoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRECKO TRIFUNOVIC

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Complexes of zinc(II, cadmium(II, platinum(II and palladium(II with a new polydentate dithiocarbamate ligand, 3-dithiocarboxy-3-aza-5-aminopentanoate (daap-, of the type M(daap2·nH2O (M = Zn(II, Cd(II, n = 2, or M = Pt(II, Pd(II, n = 0, have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and UV/VIS spectroscopy, as well as magnetic measurements. The spectra of the complexes suggest a bidentate coordination of the daap- ligand to the metal ions via the sulfur atoms of the deprotonated dithiocarbamato group. The fact that under the same experimental conditions its S-methyl ester does not form complexes could be taken as proof of the suggested coordination mode.

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of new dithiocarbamic acid 6,11-dioxo-6,11-dihydro-1H-anthra[1,2-d]-imidazol-2-yl methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Nur İpek; İncesu, Zerrin; Özkay, Yusuf

    2015-07-01

    A novel series of dithiocarbamic acid 6,11-dioxo-6,11-dihydro-1H-anthra[1,2-d]imidazol-2-yl methyl esters were synthesized and their cytotoxic and apoptotic activities were evaluated on HeLa cells. Some of these compounds showed potent cytotoxic activities and are able to induce the apoptosis mechanism in this cell line. Especially, 2c, 2d, and 2f had a high cytotoxic activity with an IC50 value of 8 or 10 μM at 24 h. These three compounds also induced HeLa cell apoptosis as compared to mitoxantrone. Particularly, 3 μM of 2f induced a high rate of early apoptotic cells (12.9%) at 6 h whereas mitoxantrone induced early apoptosis (5.5%) at 24 h. Compound 2c demonstrated a high ADP/ATP ratio (9.31) in HeLa cells at 12 h compared to mitoxantrone or other compounds, suggesting that 2c might induce HeLa cell apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Caspase-3 activity started to increase after treatment with 6 μM of 2c for 6 h, and the maximal peak of activity was obtained at 12 h of incubation time. All three compounds were found to be potent apoptotic inducers compared to mitoxantrone. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. 采用二乙氨基二硫代甲酸银光度法测定裂解气中的砷含量%Determination of arsenic content in pyrolysis by using silver diethyl dithiocarbamate spectrophotometric method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童玲; 高瑞峰

    2012-01-01

    The determination of trace arsenic in prolysis gas by using silver diethyl dithiocarbamate spectrophotometric method was established. This method was applicable to determination of the mass concentration of arsenic in pyrolysis gas in the level of mg/L. The optimal operating conditions of the determination were as follows:the dosage of sulfuric acid was 20 mL, the dosage of the zinc particles in 10-20 mesh was 6 g,the absorbtion wavelength was 530 nm. The relative standard deviation was less than 10% ,and the recovery rate was in the range of 95% -105%.%建立了裂解气中痕量砷(As)的二乙氨基二硫代甲酸银光度测定法.该方法适用于As质量浓度为mg/L级的裂解气的测定.在H2SO4加入量为20 mL,10 ~ 20目的锌粒加入量为6 g,吸光波长为530 nm的优化条件下,As含量测定结果的相对标准偏差小于10%,方法的回收率为95% ~ 105%.

  16. A scanning tunneling microscopy investigation of the phases formed by the sulfur adsorption on Au(100) from an alkaline solution of 1,4-piperazine(bis)-dithiocarbamate of potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Javier A.; Valenzuela B., José; Cao Milán, R.; Herrera, José; Farías, Mario H.; Hernández, Mayra P.

    2014-11-01

    Piperazine-dithiocarbamate of potassium (K2DTC2pz) was used as a new precursor for the spontaneous deposition of sulfur on the Au(100) surface in alkaline solution. Two new sulfur phases were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). These phases were formed by six sulfur atoms (S6 phase, hexamer) and by four sulfur atoms (S4 phase, tetramer with (√{ 2} ×√{ 2}) structure), and they were observed in coexistence with the well-known quasi-square patterns formed by eight sulfur atoms (S8 phase, octomer). A model was proposed where sulfur multilayers were formed by a (√{ 2} ×√{ 2}) phase adsorbed directly on the gold surface while one of the other structures: hexamers or octomers were deposited on top. Sulfur layers were formed on gold terraces, vacancies and islands produced by lifting reconstructed surface. Sequential high-resolution STM images allowed the direct observation of the dynamic of the octomers, while the (√{ 2} ×√{ 2}) structure remained static. Images also showed the reversible association/dissociation of the octomer.

  17. The protective effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on acute radiation injury in mice%吡咯烷二硫代氨基甲酸盐对急性辐射损伤小鼠的防护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳瑾; 白佳利; 龙伟; 沈秀; 徐文清; 周则卫

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the protective effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on acute irradiated mice.Methods The 6-8 weeks old male ICR mice were randomly divided into five groups:irradiation alone group (IR),positive control group (amifostine WR-2721 250 mg/kg) and PDTC of 30,60 and 90 mg/kg dose groups.Each group had 10 mice and the drug was given at 0.5 h before whole body irradiation.At 30 d post-irradiation of 7.5 Gy 137 Cs γrays,the mice survival were observed.At 8 d post-irradiation of 5.0 Gy 137 Cs γ-rays,the peripheral blood,hematopoietic system and organ indexes were observed to evaluate the radiation protective effect of PDTC.Results PDTC increased the 30-day survival rates and 60 mg/kg dose had the most obvious effect by increase the survival to 60% (6/10).The survivals of irradiation alone group and the amifostine positive control group was 10% (1/10) and 70% (7/10),respectively.Compared with the irradiation alone group,60 mg/kg PDTC group had the significant difference in spleen index,WBC,HGB,PLT,bone marrow nucleated cells and colony forming unit of spleen (t =2.354,4.793,2.342,6.542,2.649,3.982,P < 0.05).Conclusions PDTC is effective in radiation protection with an optimum dose of 60 mg/kg.%目的 研究吡咯烷二硫代氨基甲酸盐(pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate,PDTC)对急性辐射损伤小鼠的防护作用.方法 6~8周龄雄性ICR小鼠,按体重随机分为5组,每组10只:空白单照组(IR)、阳性对照组(氨磷汀WR-2721 250 mg/kg)和PDTC30、60、90 mg/kg剂量组,照射前30 min给予相应药品.137Cs γ射线7.5 Gy一次性全身照射,观察小鼠30 d存活率;137Cs γ射线5.0 Gy一次性全身照射,照射后第8天检测外周血、造血系统、脏器系数指标.结果 PDTC可以提高小鼠30 d存活率,60 mg/kg剂量组效果最为明显,存活率提高到60% (6/10),空白单照组为10% (1/10),阳性对照组为70% (7/10).与空白单照组相比,PDTC 60 mg/kg剂量组的脾脏指数、白细胞、

  18. Spectroscopic properties and antimicrobial activity of dioxomolybdenum(VI complexes with heterocyclic S,S’-ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Sofija P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five new dioxomolybdenum(VI complexes of the general formula[MoO2(Rdtc2], 1-5, where Rdtc-refer to piperidine- (Pipdtc, 4-morpholine-(Morphdtc, 4-thiomorpholine-(Timdtc, piperazine- (Pzdtc or Nmethylpiperazine- (N-Mepzdtc dithiocarbamates, respectively, have been prepared. Elemental analysis, conductometric measurements, electronic, IR and NMR spectroscopy have been employed to characterize them. Complexes 1-5 contain a cis-MoO2 group and are of an octahedral geometry. Two dithiocarbamato ions join as bidentates with both the sulphur atoms to the molybdenum atom. The presence of different heteroatom in the piperidinо moiety influences the v(C----N and v(C----S vibrations, which decrease in the order of the complexes with: Pipdtc > N-Mepipdtc > Morphdtc > Pzdtc > Timdtc ligands. On the basis of spectral data, molecular structures of complexes 1-5 were optimized on semiempirical molecular-orbital level, and the geometries, as obtained from calculations, described. Antimicrobial activity was tested against nine different laboratory control strains of bacteria and two strains of yeast Candida albicans. All tested strains were sensitive. Complexes bearing heteroatom in position 4 of piperidine moiety are significantly more potent against bacteria tested comparing to corresponding ligands.

  19. PDTC联合紫杉醇降低MDA-MB-231细胞增殖侵袭能力%Combination of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and paclitaxel suppresses proliferation and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春蓉; 张徽; 黃伟; 刘琼

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨核因子-κB(NF-κB)抑制剂--吡咯烷二硫代氨基甲酸盐(pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate,PDTC)联合紫杉醇(Paclitaxel)对人乳腺癌MDA-MB-231细胞增殖侵袭能力的影响.方法 MTT及FCM法测定细胞增殖和周期变化,RT-PCR检测细胞NF-κB p65 mRNA的变化,Western blot检测细胞NF-κB p65、MMP-9及TIMP-1蛋白表达变化,侵袭、迁移和黏附实验测定细胞侵袭转移能力的改变.结果 PDTC联合紫杉醇能明显抑制肿瘤细胞生长(P<0.05),细胞周期阻滞在G_1/G_0期,并可抵消紫杉醇对NF-κB的激活,使NF-κB p65 mRNA及蛋白的表达均降低(P<0.05).PDTC降低MDA-MB-231细胞的侵袭转移能力,与紫杉醇联合应用后作用增强(P<0.01).结论 PDTC联合紫杉醇能降低乳腺癌MDA-MB-231细胞的侵袭转移能力,其机制可能与PDTC抑制NF-κB的表达相关.

  20. A Central Role for JNK/AP-1 Pathway in the Pro-Oxidant Effect of Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate through Superoxide Dismutase 1 Gene Repression and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Hematopoietic Human Cancer Cell Line U937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Humberto; Afonso, Valéry; Collin, Pascal; Lomri, Abderrahim

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) known as antioxidant and specific inhibitor of NF-κB was also described as pro-oxidant by inducing cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in cancer. However, the mechanism by which PDTC indices its pro-oxidant effect is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of PDTC on the human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene transcription in hematopoietic human cancer cell line U937. We herein show for the first time that PDTC decreases SOD1 transcripts, protein and promoter activity. Furthermore, SOD1 repression by PDTC was associated with an increase in oxidative stress as evidenced by ROS production. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays (EMSA) show that PDTC increased binding of activating protein-1 (AP-1) in dose dependent-manner suggesting that the MAPkinase up-stream of AP-1 is involved. Ectopic NF-κB p65 subunit overexpression had no effect on SOD1 transcription. In contrast, in the presence of JNK inhibitor (SP600125), p65 induced a marked increase of SOD1 promoter, suggesting that JNK pathway is up-stream of NF-κB signaling and controls negatively its activity. Indeed, using JNK deficient cells, PDTC effect was not observed nether on SOD1 transcription or enzymatic activity, nor on ROS production. Finally, PDTC represses SOD1 in U937 cells through JNK/c-Jun phosphorylation. Taken together, these results suggest that PDTC acts as pro-oxidant compound in JNK/AP-1 dependent-manner by repressing the superoxide dismutase 1 gene leading to intracellular ROS accumulation.

  1. A Central Role for JNK/AP-1 Pathway in the Pro-Oxidant Effect of Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate through Superoxide Dismutase 1 Gene Repression and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Hematopoietic Human Cancer Cell Line U937.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Riera

    Full Text Available Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC known as antioxidant and specific inhibitor of NF-κB was also described as pro-oxidant by inducing cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation in cancer. However, the mechanism by which PDTC indices its pro-oxidant effect is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of PDTC on the human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 gene transcription in hematopoietic human cancer cell line U937. We herein show for the first time that PDTC decreases SOD1 transcripts, protein and promoter activity. Furthermore, SOD1 repression by PDTC was associated with an increase in oxidative stress as evidenced by ROS production. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays (EMSA show that PDTC increased binding of activating protein-1 (AP-1 in dose dependent-manner suggesting that the MAPkinase up-stream of AP-1 is involved. Ectopic NF-κB p65 subunit overexpression had no effect on SOD1 transcription. In contrast, in the presence of JNK inhibitor (SP600125, p65 induced a marked increase of SOD1 promoter, suggesting that JNK pathway is up-stream of NF-κB signaling and controls negatively its activity. Indeed, using JNK deficient cells, PDTC effect was not observed nether on SOD1 transcription or enzymatic activity, nor on ROS production. Finally, PDTC represses SOD1 in U937 cells through JNK/c-Jun phosphorylation. Taken together, these results suggest that PDTC acts as pro-oxidant compound in JNK/AP-1 dependent-manner by repressing the superoxide dismutase 1 gene leading to intracellular ROS accumulation.

  2. The nuclear factor-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate reduces polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid-induced immune response in pregnant rats and the behavioral defects of their adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xueqin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have indicated that maternal infection during pregnancy may lead to a higher incidence of schizophrenia in the offspring. It is assumed that the maternal infection increases the immune response, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring. Maternal polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (PolyI:C treatment induces a wide range of characteristics in the offspring mimicking some schizophrenia symptoms in humans. These observations are consistent with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. Methods We examined whether suppression of the maternal immune response could prevent neurodevelopmental disorders in adult offspring. PolyI:C or saline was administered to early pregnant rats to mimic maternal infection, and the maternal immune response represented by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. The NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC was used to suppress the maternal immune response. Neurodevelopmental disorders in adult offspring were examined by prepulse inhibition (PPI, passive avoidance, and active avoidance tests. Results PolyI:C administration to early pregnant rats led to elevated serum cytokine levels as shown by massive increases in serum TNF-α and IL-10 levels. The adult offspring showed defects in prepulse inhibition, and passive avoidance and active avoidance tests. PDTC intervention in early pregnant rats suppressed cytokine increases and reduced the severity of neurodevelopmental defects in adult offspring. Conclusions Our findings suggest that PDTC can suppress the maternal immune response induced by PolyI:C and partially prevent neurodevelopmental disorders of adult offspring.

  3. A scanning tunneling microscopy investigation of the phases formed by the sulfur adsorption on Au(100) from an alkaline solution of 1,4-piperazine(bis)-dithiocarbamate of potassium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Javier A. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales (IMRE), Universidad de La Habana, Zapata y G, El Vedado, Plaza de la Revolución, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Valenzuela B, José [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología (CNyN), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) , km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, BC 22860 (Mexico); Cao Milán, R. [Facultad de Química, Universidad de La Habana, Zapata y G, El Vedado, Plaza de la Revolución, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Herrera, José [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales (IMRE), Universidad de La Habana, Zapata y G, El Vedado, Plaza de la Revolución, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Farías, Mario H. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología (CNyN), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) , km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, BC 22860 (Mexico); Hernández, Mayra P., E-mail: mayrap@fisica.uh.cu [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales (IMRE), Universidad de La Habana, Zapata y G, El Vedado, Plaza de la Revolución, La Habana 10400 (Cuba)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • New phases of sulfur on gold: hexamer and (√(2)×√(2)) were observed by STM. • Hexamers and (√(2)×√(2)) structures coexist with well-known octomers. • Formation of sulfur multilayer by K{sub 2}DTC{sub 2}pz hydrolysis under alkaline condition. • Top octomer layer have dynamic behavior while (√(2)×√(2)) and hexamer were static. • A model is presented to explain sulfur multilayer formation on Au(100). - Abstract: Piperazine-dithiocarbamate of potassium (K{sub 2}DTC{sub 2}pz) was used as a new precursor for the spontaneous deposition of sulfur on the Au(100) surface in alkaline solution. Two new sulfur phases were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). These phases were formed by six sulfur atoms (S{sub 6} phase, hexamer) and by four sulfur atoms (S{sub 4} phase, tetramer with (√(2)×√(2)) structure), and they were observed in coexistence with the well-known quasi-square patterns formed by eight sulfur atoms (S{sub 8} phase, octomer). A model was proposed where sulfur multilayers were formed by a (√(2)×√(2)) phase adsorbed directly on the gold surface while one of the other structures: hexamers or octomers were deposited on top. Sulfur layers were formed on gold terraces, vacancies and islands produced by lifting reconstructed surface. Sequential high-resolution STM images allowed the direct observation of the dynamic of the octomers, while the (√(2)×√(2)) structure remained static. Images also showed the reversible association/dissociation of the octomer.

  4. Carney Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer > Carney Complex Request Permissions Carney Complex Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/2015 What is Carney complex? Carney complex is a hereditary condition associated with: ...

  5. Uptake of dissolved organic carbon-complexed ⁶⁵Cu by the green mussel Perna viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huan; Evans, Douglas; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-02-21

    Stable Cu isotope ((65)Cu) was complexed with various representative dissolved organic carbon (DOC) types, including coastal seawater DOC, fulvic acid (FA), cyanobacteria spirulina (SP) DOC, histidine (His), cysteine (Cys), and lipophilic diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDC) at different concentrations. The uptake of these dissolved Cu species by the coastal green mussel Perna viridis was quantified for the first time. Copper complexed with different DOC types were taken up in some measure by mussels, depending on the DOC types. However, complexation generally reduced Cu uptake as compared to that of inorganic Cu species, and DOC type-specific negative relationships were found between DOC levels and Cu uptake. Strong Cu binding sites (including His and organic sulfur functional groups) within DOC appeared to control the inhibitory effects of DOC on Cu uptake, possibly due to the competitive binding of Cu between the dissolved phase and biological membranes. Therefore, differences in strong Cu binding site levels may explain the differences in bioavailability of Cu complexed with different types of DOC. At the same time, the variations in Cu-DOC uptake may also be partly attributed to the absorption of Cu-DOC complexes, especially for the small Cu-DOC complexes (e.g., Cu-Cys, Cu-His, or Cu-DDC). Our study highlights the importance of considering the specificity of Cu-DOC complexes when assessing biological exposure to dissolved Cu in natural waters, especially during events, such as phytoplankton bloom periods, that could modify DOC composition and concentrations.

  6. The effect of heterocyclic S,S’-ligands on the electrochemical properties of some cobalt(III complexes in acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. JOVANOVIC

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight mixed-ligand cobalt(III complexes with the macrocyclic amine 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (cyclam and a heterocyclic dithiocarbamate (Rdtc- i.e., morpholine- (Morphdtc, thiomorpholine- (Timdtc, piperazine- (Pzdtc, N-methylpiperazine-(Mepzdtc, piperidine- (Pipdtc, 2-, 3- or 4-methylpiperidine- (2-, 3- and 4-Mepipdtc carbodithionato-S,S ions, of the general formula [Co(cyclamRdtc](ClO42, were investigated in deoxygenated 0.1MHClO4 solutions. Cyclic voltammetry data at a glassy carbon (GC electrode demonstrate a redox reaction of cobalt(III from the complexes at potentials strongly influenced by the presence of different heterocyclic Rdtc- ligands. In this respect, the complexes were separated into two groups: the first, with a heteroatom O, S or N in the heterocyclic ring, and the second, with a methyl group on the piperidine ring of the Rdtc- ligand. Anodic polarization of an Fe electrode in the presence of the complexes shows their influence not only on the dissolution of iron but also on the hydrogen evolution reactions and on this basis complexes the complexes could be divided into the same two groups. It was found that the weaker the inhibiting effect of the free heterocyclic amines is, the significantly higher is the efficiency of the corresponding complexes.

  7. Synthesis and biodistribution of a new 99mTc nitrido complex as a potential myocardial and cerebral imaging agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, JunBo; Wang, XueBin; Li, ChunYun

    2002-06-01

    The bis(N-methyl, N-cyclohexyl dithiocarbamato) nitrido technetium-99m complex [99mTcN(MECHDTC)2] (MECHDTC: N-methyl, N-cyclohexyl dithiocarbamato) has been synthesized through a ligand-exchange reaction. The two-step procedure consisted of an initial reaction of 99mTcO4- with succinic dihydrazide in the presence of stannous chloride as reducing agent and propylenediamine tetraacetic acid as complexant, and successive addition of sodium salt of N-methyl, N-cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate. The radiochemical purity of the complex was over 90%, as measured by thin layer chromatography. No decomposition of the complex at room temperature was observed over a period of 6 h. Its partition coefficient indicated that it was a lipophilic complex. The electrophoresis results showed that the complex was neutral. Biodistribution in mice showed that the complex accumulated in the heart and brain with high uptake. The heart/blood, heart/lung and brain/blood ratios were 5.55, 2.11 and 1.10, respectively, at 30 min post-injection, suggesting that this compound is a potential myocardial and cerebral imaging agent.

  8. Complex Beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschet, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Complex systems and their underlying convoluted networks are ubiquitous, all we need is an eye for them. They pose problems of organized complexity which cannot be approached with a reductionist method. Complexity science and its emergent sister network science both come to grips with the inherent complexity of complex systems with an holistic strategy. The relevance of complexity, however, transcends the sciences. Complex systems and networks are the focal point of a philosophical, cultural ...

  9. 无溶剂无催化剂条件下二硫代氨基甲酸酯衍生物的合成研究%Highly Efficient Catalyst-Free One-Pot Synthesis of Dithiocarbamates under Solvent-Free Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭圣荣; 袁艳琴; 张春牛

    2012-01-01

    A highly efficient and simple synthesis of dithiocarbamates is reported in the one-pot reaction of amines, CS2, and alkyl halides without using a catalyst under solvent-free conditions. The mild reaction conditions, high yields, and broad scope of the reaction illustrate the good synthetic utility of this method. The reaction is a highly atom-economic process for production of dithiocarbamates and can be successfully used in large amount for the pharmaceutical or agrochemical industries.%主要研究了二硫代氨基甲酸酯衍生物的合成,将脂肪胺、CS2与α,β-不饱和羰基化合物或卤代烃在无溶剂无催化剂室温条件下,“一锅法”进行了Michael-type的加成反应,合成了二硫代氨基甲酸酯衍生物.该方法产率高,操作简单,是一种原子经济的合成方法,并可大规模地用于制药及农药方面.

  10. An unprecedented binuclear cadmium dithiocarbamate adduct: bis[μ2-N-(2-hydroxyethyl-N-isopropylcarbamodithioato-κ3S:S,S′]bis{[N-(2-hydroxyethyl-N-isopropylcarbamodithioato-κ2S,S′](3-{(1E-[(E-2-(pyridin-3-ylmethylidenehydrazin-1-ylidene]methyl}pyridine-κNcadmium]} dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi D. Arman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit in the title binuclear compound, [Cd(C6H12NOS22(C12H10N4]2·2H2O, comprises a CdII atom, two dithiocarbamate (dtc anions, a monodentate 3-pyridinealdazine ligand and a lattice water molecule. The binuclear molecule is constructed by the application of inversion symmetry. One dtc ligand simultaneously chelates one cadmium atom and bridges the centrosymmetric mate, while the other dtc ligand is chelating only. This leads to a centrosymmetric [Cd(dtc2]2 core to which are appended two 3-pyridinealdazine ligands. The resulting NS5 donor set is based on an octahedron. The three-dimensional molecular packing is sustained by hydroxyl-O—H(hydroxyl and water-O—H...O(hydroxyl hydrogen bonding, leading to supramolecular layers parallel to (101 which are connected by water-O—H...N(pyridyl hydrogen bonding; additional C—H...O, S π(chelate ring interactions are also evident. The retention of the central [Cd(dtc2]2 core upon adduct formation is unprecedented in the structural chemistry of the zinc-triad dithiocarbamates.

  11. 砷、锑、铋的氨荒酸类配合物的研究进展%Research Progress on Chemistry of Arsenic, Antimony and Bismuth Complexes with Dithiocarbamate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志朋; 宋玉侠

    2013-01-01

    综述了近年来合成的三价和五价砷、锑、铋的氨荒酸配合物,包括均配、非均配氨荒酸配体配合物等,在这些配合物中观察到了结构的多样性和不同的成键方式,并对其合成、特性、应用等方面进行了介绍,并对其进行了展望.

  12. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  13. 二丁基二硫代氨基甲酸镧的制备及摩擦学性能分析%Preparation of Lanthanum Dibutyl Dithiocarbamate and its Tribological Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜鹏; 衣守志; 徐振; 张冠军

    2013-01-01

    Oil-soluble lanthanum dibutyl dithiocarbamate(LADTC)as an lubricant additive was prepared with N,N-dibutyl amine(C8H18NH),carbon disulfide(CS2)and lanthanum oxide(La2O3). Its chemical structure was characterized with infra-red spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis(TGA)showed that it possessed good thermostability. The tribological per-formances of LADTC in the base oil were evaluated by a four-ball machine. The surface topography of wear scars was ana-lyzed with scanning electron microscope(SEM). The results indicated that the tribological properties were optimal when w(LADTC)/w(oil)=2%. The friction coefficient was reduced by 38.5%compared with that of the base oil,and the wear scar diameter(WSD)was 0.24,mm.%以二正丁胺、CS2和 La2O3为原料制备一种润滑油添加剂--二丁基二硫代氨基甲酸镧(LADTC),该化合物在润滑油中具有良好的溶解性.通过红外光谱(FTIR)对其进行结构分析.热重分析表明该化合物热稳定性良好.采用四球摩擦磨损试验机考察该添加剂的摩擦学性能,并利用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)观察钢球磨斑表面形貌.结果表明,在基础油中加入2.0%的LADTC时,润滑油的摩擦系数较空白基础油降低38.5%,磨斑直径(WSD)最小值为0.24,mm,且钢球磨斑表面较为光滑.

  14. Bucolic Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Brešar, Bostjan; Chepoi, Victor; Gologranc, Tanja; Osajda, Damian

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we introduce and investigate bucolic complexes, a common generalization of systolic complexes and of CAT(0) cubical complexes. This class of complexes is closed under Cartesian products and amalgamations over some convex subcomplexes. We study various approaches to bucolic complexes: from graph-theoretic and topological viewpoints, as well as from the point of view of geometric group theory. Bucolic complexes can be defined as locally-finite simply connected prism complexes satisfying some local combinatorial conditions. We show that bucolic complexes are contractible, and satisfy some nonpositive-curvature-like properties. In particular, we prove a version of the Cartan-Hadamard theorem, the fixed point theorem for finite group actions, and establish some results on groups acting geometrically on such complexes. We also characterize the 1-skeletons (which we call bucolic graphs) and the 2-skeletons of bucolic complexes. In particular, we prove that bucolic graphs are precisely retracts of Ca...

  15. Synthesis and biodistribution of a new {sup 99m}Tc nitrido complex as a potential myocardial and cerebral imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Junbo E-mail: zhjunbo0515@sina.com; Wang Xuebin; Li Chunyun

    2002-06-01

    The bis(N-methyl, N-cyclohexyl dithiocarbamato) nitrido technetium-99m complex [{sup 99m}TcN(MECHDTC){sub 2}] (MECHDTC: N-methyl, N-cyclohexyl dithiocarbamato) has been synthesized through a ligand-exchange reaction. The two-step procedure consisted of an initial reaction of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} with succinic dihydrazide in the presence of stannous chloride as reducing agent and propylenediamine tetraacetic acid as complexant, and successive addition of sodium salt of N-methyl, N-cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate. The radiochemical purity of the complex was over 90%, as measured by thin layer chromatography. No decomposition of the complex at room temperature was observed over a period of 6 h. Its partition coefficient indicated that it was a lipophilic complex. The electrophoresis results showed that the complex was neutral. Biodistribution in mice showed that the complex accumulated in the heart and brain with high uptake. The heart/blood, heart/lung and brain/blood ratios were 5.55, 2.11 and 1.10, respectively, at 30 min post-injection, suggesting that this compound is a potential myocardial and cerebral imaging agent.

  16. Communication complexity and information complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  17. Synthesis of a bis(2,3-dimethylcyclohexyl-dithiocarbamato)-nitrido {sup 99m}Tc complex: A potential tracer for myocardial imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Junbo [Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals (Beijing Normal University), Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: zhjunbo@bnu.edu.cn; Song Zhixin; Wang Xuebin [Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals (Beijing Normal University), Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2009-04-15

    The {sup 99m}TcN(DMCHDTC){sub 2} complex, where DMCHDTC is 2,3-dimethylcyclohexyl dithiocarbamato, has been synthesized through a ligand-exchange reaction. The two-step procedure involved the initial reaction of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} with succinic dihydrazide in the presence of stannous chloride as reducing agent and propylenediamine tetraacetic acid as complexant, followed by the addition of 2,3-dimethylcyclohexyl dithiocarbamate. The radiochemical purity of the complex was over 90%, as measured by thin layer chromatography, without any notable decomposition at room temperature over a period of 6 h. The partition coefficient and electrophoresis results indicated that this complex was lipophilic and neutral. Biodistribution in mice showed that the complex accumulated in the heart with high uptake and good retention, the heart uptakes being 12.82, 11.37 and 10.64%ID/g at 5, 30 and 60 min post-injection, respectively. The heart/lung, heart/liver and heart/blood ratios of the complex were 1.06, 0.25 and 8.06 at 60 min post-injection, suggesting it has potential for use as a myocardial imaging agent.

  18. Synthesis and biodistribution of a novel [99mTcN(PNP5)(DMCHDTC)]+ complex as a potential myocardial perfusion imaging agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, JunBo; Song, ZhiXin; Jinfeng, Chu; Wang, XueBin

    2009-09-01

    The [(99m)TcN(PNP5)(DMCHDTC)](+)(DMCHDTC: 2,3-dimethyl cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate, PNP5:bis(dimethoxypropylphosphinoethyl)ethoxyethylamine) complex was synthesized through a ligand-exchange reaction. The two-step procedure involved the initial reaction of (99m)TcO(4)(-) with succinic dihydrazide (SDH) as a donor of nitride nitrogen atom (N(3-)) in the presence of stannous chloride dihydrate as reducing agent and propylenediamine tetraacetic acid (PDTA) as complexant, followed by the addition of the PNP5 ligand and the DMCHDTC ligand. The radiochemical purity (RCP) of the product was over 90% as measured by thin layer chromatography (TLC). No decomposition of the complex at room temperature was observed over a period of 6 h. Its partition coefficient indicated that it was a lipophilic complex. The electrophoresis results showed the complex was cationic. The biodistribution results in mice indicated that [(99m)TcN(PNP5)(DMCHDTC)](+) was significantly retained into the heart. The heart uptake (ID%/g) was 14.47, 12.23 and 8.76 at 5, 30 and 60 min post-injection, respectively. The heart/liver, heart/lung and heart/blood ratios of the complex were 1.24, 3.62 and 23.05 at 60 min post-injection, suggesting it will be a potential myocardial imaging agent.

  19. Synthesis and biodistribution of a novel [{sup 99m}TcN(PNP5)(DMCHDTC)]{sup +} complex as a potential myocardial perfusion imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Junbo [Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals (Beijing Normal University), Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: zhjunbo@bnu.edu.cn; Song Zhixin; Jinfeng Chu; Wang Xuebin [Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals (Beijing Normal University), Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2009-09-15

    The [{sup 99m}TcN(PNP5)(DMCHDTC)]{sup +}(DMCHDTC: 2,3-dimethyl cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate, PNP5:bis(dimethoxypropylphosphinoethyl)ethoxyethylamine) complex was synthesized through a ligand-exchange reaction. The two-step procedure involved the initial reaction of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} with succinic dihydrazide (SDH) as a donor of nitride nitrogen atom (N{sup 3-}) in the presence of stannous chloride dihydrate as reducing agent and propylenediamine tetraacetic acid (PDTA) as complexant, followed by the addition of the PNP5 ligand and the DMCHDTC ligand. The radiochemical purity (RCP) of the product was over 90% as measured by thin layer chromatography (TLC). No decomposition of the complex at room temperature was observed over a period of 6 h. Its partition coefficient indicated that it was a lipophilic complex. The electrophoresis results showed the complex was cationic. The biodistribution results in mice indicated that [{sup 99m}TcN(PNP5)(DMCHDTC)]{sup +} was significantly retained into the heart. The heart uptake (ID%/g) was 14.47, 12.23 and 8.76 at 5, 30 and 60 min post-injection, respectively. The heart/liver, heart/lung and heart/blood ratios of the complex were 1.24, 3.62 and 23.05 at 60 min post-injection, suggesting it will be a potential myocardial imaging agent.

  20. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Engaging complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gys M. Loubser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I discuss studies in complexity and its epistemological implications for systematic and practical theology. I argue that engagement with complexity does not necessarily assurea non-reductionist approach. However, if complexity is engaged transversally, it becomes possible to transcend reductionist approaches. Moreover, systematic and practical the ologians can draw on complexity in developing new ways of understanding and, therefore, new ways of describing the focus, epistemic scope and heuristic structures of systematic and practical theology. Firstly, Edgar Morin draws a distinction between restricted and general complexity based on the epistemology drawn upon in studies in complexity. Moving away from foundationalist approaches to epistemology, Morin argues for a paradigm of systems. Secondly,I discuss Kees van Kooten Niekerk�s distinction between epistemology, methodology andontology in studies in complexity and offer an example of a theological argument that drawson complexity. Thirdly, I argue for the importance of transversality in engaging complexity by drawing on the work of Wentzel van Huyssteen and Paul Cilliers. In conclusion, I argue that theologians have to be conscious of the epistemic foundations of each study in complexity, and these studies illuminate the heart of Reformed theology.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Therefore, this article has both intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary implications. When theologians engage studies incomplexity, the epistemological roots of these studies need to be considered seeing thatresearchers in complexity draw on different epistemologies. Drawing on transversality wouldenhance such considerations. Furthermore, Edgar Morin�s and Paul Cilliers� approach tocomplexity will inform practical and theoretical considerations in church polity and unity.

  2. Computational Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems (CS involve many elements that interact at different scales in time and space. The challenges in modeling CS led to the development of novel computational tools with applications in a wide range of scientific areas. The computational problems posed by CS exhibit intrinsic difficulties that are a major concern in Computational Complexity Theory. [...

  3. Complex narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. It interrogates the different terms - forking-path narratives, mind-game films, modular narratives, multiple-draft films, database narratives, puz

  4. Complex odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preetha, A; Balikai, Bharati S; Sujatha, D; Pai, Anuradha; Ganapathy, K S

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas are hamartomatous lesions or malformations composed of mature enamel, dentin, and pulp. They may be compound or complex, depending on the extent of morphodifferentiation or their resemblance to normal teeth. The etiology of odontoma is unknown, although several theories have been proposed. This article describes a case of a large infected complex odontoma in the residual mandibular ridge, resulting in considerable mandibular expansion.

  5. Simplifying complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemput, van de I.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I use mathematical models to explore the properties of complex systems ranging from microbial nitrogen pathways and coral reefs to the human state of mind. All are examples of complex systems, defined as systems composed of a number of interconnected parts, where the systemic behavior

  6. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  7. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dut...... and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing....

  8. Lecithin Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yellow power was collected as polydatin-lecithin complex. ... performed on an Agilent 1260 HPLC system. The injection volume .... rabbits. Biomed. Pharmacother 2009; 63: 457-462. 4. Liu B, Du J, Zeng J, Chen C, Niu S. Characterization and.

  9. Synthesis of vanadium complexes and butadiene polymerization catalyzed by the complexes%钒配合物的合成及其催化丁二烯聚合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄贵秋; 陈敏娥; 熊拯

    2012-01-01

    采用N-亚硝基苯胲铵、二乙基二硫代氨基甲酸钠合三水和8-羟基喹啉三种萃取剂,萃取合成了三个双配位基配体钒配合物,将其用于催化丁二烯聚合获得聚丁二烯产品.用元素分析及红外光谱分析测定了钒配合物的结构,用凝胶渗透色谱、红外光谱及核磁共振波谱分析了聚合产物结构.所得聚丁二烯的数均分子量为(0.96~1.36)×104,相对分子质量分布为3.5~4.3,1,2-结构单元的摩尔分数高于60%,且构型为间同立构和无规结构.%Three vanadium complexes were synthesized via extraction with cupferron, sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate and 8-hydroxyquinoline as extraction reagents. The resultant vanadium complex with bifunctional ligand was successfully applied in catalyzing butadiene polymerization through which the corresponding polymer was acquired. The structure of the vanadium complexes was tested by elemental analyses and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The structure of the resultant polybutadiene was analysized with gel permeation chromatography (GPC), IR, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR). The polybutadiene possessed number average molecular mass of (0.96-1.36)xl04 and relative molecular mass distribution of 3.5-4.3. The molar content of 1,2-configuration unit, in either syndiotactie or atactic microstructure, was higher than 60% of the polybutadiene.

  10. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of tin(IV) phenyl phosphonate in nano form

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chitra Sumej; Beena Raveendran

    2008-08-01

    An inorgano–organic ion exchanger, Sn(IV) phenyl phosphonate, has been synthesized in amorphous form. Further, an attempt has been made to synthesize Sn(IV) phenyl phosphonate in the nano form. The materials have been characterized for elemental analysis (ICP–AES), thermal analysis (TGA), X-ray analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Chemical resistivity of these materials has been accessed in acidic, basic and organic solvent media. Catalytic activity has been studied and compared by using esterification of ethylene glycol as a model reaction wherein glycoldiacetate has been prepared. The transport properties of these materials have been explored by measuring specific proton conduction at different temperatures using SOLARTRON DATASET impedance analyser over a frequency range 1 Hz–1 MHz. It has been observed that Sn(IV) phenyl phosphate in the nano form behaves as a better Bronsted catalyst and proton conductor as compared to the amorphous form.

  12. Effect of heat treatment on transformation behavior of Ti-Ni-V shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Zhirong, E-mail: hezhirong01@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723003 (China); Liu Manqian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723003 (China)

    2011-08-25

    Highlights: {yields} New shape memory alloy (SMA) - Ti-50.8Ni-0.5V SMA. {yields} The evolution laws of transformation types of annealed Ti-50.8Ni-0.5V SMA. {yields} The evolution laws of transformation types of aged Ti-50.8Ni-0.5V SMA. {yields} The effect laws of annealing on transformation temperature and hysteresis of the alloy. {yields} The effect laws of aging on transformation temperature and hysterises of the alloy. - Abstract: Effects of annealing and aging processes on the transformation behaviors of Ti-50.8Ni-0.5V (atomic fraction, %) shape memory alloy were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The A {yields} R/R {yields} A (A - parent phase, R - R phase) type one-stage reversible transformation occurs in 350-400 deg. C annealed alloy, the A {yields} R {yields} M/M {yields} R {yields} A (M - martensite) type two-stage transformation occurs in 450-500 deg. C annealed alloy, the A {yields} R {yields} M/M {yields} A type transformation occurs in 550 deg. C annealed alloy, and A {yields} M/M {yields} A type transformation occurs in the alloy annealed at above 600 deg. C upon cooling/heating. The transformation type of 300 deg. C aged alloy is A {yields} R/R {yields} A, and that of 500 deg. C aged alloy is A {yields} R {yields} M/M {yields} A, while that of 400 deg. C aged alloy changes from A {yields} R/R {yields} A to A {yields} R {yields} M/M {yields} R {yields} A with increasing aging time. The effects of annealing and aging processes on R and M transformation temperatures and temperature hysteresis are given. The influence of annealing and aging temperature on transformation behaviors is stronger than that of annealing and aging time.

  13. Trichlorido(4-methylbenzylbis(1H-pyrazole-κN2tin(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thy Chun Keng

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The six-coordinate SnIV atom in the title compound, [Sn(C8H9Cl3(C3H4N22], shows an octahedral coordination. The N atoms of the N-heterocycle are cis to each other. The Sn—N bond that is trans to the Sn—C bond is shorter than the Sn—N bond trans to the Sn—Cl bond. Weak N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds link adjacent molecules, generating a double chain running along the c axis.

  14. Multimetallic complexes and functionalized gold nanoparticles based on a combination of d- and f-elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Simon; Holmes, Holly; Wainwright, Luke; Toscani, Anita; Stasiuk, Graeme J; White, Andrew J P; Bell, Jimmy D; Wilton-Ely, James D E T

    2014-02-17

    The new DO3A-derived dithiocarbamate ligand, DO3A-(t)Bu-CS2K, is formed by treatment of the ammonium salt [DO3A-(t)Bu]HBr with K2CO3 and carbon disulfide. DO3A-(t)Bu-CS2K reacts with the ruthenium complexes cis-[RuCl2(dppm)2] and [Ru(CH═CHC6H4Me-4)Cl(CO)(BTD)(PPh3)2] (BTD = 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole) to yield [Ru(S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu)(dppm)2](+) and [Ru(CH═CHC6H4Me-4)(S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu)(CO)(PPh3)2], respectively. Similarly, the group 10 metal complexes [Pd(C,N-C6H4CH2NMe2)Cl]2 and [PtCl2(PPh3)2] form the dithiocarbamate compounds, [Pd(C,N-C6H4CH2NMe2)(S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu)] and [Pt(S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu)(PPh3)2](+), under the same conditions. The linear gold complexes [Au(S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu)(PR3)] are formed by reaction of [AuCl(PR3)] (R = Ph, Cy) with DO3A-(t)Bu-CS2K. However, on reaction with [AuCl(tht)] (tht = tetrahydrothiophene), the homoleptic digold complex [Au(S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu)]2 is formed. Further homoleptic examples, [M(S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu)2] (M = Ni, Cu) and [Co(S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu)3], are formed from treatment of NiCl2·6H2O, Cu(OAc)2, or Co(OAc)2, respectively, with DO3A-(t)Bu-CS2K. The molecular structure of [Ni(S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu)2] was determined crystallographically. The tert-butyl ester protecting groups of [M(S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu)2] (M = Ni, Cu) and [Co(S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu)3] are cleaved by trifluoroacetic acid to afford the carboxylic acid products, [M(S2C-DO3A)2] (M = Ni, Cu) and [Co(S2C-DO3A)3]. Complexation with Gd(III) salts yields trimetallic [M(S2C-DO3A-Gd)2] (M = Ni, Cu) and tetrametallic [Co(S2C-DO3A-Gd)3], with r(1) values of 11.5 (Co) and 11.0 (Cu) mM(-1) s(-1) per Gd center. DO3A-(t)Bu-CS2K can also be used to prepare gold nanoparticles, Au@S2C-DO3A-(t)Bu, by displacement of the surface units from citrate-stabilized nanoparticles. This material can be transformed into the carboxylic acid derivative Au@S2C-DO3A by treatment with trifluoroacetic acid. Complexation with Gd(OTf)3 or GdCl3 affords Au@S2C-DO3A-Gd with an r(1) value of 4.7 mM(-1) s(-1) per chelate and 1500 mM(-1) s(-1) per

  15. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  16. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  17. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  18. Study on the Synthesis of Piperidine Dithiocarbamate Acetamidobenzene Derivatives and Their Tribological Properties%六氢吡啶二硫代氨基甲酸苯胺羰甲基酯的合成及其摩擦学性能初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王励申; 廖俊旭; 杨攀龙; 焦叶叶

    2011-01-01

    合成了两个新型无灰六氢吡啶二硫代氨基甲酸苯胺羰甲基酯化合物;用核磁共振氢谱、核磁共振碳谱、红外光谱、紫外光谱、质谱和元素分析对其结构进行了表征;用四球摩擦机测试了其作为润滑油添加剂在液体石蜡中的极压性能;采用热重分析和油溶性实验考察了热稳定性及其在有机溶剂中的溶解性.结果表明,这两个新型化合物具有较好的承载能力和热稳定性.%Two novel ashless piperidine dithiocarbamate acetamidobenzene derivatives were synthesized and their chemical structures were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, UV-vis, MS and elemental analysis. Their extreme pressure (EP) behaviors as lubricant additives in liquid paraffin were evaluated using a four-ball tester. Their thermal stabilities and compatibilities with several kinds of organic solvents were inspected by TGA test and oil solubility test. The results indicate that the two novel compounds possess excellent load-carrying capacity and thermal stability.

  19. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Joseph L

    2011-01-01

    The text covers a broad spectrum between basic and advanced complex variables on the one hand and between theoretical and applied or computational material on the other hand. With careful selection of the emphasis put on the various sections, examples, and exercises, the book can be used in a one- or two-semester course for undergraduate mathematics majors, a one-semester course for engineering or physics majors, or a one-semester course for first-year mathematics graduate students. It has been tested in all three settings at the University of Utah. The exposition is clear, concise, and lively

  20. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  1. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  2. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  3. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  4. 茂金属聚α烯烃制备的复合锂基润滑脂摩擦学性能研究%TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF METALLOCENE POLY ALPHA-OLEFINS LITHIUM COMPLEX GREASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓颖; 夏延秋

    2016-01-01

    Using metallocene poly alpha-olefins (mPAO)and poly α-olefin (PAO40)as base oils, and complex lithium soap as thickener,a kind of lithium complex greases were prepared. The high-speed reciprocating friction and wear testing machine was used to investigate the effect of molybdenum disulfide,molybdenum dithiocarbamates,zinc silicate additives and their mixtures on the friction and wear properties of complex lithium grease on steel-steel friction pair. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)and energy spectrum analysis (EDS)were employed to analyze the worn surfaces. The tribologi-cal properties of the composites are significantly improved with addition of 5% molybdenum dithiocar-bamate,2% molybdenum disulfide or 4% zinc silicate in the lithium grease. The lithium grease using mPAO as base oil has better tribological properties compared to poly α-olefin as base oil.%分别以茂金属聚α烯烃(mPAO)和聚α烯烃(PAO40)为基础油、复合锂皂为稠化剂制备复合锂基润滑脂,采用高速往复摩擦磨损试验机考察 MoDTC,MoS2,ZnSiO4添加剂及其复配剂对复合锂基脂摩擦磨损性能的影响,用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)和能谱分析仪(EDS)对钢球摩擦副磨斑形貌进行观察和分析。结果表明:在 mPAO 基础脂中分别加入5%MoDTC,2%MoS2,4%ZnSiO4,或1%MoS2+2%ZnSiO4时制备的复合锂基润滑脂具有良好的减摩抗磨性能。

  5. (N,N-diethyldithiocarbamato)[tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)hydroborato]copper(II): a new copper(II) dithiocarbamate compound with the classic Tp(Me2) scorpionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañada, Louise Marie C; Yap, Glenn P A; Lim, Patrick John Y

    2013-09-01

    The title complex, [Cu(C5H10NS2)(C15H22BN6)] or (Tp(Me2))Cu(S2CNEt2), incorporating the classic Tp(Me2) scorpionate, is relevant to blue copper protein models and to Cu extraction from waste treatment and mine-tailing leachate. The IR and UV-Vis spectra are consistent with the crystal structure.

  6. A novel ternary ligand system useful for preparation of cationic (99m)Tc-diazenido complexes and (99m)Tc-labeling of small biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Seung; He, Zhengjie; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Liu, Shuang

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a novel ternary ligand system composed of a phenylhydrazine, a crown ether-containing dithiocarbamate (DTC), and a PNP-type bisphosphine (PNP). The combination of three different ligands with (99m)Tc results in cationic (99m)Tc-diazenido complexes, [(99m)Tc(NNAr)(DTC)(PNP)]+, with potential radiopharmaceuticals for heart imaging. Synthesis of cationic (99m)Tc-diazenido complexes can be accomplished in two steps. For example, the reaction of phenylhydrazine with (99m)TcO4- at 100 degrees C in the presence of excess stannous chloride and 1,2-diaminopropane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (PDTA) results in the [(99m)Tc(NNPh)(PDTA)n] intermediate, which then reacts with sodium N-(dithiocarbamato)-2-aminomethyl-15-Crown-5 (L4) and N,N-bis[2-(bis(3-ethoxypropyl)phosphino)ethyl]ethoxyethylamine (PNP6) at 100 degrees C for 15 min to give the complex, [(99m)Tc(NNPh)(L4)(PNP6)]+ in high yield (>90%). Cationic complexes [(99m)Tc(NNPh)(DTC)(PNP)]+ are stable for > or = 6 h. Their composition was determined to be 1:1:1:1 for Tc:NNPh:DTC:PNP using the mixed-ligand experiments on the tracer ((99m)Tc) level and was further confirmed by the ESI-MS spectral data of a model compound [Re(NNPh)(L4)(L6)]+. It was found that both DTCs and bisphosphines have a significant impact on the lipophilicity of their cationic (99m)Tc-diazenido complexes. Results from a (99m)Tc-labeling efficiency experiment showed that 4-hydrazinobenzoic acid (HYBA) might be useful as a bifunctional coupling agent for (99m)Tc-labeling of small biomolecules. However, the (99m)Tc-labeling efficiency of HYBA is much lower than that of 6-hydrazinonicotinic acid (HYNIC) with tricine and trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3',3''-trisulfonate (TPPTS) as coligands.

  7. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence trace mercury determination by trapping complexation: Application in advanced oxidation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custo, Graciela [Unidad de Actividad Quimica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Litter, Marta I. [Unidad de Actividad Quimica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Posgrado, Universidad de General San Martin, San Lorenzo 3391 Villa Ballester, 1653. Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rodriguez, Diana [Universidad Nacional de Lujan, Ruta 5 y 7. Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vazquez, Cristina [Unidad de Actividad Quimica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Laboratorio de Quimica de Sistemas Heterogeneos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, P. Colon 850 (C1063ACU), Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: Cristina.Vazquez@cnea.gov.ar

    2006-11-15

    It is well known that Hg species cause high noxious effects on the health of living organisms even at very low levels (5 {mu}g/L). Quantification of this element is an analytical challenge due to the peculiar physicochemical properties of all Hg species. The regulation of the maximal allowable Hg concentration led to search for sensitive methods for its determination. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence is a proved instrumental analytical tool for the determination of trace elements. In this work, the use of total reflection X-ray fluorescence for Hg quantification is investigated. However, experimental determination by total reflection X-ray fluorescence requires depositing a small volume of sample on the reflector and evaporation of the solvent until dryness to form a thin film. Because of volatilization of several Hg forms, a procedure to capture these volatile species in liquid samples by using complexing agents is proposed. Acetate, oxalic acid, ethylenediaminetetracetic acid and ammonium pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate were assayed for trapping the analytes into the solution during the preparation of the sample and onto the reflector during total reflection X-ray fluorescence measurements. The proposed method was applied to evaluate Hg concentration during TiO{sub 2}-heterogeneous photocatalysis, one of the most known advanced oxidation technologies. Advanced oxidation technologies are processes for the treatment of effluents in waters and air that involve the generation of very active oxidative and reductive species. In heterogeneous photocatalysis, Hg is transformed to several species under ultraviolet illumination in the presence of titanium dioxide. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence was demonstrated to be applicable in following the extent of the heterogeneous photocatalysis reaction by determining non-transformed Hg in the remaining solution.

  8. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence trace mercury determination by trapping complexation: Application in advanced oxidation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custo, Graciela; Litter, Marta I.; Rodríguez, Diana; Vázquez, Cristina

    2006-11-01

    It is well known that Hg species cause high noxious effects on the health of living organisms even at very low levels (5 μg/L). Quantification of this element is an analytical challenge due to the peculiar physicochemical properties of all Hg species. The regulation of the maximal allowable Hg concentration led to search for sensitive methods for its determination. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence is a proved instrumental analytical tool for the determination of trace elements. In this work, the use of total reflection X-ray fluorescence for Hg quantification is investigated. However, experimental determination by total reflection X-ray fluorescence requires depositing a small volume of sample on the reflector and evaporation of the solvent until dryness to form a thin film. Because of volatilization of several Hg forms, a procedure to capture these volatile species in liquid samples by using complexing agents is proposed. Acetate, oxalic acid, ethylenediaminetetracetic acid and ammonium pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate were assayed for trapping the analytes into the solution during the preparation of the sample and onto the reflector during total reflection X-ray fluorescence measurements. The proposed method was applied to evaluate Hg concentration during TiO 2-heterogeneous photocatalysis, one of the most known advanced oxidation technologies. Advanced oxidation technologies are processes for the treatment of effluents in waters and air that involve the generation of very active oxidative and reductive species. In heterogeneous photocatalysis, Hg is transformed to several species under ultraviolet illumination in the presence of titanium dioxide. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence was demonstrated to be applicable in following the extent of the heterogeneous photocatalysis reaction by determining non-transformed Hg in the remaining solution.

  9. Hyper Space Complex Number

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Shanguang

    2007-01-01

    A new kind of numbers called Hyper Space Complex Numbers and its algebras are defined and proved. It is with good properties as the classic Complex Numbers, such as expressed in coordinates, triangular and exponent forms and following the associative and commutative laws of addition and multiplication. So the classic Complex Number is developed from in complex plane with two dimensions to in complex space with N dimensions and the number system is enlarged also.

  10. Complex networks analysis of language complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Amancio, Diego R; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Costa, Luciano da F; 10.1209/0295-5075/100/58002

    2013-01-01

    Methods from statistical physics, such as those involving complex networks, have been increasingly used in quantitative analysis of linguistic phenomena. In this paper, we represented pieces of text with different levels of simplification in co-occurrence networks and found that topological regularity correlated negatively with textual complexity. Furthermore, in less complex texts the distance between concepts, represented as nodes, tended to decrease. The complex networks metrics were treated with multivariate pattern recognition techniques, which allowed us to distinguish between original texts and their simplified versions. For each original text, two simplified versions were generated manually with increasing number of simplification operations. As expected, distinction was easier for the strongly simplified versions, where the most relevant metrics were node strength, shortest paths and diversity. Also, the discrimination of complex texts was improved with higher hierarchical network metrics, thus point...

  11. Complex differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Fangyang

    2002-01-01

    The theory of complex manifolds overlaps with several branches of mathematics, including differential geometry, algebraic geometry, several complex variables, global analysis, topology, algebraic number theory, and mathematical physics. Complex manifolds provide a rich class of geometric objects, for example the (common) zero locus of any generic set of complex polynomials is always a complex manifold. Yet complex manifolds behave differently than generic smooth manifolds; they are more coherent and fragile. The rich yet restrictive character of complex manifolds makes them a special and interesting object of study. This book is a self-contained graduate textbook that discusses the differential geometric aspects of complex manifolds. The first part contains standard materials from general topology, differentiable manifolds, and basic Riemannian geometry. The second part discusses complex manifolds and analytic varieties, sheaves and holomorphic vector bundles, and gives a brief account of the surface classifi...

  12. Radioisotope trithiol complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurisson, Silvia S.; Cutler, Cathy S.; Degraffenreid, Anthony J.

    2016-08-30

    The present invention is directed to a series of stable radioisotope trithiol complexes that provide a simplified route for the direct complexation of radioisotopes present in low concentrations. In certain embodiments, the complex contains a linking domain configured to conjugate the radioisotope trithiol complex to a targeting vector. The invention is also directed to a novel method of linking the radioisotope to a trithiol compound to form the radioisotope trithiol complex. The inventive radioisotope trithiol complexes may be utilized for a variety of applications, including diagnostics and/or treatment in nuclear medicine.

  13. Combined use of iguratimod with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate alleviates cancer cachexia in a mouse model%艾拉莫德、吡咯烷二硫代氨基甲酸盐单用和联合治疗恶病质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思曾; 郭永刚

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察艾拉莫德(T614)、吡咯烷二硫代氨基甲酸盐(PDTC)联合应用对小鼠癌症恶病质的治疗作用.方法 于雄性BALB/C小鼠接种小鼠结肠腺癌Colon26(C26)细胞,9 d后恶病质模型基本建立.用药7 d后,记录小鼠左侧腓肠肌重量和去瘤体质量,检测血生化指标、血清白细胞介素6(IL-6)、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)水平并用免疫组织化学法检测肿瘤组织核因子-κB(NF-κB)表达.结果 恶病质组小鼠血清IL-6、TNF-α浓度为(93.72 ±11.20)、(128.70±33.41)ng/L.T614组、PDTC组、T614+PDTC组IL-6浓度为(81.11±+11.08)、(79.25±9.91)、(53.60±10.5)ng/L,TNF-α浓度为(90.16±11.57)、(99.51±15.25)、(75.45±12.48)ng/L,均低于恶病质组(P<0.05),各生化指标亦有不同程度的改善(P<0.05).结论 通过抑制NF-κB可以改善恶病质.T614和PDTC联合应用治疗效果优于单种药物.%Objective To observe the effect of the combined use of iguratimod (T614) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on animal cancer cachexia model. Methods Male BALB/C mice bearing colon 26 adenocarcinoma for 9 days served as models of cancer cachexia. Seven days after the treatment,body weight and gastrocnemius muscle were documented. Biochemical indicators, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) , and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were evaluated. The expression of nuclear factor-κB ( NF-κB ) in tumor was detected by using immunohistochemistry. Results The IL-6 levels in cachexia group, T614 group, PDTC group and T614 + PDTC group were (93. 72 ± 11. 20), (81.11 ± +11.08),(79. 25 ±9. 91) and (53. 60 ± 10. 5) ng/L, and those of TNF-a were (128. 70 ± 33. 41) , (90. 16 ±11. 57) , (99. 51 ± 15. 25) and (75. 45 ± 12. 48) ng/L, respectively. The IL-6 and TNF-α levels in T614 group, PDTC group and T614 + PDTC group were significantly lower than in cachexia group ( all P <0. 05). The expression of NF-kB was significantly down-regulated in T614 group, PDTC group and T614 +PDTC

  14. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's ...

  15. Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other ... worsened after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic medications ...

  16. Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to ... body) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  17. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer ... least two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  18. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  19. Structural, morphological, and optical properties of tin(IV) oxide nanoparticles synthesized using Camellia sinensis extract: a green approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumari, J. Celina; Ahila, M.; Malligavathy, M.; Padiyan, D. Pathinettam

    2017-09-01

    Tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles were cost-effectively synthesized using nontoxic chemicals and green tea ( Camellia sinensis) extract via a green synthesis method. The structural properties of the obtained nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffraction, which indicated that the crystallite size was less than 20 nm. The particle size and morphology of the nanoparticles were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The morphological analysis revealed agglomerated spherical nanoparticles with sizes varying from 5 to 30 nm. The optical properties of the nanoparticles' band gap were characterized using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The band gap was found to decrease with increasing annealing temperature. The O vacancy defects were analyzed using photoluminescence spectroscopy. The increase in the crystallite size, decreasing band gap, and the increasing intensities of the UV and visible emission peaks indicated that the green-synthesized SnO2 may play future important roles in catalysis and optoelectronic devices.

  20. A Novel Soluble Tin(IV Porphyrin Modified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Nanohybrid With Light Harvesting Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Yu Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A dihydroxotin(IV porphyrin functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs nanohybrid is obtained. Solubility of the nanohybrid in organic solvents is determined by UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy. Electron absorption and fluorescence spectra investigations demonstrate that efficient electron transfer occurs within the nanohybrid at the photoexcited state and the charge-separated state of the nanohybrid is observed by transient absorption spectrum. The results illustrate that this soluble electron donor–acceptor nanohybrid might be a good candidate as a light harvesting material in molecular photoelectronic devices.

  1. Evolution of biological complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Adami, Christoph; Ofria, Charles; Travis C. Collier

    2000-01-01

    In order to make a case for or against a trend in the evolution of complexity in biological evolution, complexity needs to be both rigorously defined and measurable. A recent information-theoretic (but intuitively evident) definition identifies genomic complexity with the amount of information a sequence stores about its environment. We investigate the evolution of genomic complexity in populations of digital organisms and monitor in detail the evolutionary transitions that increase complexit...

  2. ~(99m)Tc(CO)_3-CHIPDTC配合物的制备及其生物分布%PREPARATION AND BIODISTRIBUTION OF 99mTc(CO)3-CHIPDTC COMPLEX IN MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段炼; 陈宇

    2012-01-01

    采用fac-9[9mTc(CO)3(H2O)3]+与N-环己基-N-异丙基-氨荒酸盐(CHIPDTC)在室温下发生配体交换反应制得99mTc(CO)3-CHIPDTC配合物.用薄层层析(TLC)法和高效液相色谱(HPLC)法鉴定该配合物的放射化学纯度大于90%.该配合物是一种体外稳定性良好的脂溶性电中性物质.99mTc(CO)3-CHIPDTC配合物在小鼠体内生物分布结果表明,其心、脑摄取值偏低,有待进一步结构修饰以获取新型优良放射性药物.%Organometallic precursor fac-[99mTc(CO)3(H2O)3]+ was reacted with N-cyclohexyl N-isopropyl dithiocarbamate(CHIPDTC) at room temperature to produce 99mTc(CO)3-CHIPDTC complex,with the product being over 90% radiochemically pure(RCP) as measured by thin layer chromatography(TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC).The resultant complex was neutral,lipophilic and stable for over 6 hrs at room temperature.Biodistribution studies of 99mTc(CO)3-CHIPDTC and 99mTcN-CHIPDTC complexes in mice indicated that the 9mTc(CO)3 complex showed a much lower uptake in brain and heart.It is concluded that to obtain a suitable radiopharmaceutical,structure of the dithiocarbamate ligand should be modified structurally in the future.

  3. Complexity, Systems, and Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-14

    complex ( Hidden issues; dumbs down operator) 11 Complexity, Systems, and Software Sarah Sheard August 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie...August 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Addressing Complexity in SoSs Source: SEBOK Wiki System Con truer Strateglc Context

  4. Complexity Near Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, Edi

    2015-01-01

    We generalize the concept of complexity near horizons to all nondegenerate black holes. For Schwarzschild black holes, we show that Rindler observers see a complexity change of $S$ during proper time $1/\\kappa$ which corresponds to the creation of a causal patch with proper length $1/\\kappa$ inside the horizon. We attempt to describe complexity in the horizon CFT and the Euclidean picture.

  5. Quaternionic versus complex maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asorey, M [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Zaragoza 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Scolarici, G [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita del Salento and INFN, Sezione di Lecce, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Solombrino, L [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita del Salento and INFN, Sezione di Lecce, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2007-11-15

    We discuss the relation between completely positive quaternionic maps and the corresponding complex maps obtained via projection operation. In order to illustrate this formalism, we reobtain the (complex) qubit subdynamics of maximally entangled Bell states, as complex projection of unitary dynamics between quaternionic pure states.

  6. Neurotoxic effect of the dithiocarbamate tecoram on the chick embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, G. van; Logten, M.J. van

    1971-01-01

    Tecoram, when administered at doses of 0.01, 0.1, 1 or 10 mg per egg in propylene glycol or in saline to chick embryos caused paralysis, shortening of the extremities, muscular atrophy, dwarfing and death. Microscopically there were signs of peripheral neuropathy, mainly confined to the distal parts

  7. Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate Attenuates Paraquat-Induced Lung Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Chang

    2009-01-01

    PQ+PDTC-treated groups than that of PQ-treated groups (P<.05. The histopathological changes in the PQ+PDTC-treated groups were milder than those of PQ groups. Our results suggested that PDTC treatment significantly attenuated paraquat-induced pulmonary damage.

  8. Crystal Structure and Characterization of Pd(Ⅱ) Bis(diisopropyldithiocarbamate) Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU, Liang-Zhong; ZHAO, Pu-Su; ZHANG, Shu-Sheng

    2001-01-01

    The crystal and molecular structure of [Pd(iPr2 dtc)2] (dtc=dithiocarbamate) have been determined by X-ray crystallography. The unit cell of the crystal structure consists of two discrete monomeric molecules of [Pd(iPr2dtc)2]. The Pd(Ⅱ)ion has an square-planar. The electronic and IR spectral data are in agreement with the X-ray structure. The TG data indicate slight degradation of a few percent.

  9. SYSTEMS WITH COMPLEXITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chenghong; ZHANG Lijun

    2004-01-01

    Science of Complexity is a newly emerging branch of natural scienceAlthoughwe still haven't a precise definition, there are some principles for justifying whether a systemis a complex systemThe purpose of this article is to reveal some of such principlesOnthe basis of them, the concept of a system with complexity is proposedThey may helpus to distinguish a real complex system from complicated objects in common senseThenwe propose some fundamental problems faced by the study of systems with complexity.

  10. Complex variables I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables I includes functions of a complex variable, elementary complex functions, integrals of complex functions in the complex plane, sequences and series, and poles and r

  11. Complexity Through Nonextensivity

    CERN Document Server

    Bialek, W; Tishby, N; Bialek, William; Nemenman, Ilya; Tishby, Naftali

    2001-01-01

    The problem of defining and studying complexity of a time series has interested people for years. In the context of dynamical systems, Grassberger has suggested that a slow approach of the entropy to its extensive asymptotic limit is a sign of complexity. We investigate this idea further by information theoretic and statistical mechanics techniques and show that these arguments can be made precise, and that they generalize many previous approaches to complexity, in particular unifying ideas from the physics literature with ideas from learning and coding theory; there are even connections of this statistical approach to algorithmic or Kolmogorov complexity. Moreover, a set of simple axioms similar to those used by Shannon in his development of information theory allows us to prove that the divergent part of the subextensive component of the entropy is a unique complexity measure. We classify time series by their complexities and demonstrate that beyond the `logarithmic' complexity classes widely anticipated in...

  12. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhtar Hussain; Akhil R Chakravarty

    2012-11-01

    Lanthanide complexes have recently received considerable attention in the field of therapeutic and diagnostic medicines. Among many applications of lanthanides, gadolinium complexes are used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents in clinical radiology and luminescent lanthanides for bioanalysis, imaging and sensing. The chemistry of photoactive lanthanide complexes showing biological applications is of recent origin. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment modality of cancer using a photosensitizer drug and light. This review primarily focuses on different aspects of the chemistry of lanthanide complexes showing photoactivated DNA cleavage activity and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Macrocyclic texaphyrin-lanthanide complexes are known to show photocytotoxicity with the PDT effect in near-IR light. Very recently, non-macrocyclic lanthanide complexes are reported to show photocytotoxicity in cancer cells. Attempts have been made in this perspective article to review and highlight the photocytotoxic behaviour of various lanthanide complexes for their potential photochemotherapeutic applications.

  13. [Gastrointestinal myoelectric complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberhard, P

    1977-03-01

    Complexes of high amplitude action potentials have been shownn to occur in the stomach and duodenum of fasting dogs. These complexes recur at regular intervals as long as the animal is fasting, and they are propagated aborally over the whole lenght of the small bowel. The cyclical pattern is replaced by the digestive of "fed" pattern of activity upon feeding. Therefore the pattern has been known as the interdigestive myoelectrical complex. Studies in herbivorous species however, in which the flow of digesta is more or less continous have show that cyclically recurring migrating complexes can be demonstrated in these species as well. Thus, the term "migratory myoelectrical complex" may be more appropriate. Propagation of the complex is not dependent upon continuity of the bowel wall nor movement of luminal contents. Replacement of the complex by the digestive pattern of activity upon feeding and the restitution of the interdigestive pattern at the end of the digestive phase seem to be under nervous as well as hormonal control. The interdigestive complex in the dog has been looked upon as a "housekeeper" which sweeps the bowel clear of contents at the end of the digestive phase. Aspects of possible physiological significance of the complex are: periodic elimination of refluxed duodenal contents from the stomach and prevention of bacterial colonization of the small bowel by the colonic flora. The existence of propagated complexes has not been demonstrated in man, but there is increasing evidence for cyclical activity which fits the pattern.

  14. Simplicial complexes of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.

  15. Measuring static complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Goertzel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “pattern” is introduced, formally defined, and used to analyze various measures of the complexity of finite binary sequences and other objects. The standard Kolmogoroff-Chaitin-Solomonoff complexity measure is considered, along with Bennett's ‘logical depth’, Koppel's ‘sophistication'’, and Chaitin's analysis of the complexity of geometric objects. The pattern-theoretic point of view illuminates the shortcomings of these measures and leads to specific improvements, it gives rise to two novel mathematical concepts--“orders” of complexity and “levels” of pattern, and it yields a new measure of complexity, the “structural complexity”, which measures the total amount of structure an entity possesses.

  16. On Complex Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Khurshid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper, it is shown that a complex multivariate random variable  is a complex multivariate normal random variable of dimensionality if and only if all nondegenerate complex linear combinations of  have a complex univariate normal distribution. The characteristic function of  has been derived, and simpler forms of some theorems have been given using this characterization theorem without assuming that the variance-covariance matrix of the vector  is Hermitian positive definite. Marginal distributions of  have been given. In addition, a complex multivariate t-distribution has been defined and the density derived. A characterization of the complex multivariate t-distribution is given. A few possible uses of this distribution have been suggested.

  17. Complex networks and computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuigeng ZHOU; Zhongzhi ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    @@ Nowadays complex networks are pervasive in various areas of science and technology. Popular examples of complex networks include the Internet, social networks of collaboration, citations and co-authoring, as well as biological networks such as gene and protein interactions and others. Complex networks research spans across mathematics, computer science, engineering, biology and the social sciences. Even in computer science area, increasing problems are either found to be related to complex networks or studied from the perspective of complex networks, such as searching on Web and P2P networks, routing in sensor networks, language processing, software engineering etc. The interaction and mergence of complex networks and computing is inspiring new chances and challenges in computer science.

  18. Complex Systems and Dependability

    CERN Document Server

    Zamojski, Wojciech; Sugier, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Typical contemporary complex system is a multifaceted amalgamation of technical, information, organization, software and human (users, administrators and management) resources. Complexity of such a system comes not only from its involved technical and organizational structure but mainly from complexity of information processes that must be implemented in the operational environment (data processing, monitoring, management, etc.). In such case traditional methods of reliability analysis focused mainly on technical level are usually insufficient in performance evaluation and more innovative meth

  19. Recognizing dualizing complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Let A be a noetherian local commutative ring and let M be a suitable complex of A-modules. This paper proves that M is a dualizing complex for A if and only if the trivial extension A \\ltimes M is a Gorenstein Differential Graded Algebra. As a corollary follows that A has a dualizing complex if and only if it is a quotient of a Gorenstein local Differential Graded Algebra.

  20. Genetics of complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, Arno G

    2006-02-01

    Approaches to the study of the genetic basis of common complex diseases and their clinical applications are considered. Monogenic Mendelian inheritance in such conditions is infrequent but its elucidation may help to detect pathogenic mechanisms in the more common variety of complex diseases. Involvement by multiple genes in complex diseases usually occurs but the isolation and identification of specific genes so far has been exceptional. The role of common polymorphisms as indicators of disease risk in various studies is discussed.

  1. Berger Engineering Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Engineering laboratory The Berger Lab Complex is a multi-purpose building with professional office, 100 seat auditorium, general purpose labs,...

  2. Higher Koszul complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶郁; 张璞

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we generalize the Koszul complexes and Koszul algebras, and introduce the higherKoszul (t-Koszul) complexes and higher Koszul algebras, where t ≥ 2 is an integer. We prove that an algebra ist-Koszul if and only if its t-Koszul complex is augmented, i.e. the higher degree (≥ 1) homologies vanish. Forarbitrary t-Koszul algebra , we also give a description of the structure of the cohomology algebra Ext ( 0, 0)by using the t-Koszul complexes, where the 0 is the direct sum of the simples.

  3. Simple and Excellent Selective Chemiluminescence-Based CS2 On-Line Detection System for Rapid Analysis of Sulfur-Containing Compounds in Complex Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runkun; Li, Gongke; Hu, Yufei

    2015-06-02

    To study the interesting chemical reaction phenomenon can greatly contribute to the development of an innovative analytical method. In this paper, a simple CL reaction cell was constructed to study the chemiluminescence (CL) emission from the thermal oxidation of carbon disulfide (CS2). We found that the CL detection of CS2 exhibits unique characteristics of excellent selectivity and rapid response capacity. Experimental investigations together with theoretical calculation were performed to study the mechanism behind the CL reaction. The results revealed that the main luminous intermediates generated during the thermal degradation of CS2 are SO2* and CO2*. Significantly, this CL emission phenomenon has a wide application due to many sulfur-containing compounds that can convert to CS2 under special conditions. On the basis of this scheme, a CS2-generating and detection system was developed for rapid measurement of CS2 or other compounds that can convert to CS2. The usefulness of the system was demonstrated by measuring dithiocarbamate (DTC) pesticides (selected mancozeb as a representative analyte) based on the evolution of CS2 in spiked agricultural products. Results showed that the system allows online and large volume detection of CS2 under nonequilibrium condition, which greatly reduces the analytical time. The concentrations of mancozeb in the spiked samples were well-quantified with satisfied recoveries of 76.9-97.3%. The system not only addresses the urgent need for rapid in-field screening of DTC residues in foodstuffs but also opens a new opportunity for the fast, convenient, and cost-effective detection of CS2 and some other sulfur-containing compounds in complex samples.

  4. Adaptive Leadership: Fighting Complexity with Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    complex tasks.30 An astonishing level of sophistication arises out of the intricate combination of these simple insect minds. 23 Snowden and Boone, “A...system: individuals, with little or no central oversight, perform simple tasks: posting Web pages and linking to other Web pages…and the co- evolutionary ...existence today. 31 Bert Hölldobler and Edward Osborne Wilson, The Superorganism: The Beauty, Elegance, and Strangeness of Insect Societies (New York, NY

  5. Complexity and valued landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael M. McCarthy

    1979-01-01

    The variable "complexity," or "diversity," has received a great deal of attention in recent research efforts concerned with visual resource management, including the identification of complexity as one of the primary evaluation measures. This paper describes research efforts that support the hypothesis that the landscapes we value are those with...

  6. C-60 complexation revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, R.M.; Verhoeven, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    In the recent paper by Atwood et al. (Nature 368, 229-231, 1994) on a purification procedure for C60 and C70 by selective complexation with calixarenes, it was implied that we had previously studied the complexation of C60 with cyclodextrins (Williams, R. M. & Verhoeven, J. W., Recl. Trav. Chim.

  7. Complexity, Robustness, and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Visser (Bauke)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses the relationship between organizational complexity ( the degree of detail of information necessary to correctly assign agents to positions), robustness (the relative loss of performance due to mis-allocated agents), and performance. More complex structures are not

  8. Introductory complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Richard A

    1984-01-01

    A shorter version of A. I. Markushevich's masterly three-volume Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable, this edition is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in complex analysis. Numerous worked-out examples and more than 300 problems, some with hints and answers, make it suitable for independent study. 1967 edition.

  9. The visibility complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pocchiola, M; Vegter, G

    1996-01-01

    We introduce the visibility complex (rr 2-dimensional regular cell complex) of a collection of n pairwise disjoint convex obstacles in the plane. It can be considered as a subdivision of the set of free rays (i.e., rays whose origins lie in free space, the complement of the obstacles). Its cells cor

  10. Schools and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombly, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    As schools, districts, and the overall education system are complex entities, both the approaches taken to improve them and the methods used to study them must be similarly complex. Simple solutions imposed with no regard for schools' or districts' unique contexts hold little promise, while seemingly insignificant differences between those…

  11. Complexity and Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Jeanette Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    A central feature of complexity is that it is based on non-linear, recursive relations. However, in most current accounts of complexity such relations, while non-linear, are based on the reductive relations of a Newtonian onto-epistemological framework. This means that the systems that are emergent from the workings of such relations are a…

  12. Visual Complexity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donderi, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  13. Complexity, Robustness, and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Visser (Bauke)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses the relationship between organizational complexity ( the degree of detail of information necessary to correctly assign agents to positions), robustness (the relative loss of performance due to mis-allocated agents), and performance. More complex structures are not nec

  14. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.;

    1985-01-01

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  15. Complexity dimensions and learnability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S-H. Nienhuys-Cheng (Shan-Hwei); M. Polman (Mark)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA stochastic model of learning from examples has been introduced by Valiant [1984]. This PAC-learning model (PAC = probably approximately correct) reflects differences in complexity of concept classes, i.e. very complex classes are not efficiently PAC-learnable. Blumer et al. [1989

  16. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization.

  17. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks, is fragme......There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, and recommendations, and supporting exploratory search to sensemaking and analytics, UI and UX design pose an overconstrained challenge. How do we know that our approach is any good? Supporting complex search task requires new collaborations across the whole field of IR, and the proposed workshop will bring together...

  18. Comments on Holographic Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Carmi, Dean; Rath, Pratik

    2016-01-01

    We study two recent conjectures for holographic complexity: the complexity=action conjecture and the complexity=volume conjecture. In particular, we examine the structure of the UV divergences appearing in these quantities, and show that the coefficients can be written as local integrals of geometric quantities in the boundary. We also consider extending these conjectures to evaluate the complexity of the mixed state produced by reducing the pure global state to a specific subregion of the boundary time slice. The UV divergences in this subregion complexity have a similar geometric structure, but there are also new divergences associated with the geometry of the surface enclosing the boundary region of interest. We discuss possible implications arising from the geometric nature of these UV divergences.

  19. A Novel Ternary Ligand System Useful for Preparation of Cationic 99mTc-Diazenido Complexes and 99mTc-Labeling of Small Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Seung; He, Zhengjie; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Liu, Shuang

    2008-01-01

    This report describes a novel ternary ligand system composed of a phenylhydrazine, a crown ether-containing dithiocarbamate (DTC) and a PNP-type bisphosphine (PNP). The combination of three different ligands with 99mTc results in cationic 99mTc-diazenido complexes,[99mTc(NNAr)(DTC)(PNP)]+, with potential radiopharmaceuticals for heart imaging. Synthesis of cationic 99mTc-diazenido complexes can be accomplished in two steps with high yield. For example, the reaction of phenylhydrazine with 99mTcO4− at 100 °C in the presence of excess stannous chloride and 1,2-diaminopropane-N,N,N’,N’-tetraacetic acid (PDTA) results in the [99mTc(NNPh)(PDTA)n] intermediate, which then reacts with sodium N-(dithiocarbamato)-2-aminimethyl-15-Crown-5 (L4) and N,N-bis[2-(bis(3-ethoxypropyl)phosphino)ethyl]ethoxy-ethylamine (PNP6) at 100 °C for 15 min to give the complex, [99mTc(NNPh)(L4)(PNP6)]+ in high yield (> 90%). Cationic complexes [99mTc(NNPh)(DTC)(PNP)]+ are stable for ≥6 h. Their composition was determined to be 1:1:1:1 for Tc:NNPh:DTC:PNP using the mixed-ligand experiments on the tracer (99mTc) level, and was further confirmed by the ESI-MS spectral data of a model compound [Re(NNPh)(L4)(L6)]+. It was found that both DTCs and bisphosphines have a significant impact on the lipophilicity of their cationic 99mTc-diazenido complexes. Results from a 99mTc-labeling efficiency experiment showed that 4-hydrazinobenzoic acid (HYBA) might be useful as a bifunctional coupling agent for 99mTc-labeling of small biomolecules. However, the 99mTc-labeling efficiency of HYBA is much lower than that of 6-hydrazinonicotinic acid (HYNIC) with tricine and trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3’,3”-trisulfonate (TPPTS) as coligands. PMID:16536480

  20. Stable Spirocyclic Meisenheimer Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Guirado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Meisenheimer complexes are important intermediates in Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions (SNAr. They are formed by the addition of electron rich species to polynitro aromatic compounds or aromatic compounds with strong electron withdrawing groups. It is possible to distinguish two types of Meisenheimer or σ-complexes, the σHcomplex or σX-complex (also named ipso, depending on the aromatic ring position attacked by the nucleophile (a non-substituted or substituted one, respectively. Special examples of σX- or ipso-complexes are formed through intermediate spiro adducts, via intramolecular SNAr. Some of these spirocyclic Meisenheimer complexes, a type of σXcomplex, are exceptionally stable in solution and/or as solids. They can be isolated and characterized using X-ray, and various spectroscopic techniques such as NMR, UV-Vis, IR, and fluorescence. A few of these stable spirocyclic Meisenheimer complexes are zwitterionic and exhibit interesting photophysical and redox properties. We will review recent advances, synthesis and potential applications of these stable spirocyclic Meisenheimer complexes.

  1. Selenophene transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Carter James [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1994-07-27

    This research shows that selenophene transition metal complexes have a chemistry that is similar to their thiophene analogs. Selenophene coordination has been demonstrated and confirmed by molecular structure in both the η5- and the η1(Se)-coordination modes. The reaction chemistry of selenophene complexes closely resembles that of the analogous thiophene complexes. One major difference, however, is that selenophene is a better donor ligand than thiophene making the selenophene complexes more stable than the corresponding thiophene complexes. The 77Se NMR chemical shift values for selenophene complexes fall within distinct regions primarily depending on the coordination mode of the selenophene ligand. In the final paper, the C-H bond activation of η1(S)-bound thiophenes, η1(S)-benzothiophene and η1(Se)-bound selenophenes has been demonstrated. The deprotonation and rearrangement of the η1(E)-bound ligand to the carbon bound L-yl complex readily occurs in the presence of base. Reprotonation with a strong acid gives a carbene complex that is unreactive towards nucleophilic attack at the carbene carbon and is stable towards exposure to air. The molecular structure of [Cp(NO)(PPh3)Re(2-benzothioenylcarbene)]O3SCF3 was determined and contains a Re-C bond with substantial double bond character. Methyl substitution for the thienylcarbene or selenylcarbene gives a carbene that rearranges thermally to give back the η1(E)-bound complex. Based on these model reactions, a new mechanism for the H/D exchange of thiophene over the hydrodesulfurization catalyst has been proposed.

  2. Controllability of Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotine, Jean-Jacques

    2013-03-01

    We review recent work on controllability of complex systems. We also discuss the interplay of our results with questions of synchronization, and point out key directions of future research. Work done in collaboration with Yang-Yu Liu, Center for Complex Network Research and Departments of Physics, Computer Science and Biology, Northeastern University and Center for Cancer Systems Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; and Albert-László Barabási, Center for Complex Network Research and Departments of Physics, Computer Science and Biology, Northeastern University; Center for Cancer Systems Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; and Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School.

  3. Managing complex child law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Idamarie Leth

    2017-01-01

    The article reports the findings of a qualitative study of Danish legal regulation of the public initial assessment of children and young persons and municipal practitioners’ decision-making under this regulation. The regulation mirrors new and complex relations between families and society...... in the form of 7 individual vignette interviews with municipal mid-level managers and professional consultants in five Danish municipalities. The study finds that the regulation is more complex than it looks, and that the complexity is handled through simplifying decision-making patterns that can be seen...

  4. Quantum Kolmogorov Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Berthiaume, A; Laplante, S; Berthiaume, Andre; Dam, Wim van; Laplante, Sophie

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we give a definition for quantum Kolmogorov complexity. In the classical setting, the Kolmogorov complexity of a string is the length of the shortest program that can produce this string as its output. It is a measure of the amount of innate randomness (or information) contained in the string. We define the quantum Kolmogorov complexity of a qubit string as the length of the shortest quantum input to a universal quantum Turing machine that produces the initial qubit string with high fidelity. The definition of Vitanyi (Proceedings of the 15th IEEE Annual Conference on Computational Complexity, 2000) measures the amount of classical information, whereas we consider the amount of quantum information in a qubit string. We argue that our definition is natural and is an accurate representation of the amount of quantum information contained in a quantum state.

  5. Complexity for Artificial Substrates (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loke, L.H.L.; Jachowski, N.R.; Bouma, T.J.; Ladle, R.J.; Todd, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical habitat complexity regulates the structure and function of biological communities, although the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Urbanisation, pollution, unsustainable resource exploitation and climate change have resulted in the widespread simplification (and loss)

  6. On scattered subword complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Kása, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Special scattered subwords, in which the gaps are of length from a given set, are defined. The scattered subword complexity, which is the number of such scattered subwords, is computed for rainbow words.

  7. Complexity for Artificial Substrates (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loke, L.H.L.; Jachowski, N.R.; Bouma, T.J.; Ladle, R.J.; Todd, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical habitat complexity regulates the structure and function of biological communities, although the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Urbanisation, pollution, unsustainable resource exploitation and climate change have resulted in the widespread simplification (and loss) o

  8. Beyond complex Langevin equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wosiek, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    A simple integral relation between a complex weight and the corresponding positive distribution is derived by introducing a second complex variable. Together with the positivity and normalizability conditions, this sum rule allows to construct explicitly equivalent pairs of distributions in simple cases. In particular the well known solution for a complex gaussian distribution is generalized to an arbitrary complex slope. This opens a possibility of positive representation of Feynman path integrals directly in the Minkowski time. Such construction is then explicitly carried through in the second part of this presentation. The continuum limit of the new representation exists only if some of the additional couplings tend to infinity and are tuned in a specific way. The approach is then successfully applied to three quantum mechanical examples including a particle in a constant magnetic field -- a simplest prototype of a Wilson line. Further generalizations are shortly discussed and an amusing interpretation of ...

  9. Management recommendations: Tewaukon Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Tewaukon Complex, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and additional comments are...

  10. Complex coacervate core micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voets, Ilja K; de Keizer, Arie; Cohen Stuart, Martien A

    2009-01-01

    In this review we present an overview of the literature on the co-assembly of neutral-ionic block, graft, and random copolymers with oppositely charged species in aqueous solution. Oppositely charged species include synthetic (co)polymers of various architectures, biopolymers - such as proteins, enzymes and DNA - multivalent ions, metallic nanoparticles, low molecular weight surfactants, polyelectrolyte block copolymer micelles, metallo-supramolecular polymers, equilibrium polymers, etcetera. The resultant structures are termed complex coacervate core/polyion complex/block ionomer complex/interpolyelectrolyte complex micelles (or vesicles); i.e., in short C3Ms (or C3Vs) and PIC, BIC or IPEC micelles (and vesicles). Formation, structure, dynamics, properties, and function will be discussed. We focus on experimental work; theory and modelling will not be discussed. Recent developments in applications and micelles with heterogeneous coronas are emphasized.

  11. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  12. A complex legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cristopher

    2011-11-01

    In his tragically short life, Alan Turing helped define what computing machines are capable of, and where they reach inherent limits. His legacy is still felt every day, in areas ranging from computational complexity theory to cryptography and quantum computing.

  13. DNA complexes: Durable binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, Adam R.

    2011-11-01

    A tetra-intercalator compound that threads through a DNA double-helix to form a remarkably stable complex exhibits an unusual combination of sequence specificity and rapid association yet slow dissociation.

  14. Physical Sciences Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This 88,000 square foot complex is used to investigate basic physical science in support of missile technology development. It incorporates office space, dedicated...

  15. Copper (II) Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Key Words : Histidine, complex compound, acetylacetone, stability constant, ... of a class of chemical compounds called amino acids, which are organic .... Synthesis and techniques in inorganic chemistry W. B. Saunders campany, 2nd Edition.

  16. Low complexity MIMO receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Lin; Yu, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can increase the spectral efficiency in wireless communications. However, the interference becomes the major drawback that leads to high computational complexity at both transmitter and receiver. In particular, the complexity of MIMO receivers can be prohibitively high. As an efficient mathematical tool to devise low complexity approaches that mitigate the interference in MIMO systems, lattice reduction (LR) has been widely studied and employed over the last decade. The co-authors of this book are world's leading experts on MIMO receivers, and here they share the key findings of their research over years. They detail a range of key techniques for receiver design as multiple transmitted and received signals are available. The authors first introduce the principle of signal detection and the LR in mathematical aspects. They then move on to discuss the use of LR in low complexity MIMO receiver design with respect to different aspects, including uncoded MIMO detection...

  17. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    . Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... and students in the field of planning and decision analysis as well as practitioners dealing with strategic analysis and decision making. More broadly, Complex Strategic Choices acts as guide for professionals and students involved in complex planning tasks across several fields such as business...... to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...

  18. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo;

    2015-01-01

    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...... introductory to specialized, and from authoritative to speculative or opinionated, when to show what sources of information? How does the information seeking process evolve and what are relevant differences between different stages? With complex task and search process management, blending searching, browsing...

  19. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...

  20. Physical Sciences Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This 88,000 square foot complex is used to investigate basic physical science in support of missile technology development. It incorporates office space, dedicated...

  1. complexes containing isocyanide and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR. S. O. OWALUDE

    Synthesis of new ruthenium(II) complexes containing isocyanide and labile nitrile ligands. Owalude,* S. O. ... both compounds has distorted octahedral coordination geometry. Key words: Nitrile ... commercial product from Acros Organics. All.

  2. Complex and unpredictable Cardano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekert, Artur

    2008-08-01

    This purely recreational paper is about one of the most colorful characters of the Italian Renaissance, Girolamo Cardano, and the discovery of two basic ingredients of quantum theory, probability and complex numbers.

  3. Network Complexity of Foodwebs

    CERN Document Server

    Standish, Russell K

    2010-01-01

    In previous work, I have developed an information theoretic complexity measure of networks. When applied to several real world food webs, there is a distinct difference in complexity between the real food web, and randomised control networks obtained by shuffling the network links. One hypothesis is that this complexity surplus represents information captured by the evolutionary process that generated the network. In this paper, I test this idea by applying the same complexity measure to several well-known artificial life models that exhibit ecological networks: Tierra, EcoLab and Webworld. Contrary to what was found in real networks, the artificial life generated foodwebs had little information difference between itself and randomly shuffled versions.

  4. Microsolvation in molecular complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquini, M; Schiccheri, N; Piani, G; Pietraperzia, G; Becucci, M; Castellucci, E [European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS), Polo Scientifico e Tecnologico Universita di Firenze, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)], E-mail: gianni.pietraperzia@unifi.it

    2008-11-15

    In this paper, we report the results of our study of the microsolvation process involving the anisole molecule. We are able to study bimolecular complexes of different compositions. Changing the second partner molecule bound to anisole, we observed complexes of different geometries, because of the large variety of interactions possible for the anisole. High-resolution electronic spectroscopy is the best tool to reveal the correct vibrationally (zero-point) averaged geometry of the complex. That is done by analysing the rovibronic structure of the electronic spectra, which are related to the equilibrium geometry of the complex as well as dynamical processes, both in the ground and in the excited state. The interpretation of the experimental results is supported by high-level quantum calculations.

  5. Complex variable HVPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killingbeck, John P [Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Grosjean, Alain [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon (CNRS, UPRES-A 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Jolicard, Georges [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon (CNRS, UPRES-A 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2004-08-13

    Complex variable hypervirial perturbation theory is applied to the case of oscillator and Coulomb potentials perturbed by a single term potential of the form Vx{sup n} or Vr{sup n}, respectively. The trial calculations reported show that this approach can produce accurate complex energies for resonant states via a simple and speedy calculation and can also be useful in studies of PT symmetry and tunnelling resonance effects. (addendum)

  6. Electrospun complexes - functionalised nanofibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T.; Wolf, M.; Dreyer, B.; Unruh, D.; Krüger, C.; Menze, M.; Sindelar, R.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Renz, F.

    2016-12-01

    Here we present a new approach of using iron-complexes in electro-spun fibres. We modify poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by replacing the methoxy group with Diaminopropane or Ethylenediamine. The complex is bound covalently via an imine-bridge or an amide. The resulting polymer can be used in the electrospinning process without any further modifications in method either as pure reagent or mixed with small amounts of not functionalised polymer resulting in fibres of different qualities (Fig. 1).

  7. Electrospun complexes - functionalised nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, T.; Wolf, M.; Dreyer, B.; Unruh, D.; Krüger, C.; Menze, M. [Leibniz University Hannover, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (Germany); Sindelar, R. [University of Applied Science Hannover, Faculty II (Germany); Klingelhöfer, G. [Gutenberg-University, Institute of Inorganic and Analytic Chemistry (Germany); Renz, F., E-mail: renz@acd.uni-hannover.de [Leibniz University Hannover, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Here we present a new approach of using iron-complexes in electro-spun fibres. We modify poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by replacing the methoxy group with Diaminopropane or Ethylenediamine. The complex is bound covalently via an imine-bridge or an amide. The resulting polymer can be used in the electrospinning process without any further modifications in method either as pure reagent or mixed with small amounts of not functionalised polymer resulting in fibres of different qualities (Fig. 1).

  8. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, W; Tomasiello, A; Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    We construct a class of symplectic non--Kaehler and complex non--Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten--dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)--structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.

  9. Quantum Hamiltonian Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Constraint satisfaction problems are a central pillar of modern computational complexity theory. This survey provides an introduction to the rapidly growing field of Quantum Hamiltonian Complexity, which includes the study of quantum constraint satisfaction problems. Over the past decade and a half, this field has witnessed fundamental breakthroughs, ranging from the establishment of a "Quantum Cook-Levin Theorem" to deep insights into the structure of 1D low-temperature quantum systems via s...

  10. Conversation, coupling and complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Abney, Drew; Bahrami, Bahador;

    We investigate the linguistic co-construction of interpersonal synergies. By applying a measure of coupling between complex systems to an experimentally elicited corpus of joint decision dialogues, we show that interlocutors’ linguistic behavior displays increasing signature of multi-scale coupling......, known as complexity matching, over the course of interaction. Furthermore, we show that stronger coupling corresponds with more effective interaction, as measured by collective task performance....

  11. Provability, complexity, grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Beklemishev, Lev; Vereshchagin, Nikolai

    1999-01-01

    The book contains English translations of three outstanding dissertations in mathematical logic and complexity theory. L. Beklemishev proves that all provability logics must belong to one of the four previously known classes. The dissertation of M. Pentus proves the Chomsky conjecture about the equivalence of two approaches to formal languages: the Chomsky hierarchy and the Lambek calculus. The dissertation of N. Vereshchagin describes a general framework for criteria of reversability in complexity theory.

  12. An erupted complex odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozoglu, Sinan; Yildirim, Umran; Buyukkurt, M Cemil

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas are benign tumors of odontogenic origin. The cause of the odontoma is unknown, but it is believed to be hereditary or due to a disturbance in tooth development triggered by trauma or infection. Odontomas may be either compound or complex. Although these tumors are seen frequently, erupted odontomas are rare. The purpose of this study is to present a rare case of complex odontoma that erupted into the oral cavity.

  13. Advances in network complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A well-balanced overview of mathematical approaches to describe complex systems, ranging from chemical reactions to gene regulation networks, from ecological systems to examples from social sciences. Matthias Dehmer and Abbe Mowshowitz, a well-known pioneer in the field, co-edit this volume and are careful to include not only classical but also non-classical approaches so as to ensure topicality. Overall, a valuable addition to the literature and a must-have for anyone dealing with complex systems.

  14. MANAGEMENT OF SPORT COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian STAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The actuality of the investigated theme. Nowadays, human evolution, including his intellectual development, proves the fact that especially the creation manpower and the employment was the solution of all life’s ambitions in society. So, the fact is that in reality, man is the most important capital of the society. Also, in an individual’s life, the practice of sport plays a significant role and that’s why the initiation, the launch and the management of sports complexes activity reveal the existence of specific management features that we will identify and explain in the current study. The aim of the research refers to the elaboration of a theoretical base of the management of the sport complexes, to the pointing of the factors that influence the efficient existence and function of a sport complex in our country and to the determination of the responsibilities that have a manager who directs successfully the activity of the sport complexes. The investigation is based on theoretical methods, such as: scientific documentation, analysis, synthesis, comparison and on empirical research methods, like: study of researched literature and observation. The results of the research indicate the fact that the profitability of a sport complex must assure a particular structure to avoid the bankruptcy risk and also, that the administration of the sport complexes activity must keep in view the reliable functions of the contemporaneous management.

  15. Modelling Complexity in Musical Rhythm

    OpenAIRE

    Liou, Cheng-Yuan; Wu, Tai-Hei; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2007-01-01

    This paper constructs a tree structure for the music rhythm using the L-system. It models the structure as an automata and derives its complexity. It also solves the complexity for the L-system. This complexity can resolve the similarity between trees. This complexity serves as a measure of psychological complexity for rhythms. It resolves the music complexity of various compositions including the Mozart effect K488. Keyword: music perception, psychological complexity, rhythm, L-system, autom...

  16. Turbulent complex (dusty) plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Sergey; Schwabe, Mierk

    2017-04-01

    As a paradigm of complex system dynamics, solid particles immersed into a weakly ionized plasma, so called complex (dusty) plasmas, were (and continue to be) a subject of many detailed studies. Special types of dynamical activity have been registered, in particular, spontaneous pairing, entanglement and cooperative action of a great number of particles resulting in formation of vortices, self-propelling, tunneling, and turbulent movements. In the size domain of 1-10 mkm normally used in experiments with complex plasmas, the characteristic dynamic time-scale is of the order of 0.01-0.1 s, and these particles can be visualized individually in real time, providing an atomistic (kinetic) level of investigations. The low-R turbulent flow induced either by the instability in a complex plasma cloud or formed behind a projectile passing through the cloud is a typical scenario. Our simulations showed formation of a fully developed system of vortices and demonstrated that the velocity structure functions scale very close to the theoretical predictions. As an important element of self-organization, cooperative and turbulent particle motions are present in many physical, astrophysical, and biological systems. Therefore, experiments with turbulent wakes and turbulent complex plasma oscillations are a promising mean to observe and study in detail the anomalous transport on the level of individual particles.

  17. Complexity and Dynamical Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence Deacon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We argue that a critical difference distinguishing machines from organisms and computers from brains is not complexity in a structural sense, but a difference in dynamical organization that is not well accounted for by current complexity measures. We propose a measure of the complexity of a system that is largely orthogonal to computational, information theoretic, or thermodynamic conceptions of structural complexity. What we call a system’s dynamical depth is a separate dimension of system complexity that measures the degree to which it exhibits discrete levels of nonlinear dynamical organization in which successive levels are distinguished by local entropy reduction and constraint generation. A system with greater dynamical depth than another consists of a greater number of such nested dynamical levels. Thus, a mechanical or linear thermodynamic system has less dynamical depth than an inorganic self-organized system, which has less dynamical depth than a living system. Including an assessment of dynamical depth can provide a more precise and systematic account of the fundamental difference between inorganic systems (low dynamical depth and living systems (high dynamical depth, irrespective of the number of their parts and the causal relations between them.

  18. Complexity: The bigger picture

    CERN Document Server

    Vicsek, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    If a concept is not well defined, there are grounds for its abuse. This is particularly true of complexity, an inherently interdisciplinary concept that has penetrated very different fields of intellectual activity from physics to linguistics, but with no underlying, unified theory. Complexity has become a popular buzzword used in the hope of gaining attention or funding -- institutes and research networks associated with complex systems grow like mushrooms. Why and how did it happen that this vague notion has become a central motif in modern science? Is it only a fashion, a kind of sociological phenomenon, or is it a sign of a changing paradigm of our perception of the laws of nature and of the approaches required to understand them? Because virtually every real system is inherently extremely complicated, to say that a system is complex is almost an empty statement - couldn't an Institute of Complex Systems just as well be called an Institute for Almost Everything? Despite these valid concerns, the world is ...

  19. Algorithmic Relative Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cerra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information content and compression are tightly related concepts that can be addressed through both classical and algorithmic information theories, on the basis of Shannon entropy and Kolmogorov complexity, respectively. The definition of several entities in Kolmogorov’s framework relies upon ideas from classical information theory, and these two approaches share many common traits. In this work, we expand the relations between these two frameworks by introducing algorithmic cross-complexity and relative complexity, counterparts of the cross-entropy and relative entropy (or Kullback-Leibler divergence found in Shannon’s framework. We define the cross-complexity of an object x with respect to another object y as the amount of computational resources needed to specify x in terms of y, and the complexity of x related to y as the compression power which is lost when adopting such a description for x, compared to the shortest representation of x. Properties of analogous quantities in classical information theory hold for these new concepts. As these notions are incomputable, a suitable approximation based upon data compression is derived to enable the application to real data, yielding a divergence measure applicable to any pair of strings. Example applications are outlined, involving authorship attribution and satellite image classification, as well as a comparison to similar established techniques.

  20. Complexity of Economical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Pavlos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study new theoretical concepts are described concerning the interpretation of economical complex dynamics. In addition a summary of an extended algorithm of nonlinear time series analysis is provided which is applied not only in economical time series but also in other physical complex systems (e.g. [22, 24]. In general, Economy is a vast and complicated set of arrangements and actions wherein agents—consumers, firms, banks, investors, government agencies—buy and sell, speculate, trade, oversee, bring products into being, offer services, invest in companies, strategize, explore, forecast, compete, learn, innovate, and adapt. As a result the economic and financial variables such as foreign exchange rates, gross domestic product, interest rates, production, stock market prices and unemployment exhibit large-amplitude and aperiodic fluctuations evident in complex systems. Thus, the Economics can be considered as spatially distributed non-equilibrium complex system, for which new theoretical concepts, such as Tsallis non extensive statistical mechanics and strange dynamics, percolation, nonGaussian, multifractal and multiscale dynamics related to fractional Langevin equations can be used for modeling and understanding of the economical complexity locally or globally.

  1. Projectively related complex Finsler metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Aldea, Nicoleta

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce in study the projectively related complex Finsler metrics. We prove the complex versions of the Rapcs\\'{a}k's theorem and characterize the weakly K\\"{a}hler and generalized Berwald projectively related complex Finsler metrics. The complex version of Hilbert's Fourth Problem is also pointed out. As an application, the projectiveness of a complex Randers metric is described.

  2. Emergy and ecosystem complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulgiati, Sergio; Brown, Mark T.

    2009-01-01

    The question "What drives complexity?" is addressed in this paper. To answer this question, we explore the way energy and material resources of different quality flow through ecosystems and support, directly and indirectly, ecosystems growth and development. Processes of resource transformation throughout the ecosystem build order, cycle materials, generate and sustain information. Energy drives all these processes and energetic principles explain much of what is observed, including energy degradation according to the laws of thermodynamics. Emergy, a quantitative measure of the global environmental work supporting ecosystem dynamics, is used here in order to provide a deeper understanding of complexity growth and decline in ecosystems. Ecosystem complexity is discussed in this paper in relation to changes in structure, organization and functional capacity, as explained by changes in emergy, empower, and transformity.

  3. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  4. Emergent Complex Network Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhihao; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geo...

  5. Modeling Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, Nino

    2010-01-01

    Modeling Complex Systems, 2nd Edition, explores the process of modeling complex systems, providing examples from such diverse fields as ecology, epidemiology, sociology, seismology, and economics. It illustrates how models of complex systems are built and provides indispensable mathematical tools for studying their dynamics. This vital introductory text is useful for advanced undergraduate students in various scientific disciplines, and serves as an important reference book for graduate students and young researchers. This enhanced second edition includes: . -recent research results and bibliographic references -extra footnotes which provide biographical information on cited scientists who have made significant contributions to the field -new and improved worked-out examples to aid a student’s comprehension of the content -exercises to challenge the reader and complement the material Nino Boccara is also the author of Essentials of Mathematica: With Applications to Mathematics and Physics (Springer, 2007).

  6. The complex pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Carl M.

    1999-07-01

    This talk proposes a generalization of conventional quantum mechanics. In conventional quantum mechanics one imposes the condition H †=H , where † represents complex conjugation and matrix transpose, to ensure that the Hamiltonian has a real spectrum. By replacing this mathematical condition with the weaker and more physical requirement H ‡=H , where ‡= PT represents combined parity reflection and time reversal, one obtains new infinite classes of complex Hamiltonians whose spectra are also real and positive. These PT-symmetric theories may be viewed as analytic continuations of conventional theories from real to complex-phase space. This talk describes the unusual classical and quantum properties of PT-symmetric quantum-mechanical and quantum-field-theoretic models.

  7. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields....

  8. Philosophy of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of comple...

  9. Viral quasispecies complexity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Josep; Perales, Celia; Rodriguez-Frias, Francisco; Esteban, Juan I; Quer, Josep; Domingo, Esteban

    2016-06-01

    Mutant spectrum dynamics (changes in the related mutants that compose viral populations) has a decisive impact on virus behavior. The several platforms of next generation sequencing (NGS) to study viral quasispecies offer a magnifying glass to study viral quasispecies complexity. Several parameters are available to quantify the complexity of mutant spectra, but they have limitations. Here we critically evaluate the information provided by several population diversity indices, and we propose the introduction of some new ones used in ecology. In particular we make a distinction between incidence, abundance and function measures of viral quasispecies composition. We suggest a multidimensional approach (complementary information contributed by adequately chosen indices), propose some guidelines, and illustrate the use of indices with a simple example. We apply the indices to three clinical samples of hepatitis C virus that display different population heterogeneity. Areas of virus biology in which population complexity plays a role are discussed.

  10. Modeling Complex Time Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Svatos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze complexity of time limits we can find especially in regulated processes of public administration. First we review the most popular process modeling languages. There is defined an example scenario based on the current Czech legislature which is then captured in discussed process modeling languages. Analysis shows that the contemporary process modeling languages support capturing of the time limit only partially. This causes troubles to analysts and unnecessary complexity of the models. Upon unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages we analyze the complexity of the time limits in greater detail and outline lifecycles of a time limit using the multiple dynamic generalizations pattern. As an alternative to the popular process modeling languages there is presented PSD process modeling language, which supports the defined lifecycles of a time limit natively and therefore allows keeping the models simple and easy to understand.

  11. Nonergodic complexity management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, Nicola; Lambert, David; West, Bruce J.; Bologna, Mauro; Grigolini, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    Linear response theory, the backbone of nonequilibrium statistical physics, has recently been extended to explain how and why nonergodic renewal processes are insensitive to simple perturbations, such as in habituation. It was established that a permanent correlation results between an external stimulus and the response of a complex system generating nonergodic renewal processes, when the stimulus is a similar nonergodic process. This is the principle of complexity management, whose proof relies on ensemble distribution functions. Herein we extend the proof to the nonergodic case using time averages and a single time series, hence making it usable in real life situations where ensemble averages cannot be performed because of the very nature of the complex systems being studied.

  12. Synchronization in complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.

    2007-12-12

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  13. Management of complex fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Hans Staby; Andersen, Peder; Hoff, Ayoe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how fisheries economics management issues or problems can be analyzed by using a complex model based on conventional bioeconomic theory. Complex simulation models contain a number of details that make them suitable for practical management advice......, including taking into account the response of the fishermen to implemented management measures. To demonstrate the use of complex management models this paper assesses a number of second best management schemes against a first rank optimum (FRO), an ideal individual transferable quotas (ITQ) system....... This is defined as the management scheme which produces the highest net present value over a 25 year period. The assessed management schemes (scenarios) are composed by several measures as used in the Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union for the cod fishery in the Baltic Sea. The scenarios are total...

  14. synthesis, characterization and antibacterial studies of metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The metal complexes showed varied antibacterial properties and their ... 17]. The presence of the dithiocarbamate moiety in some biologically active molecules has .... electron delocalization towards the metal ion upon coordination and ...

  15. Synthesis of anisotropic CdS nanostructures via a single-source route

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rajasekhar Pullabhotla, VSR

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A cadmium tetrahydroisoquinoline dithiocarbamate (DTC) complex has been used as single-source precursor for the synthesis of highly faceted hexadecylamine (HDA) capped CdS nanoparticles. Hexagonal and close to cubic shaped particles with distinct...

  16. Applied complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Dettman, John W

    1965-01-01

    Analytic function theory is a traditional subject going back to Cauchy and Riemann in the 19th century. Once the exclusive province of advanced mathematics students, its applications have proven vital to today's physicists and engineers. In this highly regarded work, Professor John W. Dettman offers a clear, well-organized overview of the subject and various applications - making the often-perplexing study of analytic functions of complex variables more accessible to a wider audience. The first half of Applied Complex Variables, designed for sequential study, is a step-by-step treatment of fun

  17. Complex HVPT and hyperasymptotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killingbeck, John P [Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Grosjean, Alain [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon(CNRS, UMR 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Jolicard, Georges [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon(CNRS, UMR 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2006-08-25

    Complex hypervirial perturbation theory (HVPT) is applied to the problem of a harmonic oscillator with a perturbation gx{sup 3}exp(i{psi}), for which the traditional Rayleigh-Schodinger perturbation theory has to be supplemented by hyperasymptotics for obtaining accurate resonance energies in the negative {psi} region. Complex HVPT gives accurate results for positive {psi} and for negative {psi} up to about vertical bar {phi} vertical bar = {pi}/24. The case of a quartic perturbed oscillator is also treated. (letter to the editor)

  18. Introduction to complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Priestley, H A

    2003-01-01

    Complex analysis is a classic and central area of mathematics, which is studied and exploited in a range of important fields, from number theory to engineering. Introduction to Complex Analysis was first published in 1985, and for this much awaited second edition the text has been considerably expanded, while retaining the style of the original. More detailed presentation is given of elementary topics, to reflect the knowledge base of current students. Exercise sets have beensubstantially revised and enlarged, with carefully graded exercises at the end of each chapter.This is the latest additi

  19. Resilience and Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two key concepts: resilience and complexity. The first is understood as an emergent property of the latter, and their inter-relatedness is discussed using a three tier approach. First, by exploring the discourse of each concept, next, by analyzing underlying relationships and...... robust. Robustness is a property of simple or complicated systems characterized by predictable behavior, enabling the system to bounce back to its normal state following a perturbation. Resilience, however, is an emergent property of complex adaptive systems. It is suggested that this distinction...

  20. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Tomasiello, Alessandro; /Stanford U., ITP

    2005-10-28

    We construct a class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten-dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)-structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.

  1. Complex function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sarason, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Complex Function Theory is a concise and rigorous introduction to the theory of functions of a complex variable. Written in a classical style, it is in the spirit of the books by Ahlfors and by Saks and Zygmund. Being designed for a one-semester course, it is much shorter than many of the standard texts. Sarason covers the basic material through Cauchy's theorem and applications, plus the Riemann mapping theorem. It is suitable for either an introductory graduate course or an undergraduate course for students with adequate preparation. The first edition was published with the title Notes on Co

  2. Jacobians with complex multiplication

    CERN Document Server

    Carocca, Angel; Rodriguez, Rubi E

    2009-01-01

    We construct and study two series of curves whose Jacobians admit complex multiplication. The curves arise as quotients of Galois coverings of the projective line with Galois group metacyclic groups $G_{q,3}$ of order $3q$ with $q \\equiv 1 \\mod 3$ an odd prime, and $G_m$ of order $2^{m+1}$. The complex multiplications arise as quotients of double coset algebras of the Galois groups of these coverings. We work out the CM-types and show that the Jacobians are simple abelian varieties.

  3. Complexity Equals Action

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adam R; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We conjecture that the quantum complexity of a holographic state is dual to the action of a certain spacetime region that we call a Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We illustrate and test the conjecture in the context of neutral, charged, and rotating black holes in AdS, as well as black holes perturbed with static shells and with shock waves. This conjecture evolved from a previous conjecture that complexity is dual to spatial volume, but appears to be a major improvement over the original. In light of our results, we discuss the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.

  4. Complex variables II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables II includes elementary mappings and Mobius transformation, mappings by general functions, conformal mappings and harmonic functions, applying complex functions to a

  5. Tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMario, Francis J; Sahin, Mustafa; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius

    2015-06-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal-dominant, neurocutaneous, multisystem disorder characterized by cellular hyperplasia and tissue dysplasia. The genetic cause is mutations in the TSC1 gene, found on chromosome 9q34, and TSC2 gene, found on chromosome 16p13. The clinical phenotypes resulting from mutations in either of the 2 genes are variable in each individual. Herein, advances in the understanding of molecular mechanisms in tuberous sclerosis complex are reviewed, and current guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and management are summarized.

  6. Complex matrix model duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.W.

    2010-11-15

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  7. Nonlinear dynamics and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin

    2014-01-01

    This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.

  8. Luminescent macrocyclic lanthanide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Kenneth N [Berkeley, CA; Corneillie, Todd M [Campbell, CA; Xu, Jide [Berkeley, CA

    2012-05-08

    The present invention provides a novel class of macrocyclic compounds as well as complexes formed between a metal (e.g., lanthanide) ion and the compounds of the invention. Preferred complexes exhibit high stability as well as high quantum yields of lanthanide ion luminescence in aqueous media without the need for secondary activating agents. Preferred compounds incorporate hydroxy-isophthalamide moieties within their macrocyclic structure and are characterized by surprisingly low, non-specific binding to a variety of polypeptides such as antibodies and proteins as well as high kinetic stability. These characteristics distinguish them from known, open-structured ligands.

  9. Theories of computational complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Calude, C

    1988-01-01

    This volume presents four machine-independent theories of computational complexity, which have been chosen for their intrinsic importance and practical relevance. The book includes a wealth of results - classical, recent, and others which have not been published before.In developing the mathematics underlying the size, dynamic and structural complexity measures, various connections with mathematical logic, constructive topology, probability and programming theories are established. The facts are presented in detail. Extensive examples are provided, to help clarify notions and constructions. The lists of exercises and problems include routine exercises, interesting results, as well as some open problems.

  10. Complex logistics audit system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Marková

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex logistics audit system is a tool for realization of logistical audit in the company. The current methods for logistics auditare based on “ad hok” analysis of logisticsl system. This paper describes system for complex logistics audit. It is a global diagnosticsof logistics processes and functions of enterprise. The goal of logistics audit is to provide comparative documentation for managementabout state of logistics in company and to show the potential of logistics changes in order to achieve more effective companyperformance.

  11. Salen complexes with dianionic counterions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Job, Gabriel E.; Farmer, Jay J.; Cherian, Anna E.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention describes metal salen complexes having dianionic counterions. Such complexes can be readily precipitated and provide an economical method for the purification and isolation of the complexes, and are useful to prepare novel polymer compositions.

  12. Launching Complex Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kara J.; Shahan, Emily C.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics lessons can take a variety of formats. In this article, the authors discuss lessons organized around complex mathematical tasks. These lessons usually unfold in three phases. First, the task is introduced to students. Second, students work on solving the task. Third, the teacher "orchestrates" a concluding whole-class discussion in…

  13. Prediction of Biomolecular Complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Vangone, Anna

    2017-04-12

    Almost all processes in living organisms occur through specific interactions between biomolecules. Any dysfunction of those interactions can lead to pathological events. Understanding such interactions is therefore a crucial step in the investigation of biological systems and a starting point for drug design. In recent years, experimental studies have been devoted to unravel the principles of biomolecular interactions; however, due to experimental difficulties in solving the three-dimensional (3D) structure of biomolecular complexes, the number of available, high-resolution experimental 3D structures does not fulfill the current needs. Therefore, complementary computational approaches to model such interactions are necessary to assist experimentalists since a full understanding of how biomolecules interact (and consequently how they perform their function) only comes from 3D structures which provide crucial atomic details about binding and recognition processes. In this chapter we review approaches to predict biomolecular complexesBiomolecular complexes, introducing the concept of molecular dockingDocking, a technique which uses a combination of geometric, steric and energetics considerations to predict the 3D structure of a biological complex starting from the individual structures of its constituent parts. We provide a mini-guide about docking concepts, its potential and challenges, along with post-docking analysis and a list of related software.

  14. Debating complexity in modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    1999-01-01

    Complexity in modeling would seem to be an issue of universal importance throughout the geosciences, perhaps throughout all science, if the debate last year among groundwater modelers is any indication. During the discussion the following questions and observations made up the heart of the debate.

  15. Statistical electromagnetics: Complex cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2008-01-01

    A selection of the literature on the statistical description of electromagnetic fields and complex cavities is concisely reviewed. Some essential concepts, for example, the application of the central limit theorem and the maximum entropy principle, are scrutinized. Implicit assumptions, biased choic

  16. Optical Complex Systems 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Guillaume

    The Optical Complex Systems are more and more in the heart of various systems that industrial applications bring to everyday life. From environment up to spatial applications, OCS is also relevant in monitoring, transportation, robotics, life sciences, sub-marine, and even for agricultural purposes.

  17. The Complexity of Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾燕梅

    2007-01-01

    Being as one figurative form of language, metaphor plays the most complicated role to make language colorful and vivid.Demonstrating the types and the features of metaphor, this article will focus on the point that metaphor is a complex language phenomenon heavily loaded with the factor of culture.

  18. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Christiane Lefèvre

    2008-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  19. Automatic Complexity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1989-01-01

    One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstrac...

  20. The Complexity Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    fundamental challenge for the millennial genera- tion. Complexity, it appears, is all the rage. We challenge these declarations and assumptions—not...arrested as a Soviet spy. • On 14 February 1950, the Soviets signed a Treaty of Friendship , Alliance and Mutual Assistance with the Chinese government

  1. COMPLEXITY AND UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Lemes Martins Pereira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization affects different countries on the globe, has positive effects mainly related to access to communication, which promotes the exchange of ideas, information, products and quality of life. However, extends numerous negative aspects such as marginalization, economic dependencies, political, cultural, scientific, educational accentuate social inequalities and cultural conflicts and territorial. In this article it is a dialogue with authors (Cunha 2009; BARNETT 2005; MORIN 1999, 2006, among others, who understand these changes in society from the contemporary world as conceived as the "Complexity era" or "supercomplexity". To understand and cope with this reality, they propose a paradigm that is able to overcome the fragmentation and reductionism of knowledge and to relate the multiple approaches and visions to meet the complexity of reality. Although this paper presents proposals to the aforementioned authors point to education and the university found in this tangle of interconnected global transformations, given the need to be subject to act in a complex reality that requires critical and self-critical professionals, able to think about their own ability to think, understand and act within this complex context.

  2. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    De Melis, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark blue line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  3. Complexity driven photonics

    KAUST Repository

    Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Disorder and chaos are ubiquitous phenomena that are mostly unwanted in applications. On the contrary, they can be exploited to create a new technology. In this talk I will summarize my research in this field, discussing chaotic energy harvesting, nonlinear stochastic resonance and complex nanolasers.

  4. Complex Digital Visual Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This article identifies possibilities for data visualization as art educational research practice. The author presents an analysis of the relationship between works of art and digital visual culture, employing aspects of network analysis drawn from the work of Barabási, Newman, and Watts (2006) and Castells (1994). Describing complex network…

  5. Transformations, Dynamics and Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Glazunov, Nikolaj

    2011-01-01

    We review and investigate some new problems and results in the field of dynamical systems generated by iteration of maps, {\\beta}-transformations, partitions, group actions, bundle dynamical systems, Hasse-Kloosterman maps, and some aspects of complexity of the systems.

  6. MET AL COMPLEXES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of complex formation of Group(lV) metal halides with .... significant of these extra bands are a second (C1-N) stretching (17) and a second. (C-=8) band (6). However ... Lower electron density on the tin atom (and thus greater contribution of the ...

  7. Complex WS 2 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, R. L. D.; Hsu, W. K.; Lee, T. H.; Boothroyd, C. B.; Kroto, H. W.; Walton, D. R. M.

    2002-06-01

    A range of elegant tubular and conical nanostructures has been created by template growth of (WS 2) n layers on the surfaces of single-walled carbon nanotube bundles. The structures exhibit remarkably perfect straight segments together with interesting complexities at the intersections, which are discussed here in detail in order to enhance understanding of the structural features governing tube growth.

  8. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Haffner, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  9. Psychopathology and complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Y. Álvarez R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of complexity states that reality conveys a chaotic dynamics, ambiguous, blurred, and paradoxical, and that it does not fulfill the values of order, harmony nor perfection. However, such a chaos represents a specific way of organization and order. Human behavior explained by this paradigm vindicates on this way the outstanding role of contradiction and irregularity aside of what is linear and predictable. The purpose of this review has the primary aim to describe some concepts and assumptions that give support to the approach to complexity in behavior, especially concerning the psychopathological behavior of an individual. Some comparisons with concepts associated to complexity in scientific approaches to psychology (contextual and paradigmatical behaviorism and interbehaviorism from its own persepctive are stablished. All these elements are developed underlining the concepts of reciprocal multicausality, complex and hierarchical learning, historical and contextual factors in the comprehension of behavior, and trying to make some extrapolations on the psychopathological behavior. This approach is hence considered appropriate and necessary to understand gnosiological entities and to intervene them in their role of clinical challenges.

  10. Aquaporins in complex tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, S; Zeuthen, T; La Cour, M

    1998-01-01

    Multiple physiological fluid movements are involved in vision. Here we define the cellular and subcellular sites of aquaporin (AQP) water transport proteins in human and rat eyes by immunoblotting, high-resolution immunocytochemistry, and immunoelectron microscopy. AQP3 is abundant in bulbar conj......, predicting specific roles for each in the complex network through which water movements occur in the eye....

  11. Complex Interfaces Under Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosbjerg, Dan

    and mechanical processes that develop within this structure. Water-related processes at the interfaces between the compartments are complex, depending both on the interface itself, and on the characteristics of the interfaced compartments. Various aspects of global change directly or indirectly impact...

  12. Complex Digital Visual Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This article identifies possibilities for data visualization as art educational research practice. The author presents an analysis of the relationship between works of art and digital visual culture, employing aspects of network analysis drawn from the work of Barabási, Newman, and Watts (2006) and Castells (1994). Describing complex network…

  13. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Mobs, Esma Anais

    2016-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark blue line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  14. Complex Planar Splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    try todefine a complex planar spline by holomorphic elements like polynomials, then by the well known identity theorem (e.g. Diederich- Remmert [9, p...R. Remmert : Funktionentheorie I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1972, 246 p. 10 0. Lehto - K.I. Virtanen: Quasikonforme AbbildunQen, Springer

  15. Energy momentum complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashed, Gamal G.L. [Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Science. Mathematics Dept.

    2010-09-15

    We show that the definition of the energy-momentum complex given by Moeller using Weitzenboeck spacetime in the calculations of gravitational energy gives results which are different from those obtained from other definitions given in the framework of general relativity. (author)

  16. Tevatron's complex collider cousins

    CERN Multimedia

    Fischer, W

    2004-01-01

    Letter referring to Schwarzschild's story "Disappointing performance and tight budgets confront Fermilab with tough decisions" and contesting that the Tevatron is not the most complex accelerator operating. They use the examples of CERN's SPS collider, HERA at DESY and the RHIC at Brookhaven (1/4 page)

  17. Light in complex dielectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, F.J.P.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis the properties of light in complex dielectrics are described, with the two general topics of "modification of spontaneous emission" and "Anderson localization of light". The first part focuses on the spontaneous emission rate of an excited atom in a dielectric host with variable refra

  18. Electromeric rhodium radical complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puschmann, F.F.; Harmer, J.; Stein, D.; Rüegger, H.; de Bruin, B.; Grützmacher, H.

    2010-01-01

    Radical changes: One single P-Rh-P angle determines whether the odd electron in the paramagnetic complex [Rh(trop2PPh)(PPh3)] is delocalized over the whole molecule (see picture, blue) or is localized on the P—Rh unit (red). The two energetically almost degenerate electromers exist in a fast equilib

  19. Symmetry in Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze a few interrelated concepts about graphs, such as their degree, entropy, or their symmetry/asymmetry levels. These concepts prove useful in the study of different types of Systems, and particularly, in the analysis of Complex Networks. A System can be defined as any set of components functioning together as a whole. A systemic point of view allows us to isolate a part of the world, and so, we can focus on those aspects that interact more closely than others. Network Science analyzes the interconnections among diverse networks from different domains: physics, engineering, biology, semantics, and so on. Current developments in the quantitative analysis of Complex Networks, based on graph theory, have been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. The brain's systems have complex network features—such as the small-world topology, highly connected hubs and modularity. These networks are not random. The topology of many different networks shows striking similarities, such as the scale-free structure, with the degree distribution following a Power Law. How can very different systems have the same underlying topological features? Modeling and characterizing these networks, looking for their governing laws, are the current lines of research. So, we will dedicate this Special Issue paper to show measures of symmetry in Complex Networks, and highlight their close relation with measures of information and entropy.

  20. COMPLEX PROMOTIONSIN RETAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yusupova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex promotions used by retailers introduce to the consumers several rules that must be satisfied in order to get some benefits and usually refer to multiple products (e.g. “buy two, get one free”. Rules of complex promotions can be quite sophisticated and complicated themselves. Since diversity of complex promotions limited only by marketers’ imagination we can observe broad variety of promotions’ rules and representa¬tions of those rules in retailers’ commercials. Such diversification makes no good for fellow scientist who’s trying to sort all type of promotions into the neatly organized classification. Although we can simple add every single set of rules offered by retailers as a separate form of sales promotion it seems not to be the best way of dealing with such a problem. The better way is to realize that mechanisms underlying that variety of promotions are basically the same, namely changes in demand or quantity demanded. Those two concepts alone provide powerful insight into classification of complex promotions and allow us to comprehend the variety of promotions offered by marketers nowadays.

  1. The Colletotrichum acutatum complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Cannon, P.F.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Colletotrichum acutatum is known as an important anthracnose pathogen of a wide range of host plants worldwide. Numerous studies have reported subgroups within the C. acutatum species complex. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH, HIS3) of 331 strains previously

  2. Managing Complex Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, John C.; Webster, Robert L.; Curry, Jeanie A.; Hammond, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Management commonly engages in a variety of research designed to provide insight into the motivation and relationships of individuals, departments, organizations, etc. This paper demonstrates how the application of concepts associated with the analysis of complex systems applied to such data sets can yield enhanced insights for managerial action.

  3. Complexity in Managing Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Sun, Hongyi

    2011-01-01

    In general, the phenomenon of managing modularization is not well known. The cause-effect relationships between modularization and realized benefits are complex and comprehensive. Though a number of research works have contributed to the study of the phenomenon of efficient and effective modulari......In general, the phenomenon of managing modularization is not well known. The cause-effect relationships between modularization and realized benefits are complex and comprehensive. Though a number of research works have contributed to the study of the phenomenon of efficient and effective...... modularization management it is far from clarified. Recognizing the need for further empirical research, we have studied 40 modularity cases in various companies. The studies have been designed as long-term studies leaving time for various types of modularization benefits to emerge. Based on these studies we...... have developed a framework to support the heuristic and iterative process of planning and realizing modularization benefits....

  4. Sensitivity of Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Angulo, Marco Tulio; Liu, Yang-Yu; Barabási, Albert-László

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity (i.e. dynamic response) of complex networked systems has not been well understood, making difficult to predict whether new macroscopic dynamic behavior will emerge even if we know exactly how individual nodes behave and how they are coupled. Here we build a framework to quantify the sensitivity of complex networked system of coupled dynamic units. We characterize necessary and sufficient conditions for the emergence of new macroscopic dynamic behavior in the thermodynamic limit. We prove that these conditions are satisfied only for architectures with power-law degree distributions. Surprisingly, we find that highly connected nodes (i.e. hubs) only dominate the sensitivity of the network up to certain critical frequency.

  5. Complex Feeding Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Miles PhD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Where swallowing difficulties are chronic or progressive, or a patient is palliative, tube feeding is often not deemed appropriate. Instead, patients continue to eat and drink despite the risks of pneumonia and death. There is currently little evidence to guide clinical practice in this field often termed “risk feeding.” This qualitative study investigated staff, patient, and family member perceptions of risk feeding practices in one New Zealand hospital. Method: Twenty-nine staff members and six patients and/or their family were interviewed. Results: Thematic analysis revealed four global themes: supporting practice, communication, complexity of feeding decisions, and patient and family-centered care. Staff described limited education and organizational policy around risk feeding decisions. Communication was considered a major factor in the success. Conclusion: Feeding decisions are complex in the hospital environment. The themes identified in this study provide a foundation for hospital guideline development and implementation.

  6. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields....

  7. Reducing GWAS Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelett, Dennis J.; Conti, David V.; Han, Ying; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Easton, Doug; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Haiman, Christopher A.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous genomic 'hits' associated with complex phenotypes. In most cases these hits, along with surrogate genetic variation as measure by numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are in linkage disequilibrium, are not in coding genes making assignment of functionality or causality intractable. Here we propose that fine-mapping along with the matching of risk SNPs at chromatin biofeatures lessen this complexity by reducing the number of candidate functional/causal SNPs. For example, we show here that only on average 2 SNPs per prostate cancer risk locus are likely candidates for functionality/causality; we further propose that this manageable number should be taken forward in mechanistic studies. The candidate SNPs can be looked up for each prostate cancer risk region in 2 recent publications in 20151,2 from our groups. PMID:26771711

  8. Polystochastic Models for Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2010-01-01

    This book is devoted to complexity understanding and management, considered as the main source of efficiency and prosperity for the next decades. Divided into six chapters, the book begins with a presentation of basic concepts as complexity, emergence and closure. The second chapter looks to methods and introduces polystochastic models, the wave equation, possibilities and entropy. The third chapter focusing on physical and chemical systems analyzes flow-sheet synthesis, cyclic operations of separation, drug delivery systems and entropy production. Biomimetic systems represent the main objective of the fourth chapter. Case studies refer to bio-inspired calculation methods, to the role of artificial genetic codes, neural networks and neural codes for evolutionary calculus and for evolvable circuits as biomimetic devices. The fifth chapter, taking its inspiration from systems sciences and cognitive sciences looks to engineering design, case base reasoning methods, failure analysis, and multi-agent manufacturing...

  9. Stable generalized complex structures

    CERN Document Server

    Cavalcanti, Gil R

    2015-01-01

    A stable generalized complex structure is one that is generically symplectic but degenerates along a real codimension two submanifold, where it defines a generalized Calabi-Yau structure. We introduce a Lie algebroid which allows us to view such structures as symplectic forms. This allows us to construct new examples of stable structures, and also to define period maps for their deformations in which the background three-form flux is either fixed or not, proving the unobstructedness of both deformation problems. We then use the same tools to establish local normal forms for the degeneracy locus and for Lagrangian branes. Applying our normal forms to the four-dimensional case, we prove that any compact stable generalized complex 4-manifold has a symplectic completion, in the sense that it can be modified near its degeneracy locus to produce a compact symplectic 4-manifold.

  10. Complexes Tickling the $ubject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Gildersleeve

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article continues my earlier work of reading Jung with Lacan. This article will develop Zizek’s work on Lacan’s concept of objet petit a by relating it to a phenomenological interpretation of Jung. I use a number of different examples, including Zizek’s interpretation of Francis Bacon, Edvard Munch, Hans Holbein and Johann Gottlieb Fichte, to describe the objet petit a and its relationship to a phenomenological interpretation of complexes. By integrating other Lacanian concepts, such as subject, drive, fantasy, jouissance, gaze, desire, and ego as well as the imaginary, symbolic and Real, this work also highlights how Hegel and Heidegger can elucidate the relationship between objet petit a and complexes. Jung’s transcendent function and the Rosarium Philosophorum also elucidate the relationship between Jung and Lacan.

  11. Resilience and Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two key concepts: resilience and complexity. The first is understood as an emergent property of the latter, and their inter-relatedness is discussed using a three tier approach. First, by exploring the discourse of each concept, next, by analyzing underlying relationships and......, finally, by presenting the Cynefin Framework for Sense-Making as a tool of explicatory potential that has already shown its usefulness in several contexts. I further emphasize linking the two concepts into a common and, hopefully, useful concept. Furthermore, I argue that a resilient system is not merely...... robust. Robustness is a property of simple or complicated systems characterized by predictable behavior, enabling the system to bounce back to its normal state following a perturbation. Resilience, however, is an emergent property of complex adaptive systems. It is suggested that this distinction...

  12. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...

  13. Sporadic meteoroid complex: Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, V.

    2014-07-01

    The distribution of the sporadic meteoroids flux density over the celestial sphere is the common form of representation of the meteoroids distribution in the vicinity of the Earth's orbit. The determination of the flux density of sporadic meteor bodies is Q(V,e,f) = Q_0 P_e(V) P(e,f) where V is the meteoroid velocity, e,f are the radiant coordinates, Q_0 is the meteoroid flux over whole celestial sphere, P_e(V) is the conditional velocity distributions and P(e,f) is the radiant distribution over the celestial sphere. The sporadic meteoroid complex model is analytical and based on heliocentric velocities and radiant distributions. The multi-mode character of the heliocentric velocity and radiant distributions follows from the analysis of meteor observational data. This fact points to a complicated structure of the sporadic meteoroid complex. It is the consequence of the plurality of the parent bodies and the origin mechanisms of the meteoroids. The meteoroid complex was divided into four groups for that reason and with a goal of more accurate modelling of velocities and radiant distributions. As the classifying parameter to determine the meteoroid membership in any group, we adopt the Tisserand invariant relative to Jupiter T_J = 1/a + 2 A_J^{-3/2} √{a (1 - e^2)} cos i and the meteoroid orbit inclination i. Two meteoroid groups relate to long-period and short-period comets. One meteoroid group is related to asteroids. The relationship to the last, fourth group is a problematic one. Then, we construct models of radiant and velocity distributions for each group. The analytical model for the whole sporadic meteoroid complex is the sum of the ones for each group.

  14. Complex fission phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Poenaru, D N; Greiner, W

    2005-01-01

    Complex fission phenomena can be studied in a unified way. Very general reflection asymmetrical equilibrium (saddle-point) nuclear shapes, may be obtained by solving an integro-differential equation without being necessary to specify a certain parametrization. The mass asymmetry in cold fission phenomena can be explained as the result of adding a phenomenological shell correction to the liquid drop model deformation energy. Applications to binary, ternary, and quaternary fission are outlined. Predictions of two alpha accompanied fission are experimentally confirmed.

  15. Complex fission phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poenaru, D. N.; Gherghescu, R. A.; Greiner, W.

    2005-01-01

    Complex fission phenomena are studied in a unified way. Very general reflection asymmetrical equilibrium (saddle point) nuclear shapes are obtained by solving an integro-differential equation without being necessary to specify a certain parametrization. The mass asymmetry in binary cold fission of Th and U isotopes is explained as the result of adding a phenomenological shell correction to the liquid drop model deformation energy. Applications to binary, ternary, and quaternary fission are outlined.

  16. Complex and Fractional Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems (CS are pervasive in many areas, namely financial markets; highway transportation; telecommunication networks; world and country economies; social networks; immunological systems; living organisms; computational systems; and electrical and mechanical structures. CS are often composed of a large number of interconnected and interacting entities exhibiting much richer global scale dynamics than could be inferred from the properties and behavior of individual elements. [...

  17. Simplicial Complex Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We propose an entropy function for simplicial complices. Its value gives the expected cost of the optimal encoding of sequences of vertices of the complex, when any two vertices belonging to the same simplex are indistinguishable. We show that the proposed entropy function can be computed efficiently. By computing the entropy of several complices consisting of hundreds of simplices, we show that the proposed entropy function can be used in the analysis of the large sequences of simplicial com...

  18. COMPLEX QUERY AND METADATA

    OpenAIRE

    Nakatoh, Tetsuya; Omori, Keisuke; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Hirokawa, Sachio

    2003-01-01

    We are developing a search system DAISEn which integrates multiple search engines and generates a metasearch engine automatically. The target search engines of DAISEn are not general search engines, but are search engines specialized in some area. Integration of such engines yields efficiency and quality. There are search engines of new type which accept complex query and return structured data. Integration of such search engines is much harder than that of simple search engines which accept ...

  19. Arithmetic of Complex Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    It was the aim of the Erlangen meeting in May 1988 to bring together number theoretists and algebraic geometers to discuss problems of common interest, such as moduli problems, complex tori, integral points, rationality questions, automorphic forms. In recent years such problems, which are simultaneously of arithmetic and geometric interest, have become increasingly important. This proceedings volume contains 12 original research papers. Its main topics are theta functions, modular forms, abelian varieties and algebraic three-folds.

  20. Complexity of the Ephemeral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    This brief article presents the everyday cultural use of the Snapchat instant messaging application for video chats as an exemplary case of the challenges confronting studies of cinematics in an epoch marked by the rise in network societies of ubiquitous mobile and social media and technics....... It proffers and begins to detail the argument that snap video chats cannot be denigrated as mere ‘shorts’ but must be approached as spatiotemporally and experientally complex....