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Sample records for distinguish cellular populations

  1. Distinguishing between biochemical and cellular function: Are there peptide signatures for cellular function of proteins?

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    Jain, Shruti; Bhattacharyya, Kausik; Bakshi, Rachit; Narang, Ankita; Brahmachari, Vani

    2017-04-01

    The genome annotation and identification of gene function depends on conserved biochemical activity. However, in the cell, proteins with the same biochemical function can participate in different cellular pathways and cannot complement one another. Similarly, two proteins of very different biochemical functions are put in the same class of cellular function; for example, the classification of a gene as an oncogene or a tumour suppressor gene is not related to its biochemical function, but is related to its cellular function. We have taken an approach to identify peptide signatures for cellular function in proteins with known biochemical function. ATPases as a test case, we classified ATPases (2360 proteins) and kinases (517 proteins) from the human genome into different cellular function categories such as transcriptional, replicative, and chromatin remodelling proteins. Using publicly available tool, MEME, we identify peptide signatures shared among the members of a given category but not between cellular functional categories; for example, no motif sharing is seen between chromatin remodelling and transporter ATPases, similarly between receptor Serine/Threonine Kinase and Receptor Tyrosine Kinase. There are motifs shared within each category with significant E value and high occurrence. This concept of signature for cellular function was applied to developmental regulators, the polycomb and trithorax proteins which led to the prediction of the role of INO80, a chromatin remodelling protein, in development. This has been experimentally validated earlier for its role in homeotic gene regulation and its interaction with regulatory complexes like the Polycomb and Trithorax complex. Proteins 2017; 85:682-693. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Expression of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor distinguishes transitional cancer states in therapy-induced cellular senescence.

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    Wu, P C; Wang, Q; Dong, Z M; Chu, E; Roberson, R S; Ivanova, I C; Wu, D Y

    2010-09-02

    Therapy-induced cellular senescence describes the phenomenon of cell cycle arrest that can be invoked in cancer cells in response to chemotherapy. Sustained proliferative arrest is often overcome as a contingent of senescent tumor cells can bypass this cell cycle restriction. The mechanism regulating cell cycle re-entry of senescent cancer cells remains poorly understood. This is the first report of the isolation and characterization of two distinct transitional states in chemotherapy-induced senescent cells that share indistinguishable morphological senescence phenotypes and are functionally classified by their ability to escape cell cycle arrest. It has been observed that cell surface expression of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is downregulated in cancer cells treated with chemotherapy. We show the novel use of surface CAR expression and adenoviral transduction to differentiate senescent states and also show in vivo evidence of CAR downregulation in colorectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. This study suggests that CAR is a candidate biomarker for senescence response to antitumor therapy, and CAR expression can be used to distinguish transitional states in early senescence to study fundamental regulatory events in therapy-induced senescence.

  3. Distinguishing epidemic waves from disease spillover in a wildlife population.

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    Craft, Meggan E; Volz, Erik; Packer, Craig; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2009-05-22

    Serengeti lions frequently experience viral outbreaks. In 1994, one-third of Serengeti lions died from canine distemper virus (CDV). Based on the limited epidemiological data available from this period, it has been unclear whether the 1994 outbreak was propagated by lion-to-lion transmission alone or involved multiple introductions from other sympatric carnivore species. More broadly, we do not know whether contacts between lions allow any pathogen with a relatively short infectious period to percolate through the population (i.e. reach epidemic proportions). We built one of the most realistic contact network models for a wildlife population to date, based on detailed behavioural and movement data from a long-term lion study population. The model allowed us to identify previously unrecognized biases in the sparse data from the 1994 outbreak and develop methods for judiciously inferring disease dynamics from typical wildlife samples. Our analysis of the model in light of the 1994 outbreak data strongly suggest that, although lions are sufficiently well connected to sustain epidemics of CDV-like diseases, the 1994 epidemic was fuelled by multiple spillovers from other carnivore species, such as jackals and hyenas.

  4. Distinguishing the opponents promotes cooperation in well-mixed populations

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    Wardil, Lucas; da Silva, Jafferson K. L.

    2010-03-01

    Cooperation has been widely studied when an individual strategy is adopted against all coplayers. In this context, some extra mechanisms, such as punishment, reward, memory, and network reciprocity must be introduced in order to keep cooperators alive. Here, we adopt a different point of view. We study the adoption of different strategies against different opponents instead of adoption of the same strategy against all of them. In the context of the prisoner dilemma, we consider an evolutionary process in which strategies that provide more benefits are imitated and the players replace the strategy used in one of the interactions furnishing the worst payoff. Individuals are set in a well-mixed population, so that network reciprocity effect is excluded and both synchronous and asynchronous updates are analyzed. As a consequence of the replacement rule, we show that mutual cooperation is never destroyed and the initial fraction of mutual cooperation is a lower bound for the level of cooperation. We show by simulation and mean-field analysis that (i) cooperation dominates for synchronous update and (ii) only the initial mutual cooperation is maintained for asynchronous update. As a side effect of the replacement rule, an “implicit punishment” mechanism comes up in a way that exploitations are always neutralized providing evolutionary stability for cooperation.

  5. The doubly conditioned frequency spectrum does not distinguish between ancient population structure and hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    Eriksson, Anders

    2014-03-13

    Distinguishing between hybridization and population structure in the ancestral species is a key challenge in our understanding of how permeable species boundaries are to gene flow. The doubly conditioned frequency spectrum (dcfs) has been argued to be a powerful metric to discriminate between these two explanations, and it was used to argue for hybridization between Neandertal and anatomically modern humans. The shape of the observed dcfs for these two species cannot be reproduced by a model that represents ancient population structure in Africa with two populations, while adding hybridization produces realistic shapes. In this letter, we show that this result is a consequence of the spatial coarseness of the demographic model and that a spatially structured stepping stone model can generate realistic dcfs without hybridization. This result highlights how inferences on hybridization between recently diverged species can be strongly affected by the choice of how population structure is represented in the underlying demographic model. We also conclude that the dcfs has limited power in distinguishing between the signals left by hybridization and ancient structure. 2014 The Author.

  6. Distinguishing Antimicrobial Models with Different Resistance Mechanisms via Population Pharmacodynamic Modeling.

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    Matthieu Jacobs

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD modeling is increasingly used for antimicrobial drug development and optimization of dosage regimens, but systematic simulation-estimation studies to distinguish between competing PD models are lacking. This study compared the ability of static and dynamic in vitro infection models to distinguish between models with different resistance mechanisms and support accurate and precise parameter estimation. Monte Carlo simulations (MCS were performed for models with one susceptible bacterial population without (M1 or with a resting stage (M2, a one population model with adaptive resistance (M5, models with pre-existing susceptible and resistant populations without (M3 or with (M4 inter-conversion, and a model with two pre-existing populations with adaptive resistance (M6. For each model, 200 datasets of the total bacterial population were simulated over 24h using static antibiotic concentrations (256-fold concentration range or over 48h under dynamic conditions (dosing every 12h; elimination half-life: 1h. Twelve-hundred random datasets (each containing 20 curves for static or four curves for dynamic conditions were generated by bootstrapping. Each dataset was estimated by all six models via population PD modeling to compare bias and precision. For M1 and M3, most parameter estimates were unbiased (<10% and had good imprecision (<30%. However, parameters for adaptive resistance and inter-conversion for M2, M4, M5 and M6 had poor bias and large imprecision under static and dynamic conditions. For datasets that only contained viable counts of the total population, common statistical criteria and diagnostic plots did not support sound identification of the true resistance mechanism. Therefore, it seems advisable to quantify resistant bacteria and characterize their MICs and resistance mechanisms to support extended simulations and translate from in vitro experiments to animal infection models and

  7. Cellular observations enabled by microculture: paracrine signaling and population demographics†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, Maribella; Yu, Hongmei; Warrick, Jay; Badders, Nisha M.; Meyvantsson, Ivar; Alexander, Caroline M.; Beebe, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The cellular microenvironment plays a critical role in shaping and directing the process of communication between the cells. Soluble signals are responsible for many cellular behaviors such as cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. Despite the importance of soluble signals, canonical methods are not well suited to the study of soluble factor interactions between multiple cell types. Macro-scale technology often puts cells into a convective environment that can wash away and dilute soluble signals from their targets, minimizing local concentrations of important factors. In addition, current methods such as transwells, require large numbers of cells and are limited to studying just two cell types. Here, we present data supporting the use of microchannels to study soluble factor signaling providing improved sensitivity as well as the ability to move beyond existing co-culture and conditioned medium paradigms. In addition, we present data suggesting that microculture can be used to unmask effects of population demographics. In this example the data support the hypothesis that a growth promoting subpopulation of cells exists in the mouse mammary gland. PMID:20011455

  8. Cellular observations enabled by microculture: paracrine signaling and population demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, Maribella; Yu, Hongmei; Warrick, Jay; Badders, Nisha M; Meyvantsson, Ivar; Alexander, Caroline M; Beebe, David J

    2009-03-01

    The cellular microenvironment plays a critical role in shaping and directing the process of communication between the cells. Soluble signals are responsible for many cellular behaviors such as cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. Despite the importance of soluble signals, canonical methods are not well suited to the study of soluble factor interactions between multiple cell types. Macro-scale technology often puts cells into a convective environment that can wash away and dilute soluble signals from their targets, minimizing local concentrations of important factors. In addition, current methods such as transwells, require large numbers of cells and are limited to studying just two cell types. Here, we present data supporting the use of microchannels to study soluble factor signaling providing improved sensitivity as well as the ability to move beyond existing co-culture and conditioned medium paradigms. In addition, we present data suggesting that microculture can be used to unmask effects of population demographics. In this example the data support the hypothesis that a growth promoting subpopulation of cells exists in the mouse mammary gland.

  9. Cardiometabolic risk indicators that distinguish adults with psychosis from the general population, by age and gender.

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    Debra L Foley

    Full Text Available Individuals with psychosis are more likely than the general community to develop obesity and to die prematurely from heart disease. Interventions to improve cardiovascular outcomes are best targeted at the earliest indicators of risk, at the age they first emerge. We investigated which cardiometabolic risk indicators distinguished those with psychosis from the general population, by age by gender, and whether obesity explained the pattern of observed differences. Data was analyzed from an epidemiologically representative sample of 1,642 Australians with psychosis aged 18-64 years and a national comparator sample of 8,866 controls aged 25-64 years from the general population. Cubic b-splines were used to compare cross sectional age trends by gender for mean waist circumference, body mass index [BMI], blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol in our psychosis and control samples. At age 25 individuals with psychosis had a significantly higher mean BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose [women only], and diastolic blood pressure and significantly lower HDL-cholesterol than controls. With the exception of triglycerides at age 60+ in men, and glucose in women at various ages, these differences were present at every age. Differences in BMI and waist circumference between samples, although dramatic, could not explain all differences in diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol or triglycerides but did explain differences in glucose. Psychosis has the hallmarks of insulin resistance by at least age 25. The entire syndrome, not just weight, should be a focus of intervention to reduce mortality from cardiovascular disease.

  10. Distinguishing plant population and variety with UAV-derived vegetation indices

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    Oakes, Joseph; Balota, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Variety selection and seeding rate are two important choice that a peanut grower must make. High yielding varieties can increase profit with no additional input costs, while seeding rate often determines input cost a grower will incur from seed costs. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect that seeding rate has on different peanut varieties. With the advent of new UAV technology, we now have the possibility to use indices collected with the UAV to measure emergence, seeding rate, growth rate, and perhaps make yield predictions. This information could enable growers to make management decisions early in the season based on low plant populations due to poor emergence, and could be a useful tool for growers to use to estimate plant population and growth rate in order to help achieve desired crop stands. Red-Green-Blue (RGB) and near-infrared (NIR) images were collected from a UAV platform starting two weeks after planting and continued weekly for the next six weeks. Ground NDVI was also collected each time aerial images were collected. Vegetation indices were derived from both the RGB and NIR images. Greener area (GGA- the proportion of green pixels with a hue angle from 80° to 120°) and a* (the average red/green color of the image) were derived from the RGB images while Normalized Differential Vegetative Index (NDVI) was derived from NIR images. Aerial indices were successful in distinguishing seeding rates and determining emergence during the first few weeks after planting, but not later in the season. Meanwhile, these aerial indices are not an adequate predictor of yield in peanut at this point.

  11. Cellular growth kinetics distinguish a cyclophilin inhibitor from an HSP90 inhibitor as a selective inhibitor of hepatitis C virus.

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    Rudolf K F Beran

    Full Text Available During antiviral drug discovery, it is critical to distinguish molecules that selectively interrupt viral replication from those that reduce virus replication by adversely affecting host cell viability. In this report we investigate the selectivity of inhibitors of the host chaperone proteins cyclophilin A (CypA and heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90 which have each been reported to inhibit replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV. By comparing the toxicity of the HSP90 inhibitor, 17-(Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG to two known cytostatic compounds, colchicine and gemcitabine, we provide evidence that 17-AAG exerts its antiviral effects indirectly through slowing cell growth. In contrast, a cyclophilin inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA, exhibited selective antiviral activity without slowing cell proliferation. Furthermore, we observed that 17-AAG had little antiviral effect in a non-dividing cell-culture model of HCV replication, while CsA reduced HCV titer by more than two orders of magnitude in the same model. The assays we describe here are useful for discriminating selective antivirals from compounds that indirectly affect virus replication by reducing host cell viability or slowing cell growth.

  12. Analysis of individual cell trajectories in lattice-gas cellular automaton models for migrating cell populations.

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    Mente, Carsten; Voss-Böhme, Anja; Deutsch, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Collective dynamics of migrating cell populations drive key processes in tissue formation and maintenance under normal and diseased conditions. Collective cell behavior at the tissue level is typically characterized by considering cell density patterns such as clusters and moving cell fronts. However, there are also important observables of collective dynamics related to individual cell behavior. In particular, individual cell trajectories are footprints of emergent behavior in populations of migrating cells. Lattice-gas cellular automata (LGCA) have proven successful to model and analyze collective behavior arising from interactions of migrating cells. There are well-established methods to analyze cell density patterns in LGCA models. Although LGCA dynamics are defined by cell-based rules, individual cells are not distinguished. Therefore, individual cell trajectories cannot be analyzed in LGCA so far. Here, we extend the classical LGCA framework to allow labeling and tracking of individual cells. We consider cell number conserving LGCA models of migrating cell populations where cell interactions are regulated by local cell density and derive stochastic differential equations approximating individual cell trajectories in LGCA. This result allows the prediction of complex individual cell trajectories emerging in LGCA models and is a basis for model-experiment comparisons at the individual cell level.

  13. Cellular populations and thermosensing mechanisms of the hypothalamic thermoregulatory center.

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    Siemens, Jan; Kamm, Gretel B

    2018-01-27

    Temperature affects all aspects of life down to the diffusion rates of biologically active molecules and reaction rates of enzymes. The reciprocal argument holds true as well and every biological process down to enzymatic reactions influences temperature. In order to assure biological stability, mammalian organisms possess the remarkable ability to maintain internal body temperature within a narrow range, which in humans and mice is close to 37 °C, despite wide environmental temperature variations and different rates of internal heat production. Nevertheless, body temperature is not a static property but adaptively regulated upon physiological demands and in the context of pathological conditions. The brain region that has been primarily associated with internal temperature regulation is the preoptic area and the anterior portion of the hypothalamus. Similar to a thermostat, this brain area detects deep brain temperature, integrates temperature information from peripheral body sensors, and-based on these inputs--controls body temperature homeostasis. Discovered more than a century ago, we still know comparatively little about the molecular and cellular make-up of the hypothalamic thermoregulatory center. After a brief historic outline that led to the discovery of the thermoregulatory center, we here review recent studies that have considerably advanced our understanding of hypothalamic thermoregulation. We touch upon proposed mechanisms of intrinsic deep brain temperature detection and focus on newly identified hypothalamic cell populations that mediate thermoregulatory responses and that provide novel entry points not only to shed light on the mechanistic underpinnings of the thermoregulatory center but also to probe its therapeutic value.

  14. Prospects for cellular mutational assays in human populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1984-06-29

    Practical, sensitive, and effective human cellular assays for detecting somatic and germinal mutations would have great value in environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis studies. Such assays would fill the void between human mutagenicity and the data that exist from short-term tests and from mutagenicity in other species. This paper discusses the following possible human cellular assays: (1) HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase) somatic cell mutation based on 6-thioguanine resistance; (2) hemoglobin somatic cell mutation assay; (3) glycophorin somatic cell mutation assay; and (4) LDH-X sperm cell mutation assay. 18 references.

  15. Prospects for cellular mutational assays in human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Practical, sensitive, and effective human cellular assays for detecting somatic and germinal mutations would have great value in environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis studies. Such assays would fill the void between human mutagenicity and the data that exist from short-term tests and from mutagenicity in other species. This paper discusses the following possible human cellular assays: (1) HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase) somatic cell mutation based on 6-thioguanine resistance; (2) hemoglobin somatic cell mutation assay; (3) glycophorin somatic cell mutation assay; and (4) LDH-X sperm cell mutation assay. 18 references

  16. Elucidating Cellular Population Dynamics by Molecular Density Function Perturbations

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    Thanneer Malai Perumal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies performed at single-cell resolution have demonstrated the physiological significance of cell-to-cell variability. Various types of mathematical models and systems analyses of biological networks have further been used to gain a better understanding of the sources and regulatory mechanisms of such variability. In this work, we present a novel sensitivity analysis method, called molecular density function perturbation (MDFP, for the dynamical analysis of cellular heterogeneity. The proposed analysis is based on introducing perturbations to the density or distribution function of the cellular state variables at specific time points, and quantifying how such perturbations affect the state distribution at later time points. We applied the MDFP analysis to a model of a signal transduction pathway involving TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. The MDFP analysis shows that caspase-8 activation regulates the timing of the switch-like increase of cPARP (cleaved poly(ADP-ribose polymerase, an indicator of apoptosis. Meanwhile, the cell-to-cell variability in the commitment to apoptosis depends on mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP and events following MOMP, including the release of Smac (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases and cytochrome c from mitochondria, the inhibition of XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis by Smac, and the formation of the apoptosome.

  17. What distinguishes weight loss maintainers of the German Weight Control Registry from the general population?

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    Feller, Silke; Müller, Astrid; Mayr, Andreas; Engeli, Stefan; Hilbert, Anja; de Zwaan, Martina

    2015-05-01

    Differences between successful long-term weight loss maintainers and the general population with regard to eating and weighing habits, non-normative eating behaviors, and eating-related and general psychopathological parameters are unknown. Self-identified weight loss maintainers from the German Weight Control Registry (GWCR, n = 494) were compared with a representative sample of the general German population (n = 2,129). The samples did not differ in current BMI. Using the same assessment instruments in both cohorts, a variety of eating-related and psychological variables were determined. The GWCR participants reported more self-weighing and higher eating frequency but less hot meal consumption and more eating-out-of-home. Binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and concerns about shape and weight were reported more often by successful weight loss maintainers. Scores of depression and worrying about health were slightly higher whereas severity of somatic symptoms was less pronounced in the GWCR participants. Overall, our data suggest that successful weight loss maintainers are characterized by more concerns about shape and weight, greater binge eating frequency, and higher use of compensatory behaviors. The latter suggests that weight loss maintenance might not only be achieved by healthy strategies but also by non-normative behaviors which might increase the vulnerability for weight regain. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  18. European Population Genetic Substructure: Further Definition of Ancestry Informative Markers for Distinguishing Among Diverse European Ethnic Groups

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    Tian, Chao; Kosoy, Roman; Nassir, Rami; Lee, Annette; Villoslada, Pablo; Klareskog, Lars; Hammarström, Lennart; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Pulver, Ann E.; Ransom, Michael; Gregersen, Peter K.; Seldin, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    The definition of European population genetic substructure and its application to understanding complex phenotypes is becoming increasingly important. In the current study using over 4000 subjects genotyped for 300 thousand SNPs we provide further insight into relationships among European population groups and identify sets of SNP ancestry informative markers (AIMs) for application in genetic studies. In general, the graphical description of these principal components analyses (PCA) of diverse European subjects showed a strong correspondence to the geographical relationships of specific countries or regions of origin. Clearer separation of different ethnic and regional populations was observed when northern and southern European groups were considered separately and the PCA results were influenced by the inclusion or exclusion of different self-identified population groups including Ashkenazi Jewish, Sardinian and Orcadian ethnic groups. SNP AIM sets were identified that could distinguish the regional and ethnic population groups. Moreover, the studies demonstrated that most allele frequency differences between different European groups could be effectively controlled in analyses using these AIM sets. The European substructure AIMs should be widely applicable to ongoing studies to confirm and delineate specific disease susceptibility candidate regions without the necessity to perform additional genome-wide SNP studies in additional subject sets. PMID:19707526

  19. Distinguishing States of Arrest: Genome-Wide Descriptions of Cellular Quiescence Using ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq Analysis.

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    Srivastava, Surabhi; Gala, Hardik P; Mishra, Rakesh K; Dhawan, Jyotsna

    2018-01-01

    Regenerative potential in adult stem cells is closely associated with the establishment of-and exit from-a temporary state of quiescence. Emerging evidence not only provides a rationale for the link between lineage determination programs and cell cycle regulation but also highlights the understanding of quiescence as an actively maintained cellular program, encompassing networks and mechanisms beyond mitotic inactivity or metabolic restriction. Interrogating the quiescent genome and transcriptome using deep-sequencing technologies offers an unprecedented view of the global mechanisms governing this reversibly arrested cellular state and its importance for cell identity. While many efforts have identified and isolated pure target stem cell populations from a variety of adult tissues, there is a growing appreciation that their isolation from the stem cell niche in vivo leads to activation and loss of hallmarks of quiescence. Thus, in vitro models that recapitulate the dynamic reversibly arrested stem cell state in culture and lend themselves to comparison with the activated or differentiated state are useful templates for genome-wide analysis of the quiescence network.In this chapter, we describe the methods that can be adopted for whole genome epigenomic and transcriptomic analysis of cells derived from one such established culture model where mouse myoblasts are triggered to enter or exit quiescence as homogeneous populations. The ability to synchronize myoblasts in G 0 permits insights into the genome in "deep quiescence." The culture methods for generating large populations of quiescent myoblasts in either 2D or 3D culture formats are described in detail in a previous chapter in this series (Arora et al. Methods Mol Biol 1556:283-302, 2017). Among the attractive features of this model are that genes isolated from quiescent myoblasts in culture mark satellite cells in vivo (Sachidanandan et al., J Cell Sci 115:2701-2712, 2002) providing a validation of its

  20. Cellular automata for population growth prediction: Tripoli-Libya case

    OpenAIRE

    Zidan, Adel

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London Due to obstruction in the national plan of urbanization in Tripoli (Libya) and population growth, serious problems have emerged in the form of random settlements, overcrowding and poor infrastructure. After more than two decades of inertia, the government has created a national plan in order to resolve the problems, hence it has enforced the demolition of some zones and modified othe...

  1. Distinguishing between primary and secondary racial identification in analyses of health disparities of a multiracial population in Hawaii.

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    Wey, Andrew; Davis, James; Juarez, Deborah Taira; Sentell, Tetine

    2018-04-01

    To examine the importance of distinguishing between primary and secondary racial identification in analyzing health disparities in a multiracial population. A cross-sectional analysis of 2012 Hawaii Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (H-BRFSS). As part of the survey, respondents were asked to identify all their races, and then which race they considered to be their primary race. We introduce two analytic approaches to investigate the association between multiracial status and general health: (1) including two separate dichotomous variables for each racial group (primary and secondary race; for example, 'primary Native Hawaiian' and, separately, 'secondary Native Hawaiian'), and (2) including one combined variable for anyone choosing a particular racial group, whether as primary or secondary race ('combined race'; e.g. Native Hawaiian). Linear regression then compares the multiracial health disparities identified by the two approaches, adjusted for age and gender. The 2012 H-BRFSS had 7582 respondents. The four most common self-identified primary racial/ethnic groups were White, Japanese, Filipino, and Native Hawaiian. Native Hawaiians were the largest multiracial group with over 80% self-identifying as multiracial. Health disparities for Native Hawaiians, Portuguese and Puerto Ricans were attenuated by 10% after accounting for multiracial status. Populations that self-identified secondarily as Japanese, Puerto Rican, Mexican, and other PI had significantly poorer self-reported health. The analysis illustrates the importance of accounting for multiracial populations in health disparities research and demonstrates the ability of two approaches to identify multiracial health disparities in data sets with limited sample sizes. The 'primary and secondary race' approach might work particularly well for a multicultural population like Hawaii.

  2. [The influence of solcoseryl on population and cellular parameters of HeLa and RD cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magakian, Iu A; Karalian, Z A; Karalova, E M; Abroian, L O; Akopian, L A; Gasparian, M G; Dzhagatspanian, N G; Semerdzhian, Z B; Ter-Pogosian, Z R

    2010-01-01

    Changes of population and cellular parameters of HeLa and RD cultures after introducing of solcoseryl in culture medium were studied by methods of scanning cytophotometry and cytomorphometry. Monolayer density, proliferation activity, the number of dead cells in a monolayer, the number of nucleoli in nuclei and distribution of cells in the populations by this parameter, RNA and DNA masses in nuclei and nucleoli, total volumes and surface areas of the nuclei and nucleoli were determined. It has been shown that solcoseryl differently affects the cultures both on population and on cellular levels of their organization. The results of multi-parametric analysis of the influence of solseryl on the cultures allow considering it as a biologically active compound with the features typical for cell and cell population growth regulating factors.

  3. Gastrointestinal microbial populations can distinguish pediatric and adolescent Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) at the time of disease diagnosis.

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    Rajagopala, Seesandra V; Yooseph, Shibu; Harkins, Derek M; Moncera, Kelvin J; Zabokrtsky, Keri B; Torralba, Manolito G; Tovchigrechko, Andrey; Highlander, Sarah K; Pieper, Rembert; Sender, Leonard; Nelson, Karen E

    2016-08-15

    microbiota diversity of the patient group is significantly lower than that of the control group. It was possible to distinguish between the patient and control groups based on their microbiota profiles. The top taxa include Anaerostipes, Coprococcus, Roseburia, and Ruminococcus2 with relatively higher abundance in the control group. The observed microbiota changes are likely the result of several factors including a direct influence of therapeutic compounds on the gut flora and an indirect effect of chemotherapy on the immune system, which, in turn, affects the microbiota. This study provides significant information on GI microbiota populations in immunocompromised children and opens up the potential for developing novel diagnostics based on stool tests and therapies to improve the dysbiotic condition of the microbiota at the time of diagnosis and in the earliest stages of chemotherapy.

  4. Thermal adaptation of cellular membranes in natural populations ofDrosophila melanogaster.

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    Cooper, Brandon S; Hammad, Loubna A; Montooth, Kristi L

    2014-08-01

    Changes in temperature disrupt the fluidity of cellular membranes, which can negatively impact membrane integrity and cellular processes. Many ectotherms, including Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen), adjust the glycerophospholipid composition of their membranes to restore optimal fluidity when temperatures change, a type of trait plasticity termed homeoviscous adaptation.Existing data suggest that plasticity in the relative abundances of the glycerophospholipids phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) underlies cellular adaptation to temporal variability in the thermal environment. For example, laboratory populations of D. melanogaster evolved in the presence of temporally variable temperatures have greater developmental plasticity of the ratio of PE to PC (PE/PC) and greater fecundity than do populations evolved at constant temperatures.Here, we extend this work to natural populations of D. melanogaster by evaluating thermal plasticity of glycerophospholipid composition at different life stages, in genotypes isolated from Vermont, Indiana and North Carolina, USA. We also quantify the covariance between developmental and adult (reversible) plasticity, and between adult responses of the membrane to cool and warm thermal shifts.As predicted by physiological models of homeoviscous adaptation, flies from all populations decrease PE/PC and the degree of lipid unsaturation in response to warm temperatures. Furthermore, these populations have diverged in their degree of membrane plasticity. Flies from the most variable thermal environment (Vermont, USA) decrease PE/PC to a greater extent than do other populations when developed at a warm temperature, a pattern that matches our previous observation in laboratory-evolved populations. We also find that developmental plasticity and adult plasticity of PE/PC covary across genotypes, but that adult responses to cool and warm thermal shifts do not.When combined with our previous observations of laboratory

  5. Efficient Analysis of Systems Biology Markup Language Models of Cellular Populations Using Arrays.

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    Watanabe, Leandro; Myers, Chris J

    2016-08-19

    The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) has been widely used for modeling biological systems. Although SBML has been successful in representing a wide variety of biochemical models, the core standard lacks the structure for representing large complex regular systems in a standard way, such as whole-cell and cellular population models. These models require a large number of variables to represent certain aspects of these types of models, such as the chromosome in the whole-cell model and the many identical cell models in a cellular population. While SBML core is not designed to handle these types of models efficiently, the proposed SBML arrays package can represent such regular structures more easily. However, in order to take full advantage of the package, analysis needs to be aware of the arrays structure. When expanding the array constructs within a model, some of the advantages of using arrays are lost. This paper describes a more efficient way to simulate arrayed models. To illustrate the proposed method, this paper uses a population of repressilator and genetic toggle switch circuits as examples. Results show that there are memory benefits using this approach with a modest cost in runtime.

  6. The association between systemic inflammatory cellular levels and lung function: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia McKeever

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lower lung function is associated with an elevated systemic white cell count in men. However, these observations have not been demonstrated in a representative population that includes females and may be susceptible to confounding by recent airway infections or recent cigarette smoking. We tested the hypothesis that lung function is inversely associated with systemic white cell count in a population-based study. METHODS: The study population consisted adults aged 17-90+ years who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who did not report a recent cough, cold or acute illness in a non-smoking and smoking population. RESULTS: In non-smoking adults with the highest quintile of the total white cell count had a FEV(1 125.3 ml lower than those in the lowest quintile (95% confidence interval CI: -163.1 to -87.5. Adults with the highest quintile of the total white cell count had a FVC 151.1 ml lower than those in the lowest quintile (95% confidence interval CI: -195.0 to -107.2. Similar associations were observed for granulocytes, mononuclear cells and lymphocytes. In current smokers, similar smaller associations observed for total white cell count, granulocytes and mononuclear cells. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic cellular inflammation levels are inversely associated with lung function in a population of both non-smokers and smokers without acute illnesses. This may contribute to the increased mortality observed in individuals with a higher baseline white cell count.

  7. Genetic variation among interconnected populations of Catostomus occidentalis: Implications for distinguishing impacts of contaminants from biogeographical structuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, A.; Anderson, S.L.; Kuivila, K.M.; Roach, J.L.; May, B.

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants can affect survivorship, recruitment, reproductive success, mutation rates and migration, and may play a significant role in the partitioning of genetic variation among exposed and nonexposed populations. However, the application of molecular population genetic data to evaluate such influences has been uncommon and often flawed. We tested whether patterns of genetic variation among native fish populations (Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis) in the Central Valley of California were consistent with long-term pesticide exposure history, or primarily with expectations based on biogeography. Field sampling was designed to rigorously test for both geographical and contamination influences. Fine-scale structure of these interconnected populations was detected with both amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and microsatellite markers, and patterns of variation elucidated by the two marker systems were highly concordant. Analyses indicated that biogeographical hypotheses described the data set better than hypotheses relating to common historical pesticide exposure. Downstream populations had higher genetic diversity than upstream populations, regardless of exposure history, and genetic distances showed that populations from the same river system tended to cluster together. Relatedness among populations reflected primarily directions of gene flow, rather than convergence among contaminant-exposed populations. Watershed geography accounted for significant partitioning of genetic variation among populations, whereas contaminant exposure history did not. Genetic patterns indicating contaminant-induced selection, increased mutation rates or recent bottlenecks were weak or absent. We stress the importance of testing contaminant-induced genetic change hypotheses within a biogeographical context. Strategic application of molecular markers for analysis of fine-scale structure, and for evaluating contaminant impacts on gene pools, is

  8. Cellular-automata model of the dwarf shrubs populations and communities dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Komarov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The probabilistic cellular-automata model of development and long-time dynamics of dwarf shrub populations and communities is developed. It is based on the concept of discrete description of the plant ontogenesis and joint model approaches in terms of probabilistic cellular automata and L-systems by Lindenmayer. Short representation of the basic model allows evaluation of the approach and software implementation. The main variables of the model are a number of partial bushes in clones or area projective cover. The model allows us to investigate the conditions of self-maintenance and sustainability population under different environmental conditions (inaccessibility of the territory for settlement, mosaic moisture conditions of soil and wealth. The model provides a forecast of the total biomass dynamics shrubs and their fractions (stems, leaves, roots, fine roots, fruits on the basis of the data obtained in the discrete description of ontogenesis and further information on the productivity of the plant fractions. The inclusion of the joint dynamics of biomass of shrubs and soil in EFIMOD models cycle of carbon and nitrogen to evaluate the role of shrubs in these circulations, especially at high impact, such as forest fires and clear cutting, allow forecasting of the dynamics of populations and ecosystem functions of shrubs (regulation of biogeochemical cycles maintaining biodiversity, participation in the creation of non-wood products with changing climatic conditions and strong damaging effects (logging, fires; and application of the models developed to investigate the stability and productivity of shrubs and their participation in the cycle of carbon and nitrogen in different climatic and edaphic conditions.

  9. Integrative analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms and gene expression efficiently distinguishes samples from closely related ethnic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hsin-Chou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ancestry informative markers (AIMs are a type of genetic marker that is informative for tracing the ancestral ethnicity of individuals. Application of AIMs has gained substantial attention in population genetics, forensic sciences, and medical genetics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, the materials of AIMs, are useful for classifying individuals from distinct continental origins but cannot discriminate individuals with subtle genetic differences from closely related ancestral lineages. Proof-of-principle studies have shown that gene expression (GE also is a heritable human variation that exhibits differential intensity distributions among ethnic groups. GE supplies ethnic information supplemental to SNPs; this motivated us to integrate SNP and GE markers to construct AIM panels with a reduced number of required markers and provide high accuracy in ancestry inference. Few studies in the literature have considered GE in this aspect, and none have integrated SNP and GE markers to aid classification of samples from closely related ethnic populations. Results We integrated a forward variable selection procedure into flexible discriminant analysis to identify key SNP and/or GE markers with the highest cross-validation prediction accuracy. By analyzing genome-wide SNP and/or GE markers in 210 independent samples from four ethnic groups in the HapMap II Project, we found that average testing accuracies for a majority of classification analyses were quite high, except for SNP-only analyses that were performed to discern study samples containing individuals from two close Asian populations. The average testing accuracies ranged from 0.53 to 0.79 for SNP-only analyses and increased to around 0.90 when GE markers were integrated together with SNP markers for the classification of samples from closely related Asian populations. Compared to GE-only analyses, integrative analyses of SNP and GE markers showed comparable testing

  10. Normalizing for individual cell population context in the analysis of high-content cellular screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapp Bettina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-content, high-throughput RNA interference (RNAi offers unprecedented possibilities to elucidate gene function and involvement in biological processes. Microscopy based screening allows phenotypic observations at the level of individual cells. It was recently shown that a cell's population context significantly influences results. However, standard analysis methods for cellular screens do not currently take individual cell data into account unless this is important for the phenotype of interest, i.e. when studying cell morphology. Results We present a method that normalizes and statistically scores microscopy based RNAi screens, exploiting individual cell information of hundreds of cells per knockdown. Each cell's individual population context is employed in normalization. We present results on two infection screens for hepatitis C and dengue virus, both showing considerable effects on observed phenotypes due to population context. In addition, we show on a non-virus screen that these effects can be found also in RNAi data in the absence of any virus. Using our approach to normalize against these effects we achieve improved performance in comparison to an analysis without this normalization and hit scoring strategy. Furthermore, our approach results in the identification of considerably more significantly enriched pathways in hepatitis C virus replication than using a standard analysis approach. Conclusions Using a cell-based analysis and normalization for population context, we achieve improved sensitivity and specificity not only on a individual protein level, but especially also on a pathway level. This leads to the identification of new host dependency factors of the hepatitis C and dengue viruses and higher reproducibility of results.

  11. Distinguishing the impacts of inadequate prey and vessel traffic on an endangered killer whale (Orcinus orca population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L Ayres

    Full Text Available Managing endangered species often involves evaluating the relative impacts of multiple anthropogenic and ecological pressures. This challenge is particularly formidable for cetaceans, which spend the majority of their time underwater. Noninvasive physiological approaches can be especially informative in this regard. We used a combination of fecal thyroid (T3 and glucocorticoid (GC hormone measures to assess two threats influencing the endangered southern resident killer whales (SRKW; Orcinus orca that frequent the inland waters of British Columbia, Canada and Washington, U.S.A. Glucocorticoids increase in response to nutritional and psychological stress, whereas thyroid hormone declines in response to nutritional stress but is unaffected by psychological stress. The inadequate prey hypothesis argues that the killer whales have become prey limited due to reductions of their dominant prey, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The vessel impact hypothesis argues that high numbers of vessels in close proximity to the whales cause disturbance via psychological stress and/or impaired foraging ability. The GC and T3 measures supported the inadequate prey hypothesis. In particular, GC concentrations were negatively correlated with short-term changes in prey availability. Whereas, T3 concentrations varied by date and year in a manner that corresponded with more long-term prey availability. Physiological correlations with prey overshadowed any impacts of vessels since GCs were lowest during the peak in vessel abundance, which also coincided with the peak in salmon availability. Our results suggest that identification and recovery of strategic salmon populations in the SRKW diet are important to effectively promote SRKW recovery.

  12. Cellular and circuit mechanisms maintain low spike co-variability and enhance population coding in somatosensory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng eLy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The responses of cortical neurons are highly variable across repeated presentations of a stimulus. Understanding this variability is critical for theories of both sensory and motor processing, since response variance affects the accuracy of neural codes. Despite this influence, the cellular and circuit mechanisms that shape the trial-to-trial variability of population responses remain poorly understood. We used a combination of experimental and computational techniques to uncover the mechanisms underlying response variability of populations of pyramidal (E cells in layer 2/3 of rat whisker barrel cortex. Spike trains recorded from pairs of E-cells during either spontaneous activity or whisker deflected responses show similarly low levels of spiking co-variability, despite large differences in network activation between the two states. We developed network models that show how spike threshold nonlinearities dilutes E-cell spiking co-variability during spontaneous activity and low velocity whisker deflections. In contrast, during high velocity whisker deflections, cancelation mechanisms mediated by feedforward inhibition maintain low E-cell pairwise co-variability. Thus, the combination of these two mechanisms ensure low E-cell population variability over a wide range of whisker deflection velocities. Finally, we show how this active decorrelation of population variability leads to a drastic increase in the population information about whisker velocity. The canonical cellular and circuit components of our study suggest that low network variability over a broad range of neural states may generalize across the nervous system.

  13. Heterogeneity of Metazoan Cells and Beyond: To Integrative Analysis of Cellular Populations at Single-Cell Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barteneva, Natasha S; Vorobjev, Ivan A

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we review some of the recent advances in cellular heterogeneity and single-cell analysis methods. In modern research of cellular heterogeneity, there are four major approaches: analysis of pooled samples, single-cell analysis, high-throughput single-cell analysis, and lately integrated analysis of cellular population at a single-cell level. Recently developed high-throughput single-cell genetic analysis methods such as RNA-Seq require purification step and destruction of an analyzed cell often are providing a snapshot of the investigated cell without spatiotemporal context. Correlative analysis of multiparameter morphological, functional, and molecular information is important for differentiation of more uniform groups in the spectrum of different cell types. Simplified distributions (histograms and 2D plots) can underrepresent biologically significant subpopulations. Future directions may include the development of nondestructive methods for dissecting molecular events in intact cells, simultaneous correlative cellular analysis of phenotypic and molecular features by hybrid technologies such as imaging flow cytometry, and further progress in supervised and non-supervised statistical analysis algorithms.

  14. Investigation of the Nonlinear Model of the Cellular Population System Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Vinogradova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An isolated population system is considered which consists of two types of human stem cells: normal cells and cells with chromosomal anomalies (abnormal. In the paper the nonlinear dynamic model which describes dynamics of cell populations developing in vitro is elaborated. The model allows to investigate the processes of the formation of the abnormal cells population from the abnormal cells population of normal cells as well as joint development of these populations. The model takes into account the limited resources.An important feature of the developed model is the use of biological characteristics of processes in the cell population system, such as the proportion of cells, divided over a specified time, the proportion of cells whish are not divided, and which are "lost" and which are passed in the population of abnormal cells from the normal population. This approach allows a more detailed analysis of the impact of various "primary" parameters on the evolution of the population system.Under cultivation of cell populations in vitro a struggle for resources primarily affects the processes of the cell reproduction. This is reflected in the existence of the dividing cells frequency dependence of the total population of normal and abnormal cells. For the account of such dependencies different non-linear functions are typically used. However, the use of such non-linear relationships leads to the difficulties in finding confidence intervals for the estimates of the model parameters at subsequent stages of research. At the same time, the problem of the system parameters estimating and finding of the corresponding confidence intervals for estimates can be solved easy in case when the nonlinear system is linear with respect to the unknown parameters. In the paper it is achieved due to the piecewise linear approximation of nonlinear dependencies.An important feature of the model is a different view of the right part of the differential equations system

  15. A probabilistic cellular automata model for the dynamics of a population driven by logistic growth and weak Allee effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, J. R. G.

    2018-04-01

    We propose and investigate a one-parameter probabilistic mixture of one-dimensional elementary cellular automata under the guise of a model for the dynamics of a single-species unstructured population with nonoverlapping generations in which individuals have smaller probability of reproducing and surviving in a crowded neighbourhood but also suffer from isolation and dispersal. Remarkably, the first-order mean field approximation to the dynamics of the model yields a cubic map containing terms representing both logistic and weak Allee effects. The model has a single absorbing state devoid of individuals, but depending on the reproduction and survival probabilities can achieve a stable population. We determine the critical probability separating these two phases and find that the phase transition between them is in the directed percolation universality class of critical behaviour.

  16. Cellular Heterogeneity in the Mouse Esophagus Implicates the Presence of a Nonquiescent Epithelial Stem Cell Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D. DeWard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Because the esophageal epithelium lacks a defined stem cell niche, it is unclear whether all basal epithelial cells in the adult esophagus are functionally equivalent. In this study, we showed that basal cells in the mouse esophagus contained a heterogeneous population of epithelial cells, similar to other rapidly cycling tissues such as the intestine or skin. Using a combination of cell-surface markers, we separated primary esophageal tissue into distinct cell populations that harbored differences in stem cell potential. We also used an in vitro 3D organoid assay to demonstrate that Sox2, Wnt, and bone morphogenetic protein signaling regulate esophageal self-renewal. Finally, we labeled proliferating basal epithelial cells in vivo to show differing cell-cycle profiles and proliferation kinetics. Based on our results, we propose that a nonquiescent stem cell population resides in the basal epithelium of the mouse esophagus.

  17. Hyperthermic survival of Chinese hamster ovary cells as a function of cellular population density at the time of plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highfield, D.P.; Holahan, E.V.; Holahan, P.K.; Dewey, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    The survival of synchronous G 1 or asynchronous Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro to heat treatment may depend on the cellular population density at the time of heating and/or as the cells are cultured after heating. The addition of lethally irradiated feeder cells may increase survival at 10 -3 by as much as 10- to 100-fold for a variety of conditions when cells are heated either in suspension culture or as monolayers with or without trypsinization. The protective effect associated with feeder cells appears to be associated with close cell-to-cell proximity. However, when cells are heated without trypsinization about 24 hr or later after plating, when adaptation to monolayer has occurred, the protective effect is reduced; i.e., addition of feeder cells enhances survival much less, for example, about 2- to 3-fold at 10 -2 -10 -3 survival. Also, the survival of a cell to heat is independent of whether the neighboring cell in a microcolony is destined to live or die. Finally, if protective effects associated with cell density do occur and are not controlled, serious artifacts can result as the interaction of heat and radiation is studied; for example, survival curves can be moved upward, and thus changed in shape as the number of cells plated is increased with an increase in the hyperthermic treatment or radiation dose following hyperthermia. Therefore, to understand mechanisms and to obtain information relevant to populations of cells in close proximity, such as those in vivo, these cellular population density effects should be considered and understood

  18. Cellular population dynamics control the robustness of the stem cell niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L. MacLean

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Within populations of cells, fate decisions are controlled by an indeterminate combination of cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic factors. In the case of stem cells, the stem cell niche is believed to maintain ‘stemness’ through communication and interactions between the stem cells and one or more other cell-types that contribute to the niche conditions. To investigate the robustness of cell fate decisions in the stem cell hierarchy and the role that the niche plays, we introduce simple mathematical models of stem and progenitor cells, their progeny and their interplay in the niche. These models capture the fundamental processes of proliferation and differentiation and allow us to consider alternative possibilities regarding how niche-mediated signalling feedback regulates the niche dynamics. Generalised stability analysis of these stem cell niche systems enables us to describe the stability properties of each model. We find that although the number of feasible states depends on the model, their probabilities of stability in general do not: stem cell–niche models are stable across a wide range of parameters. We demonstrate that niche-mediated feedback increases the number of stable steady states, and show how distinct cell states have distinct branching characteristics. The ecological feedback and interactions mediated by the stem cell niche thus lend (surprisingly high levels of robustness to the stem and progenitor cell population dynamics. Furthermore, cell–cell interactions are sufficient for populations of stem cells and their progeny to achieve stability and maintain homeostasis. We show that the robustness of the niche – and hence of the stem cell pool in the niche – depends only weakly, if at all, on the complexity of the niche make-up: simple as well as complicated niche systems are capable of supporting robust and stable stem cell dynamics.

  19. Cellular and humoral immune responses in a population from the Baringo District, Kenya to Leishmania promastigote lipophosphoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Hey, A S; Theander, T G

    1992-01-01

    years. Lymphoproliferation and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by these cells were examined. It was shown that cells from all six individuals in the population with a history of kala-azar responded to LPG in the lymphocyte proliferation assay, and four of these six responded in the IFN......-gamma assay. In contrast, cells from 12 of 44 individuals from the study area with no history of kala-azar and none of the five Danish control samples responded to LPG. Antibodies against LPG were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 45 of 50 plasma samples. Our findings clearly show...... that mononuclear cells from kala-azar patients cured of infection were able to respond to the LPG preparation. The finding of a specific cellular immune response to LPG in 12 of 44 individuals with no history of kala-azar is consistent with previous epidemiologic studies, in which it has been shown...

  20. Viability in holder of irradiated cells: distinguish between repair and cell multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.C. de.

    1980-01-01

    In experiments in which liquid holding recovery (LHR) was measured, the majority of cellular population is formed by non-viable cells and cell multiplication may be important for LHR expression. In order to distinguish between recuperation of viability (true LHR) and cell multiplication, it was necessary to employ improved plating techniques and a fluctuation test based on Poisson distribution. Our results are an indication that this fluctuation test, used together with the traditional method, is a good tool to distinguish repair from cell multiplication. (author)

  1. Awakened by cellular stress: isolation and characterization of a novel population of pluripotent stem cells derived from human adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Heneidi

    Full Text Available Advances in stem cell therapy face major clinical limitations, particularly challenged by low rates of post-transplant cell survival. Hostile host factors of the engraftment microenvironment such as hypoxia, nutrition deprivation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and reactive oxygen species can each contribute to unwanted differentiation or apoptosis. In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of a new population of adipose tissue (AT derived pluripotent stem cells, termed Multilineage Differentiating Stress-Enduring (Muse Cells, which are isolated using severe cellular stress conditions, including long-term exposure to the proteolytic enzyme collagenase, serum deprivation, low temperatures and hypoxia. Under these conditions, a highly purified population of Muse-AT cells is isolated without the utilization of cell sorting methods. Muse-AT cells grow in suspension as cell spheres reminiscent of embryonic stem cell clusters. Muse-AT cells are positive for the pluripotency markers SSEA3, TR-1-60, Oct3/4, Nanog and Sox2, and can spontaneously differentiate into mesenchymal, endodermal and ectodermal cell lineages with an efficiency of 23%, 20% and 22%, respectively. When using specific differentiation media, differentiation efficiency is greatly enhanced in Muse-AT cells (82% for mesenchymal, 75% for endodermal and 78% for ectodermal. When compared to adipose stem cells (ASCs, microarray data indicate a substantial up-regulation of Sox2, Oct3/4, and Rex1. Muse-ATs also exhibit gene expression patterns associated with the down-regulation of genes involved in cell death and survival, embryonic development, DNA replication and repair, cell cycle and potential factors related to oncogenecity. Gene expression analysis indicates that Muse-ATs and ASCs are mesenchymal in origin; however, Muse-ATs also express numerous lymphocytic and hematopoietic genes, such as CCR1 and CXCL2, encoding chemokine receptors and ligands involved in stem cell

  2. Cellular dynamics of regeneration reveals role of two distinct Pax7 stem cell populations in larval zebrafish muscle repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipalia, Tapan G; Koth, Jana; Roy, Shukolpa D; Hammond, Christina L; Kawakami, Koichi; Hughes, Simon M

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneity of stem cells or their niches is likely to influence tissue regeneration. Here we reveal stem/precursor cell diversity during wound repair in larval zebrafish somitic body muscle using time-lapse 3D confocal microscopy on reporter lines. Skeletal muscle with incision wounds rapidly regenerates both slow and fast muscle fibre types. A swift immune response is followed by an increase in cells at the wound site, many of which express the muscle stem cell marker Pax7. Pax7(+) cells proliferate and then undergo terminal differentiation involving Myogenin accumulation and subsequent loss of Pax7 followed by elongation and fusion to repair fast muscle fibres. Analysis of pax7a and pax7b transgenic reporter fish reveals that cells expressing each of the duplicated pax7 genes are distinctly localised in uninjured larvae. Cells marked by pax7a only or by both pax7a and pax7b enter the wound rapidly and contribute to muscle wound repair, but each behaves differently. Low numbers of pax7a-only cells form nascent fibres. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that the more numerous pax7b-marked cells frequently fuse to pre-existing fibres, contributing more strongly than pax7a-only cells to repair of damaged fibres. pax7b-marked cells are more often present in rows of aligned cells that are observed to fuse into a single fibre, but more rarely contribute to nascent regenerated fibres. Ablation of a substantial portion of nitroreductase-expressing pax7b cells with metronidazole prior to wounding triggered rapid pax7a-only cell accumulation, but this neither inhibited nor augmented pax7a-only cell-derived myogenesis and thus altered the cellular repair dynamics during wound healing. Moreover, pax7a-only cells did not regenerate pax7b cells, suggesting a lineage distinction. We propose a modified founder cell and fusion-competent cell model in which pax7a-only cells initiate fibre formation and pax7b cells contribute to fibre growth. This newly discovered cellular complexity

  3. Cellular dynamics of regeneration reveals role of two distinct Pax7 stem cell populations in larval zebrafish muscle repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan G. Pipalia

    2016-06-01

    cellular complexity in muscle wound repair raises the possibility that distinct populations of myogenic cells contribute differentially to repair in other vertebrates.

  4. Distinguishing Galactomyces citri-aurantii from G. geotrichum and characterizing population structure of the two postharvest sour rot pathogens of fruit crops in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, A H; Förster, H; Adaskaveg, J E

    2012-05-01

    A growth assay in lemon juice and polymerase chain reaction amplifications using newly designed species-specific primers from endopolygalacturonase and β-tubulin genes rapidly differentiated isolates of the morphologically similar fruit sour rot pathogens Galactomyces citriaurantii and G. geotrichum. Isolates of both species were collected from agricultural soils and decaying fruit at locations within and outside California, including worldwide locations, and were used in population genetic studies based on amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) DNA markers. For all four geographically defined subpopulations (three counties of California and locations outside California) among 97 isolates of G. citri-aurantii and for the two subpopulations (origin within or outside California) among 35 isolates of G. geotrichum, the proportion of polymorphic loci and haplotypic diversity was high. In total, 82 unique haplotypes were identified for G. citri-aurantii for the four subpopulations and, of these, 80 haplotypes were unique among subpopulations. For G. geotrichum, 25 unique haplotypes were identified among the two subpopulations and no haplotype was shared. Indices of genetic differences (F(ST)) between subpopulations within each species were all low (e.g., 0.038 for G. geotrichum and 0.085 to 0.226 for G. citriaurantii), indicating a low level of genetic differentiation. Following clone correction, mating type segregation ratios for G. citri-aurantii did not significantly (P > 0.1) deviate from a 1:1 ratio for all four subpopulations or the entire population. Tests of the index of association (I(A)) and parsimony tree-length permutation tests (PTLPT) supported a random mating structure for clone-corrected data for the Kern, Tulare, and Ventura County subpopulations and the null hypothesis of random mating could not be rejected. Additionally, PTLPT also supported random mating for the "outside of California" population. For G. geotrichum, random mating was only

  5. Opposing Actions of Fgf8a on Notch Signaling Distinguish Two Muller Glial Cell Populations that Contribute to Retina Growth and Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The teleost retina grows throughout life and exhibits a robust regenerative response following injury. Critical to both these events are Muller glia (or, Muller glial cells; MGs, which produce progenitors for retinal growth and repair. We report that Fgf8a may be an MG niche factor that acts through Notch signaling to regulate spontaneous and injury-dependent MG proliferation. Remarkably, forced Fgf8a expression inhibits Notch signaling and stimulates MG proliferation in young tissue but increases Notch signaling and suppresses MG proliferation in older tissue. Furthermore, cessation of Fgf8a signaling enhances MG proliferation in both young and old retinal tissue. Our study suggests that multiple MG populations contribute to retinal growth and regeneration, and it reveals a previously unappreciated role for Fgf8a and Notch signaling in regulating MG quiescence, activation, and proliferation.

  6. Opposing actions of Fgf8a on Notch signaling distinguish two Muller glial cell populations that contribute to retina growth and regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jin; Goldman, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Summary The teleost retina grows throughout life and exhibits a robust regenerative response following injury. Critical to both these events are Muller glia (MG) that produce progenitors for retinal growth and repair. We report that Fgf8a may be a MG niche factor that acts through Notch signaling to regulate spontaneous and injury-dependent MG proliferation. Remarkably, forced Fgf8a expression inhibits Notch signaling and stimulates MG proliferation in young tissue, but increases Notch signaling and suppresses MG proliferation in older tissue. Furthermore, cessation of Fgf8a signaling enhances MG proliferation in both young and old retinal tissue. Our study suggests multiple MG populations contribute to retinal growth and regeneration, and reveals a previously unappreciated role for Fgf8a and Notch signaling in regulating MG quiescence, activation and proliferation. PMID:28445734

  7. Interdisciplinary Distinguished Seminar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-29

    greatly impacted current thinking on computation, have found new utility in her work on machine memory reconsolidation and intelligent cellular function...in the grid; and distributed inferential algorithms that are suitable for the topological constraints imposed by the structure of the grid. Green...functional magnetic resonance imaging data as well as fusion of data from multiple imaging modalities. Neural Decoding and Restoration of Motor Skills in

  8. Cellular and humoral immune responses in a population from the Baringo District, Kenya to Leishmania promastigote lipophosphoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Hey, A S; Theander, T G

    1992-01-01

    In a cross-sectional house-to-house study in a leishmaniasis-endemic area in Kenya, the cellular and humoral immune response to Leishmania lipophosphoglycan (LPG) was determined. Clinical data, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and plasma were obtained from 50 individuals over the age of eight...

  9. Distinguishing the Spending Preferences of Seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Zachary; Chappell, Neena L.

    1996-01-01

    The consumer spending preferences of 1,406 senior Canadians were surveyed. Age distinguished those who had product-specific preferences. Income and health status separated those interested in recreational spending from those more interested in basic needs. Diversity of health and social characteristics in this population extends to their…

  10. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and cadmium on cellular and population-level endpoints of the micro-alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, C. [Stockholm University (Sweden); Abdul Meseh, D.; Alasawi, H.; Qiang, M.; Nascimento, F. [Dept of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    A major challenge in evaluating the risks of radiation to organisms is that radioactive substances often co-occur with other contaminants in the environment. The combined effects of multiple contaminants is poorly understood, particularly where radiation is involved, but mixture toxicity can give rise to synergistic, antagonistic or additive effects. The challenge of understanding mixture toxicity in a radiation context is the focus of one of the work packages of the STAR EU Network of Excellence in Radioecology, of which this study is a part. This paper presents results from an experiment where the green micro-alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was exposed to both acute external gamma irradiation and the toxic metal cadmium (Cd) (over 72 hours); the experiment had a fully factorial design with 4 gamma doses and 4 Cd concentrations. The endpoints measured were chosen to reflect subcellular, cellular and population-level effects: antioxidant enzyme expression; membrane damage; protein, vitamin and pigment content of the cells; individual cell biomass and growth; population growth (biomass per ml and cells per ml). Preliminary results suggest effects of both Cd and gamma on some of the cellular and subcellular endpoints such as thiamine (vitamin B1) and chlorophyll concentrations in the cells, and individual cell biomass. In some cases interactive effects of the combined Cd and gamma treatments were seen, and these appeared to be dose level dependent. This lack of a consistent pattern of interactive mixture toxicity effects across the endpoints measured means that such effects would be very hard to predict in a risk assessment context. The lack of measurable effects at the population level was probably due to the short experimental duration (72 hours). Other experiments in our research group on the same micro-alga species that have looked at longer term effects (weeks) have shown that effects may not manifest themselves until at least a week after an acute gamma

  11. Cellular dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humm, J.L.; Chin, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation dose is a useful predictive parameter for describing radiation toxicity in conventional radiotherapy. Traditionally, in vitro radiation biology dose-effect relations are expressed in the form of cell survival curves, a semilog plot of cell survival versus dose. However, the characteristic linear or linear quadratic survival curve shape, for high- and low-LET radiations respectively, is only strictly valid when the radiation dose is uniform across the entire target population. With an external beam of 60 Co gamma rays or x-rays, a uniform field may be readily achievable. When radionuclides are incorporated into a cell milieu, several new problems emerge which can result in a departure from uniformity in energy deposition throughout a cell population. This nonuniformity can have very important consequences for the shape of the survival curve. Cases in which perturbations of source uniformity may arise include: 1. Elemental sources may equilibrate in the cell medium with partition coefficients between the extracellular, cytosol, and nuclear compartments. The effect of preferential cell internalization or binding to cell membrane of some radionuclides can increase or decrease the slope of the survival curve. 2. Radionuclides bound to antibodies, hormones, metabolite precursors, etc., may result in a source localization pattern characteristic of the carrier agent, i.e., the sources may bind to cell surface receptors or antigens, be internalized, bind to secreted antigen concentrated around a fraction of the cell population, or become directly incorporated into the cell DNA. We propose to relate the distribution of energy deposition in cell nuclei to biological correlates of cellular inactivation. The probability of each cell's survival is weighted by its individual radiation burden, and the summation of these probabilities for the cell population can be used to predict the number or fraction of cell survivors

  12. Cellular morphometry and cycling cell populations of human and dog bronchi. Final report, April 1, 1988 - December 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, E.S.

    1996-12-01

    Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The locations and other parameters of the nuclei which may be damaged by α particles and develop into cancers have been determined and compared in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This research included extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human epithelium of defined airway generations. Since cycling cells can be more sensitive to damage from carcinogens and radioactivity, a second major part of this research consisted of studies to quantitate the cycling tracheobronchial epithelial population(s) using immunocytochemistry and the proliferation marker PCNA on paraffin sections. The basal and suprabasal cycling cell populations of the bronchi of smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers, men and women were compared. Normal human airway linings were also compared with normal adult dog trachea and bronchi as well as metaplastic and repairing human airways. The quantitative data from this project resulted in several publications on the cycling and putative stem cells of the tracheobronchial epithelium and more accurate radon dosimetry and risk analyses

  13. Cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Codd, E F

    1968-01-01

    Cellular Automata presents the fundamental principles of homogeneous cellular systems. This book discusses the possibility of biochemical computers with self-reproducing capability.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of some theorems dealing with conditions under which universal computation and construction can be exhibited in cellular spaces. This text then presents a design for a machine embedded in a cellular space or a machine that can compute all computable functions and construct a replica of itself in any accessible and sufficiently large region of t

  14. Population of computational rabbit-specific ventricular action potential models for investigating sources of variability in cellular repolarisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Philip; Burrage, Kevin; Rodriguez, Blanca; Quinn, T Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Variability is observed at all levels of cardiac electrophysiology. Yet, the underlying causes and importance of this variability are generally unknown, and difficult to investigate with current experimental techniques. The aim of the present study was to generate populations of computational ventricular action potential models that reproduce experimentally observed intercellular variability of repolarisation (represented by action potential duration) and to identify its potential causes. A systematic exploration of the effects of simultaneously varying the magnitude of six transmembrane current conductances (transient outward, rapid and slow delayed rectifier K(+), inward rectifying K(+), L-type Ca(2+), and Na(+)/K(+) pump currents) in two rabbit-specific ventricular action potential models (Shannon et al. and Mahajan et al.) at multiple cycle lengths (400, 600, 1,000 ms) was performed. This was accomplished with distributed computing software specialised for multi-dimensional parameter sweeps and grid execution. An initial population of 15,625 parameter sets was generated for both models at each cycle length. Action potential durations of these populations were compared to experimentally derived ranges for rabbit ventricular myocytes. 1,352 parameter sets for the Shannon model and 779 parameter sets for the Mahajan model yielded action potential duration within the experimental range, demonstrating that a wide array of ionic conductance values can be used to simulate a physiological rabbit ventricular action potential. Furthermore, by using clutter-based dimension reordering, a technique that allows visualisation of multi-dimensional spaces in two dimensions, the interaction of current conductances and their relative importance to the ventricular action potential at different cycle lengths were revealed. Overall, this work represents an important step towards a better understanding of the role that variability in current conductances may play in experimentally

  15. Population of computational rabbit-specific ventricular action potential models for investigating sources of variability in cellular repolarisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Gemmell

    Full Text Available Variability is observed at all levels of cardiac electrophysiology. Yet, the underlying causes and importance of this variability are generally unknown, and difficult to investigate with current experimental techniques. The aim of the present study was to generate populations of computational ventricular action potential models that reproduce experimentally observed intercellular variability of repolarisation (represented by action potential duration and to identify its potential causes. A systematic exploration of the effects of simultaneously varying the magnitude of six transmembrane current conductances (transient outward, rapid and slow delayed rectifier K(+, inward rectifying K(+, L-type Ca(2+, and Na(+/K(+ pump currents in two rabbit-specific ventricular action potential models (Shannon et al. and Mahajan et al. at multiple cycle lengths (400, 600, 1,000 ms was performed. This was accomplished with distributed computing software specialised for multi-dimensional parameter sweeps and grid execution. An initial population of 15,625 parameter sets was generated for both models at each cycle length. Action potential durations of these populations were compared to experimentally derived ranges for rabbit ventricular myocytes. 1,352 parameter sets for the Shannon model and 779 parameter sets for the Mahajan model yielded action potential duration within the experimental range, demonstrating that a wide array of ionic conductance values can be used to simulate a physiological rabbit ventricular action potential. Furthermore, by using clutter-based dimension reordering, a technique that allows visualisation of multi-dimensional spaces in two dimensions, the interaction of current conductances and their relative importance to the ventricular action potential at different cycle lengths were revealed. Overall, this work represents an important step towards a better understanding of the role that variability in current conductances may play in

  16. Ensemble Equivalence for Distinguishable Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernández-Peralta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Statistics of distinguishable particles has become relevant in systems of colloidal particles and in the context of applications of statistical mechanics to complex networks. In this paper, we present evidence that a commonly used expression for the partition function of a system of distinguishable particles leads to huge fluctuations of the number of particles in the grand canonical ensemble and, consequently, to nonequivalence of statistical ensembles. We will show that the alternative definition of the partition function including, naturally, Boltzmann’s correct counting factor for distinguishable particles solves the problem and restores ensemble equivalence. Finally, we also show that this choice for the partition function does not produce any inconsistency for a system of distinguishable localized particles, where the monoparticular partition function is not extensive.

  17. Cellular morphometry and cycling cell populations of human and dog bronchi. Annual progress report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, E.S.

    1994-12-01

    Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The nuclei of these cells may be targets for damage by {alpha} particles. Then it is important to determine the locations and other parameters of these nuclei in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This proposal includes extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human bronchial epithelium of defined airway generations. The second part of this proposal describes the continuation of studies to quantitate the cycling tracheo-bronchial epithelial population(s) using proliferation markers and immunocytochemistry on paraffin sections. The proliferative potential of the airway mucosa of smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers, men and women, as well as individuals of different ages are being compared. Normal human bronchial linings are also being compared with normal adult dog bronchi and metaplastic and repairing human airways. Since cycling cells can be more sensitive to damage from carcinogens and radioactivity, the quantitative data from this project will allow the development of more accurate radon risk analysis.

  18. Cellular morphometry and cycling cell populations of human and dog bronchi. Annual progress report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, E.S.

    1994-12-01

    Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The nuclei of these cells may be targets for damage by α particles. Then it is important to determine the locations and other parameters of these nuclei in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This proposal includes extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human bronchial epithelium of defined airway generations. The second part of this proposal describes the continuation of studies to quantitate the cycling tracheo-bronchial epithelial population(s) using proliferation markers and immunocytochemistry on paraffin sections. The proliferative potential of the airway mucosa of smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers, men and women, as well as individuals of different ages are being compared. Normal human bronchial linings are also being compared with normal adult dog bronchi and metaplastic and repairing human airways. Since cycling cells can be more sensitive to damage from carcinogens and radioactivity, the quantitative data from this project will allow the development of more accurate radon risk analysis

  19. Cellular tropism, population dynamics, host range and taxonomic status of an aphid secondary symbiont, SMLS (Sitobion miscanthi L type symbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Li

    Full Text Available SMLS (Sitobion miscanthi L type symbiont is a newly reported aphid secondary symbiont. Phylogenetic evidence from molecular markers indicates that SMLS belongs to the Rickettsiaceae and has a sibling relationship with Orientia tsutsugamushi. A comparative analysis of coxA nucleotide sequences further supports recognition of SMLS as a new genus in the Rickettsiaceae. In situ hybridization reveals that SMLS is housed in both sheath cells and secondary bacteriocytes and it is also detected in aphid hemolymph. The population dynamics of SMLS differ from those of Buchnera aphidicola and titer levels of SMLS increase in older aphids. A survey of 13 other aphids reveals that SMLS only occurs in wheat-associated species.

  20. Cellular Tropism, Population Dynamics, Host Range and Taxonomic Status of an Aphid Secondary Symbiont, SMLS (Sitobion miscanthi L Type Symbiont)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Xu, Zhao-Huan; Murphy, Robert W.; Huang, Da-Wei

    2011-01-01

    SMLS (Sitobion miscanthi L type symbiont) is a newly reported aphid secondary symbiont. Phylogenetic evidence from molecular markers indicates that SMLS belongs to the Rickettsiaceae and has a sibling relationship with Orientia tsutsugamushi. A comparative analysis of coxA nucleotide sequences further supports recognition of SMLS as a new genus in the Rickettsiaceae. In situ hybridization reveals that SMLS is housed in both sheath cells and secondary bacteriocytes and it is also detected in aphid hemolymph. The population dynamics of SMLS differ from those of Buchnera aphidicola and titer levels of SMLS increase in older aphids. A survey of 13 other aphids reveals that SMLS only occurs in wheat-associated species. PMID:21789197

  1. Agent-Based Phytoplankton Models of Cellular and Population Processes: Fostering Individual-Based Learning in Undergraduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berges, J. A.; Raphael, T.; Rafa Todd, C. S.; Bate, T. C.; Hellweger, F. L.

    2016-02-01

    Engaging undergraduate students in research projects that require expertise in multiple disciplines (e.g. cell biology, population ecology, and mathematical modeling) can be challenging because they have often not developed the expertise that allows them to participate at a satisfying level. Use of agent-based modeling can allow exploration of concepts at more intuitive levels, and encourage experimentation that emphasizes processes over computational skills. Over the past several years, we have involved undergraduate students in projects examining both ecological and cell biological aspects of aquatic microbial biology, using the freely-downloadable, agent-based modeling environment NetLogo (https://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/). In Netlogo, actions of large numbers of individuals can be simulated, leading to complex systems with emergent behavior. The interface features appealing graphics, monitors, and control structures. In one example, a group of sophomores in a BioMathematics program developed an agent-based model of phytoplankton population dynamics in a pond ecosystem, motivated by observed macroscopic changes in cell numbers (due to growth and death), and driven by responses to irradiance, temperature and a limiting nutrient. In a second example, junior and senior undergraduates conducting Independent Studies created a model of the intracellular processes governing stress and cell death for individual phytoplankton cells (based on parameters derived from experiments using single-cell culturing and flow cytometry), and then this model was embedded in the agents in the pond ecosystem model. In our experience, students with a range of mathematical abilities learned to code quickly and could use the software with varying degrees of sophistication, for example, creation of spatially-explicit two and three-dimensional models. Skills developed quickly and transferred readily to other platforms (e.g. Matlab).

  2. Distinguishing human cell types based on housekeeping gene signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyolu, Chuba; Zakharia, Fouad; Baker, Julie

    2012-03-01

    'In this report, we use single cell gene expression to identify transcriptional patterns emerging during the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into the endodermal lineage. Endoderm-specific transcripts are highly variable between individual CXCR4(+) endodermal cells, suggesting that either the cells generated from in vitro differentiation are distinct or that these embryonic cells tolerate a high degree of transcript variability. Housekeeping transcripts, on the other hand, are far more consistently expressed within the same cellular population. However, when we compare the levels of housekeeping transcripts between hESCs and derived endoderm, patterns emerge that can be used to clearly separate the two embryonic cell types. We further compared four additional human cell types, including 293T, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC), HepG2, and endoderm-derived iPSC. In each case, the relative levels of housekeeping transcripts defined a particular cell fate. Interestingly, we find that three transcripts, LDHA, NONO, and ACTB, contribute the most to this diversity and together serve to segregate all six cell types. Overall, this suggests that levels of housekeeping transcripts, which are expressed within all cells, can be leveraged to distinguish between human cell types and thus may serve as important biomarkers for stem cell biology and other disciplines. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  3. Distinguishing drought and water scarcity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van A.

    2013-01-01

    Water resources can become strained by both natural factors such as drought and human factors such as unsustainable use. Water resource managers can develop practices to reduce overuse of water resources, but they cannot prevent droughts, so distinguishing the causes of water stress can be useful.

  4. Integrated spatial health assessment of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) populations from the St. Lawrence River (QC, Canada), part B: cellular and transcriptomic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Audrey; Landry, Catherine; Giraudo, Maeva; Douville, Mélanie; Brodeur, Philippe; Boily, Monique; Gagnon, Pierre; Houde, Magali

    2016-09-01

    Multi-biological level assessments have become great tools to evaluate the health of aquatic ecosystems. Using this approach, a complementary study was designed to evaluate the health of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) populations in the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). In the present study, stress responses were compared at the transcriptomic, cellular, and tissue levels in yellow perch collected at six sites along the river: Lake St. François, Lake St. Louis (north and south), Beauregard Island and Lake St. Pierre (north and south). These results complement the physiological and chemical parameters as well as pathogen infection investigated in a companion paper published in the present issue. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) analyses indicated the presence of oxidative stress in fish collected in the southern part of Lake St. Louis and at the downstream sites of Lake St. Pierre. High lipid peroxidation levels were found in the muscle of yellow perch caught at Beauregard Island, located downstream of the Montreal's wastewater treatment plant, suggesting an impact of the municipal effluent on redox homeostasis. Transcriptomic results indicated the down-regulation of genes related to lipid, glucose, and retinoid in southern Lake St. Pierre as well as a decrease in retinoid storage. Overall, biochemical and molecular markers indicated that the health status of yellow perch followed a decreasing gradient from upstream to downstream of the St. Lawrence River. This gradient is representative of the cumulative negative impacts of human activities on water and habitat quality along the river.

  5. Distinguishing between symbiotic stars and planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iłkiewicz, K.; Mikołajewska, J.

    2017-10-01

    Context. The number of known symbiotic stars (SySt) is still significantly lower than their predicted population. One of the main problems in finding the total population of SySt is the fact that their spectrum can be confused with other objects, such as planetary nebulae (PNe) or dense H II regions. This problem is reinforced by the fact that in a significant fraction of established SySt the emission lines used to distinguish them from other objects are not present. Aims: We aim at finding new diagnostic diagrams that could help separate SySt from PNe. Additionally, we examine a known sample of extragalactic PNe for candidate SySt. Methods: We employed emission line fluxes of known SySt and PNe from the literature. Results: We found that among the forbidden lines in the optical region of spectrum, only the [O III] and [N II] lines can be used as a tool for distinguishing between SySt and PNe, which is consistent with the fact that they have the highest critical densities. The most useful diagnostic that we propose is based on He I lines, which are more common and stronger in SySt than forbidden lines. All these useful diagnostic diagrams are electron density indicators that better distinguish PNe and ionized symbiotic nebulae. Moreover, we found six new candidate SySt in the Large Magellanic Cloud and one in M 81. If confirmed, the candidate in M 81 would be the farthest known SySt thus far.

  6. Fluorescent pigment distinguishes between sibling snail species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Keiichi; Wiwegweaw, Amporn; Asami, Takahiro

    2008-12-01

    Traditional taxonomy of shell-bearing molluscs does not generally use soft-body coloration. However, the land snails Bradybaena pellucida and B. similaris have been distinguished only on the basis of the color of the soft-body visible through the shell. Thus, the taxonomic status of the two species has traditionally been questionable. We found that dense spots of pigments embedded in the dorsal mantle are responsible for the yellow coloration of B. pellucida . Similar spots in B. similaris are white and less densely aggregated in whorls further from the apex, and the brown color of the hepatopancreas is visible through the shell. The yellow pigments of B. pellucida seep out with mucus from the body in natural and laboratory conditions. The two species became externally indistinguishable after 30 days of laboratory feeding, because the yellow spots disappeared in B. pellucida and the color of the hepatopancreas changed from dark brown to pale brown in both species. Irradiation with ultraviolet A demonstrated that the yellow pigment of B. pellucida fluoresces. Adult specimens of the two species were distinct in penial microsculpture, with F(1) hybrids intermediate in form. Populations of the two species differed significantly in allelic frequencies at four allozyme loci. Therefore, B. pellucida and B. similaris are morphologically and genetically distinct. The fluorescent yellow pigment distinguishes B. pellucida from B. similaris under natural conditions despite its environmental dependence.

  7. Distinguishing Ichthyoses by Protein Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Robert H.; Bradshaw, Katie M.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett S.; Schmuth, Matthias; Gruber, Robert

    2013-01-01

    To explore the usefulness of protein profiling for characterization of ichthyoses, we here determined the profile of human epidermal stratum corneum by shotgun proteomics. Samples were analyzed after collection on tape circles from six anatomic sites (forearm, palm, lower leg, forehead, abdomen, upper back), demonstrating site-specific differences in profiles. Additional samples were collected from the forearms of subjects with ichthyosis vulgaris (filaggrin (FLG) deficiency), recessive X-linked ichthyosis (steroid sulfatase (STS) deficiency) and autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis type lamellar ichthyosis (transglutaminase 1 (TGM1) deficiency). The ichthyosis protein expression patterns were readily distinguishable from each other and from phenotypically normal epidermis. In general, the degree of departure from normal was lower from ichthyosis vulgaris than from lamellar ichthyosis, parallel to the severity of the phenotype. Analysis of samples from families with ichthyosis vulgaris and concomitant modifying gene mutations (STS deficiency, GJB2 deficiency) permitted correlation of alterations in protein profile with more complex genetic constellations. PMID:24130705

  8. Cellular communication through light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fels

    Full Text Available Information transfer is a fundamental of life. A few studies have reported that cells use photons (from an endogenous source as information carriers. This study finds that cells can have an influence on other cells even when separated with a glass barrier, thereby disabling molecule diffusion through the cell-containing medium. As there is still very little known about the potential of photons for intercellular communication this study is designed to test for non-molecule-based triggering of two fundamental properties of life: cell division and energy uptake. The study was performed with a cellular organism, the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. Mutual exposure of cell populations occurred under conditions of darkness and separation with cuvettes (vials allowing photon but not molecule transfer. The cell populations were separated either with glass allowing photon transmission from 340 nm to longer waves, or quartz being transmittable from 150 nm, i.e. from UV-light to longer waves. Even through glass, the cells affected cell division and energy uptake in neighboring cell populations. Depending on the cuvette material and the number of cells involved, these effects were positive or negative. Also, while paired populations with lower growth rates grew uncorrelated, growth of the better growing populations was correlated. As there were significant differences when separating the populations with glass or quartz, it is suggested that the cell populations use two (or more frequencies for cellular information transfer, which influences at least energy uptake, cell division rate and growth correlation. Altogether the study strongly supports a cellular communication system, which is different from a molecule-receptor-based system and hints that photon-triggering is a fine tuning principle in cell chemistry.

  9. Cellular communication through light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fels, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Information transfer is a fundamental of life. A few studies have reported that cells use photons (from an endogenous source) as information carriers. This study finds that cells can have an influence on other cells even when separated with a glass barrier, thereby disabling molecule diffusion through the cell-containing medium. As there is still very little known about the potential of photons for intercellular communication this study is designed to test for non-molecule-based triggering of two fundamental properties of life: cell division and energy uptake. The study was performed with a cellular organism, the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. Mutual exposure of cell populations occurred under conditions of darkness and separation with cuvettes (vials) allowing photon but not molecule transfer. The cell populations were separated either with glass allowing photon transmission from 340 nm to longer waves, or quartz being transmittable from 150 nm, i.e. from UV-light to longer waves. Even through glass, the cells affected cell division and energy uptake in neighboring cell populations. Depending on the cuvette material and the number of cells involved, these effects were positive or negative. Also, while paired populations with lower growth rates grew uncorrelated, growth of the better growing populations was correlated. As there were significant differences when separating the populations with glass or quartz, it is suggested that the cell populations use two (or more) frequencies for cellular information transfer, which influences at least energy uptake, cell division rate and growth correlation. Altogether the study strongly supports a cellular communication system, which is different from a molecule-receptor-based system and hints that photon-triggering is a fine tuning principle in cell chemistry.

  10. Humoral and cellular CMV responses in healthy donors; identification of a frequent population of CMV-specific, CD4+ T cells in seronegative donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeth, Nina; Assing, Kristian; Madsen, Hans O

    2012-01-01

    CMV status is an important risk factor in immune compromised patients. In hematopoeitic cell transplantations (HCT), both donor and recipient are tested routinely for CMV status by serological assays; however, one might argue that it might also be of relevance to examine CMV status by cellular (i...

  11. Distinguished trajectories in time dependent vector fields

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid, J. A. Jimenez; Mancho, Ana M.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new definition of distinguished trajectory that generalizes the concepts of fixed point and periodic orbit to aperiodic dynamical systems. This new definition is valid for identifying distinguished trajectories with hyperbolic and nonhyperbolic types of stability. The definition is implemented numerically and the procedure consists of determining a path of limit coordinates. It has been successfully applied to known examples of distinguished trajectories. In the context of high...

  12. Calcium response of KCl-excited populations of ventricular myocytes from the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): a promising approach to integrate cell-to-cell heterogeneity in studying the cellular basis of fish cardiac performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivier, Hélène; Marchant, James; Le Bayon, Nicolas; Servili, Arianna; Claireaux, Guy

    2015-10-01

    Climate change challenges the capacity of fishes to thrive in their habitat. However, through phenotypic diversity, they demonstrate remarkable resilience to deteriorating conditions. In fish populations, inter-individual variation in a number of fitness-determining physiological traits, including cardiac performance, is classically observed. Information about the cellular bases of inter-individual variability in cardiac performance is scarce including the possible contribution of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. This study aimed at providing insight into EC coupling-related Ca(2+) response and thermal plasticity in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). A cell population approach was used to lay the methodological basis for identifying the cellular determinants of cardiac performance. Fish were acclimated at 12 and 22 °C and changes in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) following KCl stimulation were measured using Fura-2, at 12 or 22 °C-test. The increase in [Ca(2+)]i resulted primarily from extracellular Ca(2+) entry but sarcoplasmic reticulum stores were also shown to be involved. As previously reported in sea bass, a modest effect of adrenaline was observed. Moreover, although the response appeared relatively insensitive to an acute temperature change, a difference in Ca(2+) response was observed between 12- and 22 °C-acclimated fish. In particular, a greater increase in [Ca(2+)]i at a high level of adrenaline was observed in 22 °C-acclimated fish that may be related to an improved efficiency of adrenaline under these conditions. In conclusion, this method allows a rapid screening of cellular characteristics. It represents a promising tool to identify the cellular determinants of inter-individual variability in fishes' capacity for environmental adaptation.

  13. From invasion to latency: intracellular noise and cell motility as key controls of the competition between resource-limited cellular populations

    KAUST Repository

    Guerrero, Pilar

    2015-04-02

    © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. In this paper we analyse stochastic models of the competition between two resource-limited cell populations which differ in their response to nutrient availability: the resident population exhibits a switch-like response behaviour while the invading population exhibits a bistable response. We investigate how noise in the intracellular regulatory pathways and cell motility influence the fate of the incumbent and invading populations. We focus initially on a spatially homogeneous system and study in detail the role of intracellular noise. We show that in such well-mixed systems, two distinct regimes exist: In the low (intracellular) noise limit, the invader has the ability to invade the resident population, whereas in the high noise regime competition between the two populations is found to be neutral and, in accordance with neutral evolution theory, invasion is a random event. Careful examination of the system dynamics leads us to conclude that (i) even if the invader is unable to invade, the distribution of survival times, PS(t), has a fat-tail behaviour (PS(t)∼t-1) which implies that small colonies of mutants can coexist with the resident population for arbitrarily long times, and (ii) the bistable structure of the invading population increases the stability of the latent population, thus increasing their long-term likelihood of survival, by decreasing the intensity of the noise at the population level. We also examine the effects of spatial inhomogeneity. In the low noise limit we find that cell motility is positively correlated with the aggressiveness of the invader as defined by the time the invader takes to invade the resident population: the faster the invasion, the more aggressive the invader.

  14. Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  15. George Stephanopoulos to give Cutchins Distinguished Lecture

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2006-01-01

    ABC News' chief Washington correspondent and"This Week" anchor George Stephanopoulos will give the Cutchins Distinguished Lecture at Virginia Tech on Thursday, March 16, 7:30 p.m., in Burruss Auditorium.

  16. Cellular: Toward personal communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Stuart

    1991-09-01

    The cellular industry is one of the fastest growing segment of the telecommunications industry. With an estimated penetration rate of 20 percent in the near future, cellular is becoming an ubiquitous telecommunications service in the U.S. In this paper we will examine the major advancements in the cellular industry: customer equipment, cellular networks, engineering tools, customer support, and nationwide seamless service.

  17. Elucidating the cellular actions of demineralised dentine matrix extract on a clonal dental pulp stem cell population in orchestrating dental tissue repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi P; Colombo, John S; Ayre, Wayne Nishio; Sloan, Alastair J

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive growth factors identified within the extracellular matrix of dentine have been proposed roles in regulating the naturally inherent regenerative dentine formation seen in teeth in response to trauma and infection, which may also be harnessed for novel clinical treatments in augmenting mineralised tissue repair. This study examined the specific biological action of demineralised dentine matrix extract on a clonal population of dental pulp stem cells in stimulating the prerequisite stages of wound healing associated with mineralised tissue repair. A clonal dental pulp stem cell population with sustained proliferative capacity and multi-potentiality towards osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages was isolated from the pulp of human third molars. Dentine was collected from human healthy teeth, powdered and treated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to obtain a solubilised DDM protein extract. The influence of DDM on the DPSC clonal population was assessed in vitro. Exposure of cells to proteolytically degraded DDM or unsupplemented media served as controls. Compared to controls, DDM stimulated cell expansion, reduced apoptotic marker caspase 3, increased cell survival marker Akt1 and enhanced mineralised matrix deposition as determined by mineral deposition and increased expression of bone-related markers, alkaline phosphatase and osteopontin. Dental pulp stem cells successfully migrated into collagen gels supplemented with demineralised dentine matrix, with cells remaining viable and expanding in numbers over a 3-day period. Collectively, the results provide evidence that soluble proteins extracted from dentine matrix are able to exert a direct biological effect on dental pulp stem cells in promoting mineralised tissue repair mechanisms. PMID:26019808

  18. Functional clustering and lineage markers: insights into cellular differentiation and gene function from large-scale microarray studies of purified primary cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, David A; Summers, Kim M; Raza, Sobia; Baillie, J Kenneth; Freeman, Thomas C

    2010-06-01

    Very large microarray datasets showing gene expression across multiple tissues and cell populations provide a window on the transcriptional networks that underpin the differences in functional activity between biological systems. Clusters of co-expressed genes provide lineage markers, candidate regulators of cell function and, by applying the principle of guilt by association, candidate functions for genes of currently unknown function. We have analysed a dataset comprising pure cell populations from hemopoietic and non-hemopoietic cell types (http://biogps.gnf.org). Using a novel network visualisation and clustering approach, we demonstrate that it is possible to identify very tight expression signatures associated specifically with embryonic stem cells, mesenchymal cells and hematopoietic lineages. Selected examples validate the prediction that gene function can be inferred by co-expression. One expression cluster was enriched in phagocytes, which, alongside endosome-lysosome constituents, contains genes that may make up a 'pathway' for phagocyte differentiation. Promoters of these genes are enriched for binding sites for the ETS/PU.1 and MITF families. Another cluster was associated with the production of a specific extracellular matrix, with high levels of gene expression shared by cells of mesenchymal origin (fibroblasts, adipocytes, osteoblasts and myoblasts). We discuss the limitations placed upon such data by the presence of alternative promoters with distinct tissue specificity within many protein-coding genes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Flat Cellular (UMTS) Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Samuel, L.G.; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, P.; Rittenhouse, G.

    Traditionally, cellular systems have been built in a hierarchical manner: many specialized cellular access network elements that collectively form a hierarchical cellular system. When 2G and later 3G systems were designed there was a good reason to make system hierarchical: from a cost-perspective

  20. Repetitive sequence environment distinguishes housekeeping genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, C Daniel; Regelson, Moira; Merriman, Barry; Nelson, Stan; Horvath, Steve; Marahrens, York

    2007-04-01

    Housekeeping genes are expressed across a wide variety of tissues. Since repetitive sequences have been reported to influence the expression of individual genes, we employed a novel approach to determine whether housekeeping genes can be distinguished from tissue-specific genes by their repetitive sequence context. We show that Alu elements are more highly concentrated around housekeeping genes while various longer (>400-bp) repetitive sequences ("repeats"), including Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (LINE-1) elements, are excluded from these regions. We further show that isochore membership does not distinguish housekeeping genes from tissue-specific genes and that repetitive sequence environment distinguishes housekeeping genes from tissue-specific genes in every isochore. The distinct repetitive sequence environment, in combination with other previously published sequence properties of housekeeping genes, was used to develop a method of predicting housekeeping genes on the basis of DNA sequence alone. Using expression across tissue types as a measure of success, we demonstrate that repetitive sequence environment is by far the most important sequence feature identified to date for distinguishing housekeeping genes.

  1. Rapid molecular technique to distinguish Fusarium species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lodolo, EJ

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear DNA (nDNA) of different isolates of three closely related, toxin-producing Fusarium species, F. moniliforme, F. nygamai and F. napiforme, was compared to ascertain the sensitivity of a molecular method to distinguish these three species...

  2. Entropy of Mixing of Distinguishable Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozliak, Evguenii I.

    2014-01-01

    The molar entropy of mixing yields values that depend only on the number of mixing components rather than on their chemical nature. To explain this phenomenon using the logic of chemistry, this article considers mixing of distinguishable particles, thus complementing the well-known approach developed for nondistinguishable particles, for example,…

  3. Distinguishing intrauterine foetal demise versus abdominal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy always poses a clinical dilemma. Transvaginal ultrasound is the ideal radiological procedure in locating these pregnancies. However in resource limited setting, abdominal and pelvic ultrasounds can be the only available yet unreliable modalities for distinguishing intrauterine versus ...

  4. Understanding the sub-cellular dynamics of silicon transportation and synthesis in diatoms using population-level data and computational optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaheri, Narjes; Dries, Roland; Kaandorp, Jaap

    2014-06-01

    Controlled synthesis of silicon is a major challenge in nanotechnology and material science. Diatoms, the unicellular algae, are an inspiring example of silica biosynthesis, producing complex and delicate nano-structures. This happens in several cell compartments, including cytoplasm and silica deposition vesicle (SDV). Considering the low concentration of silicic acid in oceans, cells have developed silicon transporter proteins (SIT). Moreover, cells change the level of active SITs during one cell cycle, likely as a response to the level of external nutrients and internal deposition rates. Despite this topic being of fundamental interest, the intracellular dynamics of nutrients and cell regulation strategies remain poorly understood. One reason is the difficulties in measurements and manipulation of these mechanisms at such small scales, and even when possible, data often contain large errors. Therefore, using computational techniques seems inevitable. We have constructed a mathematical model for silicon dynamics in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana in four compartments: external environment, cytoplasm, SDV and deposited silica. The model builds on mass conservation and Michaelis-Menten kinetics as mass transport equations. In order to find the free parameters of the model from sparse, noisy experimental data, an optimization technique (global and local search), together with enzyme related penalty terms, has been applied. We have connected population-level data to individual-cell-level quantities including the effect of early division of non-synchronized cells. Our model is robust, proven by sensitivity and perturbation analysis, and predicts dynamics of intracellular nutrients and enzymes in different compartments. The model produces different uptake regimes, previously recognized as surge, externally-controlled and internally-controlled uptakes. Finally, we imposed a flux of SITs to the model and compared it with previous classical kinetics. The model

  5. Understanding the sub-cellular dynamics of silicon transportation and synthesis in diatoms using population-level data and computational optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes Javaheri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Controlled synthesis of silicon is a major challenge in nanotechnology and material science. Diatoms, the unicellular algae, are an inspiring example of silica biosynthesis, producing complex and delicate nano-structures. This happens in several cell compartments, including cytoplasm and silica deposition vesicle (SDV. Considering the low concentration of silicic acid in oceans, cells have developed silicon transporter proteins (SIT. Moreover, cells change the level of active SITs during one cell cycle, likely as a response to the level of external nutrients and internal deposition rates. Despite this topic being of fundamental interest, the intracellular dynamics of nutrients and cell regulation strategies remain poorly understood. One reason is the difficulties in measurements and manipulation of these mechanisms at such small scales, and even when possible, data often contain large errors. Therefore, using computational techniques seems inevitable. We have constructed a mathematical model for silicon dynamics in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana in four compartments: external environment, cytoplasm, SDV and deposited silica. The model builds on mass conservation and Michaelis-Menten kinetics as mass transport equations. In order to find the free parameters of the model from sparse, noisy experimental data, an optimization technique (global and local search, together with enzyme related penalty terms, has been applied. We have connected population-level data to individual-cell-level quantities including the effect of early division of non-synchronized cells. Our model is robust, proven by sensitivity and perturbation analysis, and predicts dynamics of intracellular nutrients and enzymes in different compartments. The model produces different uptake regimes, previously recognized as surge, externally-controlled and internally-controlled uptakes. Finally, we imposed a flux of SITs to the model and compared it with previous classical kinetics

  6. Understanding the Sub-Cellular Dynamics of Silicon Transportation and Synthesis in Diatoms Using Population-Level Data and Computational Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaheri, Narjes; Dries, Roland; Kaandorp, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Controlled synthesis of silicon is a major challenge in nanotechnology and material science. Diatoms, the unicellular algae, are an inspiring example of silica biosynthesis, producing complex and delicate nano-structures. This happens in several cell compartments, including cytoplasm and silica deposition vesicle (SDV). Considering the low concentration of silicic acid in oceans, cells have developed silicon transporter proteins (SIT). Moreover, cells change the level of active SITs during one cell cycle, likely as a response to the level of external nutrients and internal deposition rates. Despite this topic being of fundamental interest, the intracellular dynamics of nutrients and cell regulation strategies remain poorly understood. One reason is the difficulties in measurements and manipulation of these mechanisms at such small scales, and even when possible, data often contain large errors. Therefore, using computational techniques seems inevitable. We have constructed a mathematical model for silicon dynamics in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana in four compartments: external environment, cytoplasm, SDV and deposited silica. The model builds on mass conservation and Michaelis-Menten kinetics as mass transport equations. In order to find the free parameters of the model from sparse, noisy experimental data, an optimization technique (global and local search), together with enzyme related penalty terms, has been applied. We have connected population-level data to individual-cell-level quantities including the effect of early division of non-synchronized cells. Our model is robust, proven by sensitivity and perturbation analysis, and predicts dynamics of intracellular nutrients and enzymes in different compartments. The model produces different uptake regimes, previously recognized as surge, externally-controlled and internally-controlled uptakes. Finally, we imposed a flux of SITs to the model and compared it with previous classical kinetics. The model

  7. Two key temporally distinguishable molecular and cellular components of white adipose tissue browning during cold acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Aleksandra; Golic, Igor; Markelic, Milica; Stancic, Ana; Otasevic, Vesna; Buzadzic, Biljana; Korac, Aleksandra; Korac, Bato

    2015-08-01

    White to brown adipose tissue conversion and thermogenesis can be ignited by different conditions or agents and its sustainability over the long term is still unclear. Browning of rat retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (rpWAT) during cold acclimation involves two temporally apparent components: (1) a predominant non-selective browning of most adipocytes and an initial sharp but transient induction of uncoupling protein 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator-1α, PPARγ and PPARα expression, and (2) the subsistence of relatively few thermogenically competent adipocytes after 45 days of cold acclimation. The different behaviours of two rpWAT beige/brown adipocyte subsets control temporal aspects of the browning process, and thus regulation of both components may influence body weight and the potential successfulness of anti-obesity therapies. Conversion of white into brown adipose tissue may have important implications in obesity resistance and treatment. Several browning agents or conditions ignite thermogenesis in white adipose tissue (WAT). To reveal the capacity of WAT to function in a brownish/burning mode over the long term, we investigated the progression of the rat retroperitoneal WAT (rpWAT) browning during 45 days of cold acclimation. During the early stages of cold acclimation, the majority of rpWAT adipocytes underwent multilocularization and thermogenic-profile induction, as demonstrated by the presence of a multitude of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-immunopositive paucilocular adipocytes containing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and PR domain-containing 16 (PRDM16) in their nuclei. After 45 days, all adipocytes remained PRDM16 immunopositive, but only a few multilocular adipocytes rich in mitochondria remained UCP1/PGC-1α immunopositive. Molecular evidence showed that thermogenic recruitment of rpWAT occurred following cold exposure, but returned to starting levels after cold acclimation. Compared with controls (22 ± 1 °C), levels of UCP1 mRNA increased in parallel with PPARγ (PPARα from days 1 to 7 and PGC-1α on day 1). Transcriptional recruitment of rpWAT was followed by an increase in UCP1 protein content (from days 1 to 21). Results clearly showed that most of the adipocytes within rpWAT underwent transient brown-fat-like thermogenic recruitment upon stimulation, but only a minority of cells retained a brown adipose tissue-like phenotype after the attainment of cold acclimation. Therefore, browning of WAT is dependent on both maintaining the thermogenic response and retaining enough brown-like thermogenically competent adipocytes in the long-term. Both aspects of browning could be important for long-term energy homeostasis and body-weight regulation. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  8. Cellular injury evidenced by impedance technology and infrared microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, K.; Prinsloo, L. C.; Meyer, D.

    2015-03-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is finding increasing biological application, for example in the analysis of diseased tissues and cells, cell cycle studies and investigating the mechanisms of action of anticancer drugs. Cancer treatment studies routinely define the types of cell-drug responses as either total cell destruction by the drug (all cells die), moderate damage (cell deterioration where some cells survive) or reversible cell cycle arrest (cytostasis). In this study the loss of viability and related chemical stress experienced by cells treated with the medicinal plant, Plectranthus ciliatus, was investigated using real time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES) technology and FTIR microspectroscopy. The use of plants as medicines is well established and ethnobotany has proven that crude extracts can serve as treatments against various ailments. The aim of this study was to determine whether FTIR microspectroscopy would successfully distinguish between different types of cellular injury induced by a potentially anticancerous plant extract. Cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cells were treated with a crude extract of Pciliatus and cells monitored using RT-CES to characterize the type of cellular responses induced. Cell populations were then investigated using FTIR microspectroscopy and statistically analysed using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The plant extract and a cancer drug control (actinomycin D) induced concentration dependent cellular responses ranging from nontoxic, cytostatic or cytotoxic. Thirteen spectral peaks (915 cm-1, 933 cm-1, 989 cm-1, 1192 cm-1, 1369 cm-1, 1437 cm-1, 1450 cm-1, 1546 cm-1, 1634 cm-1, 1679 cm-1 1772 cm-1, 2874 cm-1 and 2962 cm-1) associated with cytotoxicity were significantly (p value < 0.05, one way ANOVA, Tukey test, Bonferroni) altered, while two of the bands were also indicative of early stress related responses. In PCA, poor separation between nontoxic and cytostatic

  9. Activity recognition from minimal distinguishing subsequence mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad; Pao, Hsing-Kuo

    2017-08-01

    Human activity recognition is one of the most important research topics in the era of Internet of Things. To separate different activities given sensory data, we utilize a Minimal Distinguishing Subsequence (MDS) mining approach to efficiently find distinguishing patterns among different activities. We first transform the sensory data into a series of sensor triggering events and operate the MDS mining procedure afterwards. The gap constraints are also considered in the MDS mining. Given the multi-class nature of most activity recognition tasks, we modify the MDS mining approach from a binary case to a multi-class one to fit the need for multiple activity recognition. We also study how to select the best parameter set including the minimal and the maximal support thresholds in finding the MDSs for effective activity recognition. Overall, the prediction accuracy is 86.59% on the van Kasteren dataset which consists of four different activities for recognition.

  10. Cellular monosaccharide patterns of Neisseriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, E; Bryn, K; Bovre, K

    1976-08-01

    Sixty-four strains of Neisseria, Moraxella, and Acinetobacter were screened for cellular monosaccharides by gas-liquid chromatography and other chromatographic techniques. The four sugars ribose, glucose, glucosamine, and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate (KDO) were detected in all strains. Heptose was detected only in "true neisseriae" (Neisseria gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis, N. sicca, N. cinerea, N. flavescens, and N. elongata) and in the tentaively named species Moraxella urethralis. Some marked interspecies dissimilarities within groups were revealed. Thus, N. ovis and M. atlantae were characterized by the presence of mannose. Intraspecies differences were also encountered. N. meningitidis strains of serogroups B and C were distinguished from strains of serogroup A by their sialic acid content. This sugar was also detected in two out of three examined strains of M. nonliquefaciens. In Acinetobacter, heterogeneity of monosaccharide patterns was rather pronounced. The results show the applicability of gas chromatographic "monosaccharide" profiles fo whole cells or extracted carbohydrate in bacterial classification and identification, including differentiation at the subspecies level. In addition, such profiles may be useful for monitoring during purification of cellular polysaccharides.

  11. Hemosiderin laden macrophages and hemosiderin within follicular cells distinguish benign follicular lesions from follicular neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffar, Reema; Mohanty, Sambit K.; Khan, Ashraf; Fischer, Andrew H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Published criteria to distinguish benign colloid nodules from follicular neoplasms emphasize only three interdependent features: size of follicles, amount of colloid, and cellularity. There is a need for the validation of other independent criteria. Methods: This study quantified the significance of cystic change, defined as presence of macrophages, and the presence of hemosiderin in either the macrophages or follicular cells. The cohort consisted of 165 patients with fine need...

  12. Use of aflatoxin-producing ability medium to distinguish aflatoxin-producing strains of Aspergillus flavus.

    OpenAIRE

    Wicklow, D T; Shotwell, O L; Adams, G L

    1981-01-01

    Aflatoxin-producing ability medium was tested for its ability to distinguish aflatoxin-positive from aflatoxin-negative strains of Aspergillus flavus in naturally occurring populations from corn at harvest. All of the aflatoxin-positive strains and some of the aflatoxin-negative strains produced aflatoxins when cultured on cracked corn. Although the data indicate that aflatoxin-producing ability medium is not entirely reliable in distinguishing potential aflatoxin-producing strains of A. flav...

  13. Distinguishing feral and managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) using stable carbon isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Lucy; Dynes, Travis; Berry, Jennifer; Delaplane, Keith; McCormick, Lydia; Brosi, Berry

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The ability to distinguish feral and managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) has applications in studies of population genetics, parasite transmission, pollination, interspecific interactions, and bee breeding. We evaluated a diagnostic test based on theoretical differences in stable carbon isotope ratios generated by supplemental feeding. We evaluated (1) if carbon isotope ratios can distinguish feral and managed honeybees and (2) the temporal persistence of the signal aft...

  14. Distinguished figures in mechanism and machine science

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book is composed of chapters that focus specifically on technological developments by distinguished figures in the history of MMS (Mechanism and Machine Science).  Biographies of well-known scientists are also included to describe their efforts and experiences, and surveys of their work and achievements, and a modern interpretation of their legacy are presented. After the first two volumes, the papers in this third volume again cover a wide range within the field of the History of Mechanical Engineering with specific focus on MMS and will be of interest and motivation to the work (historical or not) of many.

  15. Hematological effects: comparative studies on the radiation survival characteristics in vivo and in vitro of bone marrow-derived clonogenic populations (CFU-C and PFU-C) and some observations on bone marrow cellularity in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, F.D.; O'Grady, L.; Momeni, M.; Wheeling, J.A.; Klein, K.; Graham, R.; Jow, N.; Di Bartola, S.

    1975-01-01

    Data accumulated for the hematological effects program are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to the effects of acute and chronic irradiation on hematopoietic progenitor populations (CFU-C, colony-forming units in culture) and ''candidate'' mesenchymal progenitors (PFU-C, plaque-forming units in culture) using methylcellulose bone marrow culture systems and both in vivo and in vitro radiation exposure protocols. Preliminary results of studies on the temporal effects of acute x-irradiation on the capacity of PFU-C to generate colony stimulating activity (CSA) are also presented. The results of such experiments are providing the basis upon which future RBE studies on a variety of nuclides will be structured. Data (including age related changes) is also presented on in vivo bone marrow cellularity determinations, as well as for marrow stem cell quantitative studies using nondestructive techniques for normal Beagles. In these studies, two techniques for correction of variable effects of hemodilution are compared. Such studies are also providing baseline data for the 60 Co hematological effects program

  16. Linearizable cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobe, Atsushi; Yura, Fumitaka

    2007-01-01

    The initial value problem for a class of reversible elementary cellular automata with periodic boundaries is reduced to an initial-boundary value problem for a class of linear systems on a finite commutative ring Z 2 . Moreover, a family of such linearizable cellular automata is given

  17. Plasmonic Nanostructured Cellular Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhazraji, Emad; Ghalib, A.; Manzoor, K.; Alsunaidi, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we have investigated the scattering plasmonic resonance characteristics of silver nanospheres with a geometrical distribution that is modelled by Cellular Automata using time-domain numerical analysis. Cellular Automata are discrete mathematical structures that model different natural phenomena. Two binary one-dimensional Cellular Automata rules are considered to model the nanostructure, namely rule 30 and rule 33. The analysis produces three-dimensional scattering profiles of the entire plasmonic nanostructure. For the Cellular Automaton rule 33, the introduction of more Cellular Automata generations resulted only in slight red and blue shifts in the plasmonic modes with respect to the first generation. On the other hand, while rule 30 introduced significant red shifts in the resonance peaks at early generations, at later generations however, a peculiar effect is witnessed in the scattering profile as new peaks emerge as a feature of the overall Cellular Automata structure rather than the sum of the smaller parts that compose it. We strongly believe that these features that emerge as a result adopting the different 256 Cellular Automata rules as configuration models of nanostructures in different applications and systems might possess a great potential in enhancing their capability, sensitivity, efficiency, and power utilization.

  18. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  19. Inequality indicators and distinguishability in economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, J.; Martinás, K.

    2008-03-01

    Money has a material counterpart, such as banknotes or coins, and an ideal expression, monetary units. In the latter case, it is boson-like: individual incomes have no a priori limit, and their units are not distinguishable from each other in economic processes. Individuals, on the other hand, usually occupy one job at a time which makes them akin to fermions. We apply to individual incomes down-to-earth statistical calculations, similar to those for quantum particles, and obtain expressions for the cumulative distribution function, probability density and Lorenz function resulting from the simultaneous use of both statistics. They provide extremely good fits to corresponding data on French income distributions. On this basis, we propose a new entropic inequality indicator.

  20. Generalized coherence concurrence and path distinguishability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Seungbeom

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new family of coherence monotones, named the generalized coherence concurrence (or coherence k -concurrence), which is an analogous concept to the generalized entanglement concurrence. The coherence k -concurrence of a state is nonzero if and only if the coherence number (a recently introduced discrete coherence monotone) of the state is not smaller than k , and a state can be converted to a state with nonzero entanglement k -concurrence via incoherent operations if and only if the state has nonzero coherence k -concurrence. We apply the coherence concurrence family to the problem of wave-particle duality in multi-path interference phenomena. We obtain a sharper equation for path distinguishability (which witnesses the duality) than the known one and show that the amount of each concurrence for the quanton state determines the number of slits which are identified unambiguously. (paper)

  1. Generalized coherence concurrence and path distinguishability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Seungbeom

    2017-11-01

    We propose a new family of coherence monotones, named the generalized coherence concurrence (or coherence k-concurrence), which is an analogous concept to the generalized entanglement concurrence. The coherence k-concurrence of a state is nonzero if and only if the coherence number (a recently introduced discrete coherence monotone) of the state is not smaller than k, and a state can be converted to a state with nonzero entanglement k-concurrence via incoherent operations if and only if the state has nonzero coherence k-concurrence. We apply the coherence concurrence family to the problem of wave-particle duality in multi-path interference phenomena. We obtain a sharper equation for path distinguishability (which witnesses the duality) than the known one and show that the amount of each concurrence for the quanton state determines the number of slits which are identified unambiguously.

  2. Distinguishing the communicative functions of gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Kristiina; Navarretta, Costanza; Paggio, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the results of a machine learning experiment conducted on annotated gesture data from two case studies (Danish and Estonian). The data concern mainly facial displays, that are annotated with attributes relating to shape and dynamics, as well as communicative function. The re....... The results of the experiments show that the granularity of the attributes used seems appropriate for the task of distinguishing the desired communicative functions. This is a promising result in view of a future automation of the annotation task.......This paper deals with the results of a machine learning experiment conducted on annotated gesture data from two case studies (Danish and Estonian). The data concern mainly facial displays, that are annotated with attributes relating to shape and dynamics, as well as communicative function...

  3. Modeling cellular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matthäus, Franziska; Pahle, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    This contributed volume comprises research articles and reviews on topics connected to the mathematical modeling of cellular systems. These contributions cover signaling pathways, stochastic effects, cell motility and mechanics, pattern formation processes, as well as multi-scale approaches. All authors attended the workshop on "Modeling Cellular Systems" which took place in Heidelberg in October 2014. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  4. Cellular MR Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Modo; Mathias Hoehn; Jeff W.M. Bulte

    2005-01-01

    Cellular MR imaging is a young field that aims to visualize targeted cells in living organisms. In order to provide a different signal intensity of the targeted cell, they are either labeled with MR contrast agents in vivo or prelabeled in vitro. Either (ultrasmall) superparamagnetic iron oxide [(U)SPIO] particles or (polymeric) paramagnetic chelates can be used for this purpose. For in vivo cellular labeling, Gd3+- and Mn2+- chelates have mainly been used for targeted hepatobiliary imaging, ...

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatori, Tadatsugu

    1990-01-01

    There has been a renewal of interest in cellular automata, partly because they give an architecture for a special purpose computer with parallel processing optimized to solve a particular problem. The lattice gas cellular automata are briefly surveyed, which are recently developed to solve partial differential equations such as hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. A new model is given in the present paper to implement the magnetic Lorentz force in a more deterministic and local procedure than the previous one. (author)

  6. Differences in nasal cellular infiltrates between allergic children and age-matched controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Vinke; L.W. Severijnen; L.J. Hoeve (Hans); W.J. Fokkens (Wytske); A. Kleinjan (Alex)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractLittle is known about the cellular infiltrates in the nasal mucosa of children. This study was set up to compare the nasal cellular infiltrates in biopsy specimens from allergic children and controls. Atopic children were distinguished from controls on the

  7. Differences in nasal cellular infiltrates between allergic children and age-matched controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinke, J. G.; Kleinjan, A.; Severijnen, L. W.; Hoeve, L. J.; Fokkens, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    Little is known about the cellular infiltrates in the nasal mucosa of children. This study was set up to compare the nasal cellular infiltrates in biopsy specimens from allergic children and controls. Atopic children were distinguished from controls on the basis of symptoms of allergic rhinitis

  8. Cellular senescence in aging and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Wei Seong; Brittberg, Mats; Farr, Jack; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Gomoll, Andreas H; Hui, James Hoi Po; Richardson, James B; Roberts, Sally; Spector, Myron

    2016-12-01

    - It is well accepted that age is an important contributing factor to poor cartilage repair following injury, and to the development of osteoarthritis. Cellular senescence, the loss of the ability of cells to divide, has been noted as the major factor contributing to age-related changes in cartilage homeostasis, function, and response to injury. The underlying mechanisms of cellular senescence, while not fully understood, have been associated with telomere erosion, DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. In this review, we discuss the causes and consequences of cellular senescence, and the associated biological challenges in cartilage repair. In addition, we present novel strategies for modulation of cellular senescence that may help to improve cartilage regeneration in an aging population.

  9. Distinguishing modified gravity from dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertschinger, Edmund; Zukin, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The acceleration of the Universe can be explained either through dark energy or through the modification of gravity on large scales. In this paper we investigate modified gravity models and compare their observable predictions with dark energy models. Modifications of general relativity are expected to be scale independent on superhorizon scales and scale dependent on subhorizon scales. For scale-independent modifications, utilizing the conservation of the curvature scalar and a parametrized post-Newtonian formulation of cosmological perturbations, we derive results for large-scale structure growth, weak gravitational lensing, and cosmic microwave background anisotropy. For scale-dependent modifications, inspired by recent f(R) theories we introduce a parametrization for the gravitational coupling G and the post-Newtonian parameter γ. These parametrizations provide a convenient formalism for testing general relativity. However, we find that if dark energy is generalized to include both entropy and shear stress perturbations, and the dynamics of dark energy is unknown a priori, then modified gravity cannot in general be distinguished from dark energy using cosmological linear perturbations.

  10. Distinguishing psychological characteristics of expert cricket batsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissensteiner, Juanita R; Abernethy, Bruce; Farrow, Damian; Gross, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper sought to determine the psychological characteristics and skills that are fundamental to batting success in the sport of cricket. Following on from the findings of an earlier qualitative investigation which suggested that a favourable mix of psychological attributes and skills are critical to high performance in batting (Weissensteiner et al.(10)), adult-aged batsmen of two different skill levels (highly skilled n=11; lesser skilled n=10) completed a battery of psychological tests that included measures of mental toughness (Mental Toughness Inventory), perfectionism (Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale), coping ability (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28), and optimism (Attributional Styles Questionnaire). Contrary to the research hypothesis, it was found that the highly skilled batsmen were only distinguishable from batsmen of lesser skill by their higher degree of global mental toughness. The skilled batsmen scored significantly higher on mental toughness dimensions relating to motivation (Personal Bests, Task Value and Commitment), coping skill (Perseverance) and self-belief (Potential). If mental toughness can be reliably predicted at an earlier age, it may be an attribute worthy of inclusion in future talent identification and development programs. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Integral and Multidimensional Linear Distinguishers with Correlation Zero

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Leander, Gregor; Nyberg, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    Zero-correlation cryptanalysis uses linear approximations holding with probability exactly 1/2. In this paper, we reveal fundamental links of zero-correlation distinguishers to integral distinguishers and multidimensional linear distinguishers. We show that an integral implies zero......-correlation linear approximations and that a zero-correlation linear distinguisher is actually a special case of multidimensional linear distinguishers. These observations provide new insight into zero-correlation cryptanalysis which is illustrated by attacking a Skipjack variant and round-reduced CAST-256 without...

  12. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc. is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well.

  13. Architected Cellular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Carter, William B.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing enables fabrication of materials with intricate cellular architecture, whereby progress in 3D printing techniques is increasing the possible configurations of voids and solids ad infinitum. Examples are microlattices with graded porosity and truss structures optimized for specific loading conditions. The cellular architecture determines the mechanical properties and density of these materials and can influence a wide range of other properties, e.g., acoustic, thermal, and biological properties. By combining optimized cellular architectures with high-performance metals and ceramics, several lightweight materials that exhibit strength and stiffness previously unachievable at low densities were recently demonstrated. This review introduces the field of architected materials; summarizes the most common fabrication methods, with an emphasis on additive manufacturing; and discusses recent progress in the development of architected materials. The review also discusses important applications, including lightweight structures, energy absorption, metamaterials, thermal management, and bioscaffolds.

  14. LDRD 149045 final report distinguishing documents.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Scott A.

    2010-09-01

    This LDRD 149045 final report describes work that Sandians Scott A. Mitchell, Randall Laviolette, Shawn Martin, Warren Davis, Cindy Philips and Danny Dunlavy performed in 2010. Prof. Afra Zomorodian provided insight. This was a small late-start LDRD. Several other ongoing efforts were leveraged, including the Networks Grand Challenge LDRD, and the Computational Topology CSRF project, and the some of the leveraged work is described here. We proposed a sentence mining technique that exploited both the distribution and the order of parts-of-speech (POS) in sentences in English language documents. The ultimate goal was to be able to discover 'call-to-action' framing documents hidden within a corpus of mostly expository documents, even if the documents were all on the same topic and used the same vocabulary. Using POS was novel. We also took a novel approach to analyzing POS. We used the hypothesis that English follows a dynamical system and the POS are trajectories from one state to another. We analyzed the sequences of POS using support vector machines and the cycles of POS using computational homology. We discovered that the POS were a very weak signal and did not support our hypothesis well. Our original goal appeared to be unobtainable with our original approach. We turned our attention to study an aspect of a more traditional approach to distinguishing documents. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) turns documents into bags-of-words then into mixture-model points. A distance function is used to cluster groups of points to discover relatedness between documents. We performed a geometric and algebraic analysis of the most popular distance functions and made some significant and surprising discoveries, described in a separate technical report.

  15. Using Airborne and Satellite Imagery to Distinguish and Map Black Mangrove

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reports the results of studies evaluating color-infrared (CIR) aerial photography, CIR aerial true digital imagery, and high resolution QuickBird multispectral satellite imagery for distinguishing and mapping black mangrove [Avicennia germinans (L.) L.] populations along the lower Texas g...

  16. LD Score regression distinguishes confounding from polygenicity in genome-wide association studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan K.; Loh, Po-Ru; Finucane, Hilary K.; Ripke, Stephan; Yang, Jian; Patterson, Nick; Daly, Mark J.; Price, Alkes L.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James T. R.; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A.; Lee, Phil; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A.; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A.; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A.; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E.; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B.; Black, Donald W.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Byerley, William; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Cairns, Murray J.; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V.; Chambert, Kimberly D.; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Chen, Ronald Y. L.; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric F. C.; Chong, Siow Ann; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crowley, James J.; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L.; Degenhardt, Franziska; del Favero, Jurgen; DeLisi, Lynn E.; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Durmishi, Naser; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Fanous, Ayman H.; Farrell, Martilias S.; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedl, Marion; Friedman, Joseph I.; Fromer, Menachem; Genovese, Giulio; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Golimbet, Vera; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; de Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Herms, Stefan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julià, Antonio; Kahn, René S.; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kennedy, James L.; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A.; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Kähler, Anna K.; Laurent, Claudine; Keong, Jimmy Lee Chee; Lee, S. Hong; Legge, Sophie E.; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Loughland, Carmel M.; Lubinski, Jan; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Macek, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J.; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T.; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murray, Robin M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; O'Dushlaine, Colm; O'Neill, F. Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N.; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Pato, Michele T.; Paunio, Tiina; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Perkins, Diana O.; Pietiläinen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J.; Powell, John; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A.; Richards, Alexander L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scolnick, Edward M.; Scott, Rodney J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Shi, Jianxin; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Silagadze, Teimuraz; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; Smoller, Jordan W.; So, Hon-Cheong; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Stahl, Eli A.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E.; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Söderman, Erik; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tooney, Paul A.; Tosato, Sarah; Veijola, Juha; Waddington, John; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, Dai; Wang, Qiang; Webb, Bradley T.; Weiser, Mark; Wildenauer, Dieter D.; Williams, Nigel M.; Williams, Stephanie; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Wong, Emily H. M.; Wormley, Brandon K.; Wu, Jing Qin; Xi, Hualin Simon; Zai, Clement C.; Zheng, Xuebin; Zimprich, Fritz; Wray, Naomi R.; Stefansson, Kari; Visscher, Peter M.; Adolfsson, Rolf; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Bramon, Elvira; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Børglum, Anders D.; Cichon, Sven; Darvasi, Ariel; Domenici, Enrico; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Esko, Tõnu; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; Hultman, Christina M.; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen V.; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kirov, George; Knight, Jo; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F.; Li, Qingqin S.; Liu, Jianjun; Malhotra, Anil K.; McCarroll, Steven A.; McQuillin, Andrew; Moran, Jennifer L.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Carlos N.; Petryshen, Tracey L.; Posthuma, Danielle; Rietschel, Marcella; Riley, Brien P.; Rujescu, Dan; Sham, Pak C.; Sklar, Pamela; St Clair, David; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Wendland, Jens R.; Werge, Thomas; Sullivan, Patrick F.; O'Donovan, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Both polygenicity (many small genetic effects) and confounding biases, such as cryptic relatedness and population stratification, can yield an inflated distribution of test statistics in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, current methods cannot distinguish between inflation from a true

  17. Unique proteomic signatures distinguish macrophages and dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Becker

    Full Text Available Monocytes differentiate into heterogeneous populations of tissue macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs that regulate inflammation and immunity. Identifying specific populations of myeloid cells in vivo is problematic, however, because only a limited number of proteins have been used to assign cellular phenotype. Using mass spectrometry and bone marrow-derived cells, we provided a global view of the proteomes of M-CSF-derived macrophages, classically and alternatively activated macrophages, and GM-CSF-derived DCs. Remarkably, the expression levels of half the plasma membrane proteins differed significantly in the various populations of cells derived in vitro. Moreover, the membrane proteomes of macrophages and DCs were more distinct than those of classically and alternatively activated macrophages. Hierarchical cluster and dual statistical analyses demonstrated that each cell type exhibited a robust proteomic signature that was unique. To interrogate the phenotype of myeloid cells in vivo, we subjected elicited peritoneal macrophages harvested from wild-type and GM-CSF-deficient mice to mass spectrometric and functional analysis. Unexpectedly, we found that peritoneal macrophages exhibited many features of the DCs generated in vitro. These findings demonstrate that global analysis of the membrane proteome can help define immune cell phenotypes in vivo.

  18. T-Cell Immunophenotyping Distinguishes Active From Latent Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Katrina M.; Whitworth, Hilary S.; Montamat-Sicotte, Damien J.; Grass, Lisa; Cooke, Graham S.; Kapembwa, Moses S.; Kon, Onn M.; Sampson, Robert D.; Taylor, Graham P.; Lalvani, Ajit

    2013-01-01

    Background. Changes in the phenotype and function of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in response to stage of infection may allow discrimination between active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection. Methods. A prospective comparison of M. tuberculosis-specific cellular immunity in subjects with active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection, with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. Polychromatic flow cytometry was used to measure CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subset phenotype and secretion of interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 2 (IL-2), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Results. Frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ cells secreting IFN-γ-only, TNF-α-only and dual IFN-γ/TNF-α were greater in active tuberculosis vs latent tuberculosis infection. All M. tuberculosis-specific CD4+ subsets, with the exception of IL-2-only cells, switched from central to effector memory phenotype in active tuberculosis vs latent tuberculosis infection, accompanied by a reduction in IL-7 receptor α (CD127) expression. The frequency of PPD-specific CD4+ TNF-α-only-secreting T cells with an effector phenotype accurately distinguished active tuberculosis from latent tuberculosis infection with an area under the curve of 0.99, substantially more discriminatory than measurement of function alone. Conclusions. Combined measurement of T-cell phenotype and function defines a highly discriminatory biomarker of tuberculosis disease activity. Unlocking the diagnostic and monitoring potential of this combined approach now requires validation in large-scale prospective studies. PMID:23966657

  19. Cellular autofluorescence imaging for early diagnosis of cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkeste, Karine; Deniset, Ariane; Lecart, Sandrine; Leveque-Fort, Sandrine; Fontaine-Aupart, Marie-Pierre; Ferlicot, Sophie; Eschwege, Pascal

    2005-08-01

    Urinary cytology is employed in diagnostic guidelines of bladder cancer in anatomo-pathological laboratories mostly for its ability to diagnose non detectable cancers using cystoscopy, but also because it is a non-invasive and non-constraining technique for a regular follow-up of the more exposed populations. The impossibility to detect such cancers is mainly due to their localization either in the bladder or in the upper urinary tract and the prostate. However, urinary cytology lacks sensitivity, especially for the detection of low grade low stage tumors due to inherent limitation of morphological criteria to distinguish low grade tumor cells from normal urothelial cells. For this purpose, we developed, in addition to urinary cytology, an original screening of these cytological slides by using spectrally-resolved and time-resolved fluorescence as a contrast factor, without changing any parameters in the cytological slide preparation. This method takes advantage of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser, continuously tunable in the spectral range 700-950 nm allowing the observation of most endogenous cellular chromophores by biphotonic excitation. A commercial confocal microscope was also used in the measurements allowing an excitation of the samples between 458 nm and 633 nm. We observed that the fluorescence emission is differentially distributed in normal and pathological urothelial cells. Spectral- and time-resolved measurements attested this difference over about one hundred cases which have been tested to confirm the high accuracy of this non-invasive technique.

  20. The New Cellular Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claman, Henry N.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the nature of the immune response and traces many of the discoveries that have led to the present state of knowledge in immunology. The new cellular immunology is directing its efforts toward improving health by proper manipulation of the immune mechanisms of the body. (JR)

  1. Electromagnetic cellular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Michal; Fields, Jeremy Z; Farhadi, Ashkan

    2011-05-01

    Chemical and electrical interaction within and between cells is well established. Just the opposite is true about cellular interactions via other physical fields. The most probable candidate for an other form of cellular interaction is the electromagnetic field. We review theories and experiments on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields generally, and if the cell-generated electromagnetic field can mediate cellular interactions. We do not limit here ourselves to specialized electro-excitable cells. Rather we describe physical processes that are of a more general nature and probably present in almost every type of living cell. The spectral range included is broad; from kHz to the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We show that there is a rather large number of theories on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields and discuss experimental evidence on electromagnetic cellular interactions in the modern scientific literature. Although small, it is continuously accumulating. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Interobserver Variability by Pathologists in the Distinction Between Cellular Fibroadenomas and Phyllodes Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Thomas J.; Acs, Geza; Argani, Pedram; Farshid, Gelareh; Gilcrease, Michael; Goldstein, Neal; Koerner, Frederick; Rowe, J. Jordi; Sanders, Melinda; Shah, Sejal S.; Reynolds, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Fibroepithelial lesions with cellular stroma are frequently termed cellular fibroadenomas although criteria for distinguishing them from a phyllodes tumor are vague and subjective. However, the clinical implications and surgical management for these 2 lesions may be different. We randomly selected 21 cases of fibroepithelial lesions sent in consultation to the senior author that were challenging to classify as cellular fibroadenoma or phyllodes tumor. One to 2 representative slides of each case along with patient age were sent to 10 pathologists who specialize in breast pathology. The World Health Organization criteria for phyllodes tumors and a diagnosis form were included with the study set. For the purposes of data reporting, fibroadenoma and cellular fibroadenoma are considered together. In only 2 cases was there uniform agreement as to whether the tumor represented a fibroadenoma or phyllodes tumor. Of the remaining 19 cases, if the diagnoses of fibroadenoma and benign phyllodes tumor were combined and separated from borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors, there was 100% agreement in 53% of cases and 90% agreement in 79% of cases. This study highlights the difficulty that exists in distinguishing some cellular fibroadenomas from phyllodes tumors even for pathologists who specialize in breast pathology. However, there appears to be considerable agreement when cellular fibroadenomas and benign phyllodes tumors are distinguished from borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors. Further studies are needed to determine if there is a clinically significant difference between cellular fibroadenomas and benign phyllodes tumors and how to better distinguish them from borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors. PMID:25161205

  3. Kevin M. McGuinness: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice is intended to recognize outstanding practitioners in psychology. Nominations are considered for psychologists working in a wide variety of institutional practice settings (e.g., schools, military, state hospital, Department of Veterans Affairs). Services provided to diverse client groups or patient populations, including but not limited to children/adolescents/adults/older adults, urban/rural/frontier populations, minority populations, and persons with serious mental illness, are considered. The 2014 recipient is Kevin M. McGuinness, for "broadening the public conception of professional psychology through institutional practice. McGuinness has distinguished himself through service with the U.S Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and academic institutions." McGuiness's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Radiopharmaceutical cellular uptake mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Cipriana; Rusu, V.

    1996-01-01

    Cellular radiopharmaceutical specificity depends mainly of the uptake mechanisms. Usually, this can be one of the classical membrane transport type (a passive or active transport, a receptor mediated one or a combination of them). It can also be an electrochemical gradient dependent membrane transport in relation with Nernst equation, as in case of 99m Tc MIBI, the representative molecule of a widely studied family tracers, with applications in cardiac and oncological scintigraphy. Another mechanism can be an ATP dependent active transport, that results in the most important 201 Tl inflow. 201 Tl inflow is also an example of multiple mechanisms involved in cellular ionic inflow. Over 30% of 201 Tl transport imply other ways, like Na + - K + - Cl - co-transport. For a given tracer, the mechanism may depend also on the cell type. In conclusion, knowledge of the radiotracer uptake mechanisms allows finding the 'ideal' radiotracer with high specificity for the tissue to be visualized. (authors)

  5. Molecular and Cellular Signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A small number of signaling pathways, no more than a dozen or so, form a control layer that is responsible for all signaling in and between cells of the human body. The signaling proteins belonging to the control layer determine what kinds of cells are made during development and how they function during adult life. Malfunctions in the proteins belonging to the control layer are responsible for a host of human diseases ranging from neurological disorders to cancers. Most drugs target components in the control layer, and difficulties in drug design are intimately related to the architecture of the control layer. Molecular and Cellular Signaling provides an introduction to molecular and cellular signaling in biological systems with an emphasis on the underlying physical principles. The text is aimed at upper-level undergraduates, graduate students and individuals in medicine and pharmacology interested in broadening their understanding of how cells regulate and coordinate their core activities and how diseases ...

  6. Nested cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasthoff, U.

    1985-07-01

    Cellular automata by definition consist of a finite or infinite number of cells, say of unit length, with each cell having the same transition function. These cells are usually considered as the smallest elements and so the space filled with these cells becomes discrete. Nevertheless, large pictures created by such cellular automata look very fractal. So we try to replace each cell by a couple of smaller cells, which have the same transition functions as the large ones. There are automata where this replacement does not destroy the macroscopic structure. In these cases this nesting process can be iterated. The paper contains large classes of automata with the above properties. In the case of one dimensional automata with two states and next neighbour interaction and a nesting function of the same type a complete classification is given. (author)

  7. Radiolabeled cellular blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, M.L.; Ezikowitz, M.D.; Hardeman, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains papers delivered by guest lectures and participants at the Advanced Study Institute's colloquium on Radiolabeled Cellular Blood Elements at Maratea, Italy on August 29, to September 9, 1982. The book includes chapters on basic cell physiology and critical reviews of data and experience in the preparation and use of radiolabeled cells, as well as reports on very recent developments, from a faculty that included experts on cell physiology in health and disease and on the technology of in vivo labeling

  8. Wavefront cellular learning automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradabadi, Behnaz; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes a new cellular learning automaton, called a wavefront cellular learning automaton (WCLA). The proposed WCLA has a set of learning automata mapped to a connected structure and uses this structure to propagate the state changes of the learning automata over the structure using waves. In the WCLA, after one learning automaton chooses its action, if this chosen action is different from the previous action, it can send a wave to its neighbors and activate them. Each neighbor receiving the wave is activated and must choose a new action. This structure for the WCLA is necessary in many dynamic areas such as social networks, computer networks, grid computing, and web mining. In this paper, we introduce the WCLA framework as an optimization tool with diffusion capability, study its behavior over time using ordinary differential equation solutions, and present its accuracy using expediency analysis. To show the superiority of the proposed WCLA, we compare the proposed method with some other types of cellular learning automata using two benchmark problems.

  9. Environment Aware Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented rise of mobile user demand over the years have led to an enormous growth of the energy consumption of wireless networks as well as the greenhouse gas emissions which are estimated currently to be around 70 million tons per year. This significant growth of energy consumption impels network companies to pay huge bills which represent around half of their operating expenditures. Therefore, many service providers, including mobile operators, are looking for new and modern green solutions to help reduce their expenses as well as the level of their CO2 emissions. Base stations are the most power greedy element in cellular networks: they drain around 80% of the total network energy consumption even during low traffic periods. Thus, there is a growing need to develop more energy-efficient techniques to enhance the green performance of future 4G/5G cellular networks. Due to the problem of traffic load fluctuations in cellular networks during different periods of the day and between different areas (shopping or business districts and residential areas), the base station sleeping strategy has been one of the main popular research topics in green communications. In this presentation, we present several practical green techniques that provide significant gains for mobile operators. Indeed, combined with the base station sleeping strategy, these techniques achieve not only a minimization of the fossil fuel consumption but also an enhancement of mobile operator profits. We start with an optimized cell planning method that considers varying spatial and temporal user densities. We then use the optimal transport theory in order to define the cell boundaries such that the network total transmit power is reduced. Afterwards, we exploit the features of the modern electrical grid, the smart grid, as a new tool of power management for cellular networks and we optimize the energy procurement from multiple energy retailers characterized by different prices and pollutant

  10. Involvement of Sib Proteins in the Regulation of Cellular Adhesion in Dictyostelium discoideum▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Cornillon, Sophie; Froquet, Romain; Cosson, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms ensuring cellular adhesion have been studied in detail in Dictyostelium amoebae, but little is known about the regulation of cellular adhesion in these cells. Here, we show that cellular adhesion is regulated in Dictyostelium, notably by the concentration of a cellular secreted factor accumulating in the medium. This constitutes a quorum-sensing mechanism allowing coordinated regulation of cellular adhesion in a Dictyostelium population. In order to understand the mechani...

  11. Distinguishability of Biological Material Using Ultraviolet Multi-Spectral Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P.C.; Heinen, R.J.; Rigdon, L.D.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Shokair, I.R.; Siragusa, G.R.; Tisone, G.C.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-14

    Recent interest in the detection and analysis of biological samples by spectroscopic methods has led to questions concerning the degree of distinguishability and biological variability of the ultraviolet (W) fluorescent spectra from such complex samples. We show that the degree of distinguishability of such spectra is readily determined numerically.

  12. Distinguishing attack on five-round Feistel networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Raddum, H

    2003-01-01

    Recently it was shown (by J. Patarin) how to distinguish a general five-round Feistel network from a random permutation using O(2/sup 3n/2/) chosen plaintexts or O(2/sup 7n/4/) known plaintexts. The present authors report improvement of these results and a distinguisher is presented which uses ro...

  13. Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2014 recipient of the Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award is Mary E. Kite. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Identical Distinguishable Gas Particles in the Real World

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    indistinguishable particles or of nonidentical distinguishable particles, it requires more care to identify a gas of identical distinguishable particles. In undergraduate physics courses treating either quantum me- chanics or classical statistical mechanics, students are introduced to the concept of a gas of particles which may be ...

  15. Hemosiderin laden macrophages and hemosiderin within follicular cells distinguish benign follicular lesions from follicular neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Reema; Mohanty, Sambit K; Khan, Ashraf; Fischer, Andrew H

    2009-01-19

    Published criteria to distinguish benign colloid nodules from follicular neoplasms emphasize only three interdependent features: size of follicles, amount of colloid, and cellularity. There is a need for the validation of other independent criteria. This study quantified the significance of cystic change, defined as presence of macrophages, and the presence of hemosiderin in either the macrophages or follicular cells. The cohort consisted of 165 patients with fine needle aspiration (FNA) and histologic follow-up of either goiter (101), follicular adenoma (47), or follicular carcinoma (17). Papillary thyroid carcinomas and Hürthle cell neoplasms were excluded from the cohort, because these categories are known to show cystic change and hemosiderin. FNAs were reviewed blindly with the most cellular slide scored for the presence of macrophages and/or hemosiderin. Hemosiderin within macrophages were seen in 67% (68 of 101) of the goiters and only 6% (four of 64) of follicular neoplasms (Phemosiderin in macrophages were adenomas. Three of these four had equivocal features of a benign colloid nodule histologically. None of the 17 follicular carcinomas had hemosiderin in macrophages (Phemosiderin also strongly distinguished goiters from neoplasms (83% vs 17%) but appears less useful as a criterion since macrophages were present within 3 of 17 follicular carcinomas. Hemosiderin within follicular epithelial cells was present in 18% (18 of 101) of goiters, whereas none of the 64 follicular neoplasms had intraepithelial hemosiderin (Phemosiderin virtually excludes a clinically significant follicular neoplasm.

  16. Evaluation of Structural Cellular Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. A.; Zwissler, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary design information presented. First report discusses state of structural-cellular-glass programs as of June 1979. Second report gives further details of program to develop improved cellular glasses and to characterize properties of glasses and commercially available materials.

  17. Cellular fibroadenoma on Core needle biopsy: management recommendations for the radiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Teresa; Jaffer, Shabnam; Szabo, Janet R; Sonnenblick, Emily B; Margolies, Laurie R

    2016-01-01

    Cellular fibroadenomas (CFA) are difficult to distinguish from phyllodes tumor (PT) at biopsy. This study's purpose was to determine what CFA characteristics were associated with recommendations to follow-up or excise and if the current algorithm was correct. Databases from 2002 to 2014 were reviewed. Mass characteristics and post biopsy recommendations were recorded. 81 CFAs were diagnosed; 19 cellular and 62 with slightly cellular stroma. 21 masses were surgically excised with 2 PTs diagnosed. Larger mass size and increased histologic cellularity were associated with excision recommendation, but only clinical growth was associated with PT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Review of cellular mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning

    2017-06-01

    Living cells and tissues experience physical forces and chemical stimuli in the human body. The process of converting mechanical forces into biochemical activities and gene expression is mechanochemical transduction or mechanotransduction. Significant advances have been made in understanding mechanotransduction at the cellular and molecular levels over the last two decades. However, major challenges remain in elucidating how a living cell integrates signals from mechanotransduction with chemical signals to regulate gene expression and to generate coherent biological responses in living tissues in physiological conditions and diseases.

  19. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds...... of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation....

  20. Cellular mechanics and motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénon, Sylvie; Sykes, Cécile

    2015-10-01

    The term motility defines the movement of a living organism. One widely known example is the motility of sperm cells, or the one of flagellar bacteria. The propulsive element of such organisms is a cilium(or flagellum) that beats. Although cells in our tissues do not have a flagellum in general, they are still able to move, as we will discover in this chapter. In fact, in both cases of movement, with or without a flagellum, cell motility is due to a dynamic re-arrangement of polymers inside the cell. Let us first have a closer look at the propulsion mechanism in the case of a flagellum or a cilium, which is the best known, but also the simplest, and which will help us to define the hydrodynamic general conditions of cell movement. A flagellum is sustained by cellular polymers arranged in semi-flexible bundles and flagellar beating generates cell displacement. These polymers or filaments are part of the cellular skeleton, or "cytoskeleton", which is, in this case, external to the cellular main body of the organism. In fact, bacteria move in a hydrodynamic regime in which viscosity dominates over inertia. The system is thus in a hydrodynamic regime of low Reynolds number (Box 5.1), which is nearly exclusively the case in all cell movements. Bacteria and their propulsion mode by flagella beating are our unicellular ancestors 3.5 billion years ago. Since then, we have evolved to form pluricellular organisms. However, to keep the ability of displacement, to heal our wounds for example, our cells lost their flagellum, since it was not optimal in a dense cell environment: cells are too close to each other to leave enough space for the flagella to accomplish propulsion. The cytoskeleton thus developed inside the cell body to ensure cell shape changes and movement, and also mechanical strength within a tissue. The cytoskeleton of our cells, like the polymers or filaments that sustain the flagellum, is also composed of semi-flexible filaments arranged in bundles, and also in

  1. Distinguishability of countable quantum states and von Neumann lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakubo, Ryûitirô; Koike, Tatsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The condition for distinguishability of a countably infinite number of pure states by a single measurement is given. Distinguishability is to be understood as the possibility of an unambiguous measurement. For a finite number of states, it is known that the necessary and sufficient condition of distinguishability is that the states are linearly independent. For an infinite number of states, several natural classes of distinguishability can be defined. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for a system of pure states to be distinguishable. It turns out that each level of distinguishability naturally corresponds to one of the generalizations of linear independence to families of infinite vectors. As an important example, we apply the general theory to von Neumann’s lattice, a subsystem of coherent states which corresponds to a lattice in the classical phase space. We prove that the condition for distinguishability is that the area of the fundamental region of the lattice is greater than the Planck constant, and also find subtle behavior on the threshold. These facts reveal the measurement theoretical meaning of the Planck constant and give a justification for the interpretation that it is the smallest unit of area in the phase space. The cases of uncountably many states and of mixed states are also discussed. (paper)

  2. Distinguishing the Unique Neuropathological Profile of Blast Polytrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Brad Hubbard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury sustained after blast exposure (blast-induced TBI has recently been documented as a growing issue for military personnel. Incidence of injury to organs such as the lungs has decreased, though current epidemiology still causes a great public health burden. In addition, unprotected civilians sustain primary blast lung injury (PBLI at alarming rates. Often, mild-to-moderate cases of PBLI are survivable with medical intervention, which creates a growing population of survivors of blast-induced polytrauma (BPT with symptoms from blast-induced mild TBI (mTBI. Currently, there is a lack of preclinical models simulating BPT, which is crucial to identifying unique injury mechanisms of BPT and its management. To meet this need, our group characterized a rodent model of BPT and compared results to a blast-induced mTBI model. Open field (OF performance trials were performed on rodents at 7 days after injury. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate cellular outcome at day seven following BPT. Levels of reactive astrocytes (GFAP, apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3 expression, and vascular damage (SMI-71 were significantly elevated in BPT compared to blast-induced mTBI. Downstream markers of hypoxia (HIF-1α and VEGF were higher only after BPT. This study highlights the need for unique therapeutics and prehospital management when handling BPT.

  3. Cellular responses to environmental DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the conference entitled Cellular Responses to Environmental DNA Damage held in Banff,Alberta December 1--6, 1991. The conference addresses various aspects of DNA repair in sessions titled DNA repair; Basic Mechanisms; Lesions; Systems; Inducible Responses; Mutagenesis; Human Population Response Heterogeneity; Intragenomic DNA Repair Heterogeneity; DNA Repair Gene Cloning; Aging; Human Genetic Disease; and Carcinogenesis. Individual papers are represented as abstracts of about one page in length.

  4. Cellular image classification

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xiang; Lin, Feng

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces new techniques for cellular image feature extraction, pattern recognition and classification. The authors use the antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in patient serum as the subjects and the Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) technique as the imaging protocol to illustrate the applications of the described methods. Throughout the book, the authors provide evaluations for the proposed methods on two publicly available human epithelial (HEp-2) cell datasets: ICPR2012 dataset from the ICPR'12 HEp-2 cell classification contest and ICIP2013 training dataset from the ICIP'13 Competition on cells classification by fluorescent image analysis. First, the reading of imaging results is significantly influenced by one’s qualification and reading systems, causing high intra- and inter-laboratory variance. The authors present a low-order LP21 fiber mode for optical single cell manipulation and imaging staining patterns of HEp-2 cells. A focused four-lobed mode distribution is stable and effective in optical...

  5. Cellular-scale hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abkarian, Manouk [Laboratoire des Colloides, Verres et Nanomateriaux, Universite de Montpellier, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Faivre, Magalie [CEA-LETI, Division of Technology for Biology and Health, 17, Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Horton, Renita; Stone, Howard A [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Smistrup, Kristian [MIC, Department of Micro and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Best-Popescu, Catherine A [Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Microfluidic tools are providing many new insights into the chemical, physical and physicochemical responses of cells. Both suspension-level and single-cell measurements have been studied. We review our studies of these kinds of problems for red blood cells with particular focus on the shapes of individual cells in confined geometries, the development and use of a 'differential manometer' for evaluating the mechanical response of individual cells or other objects flowing in confined geometries, and the cross-streamline drift of cells that pass through a constriction. In particular, we show how fluid mechanical effects on suspended cells can be studied systematically in small devices, and how these features can be exploited to develop methods for characterizing physicochemical responses and possibly for the diagnosis of cellular-scale changes to environmental factors.

  6. Cellular based cancer vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Met, Ö; Svane, I M

    2012-01-01

    -associated antigens introduced to dendritic cells (DCs) generated in vitro. This may in part result from suboptimal maturation of DCs leading to insufficient production of IL-12, a key driver of cellular immunity. Therefore, tremendous efforts have been put into the design of maturation cocktails that are able...... of tolerogenic molecules and activation-induced dendritic cell death should be avoided. Thus, compounds such as IFN-γ may initially induce immunity but later on tolerance. Maturation with PGE(2) obviously promotes migration via expression of CCR7 but on the down side PGE(2) limits the production of IL-12...... to transiently affect in vitro migration via autocrine receptor-mediated endocytosis of CCR7. In the current review, we discuss optimal design of DC maturation focused on pre-clinical as well as clinical results from standard and polarized dendritic cell based cancer vaccines....

  7. Rapid Methods to Distinguish Heterodera schachtii from Heterodera glycines Using PCR Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung Rai Ko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop rapid methods for distinguishing between Heterodera schachtii and H. glycines detected from chinese cabbage fields of highland in Gangwon, Korea. To do this, we performed PCR-RFLP and PCR with the primers set developed in this study for GC147, GC408 and PM001 population, H. schachtii, and YS224, DA142 and BC115 population, H. glycines. Eight restriction enzymes generated RFLP profiles of mtDNA COI region for populations of H. schachtii and H. glycines, repectively. As a result, treatment of two restriction enzymes, RsaI and HinfI, were allowed to distinguish H. schachtii from H. glycines based on the differences of DNA band patterns. The primer set, #JBS1, #JBG1 and #JB3R, amplified specific fragments with 277 and 339 bp of H. schachtii, 339 bp of H. glycines, respectively, while it did not amplify fragments from three root-knot nematodes and two root-lesion nematodes. Thus, the primer set developed in this study could be a good method, which is used to distinguish between H. schachtii and H. glycines.

  8. Evidence supporting need satisfaction and frustration as two distinguishable constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Ylenio; Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Manuel; Sicilia, Alvaro

    2018-02-01

    This paper aims to (1) investigate whether psychological need satisfaction and frustration are distinguishable constructs or part of a single continuum, and (2) to develop and validate the Spanish version of the Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale (NSFS). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation models (ESEM) were tested using three samples ( N total = 959). In all samples, a CFA model specifying satisfaction and frustration of each psychological need as distinguishable constructs fit the data better than models specifying them as part of a continuum, even after including method corrections (CFA) or cross-loadings (ESEM). Scale score reliabilities were adequate only when the satisfaction and frustration of each need were treated as distinguishable constructs. The paper provides strong support for specifying need satisfaction and frustration as distinguishable but correlated constructs, as well as adequate evidence of dimensionality, reliability and criterion validity for the Spanish version of the NSFS.

  9. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article announces the 2007 recipient of the Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Baron Perlman. A brief biography, highlighting areas of special focus in Perlman's work, is provided.

  10. Development of children's ability to distinguish sarcasm and verbal irony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenwright, Melanie; Pexman, Penny M

    2010-03-01

    Adults distinguish between ironic remarks directed at targets (sarcasm) and ironic remarks not directed at specific targets. We investigated the development of children's appreciation for this distinction by presenting these speech acts to 71 five- to six-year-olds and 71 nine- to ten-year-olds. Five- to six-year-olds were beginning to understand the non-literal meanings of sarcastic speakers and ironic speakers but did not distinguish ironic and sarcastic speakers' intentions. Nine- to ten-year-olds were more accurate at understanding sarcastic and ironic speakers and they distinguished these speakers' intentions, rating sarcastic criticisms as more 'mean' than ironic criticisms. These results show that children can determine the non-literal meanings of sarcasm and irony by six years of age but do not distinguish the pragmatic purposes of these speech acts until later in middle childhood.

  11. Organic Milk Quality in the Netherlands : Distinguishable from conventional milk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers-Brands, A.J.T.M.; Burgt, van der G.J.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated possible positive interactions between organic animal production and, particularly, and various vitamins. As possible distinguishing quality parameters for organic milk, the differences between organic and conventional milk in Netherlands for fatty acid composition and

  12. Identical Distinguishable Gas Particles in the Real World

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    fuzzy quantum particles.' In this case, the overlap of their wavefunctions during collisional mixing makes it impos- sible to distinguish individual particles. Any gas of identical quantum particles will necessarily be indistinguishable, even if it.

  13. Entropic Lower Bound for Distinguishability of Quantum States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungho Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For a system randomly prepared in a number of quantum states, we present a lower bound for the distinguishability of the quantum states, that is, the success probability of determining the states in the form of entropy. When the states are all pure, acquiring the entropic lower bound requires only the density operator and the number of the possible states. This entropic bound shows a relation between the von Neumann entropy and the distinguishability.

  14. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0168 TITLE: Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jackilen...Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0168 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...overexpression, lipid accumulation, lipid oxidation, and tumor aggressiveness will be explored using metabolomics. Plan: Employing a cross-sectional

  15. Statistical mechanics of cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, S.

    1983-01-01

    Cellular automata are used as simple mathematical models to investigate self-organization in statistical mechanics. A detailed analysis is given of ''elementary'' cellular automata consisting of a sequence of sites with values 0 or 1 on a line, with each site evolving deterministically in discrete time steps according to p definite rules involving the values of its nearest neighbors. With simple initial configurations, the cellular automata either tend to homogeneous states, or generate self-similar patterns with fractal dimensions approx. =1.59 or approx. =1.69. With ''random'' initial configurations, the irreversible character of the cellular automaton evolution leads to several self-organization phenomena. Statistical properties of the structures generated are found to lie in two universality classes, independent of the details of the initial state or the cellular automaton rules. More complicated cellular automata are briefly considered, and connections with dynamical systems theory and the formal theory of computation are discussed

  16. Agent-Based Modeling of Mitochondria Links Sub-Cellular Dynamics to Cellular Homeostasis and Heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Dalmasso

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are semi-autonomous organelles that supply energy for cellular biochemistry through oxidative phosphorylation. Within a cell, hundreds of mobile mitochondria undergo fusion and fission events to form a dynamic network. These morphological and mobility dynamics are essential for maintaining mitochondrial functional homeostasis, and alterations both impact and reflect cellular stress states. Mitochondrial homeostasis is further dependent on production (biogenesis and the removal of damaged mitochondria by selective autophagy (mitophagy. While mitochondrial function, dynamics, biogenesis and mitophagy are highly-integrated processes, it is not fully understood how systemic control in the cell is established to maintain homeostasis, or respond to bioenergetic demands. Here we used agent-based modeling (ABM to integrate molecular and imaging knowledge sets, and simulate population dynamics of mitochondria and their response to environmental energy demand. Using high-dimensional parameter searches we integrated experimentally-measured rates of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy, and using sensitivity analysis we identified parameter influences on population homeostasis. By studying the dynamics of cellular subpopulations with distinct mitochondrial masses, our approach uncovered system properties of mitochondrial populations: (1 mitochondrial fusion and fission activities rapidly establish mitochondrial sub-population homeostasis, and total cellular levels of mitochondria alter fusion and fission activities and subpopulation distributions; (2 restricting the directionality of mitochondrial mobility does not alter morphology subpopulation distributions, but increases network transmission dynamics; and (3 maintaining mitochondrial mass homeostasis and responding to bioenergetic stress requires the integration of mitochondrial dynamics with the cellular bioenergetic state. Finally, (4 our model suggests sources of, and stress conditions

  17. A Single-Cell Gene-Expression Profile Reveals Inter-Cellular Heterogeneity within Human Monocyte Subsets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne T Gren

    Full Text Available Human monocytes are a heterogeneous cell population classified into three different subsets: Classical CD14++CD16-, intermediate CD14++CD16+, and non-classical CD14+CD16++ monocytes. These subsets are distinguished by their differential expression of CD14 and CD16, and unique gene expression profile. So far, the variation in inter-cellular gene expression within the monocyte subsets is largely unknown. In this study, the cellular variation within each human monocyte subset from a single healthy donor was described by using a novel single-cell PCR gene-expression analysis tool. We investigated 86 different genes mainly encoding cell surface markers, and proteins involved in immune regulation. Within the three human monocyte subsets, our descriptive findings show multimodal expression of key immune response genes, such as CD40, NFⱪB1, RELA, TLR4, TLR8 and TLR9. Furthermore, we discovered one subgroup of cells within the classical monocytes, which showed alterations of 22 genes e.g. IRF8, CD40, CSF1R, NFⱪB1, RELA and TNF. Additionally one subgroup within the intermediate and non-classical monocytes also displayed distinct gene signatures by altered expression of 8 and 6 genes, respectively. Hence the three monocyte subsets can be further subdivided according to activation status and differentiation, independently of the traditional classification based on cell surface markers. Demonstrating the use and the ability to discover cell heterogeneity within defined populations of human monocytes is of great importance, and can be useful in unravelling inter-cellular variation in leukocyte populations, identifying subpopulations involved in disease pathogenesis and help tailor new therapies.

  18. Cellular Mechanisms of Somatic Stem Cell Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yunjoon

    2014-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity rely on rare populations of somatic stem cells endowed with the potential to self-renew and differentiate. During aging, many tissues show a decline in regenerative potential coupled with a loss of stem cell function. Cells including somatic stem cells have evolved a series of checks and balances to sense and repair cellular damage to maximize tissue function. However, during aging the mechanisms that protect normal cell function begin to fail. In this review, we will discuss how common cellular mechanisms that maintain tissue fidelity and organismal lifespan impact somatic stem cell function. We will highlight context-dependent changes and commonalities that define aging, by focusing on three age-sensitive stem cell compartments: blood, neural, and muscle. Understanding the interaction between extrinsic regulators and intrinsic effectors that operate within different stem cell compartments is likely to have important implications for identifying strategies to improve health span and treat age-related degenerative diseases. PMID:24439814

  19. Computational modelling of cellular level metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvetti, D; Heino, J; Somersalo, E

    2008-01-01

    The steady and stationary state inverse problems consist of estimating the reaction and transport fluxes, blood concentrations and possibly the rates of change of some of the concentrations based on data which are often scarce noisy and sampled over a population. The Bayesian framework provides a natural setting for the solution of this inverse problem, because a priori knowledge about the system itself and the unknown reaction fluxes and transport rates can compensate for the insufficiency of measured data, provided that the computational costs do not become prohibitive. This article identifies the computational challenges which have to be met when analyzing the steady and stationary states of multicompartment model for cellular metabolism and suggest stable and efficient ways to handle the computations. The outline of a computational tool based on the Bayesian paradigm for the simulation and analysis of complex cellular metabolic systems is also presented

  20. Designing beauty the art of cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, Genaro

    2016-01-01

    This fascinating, colourful book offers in-depth insights and first-hand working experiences in the production of art works, using simple computational models with rich morphological behaviour, at the edge of mathematics, computer science, physics and biology. It organically combines ground breaking scientific discoveries in the theory of computation and complex systems with artistic representations of the research results. In this appealing book mathematicians, computer scientists, physicists, and engineers brought together marvelous and esoteric patterns generated by cellular automata, which are arrays of simple machines with complex behavior. Configurations produced by cellular automata uncover mechanics of dynamic patterns formation, their propagation and interaction in natural systems: heart pacemaker, bacterial membrane proteins, chemical rectors, water permeation in soil, compressed gas, cell division, population dynamics, reaction-diffusion media and self-organisation. The book inspires artists to tak...

  1. MSAT and cellular hybrid networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowsky, Patrick W., II

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation is developing both the Communications Ground Segment and the Series 1000 Mobile Phone for American Mobile Satellite Corporation's (AMSC's) Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system. The success of the voice services portion of this system depends, to some extent, upon the interoperability of the cellular network and the satellite communication circuit switched communication channels. This paper will describe the set of user-selectable cellular interoperable modes (cellular first/satellite second, etc.) provided by the Mobile Phone and described how they are implemented with the ground segment. Topics including roaming registration and cellular-to-satellite 'seamless' call handoff will be discussed, along with the relevant Interim Standard IS-41 Revision B Cellular Radiotelecommunications Intersystem Operations and IOS-553 Mobile Station - Land Station Compatibility Specification.

  2. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Howard; Venkatesan, Sivarama

    2012-01-01

    As the theoretical foundations of multiple-antenna techniques evolve and as these multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques become essential for providing high data rates in wireless systems, there is a growing need to understand the performance limits of MIMO in practical networks. To address this need, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks presents a systematic description of MIMO technology classes and a framework for MIMO system design that takes into account the essential physical-layer features of practical cellular networks. In contrast to works that focus on the theoretical performance of abstract MIMO channels, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks emphasizes the practical performance of realistic MIMO systems. A unified set of system simulation results highlights relative performance gains of different MIMO techniques and provides insights into how best to use multiple antennas in cellular networks under various conditions. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks describes single-user,...

  3. AMPK-sensitive cellular transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dërmaku-Sopjani, Miribane; Abazi, Sokol; Faggio, Caterina; Kolgeci, Jehona; Sopjani, Mentor

    2014-03-01

    The energy sensing AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates cellular and whole-body energy balance through stimulating catabolic ATP-generating and suppressing anabolic ATP-consuming pathways thereby helping cells survive during energy depletion. The kinase has previously been reported to be either directly or indirectly involved in the regulation of several carriers, channels and pumps of high significance in cellular physiology. Thus AMPK provides a necessary link between cellular energy metabolism and cellular transport activity. Better understanding of the AMPK role in cellular transport offers a potential for improved therapies in various human diseases and disorders. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the role and function of AMPK in transport regulation under physiological and pathological states.

  4. Cellular automata analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hadeler, Karl-Peter

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on a coherent representation of the main approaches to analyze the dynamics of cellular automata. Cellular automata are an inevitable tool in mathematical modeling. In contrast to classical modeling approaches as partial differential equations, cellular automata are straightforward to simulate but hard to analyze. In this book we present a review of approaches and theories that allow the reader to understand the behavior of cellular automata beyond simulations. The first part consists of an introduction of cellular automata on Cayley graphs, and their characterization via the fundamental Cutis-Hedlund-Lyndon theorems in the context of different topological concepts (Cantor, Besicovitch and Weyl topology). The second part focuses on classification results: What classification follows from topological concepts (Hurley classification), Lyapunov stability (Gilman classification), and the theory of formal languages and grammars (Kůrka classification). These classifications suggest to cluster cel...

  5. Mapping groundwater quality distinguishing geogenic and anthropogenic contribution using NBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Ducci, Daniela; Condesso de Melo, Maria Teresa; Parrone, Daniele; Sellerino, Mariangela; Ghergo, Stefano; Oliveira, Joana; Ribeiro, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Groundwaters are threatened by anthropic activities and pollution is interesting a large number of aquifers worldwide. Qualitative and quantitative monitoring is required to assess the status and track its evolution in time and space especially where anthropic pressures are stronger. Up to now, groundwater quality mapping has been performed separately from the assessment of its natural status, i.e. the definition of the natural background level of a particular element in a particular area or groundwater body. The natural background level (NBL) of a substance or element allows to distinguish anthropogenic pollution from contamination of natural origin in a population of groundwater samples. NBLs are the result of different atmospheric, geological, chemical and biological interaction processes during groundwater infiltration and circulation. There is an increasing need for the water managers to have sound indications on good quality groundwater exploitation. Indeed the extension of a groundwater body is often very large, in the order of tens or hundreds of square km. How to select a proper location for good quality groundwater abstraction is often limited to a question of facility for drilling (access, roads, authorizations, etc.) or at the most related to quantitative aspects driven by geophysical exploration (the most promising from a transmissibility point of view). So how to give indications to the administrators and water managers about the exploitation of good quality drinking water? In the case of anthropic contamination, how to define which area is to be restored and to which threshold (e.g. background level) should the concentration be lowered through the restoration measures? In the framework of a common project between research institutions in Italy (funded by CNR) and Portugal (funded by FCT), our objective is to establish a methodology aiming at merging together 1) the evaluation of NBL and 2) the need to take into account the drinking water standards

  6. Hemosiderin laden macrophages and hemosiderin within follicular cells distinguish benign follicular lesions from follicular neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar Reema

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Published criteria to distinguish benign colloid nodules from follicular neoplasms emphasize only three interdependent features: size of follicles, amount of colloid, and cellularity. There is a need for the validation of other independent criteria. Methods: This study quantified the significance of cystic change, defined as presence of macrophages, and the presence of hemosiderin in either the macrophages or follicular cells. The cohort consisted of 165 patients with fine needle aspiration (FNA and histologic follow-up of either goiter (101, follicular adenoma (47, or follicular carcinoma (17. Papillary thyroid carcinomas and Hürthle cell neoplasms were excluded from the cohort, because these categories are known to show cystic change and hemosiderin. FNAs were reviewed blindly with the most cellular slide scored for the presence of macrophages and/or hemosiderin. Results: Hemosiderin within macrophages were seen in 67% (68 of 101 of the goiters and only 6% (four of 64 of follicular neoplasms ( P < .0001. All four follicular neoplasms with hemosiderin in macrophages were adenomas. Three of these four had equivocal features of a benign colloid nodule histologically. None of the 17 follicular carcinomas had hemosiderin in macrophages ( P < .12. Macrophages without hemosiderin also strongly distinguished goiters from neoplasms (83% vs 17% but appears less useful as a criterion since macrophages were present within 3 of 17 follicular carcinomas. Hemosiderin within follicular epithelial cells was present in 18% (18 of 101 of goiters, whereas none of the 64 follicular neoplasms had intraepithelial hemosiderin ( P < .0003. Conclusions: If papillary thyroid carcinoma and Hürthle cell neoplasm are ruled out, our findings indicate that the presence of hemosiderin virtually excludes a clinically significant follicular neoplasm.

  7. Identification and characterization of a RAPD-PCR marker for distinguishing Asian and North American gypsy moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.J. Garner; J.M. Slavicek

    1996-01-01

    The recent introduction of the Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) into North America has necessitated the development of genetic markers to distinguish Asian moths from the established North American population, which originated in Europe. We used RAPD-PCR to identify a DNA length polymorphism that is diagnostic for the two moth strains. The...

  8. Syncope in Brugada syndrome: prevalence, clinical significance, and clues from history taking to distinguish arrhythmic from nonarrhythmic causes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Nordkamp, Louise R. A.; Vink, Arja S.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; de Lange, Freek J.; de Jong, Jonas S. S. G.; Wieling, Wouter; van Dijk, Nynke; Tan, Hanno L.

    2015-01-01

    Syncope in Brugada syndrome (BrS) patients is a sign of increased risk for sudden cardiac death and usually is ascribed to cardiac arrhythmias. However, syncope often occurs in the general population, mostly from nonarrhythmic causes (eg, reflex syncope). The purpose of this study was to distinguish

  9. A cellular automata intraurban model with prices and income-differentiated actors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furtado, B.A.; Ettema, D.F.; Ruiz, R.M.; Hurkens, J.; Delden, H. van

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an intraurban cellular automata model that is an extension to White and Engelen’s pioneering model. The paper’s main contribution is to distinguish between agglomerative eff ects, determined by the attraction of the neighbourhood, and disagglomerative eff ects, driven by land

  10. Distinguishing between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos withtwo-particle interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Thomas D.

    2006-03-02

    Two-particle interferometry, a second-order interferenceeffect, is explored as another possible tool to distinguish betweenmassive Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. A simple theoretical framework isdiscussed in the context of several gedanken experiments. The method canin principle provide both the mass scale and the quantum nature of theneutrino for a certain class of incoherent left-handed sourcecurrents.

  11. 29 CFR 794.107 - “Establishment” distinguished.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the definition of “enterprise” in section 3(r), as set forth in § 794.106, that the activities of the... § 794.107 “Establishment” distinguished. The “enterprise” referred to in the section 7(b)(3) exemption... “an entire business or enterprise” which may include several separate places of business. (See...

  12. Distinguishing between Exogenous and Endogenous Intent-to-Transfer Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris A.; Karoly, Paul; Martin, Jessica L.; Benshoff, Annja

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we distinguish between 2 types of students who intend to transfer and graduate from another institution. During the fall of 2006, 507 first-semester students attending a state university completed a survey. Seventy-six percent of the students indicated that they planned on graduating from the University (intent-to-persist), 16%…

  13. Investigation of soil salinity to distinguish boundary line between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gradual drying of Urmia Lake has left vast saline areas all around it, increasing the risk of salinization of agricultural lands next to the Lake. The current research was aimed to predict soil salinity and distinguish the boundary line between saline and agricultural lands by taking in to account the spatial variability of soil salinity ...

  14. Distinguishing method for contamination/radio-activation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Takuji; Kato, Keiichiro; Koda, Satoshi.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of distinguishing the contamination/radio-activation of radioactive wastes used in processing wastes generated upon dismantling of exhausted nuclear reactors. Especially, contaminated/radio-activation is distinguished for wastes having openings such as pipes and valves, by utilizing scattering of γ-rays or γ-ray to β-ray ratio. That is, ratio of scattered γ-rays and direct γ-rays or ratio of β-rays and γ-rays from radioactive wastes are measured and compared by a radiation detector, to distinguish whether the radioactive wastes contaminated materials or radio-activated materials. For example, when an object to be measured having an opening is contaminated at the inner side, the radiation detector facing to the opening mainly detects high direct γ-rays emitted from the object to be measured while a radiation detector not facing the opening mainly detects high scattered γ-rays relatively. On the other hand, when the object is a radio-activated material, any of the detectors detect scattered γ-rays, so that they can be distinguished by these ratios. (I.S.)

  15. Distinguishing between Realistic and Fantastical Figures in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Telli; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Children in the United States come to distinguish historical from fictional story figures between the ages of 3 and 5 years, guided by the plausibility of the story events surrounding the figure (Corriveau, Kim, Schwalen, & Harris, 2009; Woolley & Cox, 2007). However, U.S. children vary in their reactions to stories that include…

  16. Metabolic markers as possible diagnostic tools to distinguish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No metabolic markers could distinguish between gram positive and gram negative septicemia. α-Amino-adipic acid, citramalic acid and xanthurenic acid, produced only by bacteria, show promise. Alanine and glycine increased significantly over 24 h and can be used as diagnostic markers and perhaps as markers of ...

  17. Studies to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A variety of techniques have been described to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution of water. F-RNA (male-specific) coliphages have been classified into four sero-groups and evidence has been presented that two of these sero-groups are specific for human excreta and the other two for animal excreta.

  18. Cancer Prevention: Distinguishing Strength of Evidence from Strength of Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett S. Kramer, MD, MPH, Associate Director for Disease Prevention and Director of the Office of Medical Applications of Research in the Office of Disease Prevention, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, presented "Cancer Prevention: Distinguishing Strength of Evidence from Strength of Opinion".

  19. DMBT1 expression distinguishes anorectal from cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmke, Burkhard Maria; Renner, Marcus; Poustka, Annemarie

    2009-01-01

    or with melanocytic naevi. While AMs are clearly distinguished from CM by displaying few BRAF mutations, they are commonly indistinguishable from CM at the level of gene expression. The aim was to carry out expression analyses of classical immunohistochemical markers and of the protein deleted in malignant brain...

  20. Ability to distinguish whisky (uisge beatha) from brandy (cognac).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, E J; Campbell, D M; Roberts, R S

    To assess ability to distinguish between first rate malt whisky and brandy and between different brands of each. Crossover with two sessions of 12 blindfold tastings of two whiskies and two brandies before and after supper, repeated not more than seven days later. Dundas, Ontario. 4 volunteers aged 50-68 years, all moderate drinkers of alcohol and members of a wine club. Proportion of samples correctly identified (whisky v brandy) and, of those, the proportion of brands correctly identified. Only one participant produced irrefutable statistical evidence (P < 0.0001) of being able to distinguish between whisky and brandy, correctly identifying 50/51 (98%) samples. Two participants achieved some success in identification (72%, P = 0.0031 and 65% P = 0.031). The fourth participant's responses reflected pure guesswork. Brandy was no easier to identify than whisky (P = 0.84). The participant who was best able to distinguish between whisky and brandy was also best able to identify correctly the brand of whisky (100%, P < 0.0001). Despite the fact that not all participants completed the full number of tastings the results show that some participants could distinguish neither between malt whisky and brandy nor between different brands of whisky and brandy. However, the success of one participant shows that "it can be done" and that his whisky specific ability is acquired not innate.

  1. Kelly D. Brownell: Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of Kelly D. Brownwell, winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology (2012). He won the award for outstanding contributions to our understanding of the etiology and management of obesity and the crisis it poses for the modern world. A seminal thinker in…

  2. Metabolic markers as possible diagnostic tools to distinguish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-20

    Dec 20, 2010 ... In conclusion, (in PDF file it is conclusively) metabolites can be used to diagnose septicemia and possibly its progression, but not to distinguish between gram positive and gram negative septicemia. Key words: Septicaemia, baboon, Gram negative, Gram positive, metabolic marker. INTRODUCTION.

  3. Studies to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human enteric viral infections are considered to be predominantly associated with human wastes, as opposed to animal wastes, and a distinction between these has benefits for water quality control and risk assessment. A variety of techniques have been described to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

  4. Plasma sarcosine does not distinguish early and advanced stages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Diagnosis of prostate cancer by prostate specific antigen (PSA) is error-prone and cannot distinguish benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) from malignant disease, nor identify aggressive and indolent types. Methods. We determined serum sarcosine (N-methylglycine) in 328 cancer patients by gas ...

  5. Daniel L. Schacter: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Daniel L. Schacter as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Daniel L. Schacter's major theoretical and empirical contributions include groundbreaking research on the psychological and neural foundations of implicit and explicit memory, memory distortions and…

  6. Physiological heterogeneities in microbial populations and implications for physical stress tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlquist, Magnus; Fernandes, Rita Lencastre; Helmark, Søren

    2012-01-01

    importance for improving microbial cell factory processes. Results: In this work, a dual reporter system was developed and applied to map growth and cell fitness heterogeneities within budding yeast populations during aerobic cultivation in well-mixed bioreactors. The reporter strain, which was based...... on the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the ribosomal protein RPL22a promoter, made it possible to distinguish cell growth phases by the level of fluorescence intensity. Furthermore, by exploiting the strong correlation of intracellular GFP level and cell membrane integrity...... it was possible to distinguish subpopulations with high and low cell membrane robustness and hence ability to withstand freeze-thaw stress. A strong inverse correlation between growth and cell membrane robustness was observed, which further supports the hypothesis that cellular resources are limited and need...

  7. Critical appraisal of discriminant formulas for distinguishing thalassemia from iron deficiency in patients with microcytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrechaga, Eloísa; Hoffmann, Johannes J M L

    2017-08-28

    Many discriminant formulas have been reported for distinguishing thalassemia trait from iron deficiency in patients with microcytic anemia. Independent verification of several discriminant formulas is deficient or even lacking. Therefore, we have retrospectively investigated discriminant formulas in a large, well-characterized patient population. The investigational population consisted of 2664 patients with microcytic anemia: 1259 had iron deficiency, 1196 'pure' thalassemia trait (877 β- and 319 α-thalassemia), 150 had thalassemia trait with concomitant iron deficiency or anemia of chronic disease, and 36 had other diseases. We investigated 25 discriminant formulas that only use hematologic parameters available on all analyzers; formulas with more advanced parameters were disregarded. The diagnostic performance was investigated using ROC analysis. The three best performing formulas were the Jayabose (RDW index), Janel (11T), and Green and King formulas. The differences between them were not statistically significant (p>0.333), but each of them had significantly higher area under the ROC curve than any other formula. The Jayabose and Green and King formulas had the highest sensitivities: 0.917 both. The highest specificity, 0.925, was found for the Janel formula, which is a composite score of 11 other formulas. All investigated formulas performed significantly better in distinguishing β- than α-thalassemia from iron deficiency. In our patient population, the Jayabose RDW index, the Green and King formula and the Janel 11T score are superior to all other formulas examined for distinguishing between thalassemia trait and iron deficiency anemia. We confirmed that all formulas perform much better in β- than in α-thalassemia carriers and also that they incorrectly classify approximately 30% of thalassemia carriers with concomitant other anemia as not having thalassemia. The diagnostic performance of even the best formulas is not high enough for making a final

  8. Cellular Kinetics of Perivascular MSC Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. W. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs and MSC-like multipotent stem/progenitor cells have been widely investigated for regenerative medicine and deemed promising in clinical applications. In order to further improve MSC-based stem cell therapeutics, it is important to understand the cellular kinetics and functional roles of MSCs in the dynamic regenerative processes. However, due to the heterogeneous nature of typical MSC cultures, their native identity and anatomical localization in the body have remained unclear, making it difficult to decipher the existence of distinct cell subsets within the MSC entity. Recent studies have shown that several blood-vessel-derived precursor cell populations, purified by flow cytometry from multiple human organs, give rise to bona fide MSCs, suggesting that the vasculature serves as a systemic reservoir of MSC-like stem/progenitor cells. Using individually purified MSC-like precursor cell subsets, we and other researchers have been able to investigate the differential phenotypes and regenerative capacities of these contributing cellular constituents in the MSC pool. In this review, we will discuss the identification and characterization of perivascular MSC precursors, including pericytes and adventitial cells, and focus on their cellular kinetics: cell adhesion, migration, engraftment, homing, and intercellular cross-talk during tissue repair and regeneration.

  9. Novel Materials for Cellular Nanosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi

    The monitoring of cellular behavior is useful for the advancement of biomedical diagnostics, drug development and the understanding of a cell as the main unit of the human body. Micro- and nanotechnology allow for the creation of functional devices that enhance the study of cellular dynamics...... by providing platforms that offer biocompatible surfaces for the cell culturing in lab-on-chip devices integrated with optimized nanosensors with high specificities and sensitivities towards cellular analytes. In this project, novel materials were investigated with a focus on providing suitable surface...... modifications for electrochemical nanosensors for the detection of analytes released from cells. Two type of materials were investigated, each pertaining to the two different aspects of such devices: peptide nanostructures were studied for the creation of cellular sensing substrates that mimic in vivo surfaces...

  10. Systems biology of cellular rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbeter, A; Gérard, C; Gonze, D; Leloup, J-C; Dupont, G

    2012-08-31

    Rhythms abound in biological systems, particularly at the cellular level where they originate from the feedback loops present in regulatory networks. Cellular rhythms can be investigated both by experimental and modeling approaches, and thus represent a prototypic field of research for systems biology. They have also become a major topic in synthetic biology. We review advances in the study of cellular rhythms of biochemical rather than electrical origin by considering a variety of oscillatory processes such as Ca++ oscillations, circadian rhythms, the segmentation clock, oscillations in p53 and NF-κB, synthetic oscillators, and the oscillatory dynamics of cyclin-dependent kinases driving the cell cycle. Finally we discuss the coupling between cellular rhythms and their robustness with respect to molecular noise.

  11. A Course in Cellular Bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    1989-01-01

    Gives an overview of a course in chemical engineering entitled "Cellular Bioengineering," dealing with how chemical engineering principles can be applied to molecular cell biology. Topics used are listed and some key references are discussed. Listed are 85 references. (YP)

  12. Origami interleaved tube cellular materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Kenneth C; Tachi, Tomohiro; Calisch, Sam; Miura, Koryo

    2014-01-01

    A novel origami cellular material based on a deployable cellular origami structure is described. The structure is bi-directionally flat-foldable in two orthogonal (x and y) directions and is relatively stiff in the third orthogonal (z) direction. While such mechanical orthotropicity is well known in cellular materials with extruded two dimensional geometry, the interleaved tube geometry presented here consists of two orthogonal axes of interleaved tubes with high interfacial surface area and relative volume that changes with fold-state. In addition, the foldability still allows for fabrication by a flat lamination process, similar to methods used for conventional expanded two dimensional cellular materials. This article presents the geometric characteristics of the structure together with corresponding kinematic and mechanical modeling, explaining the orthotropic elastic behavior of the structure with classical dimensional scaling analysis. (paper)

  13. An Optimization Framework for Travel Pattern Interpretation of Cellular Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit Freund

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores methods for identifying travel patterns from cellular data. A primary challenge in this research is to provide an interpretation of the raw data that distinguishes between activity durations and travel durations. A novel framework is proposed for this purpose, based on a grading scheme for candidate interpretations of the raw data. A genetic algorithm is used to find interpretations with high grades, which are considered as the most reasonable ones. The proposed method is tested on a dataset of records covering 9454 cell-phone users over a period of one week. Preliminary evaluation of the resulting interpretations is presented.

  14. Contribution of cellular autolysis to tissular functions during plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamez, Sacha; Tuominen, Hannele

    2017-02-01

    Plant development requires specific cells to be eliminated in a predictable and genetically regulated manner referred to as programmed cell death (PCD). However, the target cells do not merely die but they also undergo autolysis to degrade their cellular corpses. Recent progress in understanding developmental cell elimination suggests that distinct proteins execute PCD sensu stricto and autolysis. In addition, cell death alone and cell dismantlement can fulfill different functions. Hence, it appears biologically meaningful to distinguish between the modules of PCD and autolysis during plant development. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Distinguishing relative and absolute risk models for radiation-induced cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muirhead, C.R.; Darby, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Methods for distinguishing between the goodness-of-fit of relative and absolute risk models are applied to mortality data from atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima for the disease grouping consisting of all cancers other than leukaemia. The effect of allowing the radiation-induced risk to depend on variables such as sex, age at exposure and/or time since exposure is illustrated. Predicted numbers of deaths and numbers of years of life lost in an irradiated population are calculated for those models that fit the data well. Problems in extrapolating beyond the period for which follow-up data are currently available are emphasized. (author)

  16. Cellular and Molecular Anatomy of the Human Neuromuscular Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross A. Jones

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The neuromuscular junction (NMJ plays a fundamental role in transferring information from lower motor neuron to skeletal muscle to generate movement. It is also an experimentally accessible model synapse routinely studied in animal models to explore fundamental aspects of synaptic form and function. Here, we combined morphological techniques, super-resolution imaging, and proteomic profiling to reveal the detailed cellular and molecular architecture of the human NMJ. Human NMJs were significantly smaller, less complex, and more fragmented than mouse NMJs. In contrast to mice, human NMJs were also remarkably stable across the entire adult lifespan, showing no signs of age-related degeneration or remodeling. Super-resolution imaging and proteomic profiling revealed distinctive distribution of active zone proteins and differential expression of core synaptic proteins and molecular pathways at the human NMJ. Taken together, these findings reveal human-specific cellular and molecular features of the NMJ that distinguish them from comparable synapses in other mammalian species.

  17. Movies of cellular and sub-cellular motion by digital holographic microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lingfeng

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many biological specimens, such as living cells and their intracellular components, often exhibit very little amplitude contrast, making it difficult for conventional bright field microscopes to distinguish them from their surroundings. To overcome this problem phase contrast techniques such as Zernike, Normarsky and dark-field microscopies have been developed to improve specimen visibility without chemically or physically altering them by the process of staining. These techniques have proven to be invaluable tools for studying living cells and furthering scientific understanding of fundamental cellular processes such as mitosis. However a drawback of these techniques is that direct quantitative phase imaging is not possible. Quantitative phase imaging is important because it enables determination of either the refractive index or optical thickness variations from the measured optical path length with sub-wavelength accuracy. Digital holography is an emergent phase contrast technique that offers an excellent approach in obtaining both qualitative and quantitative phase information from the hologram. A CCD camera is used to record a hologram onto a computer and numerical methods are subsequently applied to reconstruct the hologram to enable direct access to both phase and amplitude information. Another attractive feature of digital holography is the ability to focus on multiple focal planes from a single hologram, emulating the focusing control of a conventional microscope. Methods A modified Mach-Zender off-axis setup in transmission is used to record and reconstruct a number of holographic amplitude and phase images of cellular and sub-cellular features. Results Both cellular and sub-cellular features are imaged with sub-micron, diffraction-limited resolution. Movies of holographic amplitude and phase images of living microbes and cells are created from a series of holograms and reconstructed with numerically adjustable

  18. An efficient method of distinguishing chaos from noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is an important problem in chaos theory whether an observed irregular signal is deterministic chaotic or stochastic. We propose an efficient method for distinguishing deterministic chaotic from stochastic time series for short scalar time series. We first investigate, with the increase of the embedding dimension, the changing trend of the distance between two points which stay close in phase space. And then, we obtain the differences between Gaussian white noise and deterministic chaotic time series underlying this method. Finally, numerical experiments are presented to testify the validity and robustness of the method. Simulation results indicate that our method can distinguish deterministic chaotic from stochastic time series effectively even when the data are short and contaminated. (general)

  19. Mastomys (rodentia: muridae) species distinguished by hemoglobin pattern differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C B; Krebs, J W; Johnson, K M

    1983-05-01

    Hemoglobin electrophoresis patterns were found to be reliable markers for distinguishing two species of Mastomys in Sierra Leone having 32 and 38 chromosomes. All 32-chromosome animals exhibited a single hemoglobin pattern, whereas those with 38-chromosomes had four distinguishable patterns. Both karyotypes were present throughout Sierra Leone. The 38-chromosome species was more prevalent in the Guinea savanna zone to the north, while the 32-chromosome species was most dominant in human-modified high forest areas of the eastern and southern parts of the country. In almost all situations the 32-chromosome species was more common in houses than in bush habitats; the reverse was true for Mastomys having 38 chromosomes. Analysis of hemoglobin patterns thus becomes useful for species identification, and is necessary to understand the roles of the different Mastomys forms as reservoirs of human diseases, such as Lassa fever in West Africa.

  20. Can accretion disk properties distinguish gravastars from black holes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lobo, Francisco S N

    2009-01-01

    Gravastars, hypothetic astrophysical objects, consisting of a dark energy condensate surrounded by a strongly correlated thin shell of anisotropic matter, have been proposed as an alternative to the standard black hole picture of general relativity. Observationally distinguishing between astrophysical black holes and gravastars is a major challenge for this latter theoretical model. This is due to the fact that in static gravastars large stability regions (of the transition layer of these configurations) exist that are sufficiently close to the expected position of the event horizon, so that it would be difficult to distinguish the exterior geometry of gravastars from an astrophysical black hole. However, in the context of stationary and axially symmetrical geometries, a possibility of distinguishing gravastars from black holes is through the comparative study of thin accretion disks around rotating gravastars and Kerr-type black holes, respectively. In the present paper, we consider accretion disks around slowly rotating gravastars, with all the metric tensor components estimated up to the second order in the angular velocity. Due to the differences in the exterior geometry, the thermodynamic and electromagnetic properties of the disks (energy flux, temperature distribution and equilibrium radiation spectrum) are different for these two classes of compact objects, consequently giving clear observational signatures. In addition to this, it is also shown that the conversion efficiency of the accreting mass into radiation is always smaller than the conversion efficiency for black holes, i.e. gravastars provide a less efficient mechanism for converting mass to radiation than black holes. Thus, these observational signatures provide the possibility of clearly distinguishing rotating gravastars from Kerr-type black holes.

  1. Bringing to Market Technological Innovation: What Distinguishes Success from Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Frattini, Federico; Massis, Alfredo De; Chiesa, Vittorio; Cassia, Lucio; Campopiano, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Commercialization is a critical step in technological innovation. Nevertheless, many scholars believe that it is often the least well-managed activity of the whole innovation process. The launch stage seems to be particularly critical in high-technology markets because of the volatility, interconnectedness and the proliferation of new technologies they experience. However, academic and practitioners' literature has not, so far, developed a clear understanding of the factors that distinguish a...

  2. Distinguishing new physics scenarios with polarized electron and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Distinguishing new physics scenarios. Figure 1. Left panel: ΛH vs. ΛAA confusion region from e+e− → e+e−. Right panel: ΛLL vs. ΛRR confusion region from e+e− → l+l− (l = µ, τ). √ s = 0.5 TeV, Lint = 100 fb−1. the identification reaches are rather high compared to the current bounds, depend- ing on energy and luminosity, ...

  3. Distinguishing snoring sounds from breath sounds: a straightforward matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Christian; Herzog, Michael; Ettl, Tobias; Kuehnel, Thomas S

    2014-03-01

    Although snoring is a common problem, no unequivocal definition yet exists for this acoustic phenomenon. The primary study objective was to investigate whether snoring sounds can be distinguished at all clearly from breath sounds. Our secondary objective was to evaluate whether the sound pressure level in common use and psychoacoustic parameters are suitable for making this distinction. Twenty-five subjects exposed to 55 sound sequences were asked to decide whether these were breath sounds or snoring sounds, and to indicate how certain they were about their decision. The sound pressure level and the psychoacoustic parameters of loudness, sharpness, roughness, and fluctuation strength were then analyzed, and psychoacoustic annoyance was calculated from these parameters. Sixteen percent of the sound sequences could not be classified unequivocally, although the individual raters stated that they were still moderately certain about their decision. The sound pressure level and psychoacoustic parameters were capable of distinguishing between breath sounds and snoring sounds. The optimum for sensitivity and specificity was 76.9 and 78.8 %, respectively. Because snoring appears to be a subjective impression, at least in part, a generally valid acoustic definition therefore seems to be impossible. The sound pressure level and psychoacoustic parameters are suitable for distinguishing between breath sounds and snoring sounds. Nevertheless, when interpreting results, the only moderate validity of these parameters due to the absence of a universally valid definition of snoring should be taken into account.

  4. Temporal phenotypic features distinguish polarized macrophages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, David W; McManus, Linda M; Gelfond, Jonathan A L; Shireman, Paula K

    2015-05-01

    Macrophages are important in vascular inflammation and environmental factors influence macrophage plasticity. Macrophage transitions into pro-inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) states have been defined predominately by measuring cytokines in culture media (CM). However, temporal relationships between cellular and secreted cytokines have not been established. We measured phenotypic markers and cytokines in cellular and CM of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages at multiple time points following stimulation with IFN-γ + LPS (M1), IL-4 (M2a) or IL-10 (M2c). Cytokines/proteins in M1-polarized macrophages exhibited two distinct temporal patterns; an early (0.5-3 h), transient increase in cellular cytokines (GM-CSF, KC-GRO, MIP-2, IP-10 and MIP-1β) and a delayed (3-6 h) response that was more sustained [IL-3, regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1)]. M2a-related cytokine/cell markers (IGF-1, Fizz1 and Ym1) were progressively (3-24 h) increased post-stimulation. In addition, novel patterns were observed. First, and unexpectedly, cellular pro-inflammatory chemokines, MCP-1 and MCP-3 but not MCP-5, were comparably increased in M1 and M2a macrophages. Second, Vegfr1 mRNA was decreased in M1 and increased in M2a macrophages. Finally, VEGF-A was increased in the CM of M1 cultures and strikingly reduced in M2a coinciding with increased Vegfr1 expression, suggesting decreased VEGF-A in M2a CM was secondary to increased soluble VEGFR1. In conclusion, macrophage cytokine production and marker expression were temporally regulated and relative levels compared across polarizing conditions were highly dependent upon the timing and location (cellular versus CM) of the sample collection. For most cytokines, cellular production preceded increases in the CM suggesting that cellular regulatory pathways should be studied within 6 h of stimulation. The divergent polarization-dependent expression

  5. Continuum representations of cellular solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, M.K.

    1993-09-01

    Cellular materials consist of interconnected struts or plates which form cells. The struts or plates are constructed from a variety of metals, polymers, ceramics and wood products. Cellular materials are often used in impact limiters for shipping containers to protect the contents from accidental impact events. These materials exhibit a variety of complex behavior when subjected to crushing loads. This research focuses on the development of continuum representations of cellular solids that can be used in the finite element analysis of shipping container accidents. A significant portion of this work is the development of a new methodology to relate localized deformations to appropriate constitutive descriptions. This methodology provides the insight needed to select constitutive descriptions for cellular solids that capture the localized deformations that are observed experimentally. Constitutive relations are developed for two different cellular materials, aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. These constitutive relations are based on plasticity and continuum damage theories. Plasticity is used to describe the permanent deformation exhibited by both aluminum honeycomb and polyurethane foam. Continuum damage is needed to capture the change in elastic parameters due to cracking of the polyurethane cell wall materials. The new constitutive description of polyurethane foam is implemented in both static and dynamic finite element codes, and analytical and numerical predictions are compared with available experimental data.

  6. APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. A qualified candidate must demonstrate exemplary performance in working with an underserved population in an applied setting or have developed an innovative method for delivering health services to an underserved population. The 2017 recipient of the APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology was selected by the 2016 Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the 2016 APAGS Scholarship and Awards Selection Committee. Members of the 2016 BPA were Antonette M. Zeiss, PhD (Chair); Linda A. Reddy, PhD; Lois O. Condie, PhD; Timothy A. Cavell, PhD; Robert T. Kinscherff, PhD, JD; Jared L. Skillings, PhD, ABPP; Cynthia A. Gómez, PhD; Lisa K. Kearney, PhD, ABPP; and Dinelia Rosa, PhD. Members of the 2016 APAGS Scholarship and Awards Selection Committee were Jerrold Yeo, MA; Jacklynn Fitzgerald, MA; and Roseann Fish Getchell, MA, Med. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Aging, Cellular Senescence, and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Judith

    2014-01-01

    For most species, aging promotes a host of degenerative pathologies that are characterized by debilitating losses of tissue or cellular function. However, especially among vertebrates, aging also promotes hyperplastic pathologies, the most deadly of which is cancer. In contrast to the loss of function that characterizes degenerating cells and tissues, malignant (cancerous) cells must acquire new (albeit aberrant) functions that allow them to develop into a lethal tumor. This review discusses the idea that, despite seemingly opposite characteristics, the degenerative and hyperplastic pathologies of aging are at least partly linked by a common biological phenomenon: a cellular stress response known as cellular senescence. The senescence response is widely recognized as a potent tumor suppressive mechanism. However, recent evidence strengthens the idea that it also drives both degenerative and hyper-plastic pathologies, most likely by promoting chronic inflammation. Thus, the senescence response may be the result of antagonistically pleiotropic gene action. PMID:23140366

  8. Rebeccah A. Bernard: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. A qualified candidate must demonstrate exemplary performance in working with an underserved population in an applied setting or have developed an innovative method for delivering health services to an underserved population. This year there are joint recipients of the award, Allie Abrahamson and Rebeccah A. Bernard. Their vision, creativity, courage, and dedication led them to create the Human Rights Forum at Chestnut Hill College to promote human rights education, awareness, and community service opportunities for doctoral students. Rebeccah A. Bernard's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Allie Abrahamson: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. A qualified candidate must demonstrate exemplary performance in working with an underserved population in an applied setting or have developed an innovative method for delivering health services to an underserved population. This year there are joint recipients of the award, Allie Abrahamson and Rebeccah A. Bernard. Their vision, creativity, courage, and dedication led them to create the Human Rights Forum at Chestnut Hill College to promote human rights education, awareness, and community service opportunities for doctoral students. Allie Abrahamson's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Cellular structures with interconnected microchannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaefer, Robert Shahram; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Williams, Brian

    2018-01-30

    A method for fabricating a cellular tritium breeder component includes obtaining a reticulated carbon foam skeleton comprising a network of interconnected ligaments. The foam skeleton is then melt-infiltrated with a tritium breeder material, for example, lithium zirconate or lithium titanate. The foam skeleton is then removed to define a cellular breeder component having a network of interconnected tritium purge channels. In an embodiment the ligaments of the foam skeleton are enlarged by adding carbon using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) prior to melt-infiltration. In an embodiment the foam skeleton is coated with a refractory material, for example, tungsten, prior to melt infiltration.

  11. Global properties of cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jen, E.

    1986-01-01

    Cellular automata are discrete mathematical systems that generate diverse, often complicated, behavior using simple deterministic rules. Analysis of the local structure of these rules makes possible a description of the global properties of the associated automata. A class of cellular automata that generate infinitely many aperoidic temporal sequences is defined,a s is the set of rules for which inverses exist. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived characterizing the classes of ''nearest-neighbor'' rules for which arbitrary finite initial conditions (i) evolve to a homogeneous state; (ii) generate at least one constant temporal sequence

  12. Distinguishing spin-aligned and isotropic black hole populations with gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Will M; Stevenson, Simon; Miller, M Coleman; Mandel, Ilya; Farr, Ben; Vecchio, Alberto

    2017-08-23

    The direct detection of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes opens up a window into the environments in which binary black holes form. One signature of such environments is the angular distribution of the black hole spins. Binary systems that formed through dynamical interactions between already-compact objects are expected to have isotropic spin orientations (that is, the spins of the black holes are randomly oriented with respect to the orbit of the binary system), whereas those that formed from pairs of stars born together are more likely to have spins that are preferentially aligned with the orbit. The best-measured combination of spin parameters for each of the four likely binary black hole detections GW150914, LVT151012, GW151226 and GW170104 is the 'effective' spin. Here we report that, if the magnitudes of the black hole spins are allowed to extend to high values, the effective spins for these systems indicate a 0.015 odds ratio against an aligned angular distribution compared to an isotropic one. When considering the effect of ten additional detections, this odds ratio decreases to 2.9 × 10 -7 against alignment. The existing preference for either an isotropic spin distribution or low spin magnitudes for the observed systems will be confirmed (or overturned) confidently in the near future.

  13. Cytomorphologic features distinguishing Bethesda category IV thyroid lesions from parathyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Sung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid follicular cells share similar cytomorphological features with parathyroid. Without a clinical suspicion, the distinction between a thyroid neoplasm and an intrathyroidal parathyroid can be challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the distinguishing cytomorphological features of parathyroid (including intrathyroidal and Bethesda category IV (Beth-IV thyroid follicular lesions, which carry a 15%–30% risk of malignancy and are often followed up with surgical resection. Methods: A search was performed to identify “parathyroid” diagnoses in parathyroid/thyroid-designated fine-needle aspirations (FNAs and Beth-IV thyroid FNAs (follicular and Hurthle cell, all with diagnostic confirmation through surgical pathology, immunocytochemical stains, Afirma® analysis, and/or clinical correlation. Unique cytomorphologic features were scored (0-3 or noted as present versus absent. Statistical analysis was performed using R 3.3.1 software. Results: We identified five FNA cases with clinical suspicion of parathyroid neoplasm, hyperthyroidism, or thyroid lesion that had an eventual final diagnosis of the parathyroid lesion (all female; age 20–69 years and 12 Beth-IV diagnoses (11 female, 1 male; age 13–64 years. The following cytomorphologic features are useful distinguishing features (P value: overall pattern (0.001, single cells (0.001, cell size compared to red blood cell (0.01, nuclear irregularity (0.001, presence of nucleoli (0.001, nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio (0.007, and nuclear chromatin quality (0.028. Conclusions: There are cytomorphologic features that distinguish Beth-IV thyroid lesions and (intrathyroidal parathyroid. These features can aid in rendering correct diagnoses and appropriate management.

  14. Genetic profiles distinguish different types of hereditary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, Katarina; Malander, Susanne; Staaf, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Heredity represents the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer with disease predisposing mutations identified in 15% of the tumors. With the aim to identify genetic classifiers for hereditary ovarian cancer, we profiled hereditary ovarian cancers linked to the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer...... as a control group. Unsupervised cluster analysis identified two distinct subgroups related to genetic complexity. Sporadic and HBOC associated tumors had complex genetic profiles with an average 41% of the genome altered, whereas the mismatch repair defective tumors had stable genetic profiles...... that HBOC and HNPCC associated ovarian cancer develop along distinct genetic pathways and genetic profiles can thus be applied to distinguish between different types of hereditary ovarian cancer....

  15. How bees distinguish patterns by green and blue modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horridge A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Adrian Horridge Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia Abstract: In the 1920s, Mathilde Hertz found that trained bees discriminated between shapes or patterns of similar size by something related to total length of contrasting contours. This input is now interpreted as modulation in green and blue receptor channels as flying bees scan in the horizontal plane. Modulation is defined as total contrast irrespective of sign multiplied by length of edge displaying that contrast, projected to vertical, therefore, combining structure and contrast in a single input. Contrast is outside the eye; modulation is a phasic response in receptor pathways inside. In recent experiments, bees trained to distinguish color detected, located, and measured three independent inputs and the angles between them. They are the tonic response of the blue receptor pathway and modulation of small-field green or (less preferred blue receptor pathways. Green and blue channels interacted intimately at a peripheral level. This study explores in more detail how various patterns are discriminated by these cues. The direction of contrast at a boundary was not detected. Instead, bees located and measured total modulation generated by horizontal scanning of contrasts, irrespective of pattern. They also located the positions of isolated vertical edges relative to other landmarks and distinguished the angular widths between vertical edges by green or blue modulation alone. The preferred inputs were the strongest green modulation signal and angular width between outside edges, irrespective of color. In the absence of green modulation, the remaining cue was a measure and location of blue modulation at edges. In the presence of green modulation, blue modulation was inhibited. Black/white patterns were distinguished by the same inputs in blue and green receptor channels. Left–right polarity and mirror images could be discriminated by retinotopic green

  16. How to distinguish dark energy and modified gravity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Hao; Zhang Shuangnan

    2008-01-01

    The current accelerated expansion of our universe could be due to an unknown energy component (dark energy) or a modification of general relativity (modified gravity). In the literature it has been proposed that combining the probes of the cosmic expansion history and growth history can distinguish between dark energy and modified gravity. In this work, without invoking nontrivial dark energy clustering, we show that the possible interaction between dark energy and dark matter could make the interacting dark model and the modified gravity model indistinguishable. An explicit example is also given. Therefore, it is required to seek some complementary probes beyond the ones of cosmic expansion history and growth history.

  17. How bees distinguish patterns by green and blue modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horridge, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In the 1920s, Mathilde Hertz found that trained bees discriminated between shapes or patterns of similar size by something related to total length of contrasting contours. This input is now interpreted as modulation in green and blue receptor channels as flying bees scan in the horizontal plane. Modulation is defined as total contrast irrespective of sign multiplied by length of edge displaying that contrast, projected to vertical, therefore, combining structure and contrast in a single input. Contrast is outside the eye; modulation is a phasic response in receptor pathways inside. In recent experiments, bees trained to distinguish color detected, located, and measured three independent inputs and the angles between them. They are the tonic response of the blue receptor pathway and modulation of small-field green or (less preferred) blue receptor pathways. Green and blue channels interacted intimately at a peripheral level. This study explores in more detail how various patterns are discriminated by these cues. The direction of contrast at a boundary was not detected. Instead, bees located and measured total modulation generated by horizontal scanning of contrasts, irrespective of pattern. They also located the positions of isolated vertical edges relative to other landmarks and distinguished the angular widths between vertical edges by green or blue modulation alone. The preferred inputs were the strongest green modulation signal and angular width between outside edges, irrespective of color. In the absence of green modulation, the remaining cue was a measure and location of blue modulation at edges. In the presence of green modulation, blue modulation was inhibited. Black/white patterns were distinguished by the same inputs in blue and green receptor channels. Left-right polarity and mirror images could be discriminated by retinotopic green modulation alone. Colors in areas bounded by strong green contrast were distinguished as more or less blue than the

  18. Auxin and Cellular Elongation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Silvia Melina; Barbez, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Auxin is a crucial growth regulator in plants. However, a comprehensive understanding of how auxin induces cell expansion is perplexing, because auxin acts in a concentration- and cell type-dependent manner. Consequently, it is desirable to focus on certain cell types to exemplify the underlying growth mechanisms. On the other hand, plant tissues display supracellular growth (beyond the level of single cells); hence, other cell types might compromise the growth of a certain tissue. Tip-growing cells do not display neighbor-induced growth constraints and, therefore, are a valuable source of information for growth-controlling mechanisms. Here, we focus on auxin-induced cellular elongation in root hairs, exposing a mechanistic view of plant growth regulation. We highlight a complex interplay between auxin metabolism and transport, steering root hair development in response to internal and external triggers. Auxin signaling modules and downstream cascades of transcription factors define a developmental program that appears rate limiting for cellular growth. With this knowledge in mind, the root hair cell is a very suitable model system in which to dissect cellular effectors required for cellular expansion. PMID:26787325

  19. CELLULAR COMPARTMENTALIZATION AND HEAVY METAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CELLULAR COMPARTMENTALIZATION AND HEAVY METAL LOAD IN THE MOSS. Barbula lambarenensis AROUND A MEGA CEMENT FACTORY IN SOUTHWEST NIGERIA. *. Ogunkunle, C. O. and Fatoba, P. O.. Department of Plant Biology, University of Ilorin .... the free transport of Zn across the cell wall as it.

  20. Cellular uptake of metallated cobalamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Mai Thanh Quynh; Stürup, Stefan; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2016-01-01

    Cellular uptake of vitamin B12-cisplatin conjugates was estimated via detection of their metal constituents (Co, Pt, and Re) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Vitamin B12 (cyano-cob(iii)alamin) and aquo-cob(iii)alamin [Cbl-OH2](+), which differ in the β-axial ligands (CN...

  1. Analysis of cellular manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heragu, Sunderesh; Zijm, Willem H.M.; Meng, Gang; Heragu, S.S.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.; van Houtum, Geert-Jan

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present an open queuing network modeling approach to estimate performance measures of a cellular manufacturing layout. It is assumed a layout and production data for a planning period of specified length are available. The production data takes into account, processing and handling

  2. Cellular Automata and the Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Ernest

    1994-01-01

    The use of cellular automata to analyze several pre-Socratic hypotheses about the evolution of the physical world is discussed. These hypotheses combine characteristics of both rigorous and metaphoric language. Since the computer demands explicit instructions for each step in the evolution of the automaton, such models can reveal conceptual…

  3. Repaglinide at a cellular level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard Thomsen, M; Bokvist, K; Høy, M

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the hormonal and cellular selectivity of the prandial glucose regulators, we have undertaken a series of experiments, in which we characterised the effects of repaglinide and nateglinide on ATP-sensitive potassium ion (KATP) channel activity, membrane potential and exocytosis in ra...

  4. Cytological Criteria to Distinguish Phyllodes Tumour of the Breast from Fibroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritz, Robert M; Michelow, Pamela M

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether there are significant differences between fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours with regard to selected cytomorphological features. A 10-year retrospective review was performed of patients who underwent excision of a fibroadenoma or phyllodes tumour and in whom a preoperative fine-needle aspiration was performed. The following cytological criteria were assessed: number of stromal and epithelial fragments, stromal-to-epithelial ratio, stromal cellularity, stromal borders, stromal atypia, and proportion of background wavy spindled cells. Patient age, tumour laterality, and tumour size were recorded. Fifty fibroadenomas and 17 phyllodes tumours were included. Compared to phyllodes tumours, fibroadenomas had a larger number of epithelial fragments, a smaller number of stromal fragments, and a lower stromal-to-epithelial ratio. The stroma tended to be less cellular and less atypical compared to phyllodes tumours and the background cellular population contained fewer spindled cells. Fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours differ with regard to various cytological features, aiding in their distinction on fine-needle aspiration biopsy. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Distinguishing stress fractures from pathologic fractures: a multimodality approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayad, Laura M.; Kamel, Ihab R.; Kawamoto, Satomi; Bluemke, David A.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Frassica, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    Whereas stress fractures occur in normal or metabolically weakened bones, pathologic fractures occur at the site of a bone tumor. Unfortunately, stress fractures may share imaging features with pathologic fractures on plain radiography, and therefore other modalities are commonly utilized to distinguish these entities. Additional cross-sectional imaging with CT or MRI as well as scintigraphy and PET scanning is often performed for further evaluation. For the detailed assessment of a fracture site, CT offers a high-resolution view of the bone cortex and periosteum which aids the diagnosis of a pathologic fracture. The character of underlying bone marrow patterns of destruction can also be ascertained along with evidence of a soft tissue mass. MRI, however, is a more sensitive technique for the detection of underlying bone marrow lesions at a fracture site. In addition, the surrounding soft tissues, including possible involvement of adjacent muscle, can be well evaluated with MRI. While bone scintigraphy and FDG-PET are not specific, they offer a whole-body screen for metastases in the case of a suspected malignant pathologic fracture. In this review, we present select examples of fractures that underscore imaging features that help distinguish stress fractures from pathologic fractures, since accurate differentiation of these entities is paramount. (orig.)

  6. Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This award is given by the Board of Educational Affairs in recognition of the efforts of psychologists who have made distinguished contributions to education and training, who have produced imaginative innovations, or who have been involved in the developmental phases of programs in education and training in psychology. These contributions might include important research on education and training; the development of effective materials for instruction; the establishment of workshops, conferences, or networks of communication for education and training; achievement and leadership in administration that facilitates education and training; or activity in professional organizations that promote excellence. The Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in psychology recognizes a specific contribution to education and training. The Career designation is added to the award at the discretion of the Education and Training Awards Committee to recognize continuous significant contributions made over a lifelong career in psychology. This year the Education and Training Awards Committee selected a psychologist for the Career designation. The 2017 recipients of the APA Education and Training Contributions Awards were selected by the 2016 Education and Training Awards Committee appointed by the Board of Educational Affairs (BEA). Members of the 2016 Education and Training Awards Committee were Erica Wise, PhD (Chair); Ron Rozensky, PhD; Jane D. Halonen, PhD; Sharon Berry, PhD (Chair Elect); Emil Rodolfa, PhD; and Sylvia A. Rosenfield, PhD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Distinguishing deterministic and noise components in ELM time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvejnieks, G.; Kuzovkov, V.N

    2004-01-01

    Full text: One of the main problems in the preliminary data analysis is distinguishing the deterministic and noise components in the experimental signals. For example, in plasma physics the question arises analyzing edge localized modes (ELMs): is observed ELM behavior governed by a complicate deterministic chaos or just by random processes. We have developed methodology based on financial engineering principles, which allows us to distinguish deterministic and noise components. We extended the linear auto regression method (AR) by including the non-linearity (NAR method). As a starting point we have chosen the nonlinearity in the polynomial form, however, the NAR method can be extended to any other type of non-linear functions. The best polynomial model describing the experimental ELM time series was selected using Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). With this method we have analyzed type I ELM behavior in a subset of ASDEX Upgrade shots. Obtained results indicate that a linear AR model can describe the ELM behavior. In turn, it means that type I ELM behavior is of a relaxation or random type

  8. Causal topology in future and past distinguishing spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrikar, Onkar; Surya, Sumati

    2011-08-01

    The causal structure of a strongly causal spacetime is particularly well endowed. Not only does it determine the conformal spacetime geometry when the spacetime dimension n > 2, as shown by Malament and Hawking-King-McCarthy (MHKM), but also the manifold dimension. The MHKM result, however, applies more generally to spacetimes satisfying the weaker causality condition of future and past distinguishability (FPD), and it is an important question whether the causal structure of such spacetimes can determine the manifold dimension. In this work, we show that the answer to this question is in the affirmative. We investigate the properties of future or past distinguishing spacetimes and show that their causal structures determine the manifold dimension. This gives a non-trivial generalization of the MHKM theorem and suggests that there is a causal topology for FPD spacetimes which encodes manifold dimension and which is strictly finer than the Alexandrov topology. We show that such a causal topology does exist. We construct it using a convergence criterion based on sequences of 'chain intervals' which are the causal analogues of null geodesic segments. We show that when the region of strong causality violation satisfies a local achronality condition, this topology is equivalent to the manifold topology in an FPD spacetime.

  9. Causal topology in future and past distinguishing spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrikar, Onkar [Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani, Goa campus, Goa 403 726 (India); Surya, Sumati, E-mail: ssurya@rri.res.in [Raman Research Institute, CV Raman Ave, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560 080 (India)

    2011-08-07

    The causal structure of a strongly causal spacetime is particularly well endowed. Not only does it determine the conformal spacetime geometry when the spacetime dimension n > 2, as shown by Malament and Hawking-King-McCarthy (MHKM), but also the manifold dimension. The MHKM result, however, applies more generally to spacetimes satisfying the weaker causality condition of future and past distinguishability (FPD), and it is an important question whether the causal structure of such spacetimes can determine the manifold dimension. In this work, we show that the answer to this question is in the affirmative. We investigate the properties of future or past distinguishing spacetimes and show that their causal structures determine the manifold dimension. This gives a non-trivial generalization of the MHKM theorem and suggests that there is a causal topology for FPD spacetimes which encodes manifold dimension and which is strictly finer than the Alexandrov topology. We show that such a causal topology does exist. We construct it using a convergence criterion based on sequences of 'chain intervals' which are the causal analogues of null geodesic segments. We show that when the region of strong causality violation satisfies a local achronality condition, this topology is equivalent to the manifold topology in an FPD spacetime.

  10. Useful tests on pleural fluid that distinguish transudates from exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, J M; Vives, M; Vicente de Vera, M C; Cao, G; Rubio, M; Rivas, M C

    2001-11-01

    We aimed to compare the classic Light's criteria with different testing strategies in an effort to improve the accuracy of pleural fluid (PF) categorization. Thirty-two patients with transudates and 140 with exudates on the basis of their clinical diagnosis were entered into the study. We examined the discriminative properties of 10 analytes in the identification of PF, both singly and in combination with an 'or' rule, to see which was best in distinguishing a transudate from an exudate. A combination of PF lactate dehydrogenase (LD) > 307 U/L (two-thirds of the upper limit of the serum LD reference range) with either PF cholesterol > 1.55 mmol/L or PF to serum protein ratio > 0.5 had a diagnostic accuracy similar to that of Light's criteria. We suggest the use of PF LD and cholesterol in combination as an alternative method for distinguishing pleural transudates from exudates. This test combination avoids the need for venepuncture and the simultaneous collection of a blood sample.

  11. Cellular telephone use among primary school children in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehler, Eva; Schuez, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    Background: There is some concern about potential health risks of cellular telephone use to children. We assessed data on how many children own a cellular telephone and on how often they use it in a population-based sample. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study among children in their fourth elementary school year, with a median-age of 10 years. The study was carried out in Mainz (Germany), a city with about 200,000 inhabitants. The study base comprised all 37 primary schools in Mainz and near surroundings. Altogether, 1933 children from 34 primary schools took part in the survey (participation rate of 87.8%). Results: Roughly a third of all children (n = 671, 34.7%) reported to own a cellular telephone. Overall, 119 (6.2%) children used a cellular telephone for making calls at least once a day, 123 (6.4%) used it several times a week and 876 (45.3%) children used it only once in a while. The remaining 805 (41.6%) children had never used a cellular telephone. The probability of owning a cellular telephone among children was associated with older age, being male, having no siblings, giving full particulars to height and weight, more time spent watching TV and playing computer games, being picked up by their parents from school by car (instead of walking or cycling) and going to bed late. The proportion of cellular telephone owners was somewhat higher in classes with more children from socially disadvantaged families. Conclusions: Our study shows that both ownership of a cellular telephone as well as the regular use of it are already quite frequent among children in the fourth grade of primary school. With regard to potential long-term effects, we recommend follow-up studies with children

  12. Conformational sampling of peptides in cellular environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Seiichiro; Clifford, Jacob; Connelly, Brian D; Feig, Michael

    2008-02-01

    Biological systems provide a complex environment that can be understood in terms of its dielectric properties. High concentrations of macromolecules and cosolvents effectively reduce the dielectric constant of cellular environments, thereby affecting the conformational sampling of biomolecules. To examine this effect in more detail, the conformational preference of alanine dipeptide, poly-alanine, and melittin in different dielectric environments is studied with computer simulations based on recently developed generalized Born methodology. Results from these simulations suggest that extended conformations are favored over alpha-helical conformations at the dipeptide level at and below dielectric constants of 5-10. Furthermore, lower-dielectric environments begin to significantly stabilize helical structures in poly-alanine at epsilon = 20. In the more complex peptide melittin, different dielectric environments shift the equilibrium between two main conformations: a nearly fully extended helix that is most stable in low dielectrics and a compact, V-shaped conformation consisting of two helices that is preferred in higher dielectric environments. An additional conformation is only found to be significantly populated at intermediate dielectric constants. Good agreement with previous studies of different peptides in specific, less-polar solvent environments, suggest that helix stabilization and shifts in conformational preferences in such environments are primarily due to a reduced dielectric environment rather than specific molecular details. The findings presented here make predictions of how peptide sampling may be altered in dense cellular environments with reduced dielectric response.

  13. Conformational Sampling of Peptides in Cellular Environments☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Seiichiro; Clifford, Jacob; Connelly, Brian D.; Feig, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Biological systems provide a complex environment that can be understood in terms of its dielectric properties. High concentrations of macromolecules and cosolvents effectively reduce the dielectric constant of cellular environments, thereby affecting the conformational sampling of biomolecules. To examine this effect in more detail, the conformational preference of alanine dipeptide, poly-alanine, and melittin in different dielectric environments is studied with computer simulations based on recently developed generalized Born methodology. Results from these simulations suggest that extended conformations are favored over α-helical conformations at the dipeptide level at and below dielectric constants of 5–10. Furthermore, lower-dielectric environments begin to significantly stabilize helical structures in poly-alanine at ɛ = 20. In the more complex peptide melittin, different dielectric environments shift the equilibrium between two main conformations: a nearly fully extended helix that is most stable in low dielectrics and a compact, V-shaped conformation consisting of two helices that is preferred in higher dielectric environments. An additional conformation is only found to be significantly populated at intermediate dielectric constants. Good agreement with previous studies of different peptides in specific, less-polar solvent environments, suggest that helix stabilization and shifts in conformational preferences in such environments are primarily due to a reduced dielectric environment rather than specific molecular details. The findings presented here make predictions of how peptide sampling may be altered in dense cellular environments with reduced dielectric response. PMID:17905846

  14. Cellular energy allocation in zebra mussels exposed along a pollution gradient: linking cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, R; Bervoets, L; De Coen, W; Blust, R

    2004-05-01

    Organisms exposed to suboptimal environments incur a cost of dealing with stress in terms of metabolic resources. The total amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction, based on the biochemical analysis of the energy budget, may provide a sensitive measure of stress in an organism. While the concept is clear, linking cellular or biochemical responses to the individual and population or community level remains difficult. The aim of this study was to validate, under field conditions, using cellular energy budgets [i.e. changes in glycogen-, lipid- and protein-content and mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS)] as an ecologically relevant measurement of stress by comparing these responses to physiological and organismal endpoints. Therefore, a 28-day in situ bioassay with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) was performed in an effluent-dominated stream. Five locations were selected along the pollution gradient and compared with a nearby (reference) site. Cellular Energy Allocation (CEA) served as a biomarker of cellular energetics, while Scope for Growth (SFG) indicated effects on a physiological level and Tissue Condition Index and wet tissue weight/dry tissue weight ratio were used as endpoints of organismal effects. Results indicated that energy budgets at a cellular level of biological organization provided the fastest and most sensitive response and energy budgets are a relevant currency to extrapolate cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization within the exposed mussels.

  15. Noise-driven growth rate gain in clonal cellular populations

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Mikihiro; Nozoe, Takashi; Nakaoka, Hidenori; Okura, Reiko; Akiyoshi, Sayo; Kaneko, Kunihiko; Kussell, Edo; Wakamoto, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Differences between individuals exist even in the absence of genetic differences, e.g., in identical twins. Over the last decade, experiments have shown that even genetically identical microbes exhibit large cell-to-cell differences. In particular, the timing of cell division events is highly variable between single bacterial cells. The effect of this variability on long-term growth and survival of bacteria, however, remains elusive. Here, we present a striking finding showing that a bacteria...

  16. Evaluation of rules to distinguish unique female grizzly bears with cubs in Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.; Cherry, S.; Keating, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    The United States Fish and Wildlife Service uses counts of unduplicated female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) with cubs-of-the-year to establish limits of sustainable mortality in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. Sightings are dustered into observations of unique bears based on an empirically derived rule set. The method has never been tested or verified. To evaluate the rule set, we used data from radiocollared females obtained during 1975-2004 to simulate populations under varying densities, distributions, and sighting frequencies. We tested individual rules and rule-set performance, using custom software to apply the rule-set and duster sightings. Results indicated most rules were violated to some degree, and rule-based dustering consistently underestimated the minimum number of females and total population size derived from a nonparametric estimator (Chao2). We conclude that the current rule set returns conservative estimates, but with minor improvements, counts of unduplicated females-with-cubs can serve as a reasonable index of population size useful for establishing annual mortality limits. For the Yellowstone population, the index is more practical and cost-effective than capture-mark-recapture using either DNA hair snagging or aerial surveys with radiomarked bears. The method has useful application in other ecosystems, but we recommend rules used to distinguish unique females be adapted to local conditions and tested.

  17. Is central dogma a global property of cellular information flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Vincent; Tomita, Masaru; Selvarajoo, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology has come under scrutiny in recent years. Here, we reviewed high-throughput mRNA and protein expression data of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and several mammalian cells. At both single cell and population scales, the statistical comparisons between the entire transcriptomes and proteomes show clear correlation structures. In contrast, the pair-wise correlations of single transcripts to proteins show nullity. These data suggest that the organizing structure guiding cellular processes is observed at omics-wide scale, and not at single molecule level. The central dogma, thus, globally emerges as an average integrated flow of cellular information.

  18. Is central dogma a global property of cellular information flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent ePiras

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The central dogma of molecular biology has come under scrutiny in recent years. Here, we reviewed high-throughput mRNA and protein expression data of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and several mammalian cells. At both single cell and population scales, the statistical comparisons between the entire transcriptomes and proteomes show clear correlation structures. In contrast, the pair-wise correlations of single transcript to protein show nullity. These data suggest that the organizing structure guiding cellular processes is observed at omics-wide scale and not at single molecule level. The central dogma, thus, globally emerges as an average integrated flow of cellular information.

  19. Cellular automaton model for the simulation of laser dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado, J L; Jiménez-Morales, F; Guerra, J M

    2003-06-01

    The classical modeling approach for laser study relies on the differential equations. In this paper, a cellular automaton model is proposed as an alternative for the simulation of population dynamics. Even though the model is simplified it captures the essence of laser phenomenology: (i) there is a threshold pumping rate that depends inversely on the decaying lifetime of the atoms and the photons; and (ii) depending on these lifetimes and on the pumping rate, a constant or an oscillatory behavior can be observed. More complex behaviors such as spiking and pattern formation can also be studied with the cellular automaton model.

  20. Cellular and genetic analysis of mouse blastocyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, R A; Spindle, A I

    1979-01-01

    The development of mouse embryos was studied by both cellular and genetic approaches. In the cellular analysis, determination of cell fate in blastocysts and in cell populations derived from them was studied in an attempt to estimate the time that these cells become committed to their fate. In the genetic analysis, existing mutations that are lethal to mouse embryos were used to discern essential features of early development. In this review, the timing of cell determination in the inner cell mass and the primary ectoderm, and the manifestation of defects in mouse embryos that are homozygous for the A/sup y/ allele of the agouti locus were considered.

  1. Interplay between inflammation and cellular stress triggered by Flaviviridae viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Chaves Valadão

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses, from Flaviviridae virus family, comprises several human pathogens, including Dengue, Zika, Yellow Fever, West Nile and Japanese Encephalitis viruses. Those are enveloped, single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses, and replicate mostly in intracellular compartments associated to endoplasmic reticulum (ER and Golgi complex. Virus replication results in abundant viral RNAs and proteins, which are recognized by cellular mechanisms evolved to prevent virus infection, resulting in inflammation and stress responses. Virus RNA molecules are sensed by Toll-like receptors (TLRs, RIG-I-like receptors (RIG-I and MDA5 and RNA-dependent protein kinases (PKR, inducing the production of inflammatory mediators and interferons. Simultaneously, the synthesis of virus RNA and proteins are distinguished in different compartments such as mitochondria, ER and cytoplasmic granules, triggering intracellular stress pathways, including oxidative stress, UPR pathway, and stress granules assembly. Here, we review the new findings that connect the inflammatory pathways to cellular stress sensors and the strategies of Flaviviridae members to counteract these cellular mechanisms and escape immune response.

  2. Interplay between Inflammation and Cellular Stress Triggered by Flaviviridae Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadão, Ana L C; Aguiar, Renato S; de Arruda, Luciana B

    2016-01-01

    The Flaviviridae family comprises several human pathogens, including Dengue, Zika, Yellow Fever, West Nile, Japanese Encephalitis viruses, and Hepatitis C Virus. Those are enveloped, single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses, which replicate mostly in intracellular compartments associated to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi complex. Virus replication results in abundant viral RNAs and proteins, which are recognized by cellular mechanisms evolved to prevent virus infection, resulting in inflammation and stress responses. Virus RNA molecules are sensed by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RIG-I and MDA5) and RNA-dependent protein kinases (PKR), inducing the production of inflammatory mediators and interferons. Simultaneously, the synthesis of virus RNA and proteins are distinguished in different compartments such as mitochondria, ER and cytoplasmic granules, triggering intracellular stress pathways, including oxidative stress, unfolded protein response pathway, and stress granules assembly. Here, we review the new findings that connect the inflammatory pathways to cellular stress sensors and the strategies of Flaviviridae members to counteract these cellular mechanisms and escape immune response.

  3. Electrical perturbation of cellular premixed propane/air flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupin, C.L.; Harris, H.H. (Univ. of Missouri, St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1994-06-01

    The phenomenon originally called polyhedral flame structure was first reported 100 years ago. Subsequent investigations showed that polyhedral structure was only one example of a more general phenomenon known now as cellular flame structure, and the range of combustion mixtures that produce them has been broadened to include lean mixtures of H[sub 2]/air, lean H[sub 2]/Br[sub 2], and rich mixtures of hydrocarbons from ethylene to octane with air. Of particular interest to the authors is the role of charged species in flames, and especially in flames that exhibit cellular structure. The electrical aspects of combustion has a long and distinguished history and this subject has been the subject of a classic monograph by Lawton and Weinberg. Electrical perturbation has been reported to affect the temperature of flames, to stabilize them at high flow rates and, in the absence of gravity, to change the speed of flame propagation, and to affect the amount of soot produced. The authors report here that premixed propane/air flames exhibiting cellular structure are quite susceptible to perturbation by electric fields. Since only charged species in the flame would be affected by the potential, and a small current would not modify transport properties of neutral species appreciably, this observation suggests that studies of this type may be useful in helping to further elucidate the role of charged species in flames.

  4. Universal map for cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Morales, V.

    2012-01-01

    A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CAs) containing no freely adjustable parameters and valid for any alphabet size and any neighborhood range (including non-symmetrical neighborhoods). The map can be extended to an arbitrary number of dimensions and topologies and to arbitrary order in time. Specific CA maps for the famous Conway's Game of Life and Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs are given. An induction method for CAs, based in the universal map, allows mathematical expressions for the orbits of a wide variety of elementary CAs to be systematically derived. -- Highlights: ► A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CA). ► The map is generalized to 2D for Von Neumann, Moore and hexagonal neighborhoods. ► A map for all Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs is derived. ► A map for Conway's “Game of Life” is obtained.

  5. Cellular Adhesion and Adhesion Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    SELLER, Zerrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, cell adhesion and cell adhesion molecules have been shown to be important for many normal biological processes, including embryonic cell migration, immune system functions and wound healing. It has also been shown that they contribute to the pathogenesis of a large number of common human disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and tumor cell metastasis in cancer. In this review, the basic mechanisms of cellular adhesion and the structural and functional features of adhes...

  6. Aging, Cellular Senescence, and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Campisi, Judith

    2012-01-01

    For most species, aging promotes a host of degenerative pathologies that are characterized by debilitating losses of tissue or cellular function. However, especially among vertebrates, aging also promotes hyperplastic pathologies, the most deadly of which is cancer. In contrast to the loss of function that characterizes degenerating cells and tissues, malignant (cancerous) cells must acquire new (albeit aberrant) functions that allow them to develop into a lethal tumor. This review discusses ...

  7. Cellular automata with voting rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowiec, D.

    1996-01-01

    The chosen local interaction - the voting (majority) rule applied to the square lattice is known to cause the non ergodic cellular automata behaviour. Presented computer simulation results verify two cases of non ergodicity. The first one is implicated by the noise introduced to the local interactions and the second one follows properties of the initial lattice configuration selected at random. For the simplified voting rule - non symmetric voting, the critical behaviour has been explained rigorously. (author)

  8. Can We Distinguish Low-mass Black Holes in Neutron Star Binaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; East, William E.; Lehner, Luis

    2018-04-01

    The detection of gravitational waves (GWs) from coalescing binary neutron stars (NS) represents another milestone in gravitational-wave astronomy. However, since LIGO is currently not as sensitive to the merger/ringdown part of the waveform, the possibility that such signals are produced by a black hole (BH)–NS binary can not be easily ruled out without appealing to assumptions about the underlying compact object populations. We review a few astrophysical channels that might produce BHs below 3 M ⊙ (roughly the upper bound on the maximum mass of an NS), as well as existing constraints for these channels. We show that, due to the uncertainty in the NS equation of state, it is difficult to distinguish GWs from a binary NS system from those of a BH–NS system with the same component masses, assuming Advanced LIGO sensitivity. This degeneracy can be broken by accumulating statistics from many events to better constrain the equation of state, or by third-generation detectors with higher sensitivity to the late-spiral to post-merger signal. We also discuss the possible differences in electromagnetic (EM) counterparts between binary NS and low-mass BH–NS mergers, arguing that it will be challenging to definitively distinguish the two without better understanding of the underlying astrophysical processes.

  9. Daniel M. Wegner: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Daniel M. Wegner, the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions. "For seminal contributions that span psychology's breadth--from cognitive to social to personality to clinical--and that reach beyond its borders to philosophy and neuroscience. Daniel M. Wegner's studies on transactive memory, action identification, ironic processes, and apparent mental causation all bear his characteristic mark: a beautiful idea brought to life by an elegant experiment. He has spent his scientific career identifying new and important problems and then offering solutions that sparkle with originality and insight. He has seen doors where others saw walls, opened them to reveal new rooms, and illuminated their dark corners." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Distinguishing high surf from volcanic long-period earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John; Haney, Matt; Fee, David; Paskievitch, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Repeating long-period (LP) earthquakes are observed at active volcanoes worldwide and are typically attributed to unsteady pressure fluctuations associated with fluid migration through the volcanic plumbing system. Nonvolcanic sources of LP signals include ice movement and glacial outburst floods, and the waveform characteristics and frequency content of these events often make them difficult to distinguish from volcanic LP events. We analyze seismic and infrasound data from an LP swarm recorded at Pagan volcano on 12–14 October 2013 and compare the results to ocean wave data from a nearby buoy. We demonstrate that although the events show strong similarity to volcanic LP signals, the events are not volcanic but due to intense surf generated by a passing typhoon. Seismo-acoustic methods allow for rapid distinction of volcanic LP signals from those generated by large surf and other sources, a critical task for volcano monitoring.

  11. A distinguishing gravitational property for gravitational equation in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadhich, Naresh

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that Einstein gravity is kinematic (meaning that there is no non-trivial vacuum solution; i.e. the Riemann tensor vanishes whenever the Ricci tensor does so) in 3 dimension because the Riemann tensor is entirely given in terms of the Ricci tensor. Could this property be universalized for all odd dimensions in a generalized theory? The answer is yes, and this property uniquely singles out pure Lovelock (it has only one Nth order term in the action) gravity for which the Nth order Lovelock-Riemann tensor is indeed given in terms of the corresponding Ricci tensor for all odd, d = 2N + 1, dimensions. This feature of gravity is realized only in higher dimensions and it uniquely picks out pure Lovelock gravity from all other generalizations of Einstein gravity. It serves as a good distinguishing and guiding criterion for the gravitational equation in higher dimensions. (orig.)

  12. What distinguishes passive recipients from active decliners of sales flyers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2014-01-01

    While sales flyer ad spending in Denmark has increased over the last decade ,the proportion of consumers declining to receive such flyers has been ever-increasing. To address this paradox, attitudinal and behavioural factors distinguishing passive recipients from active decliners of sales flyers...... are examined. The results reveal that decliners compared to receivers are less price conscious and that they perceive flyers as more inconvenient and less useful. Although decliners generally use other media less for deal searching than receivers, they are more inclined to search for grocery deals...... on the Internet.To reach the decliners, retailers could focus on the possibilities of the Internet, but to stop the trend of escalating numbers of decliners, retailers will have to address the perceived inconvenience and uselessness of sales flyers....

  13. Chamber catalogues of optical and fluorescent signatures distinguish bioaerosol classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Mark; Perring, Anne E.; McCabe, Kevin; Kok, Greg; Granger, Gary; Baumgardner, Darrel

    2016-07-01

    Rapid bioaerosol characterization has immediate applications in the military, environmental and public health sectors. Recent technological advances have facilitated single-particle detection of fluorescent aerosol in near real time; this leverages controlled ultraviolet exposures with single or multiple wavelengths, followed by the characterization of associated fluorescence. This type of ultraviolet induced fluorescence has been used to detect airborne microorganisms and their fragments in laboratory studies, and it has been extended to field studies that implicate bioaerosol to compose a substantial fraction of supermicron atmospheric particles. To enhance the information yield that new-generation fluorescence instruments can provide, we report the compilation of a referential aerobiological catalogue including more than 50 pure cultures of common airborne bacteria, fungi and pollens, recovered at water activity equilibrium in a mesoscale chamber (1 m3). This catalogue juxtaposes intrinsic optical properties and select bandwidths of fluorescence emissions, which manifest to clearly distinguish between major classes of airborne microbes and pollens.

  14. Remotely Distinguishing and Mapping Endogenic Water on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Rachel L.; Petro, Noah E.

    2017-01-01

    Water and/or hydroxyl detected remotely on the lunar surface originates from several sources: (i) comets and other exogenous debris; (ii) solar wind implantation; (iii) the lunar interior. While each of these sources is interesting in its own right, distinguishing among them is critical for testing hypotheses for the origin and evolution of the Moon and our Solar System. Existing spacecraft observations are not of high enough spectral resolution to uniquely characterize the bonding energies of the hydroxyl molecules that have been detected. Nevertheless, the spatial distribution and associations of H, OH- or H2O with specific lunar lithologies provide some insight into the origin of lunar hydrous materials. The global distribution of OH-/H2O as detected using infrared spectroscopic measurements from orbit is here examined, with particular focus on regional geological features that exhibit OH-/H2O absorption band strengths that differ from their immediate surroundings.

  15. Genetic profiles distinguish different types of hereditary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, Katarina; Malander, Susanne; Staaf, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Heredity represents the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer with disease predisposing mutations identified in 15% of the tumors. With the aim to identify genetic classifiers for hereditary ovarian cancer, we profiled hereditary ovarian cancers linked to the hereditary breast and ovarian canc...... that HBOC and HNPCC associated ovarian cancer develop along distinct genetic pathways and genetic profiles can thus be applied to distinguish between different types of hereditary ovarian cancer.......Heredity represents the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer with disease predisposing mutations identified in 15% of the tumors. With the aim to identify genetic classifiers for hereditary ovarian cancer, we profiled hereditary ovarian cancers linked to the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer...... (HBOC) syndrome and the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome. Genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization was applied to 12 HBOC associated tumors with BRCA1 mutations and 8 HNPCC associated tumors with mismatch repair gene mutations with 24 sporadic ovarian cancers...

  16. Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This award is given to individuals who have made sustained and enduring contributions to international cooperation and the advancement of knowledge in psychology. The 2017 recipient of the APA Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology was selected by the 2016 Committee on International Relations in Psychology (CIRP). The members of the 2016 CIRP were Melissa Morgan Consoli, PhD, and Arpana G. Inman, PhD (Co-chairs); Rehman Abdulrehman, PhD; Gonzalo Bacigalupe, EdD; Frederic Bemak, EdD; Brigitte Khoury, PhD; Susan Nolan, PhD; Nancy Sidun, PsyD; and Danny Wedding, PhD. Dr. Morgan Consoli, Dr. Inman, Dr. Nolan, and Doctor Sidun were members of the subcommittee for the 2017 award. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Simulated multipolarized MAPSAR images to distinguish agricultural crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Fernando Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have shown the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images for agricultural applications, particularly for monitoring regions with limitations in terms of acquiring cloud free optical images. Recently, Brazil and Germany began a feasibility study on the construction of an orbital L-band SAR sensor referred to as MAPSAR (Multi-Application Purpose SAR. This sensor provides L-band images in three spatial resolutions and polarimetric, interferometric and stereoscopic capabilities. Thus, studies are needed to evaluate the potential of future MAPSAR images. The objective of this study was to evaluate multipolarized MAPSAR images simulated by the airborne SAR-R99B sensor to distinguish coffee, cotton and pasture fields in Brazil. Discrimination among crops was evaluated through graphical and cluster analysis of mean backscatter values, considering single, dual and triple polarizations. Planting row direction of coffee influenced the backscatter and was divided into two classes: parallel and perpendicular to the sensor look direction. Single polarizations had poor ability to discriminate the crops. The overall accuracies were less than 59 %, but the understanding of the microwave interaction with the crops could be explored. Combinations of two polarizations could differentiate various fields of crops, highlighting the combination VV-HV that reached 78 % overall accuracy. The use of three polarizations resulted in 85.4 % overall accuracy, indicating that the classes pasture and parallel coffee were fully discriminated from the other classes. These results confirmed the potential of multipolarized MAPSAR images to distinguish the studied crops and showed considerable improvement in the accuracy of the results when the number of polarizations was increased.

  18. Using MT2 to distinguish dark matter stabilization symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Kim, Doojin; Zhu Lijun; Walker, Devin G. E.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the potential of using colliders to distinguish models with parity (Z 2 ) stabilized dark matter (DM) from models in which the DM is stabilized by other symmetries, taking the latter to be a Z 3 symmetry for illustration. The key observation is that a heavier mother particle charged under a Z 3 stabilization symmetry can decay into one or two DM particles along with standard model particles. This can be contrasted with the decay of a mother particle charged under a parity symmetry; typically, only one DM particle appears in the decay chain. The arXiv:1003.0899 studied the distributions of visible invariant mass from the decay of a single such mother particle in order to highlight the resulting distinctive signatures of Z 3 symmetry versus parity symmetry stabilized dark matter candidates. We now describe a complementary study which focuses on decay chains of the two mother particles which are necessarily present in these events. We also include in our analysis the missing energy/momentum in the event. For the Z 3 symmetry stabilized mothers, the resulting inclusive final state can have two, three or four DM particles. In contrast, models with Z 2 symmetry can have only two. We show that the shapes and edges of the distribution of M T2 -type variables, along with ratio of the visible momentum/energy on the two sides of the event, are powerful in distinguishing these different scenarios. Finally we conclude by outlining future work which focuses on reducing combinatoric ambiguities from reconstructing multijet events. Increasing the reconstruction efficiency can allow better reconstruction of events with two or three dark matter candidates in the final state.

  19. Genomic, Pathway Network, and Immunologic Features Distinguishing Squamous Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Campbell

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This integrated, multiplatform PanCancer Atlas study co-mapped and identified distinguishing molecular features of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs from five sites associated with smoking and/or human papillomavirus (HPV. SCCs harbor 3q, 5p, and other recurrent chromosomal copy-number alterations (CNAs, DNA mutations, and/or aberrant methylation of genes and microRNAs, which are correlated with the expression of multi-gene programs linked to squamous cell stemness, epithelial-to-mesenchymal differentiation, growth, genomic integrity, oxidative damage, death, and inflammation. Low-CNA SCCs tended to be HPV(+ and display hypermethylation with repression of TET1 demethylase and FANCF, previously linked to predisposition to SCC, or harbor mutations affecting CASP8, RAS-MAPK pathways, chromatin modifiers, and immunoregulatory molecules. We uncovered hypomethylation of the alternative promoter that drives expression of the ΔNp63 oncogene and embedded miR944. Co-expression of immune checkpoint, T-regulatory, and Myeloid suppressor cells signatures may explain reduced efficacy of immune therapy. These findings support possibilities for molecular classification and therapeutic approaches. : Campbell et al. reveal that squamous cell cancers from different tissue sites may be distinguished from other cancers and subclassified molecularly by recurrent alterations in chromosomes, DNA methylation, messenger and microRNA expression, or by mutations. These affect squamous cell pathways and programs that provide candidates for therapy. Keywords: genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung squamous cell carcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, cervical squamous cell carcinoma, bladder carcinoma with squamous differentiation, human papillomavirus

  20. Generalized Pauli principle for particles with distinguishable traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Vanasse, Jared; Müller, Gerhard; Karbach, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The s=3/2 Ising spin chain with uniform nearest-neighbor coupling, quadratic single-site potential, and magnetic field is shown to be equivalent to a system of 17 species of particles with internal structure. The same set of particles (with different energies) is shown to generate the spectrum of the s=1/2 Ising chain with dimerized nearest-neighbor coupling. The particles are free of interaction energies even at high densities. The mutual exclusion statistics of particles from all species is determined by their internal structure and encoded in a generalized Pauli principle. The exact statistical mechanical analysis can be performed for thermodynamically open or closed systems and with arbitrary energies assigned to all particle species. Special circumstances make it possible to merge two or more species into a single species. All traits that distinguish the original species become ignorable. The particles from the merged species are effectively indistinguishable and obey modified exclusion statistics. Different mergers may yield the same end product, implying that the inverse process (splitting any species into subspecies) is not unique. In a macroscopic system of two merged species at thermal equilibrium, the concentrations of the original species satisfy a functional relation governed by their mutual statistical interaction. That relation is derivable from an extremum principle. In the Ising context the system is open and the particle energies depend on the Hamiltonian parameters. Simple models of polymerization and solitonic paramagnetism each represent a closed system of two species that can transform into each other. Here they represent distinguishable traits with different energies of the same physical particle. © 2012 American Physical Society

  1. Cellular communications a comprehensive and practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathi, Nishith

    2014-01-01

    Even as newer cellular technologies and standards emerge, many of the fundamental principles and the components of the cellular network remain the same. Presenting a simple yet comprehensive view of cellular communications technologies, Cellular Communications provides an end-to-end perspective of cellular operations, ranging from physical layer details to call set-up and from the radio network to the core network. This self-contained source forpractitioners and students represents a comprehensive survey of the fundamentals of cellular communications and the landscape of commercially deployed

  2. Pathway towards Programmable Wave Anisotropy in Cellular Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Paolo; Zhang, Weiting; Gonella, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we provide a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of the wave-control capabilities of cellular metamaterials endowed with populations of tunable electromechanical resonators. Each independently tunable resonator comprises a piezoelectric patch and a resistor-inductor shunt, and its resonant frequency can be seamlessly reprogrammed without interfering with the cellular structure's default properties. We show that, by strategically placing the resonators in the lattice domain and by deliberately activating only selected subsets of them, chosen to conform to the directional features of the beamed wave response, it is possible to override the inherent wave anisotropy of the cellular medium. The outcome is the establishment of tunable spatial patterns of energy distillation resulting in a nonsymmetric correction of the wave fields.

  3. Do stellar clusters form fewer binaries? Using moderate separation binaries to distinguish between nature and nurture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Megan

    2017-08-01

    Fewer wide-separation binaries are found in dense stellar clusters than in looser stellar associations. It is therefore unclear whether feedback in clusters prevents the formation of multiple systems or dynamical interactions destroy them. Measuring the prevalence of close, bound binary systems provide a key test to distinguish between these possibilities. Systems with separations of 10-50 AU will survive interactions in the cluster environment, and therefore are more representative of the natal population of multiple systems. By fitting a double-star PSF, we will identify visual binaries in the Orion Nebula with separations as small as 0.03. At the distance of Orion, this corresponds to a physical separation of 12 AU, effectively closing the observational gap in the binary separation distribution left between known visual and spectroscopic binaries (>65 AU or PhD thesis.

  4. Distinguishing dark matter from unresolved point sources in the Inner Galaxy with photon statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Samuel K. [Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University, 400 Jadwin Hall, Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States); Lisanti, Mariangela [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Jadwin Hall, Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States); Safdi, Benjamin R., E-mail: samuelkl@princeton.edu, E-mail: mlisanti@princeton.edu, E-mail: bsafdi@princeton.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., 6-304, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope suggests that there is an extended excess of GeV gamma-ray photons in the Inner Galaxy. Identifying potential astrophysical sources that contribute to this excess is an important step in verifying whether the signal originates from annihilating dark matter. In this paper, we focus on the potential contribution of unresolved point sources, such as millisecond pulsars (MSPs). We propose that the statistics of the photons—in particular, the flux probability density function (PDF) of the photon counts below the point-source detection threshold—can potentially distinguish between the dark-matter and point-source interpretations. We calculate the flux PDF via the method of generating functions for these two models of the excess. Working in the framework of Bayesian model comparison, we then demonstrate that the flux PDF can potentially provide evidence for an unresolved MSP-like point-source population.

  5. Jordan M. Braciszewski: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Jordan M. Braciszewski as the 2011 winner of the American psychological Association APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology. "For his concerted efforts to identify the needs of homeless and other at-risk populations and to design and provide necessary services for them. Jordan M. Braciszewski is committed to using applied psychological science and evidence-based intervention methods to assist the most disadvantaged in our society. He has already provided additions to the relevant research literature and has volunteered countless hours of his time to implement community-based interventions and provide direct services himself. He has sought out the training experiences necessary to assist him in doing an even better job in the future in these public service activities." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Dynamics and mechanisms of quantum dot nanoparticle cellular uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telford William G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid growth of the nanotechnology industry and the wide application of various nanomaterials have raised concerns over their impact on the environment and human health. Yet little is known about the mechanism of cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of nanoparticles. An array of nanomaterials has recently been introduced into cancer research promising for remarkable improvements in diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Among them, quantum dots (QDs distinguish themselves in offering many intrinsic photophysical properties that are desirable for targeted imaging and drug delivery. Results We explored the kinetics and mechanism of cellular uptake of QDs with different surface coatings in two human mammary cells. Using fluorescence microscopy and laser scanning cytometry (LSC, we found that both MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells internalized large amount of QD655-COOH, but the percentage of endocytosing cells is slightly higher in MCF-7 cell line than in MCF-10A cell line. Live cell fluorescent imaging showed that QD cellular uptake increases with time over 40 h of incubation. Staining cells with dyes specific to various intracellular organelles indicated that QDs were localized in lysosomes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM images suggested a potential pathway for QD cellular uptake mechanism involving three major stages: endocytosis, sequestration in early endosomes, and translocation to later endosomes or lysosomes. No cytotoxicity was observed in cells incubated with 0.8 nM of QDs for a period of 72 h. Conclusions The findings presented here provide information on the mechanism of QD endocytosis that could be exploited to reduce non-specific targeting, thereby improving specific targeting of QDs in cancer diagnosis and treatment applications. These findings are also important in understanding the cytotoxicity of nanomaterials and in emphasizing the importance of strict environmental control of nanoparticles.

  7. Cellular-based sea level gauge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.

    -speed data transfer and near real-time data reporting. While satellite communication is expensive, wireless communication infrastructure and the ubiquity of cellular phones have made cellular communication affordable. Low initial and recurring costs...

  8. New directions in cellular therapy of cancer: a summary of the summit on cellular therapy for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroncek David F

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A summit on cellular therapy for cancer discussed and presented advances related to the use of adoptive cellular therapy for melanoma and other cancers. The summit revealed that this field is advancing rapidly. Conventional cellular therapies, such as tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL, are becoming more effective and more available. Gene therapy is becoming an important tool in adoptive cell therapy. Lymphocytes are being engineered to express high affinity T cell receptors (TCRs, chimeric antibody-T cell receptors (CARs and cytokines. T cell subsets with more naïve and stem cell-like characteristics have been shown in pre-clinical models to be more effective than unselected populations and it is now possible to reprogram T cells and to produce T cells with stem cell characteristics. In the future, combinations of adoptive transfer of T cells and specific vaccination against the cognate antigen can be envisaged to further enhance the effectiveness of these therapies.

  9. Distinguishing Failure to Cure From Complication After Penile Prosthesis Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Miguel; Burnett, Arthur L

    2017-05-01

    A successful penile prosthesis implantation (PPI) surgery can be defined by outcomes beyond the absence of complications. To introduce the concept of failure to cure (FTC) in the context of PPI to more accurately gauge postoperative outcomes after PPI. Consecutive patients from our sexual function registry who underwent PPI from January 2011 to December 2013 were analyzed. Demographics, previous treatment of erectile dysfunction, comorbidities, social history, postoperative problems (POPs), and surgical outcomes were tabulated. Patients completed the International Index of Erection Function (IIEF) and the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction questionnaires. We defined a complication, according to the Clavien-Dindo classification, as any deviation from the ideal postoperative course that is not inherent in the procedure and does not constitute an FTC. FTC was defined as a POP that was not a complication. The χ 2 tests, t-tests, or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used. Patient-reported and objective outcomes after PPI. Our enrollment consisted of 185 patients, and we contacted 124 (67%). Of these, 16 (12.9%) had a POP requiring reoperation. Eight patients developed surgical complications (three infections, four erosions, and one chronic pain). Eight patients had FTC (four malpositions and four malfunctions). Factors that correlated with POPs were previous PPI, body mass index higher than 30 kg/m 2 , and previous treatment with intracorporal injections (P .05 for all comparisons). POPs after PPI surgery can be more accurately categorized using the Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications to more clearly distinguish surgical complications from FTC. Limitations of our study include its retrospective approach. Our series included a large proportion of patients treated for prostate cancer, which limits the generalizability of our findings. We also had a relatively short median follow-up time of 27 months. Patient-reported outcome

  10. [Cellular subcutaneous tissue. Anatomic observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart-Elbaz, C; Varnaison, E; Sick, H; Grosshans, E; Cribier, B

    2001-11-01

    We showed in a companion paper that the definition of the French "subcutaneous cellular tissue" considerably varied from the 18th to the end of the 20th centuries and has not yet reached a consensus. To address the anatomic reality of this "subcutaneous cellular tissue", we investigated the anatomic structures underlying the fat tissue in normal human skin. Sixty specimens were excised from the surface to the deep structures (bone, muscle, cartilage) on different body sites of 3 cadavers from the Institut d'Anatomie Normale de Strasbourg. Samples were paraffin-embedded, stained and analysed with a binocular microscope taking x 1 photographs. Specimens were also excised and fixed after subcutaneous injection of Indian ink, after mechanic tissue splitting and after performing artificial skin folds. The aspects of the deep parts of the skin greatly varied according to their anatomic localisation. Below the adipose tissue, we often found a lamellar fibrous layer which extended from the interlobular septa and contained horizontally distributed fat cells. No specific tissue below the hypodermis was observed. Artificial skin folds concerned either exclusively the dermis, when they were superficial or included the hypodermis, but no specific structure was apparent in the center of the fold. India ink diffused to the adipose tissue, mainly along the septa, but did not localise in a specific subcutaneous compartment. This study shows that the histologic aspects of the deep part of the skin depend mainly on the anatomic localisation. Skin is composed of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis and thus the hypodermis can not be considered as being "subcutaneous". A difficult to individualise, fibrous lamellar structure in continuity with the interlobular septa is often found under the fat lobules. This structure is a cleavage line, as is always the case with loose connective tissues, but belongs to the hypodermis (i.e. fat tissue). No specific tissue nor any virtual space was

  11. Cellular automata a parallel model

    CERN Document Server

    Mazoyer, J

    1999-01-01

    Cellular automata can be viewed both as computational models and modelling systems of real processes. This volume emphasises the first aspect. In articles written by leading researchers, sophisticated massive parallel algorithms (firing squad, life, Fischer's primes recognition) are treated. Their computational power and the specific complexity classes they determine are surveyed, while some recent results in relation to chaos from a new dynamic systems point of view are also presented. Audience: This book will be of interest to specialists of theoretical computer science and the parallelism challenge.

  12. Early assembly of cellular life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, J T

    2003-04-01

    Popular hypotheses that attempt to explain the origin of prebiotic molecules and cellular life capable of growth and division are not always agreed upon. In this manuscript, information on early bacterial life on Earth is examined using information from several disciplines. For example, knowledge can be integrated from physics, thermodynamics, planetary sciences, geology, biogeochemistry, lipid chemistry, primordial cell structures, cell and molecular biology, microbiology, metabolism and genetics. The origin of life also required a combination of elements, compounds and environmental physical-chemical conditions that allowed cells to assemble in less than a billion years. This may have been widespread in the subsurface of the early Earth located at microscopic physical domains.

  13. 'Biomoleculas': cellular metabolism didactic software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menghi, M L; Novella, L P; Siebenlist, M R

    2007-01-01

    'Biomoleculas' is a software that deals with topics such as the digestion, cellular metabolism and excretion of nutrients. It is a pleasant, simple and didactic guide, made by and for students. In this program, each biomolecule (carbohydrates, lipids and proteins) is accompanied until its degradation and assimilation by crossing and interrelating the different metabolic channels to finally show the destination of the different metabolites formed and the way in which these are excreted. It is used at present as a teaching-learning process tool by the chair of Physiology and Biophysics at the Facultad de Ingenieria - Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios

  14. Game of Life Cellular Automata

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1960s, British mathematician John Conway invented a virtual mathematical machine that operates on a two-dimensional array of square cell. Each cell takes two states, live and dead. The cells' states are updated simultaneously and in discrete time. A dead cell comes to life if it has exactly three live neighbours. A live cell remains alive if two or three of its neighbours are alive, otherwise the cell dies. Conway's Game of Life became the most programmed solitary game and the most known cellular automaton. The book brings together results of forty years of study into computational

  15. Symmetry analysis of cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Morales, V.

    2013-01-01

    By means of B-calculus [V. García-Morales, Phys. Lett. A 376 (2012) 2645] a universal map for deterministic cellular automata (CAs) has been derived. The latter is shown here to be invariant upon certain transformations (global complementation, reflection and shift). When constructing CA rules in terms of rules of lower range a new symmetry, “invariance under construction” is uncovered. Modular arithmetic is also reformulated within B-calculus and a new symmetry of certain totalistic CA rules, which calculate the Pascal simplices modulo an integer number p, is then also uncovered.

  16. Protein accounting in the cellular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Laslop, Nora; Mankin, Alexander S

    2014-04-24

    Knowing the copy number of cellular proteins is critical for understanding cell physiology. By being able to measure the absolute synthesis rates of the majority of cellular proteins, Li et al. gain insights into key aspects of translation regulation and fundamental principles of cellular strategies to adjust protein synthesis according to the functional needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Zeno's paradox in quantum cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groessing, G.; Zeilinger, A.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of Zeno's paradox in quantum theory is demonstrated with the aid of quantum mechanical cellular automata. It is shown that the degree of non-unitarity of the cellular automaton evolution and the frequency of consecutive measurements of cellular automaton states are operationally indistinguishable. (orig.)

  18. Cellular Senescence and the Biology of Aging, Disease, and Frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBrasseur, Nathan K; Tchkonia, Tamara; Kirkland, James L

    2015-01-01

    Population aging simultaneously highlights the remarkable advances in science, medicine, and public policy, and the formidable challenges facing society. Indeed, aging is the primary risk factor for many of the most common chronic diseases and frailty, which result in profound social and economic costs. Population aging also reveals an opportunity, i.e. interventions to disrupt the fundamental biology of aging could significantly delay the onset of age-related conditions as a group, and, as a result, extend the healthy life span, or health span. There is now considerable evidence that cellular senescence is an underlying mechanism of aging and age-related conditions. Cellular senescence is a process in which cells lose the ability to divide and damage neighboring cells by the factors they secrete, collectively referred to as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Herein, we discuss the concept of cellular senescence, review the evidence that implicates cellular senescence and SASP in age-related deterioration, hyperproliferation, and inflammation, and propose that this underlying mechanism of aging may play a fundamental role in the biology of frailty. © 2015 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Mobile telephony (cellular) and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravi, F.D.

    2007-01-01

    One third of the world population uses mobile phones or cellular (TM), as possible repercussions on health has resulted in numerous studies. TM and their bases (antennae) exchange information through microwaves, which are non-ionizing electromagnetic radiations. Microwaves have thermal effects, which are avoided by current safety standards. However, there are lingering doubts about possible adverse health consequences of non-thermal effects of microwaves. As a whole, basic and epidemiological research on TM and cancer indicates a very low or nonexistent risk, although longer prospective studies are needed. In the nervous system, TM microwaves cause electrophysiological changes and modifications of blood flow, with little effect on performance. Possible effects on the thyroid gland, the reproductive system, and oxidative stress demand additional research. Some TM users complain of unspecific symptoms, but no causal relationship has been proved either in normal subjects or those self-characterized as hypersensitive to electromagnetic fields. Epidemiological research on populations living close to base stations suggests adverse effects from exposition, but experimental work has yielded contradictory results. The effects on children have just begun to be explored. TM may interfere with medical equipment when the phones are operated very close to the devices. Ironically, the clearest adverse effect of TM has no direct relationship with microwaves. The use of TM while driving causes a decrease in performance comparable to moderate consumption of alcohol and quadruples the risk of accidents. (author) [es

  20. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Neil Lutsky

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Neil Lutsky. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Distinguished Teaching Award…

  1. Cellular energy allocation in zebra mussels exposed along a pollution gradient: linking cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolders, R.; Bervoets, L.; Coen, W. de; Blust, R

    2004-05-01

    Organisms exposed to suboptimal environments incur a cost of dealing with stress in terms of metabolic resources. The total amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction, based on the biochemical analysis of the energy budget, may provide a sensitive measure of stress in an organism. While the concept is clear, linking cellular or biochemical responses to the individual and population or community level remains difficult. The aim of this study was to validate, under field conditions, using cellular energy budgets [i.e. changes in glycogen-, lipid- and protein-content and mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS)] as an ecologically relevant measurement of stress by comparing these responses to physiological and organismal endpoints. Therefore, a 28-day in situ bioassay with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) was performed in an effluent-dominated stream. Five locations were selected along the pollution gradient and compared with a nearby (reference) site. Cellular Energy Allocation (CEA) served as a biomarker of cellular energetics, while Scope for Growth (SFG) indicated effects on a physiological level and Tissue Condition Index and wet tissue weight/dry tissue weight ratio were used as endpoints of organismal effects. Results indicated that energy budgets at a cellular level of biological organization provided the fastest and most sensitive response and energy budgets are a relevant currency to extrapolate cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization within the exposed mussels. - Exposure of zebra mussels along a pollution gradient has adverse effects on the cellular energy allocation, and results can be linked with higher levels of biological organization.

  2. Cellular energy allocation in zebra mussels exposed along a pollution gradient: linking cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolders, R.; Bervoets, L.; Coen, W. de; Blust, R.

    2004-01-01

    Organisms exposed to suboptimal environments incur a cost of dealing with stress in terms of metabolic resources. The total amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction, based on the biochemical analysis of the energy budget, may provide a sensitive measure of stress in an organism. While the concept is clear, linking cellular or biochemical responses to the individual and population or community level remains difficult. The aim of this study was to validate, under field conditions, using cellular energy budgets [i.e. changes in glycogen-, lipid- and protein-content and mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS)] as an ecologically relevant measurement of stress by comparing these responses to physiological and organismal endpoints. Therefore, a 28-day in situ bioassay with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) was performed in an effluent-dominated stream. Five locations were selected along the pollution gradient and compared with a nearby (reference) site. Cellular Energy Allocation (CEA) served as a biomarker of cellular energetics, while Scope for Growth (SFG) indicated effects on a physiological level and Tissue Condition Index and wet tissue weight/dry tissue weight ratio were used as endpoints of organismal effects. Results indicated that energy budgets at a cellular level of biological organization provided the fastest and most sensitive response and energy budgets are a relevant currency to extrapolate cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization within the exposed mussels. - Exposure of zebra mussels along a pollution gradient has adverse effects on the cellular energy allocation, and results can be linked with higher levels of biological organization

  3. Two Phase Flow Simulation Using Cellular Automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcel, C.P.

    2002-01-01

    The classical mathematical treatment of two-phase flows is based on the average of the conservation equations for each phase.In this work, a complementary approach to the modeling of these systems based on statistical population balances of aut omata sets is presented.Automata are entities defined by mathematical states that change following iterative rules representing interactions with the neighborhood.A model of automata for two-phase flow simulation is presented.This model consists of fie lds of virtual spheres that change their volumes and move around a certain environment.The model is more general than the classical cellular automata in two respects: the grid of cellular automata is dismissed in favor of a trajectory generator, and the rules of interaction involve parameters representing the actual physical interactions between phases.Automata simulation was used to study unsolved two-phase flow problems involving high heat flux rates. One system described in this work consists of a vertical channel with saturated water at normal pressure heated from the lower surface.The heater causes water to boil and starts the bubble production.We used cellular automata to describe two-phase flows and the interaction with the heater.General rule s for such cellular automata representing bubbles moving in stagnant liquid were used, with special attention to correct modeling of different mechanisms of heat transfer.The results of the model were compared to previous experiments and correlations finding good agreement.One of the most important findings is the confirmation of Kutateladze's idea about a close relation between the start of critical heat flux and a change in the flow's topology.This was analyzed using a control volume located in the upper surface of the heater.A strong decrease in the interfacial surface just before the CHF start was encountered.The automata describe quite well some characteristic parameters such as the shape of the local void fraction in the

  4. Research leadership: should clinical directors be distinguished researchers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stephen; Goodall, Amanda H; Bastiampillai, Tarun

    2016-06-01

    Clinical directors established research-led healthcare by combining research, teaching and clinical excellence within the teaching hospitals. This research culture created high clinical standards, which benefited patients, the workforce and healthcare organisations. The current paper explores this research leadership role for clinical directors. It reviews studies arising from the theory of expert leadership, which focuses on the relationship between a leader's core knowledge and organisational performance. More specifically, we examine the expert leader's research track record, the associations with their organisation's performance, and the influence of research activity on clinical excellence. Distinguished researchers still lead the most prestigious teaching hospitals and the most trusted departments of psychiatry in the United States where the clinical directorate structure originated. It is also known that good scholars can improve research output when appointed to leadership positions. This suggests that the clinical director's research track record should be a consideration at a time when research is being embedded in Australia's local health networks. A clinical director's leadership may influence the research performance of their department and contribute to the quality of mental healthcare. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  5. Identification of three distinguishable phenotypes in golden retriever muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrósio, C E; Fadel, L; Gaiad, T P; Martins, D S; Araújo, K P C; Zucconi, E; Brolio, M P; Giglio, R F; Morini, A C; Jazedje, T; Froes, T R; Feitosa, M L T; Valadares, M C; Beltrão-Braga, P C B; Meirelles, F V; Miglino, M A

    2009-04-07

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a human disease characterized by progressive and irreversible skeletal muscle degeneration caused by mutations in genes coding for important muscle proteins. Unfortunately, there is no efficient treatment for this disease; it causes progressive loss of motor and muscular ability until death. The canine model (golden retriever muscular dystrophy) is similar to DMD, showing similar clinical signs. Fifteen dogs were followed from birth and closely observed for clinical signs. Dogs had their disease status confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis and genotyping. Clinical observations of musculoskeletal, morphological, gastrointestinal, respiratory, cardiovascular, and renal features allowed us to identify three distinguishable phenotypes in dystrophic dogs: mild (grade I), moderate (grade II) and severe (grade III). These three groups showed no difference in dystrophic alterations of muscle morphology and creatine kinase levels. This information will be useful for therapeutic trials, because DMD also shows significant, inter- and intra-familiar clinical variability. Additionally, being aware of phenotypic differences in this animal model is essential for correct interpretation and understanding of results obtained in pre-clinical trials.

  6. Method and apparatus for distinguishing hydrocarbon from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, H.; Ullo, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a neutron-based technique and apparatus for distinguishing between some oils and fresh water. It is proposed that the oil/water content of the fluid within a geological formation may be investigated by irradiating the formation with neutrons and by measuring a property indicative of neutron transport through the formation to derive an indication of the influence of the formation fluids on neutron transport. Specifically, the neutron flux distribution resulting from the irradiation is measured and used to derive a first signal which is a function of both formation porosity and hydrogen density of the fluid in the formation. The presence of oil versus water in the formation is then determined by deriving a second porosity signal. This signal may be less affected by the nature of the formation fluid, whether water or oil, than the first signal. In this case it may be obtained from a gamma-gamma density tool or a sonic tool. Alternatively, it may be obtained following the change of the formation fluid to a fluid having a different hydrogen density and combining the signals to determine their differential. Where the first porosity signal exceed the second, oil as opposed to water may be suspected. The step of detecting the neutron flux distribution may include detecting the spatial neutron flux distribution by detecting neutron flux amplitudes at one or more points spaced from the neutron source. In addition, the neutron detection step may comprise the detection of the epithermal neutron flux distribution

  7. Bringing to Market Technological Innovation: What Distinguishes Success from Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Frattini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercialization is a critical step in technological innovation. Nevertheless, many scholars believe that it is often the least well-managed activity of the whole innovation process. The launch stage seems to be particularly critical in high-technology markets because of the volatility, interconnectedness and the proliferation of new technologies they experience. However, academic and practitioners’ literature has not, so far, developed a clear understanding of the factors that distinguish an effective commercialization from an unsuccessful one, especially in high-technology environments. This paper discusses the results of a research project that aimed to understand the ingredients for success in the commercialization of a technological innovation. The first stage of the research consisted of a comparative historical analysis of 18 innovations, which were commercialized in consumer high-tech markets in the last 30 years. The analysis advocates that an effective commercialization comprises three sub-strategies: Early adoption strategy, Adoption network configuration strategy and Mainstream adoption strategy, with each one characterized by a coherent set of commercialization dimensions. The relative importance of each sub-strategy in determining the innovation commercial success depends on the type of innovation that is commercialized, be it radical or incremental and discontinuous or continuous.

  8. Distinguishability of Neutrino Flavors Through Their Different Shower Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ching; Chen, Pisin; Hu, Chia-Yu; Lai, K.-C.

    2013-12-01

    We propose a new avor identification method to distinguish mu and tau type ultra high energy cosmic neutrinos (UHECN). Energy loss of leptons in matter is an important information for the detection of neutrinos originated from high energy astrophysical sources. 50 years ago, Askaryan proposed to detect Cherenkov radiowave signals emitted from the negative charge excess of neutrino-induced particle shower. The theory of Cherenkov radiation under Fraunhofer approximation has been widely studied in the past two decades. However, at high energies or for high density materials, electromagnetic shower should be elongated due to the Landau-Pomeranchuck-Migdal (LPM) effect. As such the standard Fraunhofer approximation ceases to be valid when the distance between the shower and the detector becomes comparable with the shower length. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed recently to investigate this regime. Here we adopt the deduced relationship between the radio signal and the cascade development profile to investigate its implication to lepton signatures. Our method provides a straightforward technique to identify the neutrino avor through the detected Cherenkov signals.

  9. Distinguishing Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior From Stereotypy: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chok, James T; Koesler, Bryan

    2014-05-01

    The current project was an initial attempt to develop assessment procedures for distinguishing between obsessive-compulsive (OC) and stereotypic behavior and evaluate the impact of different treatments for these behaviors. Two individuals with autism, one with repetitive behavior characteristic of OC behavior and one with repetitive behavior not characteristic of OC behavior, participated in the study. In Experiment 1, given that individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) report experiencing unpleasant urges that are relieved when they perform compulsive actions, an attempt was made to identify these experiences by measuring heart rate and affect when access to repetitive behavior was restricted and allowed. In Experiment 2, a multiple schedules treatment was conducted with each participant, and in Experiment 3, the participant with autism and OC behavior completed exposure and response prevention (ERP) treatment. The overall results across studies suggest that one potential way to discriminate between OC behavior and stereotypy in nonvocal children with autism is to consider the topography of repetitive behavior along with changes in physiology and affect. In addition, it may be worth considering the use of ERP, a traditional treatment for OCD, to treat repetitive behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement if treatments that provide access to repetitive behavior are not effective. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Distinguishing Motor Weakness From Impaired Spatial Awareness: A Helping Hand!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneil A Raju

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Our patient, aged 73 years, had background peripheral neuropathy of unknown cause, stable for several years, which caused some difficulty in walking on uneven ground. He attended for a teaching session but now staggered in, a new development. He had apparent weakness of his right arm, but there was difficulty in distinguishing motor weakness from impaired spatial awareness suggestive of parietal lobe dysfunction. With the patient seated, eyes closed, and left arm outstretched, S.A.R. lifted the patient’s right arm and asked him to indicate when both were level. This confirmed motor weakness. Urgent computed tomographic scan confirmed left subdural haematoma and its urgent evacuation rapidly resolved the patient’s symptoms. Intrigued by our patient’s case, we explored further and learnt that in rehabilitation medicine, the awareness of limb position is commonly viewed in terms of joint position sense. We present recent literature evidence indicating that the underlying mechanisms are more subtle.

  11. Distinguishing community benefits: tax exemption versus organizational legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, James D; Landry, Amy

    2012-01-01

    US policymakers continue to call into question the tax-exempt status of hospitals. As nonprofit tax-exempt entities, hospitals are required by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) to report the type and cost of community benefits they provide. Institutional theory indicates that organizations derive organizational legitimacy from conforming to the expectations of their environment. Expectations from the state and federal regulators (the IRS, state and local taxing authorities in particular) and the community require hospitals to provide community benefits to achieve legitimacy. This article examines community benefit through an institutional theory framework, which includes regulative (laws and regulation), normative (certification and accreditation), and cultural-cognitive (relationship with the community including the provision of community benefits) pillars. Considering a review of the results of a 2006 IRS study of tax-exempt hospitals, the authors propose a model of hospital community benefit behaviors that distinguishes community benefits between cost-quantifiable activities appropriate for justifying tax exemption and unquantifiable activities that only contribute to hospitals' legitimacy.

  12. Distinguishing between microscale gaseous bubbles and liquid drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Beng Hau; An, Hongjie; Chan, Chon U.; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, there has been strong research interest in decorating surfaces with tiny bubbles and drops due to their potential applications in reducing slippage in micro and nanofluidic devices. Both nanobubbles and nanodrops are typically nucleated by exchanging fluids over a suitable substrate. However, the nucleation experiments present many challenges, such as reproducibility and the possibility of contamination. The use of one-use plastic syringes and needle cannulas in nucleation experiments can introduce polymeric contamination. A contaminated experiment may nucleate bubbles, drops or both. Moreover, it is surprisingly difficult to distinguish between bubbles and drops under the usual atomic force microscopy or optical techniques. Here we present an experimental study comparing bubbles and oil (PDMS) drops on an atomically smooth surface (HOPG). Instead of nucleating the objects via solvent exchange, we directly introduced bubbles via electrolysis, and oil drops by injecting a dilute solution. Contrary to previous reports, we find that under careful AFM characterisation, liquid drops and gaseous bubbles respond differently to a change in imaging force, and moreover present different characteristic force curves.

  13. A 16-gene signature distinguishes anaplastic astrocytoma from glioblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Alige Mahabala Rao

    Full Text Available Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA; Grade III and glioblastoma (GBM; Grade IV are diffusely infiltrating tumors and are called malignant astrocytomas. The treatment regimen and prognosis are distinctly different between anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma patients. Although histopathology based current grading system is well accepted and largely reproducible, intratumoral histologic variations often lead to difficulties in classification of malignant astrocytoma samples. In order to obtain a more robust molecular classifier, we analysed RT-qPCR expression data of 175 differentially regulated genes across astrocytoma using Prediction Analysis of Microarrays (PAM and found the most discriminatory 16-gene expression signature for the classification of anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma. The 16-gene signature obtained in the training set was validated in the test set with diagnostic accuracy of 89%. Additionally, validation of the 16-gene signature in multiple independent cohorts revealed that the signature predicted anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma samples with accuracy rates of 99%, 88%, and 92% in TCGA, GSE1993 and GSE4422 datasets, respectively. The protein-protein interaction network and pathway analysis suggested that the 16-genes of the signature identified epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT pathway as the most differentially regulated pathway in glioblastoma compared to anaplastic astrocytoma. In addition to identifying 16 gene classification signature, we also demonstrated that genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition may play an important role in distinguishing glioblastoma from anaplastic astrocytoma.

  14. A single molecular marker to distinguish between species of Dioscorea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techen, Natascha; Parveen, Iffat; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2017-03-01

    Yams are species of the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae), which consists of approximately 630 species. The majority of the world production of yams occurs in Africa with 58.8 million t annually, but they are also produced in the Americas and Asia. The saponins in yams have been reported to possess various properties to improve health. The tuber and aerial parts of various species often share morphological similarities, which can cause problems in the proper identification of sample material. For example, the rootstocks and aerial parts of Dioscorea villosa L. share similarities with Dioscorea polystachia Turcz. Dioscorea bulbifera L. may be mistaken for Dioscorea alata L. owing to similar morphologies. Various molecular analyses have been published to help with the identification of species and varieties within the genus Dioscorea. The multi-loci or single-locus analysis has resulted in varying success, some with only a limited discrimination rate. In the present study, a single nuclear genomic region, biparentally inherited, was analyzed for its usefulness as a molecular marker for species identification and discrimination between D. bulbifera, D. villosa, D. nipponica, D. alata, D. caucasica, and D. deltoidea samples. The results of this study show that the LFY genomic region can be useful as a molecular marker to distinguish between samples.

  15. Distinguishing Bovine Fecal Matter on Spinach Leaves Using Field Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm D. Everard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection of fecal contaminants on leafy greens in the field will allow for decreasing cross-contamination of produce during and post-harvest. Fecal contamination of leafy greens has been associated with Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 outbreaks and foodborne illnesses. In this study, passive field spectroscopy measuring reflectance and fluorescence created by the sun’s light, coupled with numerical normalization techniques, are used to distinguish fecal contaminants on spinach leaves from soil on spinach leaves and uncontaminated spinach leaf portions. A Savitzky-Golay first derivative transformation and a waveband ratio of 710:688 nm as normalizing techniques were assessed. A soft independent modelling of class analogies (SIMCA procedure with a 216 sample training set successfully predicted all 54 test set sample types using the spectral region of 600–800 nm. The ratio of 710:688 nm along with set thresholds separated all 270 samples by type. Application of these techniques in-field to avoid harvesting of fecal contaminated leafy greens may lead to a reduction in foodborne illnesses as well as reduced produce waste.

  16. Distinguishing Intrapsychic From Interpersonal Motives in Psychological Theory and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Mark R; Raimi, Kaitlin Toner; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Diebels, Kate J

    2015-07-01

    Many psychological phenomena have been explained primarily in terms of intrapsychic motives to maintain particular cognitive or affective states--such as motives for consistency, self-esteem, and authenticity--whereas other phenomena have been explained in terms of interpersonal motives to obtain tangible resources, reactions, or outcomes from other people. In this article, we describe and contrast intrapsychic and interpersonal motives, and we review evidence showing that these two distinct sets of motives are sometimes conflated and confused in ways that undermine the viability of motivational theories. Explanations that invoke motives to maintain certain intrapsychic states offer a dramatically different view of the psychological foundations of human behavior than those that posit motives to obtain desired interpersonal outcomes. Several phenomena are examined as exemplars of instances in which interpersonal and intrapsychic motives have been inadequately distinguished, if not directly confounded, including cognitive dissonance, the self-esteem motive, biases in judgment and decision making, posttransgression accounts, authenticity, and self-conscious emotions. Our analysis of the literature suggests that theorists and researchers should consider the relative importance of intrapsychic versus interpersonal motives in the phenomena they study and that they should make a concerted effort to deconfound intrapsychic and interpersonal influences in their research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Distinguishing a Rare Variant of Lipidized Dermatofibroma from Nonlipidized Dermatofibromas in a Patient with Hypothyroidism and Alopecia Areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Farah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lipidized dermatofibromas represent rare and often underrecognized variants of dermatofibromas. Histologically, dermatofibromas are composed of fibroblast-like spindle cells, foam cells, giant cells, siderophages, lymphocytes, capillaries, collagen fibers, and hyaline dermal collagen fibers. Lipidized dermatofibromas are characterized by numerous foam cells, Touton giant cells, and hyalinized wiry collagen in the stroma. Case report. We present a case of a 31-year-old woman with a history of hypothyroidism and alopecia areata, presenting with an enlarging 8 mm, firm erythematous nodule on her upper-mid back. Biopsy examination showed a cellular proliferation of spindle cells with peripheral collagen trapping and cholesterol clefts with associated foam cells and sclerosis, staining weakly positive for Factor XIIIa and negative for CD34. The diagnosis of a benign lipidized dermatofibroma was rendered. Conclusion. Lipidized dermatofibromas are rare histologic variants of dermatofibromas, biologically indolent, and should be distinguished from other cutaneous foamy histiocytic lesions, particularly xanthomas, which may alter patient management.

  18. Somatic point mutation calling in low cellularity tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin S Kassahn

    Full Text Available Somatic mutation calling from next-generation sequencing data remains a challenge due to the difficulties of distinguishing true somatic events from artifacts arising from PCR, sequencing errors or mis-mapping. Tumor cellularity or purity, sub-clonality and copy number changes also confound the identification of true somatic events against a background of germline variants. We have developed a heuristic strategy and software (http://www.qcmg.org/bioinformatics/qsnp/ for somatic mutation calling in samples with low tumor content and we show the superior sensitivity and precision of our approach using a previously sequenced cell line, a series of tumor/normal admixtures, and 3,253 putative somatic SNVs verified on an orthogonal platform.

  19. Melanoma screening with cellular phones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Massone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mobile teledermatology has recently been shown to be suitable for teledermatology despite limitations in image definition in preliminary studies. The unique aspect of mobile teledermatology is that this system represents a filtering or triage system, allowing a sensitive approach for the management of patients with emergent skin diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we investigated the feasibility of teleconsultation using a new generation of cellular phones in pigmented skin lesions. 18 patients were selected consecutively in the Pigmented Skin Lesions Clinic of the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria. Clinical and dermoscopic images were acquired using a Sony Ericsson with a built-in two-megapixel camera. Two teleconsultants reviewed the images on a specific web application (http://www.dermahandy.net/default.asp where images had been uploaded in JPEG format. Compared to the face-to-face diagnoses, the two teleconsultants obtained a score of correct telediagnoses of 89% and of 91.5% reporting the clinical and dermoscopic images, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present work is the first study performing mobile teledermoscopy using cellular phones. Mobile teledermatology has the potential to become an easy applicable tool for everyone and a new approach for enhanced self-monitoring for skin cancer screening in the spirit of the eHealth program of the European Commission Information for Society and Media.

  20. Pasteurella multocida: from Zoonosis to Cellular Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Mengfei

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In a world where most emerging and reemerging infectious diseases are zoonotic in nature and our contacts with both domestic and wild animals abound, there is growing awareness of the potential for human acquisition of animal diseases. Like other Pasteurellaceae, Pasteurella species are highly prevalent among animal populations, where they are often found as part of the normal microbiota of the oral, nasopharyngeal, and upper respiratory tracts. Many Pasteurella species are opportunistic pathogens that can cause endemic disease and are associated increasingly with epizootic outbreaks. Zoonotic transmission to humans usually occurs through animal bites or contact with nasal secretions, with P. multocida being the most prevalent isolate observed in human infections. Here we review recent comparative genomics and molecular pathogenesis studies that have advanced our understanding of the multiple virulence mechanisms employed by Pasteurella species to establish acute and chronic infections. We also summarize efforts being explored to enhance our ability to rapidly and accurately identify and distinguish among clinical isolates and to control pasteurellosis by improved development of new vaccines and treatment regimens. PMID:23824375

  1. Distinguishing movement from stays during continual GPS tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Sorgenfri; Bro, Peter; Harder, Henrik

    During the past couple of years, the research group "Diverse Urban Spaces" has performed a thorough survey of how the Danish city of Aalborg is being used by a certain population group. This group consists of young people at age 17-23 years whose main occupation is high school or equivalent level...

  2. A rapid PCR based method to distinguish between Enterococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... by using Efm1/Efm2, Efs1/Efs2 and Eh1/Eh2 primers, ten different genotypes were recognised. Enterococcus faecium was the dominant biotype followed by E. faecalis. The results suggest that wild bacterial populations should be preserved in order to protect the traditional lactic fermentation and for product innovation.

  3. SNP Identification through Transcriptome Analysis of the European Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus: Cellular Energetics and Mother's Curse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoris D Amoutzias

    Full Text Available The European brown hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778 is an important small game species in Europe. Due to its size and position in the food chain, as well as its life history, phenotypic variation and the relatively recent speciation events, brown hare plays an important role in the structure of various ecosystems and has emerged as an important species for population management and evolutionary studies. In order to identify informative SNPs for such studies, heart and liver tissues of three samples from the European lineage and a three-sample pool from the Anatolian lineage were subjected to RNA-Sequencing analysis. This effort resulted in 9496 well-assembled protein-coding sequences with close homology to human. After applying very stringent filtering criteria, 66185 polymorphic sites were identified in 7665 genes/cds and 2050 of those polymorphic sites are potentially capable of distinguishing the European from the Anatolian lineage. From these distinguishing mutations we focused on those in genes that are involved in cellular energy production, namely the glycolysis, Krebs cycle and the OXPHOS machinery. A selected set of SNPs was also validated by Sanger sequencing. By simulating the three European individuals as one pool, no substantial informative-SNP identification was lost, making it a cost-efficient approach. To our knowledge this is the first attempt to correlate the differentiation in both nuclear and mitochondrial genome between the two different lineages of L. europaeus with the observed spatial partitioning of the lineages of the species, proposing a possible mechanism that is maintaining the reproductive isolation of the lineages.

  4. Distinguishing Nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Craig A; Sisterson, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    More than 80% of the world's almonds are grown in California with several dozen almond cultivars available commercially. To facilitate promotion and sale, almond cultivars are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance. Several marketing groups are recognized, with the Nonpareil Marketing Group (NMG) demanding the highest prices. Placement of cultivars into the NMG is historical and no objective standards exist for deciding whether newly developed cultivars belong in the NMG. Principal component analyses (PCA) were used to identify nut and kernel characteristics best separating the 4 NMG cultivars (Nonpareil, Jeffries, Kapareil, and Milow) from a representative of the California Marketing Group (cultivar Carmel) and the Mission Marketing Group (cultivar Padre). In addition, discriminant analyses were used to determine cultivar misclassification rates between and within the marketing groups. All 19 evaluated carpological characters differed significantly among the 6 cultivars and during 2 harvest seasons. A clear distinction of NMG cultivars from representatives of the California and Mission Marketing Groups was evident from a PCA involving the 6 cultivars. Further, NMG kernels were successfully discriminated from kernels representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups with overall kernel misclassification of only 2% using 16 of the 19 evaluated characters. Pellicle luminosity was the most discriminating character, regardless of the character set used in analyses. Results provide an objective classification of NMG almond kernels, clearly distinguishing them from kernels of cultivars representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups. Journal of Food Science © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  5. Distinguishing the Clinical Nurse Specialist From Other Graduate Nursing Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Lynn D; Coke, Lola A

    Today's healthcare environment poses diverse and complex patient care challenges and requires a highly qualified and experienced nursing workforce. To mitigate these challenges are graduate nursing roles, each with a different set of competencies and expertise. With the availability of many different graduate nursing roles, both patients and healthcare professionals can be confused in understanding the benefit of each role. To gain the maximum benefit from each role, it is important that healthcare providers and administrators are able to distinguish the uniqueness of each role to best use the role and develop strategies for effective collaboration and interprofessional interaction. The purpose of this article was to define the role, educational preparation, role differences, and practice competencies for the clinical nurse specialist (CNS), nurse practitioner, clinical nurse leader, and nurse educator/staff development educator roles. A second purpose was to provide role clarity and demonstrate the unique value the CNS brings to the healthcare environment. Using evidence and reviewing role competencies established by varying organizations, each role is presented with similarities and differences among the roles discussed. In addition, collaboration among the identified roles was reviewed, and recommendations were provided for the new and practicing CNSs. Although there are some similarities among the graduate nursing roles such as in educational, licensing, and certification requirements, each role must be understood to gain the full role scope and benefit and glean the anticipated outcomes. Healthcare providers must be aware of the differences in graduate nursing roles, especially in comparing the CNS with other roles to avoid confusion that may lead to roles being underused with a limited job scope. The CNS provides a unique set of services at all system outcome levels and is an essential part of the healthcare team especially in the acute care setting.

  6. Distinguishing between gaming and gambling activities in addiction research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Gainsbury, Sally M; Delfabbro, Paul H; Hing, Nerilee; Abarbanel, Brett

    2015-12-01

    Gambling and gaming activities have become increasingly recognised as sharing many common features at a structural and aesthetic level. Both have also been implicated as contributing to harm through excessive involvement. Despite this, relatively little attention has been given to the fundamental characteristics that differentiate these two classes of activity, especially in situations where the boundaries between them may be particularly hard to distinguish. This is evident, for example, in digital games that incorporate free and paid virtual currencies or items, as well as the capacity for wagering. Such overlaps create problems for regulatory classifications, screening, diagnosis and treatment. Is the problem related to the gambling or gaming content? In this paper, we review the principal sources of overlap between the activity classes in terms of several dimensions: interactivity, monetisation, betting and wagering, types of outcomes, structural fidelity, context and centrality of content, and advertising. We argue that gaming is principally defined by its interactivity, skill-based play, and contextual indicators of progression and success. In contrast, gambling is defined by betting and wagering mechanics, predominantly chance-determined outcomes, and monetisation features that involve risk and payout to the player. A checklist measure is provided, with practical examples, to examine activities according to features of design and function, which may inform guidelines for policy makers, researchers and treatment providers. We suggest that, in some instances, using category-based nomenclature (e.g., "gambling-like game") may be too vague or cumbersome to adequately organise our understanding of new gaming/gambling hybrid activities.

  7. Identification of three randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction markers for distinguishing Asian and North American Gypsy Moths (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Schreiber; Karen J. Garner; James M. Slavicek

    1997-01-01

    Gypsy moths originating in Asia have recently been introduced into North America, making it necessary to develop markers for distinguishing the Asian strain from the established North American population. We have identified 3 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction generated (RAPD-PCR) markers which are specific for either Asian or North American...

  8. Distinction of broken cellular wall Ganoderma lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores using FTIR microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianliang; Liu, Xingcun; Sheng, Daping; Huang, Dake; Li, Weizu; Wang, Xin

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, FTIR microspectroscopy was used to identify broken cellular wall Ganoderma lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. For IR spectra, broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores were mainly different in the regions of 3000-2800, 1660-1600, 1400-1200 and 1100-1000 cm-1. For curve fitting, the results showed the differences in the protein secondary structures and the polysaccharide structures/content between broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. Moreover, the value of A1078/A1741 might be a potentially useful factor to distinguish broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores from G. lucidum spores. Additionally, FTIR microspectroscopy could identify broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores accurately when it was combined with hierarchical cluster analysis. The result suggests FTIR microspectroscopy is very simple and efficient for distinction of broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. The result also indicates FTIR microspectroscopy may be useful for TCM identification.

  9. [Impact of cellular senescence on organismal aging and age-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielak-Zmijewska, Anna; Grabowska, Wioleta; Przybylska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Development of the civilization and medicine enables an even longer lifespan of people. To modulate the aging process it is necessary to discover its molecular mechanism and its causes. It has been known for almost 60 years that cells undergo senescence. A lot of markers of senescence have been described to distinguish senescent cells. Every year we can observe an increase in the number of data, supporting the thesis that the reason for aging of the whole organism is cellular senescence. We age because cells building tissues and organs undergo senescence. It is also believed that cellular senescence can increase the frequency of age-related diseases. The role of cellular senescence strictly depends on the age of the individual. In young ones it is essential for: protection against cancer and tissue regeneration. In old ones it causes tissues and organs dysfunctions and leads to age-related diseases. Slowing down aging could prevent age-related diseases and this seems to be more promising than curing them. To enrich our knowledge concerning aging it is important to understand signaling pathways leading to senescence. Recently a new role of cellular senescence has been discovered, namely during embryogenesis. This observation is very surprising and shows a new face of cellular senescence. It is possible that, similarly to the previously described role of apoptosis in embryogenesis, senescence is indispensable for proper organogenesis. Cellular senescence seems to be the universal and fundamental process, the role of which changes during the lifespan.

  10. Pressure-actuated cellular structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagitz, M; Hol, J M A M; Lamacchia, E

    2012-01-01

    Shape changing structures will play an important role in future engineering designs since rigid structures are usually only optimal for a small range of service conditions. Hence, a concept for reliable and energy-efficient morphing structures that possess a large strength to self-weight ratio would be widely applicable. We propose a novel concept for morphing structures that is inspired by the nastic movement of plants. The idea is to connect prismatic cells with tailored pentagonal and/or hexagonal cross sections such that the resulting cellular structure morphs into given target shapes for certain cell pressures. An efficient algorithm for computing equilibrium shapes as well as cross-sectional geometries is presented. The potential of this novel concept is demonstrated by several examples that range from a flagellum like propulsion device to a morphing aircraft wing.

  11. Pressure-actuated cellular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagitz, M; Lamacchia, E; Hol, J M A M

    2012-03-01

    Shape changing structures will play an important role in future engineering designs since rigid structures are usually only optimal for a small range of service conditions. Hence, a concept for reliable and energy-efficient morphing structures that possess a large strength to self-weight ratio would be widely applicable. We propose a novel concept for morphing structures that is inspired by the nastic movement of plants. The idea is to connect prismatic cells with tailored pentagonal and/or hexagonal cross sections such that the resulting cellular structure morphs into given target shapes for certain cell pressures. An efficient algorithm for computing equilibrium shapes as well as cross-sectional geometries is presented. The potential of this novel concept is demonstrated by several examples that range from a flagellum like propulsion device to a morphing aircraft wing.

  12. Molecular, cellular, and tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering. Molecular, Cellular, and Tissue Engineering, the fourth volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in molecular biology, transport phenomena, physiological modeling, tissue engineering, stem cells, drug delivery systems, artificial organs, and personalized medicine. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including DNA vaccines, biomimetic systems, cardiovascular dynamics, biomaterial scaffolds, cell mechanobiology, synthetic biomaterials, pluripotent stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, nanobiomaterials for tissue engineering, biomedical imaging of engineered tissues, gene therapy, noninvasive targeted protein and peptide drug deliver...

  13. Cellular compartmentalization of secondary metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Corby eKistler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungal secondary metabolism is often considered apart from the essential housekeeping functions of the cell. However, there are clear links between fundamental cellular metabolism and the biochemical pathways leading to secondary metabolite synthesis. Besides utilizing key biochemical precursors shared with the most essential processes of the cell (e.g. amino acids, acetyl CoA, NADPH, enzymes for secondary metabolite synthesis are compartmentalized at conserved subcellular sites that position pathway enzymes to use these common biochemical precursors. Co-compartmentalization of secondary metabolism pathway enzymes also may function to channel precursors, promote pathway efficiency and sequester pathway intermediates and products from the rest of the cell. In this review we discuss the compartmentalization of three well-studied fungal secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways for penicillin G, aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol, and summarize evidence used to infer subcellular localization. We also discuss how these metabolites potentially are trafficked within the cell and may be exported.

  14. Phosphoproteomic profiling of human myocardial tissues distinguishes ischemic from non-ischemic end stage heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Schechter

    Full Text Available The molecular differences between ischemic (IF and non-ischemic (NIF heart failure are poorly defined. A better understanding of the molecular differences between these two heart failure etiologies may lead to the development of more effective heart failure therapeutics. In this study extensive proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiles of myocardial tissue from patients diagnosed with IF or NIF were assembled and compared. Proteins extracted from left ventricular sections were proteolyzed and phosphopeptides were enriched using titanium dioxide resin. Gel- and label-free nanoscale capillary liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution accuracy mass tandem mass spectrometry allowed for the quantification of 4,436 peptides (corresponding to 450 proteins and 823 phosphopeptides (corresponding to 400 proteins from the unenriched and phospho-enriched fractions, respectively. Protein abundance did not distinguish NIF from IF. In contrast, 37 peptides (corresponding to 26 proteins exhibited a ≥ 2-fold alteration in phosphorylation state (p<0.05 when comparing IF and NIF. The degree of protein phosphorylation at these 37 sites was specifically dependent upon the heart failure etiology examined. Proteins exhibiting phosphorylation alterations were grouped into functional categories: transcriptional activation/RNA processing; cytoskeleton structure/function; molecular chaperones; cell adhesion/signaling; apoptosis; and energetic/metabolism. Phosphoproteomic analysis demonstrated profound post-translational differences in proteins that are involved in multiple cellular processes between different heart failure phenotypes. Understanding the roles these phosphorylation alterations play in the development of NIF and IF has the potential to generate etiology-specific heart failure therapeutics, which could be more effective than current therapeutics in addressing the growing concern of heart failure.

  15. Anatomical risk factors that distinguish dyslexia from SLI predict reading skill in normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Christiana M; Lombardino, Linda J; Walsh, Katherine; Eckert, Mark A; Mockler, Jennifer L; Rowe, Lisa A; Williams, Sharyl; DeBose, Cheryl B

    2002-01-01

    These studies investigated whether anatomical measures could separate phonologically-based reading disability (PD) from nonphonologically-based learning disabilities such as specific language impairment (SLI). In a previous study. four brain measures (cerebral asymmetry. summed planum temporale and parietale asymmetry, anterior cerebellar asymmetry, and a duplicated left Heschl's gyrus) distinguished a group of PD adults from reading disabled adults without specific phonological deficits (URD). Study 1 found that these measures did not distinguish 14 reading disabled children from 21 children with SLI. Instead, differences were found in cerebral volume, planum temporale asymmetry, and the size of a single left Heschl's gyrus. Study 2 demonstrated that including all seven measures in a discriminant analysis separated the adults and children into two groups: one with 100% of the PD adults and 75% of the reading disabled children and the other with 72% of the SLI children and 75% of the URD adults. Study 3 demonstrated that an anatomical risk factor index (ARF7) generated from the discriminant function with seven brain measures predicted reading in normal children. Children with ARF7 near 0 (normal anatomy) had superior verbal ability and phonological decoding scores that improved with age. Normal children with negative ARF7 the relatively s mall symmetrical structures that characterize SLI)had deficits in verbal ability. Children with positive ARF7 (the asymmetrical structures that characterize PD) had phonological decoding scores that decreased with age. These results suggest that PD and SLI are qualitatively different disorders associated with anatomical deviations in opposite directions from the population mean. As a result of this activity, the participant will be able to: (1) distinguish the neuroanatomical features that characterize PD and SLI; (2) recognize that PD is associated with large asymmetrical brain structures while SLI is associated with smaller

  16. Contrasting patterns of X/Y polymorphism distinguish Carica papaya from other sex chromosome systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, Laura A; Moore, Richard C

    2012-12-01

    The sex chromosomes of the tropical crop papaya (Carica papaya) are evolutionarily young and consequently allow for the examination of evolutionary mechanisms that drive early sex chromosome divergence. We conducted a molecular population genetic analysis of four X/Y gene pairs from a collection of 45 wild papaya accessions. These population genetic analyses reveal striking differences in the patterns of polymorphism between the X and Y chromosomes that distinguish them from other sex chromosome systems. In most sex chromosome systems, the Y chromosome displays significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the X chromosome maintains a level of polymorphism that is comparable to autosomal loci. However, the four papaya sex-linked loci that we examined display diversity patterns that are opposite this trend: the papaya X alleles exhibit significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the papaya Y alleles maintain greater than expected levels of diversity. Our analyses suggest that selective sweeps in the regions of the X have contributed to this pattern while also revealing geographically restricted haplogroups on the Y. We discuss the possible role sexual selection and/or genomic conflict have played in shaping the contrasting patterns of polymorphism found for the papaya X and Y chromosomes.

  17. Distinguishing Nitro vs Nitrito Coordination in Cytochrome c' Using Vibrational Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Zach N; Mandella, Brian L; Sen, Kakali; Kekilli, Demet; Hough, Michael A; Moënne-Loccoz, Pierre; Strange, Richard W; Andrew, Colin R

    2017-11-06

    Nitrite coordination to heme cofactors is a key step in the anaerobic production of the signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO). An ambidentate ligand, nitrite has the potential to coordinate via the N- (nitro) or O- (nitrito) atoms in a manner that can direct its reactivity. Distinguishing nitro vs nitrito coordination, along with the influence of the surrounding protein, is therefore of particular interest. In this study, we probed Fe(III) heme-nitrite coordination in Alcaligenes xylosoxidans cytochrome c' (AXCP), an NO carrier that excludes anions in its native state but that readily binds nitrite (K d ∼ 0.5 mM) following a distal Leu16 → Gly mutation to remove distal steric constraints. Room-temperature resonance Raman spectra (407 nm excitation) identify ν(Fe-NO 2 ), δ(ONO), and ν s (NO 2 ) nitrite ligand vibrations in solution. Illumination with 351 nm UV light results in photoconversion to {FeNO} 6 and {FeNO} 7 states, enabling FTIR measurements to distinguish ν s (NO 2 ) and ν as (NO 2 ) vibrations from differential spectra. Density functional theory calculations highlight the connections between heme environment, nitrite coordination mode, and vibrational properties and confirm that nitrite binds to L16G AXCP exclusively through the N atom. Efforts to obtain the nitrite complex crystal structure were hampered by photochemistry in the X-ray beam. Although low dose crystal structures could be modeled with a mixed nitrite (nitro)/H 2 O distal population, their photosensitivity and partial occupancy underscores the value of the vibrational approach. Overall, this study sheds light on steric determinants of heme-nitrite binding and provides vibrational benchmarks for future studies of heme protein nitrite reactions.

  18. Location and cellular stages of NK cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianhua; Freud, Aharon G.; Caligiuri, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    The identification of distinct tissue-specific natural killer (NK) cell populations that apparently mature from local precursor populations has brought new insight into the diversity and developmental regulation of this important lymphoid subset. NK cells provide a necessary link between the early (innate) and late (adaptive) immune responses to infection. Gaining a better understanding of the processes that govern NK cell development should allow us to better harness NK cell functions in multiple clinical settings as well as to gain further insight into how these cells undergo malignant transformation. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding sites and cellular stages of NK cell development in humans and mice. PMID:24055329

  19. Cellular Mechanisms of Action of Drug Abuse on Olfactory Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Heinbockel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are the active ingredient of marijuana (cannabis which is the most commonly abused illicit drug in the USA. In addition to being known and used as recreational drugs, cannabinoids are produced endogenously by neurons in the brain (endocannabinoids and serve as important signaling molecules in the nervous system and the rest of the body. Cannabinoids have been implicated in bodily processes both in health and disease. Recent pharmacological and physiological experiments have described novel aspects of classic brain signaling mechanisms or revealed unknown mechanisms of cellular communication involving the endocannabinoid system. While several forms of signaling have been described for endocannabinoids, the most distinguishing feature of endocannabinoids is their ability to act as retrograde messengers in neural circuits. Neurons in the main olfactory bulb express high levels of cannabinoid receptors. Here, we describe the cellular mechanisms and function of this novel brain signaling system in regulating neural activity at synapses in olfactory circuits. Results from basic research have the potential to provide the groundwork for translating the neurobiology of drug abuse to the realm of the pharmacotherapeutic treatment of addiction, specifically marijuana substance use disorder.

  20. Distinguishing the albedo of exoplanets from stellar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, L. M.; Barros, S. C. C.; Oshagh, M.; Santos, N. C.; Faria, J. P.; Demangeon, O.; Sousa, S. G.; Lendl, M.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Light curves show the flux variation from the target star and its orbiting planets as a function of time. In addition to the transit features created by the planets, the flux also includes the reflected light component of each planet, which depends on the planetary albedo. This signal is typically referred to as phase curve and could be easily identified if there were no additional noise. As well as instrumental noise, stellar activity, such as spots, can create a modulation in the data, which may be very difficult to distinguish from the planetary signal. Aims: We analyze the limitations imposed by the stellar activity on the detection of the planetary albedo, considering the limitations imposed by the predicted level of instrumental noise and the short duration of the obervations planned in the context of the CHEOPS mission. Methods: As initial condition, we have assumed that each star is characterized by just one orbiting planet. We built mock light curves that included a realistic stellar activity pattern, the reflected light component of the planet and an instrumental noise level, which we have chosen to be at the same level as predicted for CHEOPS. We then fit these light curves to try to recover the reflected light component, assuming the activity patterns can be modeled with a Gaussian process. Results: We estimate that at least one full stellar rotation is necessary to obtain a reliable detection of the planetary albedo. This result is independent of the level of noise, but it depends on the limitation of the Gaussian process to describe the stellar activity when the light curve time-span is shorter than the stellar rotation. As an additional result, we found that with a 6.5 magnitude star and the noise level of CHEOPS, it is possible to detect the planetary albedo up to a lower limit of Rp = 0.03 R*. Finally, in presence of typical CHEOPS gaps in the simulations, we confirm that it is still possible to obtain a reliable albedo.

  1. Distinguishing iron-reducing from sulfate-reducing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Thomas, M.A.; McMahon, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ground water systems dominated by iron- or sulfate-reducing conditions may be distinguished by observing concentrations of dissolved iron (Fe2+) and sulfide (sum of H2S, HS-, and S= species and denoted here as "H2S"). This approach is based on the observation that concentrations of Fe2+ and H2S in ground water systems tend to be inversely related according to a hyperbolic function. That is, when Fe2+ concentrations are high, H2S concentrations tend to be low and vice versa. This relation partly reflects the rapid reaction kinetics of Fe2+ with H2S to produce relatively insoluble ferrous sulfides (FeS). This relation also reflects competition for organic substrates between the iron- and the sulfate-reducing microorganisms that catalyze the production of Fe2+ and H 2S. These solubility and microbial constraints operate in tandem, resulting in the observed hyperbolic relation between Fe2+ and H 2S concentrations. Concentrations of redox indicators, including dissolved hydrogen (H2) measured in a shallow aquifer in Hanahan, South Carolina, suggest that if the Fe2+/H2S mass ratio (units of mg/L) exceeded 10, the screened interval being tapped was consistently iron reducing (H2 ???0.2 to 0.8 nM). Conversely, if the Fe 2+/H2S ratio was less than 0.30, consistent sulfate-reducing (H2 ???1 to 5 nM) conditions were observed over time. Concomitantly high Fe2+ and H2S concentrations were associated with H2 concentrations that varied between 0.2 and 5.0 nM over time, suggesting mixing of water from adjacent iron- and sulfate-reducing zones or concomitant iron and sulfate reduction under nonelectron donor-limited conditions. These observations suggest that Fe2+/H2S mass ratios may provide useful information concerning the occurrence and distribution of iron and sulfate reduction in ground water systems. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  2. Distinguishing between hierarchical and lopsided SO(10) models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, Parul

    2005-01-01

    100 times lower than that in the AB case. Thus the two models can be distinguished based on their predictions regarding CP and flavor violating processes, and can be tested in future experiments

  3. Can orbital angle morphology distinguish dogs from wolves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Luc; Spanoghe, Inge; Miller, Rebecca; Van Dongen, Stefan

    For more than a century, the orbital angle has been studied by many authors to distinguish dog skulls from their progenitor, the wolf. In early studies, the angle was reported to be different between dogs (49°-55°) and wolves (39°-46°). This clear difference was, however, questioned in a more recent Scandinavian study that shows some overlap. It is clear that in all studies several methodological issues were unexplored or unclear and that group sizes and the variety of breeds and wolf subspecies were small. Archaeological dog skulls had also not been studied. Our goal was to test larger and more varied groups and add archaeological samples as they are an evolutionary stage between wolves and modern dogs. We also tested the influence of measuring methods, intra- and inter-reliability, angle symmetry, the influence of variations in skull position and the possibility of measuring and comparing this angle on 3D CT scan images. Our results indicate that there is about 50 % overlap between the angle range in wolves and modern dogs. However, skulls with a very narrow orbital angle were only found in wolves and those with a very wide angle only in dogs. Archaeological dogs have a mean angle very close to the one of the wolves. Symmetry is highest in wolves and lowest in archaeological dogs. The measuring method is very reliable, for both inter- and intra-reliability (0.99-0.97), and most skull position changes have no statistical influence on the angle measured. Three-dimensional CT scan images can be used to measure OA, but the angles differ from direct measuring and cannot be used for comparison. Evolutionary changes in dog skulls responsible for the wider OA compared to wolf skulls are mainly the lateralisation of the zygomatic process of the frontal bone. Our conclusion is that the orbital angle can be used as an additional morphological measuring method to discern wolves from recent and archaeological dogs. Angles above 60° are certainly from recent dogs. Angles

  4. Distinguishing Osteomyelitis From Ewing Sarcoma on Radiography and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarville, M. Beth; Chen, Jim Y.; Coleman, Jamie L.; Li, Yimei; Li, Xingyu; Adderson, Elisabeth E.; Neel, Mike D.; Gold, Robert E.; Kaufman, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine whether clinical and imaging features can distinguish osteomyelitis from Ewing sarcoma (EWS) and to assess the accuracy of percutaneous biopsy versus open biopsy in the diagnosis of these diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three radiologists reviewed the radiographs and MRI examinations of 32 subjects with osteomyelitis and 31 subjects with EWS to determine the presence of 36 imaging parameters. Information on demographic characteristics, history, physical examination findings, laboratory findings, biopsy type, and biopsy results were recorded. Individual imaging and clinical parameters and combinations of these parameters were tested for correlation with findings from histologic analysis. The diagnostic accuracy of biopsy was also determined. RESULTS On radiography, the presence of joint or metaphyseal involvement, a wide transition zone, a Codman triangle, a periosteal reaction, or a soft-tissue mass, when tested individually, was more likely to be noted in subjects with EWS (p ≤ 0.05) than in subjects with osteomyelitis. On MRI, permeative cortical involvement and soft-tissue mass were more likely in subjects with EWS (p ≤ 0.02), whereas a serpiginous tract was more likely to be seen in subjects with osteomyelitis (p = 0.04). African Americans were more likely to have osteomyelitis than EWS (p = 0). According to the results of multiple regression analysis, only ethnicity and soft-tissue mass remained statistically significant (p ≤ 0.01). The findings from 100% of open biopsies (18/18) and 58% of percutaneous biopsies (7/12) resulted in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis, whereas the findings from 88% of open biopsies (22/25) and 50% of percutaneous biopsies (3/6) resulted in a diagnosis of EWS. CONCLUSION Several imaging features are significantly associated with either EWS or osteomyelitis, but many features are associated with both diseases. Other than ethnicity, no clinical feature improved diagnostic

  5. AG490 and PF431396 Sensitive Tyrosine Kinase Control the Population Heterogeneity of Basal STAT1 Activity in Ube1l Deficient Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Now, Hesung; Yoo, Joo-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    A population often contains distinct sub-populations, thereby increasing the complexity of the overall heterogeneity. However, the cellular origin and biological relevance of sub-populations in cell population have not been clearly identified. Here we demonstrated the novel roles of ISGylation, which is an IFN-induced post-translational modification, controlling heterogeneity at the population level in cultured adherent cells. Without UBE1L, an E1 enzyme of ISGylation, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) exhibited low viral resistance despite high STAT1 and ISG expression compared with the wild-type MEF. We observe that Ube1l−/− MEF populations consist of two behaviorally distinguishable sub-populations with distinct basal STAT1 activity, while wild-type MEF populations are unimodal. This population heterogeneity in Ube1l knock-out cells was perturbed by tyrosine kinase inhibitors, AG490 and PF431396. In contrast, the neutralization of type I IFN did not affect population heterogeneity. Based on these results, we concluded that UBE1L functions to adjust basal immunological states with the regulation of population heterogeneity. PMID:27427993

  6. Cellular reprogramming: recent advances in modeling neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Guo-Li; Brüstle, Oliver; Muotri, Alysson; Studer, Lorenz; Wernig, Marius; Christian, Kimberly M

    2011-11-09

    The remarkable advances in cellular reprogramming have made it possible to generate a renewable source of human neurons from fibroblasts obtained from skin samples of neonates and adults. As a result, we can now investigate the etiology of neurological diseases at the cellular level using neuronal populations derived from patients, which harbor the same genetic mutations thought to be relevant to the risk for pathology. Therapeutic implications include the ability to establish new humanized disease models for understanding mechanisms, conduct high-throughput screening for novel biogenic compounds to reverse or prevent the disease phenotype, identify and engineer genetic rescue of causal mutations, and develop patient-specific cellular replacement strategies. Although this field offers enormous potential for understanding and treating neurological disease, there are still many issues that must be addressed before we can fully exploit this technology. Here we summarize several recent studies presented at a symposium at the 2011 annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, which highlight innovative approaches to cellular reprogramming and how this revolutionary technique is being refined to model neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, such as autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, familial dysautonomia, and Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Radiation, nitric oxide and cellular death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, D.; Perez, M.R. Del; Michelin, S.C.; Gisone, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms of radiation induced cellular death constitute an objective of research ever since the first biological effects of radiation were first observed. The explosion of information produced in the last 20 years calls for a careful analysis due to the apparent contradictory data related to the cellular system studied and the range of doses used. This review focuses on the role of the active oxygen species, in particular the nitric oxides, in its relevance as potential mediator of radiation induced cellular death

  8. Outer-totalistic cellular automata on graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marr, Carsten; Huett, Marc-Thorsten

    2009-01-01

    We present an intuitive formalism for implementing cellular automata on arbitrary topologies. By that means, we identify a symmetry operation in the class of elementary cellular automata. Moreover, we determine the subset of topologically sensitive elementary cellular automata and find that the overall number of complex patterns decreases under increasing neighborhood size in regular graphs. As exemplary applications, we apply the formalism to complex networks and compare the potential of scale-free graphs and metabolic networks to generate complex dynamics

  9. Urban sprawl modeling using cellular automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikhar Deep

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The population settlements in the fast-growing urban world need to be monitored in order to design a sustainable urban habitat. The remote sensing and GIS are considered as an effective monitoring and decision-support tool in urban planning. This study compiles the results of a study undertaken to measure the urban sprawl in Dehradun city, India through cellular automata CA-Markov model. CA-Markov model can effectively be used to study the urban dynamics in rapidly growing cities. Being an effective tool for encoding spatial structures, the information generated by it could be used to predict urban scenarios for sustainable growth. To achieve the goal, the temporal images of LISS IV were used to analyse the spatial pattern of land cover change in the area and the future growth was modeled by applying CA-Markov model. The results clearly suggest that major changes between the periods of 2004 and 2009 occurred in built up classes (about 27% followed by agriculture (17.7% and fallow land (10.2%. The projection as predicted using CA-Markov model suggested a value of kappa coefficient = 0.91 which indicates the validity of the model to predict future projections. Modeling suggested a clear trend of various land use classes’ transformation in the area of urban built up expansions. It is concluded that RS and GIS can be an effective decision support tool for policy makers to design sustainable urban habitats.

  10. Cellular Targets of Dietary Polyphenol Resveratrol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Joseph M

    2006-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that resveratrol, a grape derived polyphenol, exerts its chemopreventive properties against prostate cancer by interacting with specific cellular targets, denoted resveratrol targeting proteins (RTPs...

  11. The cellular memory disc of reprogrammed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjamrooz, Seyed Hadi

    2013-04-01

    The crucial facts underlying the low efficiency of cellular reprogramming are poorly understood. Cellular reprogramming occurs in nuclear transfer, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) formation, cell fusion, and lineage-switching experiments. Despite these advances, there are three fundamental problems to be addressed: (1) the majority of cells cannot be reprogrammed, (2) the efficiency of reprogramming cells is usually low, and (3) the reprogrammed cells developed from a patient's own cells activate immune responses. These shortcomings present major obstacles for using reprogramming approaches in customised cell therapy. In this Perspective, the author synthesises past and present observations in the field of cellular reprogramming to propose a theoretical picture of the cellular memory disc. The current hypothesis is that all cells undergo an endogenous and exogenous holographic memorisation such that parts of the cellular memory dramatically decrease the efficiency of reprogramming cells, act like a barrier against reprogramming in the majority of cells, and activate immune responses. Accordingly, the focus of this review is mainly to describe the cellular memory disc (CMD). Based on the present theory, cellular memory includes three parts: a reprogramming-resistance memory (RRM), a switch-promoting memory (SPM) and a culture-induced memory (CIM). The cellular memory arises genetically, epigenetically and non-genetically and affects cellular behaviours. [corrected].

  12. Optimized Cellular Core For Rotorcraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Patz Materials and Technologies proposes to develop a unique structural cellular core material to improve mechanical performance, reduce platform weight and lower...

  13. Distinguishing "new" from "old" carbon in post mining soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindušková, Olga; Frouz, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Introduction Soils developing on heaped overburden after open pit coal mining near Sokolov, Czech Republic, provide an exceptional opportunity to study sites of different ages (0-70 years) developing on similar substrate under relatively well-known conditions. Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an useful indicator of soil quality and represents an important global carbon pool. Post-mining soils would be a perfect model for long-term study of carbon dynamics. Unfortunately, quantifying SOC in Sokolov post-mining soils is quite complicated, since conventional quantification methods cannot distinguish between SOC derived from plant residues and fossil organic carbon derived from coal and kerogen present in the overburden. Moreover, also inorganic carbon may sometimes bias SOC quantification. Up to now, the only way to directly estimate recently derived SOC in these soils is radiocarbon dating (Rumpel et al. 1999; Karu et al. 2009). However, this method is costly and thus cannot be used routinely. The aim of our study is to find an accessible method to quantify recently derived SOC. We would highly appreciate ideas of other soil scientists, organic geochemists and sedimentologists on how to solve this challenge. Methods and hypotheses A set of 14 soil samples were analysed by radiocarbon (14C-AMS) analysis, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy, Rock-Eval and XRD. For calibration of NIRS, also 125 artificial mixtures were produced by mixing different amounts of claystone, coal and partially decomposed litter. NIRS (1000-2500 nm) as well as younger mid-infrared spectroscopy has been widely applied to soils (Janik et al. 2007; Vasques et al. 2009; Michel et al. 2009). When combined with multivariate chemometric techniques, it can be used to predict concentration of different compounds. No study has yet focused on NIRS application to soils where fossil carbon is found in two chemically different forms - whereas coal is rather aromatic, kerogen in our

  14. Cellular Senescence: A Translational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Kirkland

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cellular senescence entails essentially irreversible replicative arrest, apoptosis resistance, and frequently acquisition of a pro-inflammatory, tissue-destructive senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP. Senescent cells accumulate in various tissues with aging and at sites of pathogenesis in many chronic diseases and conditions. The SASP can contribute to senescence-related inflammation, metabolic dysregulation, stem cell dysfunction, aging phenotypes, chronic diseases, geriatric syndromes, and loss of resilience. Delaying senescent cell accumulation or reducing senescent cell burden is associated with delay, prevention, or alleviation of multiple senescence-associated conditions. We used a hypothesis-driven approach to discover pro-survival Senescent Cell Anti-apoptotic Pathways (SCAPs and, based on these SCAPs, the first senolytic agents, drugs that cause senescent cells to become susceptible to their own pro-apoptotic microenvironment. Several senolytic agents, which appear to alleviate multiple senescence-related phenotypes in pre-clinical models, are beginning the process of being translated into clinical interventions that could be transformative.

  15. Respiring cellular nano-magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Ayesha; Khan, Zanib; Bokhari, Habib; Hidayathula, Syed; Jilani, Ghulam; Khan, Abid Ali

    2017-11-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria provide an interesting example for the biosynthesis of magnetic (Fe 3 O 4 or Fe 3 S 4 ) nanoparticles, synthesized through a process known as biologically controlled mineralization, resulting in complex monodispersed, and nanostructures with unique magnetic properties. In this work, we report a novel aerobic bacterial strain isolated from sludge of an oil refinery. Microscopic and staining analysis revealed that it was a gram positive rod with the capability to thrive in a medium (9K) supplemented, with Fe 2+ ions at an acidic pH (~3.2). The magnetic behaviour of these cells was tested by their alignment towards a permanent magnet, and later on confirmed by magnetometry analysis. The X-ray diffraction studies proved the cellular biosynthesis of magnetite nanoparticles inside the bacteria. This novel, bio-nano-magnet, could pave the way for green synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles to be used in industrial and medical applications such as MRI, magnetic hyperthermia and ferrofluids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Infiltrating giant cellular blue naevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, A L; Monteiro, D A; De Pretto, O J

    2007-01-01

    Cellular blue naevi (CBN) measure 1-2 cm in diameter and affect the dermis, occasionally extending into the subcutaneous fat. The case of a 14-year-old boy with a giant CBN (GCBN) involving the right half of the face, the jugal mucosa and the lower eyelid with a tumour that had infiltrated the bone and the maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses is reported. Biopsies were taken from the skin, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus. The following markers were used in the immunohistochemical evaluation: CD34, CD56, HMB-45, anti-S100, A-103, Melan A and MIB-1. The biopsy specimens showed a biphasic pattern affecting the lower dermis, subcutaneous fat, skeletal muscle, bone, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus, but there was no histological evidence of malignancy. The tumour cells were CD34-, CD56-, HMB45+, anti-S100+ and A-103+. Melan A was focally expressed. No positive MIB-1 cells were identified. The present case shows that GCBN may infiltrate deeply, with no evidence of malignancy.

  17. Efficiency of cellular information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barato, Andre C; Hartich, David; Seifert, Udo

    2014-01-01

    We show that a rate of conditional Shannon entropy reduction, characterizing the learning of an internal process about an external process, is bounded by the thermodynamic entropy production. This approach allows for the definition of an informational efficiency that can be used to study cellular information processing. We analyze three models of increasing complexity inspired by the Escherichia coli sensory network, where the external process is an external ligand concentration jumping between two values. We start with a simple model for which ATP must be consumed so that a protein inside the cell can learn about the external concentration. With a second model for a single receptor we show that the rate at which the receptor learns about the external environment can be nonzero even without any dissipation inside the cell since chemical work done by the external process compensates for this learning rate. The third model is more complete, also containing adaptation. For this model we show inter alia that a bacterium in an environment that changes at a very slow time-scale is quite inefficient, dissipating much more than it learns. Using the concept of a coarse-grained learning rate, we show for the model with adaptation that while the activity learns about the external signal the option of changing the methylation level increases the concentration range for which the learning rate is substantial. (paper)

  18. Re: Epigenetics of Cellular Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehmi Narter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available EDITORIAL COMMENT Cells have some specific molecular and physiological properties that act their functional process. However, many cells have an ability of efficient transition from one type to another. This ability is named plasticity. This process occurs due to epigenetic reprogramming that involves changes in transcription and chromatin structure. Some changes during reprogramming that have been identified in recent years as genomic demethylation (both histone and DNA, histone acetylation and loss of heterochromatin during the development of many diseases such as infertility and cancer progression. In this review, the authors focused on the latest work addressing the mechanisms surrounding the epigenetic regulation of various types of reprogramming, including somatic cell nuclear transfer, cell fusion and transcription factor- and microRNA-induced pluripotency. There are many responsible factors such as genes, cytokines, proteins, co-factors (i.e. vitamin C in this local area network. The exact mechanisms by which these changes are achieved and the detailed interplay between the players responsible, however, remain relatively unclear. In the treatment of diseases, such as infertility, urooncology, reconstructive urology, etc., epigenetic changes and cellular reprogramming will be crucial in the near future. Central to achieving that goal is a more thorough understanding of the epigenetic state of fully reprogrammed cells. By the progress of researches on this topic, new treatment modalities will be identified for these diseases.

  19. Distinguishing Benign from Malignant Circumscribed Orbital Tumors in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yufei; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Leung, Katherine; Freitag, Suzanne K

    2018-01-01

    An orbital neoplasm in children is an uncommon clinical finding. Clinical suspicion should be based on many factors, including its location, the nature of onset, associated systemic signs and symptoms, family and social histories, examination findings, and radiographic characteristics. We present two cases of young children of similar age with a rapid-onset orbital mass. In both cases, a circumscribed round lesion was found in the superomedial orbit. An orbital schwannoma, a benign and usually slow growing tumor, was found in the first patient. In contrast, the biopsy of the second patient, who was nearly asymptomatic, revealed a rhabdomyosarcoma. In this review, we have explored the differential diagnosis of relatively common circumscribed round orbital tumors in the pediatric population from both the radiographic (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) and histopathologic perspectives. A review of highly unusual orbital tumors in children is also provided.

  20. Pulsed feedback defers cellular differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe H Levine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental signals induce diverse cellular differentiation programs. In certain systems, cells defer differentiation for extended time periods after the signal appears, proliferating through multiple rounds of cell division before committing to a new fate. How can cells set a deferral time much longer than the cell cycle? Here we study Bacillus subtilis cells that respond to sudden nutrient limitation with multiple rounds of growth and division before differentiating into spores. A well-characterized genetic circuit controls the concentration and phosphorylation of the master regulator Spo0A, which rises to a critical concentration to initiate sporulation. However, it remains unclear how this circuit enables cells to defer sporulation for multiple cell cycles. Using quantitative time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of Spo0A dynamics in individual cells, we observed pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation at a characteristic cell cycle phase. Pulse amplitudes grew systematically and cell-autonomously over multiple cell cycles leading up to sporulation. This pulse growth required a key positive feedback loop involving the sporulation kinases, without which the deferral of sporulation became ultrasensitive to kinase expression. Thus, deferral is controlled by a pulsed positive feedback loop in which kinase expression is activated by pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation. This pulsed positive feedback architecture provides a more robust mechanism for setting deferral times than constitutive kinase expression. Finally, using mathematical modeling, we show how pulsing and time delays together enable "polyphasic" positive feedback, in which different parts of a feedback loop are active at different times. Polyphasic feedback can enable more accurate tuning of long deferral times. Together, these results suggest that Bacillus subtilis uses a pulsed positive feedback loop to implement a "timer" that operates over timescales much longer than a cell cycle.

  1. Surface chemistry governs cellular tropism of nanoparticles in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Eric; Gaudin, Alice; King, Amanda R.; Seo, Young-Eun; Suh, Hee-Won; Deng, Yang; Cui, Jiajia; Tietjen, Gregory T.; Huttner, Anita; Saltzman, W. Mark

    2017-05-01

    Nanoparticles are of long-standing interest for the treatment of neurological diseases such as glioblastoma. Most past work focused on methods to introduce nanoparticles into the brain, suggesting that reaching the brain interstitium will be sufficient to ensure therapeutic efficacy. However, optimized nanoparticle design for drug delivery to the central nervous system is limited by our understanding of their cellular deposition in the brain. Here, we investigated the cellular fate of poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles presenting different surface chemistries, after administration by convection-enhanced delivery. We demonstrate that nanoparticles with `stealth' properties mostly avoid internalization by all cell types, but internalization can be enhanced by functionalization with bio-adhesive end-groups. We also show that association rates measured in cultured cells predict the extent of internalization of nanoparticles in cell populations. Finally, evaluating therapeutic efficacy in an orthotopic model of glioblastoma highlights the need to balance significant uptake without inducing adverse toxicity.

  2. Recent development of cellular manufacturing systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cellular manufacturing system has been proved a vital approach for batch and job shop production systems. Group technology has been an essential tool for developing a cellular manufacturing system. The paper aims to discuss various cell formation techniques and highlights the significant research work done in past ...

  3. Reflections Lederberg and the 'Cellularity' of Bacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    He tried to observe bacterial mating and the details of conjugation at the cellular level [3]. (reproduced in the Classics section), processes that are still being investigated [4]. He made the important discovery that penicillin induces the formation of spheroplasts. The announcing. Lederberg and the 'Cellularity' of Bacteria.

  4. Cellular telephone use and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Jacobsen, Rune; Olsen, Jørgen H.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The widespread use of cellular telephones has heightened concerns about possible adverse health effects. The objective of this study was to investigate cancer risk among Danish cellular telephone users who were followed for up to 21 years. METHODS: This study is an extended follow-up ...

  5. Immune cellular response to HPV: current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Guimarães Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Although cellular immunity is essential for the elimination of human papillomavirus (HPV, the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. We summarize the main mechanisms involved in cellular immune response to infections caused by HPV. Immunotherapies for HPV-related cancers require the disruption of T-cell response control mechanisms, associated with the stimulation of the Th1 cytokine response.

  6. On Elementary and Algebraic Cellular Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulak, Yuriy

    In this paper we study elementary cellular automata from an algebraic viewpoint. The goal is to relate the emergent complex behavior observed in such systems with the properties of corresponding algebraic structures. We introduce algebraic cellular automata as a natural generalization of elementary ones and discuss their applications as generic models of complex systems.

  7. Cellular Factors Shape 3D Genome Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers, using novel large-scale imaging technology, have mapped the spatial location of individual genes in the nucleus of human cells and identified 50 cellular factors required for the proper 3D positioning of genes. These spatial locations play important roles in gene expression, DNA repair, genome stability, and other cellular activities.

  8. Recent development of cellular manufacturing systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    context of cellular manufacturing is primarily as an aid in identifying the part families to which production cells should be dedicated. Further analysis is required ... A number of researchers or investigators have used different types of similarity and dissimilarity coefficients for determining part families. In cellular manufacturing ...

  9. Modeling and Analysis of Cellular Networks using Stochastic Geometry: A Tutorial

    KAUST Repository

    Elsawy, Hesham

    2016-11-03

    This paper presents a tutorial on stochastic geometry (SG) based analysis for cellular networks. This tutorial is distinguished by its depth with respect to wireless communication details and its focus on cellular networks. The paper starts by modeling and analyzing the baseband interference in a baseline single-tier downlink cellular network with single antenna base stations and universal frequency reuse. Then, it characterizes signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) and its related performance metrics. In particular, a unified approach to conduct error probability, outage probability, and transmission rate analysis is presented. Although the main focus of the paper is on cellular networks, the presented unified approach applies for other types of wireless networks that impose interference protection around receivers. The paper then extends the unified approach to capture cellular network characteristics (e.g., frequency reuse, multiple antenna, power control, etc.). It also presents numerical examples associated with demonstrations and discussions. To this end, the paper highlights the state-of-the- art research and points out future research directions.

  10. Feliform carnivores have a distinguished constitutive innate immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja K. Heinrich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Determining the immunological phenotype of endangered and threatened populations is important to identify those vulnerable to novel pathogens. Among mammals, members of the order Carnivora are particularly threatened by diseases. We therefore examined the constitutive innate immune system, the first line of protection against invading microbes, of six free-ranging carnivore species; the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas, the brown hyena (Hyena brunnea, the caracal (Caracal caracal, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, the leopard (Panthera pardus and the lion (Panthera leo using a bacterial killing assay. The differences in immune responses amongst the six species were independent of their foraging behaviour, body mass or social organisation but reflected their phylogenetic relatedness. The bacterial killing capacity of black-backed jackals, a member of the suborder Caniformia, followed the pattern established for a wide variety of vertebrates. In contrast, the five representatives of the suborder Feliformia demonstrated a killing capacity at least an order of magnitude higher than any species reported previously, with a particularly high capacity in caracals and cheetahs. Our results suggest that the immunocompetence of threatened felids such as the cheetah has been underestimated and its assessment ought to consider both innate and adaptive components of the immune system.

  11. An immunoplaque assay distinguishing between cytopathogenic and noncytopathogenic biotypes of bovine viral diarrhoea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liess, B; Reinecke, S; Sanders, G; Greiser-Wilke, I; Moennig, V

    1993-03-01

    Cytopathogenic (cp) and noncytopathogenic (ncp) biotypes of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) could be clearly distinguished by hollow plaques with peripheral immunostaining in infected fetal calf kidney (FCK) monolayers cultures or the appearance of homogenously stained immunoplaques (IPs), respectively. Of 70 BVDV isolates formerly classified as cytopathogenic according to microscopic observations in FCK cell cultures, 46 produced IPs of both types while the remaining 24 isolates induced only the IP type characteristic of the ncp BVDV biotype. The same was true for 24 additional isolates classified by light microscopy as ncp after ten blind passages in FCK cell cultures. Thus it appeared that in 1/3 of the cases changes in FCK cell cultures had been formerly misinterpreted as BVDV induced cytopathic effects (CPE). Of the 46 isolates which produced both ncp and cp immunoplaques 5 BVDV isolates were selected and successfully subjected to cloning. Clones of the cp biotype were developed by picking native plaques from unfixed FCK cell monolayers. In case of ncp IP, cloning was attempted by picking randomly in the spaces between visible native plaques. Pairs of clones from each of the field isolates proved to consist of pure plaque populations of cp BVDV and ncp BVDV biotypes, respectively, at the dilution of viral suspension which allowed the classification of a single IP according to morphology. Analysis of the clones using 15 monoclonal antibodies against the major viral glycoprotein revealed far-reaching antigenic homogeneity for each pair with only few but distinct exceptions.

  12. Distinguishing epidemiological features of the 2013-2016 West Africa Ebola virus disease outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Espinel, Zelde; Espinola, Maria; Rechkemmer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The 2013-2016 West Africa Ebola virus disease epidemic was notable for its scope, scale, and complexity. This briefing presents a series of distinguishing epidemiological features that set this outbreak apart. Compared to one concurrent and 23 previous outbreaks of the disease over 40 years, this was the only occurrence of Ebola virus disease involving multiple nations and qualifying as a pandemic. Across multiple measures of magnitude, the 2013-2016 outbreak was accurately described using superlatives: largest and deadliest in terms of numbers of cases and fatalities; longest in duration; and most widely dispersed geographically, with outbreak-associated cases occurring in 10 nations. In contrast, the case-fatality rate was much lower for the 2013-2016 outbreak compared to the other 24 outbreaks. A population of particular interest for ongoing monitoring and public health surveillance is comprised of more than 17,000 "survivors," Ebola patients who successfully recovered from their illness. The daunting challenges posed by this outbreak were met by an intensive international public health response. The near-exponential rate of increase of incident Ebola cases during mid-2014 was successfully slowed, reversed, and finally halted through the application of multiple disease containment and intervention strategies.

  13. Distinguishing epidemiological features of the 2013–2016 West Africa Ebola virus disease outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M.; Espinel, Zelde; Espinola, Maria; Rechkemmer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The 2013–2016 West Africa Ebola virus disease epidemic was notable for its scope, scale, and complexity. This briefing presents a series of distinguishing epidemiological features that set this outbreak apart. Compared to one concurrent and 23 previous outbreaks of the disease over 40 years, this was the only occurrence of Ebola virus disease involving multiple nations and qualifying as a pandemic. Across multiple measures of magnitude, the 2013–2016 outbreak was accurately described using superlatives: largest and deadliest in terms of numbers of cases and fatalities; longest in duration; and most widely dispersed geographically, with outbreak-associated cases occurring in 10 nations. In contrast, the case-fatality rate was much lower for the 2013–2016 outbreak compared to the other 24 outbreaks. A population of particular interest for ongoing monitoring and public health surveillance is comprised of more than 17,000 “survivors,” Ebola patients who successfully recovered from their illness. The daunting challenges posed by this outbreak were met by an intensive international public health response. The near-exponential rate of increase of incident Ebola cases during mid-2014 was successfully slowed, reversed, and finally halted through the application of multiple disease containment and intervention strategies. PMID:28229017

  14. Number of patient-reported allergies helps distinguish epilepsy from psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Nathaniel M; Larimer, Phillip; Bourgeois, James A; Lowenstein, Daniel H

    2016-02-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are relatively common, accounting for 5-40% of visits to tertiary epilepsy centers. Inpatient video-electroencephalogram (vEEG) monitoring is the gold standard for diagnosis, but additional positive predictive tools are necessary given vEEG's relatively scarce availability. In this study, we investigated if the number of patient-reported allergies distinguishes between PNES and epilepsy. Excessive allergy-reporting, like PNES, may reflect somatization. Using electronic medical records, ICD-9 codes, and text-identification algorithms to search EEG reports, we identified 905 cases of confirmed PNES and 5187 controls with epilepsy but no PNES. Patients with PNES averaged more self-reported allergies than patients with epilepsy alone (1.93 vs. 1.00, pallergies, each additional allergy linearly increased the percentage of patients with PNES by 2.98% (R(2)=0.71) such that with ≥12 allergies, 12/28 patients (42.8%) had PNES compared to 349/3368 (11.6%) of the population with no allergies (odds ratio=6.49). This relationship remained unchanged with logistic regression analysis. We conclude that long allergy lists may help identify patients with PNES. We hypothesize that a tendency to inaccurately self-report allergies reflects a maladaptive externalization of psychologic distress and that a similar mechanism may be responsible for PNES in some patients with somatic symptom disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vortex Imprints at the Wall, But Not in the Bulk, Distinguish Ruptured from Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varble, Nicole; Meng, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Intracranial aneurysms affect 3% of the population. Risk stratification of aneurysms is important, as rupture often leads to death or permanent disability. Image-based CFD analyses of patient-specific aneurysms have identified low and oscillatory wall shear stress to predict rupture. These stresses are sensed biologically at the luminal wall, but the flow dynamics related to aneurysm rupture requires further understanding. We have conducted two studies: one examines vortex dynamics, and the other, high frequency flow fluctuations in patient-specific aneurysms. In the first study, based on Q-criterion vortex identification, we developed two measures to quantify regions within the aneurysm where rotational flow is dominate: the ratio of volume or surface area where Q >0 vs. the total aneurysmal volume or surface area, respectively termed volume vortex fraction (VVF) and surface vortex fraction (SVF). Statistical analysis of 204 aneurysms shows that SVF, but not VVF, distinguishes ruptured from unruptured aneurysms, suggesting that once again, the local flow patterns on the wall is directly relevant to rupture. In the second study, high-resolution CFD (high spatial and temporal resolutions and second-order discretization schemes) on 56 middle cerebral artery aneurysms shows the presence of temporal fluctuations in 8 aneurysms, but such flow instability bears no correlation with rupture. Support for this work was partially provided by NIH grant (R01 NS091075-01) and a grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.

  16. Polyomavirus specific cellular immunity: from BK-virus-specific cellular immunity to BK-virus-associated nephropathy ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    manon edekeyser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In renal transplantation, BK-virus-associated nephropathy has emerged as a major complication, with a prevalence of 5–10% and graft loss in >50% of cases. BK-virus is a member of the Polyomavirus family and rarely induces apparent clinical disease in the general population. However, replication of polyomaviruses, associated with significant organ disease, is observed in patients with acquired immunosuppression, which suggests a critical role for virus-specific cellular immunity to control virus replication and prevent chronic disease. Monitoring of specific immunity combined with viral load could be used to individually assess the risk of viral reactivation and virus control. We review the current knowledge on BK-virus specific cellular immunity and, more specifically, in immunocompromised patients. In the future, immune-based therapies could allow us to treat and prevent BK-virus-associated nephropathy.

  17. Multispectral Imaging Broadens Cellular Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Amnis Corporation, a Seattle-based biotechnology company, developed ImageStream to produce sensitive fluorescence images of cells in flow. The company responded to an SBIR solicitation from Ames Research Center, and proposed to evaluate several methods of extending the depth of field for its ImageStream system and implement the best as an upgrade to its commercial products. This would allow users to view whole cells at the same time, rather than just one section of each cell. Through Phase I and II SBIR contracts, Ames provided Amnis the funding the company needed to develop this extended functionality. For NASA, the resulting high-speed image flow cytometry process made its way into Medusa, a life-detection instrument built to collect, store, and analyze sample organisms from erupting hydrothermal vents, and has the potential to benefit space flight health monitoring. On the commercial end, Amnis has implemented the process in ImageStream, combining high-resolution microscopy and flow cytometry in a single instrument, giving researchers the power to conduct quantitative analyses of individual cells and cell populations at the same time, in the same experiment. ImageStream is also built for many other applications, including cell signaling and pathway analysis; classification and characterization of peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations; quantitative morphology; apoptosis (cell death) assays; gene expression analysis; analysis of cell conjugates; molecular distribution; and receptor mapping and distribution.

  18. Neural Indices of Semantic Processing in Early Childhood Distinguish Eventual Stuttering Persistence and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidler, Kathryn; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Usler, Evan; Weber, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Maturation of neural processes for language may lag in some children who stutter (CWS), and event-related potentials (ERPs) distinguish CWS who have recovered from those who have persisted. The current study explores whether ERPs indexing semantic processing may distinguish children who will eventually persist in stuttering…

  19. 10 CFR 1002.3 - Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. 1002.3... General § 1002.3 Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. The Secretary or his designee shall: (a) Have custody of: (1) The official seal and prototypes thereof, and masters, molds, dies, and all...

  20. Wavelet coherence analysis : A new approach to distinguish organic and functional tremor types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, G.; Van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; Maurits, N. M.; Tijssen, M. A. J.; Elting, J. W. J.

    Objective: To distinguish tremor subtypes using wavelet coherence analysis (WCA). WCA enables to detect variations in coherence and phase difference between two signals over time and might be especially useful in distinguishing functional from organic tremor. Methods: In this pilot study,

  1. 76 FR 71048 - Sixth Annual Philip S. Chen, Jr. Distinguished Lecture on Innovation and Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ..., Jr. Distinguished Lecture on Innovation and Technology Transfer AGENCY: National Institutes of Health... sixth annual Philip S. Chen, Jr., Ph.D. Distinguished Lecture on Innovation and Technology Transfer... present ``Treatment of Cancer with Recombinant Immunotoxins: From Technology Transfer to the Patient.'' Dr...

  2. Markers of cellular senescence. Telomere shortening as a marker of cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernadotte, Alexandra; Mikhelson, Victor M; Spivak, Irina M

    2016-01-01

    The cellular senescence definition comes to the fact of cells irreversible proliferation disability. Besides the cell cycle arrest, senescent cells go through some morphological, biochemical, and functional changes which are the signs of cellular senescence. The senescent cells (including replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence) of all the tissues look alike. They are metabolically active and possess the set of characteristics in vitro and in vivo, which are known as biomarkers of aging and cellular senescence. Among biomarkers of cellular senescence telomere shortening is a rather elegant frequently used biomarker. Validity of telomere shortening as a marker for cellular senescence is based on theoretical and experimental data.

  3. Mucosal-associated invariant T cell is a potential marker to distinguish fibromyalgia syndrome from arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Chie; Konno, Takahiko; Wakao, Rika; Fujita, Hiroko; Fujita, Hiroyoshi; Wakao, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is defined as a widely distributed pain. While many rheumatologists and pain physicians have considered it to be a pain disorder, psychiatry, psychology, and general medicine have deemed it to be a syndrome (FMS) or psychosomatic disorder. The lack of concrete structural and/or pathological evidence has made patients suffer prejudice that FMS is a medically unexplained symptom, implying inauthenticity. Furthermore, FMS often exhibits comorbidity with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or spondyloarthritis (SpA), both of which show similar indications. In this study, disease specific biomarkers were sought in blood samples from patients to facilitate objective diagnoses of FMS, and distinguish it from RA and SpA. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients and healthy donors (HD) were subjected to multicolor flow cytometric analysis. The percentage of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells in PBMCs and the mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) of cell surface antigen expression in MAIT cells were analyzed. There was a decrease in the MAIT cell population in FMS, RA, and SpA compared with HD. Among the cell surface antigens in MAIT cells, three chemokine receptors, CCR4, CCR7, and CXCR1, a natural killer (NK) receptor, NKp80, a signaling lymphocyte associated molecule (SLAM) family, CD150, a degrunulation marker, CD107a, and a coreceptor, CD8β emerged as potential biomarkers for FMS to distinguish from HD. Additionally, a memory marker, CD44 and an inflammatory chemokine receptor, CXCR1 appeared possible markers for RA, while a homeostatic chemokine receptor, CXCR4 deserved for SpA to differentiate from FMS. Furthermore, the drug treatment interruption resulted in alternation of the expression of CCR4, CCR5, CXCR4, CD27, CD28, inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS), CD127 (IL-7 receptor α), CD94, NKp80, an activation marker, CD69, an integrin family member, CD49d, and a dipeptidase, CD26, in FMS. Combined with the currently available

  4. Mucosal-associated invariant T cell is a potential marker to distinguish fibromyalgia syndrome from arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie Sugimoto

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM is defined as a widely distributed pain. While many rheumatologists and pain physicians have considered it to be a pain disorder, psychiatry, psychology, and general medicine have deemed it to be a syndrome (FMS or psychosomatic disorder. The lack of concrete structural and/or pathological evidence has made patients suffer prejudice that FMS is a medically unexplained symptom, implying inauthenticity. Furthermore, FMS often exhibits comorbidity with rheumatoid arthritis (RA or spondyloarthritis (SpA, both of which show similar indications. In this study, disease specific biomarkers were sought in blood samples from patients to facilitate objective diagnoses of FMS, and distinguish it from RA and SpA.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from patients and healthy donors (HD were subjected to multicolor flow cytometric analysis. The percentage of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT cells in PBMCs and the mean fluorescent intensity (MFI of cell surface antigen expression in MAIT cells were analyzed.There was a decrease in the MAIT cell population in FMS, RA, and SpA compared with HD. Among the cell surface antigens in MAIT cells, three chemokine receptors, CCR4, CCR7, and CXCR1, a natural killer (NK receptor, NKp80, a signaling lymphocyte associated molecule (SLAM family, CD150, a degrunulation marker, CD107a, and a coreceptor, CD8β emerged as potential biomarkers for FMS to distinguish from HD. Additionally, a memory marker, CD44 and an inflammatory chemokine receptor, CXCR1 appeared possible markers for RA, while a homeostatic chemokine receptor, CXCR4 deserved for SpA to differentiate from FMS. Furthermore, the drug treatment interruption resulted in alternation of the expression of CCR4, CCR5, CXCR4, CD27, CD28, inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS, CD127 (IL-7 receptor α, CD94, NKp80, an activation marker, CD69, an integrin family member, CD49d, and a dipeptidase, CD26, in FMS.Combined with the currently available

  5. Estimating cellular network performance during hurricanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, Graham; Torres, Jacob; Guikema, Seth; Sprintson, Alex; Brumbelow, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Cellular networks serve a critical role during and immediately after a hurricane, allowing citizens to contact emergency services when land-line communication is lost and serving as a backup communication channel for emergency responders. However, due to their ubiquitous deployment and limited design for extreme loading events, basic network elements, such as cellular towers and antennas are prone to failures during adverse weather conditions such as hurricanes. Accordingly, a systematic and computationally feasible approach is required for assessing and improving the reliability of cellular networks during hurricanes. In this paper we develop a new multi-disciplinary approach to efficiently and accurately assess cellular network reliability during hurricanes. We show how the performance of a cellular network during and immediately after future hurricanes can be estimated based on a combination of hurricane wind field models, structural reliability analysis, Monte Carlo simulation, and cellular network models and simulation tools. We then demonstrate the use of this approach for assessing the improvement in system reliability that can be achieved with discrete topological changes in the system. Our results suggest that adding redundancy, particularly through a mesh topology or through the addition of an optical fiber ring around the perimeter of the system can be an effective way to significantly increase the reliability of some cellular systems during hurricanes.

  6. A method distinguishing expressed vs. null mutations of the Col1A1 gene in osteogenesis imperfecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redford-Badwal, D.A.; Stover, M.L.; McKinstry, M. [and others

    1994-09-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of heritable disorders of bone characterized by increased susceptibility to fracture. Most of the causative mutations were identified in patients with the lethal form of the disease. Attention is now shifting to the milder forms of OI where glycine substitutions and null producing mutations have been found. Single amino acid substitutions can be identified by RT/PCR of total cellular RNA, but this approach does not work well for null mutations since the defective transcript does not accumulate in the cytoplasm. We have altered our RNA extraction method to separate RNA from the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments of cultured fibroblasts. Standard methods of mutation identification (RT/PCR followed by SSCP) is applied to each RNA fraction. DNA from an abnormal band on the SSCP gel is eluted and amplified by PCR for cloning and sequencing. Using this approach we have identified an Asp to Asn change in exon 50 (type II OI) and a Gly to Arg in exon 11 (type I OI) of the COL1A1 gene. These changes were found in both nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. These putative mutations are currently being confirmed by protein studies. In contrast, three patients with mild OI associated with reduced {proportional_to}(I)mRNA, had distinguishing SSCP bands present in the nuclear but not the cytoplasmic compartment. In one case a frame shift mutation was observed, while the other two revealed polymorphisms. The compartmentalization of the mutant allele has directed us to look elsewhere in the transcript for the causative mutation. This approach to mutation identification is capable of distinguishing these fundamentally different types of mutations and allows for preferential cloning and sequencing of the abnormal allele.

  7. Stratification of Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection by Cellular Immune Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Alice; Whitworth, Hilary; Kottoor, Sherine Hermagild; Niazi, Umar; Menzies, Sarah; Kunst, Heinke; Bremang, Samuel; Badhan, Amarjit; Beverley, Peter; Kon, Onn Min

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Recently acquired and remotely acquired latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are clinically indistinguishable, yet recent acquisition of infection is the greatest risk factor for progression to tuberculosis in immunocompetent individuals. We aimed to evaluate the ability of cellular immune signatures that differ between active tuberculosis and LTBI to distinguish recently from remotely acquired LTBI. Methods. Fifty-nine individuals were recruited: 20 had active tuberculosis, 19 had recently acquired LTBI, and 20 had remotely acquired LTBI. The proportion of mycobacteria-specific CD4+ T cells secreting tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) but not interferon γ or interleukin 2 which had a differentiated effector phenotype (TNF-α–only TEFF), and the level of CD27 expression on IFN-γ–producing CD4+ T cells, were detected by flow cytometry. Results. The TNF-α–only TEFF signature was significantly higher in the group with recently acquired LTBI, compared with the group with remotely acquired LTBI (P < .0001), and it discriminated between these groups with high sensitivity and specificity, with an area under the curve of 0.87. Two signatures incorporating CD27 expression did not distinguish between recently and remotely acquired LTBI. Interestingly, the TNF-α–only TEFF signature in participants with recently acquired LTBI was more similar to that in participants with tuberculosis than that in participants with remotely acquired LTBI, suggesting that recently acquired LTBI is immunologically more similar to tuberculosis than remotely acquired LTBI. Conclusions. These findings reveal marked biological heterogeneity underlying the clinically homogeneous phenotype of LTBI, providing a rationale for immunological risk stratification to improve targeting of LTBI treatment. PMID:28329119

  8. The kinetics of cellular proliferation in regenerating liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrikant, J I

    1968-03-01

    The study concerns the kinetics of cellular proliferation in the different cell populations of the normal and regenerating rat liver. A detailed analysis is presented, which includes techniques of in vivo labeling of DNA with tritiated thymidine and high-resolution radioautography, of the temporal and spatial patterns of DNA synthesis and cell division in the parenchymal cells, littoral cells, bile duct epithelium, and other cellular components in the liver during the first 64 hr of regeneration after partial hepatectomy. The analysis of cell population kinetics indicates that (a) the rate of entry of parenchymal cells into synthesis, after an initial burst of proliferative activity, was an orderly progression at 3-4%/hr; (b) most cells divided once and a few twice, a large proportion of the cell deficit being replaced by 72 hr after the onset of proliferation; (c) T(s) was approximately 8.0 hr; T(gg2+m/2), 3.0 hr; and M, approximately 1.0 hr. Littoral cell proliferation began about 24 hr after the onset of parenchymal cell proliferation; the rate of entry of littoral cells into synthesis was greater than 4%/hr. Interlobular bile duct cell proliferation lagged well behind the parenchymal and littoral cell populations both in time and extent of proliferation.

  9. CELLULAR INTERACTIONS MEDIATED BY GLYCONECTIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Popescu

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular interactions involve many types of cell surface molecules and operate via homophilic and/or heterophilic protein-protein and protein-carbohydrate binding. Our investigations in different model-systems (marine invertebrates and mammals have provided direct evidence that a novel class of primordial proteoglycans, named by us gliconectins, can mediate cell adhesion via a new alternative molecular mechanism of polyvalent carbohydrate-carbohydrate binding. Biochemical characterization of isolated and purified glyconectins revealed the presence of specific carbohydrate structures, acidic glycans, different from classical glycosaminoglycans. Such acidic glycans of high molecular weight containing fucose, glucuronic or galacturonic acids, and sulfate groups, originally found in sponges and sea urchin embryos, may represent a new class of carbohydrate carcino-embryonal antigens in mice and humans. Such interactions between biological macromolecules are usually investigated by kinetic binding studies, calorimetric methods, X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance, and other spectroscopic analyses. However, these methods do not supply a direct estimation of the intermolecular binding forces that are fundamental for the function of the ligand-receptor association. Recently, we have introduced atomic force microscopy to quantify the binding strength between cell adhesion proteoglycans. Measurement of binding forces intrinsic to cell adhesion proteoglycans is necessary to assess their contribution to the maintenance of the anatomical integrity of multicellular organisms. As a model, we selected the glyconectin 1, a cell adhesion proteoglycan isolated from the marine sponge Microciona prolifera. This glyconectin mediates in vivo cell recognition and aggregation via homophilic, species-specific, polyvalent, and calcium ion-dependent carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions. Under physiological conditions, an adhesive force of up to 400 piconewtons

  10. On-Chip Detection of Cellular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, R.; Daniel, R.; Vernick, S.; Ron, A.; Ben-Yoav, H.; Shacham-Diamand, Y.

    The use of on-chip cellular activity monitoring for biological/chemical sensing is promising for environmental, medical and pharmaceutical applications. The miniaturization revolution in microelectronics is harnessed to provide on-chip detection of cellular activity, opening new horizons for miniature, fast, low cost and portable screening and monitoring devices. In this chapter we survey different on-chip cellular activity detection technologies based on electrochemical, bio-impedance and optical detection. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell-on-chip technologies are mentioned and reviewed.

  11. Probing Cellular Dynamics with Mesoscopic Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shillcock, Julian C.

    2010-01-01

    . Advances in computing hardware and software now allow explicit simulation of some aspects of cellular dynamics close to the molecular scale. Vesicle fusion is one example of such a process. Experiments, however, typically probe cellular behavior from the molecular scale up to microns. Standard particle...... soon be coupled to Mass Action models allowing the parameters in such models to be continuously tuned according to the finer resolution simulation. This will help realize the goal of a computational cellular simulation that is able to capture the dynamics of membrane-associated processes...

  12. Cellular chain formation in Escherichia coli biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Klemm, Per

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report on a novel structural phenotype in Escherichia coli biofilms: cellular chain formation. Biofilm chaining in E. coli K-12 was found to occur primarily by clonal expansion, but was not due to filamentous growth. Rather, chain formation was the result of intercellular......; type I fimbriae expression significantly reduced cellular chain formation, presumably by steric hindrance. Cellular chain formation did not appear to be specific to E coli K-12. Although many urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates were found to form rather homogeneous, flat biofilms, three isolates...

  13. Cellular scaling rules for the brain of afrotherians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber eNeves

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of the cellular composition of rodent, primate and eulipotyphlan brains has shown that nonneuronal scaling rules are similar across these mammalian orders that diverged about 95 million years ago, and therefore appear to be conserved in evolution, while neuronal scaling rules appear to be free to vary in evolution in a clade-specific manner. Here we analyze the cellular scaling rules that apply to the brain of afrotherians, believed to be the first clade to radiate from the common eutherian ancestor. We find that afrotherians share nonneuronal scaling rules with rodents, primates and eulipotyphlans, as well as the coordinated scaling of numbers of neurons in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Afrotherians share with rodents and eulipotyphlans, but not with primates, the scaling of number of neurons in the cortex and in the cerebellum as a function of the number of neurons in the rest of the brain. Afrotheria also share with rodents and eulipotyphlans the neuronal scaling rules that apply to the cerebral cortex. Afrotherians share with rodents, but not with eulipotyphlans nor primates, the neuronal scaling rules that apply to the cerebellum. Importantly, the scaling of the folding index of the cerebral cortex with the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex is not shared by either afrotherians, rodents, or primates. The sharing of some neuronal scaling rules between afrotherians and rodents, and of some additional features with eulipotyphlans and primates, raise the interesting possibility that these shared characteristics applied to the common eutherian ancestor. In turn, the clade-specific characteristics that relate to the distribution of neurons along the surface of the cerebral cortex and to its degree of gyrification suggest that these characteristics compose an evolutionarily plastic suite of features that may have defined and distinguished mammalian groups in evolution.

  14. Cellular scaling rules for the brain of afrotherians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Kleber; Ferreira, Fernanda M.; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Gravett, Nadine; Bennett, Nigel C.; Kaswera, Consolate; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Manger, Paul R.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the cellular composition of rodent, primate and eulipotyphlan brains has shown that non-neuronal scaling rules are similar across these mammalian orders that diverged about 95 million years ago, and therefore appear to be conserved in evolution, while neuronal scaling rules appear to be free to vary in evolution in a clade-specific manner. Here we analyze the cellular scaling rules that apply to the brain of afrotherians, believed to be the first clade to radiate from the common eutherian ancestor. We find that afrotherians share non-neuronal scaling rules with rodents, primates and eulipotyphlans, as well as the coordinated scaling of numbers of neurons in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Afrotherians share with rodents and eulipotyphlans, but not with primates, the scaling of number of neurons in the cortex and in the cerebellum as a function of the number of neurons in the rest of the brain. Afrotheria also share with rodents and eulipotyphlans the neuronal scaling rules that apply to the cerebral cortex. Afrotherians share with rodents, but not with eulipotyphlans nor primates, the neuronal scaling rules that apply to the cerebellum. Importantly, the scaling of the folding index of the cerebral cortex with the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex is not shared by either afrotherians, rodents, or primates. The sharing of some neuronal scaling rules between afrotherians and rodents, and of some additional features with eulipotyphlans and primates, raise the interesting possibility that these shared characteristics applied to the common eutherian ancestor. In turn, the clade-specific characteristics that relate to the distribution of neurons along the surface of the cerebral cortex and to its degree of gyrification suggest that these characteristics compose an evolutionarily plastic suite of features that may have defined and distinguished mammalian groups in evolution. PMID:24596544

  15. Study of spatially extended dynamical systems using probabilistic cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanag, Vladimir K

    1999-01-01

    Spatially extended dynamical systems are ubiquitous and include such things as insect and animal populations; complex chemical, technological, and geochemical processes; humanity itself, and much more. It is clearly desirable to have a certain universal tool with which the highly complex behaviour of nonlinear dynamical systems can be analyzed and modelled. For this purpose, cellular automata seem to be good candidates. In the present review, emphasis is placed on the possibilities that various types of probabilistic cellular automata (PCA), such as DSMC (direct simulation Monte Carlo) and LGCA (lattice-gas cellular automata), offer. The methods are primarily designed for modelling spatially extended dynamical systems with inner fluctuations accounted for. For the Willamowskii-Roessler and Oregonator models, PCA applications to the following problems are illustrated: the effect of fluctuations on the dynamics of nonlinear systems; Turing structure formation; the effect of hydrodynamic modes on the behaviour of nonlinear chemical systems (stirring effects); bifurcation changes in the dynamical regimes of complex systems with restricted geometry or low spatial dimension; and the description of chemical systems in microemulsions. (reviews of topical problems)

  16. Cellular Reprogramming–Turning the Clock Back

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cellular Reprogramming - Turning the Clock Back - Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2012. Deepa Subramanyam ... Keywords. Embryonic stem cells; pluripotency; reprogramming; differentiation; Nobel Prize 2012. ... National Centre for Cell Science University of Pune Campus Ganeshkhind Pune 411 007, India.

  17. Optimized Cellular Core for Rotorcraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Patz Materials and Technologies has developed, produced and tested, as part of the Phase-I SBIR, a new form of composite cellular core material, named Interply Core,...

  18. A cryptosystem based on elementary cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A. A.; Lian, Shiguo; Ismail, I. A.; Amin, M.; Diab, H.

    2013-01-01

    Based on elementary cellular automata, a new image encryption algorithm is proposed in this paper. In this algorithm, a special kind of periodic boundary cellular automata with unity attractors is used. From the viewpoint of security, the number of cellular automata attractor states are changed with respect to the encrypted image, and different key streams are used to encrypt different plain images. The cellular neural network with chaotic properties is used as the generator of a pseudo-random key stream. Theoretical analysis and experimental results have both confirmed that the proposed algorithm possesses high security level and good performances against differential and statistical attacks. The comparison with other existing schemes is given, which shows the superiority of the proposal scheme.

  19. Cellular Reprogramming–Turning the Clock Back

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 6. Cellular Reprogramming - Turning the Clock Back - Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2012. Deepa Subramanyam. General Article Volume 18 Issue 6 June 2013 pp 514-521 ...

  20. Intraspecific variation in cellular and biochemical heat response strategies of Mediterranean Xeropicta derbentina [Pulmonata, Hygromiidae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troschinski, Sandra; Di Lellis, Maddalena A; Sereda, Sergej; Hauffe, Torsten; Wilke, Thomas; Triebskorn, Rita; Köhler, Heinz-R

    2014-01-01

    Dry and hot environments challenge the survival of terrestrial snails. To minimize overheating and desiccation, physiological and biochemical adaptations are of high importance for these animals. In the present study, seven populations of the Mediterranean land snail species Xeropicta derbentina were sampled from their natural habitat in order to investigate the intraspecific variation of cellular and biochemical mechanisms, which are assigned to contribute to heat resistance. Furthermore, we tested whether genetic parameters are correlated with these physiological heat stress response patterns. Specimens of each population were individually exposed to elevated temperatures (25 to 52°C) for 8 h in the laboratory. After exposure, the health condition of the snails' hepatopancreas was examined by means of qualitative description and semi-quantitative assessment of histopathological effects. In addition, the heat-shock protein 70 level (Hsp70) was determined. Generally, calcium cells of the hepatopancreas were more heat resistant than digestive cells - this phenomenon was associated with elevated Hsp70 levels at 40°C.We observed considerable variation in the snails' heat response strategy: Individuals from three populations invested much energy in producing a highly elevated Hsp70 level, whereas three other populations invested energy in moderate stress protein levels - both strategies were in association with cellular functionality. Furthermore, one population kept cellular condition stable despite a low Hsp70 level until 40°C exposure, whereas prominent cellular reactions were observed above this thermal limit. Genetic diversity (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene) within populations was low. Nevertheless, when using genetic indices as explanatory variables in a multivariate regression tree (MRT) analysis, population structure explained mean differences in cellular and biochemical heat stress responses, especially in the group exposed to 40°C. Our

  1. Intraspecific variation in cellular and biochemical heat response strategies of Mediterranean Xeropicta derbentina [Pulmonata, Hygromiidae].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Troschinski

    Full Text Available Dry and hot environments challenge the survival of terrestrial snails. To minimize overheating and desiccation, physiological and biochemical adaptations are of high importance for these animals. In the present study, seven populations of the Mediterranean land snail species Xeropicta derbentina were sampled from their natural habitat in order to investigate the intraspecific variation of cellular and biochemical mechanisms, which are assigned to contribute to heat resistance. Furthermore, we tested whether genetic parameters are correlated with these physiological heat stress response patterns. Specimens of each population were individually exposed to elevated temperatures (25 to 52°C for 8 h in the laboratory. After exposure, the health condition of the snails' hepatopancreas was examined by means of qualitative description and semi-quantitative assessment of histopathological effects. In addition, the heat-shock protein 70 level (Hsp70 was determined. Generally, calcium cells of the hepatopancreas were more heat resistant than digestive cells - this phenomenon was associated with elevated Hsp70 levels at 40°C.We observed considerable variation in the snails' heat response strategy: Individuals from three populations invested much energy in producing a highly elevated Hsp70 level, whereas three other populations invested energy in moderate stress protein levels - both strategies were in association with cellular functionality. Furthermore, one population kept cellular condition stable despite a low Hsp70 level until 40°C exposure, whereas prominent cellular reactions were observed above this thermal limit. Genetic diversity (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene within populations was low. Nevertheless, when using genetic indices as explanatory variables in a multivariate regression tree (MRT analysis, population structure explained mean differences in cellular and biochemical heat stress responses, especially in the group

  2. Cellular scaling rules for primate brains

    OpenAIRE

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Collins, Christine E.; Wong, Peiyan; Kaas, Jon H.

    2007-01-01

    Primates are usually found to have richer behavioral repertoires and better cognitive abilities than rodents of similar brain size. This finding raises the possibility that primate brains differ from rodent brains in their cellular composition. Here we examine the cellular scaling rules for primate brains and show that brain size increases approximately isometrically as a function of cell numbers, such that an 11× larger brain is built with 10× more neurons and ≈12× more nonneuronal cells of ...

  3. Cellular Phone Users- Willingness to Shop Online

    OpenAIRE

    Norazah Mohd Suki; Norbayah Mohd Suki

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to identify cellular phone users- shopping motivating factors towards online shopping. 100 university students located in Klang Valley, Malaysia were involved as the respondents. They were required to complete a set of questionnaire and had to own a cellular phone in order to be selected as sample in this study. Three from five proposed hypotheses were supported: purchasing information, shopping utilities and service quality. As a result, marketers and retailers should concent...

  4. Nondestructive Imaging of Cellular Solid Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Syed Ariful; Sozer, Nesli

    2016-01-01

    The successful use of XMT in other fields of science (e.g., medical, agricultural, biological and material science) has led its further application in food structure characterization. Cellular solid structures have great impact on sensory properties and associated with also textural-mechanical properties. XMT is able to present rigorous quantitative information related to cellular architecture of solid foods such as cell size and distribution, cell wall thickness, cell connectedness and poros...

  5. Recent advances in cellular glycomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Jun-Ichi; Fujitani, Naoki; Shinohara, Yasuro

    2013-02-21

    A large variety of glycans is intricately located on the cell surface, and the overall profile (the glycome, given the entire repertoire of glycoconjugate-associated sugars in cells and tissues) is believed to be crucial for the diverse roles of glycans, which are mediated by specific interactions that control cell-cell adhesion, immune response, microbial pathogenesis and other cellular events. The glycomic profile also reflects cellular alterations, such as development, differentiation and cancerous change. A glycoconjugate-based approach would therefore be expected to streamline discovery of novel cellular biomarkers. Development of such an approach has proven challenging, due to the technical difficulties associated with the analysis of various types of cellular glycomes; however, recent progress in the development of analytical methodologies and strategies has begun to clarify the cellular glycomics of various classes of glycoconjugates. This review focuses on recent advances in the technical aspects of cellular glycomic analyses of major classes of glycoconjugates, including N- and O-linked glycans, derived from glycoproteins, proteoglycans and glycosphingolipids. Articles that unveil the glycomics of various biologically important cells, including embryonic and somatic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and cancer cells, are discussed.

  6. Quantum-Secret-Sharing Scheme Based on Local Distinguishability of Orthogonal Seven-Qudit Entangled States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Ji; Li, Zhi-Hui; Bai, Chen-Ming; Si, Meng-Meng

    2018-02-01

    The concept of judgment space was proposed by Wang et al. (Phys. Rev. A 95, 022320, 2017), which was used to study some important properties of quantum entangled states based on local distinguishability. In this study, we construct 15 kinds of seven-qudit quantum entangled states in the sense of permutation, calculate their judgment space and propose a distinguishability rule to make the judgment space more clearly. Based on this rule, we study the local distinguishability of the 15 kinds of seven-qudit quantum entangled states and then propose a ( k, n) threshold quantum secret sharing scheme. Finally, we analyze the security of the scheme.

  7. The Tripartite Model of Risk Perception (TRIRISK): Distinguishing Deliberative, Affective, and Experiential Components of Perceived Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Klein, William M P; Persoskie, Alexander; Avishai-Yitshak, Aya; Sheeran, Paschal

    2016-10-01

    Although risk perception is a key predictor in health behavior theories, current conceptions of risk comprise only one (deliberative) or two (deliberative vs. affective/experiential) dimensions. This research tested a tripartite model that distinguishes among deliberative, affective, and experiential components of risk perception. In two studies, and in relation to three common diseases (cancer, heart disease, diabetes), we used confirmatory factor analyses to examine the factor structure of the tripartite risk perception (TRIRISK) model and compared the fit of the TRIRISK model to dual-factor and single-factor models. In a third study, we assessed concurrent validity by examining the impact of cancer diagnosis on (a) levels of deliberative, affective, and experiential risk perception, and (b) the strength of relations among risk components, and tested predictive validity by assessing relations with behavioral intentions to prevent cancer. The tripartite factor structure was supported, producing better model fit across diseases (studies 1 and 2). Inter-correlations among the components were significantly smaller among participants who had been diagnosed with cancer, suggesting that affected populations make finer-grained distinctions among risk perceptions (study 3). Moreover, all three risk perception components predicted unique variance in intentions to engage in preventive behavior (study 3). The TRIRISK model offers both a novel conceptualization of health-related risk perceptions, and new measures that enhance predictive validity beyond that engendered by unidimensional and bidimensional models. The present findings have implications for the ways in which risk perceptions are targeted in health behavior change interventions, health communications, and decision aids.

  8. Phenomenological Approach to Cellular Pattern Formed during Directional Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    WolczyńSki, W.; Kloch, J.

    1997-10-01

    The approach to the solid/liquid (s/l) interface geometry for a 1D experiment of cellular growth is presented. It is based on a periodical function which comprises fundamental undulation of the planar s/l interface and some disfigurements of this undulation. Four regions of the cellular structure formation are distinguished versus growth rate: finite cells, doublets, deep cells and gothic cells (predendritic region). The fundamental undulation is expressed by the same formula within all the regions and the intercellular spacing is treated as equal to the wavelength of undulation. The differentiation among the regions is expressed by some terms responsible for the disfigurements of undulation. The fitting of the presented equations to the observed cellular morphology is the subject of the method. The selection of the intercellular spacing with the use of the criterion of minimum entropy production is suggested. However, only the formal calculation of the undulation amplitude is presented. L'approche de géométrie de l'interface cellulaire pour l'observation unidimensionelle est montrée. Elle est basée sur une fonction périodique qui comprend les deux: l'ondulation fondamentale du front plan et certaines déformations de cet ondulation. Quatre régions de la formation des structures cellulaires ont été différenciées en fonction de vitesse de croissance: des cellules finies, des cellules profondes, doubletons et des cellules gothiques (la région prédendritique). L'ondulation fondamentale est exprimée par le même terme dans toutes les régions et la taille cellulaire est traitée comme equivalent à la longueur d'onde de l'ondulation. La différenciation parmis les régions est exprimée par les termes responsables de déformations de l'ondulation. L'ajustement des équations proposées à la morphologie cellulaire observée est le sujet du procédé. La sélection de la taille cellulaire à l'aide d'un critère de production d'entropie minimum est propos

  9. Significant histologic features differentiating cellular fibroadenoma from phyllodes tumor on core needle biopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasir, Saba; Gamez, Roberto; Jenkins, Sarah; Visscher, Daniel W; Nassar, Aziza

    2014-09-01

    Cellular fibroepithelial lesions (CFELs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors encompassing cellular fibroadenoma (CFA) and phyllodes tumor (PT). Distinction between the two is challenging on core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens. The objective of this study was to evaluate histologic features that can help distinguish PT from CFA on CNB specimens. Records of all patients diagnosed with CFELs on CNB specimens with follow-up excision between January 2002 and December 2012 were retrieved. Histopathologic stromal features were evaluated on CNB specimens, including mitoses per 10 high-power fields (hpf), overgrowth, increased cellularity, fragmentation, adipose tissue infiltration, heterogeneity, subepithelial condensation, and nuclear pleomorphism. Twenty-seven (42.2%) of 64 were diagnosed as PT (24 benign PTs and three borderline PTs) and 37 (57.8%) as CFA on excision. All features except for increased stromal cellularity were statistically significant. The average number of histologic features seen in PT and CFA was 3.9 and 1.4, respectively (odds ratio [OR], 7.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.44-21.69; P = .0004). The average number of mitoses per 10 hpf was 3.0 for PT compared with 0.8 for CFA (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.18-3.86; P = .01). The presence of mitoses (three or more) and/or total histologic features of three or more on CNB specimens were the most helpful features in predicting PT on excision. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  10. Significant Histological Features Differentiating Cellular Fibroadenoma from Phyllodes Tumor on Core Needle Biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasir, Saba; Gamez, Roberto; Jenkins, Sarah; Visscher, Daniel W.; Nassar, Aziza

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Cellular fibroepithelial lesions (CFEL) are a heterogeneous group of tumors encompassing cellular fibroadenoma (CFA) and phyllodes tumor (PT). Distinction between the two is challenging on core needle biopsy (CNB). The objective of this study was to evaluate histological features that can help distinguish PT from CFA on CNB. Methods Records of all patients diagnosed with CFEL on CNB with follow-up excision between 2002 and 2012 were retrieved. Histopathological stromal features were evaluated on CNB including mitoses per 10 HPF, overgrowth, increased cellularity, fragmentation, adipose tissue infiltration, heterogeneity, subepithelial condensation, and nuclear pleomorphism. Results Twenty-seven of 64 (42.2%) were diagnosed as PT (24 BPT, 3 borderline PT) and 37 (57.8%) as CFA on excision. All features except for increased stromal cellularity were statistically significant. The average number of histologic features seen in PT and CFA was 3.9 and 1.4, respectively (OR 7.27; 95% CI: 2.44, 21.69; p= 0.0004). The average mitoses per 10 HPF was 3.0 for PT as compared to 0.8 for CFA (OR 2.14; 95% CI: 1.18, 3.86; p= 0.01). Conclusions The presence of mitosis (3 or more) and/or total histologic features of 3 or more on CNB were most helpful features in predicting PT on excision. PMID:25125627

  11. Super-Resolution Microscopy: Shedding Light on the Cellular Plasma Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Matthew B; Shelby, Sarah A; Veatch, Sarah L

    2017-06-14

    Lipids and the membranes they form are fundamental building blocks of cellular life, and their geometry and chemical properties distinguish membranes from other cellular environments. Collective processes occurring within membranes strongly impact cellular behavior and biochemistry, and understanding these processes presents unique challenges due to the often complex and myriad interactions between membrane components. Super-resolution microscopy offers a significant gain in resolution over traditional optical microscopy, enabling the localization of individual molecules even in densely labeled samples and in cellular and tissue environments. These microscopy techniques have been used to examine the organization and dynamics of plasma membrane components, providing insight into the fundamental interactions that determine membrane functions. Here, we broadly introduce the structure and organization of the mammalian plasma membrane and review recent applications of super-resolution microscopy to the study of membranes. We then highlight some inherent challenges faced when using super-resolution microscopy to study membranes, and we discuss recent technical advancements that promise further improvements to super-resolution microscopy and its application to the plasma membrane.

  12. Transcript of presentation of Distinguished Alumni Award to James Roche and Thomas White, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Elster, Richard S.

    2001-01-01

    Transcript of the words of Provost Richard S. Elster from the September 2001 Distinguished Alumni Award recognition of Secretary of the Air Force the Honorable James Roche and Secretary of the Army the Honorable Thomas White.

  13. Distinguishing Endogenic and Impact Craters Using Depth to Diameter Ratios and Circularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, R. J.; Greeley, R.

    2011-03-01

    Based on concerns for surface age dating, morphometric data from the McCartys Flow, New Mexico, was compared to craters in the Colombia Hills area in Gusev Crater, Mars, to distinguish impact craters from volcanic craters in lava flows.

  14. Phenolic compounds as cultivar- and variety-distinguishing factors in some plant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepacka, Joanna; Gujska, Elżbieta; Michalak, Joanna

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether phenolic compounds in some varieties of buckwheat, winter and spring barley and peas can be used as factors which distinguish selected cultivars and varieties of plant material. It was observed that the content of total phenolics might be useful as a cultivar-distinguishing factor for all the plant materials analyzed, but it was a distinguishing factor for only some varieties. Individual cultivars and varieties were best distinguished by the content of syringic acid. The levels of syringic and vanillic acids were in reverse proportion to the total amount of phenolics soluble in methanol and a positive correlation between syringic and ferulic acid was observed. Moreover, the protein content of plant material was analyzed and a significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlation between this component and ferulic and vanillic acids was noted.

  15. Distinctive Behaviors of Druggable Proteins in Cellular Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Mitsopoulos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction environment of a protein in a cellular network is important in defining the role that the protein plays in the system as a whole, and thus its potential suitability as a drug target. Despite the importance of the network environment, it is neglected during target selection for drug discovery. Here, we present the first systematic, comprehensive computational analysis of topological, community and graphical network parameters of the human interactome and identify discriminatory network patterns that strongly distinguish drug targets from the interactome as a whole. Importantly, we identify striking differences in the network behavior of targets of cancer drugs versus targets from other therapeutic areas and explore how they may relate to successful drug combinations to overcome acquired resistance to cancer drugs. We develop, computationally validate and provide the first public domain predictive algorithm for identifying druggable neighborhoods based on network parameters. We also make available full predictions for 13,345 proteins to aid target selection for drug discovery. All target predictions are available through canSAR.icr.ac.uk. Underlying data and tools are available at https://cansar.icr.ac.uk/cansar/publications/druggable_network_neighbourhoods/.

  16. Distinctive Behaviors of Druggable Proteins in Cellular Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsopoulos, Costas; Schierz, Amanda C; Workman, Paul; Al-Lazikani, Bissan

    2015-12-01

    The interaction environment of a protein in a cellular network is important in defining the role that the protein plays in the system as a whole, and thus its potential suitability as a drug target. Despite the importance of the network environment, it is neglected during target selection for drug discovery. Here, we present the first systematic, comprehensive computational analysis of topological, community and graphical network parameters of the human interactome and identify discriminatory network patterns that strongly distinguish drug targets from the interactome as a whole. Importantly, we identify striking differences in the network behavior of targets of cancer drugs versus targets from other therapeutic areas and explore how they may relate to successful drug combinations to overcome acquired resistance to cancer drugs. We develop, computationally validate and provide the first public domain predictive algorithm for identifying druggable neighborhoods based on network parameters. We also make available full predictions for 13,345 proteins to aid target selection for drug discovery. All target predictions are available through canSAR.icr.ac.uk. Underlying data and tools are available at https://cansar.icr.ac.uk/cansar/publications/druggable_network_neighbourhoods/.

  17. Western blot can distinguish natural and acquired antibodies to Mycoplasma agassizii in the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kenneth W; Dupré, Sally A; Sharp, Tiffanny; Sandmeier, Franziska C; Tracy, C Richard

    2008-12-01

    Mycoplasma agassizi has been identified as a cause of upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) in the threatened Mojave population of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), and anti-M. agassizii antibodies have been found by ELISA in as many as 15% of these animals across their geographic range. Here we report that a cohort of 16 egg-reared desert tortoises never exposed to M. agassizii had ELISA antibody titers to this organism that overlapped with titers obtained from some M. agassizii-infected tortoises. These natural antibodies were predominantly of the IgM class. Western blots of plasma from these non-infected tortoises produced a characteristic banding pattern against M. agassizii antigens. A group of 38 wild-caught desert tortoises was tested by ELISA, and although some of these tortoises had antibody titers significantly higher than the non-infected tortoises, there was considerable overlap at the lower titer levels. However, Western blot analysis revealed distinct banding patterns that could readily distinguish between the non-infected tortoises and tortoises with acquired antibodies, regardless of ELISA antibody titers. We conclude that desert tortoises have natural antibodies to M. agassizii that can compromise the determination of infection status by ELISA. However, the Western blot technique can distinguish between natural and acquired antibody patterns and can be used to confirm the diagnosis of M. agassizii infections in the desert tortoise.

  18. Highly efficient cellular cloning using Ferro-core Micropallet Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhof, Trisha M; Cox-Muranami, Wesley A; Li, Guann-Pyng; Bachman, Mark; Fan, Hung; Nelson, Edward L

    2017-10-12

    Advancing knowledge of biological mechanisms has come to depend upon genetic manipulation of cells and organisms, relying upon cellular cloning methods that remain unchanged for decades, are labor and time intensive, often taking many months to come to fruition. Thus, there is a pressing need for more efficient processes. We have adapted a newly developed micropallet array platform, termed the "ferro-core micropallet array", to dramatically improve and accelerate the process of isolating clonal populations of adherent cells from heterogeneous mixtures retaining the flexibility of employing a wide range of cytometric parameters for identifying colonies and cells of interest. Using transfected (retroviral oncogene or fluorescent reporter construct) rat 208 F cells, we demonstrated the capacity to isolate and expand pure populations of genetically manipulated cells via laser release and magnetic recovery of single micropallets carrying adherent microcolonies derived from single cells. This platform can be broadly applied to biological research, across the spectrum of molecular biology to cellular biology, involving fields such as cancer, developmental, and stem cell biology. The ferro-core micropallet array platform provides significant advantages over alternative sorting and cloning methods by eliminating the necessity for repetitive purification steps and increasing throughput by dramatically shortening the time to obtain clonally expanded cell colonies.

  19. Distinguished Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryles, Daisy; Roback, Diane; Ink, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Includes 12 articles that list notable books for college-bound youth, young adults, and children; paperbacks for young adults; audiobooks for young adults; children's videos; recordings for children; software and Web sites for children; bestsellers of 2000; and literary prizes that were awarded in 2000. (LRW)

  20. A Model to Partly but Reliably Distinguish DDOS Flood Traffic from Aggregated One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable distinguishing DDOS flood traffic from aggregated traffic is desperately desired by reliable prevention of DDOS attacks. By reliable distinguishing, we mean that flood traffic can be distinguished from aggregated one for a predetermined probability. The basis to reliably distinguish flood traffic from aggregated one is reliable detection of signs of DDOS flood attacks. As is known, reliably distinguishing DDOS flood traffic from aggregated traffic becomes a tough task mainly due to the effects of flash-crowd traffic. For this reason, this paper studies reliable detection in the underlying DiffServ network to use static-priority schedulers. In this network environment, we present a method for reliable detection of signs of DDOS flood attacks for a given class with a given priority. There are two assumptions introduced in this study. One is that flash-crowd traffic does not have all priorities but some. The other is that attack traffic has all priorities in all classes, otherwise an attacker cannot completely achieve its DDOS goal. Further, we suppose that the protected site is equipped with a sensor that has a signature library of the legitimate traffic with the priorities flash-crowd traffic does not have. Based on those, we are able to reliably distinguish attack traffic from aggregated traffic with the priorities that flash-crowd traffic does not have according to a given detection probability.

  1. Molecular and cellular limits to somatosensory specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viana Félix

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animals detect environmental changes through sensory neural mechanisms that enable them to differentiate the quality, intensity and temporal characteristics of stimuli. The 'doctrine of specific nervous energies' postulates that the different sensory modalities experienced by humans result of the activation of specific nervous pathways. Identification of functional classes of sensory receptors provided scientific support to the concept that somatosensory modalities (touch, pain, temperature, kinesthesis are subserved by separate populations of sensory receptor neurons specialized in detecting innocuous and injurious stimuli of different quality (mechanical forces, temperature, chemical compounds. The identification of receptor proteins activated by different physicochemical stimuli, in particular ion channels of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP superfamily, has put forward the concept that specificity of peripheral sensory receptor neurons is determined by their expression of a particular "molecular sensor" that confers to each functional type its selectivity to respond with a discharge of nerve impulses to stimuli of a given quality. Nonetheless, recent experimental data suggest that the various molecular sensors proposed as specific transducer molecules for stimuli of different quality are not as neatly associated with the distinct functional types of sensory receptors as originally proposed. First, many ion channel molecules initially associated to the transduction of only one particular form of energy are also activated by stimuli of different quality, implying a limited degree of specificity in their transducing capacities. Second, molecular sensors associated with a stimulus quality and hence to a sensory receptor type and ultimately to a sensory modality may be concomitantly expressed in sensory receptor neurons functionally defined as specific for another stimulus quality. Finally, activation of voltage gated channels

  2. Shape Memory Alloy-Based Periodic Cellular Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort will develop and demonstrate an innovative shape memory alloy (SMA) periodic cellular structural technology. Periodic cellular structures...

  3. Shape Memory Alloy-Based Periodic Cellular Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort will develop and demonstrate an innovative shape memory alloy (SMA) periodic cellular structural technology. Periodic cellular structures...

  4. Oral traumatic granuloma. Characterization of the cellular infiltrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Zarbo, R J; Daniels, T E; Greenspan, J S

    1993-06-01

    Oral traumatic granulomas are reactive mucosal lesions that are characterized by an intense mononuclear infiltrate (usually with eosinophils) that may mimic neoplasia. These pseudoneoplastic infiltrates were evaluated with the use of lineage-associated antibodies (CD3, OPD4, L26, KP1, XIIIa, S-100, HPCA-1, HHF-35). We determined that the large distinguishing mononuclear cells were either CD68-positive macrophages or factor XIIIa-positive dendrocytes (the oral counterparts to dermal dendrocytes). S-100-positive connective tissue cells occasionally contributed to this infiltrate. Also abundant in the infiltrate were smaller CD3-positive T-lymphocytes. Double-staining confirmed that there were separate populations of CD68-positive macrophages and XIIIa-positive dendrocytes. Because some XIIIa dendrocytes coexpressed CD68, phagocytosis may be one of the functions of dendrocytes.

  5. Competition in size-structured populations: mechanisms inducing cohort formation and population cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roos, A.M.; Persson, L.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the consequences of size-dependent competition among the individuals of a consumer population by analyzing the dynamic properties of a physiologically structured population model. Only 2 size-classes of individuals are distinguished: juveniles and adults. Juveniles and

  6. The cellular composition of the human immune system is shaped by age and cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Edward J; Dooley, James; Garcia-Perez, Josselyn E; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lee, James C; Wouters, Carine; Meyts, Isabelle; Goris, An; Boeckxstaens, Guy; Linterman, Michelle A; Liston, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Detailed population-level description of the human immune system has recently become achievable. We used a 'systems-level' approach to establish a resource of cellular immune profiles of 670 healthy individuals. We report a high level of interindividual variation, with low longitudinal variation, at the level of cellular subset composition of the immune system. Despite the profound effects of antigen exposure on individual antigen-specific clones, the cellular subset structure proved highly elastic, with transient vaccination-induced changes followed by a return to the individual's unique baseline. Notably, the largest influence on immunological variation identified was cohabitation, with 50% less immunological variation between individuals who share an environment (as parents) than between people in the wider population. These results identify local environmental conditions as a key factor in shaping the human immune system.

  7. Cellular automatons applied to gas dynamic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lyle N.; Coopersmith, Robert M.; Mclachlan, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper compares the results of a relatively new computational fluid dynamics method, cellular automatons, with experimental data and analytical results. This technique has been shown to qualitatively predict fluidlike behavior; however, there have been few published comparisons with experiment or other theories. Comparisons are made for a one-dimensional supersonic piston problem, Stokes first problem, and the flow past a normal flat plate. These comparisons are used to assess the ability of the method to accurately model fluid dynamic behavior and to point out its limitations. Reasonable results were obtained for all three test cases, but the fundamental limitations of cellular automatons are numerous. It may be misleading, at this time, to say that cellular automatons are a computationally efficient technique. Other methods, based on continuum or kinetic theory, would also be very efficient if as little of the physics were included.

  8. Memory pattern analysis of cellular neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Zhigang; Huang Deshuang; Wang Zengfu

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, we have shown that the n-dimensional cellular neural network and delay cellular neural network can have not more than 3 n memory patterns, can have 2 n memory patterns which are locally exponentially stable. And we have obtained the estimates of attractive domain of such 2 n locally exponentially stable memory patterns. In addition, we have derived the conditions that the equilibrium point is locally exponentially stable when the equilibrium point locate the designated position. Some sufficient conditions have been obtained to guarantee the global exponential stability for the cellular neural networks. Those conditions can be directly derived from the parameters of the neural networks, are very easy to verified. The results presented in this Letter are the improvement and extension of the existed ones. Finally, the validity and performance of the results are illustrated by two simulation results

  9. Alleviate Cellular Congestion Through Opportunistic Trough Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for cellular data service has been skyrocketing since the debut of data-intensive smart phones and touchpads. However, not all data are created equal. Many popular applications on mobile devices, such as email synchronization and social network updates, are delay tolerant. In addition, cellular load varies significantly in both large and small time scales. To alleviate network congestion and improve network performance, we present a set of opportunistic trough filling schemes that leverage the time-variation of network congestion and delay-tolerance of certain traffic in this paper. We consider average delay, deadline, and clearance time as the performance metrics. Simulation results show promising performance improvement over the standard schemes. The work shed lights on addressing the pressing issue of cellular overload.

  10. Passive Noise Filtering by Cellular Compartmentalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeger, Thomas; Battich, Nico; Pelkmans, Lucas

    2016-03-10

    Chemical reactions contain an inherent element of randomness, which presents itself as noise that interferes with cellular processes and communication. Here we discuss the ability of the spatial partitioning of molecular systems to filter and, thus, remove noise, while preserving regulated and predictable differences between single living cells. In contrast to active noise filtering by network motifs, cellular compartmentalization is highly effective and easily scales to numerous systems without requiring a substantial usage of cellular energy. We will use passive noise filtering by the eukaryotic cell nucleus as an example of how this increases predictability of transcriptional output, with possible implications for the evolution of complex multicellularity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of galactose in cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzi, David J; Song, Meihua; Shiio, Yuzuru

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence has been proposed to play critical roles in tumor suppression and organismal aging, but the molecular mechanism of senescence remains incompletely understood. Here we report that a putative lysosomal carbohydrate efflux transporter, Spinster, induces cellular senescence in human primary fibroblasts. Administration of d-galactose synergistically enhanced Spinster-induced senescence and this synergism required the transporter activity of Spinster. Intracellular d-galactose is metabolized to galactose-1-phosphate by galactokinase. Galactokinase-deficient fibroblasts, which accumulate intracellular d-galactose, displayed increased baseline senescence. Senescence of galactokinase-deficient fibroblasts was further enhanced by d-galactose administration and was diminished by restoration of wild-type galactokinase expression. Silencing galactokinase in normal fibroblasts also induced senescence. These results suggest a role for intracellular galactose in the induction of cellular senescence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cellular Signaling in Health and Disease

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerman, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In today’s world, three great classes of non-infectious diseases – the metabolic syndromes (such as type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis), the cancers, and the neurodegenerative disorders – have risen to the fore. These diseases, all associated with increasing age of an individual, have proven to be remarkably complex and difficult to treat. This is because, in large measure, when the cellular signaling pathways responsible for maintaining homeostasis and health of the body become dysregulated, they generate equally stable disease states. As a result the body may respond positively to a drug, but only for a while and then revert back to the disease state. Cellular Signaling in Health and Disease summarizes our current understanding of these regulatory networks in the healthy and diseased states, showing which molecular components might be prime targets for drug interventions. This is accomplished by presenting models that explain in mechanistic, molecular detail how a particular part of the cellular sign...

  13. Cellular mechanisms for altered learning in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, M Matthew; Disterhoft, John F

    2010-01-01

    Getting gray hair is part of the natural progression of aging. People expect it and they can change their hair color, if they choose. People also expect increases in memory lapses and learning difficulties as they get older. However, unlike hair color, there is no magic cure or option to fix learning and memory difficulties, because the cellular mechanisms of learning and aging in all the different types of neurons throughout the brain have yet to be discovered. This review describes our efforts to identify a cellular biomarker in hippocampal pyramidal neurons that has been demonstrated to reliably change with learning and with aging - the postburst afterhyperpolarization. We propose that this biomarker, which plays a critical role in regulating neuronal excitability, can be used as a benchmark for future studies in order to understand and identify the cellular mechanisms of learning and aging in the hippocampus, as well as in other cortical regions.

  14. Crack Propagation in Bamboo's Hierarchical Cellular Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Meisam K.; Lu, Yang

    2014-07-01

    Bamboo, as a natural hierarchical cellular material, exhibits remarkable mechanical properties including excellent flexibility and fracture toughness. As far as bamboo as a functionally graded bio-composite is concerned, the interactions of different constituents (bamboo fibers; parenchyma cells; and vessels.) alongside their corresponding interfacial areas with a developed crack should be of high significance. Here, by using multi-scale mechanical characterizations coupled with advanced environmental electron microscopy (ESEM), we unambiguously show that fibers' interfacial areas along with parenchyma cells' boundaries were preferred routes for crack growth in both radial and longitudinal directions. Irrespective of the honeycomb structure of fibers along with cellular configuration of parenchyma ground, the hollow vessels within bamboo culm affected the crack propagation too, by crack deflection or crack-tip energy dissipation. It is expected that the tortuous crack propagation mode exhibited in the present study could be applicable to other cellular natural materials as well.

  15. Cyclic cellular automata in 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, Clifford A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We explore the self-organization of cyclic cellular automata in 3D. → Von Neumann, Moore and two types of intermediate neighborhoods are investigated. → Random neighborhoods self organize through phases into complex nested structures. → Demons are seen to have many alternatives in 3D. - Abstract: Cyclic cellular automata in two dimensions have long been intriguing because they self organize into spirals and that behavior can be analyzed. The form for the patterns that develop is highly dependent upon the form of the neighborhood. We extend this work to three dimensional cyclic cellular automata and observe self organization dependent upon the neighborhood type. This includes neighborhood types intermediate between Von Neumann and Moore neighborhoods. We also observe that the patterns include nested shells with the appropriate forms but that the nesting is far more complex than the spirals that occur in two dimensions.

  16. Cellular-automata method for phase unwrapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiglia, D.C.; Mastin, G.A.; Romero, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Research into two-dimensional phase unwrapping has uncovered interesting and troublesome inconsistencies that cause path-dependent results. Cellular automata, which are simple, discrete mathematical systems, offered promise of computation in nondirectional, parallel manner. A cellular automaton was discovered that can unwrap consistent phase data in n dimensions in a path-independent manner and can automatically accommodate noise-induced (pointlike) inconsistencies and arbitrary boundary conditions (region partitioning). For data with regional (nonpointlike) inconsistencies, no phase-unwrapping algorithm will converge, including the cellular-automata approach. However, the automata method permits more simple visualization of the regional inconsistencies. Examples of its behavior on one- and two-dimensional data are presented

  17. Cellular Stress Response to Engineered Nanoparticles: Effect of Size, Surface Coating, and Cellular Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    CELLULAR STRESS RESPONSE TO ENGINEERED NANOPARTICLES: EFFECT OF SIZE, SURFACE COATING, AND CELLULAR UPTAKE RY Prasad 1, JK McGee2, MG Killius1 D Ackerman2, CF Blackman2 DM DeMarini2 , SO Simmons2 1 Student Services Contractor, US EPA, RTP, NC 2 US EPA, RTP, NC The num...

  18. Diffusion kurtosis imaging can efficiently assess the glioma grade and cellular proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rifeng; Jiang, Jingjing; Zhao, Lingyun; Zhang, Jiaxuan; Zhang, Shun; Yao, Yihao; Yang, Shiqi; Shi, Jingjing; Shen, Nanxi; Su, Changliang; Zhang, Ju; Zhu, Wenzhen

    2015-12-08

    Conventional diffusion imaging techniques are not sufficiently accurate for evaluating glioma grade and cellular proliferation, which are critical for guiding glioma treatment. Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), an advanced non-Gaussian diffusion imaging technique, has shown potential in grading glioma; however, its applications in this tumor have not been fully elucidated. In this study, DKI and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) were performed on 74 consecutive patients with histopathologically confirmed glioma. The kurtosis and conventional diffusion metric values of the tumor were semi-automatically obtained. The relationships of these metrics with the glioma grade and Ki-67 expression were evaluated. The diagnostic efficiency of these metrics in grading was further compared. It was demonstrated that compared with the conventional diffusion metrics, the kurtosis metrics were more promising imaging markers in distinguishing high-grade from low-grade gliomas and distinguishing among grade II, III and IV gliomas; the kurtosis metrics also showed great potential in the prediction of Ki-67 expression. To our best knowledge, we are the first to reveal the ability of DKI to assess the cellular proliferation of gliomas, and to employ the semi-automatic method for the accurate measurement of gliomas. These results could have a significant impact on the diagnosis and subsequent therapy of glioma.

  19. Cellular Automata Simulation for Wealth Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Ching

    2009-08-01

    Wealth distribution of a country is a complicate system. A model, which is based on the Epstein & Axtell's "Sugars cape" model, is presented in Netlogo. The model considers the income, age, working opportunity and salary as control variables. There are still other variables should be considered while an artificial society is established. In this study, a more complicate cellular automata model for wealth distribution model is proposed. The effects of social welfare, tax, economical investment and inheritance are considered and simulated. According to the cellular automata simulation for wealth distribution, we will have a deep insight of financial policy of the government.

  20. Capacity on wireless quantum cellular communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang-Zhen; Yu, Xu-Tao; Zhang, Zai-Chen

    2018-03-01

    Quantum technology is making excellent prospects in future communication networks. Entanglement generation and purification are two major components in quantum networks. Combining these two techniques with classical cellular mobile communication, we proposed a novel wireless quantum cellular(WQC) communication system which is possible to realize commercial mobile quantum communication. In this paper, the architecture and network topology of WQC communication system are discussed, the mathematical model of WQC system is extracted and the serving capacity, indicating the ability to serve customers, is defined and calculated under certain circumstances.

  1. The cellular basis for animal regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Elly; Reddien, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of animals to regenerate missing parts is a dramatic and poorly understood aspect of biology. The sources of new cells for these regenerative phenomena have been sought for decades. Recent advances involving cell fate tracking in complex tissues have shed new light on the cellular underpinnings of regeneration in Hydra, planarians, zebrafish, Xenopus, and Axolotl. Planarians accomplish regeneration with use of adult pluripotent stem cells, whereas several vertebrates utilize a collection of lineage-restricted progenitors from different tissues. Together, an array of cellular strategies—from pluripotent stem cells to tissue-specific stem cells and dedifferentiation—are utilized for regeneration. PMID:21763617

  2. Genomic stability during cellular reprogramming: Mission impossible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joest, Mathieu von; Búa Aguín, Sabela; Li, Han, E-mail: han.li@pasteur.fr

    2016-06-15

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from adult somatic cells is one of the most exciting discoveries in recent biomedical research. It holds tremendous potential in drug discovery and regenerative medicine. However, a series of reports highlighting genomic instability in iPSCs raises concerns about their clinical application. Although the mechanisms cause genomic instability during cellular reprogramming are largely unknown, several potential sources have been suggested. This review summarizes current knowledge on this active research field and discusses the latest efforts to alleviate the genomic insults during cellular reprogramming to generate iPSCs with enhanced quality and safety.

  3. Cellularity of certain quantum endomorphism algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Lehrer, Gus; Zhang, Ruibin

    2015-01-01

    For any ring A˜ such that Z[q±1∕2]⊆A˜⊆Q(q1∕2), let ΔA˜(d) be an A˜-form of the Weyl module of highest weight d∈N of the quantised enveloping algebra UA˜ of sl2. For suitable A˜, we exhibit for all positive integers r an explicit cellular structure for EndUA˜(ΔA˜(d)⊗r). This algebra and its cellul...... we independently recover the weight multiplicities of indecomposable tilting modules for Uζ(sl2) from the decomposition numbers of the endomorphism algebras, which are known through cellular theory....

  4. Toxicology and cellular effect of manufactured nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanqing

    2014-07-22

    The increasing use of nanotechnology in consumer products and medical applications underlies the importance of understanding its potential toxic effects to people and the environment. Herein are described methods and assays to predict and evaluate the cellular effects of nanomaterial exposure. Exposing cells to nanomaterials at cytotoxic doses induces cell cycle arrest and increases apoptosis/necrosis, activates genes involved in cellular transport, metabolism, cell cycle regulation, and stress response. Certain nanomaterials induce genes indicative of a strong immune and inflammatory response within skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, the described multiwall carbon nanoonions (MWCNOs) can be used as a therapeutic in the treatment of cancer due to its cytotoxicity.

  5. Algorithmic crystal chemistry: A cellular automata approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivovichev, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Atomic-molecular mechanisms of crystal growth can be modeled based on crystallochemical information using cellular automata (a particular case of finite deterministic automata). In particular, the formation of heteropolyhedral layered complexes in uranyl selenates can be modeled applying a one-dimensional three-colored cellular automaton. The use of the theory of calculations (in particular, the theory of automata) in crystallography allows one to interpret crystal growth as a computational process (the realization of an algorithm or program with a finite number of steps).

  6. Chaotic behavior in the disorder cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, J.-Y.; Hung, Y.-C.; Ho, M.-C.; Jiang, I-M.

    2008-01-01

    Disordered cellular automata (DCA) represent an intermediate class between elementary cellular automata and the Kauffman network. Recently, Rule 126 of DCA has been explicated: the system can be accurately described by a discrete probability function. However, a means of extending to other rules has not been developed. In this investigation, a density map of the dynamical behavior of DCA is formulated based on Rule 22 and other totalistic rules. The numerical results reveal excellent agreement between the model and original automata. Furthermore, the inhomogeneous situation is also discussed

  7. An Empirical Exploration of the Population-Environment Nexus in India

    OpenAIRE

    Haimanti Bhattacharya; Robert Innes

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an empirical study of population growth and environmental change using cross-section district-level data from South, Central, and West India. Environmental change is measured using a satellite-based vegetation index. Unlike prior work, the analysis treats population growth and environmental change as jointly determined, distinguishes between rural and urban populations, and distinguishes between two components of population growth, natural growth and migration. Among key...

  8. Optical scatter imaging of cellular and mitochondrial swelling in brain tissue models of stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee James

    2001-08-01

    The severity of brain edema resulting from a stroke can determine a patient's survival and the extent of their recovery. Cellular swelling is the microscopic source of a significant part of brain edema. Mitochondrial swelling also appears to be a determining event in the death or survival of the cells that are injured during a stroke. Therapies for reducing brain edema are not effective in many cases and current treatments of stroke do not address mitochondrial swelling at all. This dissertation is motivated by the lack of a complete understanding of cellular swelling resulting from stroke and the lack of a good method to begin to study mitochondrial swelling resulting from stroke in living brain tissue. In this dissertation, a novel method of detecting mitochondrial and cellular swelling in living hippocampal slices is developed and validated. The system is used to obtain spatial and temporal information about cellular and mitochondrial swelling resulting from various models of stroke. The effect of changes in water content on light scatter and absorption are examined in two models of brain edema. The results of this study demonstrate that optical techniques can be used to detect changes in water content. Mie scatter theory, the theoretical basis of the dual- angle scatter ratio imaging system, is presented. Computer simulations based on Mie scatter theory are used to determine the optimal angles for imaging. A detailed account of the early systems is presented to explain the motivations for the system design, especially polarization, wavelength and light path. Mitochondrial sized latex particles are used to determine the system response to changes in scattering particle size and concentration. The dual-angle scatter ratio imaging system is used to distinguish between osmotic and excitotoxic models of stroke injury. Such distinction cannot be achieved using the current techniques to study cellular swelling in hippocampal slices. The change in the scatter ratio is

  9. Overview of cellular automaton models for corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Brokate, Cristian Felipe; De Lamare, Jacques; Dung di Caprio; Feron, Damien; Chausse, Annie

    2014-01-01

    A review of corrosion process modeling using cellular automata methods is presented. This relatively new and growing approach takes into account the stochastic nature of the phenomena and uses physico-chemical rules to make predictions at a mesoscopic scale. Milestone models are analyzed and perspectives are established. (authors)

  10. The Site for Development of Cellular Immunity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 23; Issue 2. Thymus: The site for Development of Cellular Immunity. Shamik Majumdar Sanomy ... The immune system protects our bodies against infectionsand cancers. This review introduce readers to the thymus. – a primary lymphoid organ – which is ...

  11. A cellular automata model for ant trails

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, the unidirectional ant traffic flow with U-turn in an ant trail was investigated using one-dimensional cellular automata model. It is known that ants communicate with each other by dropping a chemical, called pheromone, on the substrate. Apart from the studies in the literature, it was considered in the model that ...

  12. Quantum cellular automaton for universal quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raussendorf, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a quantum cellular automaton capable of performing universal quantum computation. The automaton has an elementary transition function that acts on Margolus cells of 2x2 qubits, and both the 'quantum input' and the program are encoded in the initial state of the system

  13. Cellular automaton simulation of microstructure evolution during ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ferrite–austenite interfaces, when the composition and temperature conditions are favourable. A cellular automaton algorithm, with transformation rules based on this model is used for the growth of ferrite and pear- lite. Model predicted results for continuous cooling transformations are verified by comparing the model pre-.

  14. Successive interference cancellation in uplink cellular networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildemeersch, Matthias; Wildemeersch, Matthias; Quek, Tony Q.S.; Kountouris, Marios; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, operators addressed the explosive growth of mobile data demand by densifying the cellular network so as to achieve a higher spectral efficiency and increase their capacity. The intense proliferation of wireless devices resulted in interference limited networks, which suggests the

  15. Cellular Schwannoma Arising from Sigmoid Mesocolon Presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immunostaining showed diffuse S‑100 positivity [Figure 2, inset] and no reactivity for CD117, CD34,. SMA, CD31, HMB‑45, and desmin. A diagnosis of cellular schwannoma with torsion was conferred. Discussion. The schwannomas are typically found as solitary tumors. Presentation associated with schwannomatosis or.

  16. Cellular and synaptic mechanisms of nicotine addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansvelder, H.D.; McGehee, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    The tragic health effects of nicotine addiction highlight the importance of investigating the cellular mechanisms of this complex behavioral phenomenon. The chain of cause and effect of nicotine addiction starts with the interaction of this tobacco alkaloid with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

  17. The cellular basis of organ ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knook, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    Ageing is associated with declines in the functional capacities of several organs. General causes for the decline can be divided into: 1. intrinsic cellular causes and 2. extracellular causes, e.g., changes in blood circulation and distribution. For the first group of causes, there is evidence for a

  18. Cellular grafts in management of leucoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysore Venkataram

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular grafting methods constitute important advances in the surgical management of leucoderma. Different methods such as noncultured epidermal suspensions, melanocyte cultures, and melanocyte-keratinocyte cultures have all been shown to be effective. This article reviews these methods.

  19. Cellular basis of memory for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of "cellular or molecular memory." Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of "behavioral memory," perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders.

  20. Cellular Restriction Factors of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Münk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lentiviruses are known for their narrow cell- and species-tropisms, which are determined by cellular proteins whose absence or presence either support viral replication (dependency factors, cofactors or inhibit viral replication (restriction factors. Similar to Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, the cat lentivirus Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is sensitive to recently discovered cellular restriction factors from non-host species that are able to stop viruses from replicating. Of particular importance are the cellular proteins APOBEC3, TRIM5α and tetherin/BST-2. In general, lentiviruses counteract or escape their species’ own variant of the restriction factor, but are targeted by the orthologous proteins of distantly related species. Most of the knowledge regarding lentiviral restriction factors has been obtained in the HIV-1 system; however, much less is known about their effects on other lentiviruses. We describe here the molecular mechanisms that explain how FIV maintains its replication in feline cells, but is largely prevented from cross-species infections by cellular restriction factors.

  1. Cellular Restriction Factors of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Jörg; Münk, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Lentiviruses are known for their narrow cell- and species-tropisms, which are determined by cellular proteins whose absence or presence either support viral replication (dependency factors, cofactors) or inhibit viral replication (restriction factors). Similar to Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the cat lentivirus Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is sensitive to recently discovered cellular restriction factors from non-host species that are able to stop viruses from replicating. Of particular importance are the cellular proteins APOBEC3, TRIM5α and tetherin/BST-2. In general, lentiviruses counteract or escape their species’ own variant of the restriction factor, but are targeted by the orthologous proteins of distantly related species. Most of the knowledge regarding lentiviral restriction factors has been obtained in the HIV-1 system; however, much less is known about their effects on other lentiviruses. We describe here the molecular mechanisms that explain how FIV maintains its replication in feline cells, but is largely prevented from cross-species infections by cellular restriction factors. PMID:22069525

  2. Cellular mechanisms within the juxtaglomerular apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briggs, J P; Skøtt, O; Schnermann, J

    1990-01-01

    Cl concentration at the macular densa. This change also results in inhibition of secretion of renin. The macula densa has a unique location near the terminal end of the thick ascending limb, where NaCl concentration is highly flow dependent. The cellular mechanisms by which changes in tubular fluid NaCl produce...

  3. Cellular Automata Rules and Linear Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Birendra Kumar; Sahoo, Sudhakar; Biswal, Sagarika

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, linear Cellular Automta (CA) rules are recursively generated using a binary tree rooted at "0". Some mathematical results on linear as well as non-linear CA rules are derived. Integers associated with linear CA rules are defined as linear numbers and the properties of these linear numbers are studied.

  4. Dynamic cellular manufacturing system design considering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kamal Deep

    tradeoff in a dynamic cellular manufacturing system is proposed in consideration with multiple part process route. This paper puts emphasize on the .... limited number of distinct paths considering resource capacity. The best routing is ..... all the other methods considered such as bond energy algorithm, direct clustering ...

  5. Cellular schwannoma arising from sigmoid mesocolon presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of a 58‑year‑old female with a massive twisted tumor arising from sigmoid mesocolon. The tumor was diagnosed to be a case of cellular schwannoma, an exceedingly rare tumor in this location with rare presentation. Keywords: Pelvis, Retroperitoneum, Schwannoma, Sigmoid mesocolon, Torsion, Tumor ...

  6. SHORT COMMUNICATION THE MASS OF CELLULAR RETINOIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    *Corresponding author. E-mail: zl_zhanglin@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. THE MASS OF CELLULAR RETINOIC ACID BINDING PROTEIN I. INVESTIGATED BY 13C DEPLETION AND MASS SPECTROMETRY. Lin Zhang1*, Zeqing Song2 and Yanmei Wen1. 1College of Science, Guangdong Ocean University, ...

  7. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Cellular and Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    These and other factors influence the pattern of pneumonia complex in goats. We investigated the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) cellular changes and haematological response in different types of caprine pneumonia in Nigeria. Haematological indices and BALf cells were analysed from 300 goats randomly selected ...

  8. A cellular automata model for ant trails

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this study, the unidirectional ant traffic flow with U-turn in an ant trail was inves- tigated using one-dimensional cellular automata model. It is known that ants communicate with each other by dropping a chemical, called pheromone, on the substrate. Apart from the studies in the literature, it was considered in the ...

  9. Cellular automata machines as physics emulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffoli, T.

    1988-01-01

    Can one design a computer optimized to be a physics emulator rather than a software interpreter? Cellular automata are discrete dynamical systems whose behavior is completely specified in terms of a local relation, much as is the case for a large class of continuous dynamical systems defined by partial differential equations. 31 refs, 3 figs

  10. Their function on angiogenesis and cellular signalling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Copper, although known as a micronutrient, has a pivotal role in modulating the cellular metabolism. Many studieshave reported the role of copper in angiogenesis. Copper chaperones are intracellular proteins that mediate coppertrafficking to various cell organelles. However, the role and function of copper chaperones in ...

  11. Building mathematics cellular phone learning communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeeh M. Daher

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Researchers emphasize the importance of maintaining learning communities and environments. This article describes the building and nourishment of a learning community, one comprised of middle school students who learned mathematics out-of-class using the cellular phone. The building of the learning community was led by three third year pre-service teachers majoring in mathematics and computers. The pre-service teachers selected thirty 8th grade students to learn mathematics with the cellular phone and be part of a learning community experimenting with this learning. To analyze the building and development stages of the cellular phone learning community, two models of community building stages were used; first the team development model developed by Tuckman (1965, second the life cycle model of a virtual learning community developed by Garber (2004. The research findings indicate that a learning community which is centered on a new technology has five 'life' phases of development: Pre-birth, birth, formation, performing, and maturity. Further, the research finding indicate that the norms that were encouraged by the preservice teachers who initiated the cellular phone learning community resulted in a community which developed, nourished and matured to be similar to a community of experienced applied mathematicians who use mathematical formulae to study everyday phenomena.

  12. External insulation with cellular plastic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Nielsen, Anker

    2014-01-01

    External thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS) can be used as extra insulation of existing buildings. The system can be made of cellular plastic materials or mineral wool. There is a European Technical guideline, ETAG 004, that describe the tests that shall be conducted on such systems...

  13. Klotho-Dependent Cellular Transport Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopjani, M; Dërmaku-Sopjani, M

    2016-01-01

    Klotho is a transmembrane protein that in humans is encoded by the hKL gene. This protein is known to have aging suppressor effects and is predominantly expressed in the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney, parathyroid glands, and choroid plexus of the brain. The Klotho protein exists in both full-length membrane form and a soluble secreted form, which exerts numerous distinct functions. The extracellular domain of Klotho can be enzymatically cleaved off and released into the systemic circulation where it functions as β-glucuronidase and a hormone. Soluble Klotho is a multifunction protein present in the biological fluids including blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid of mammals. Klotho deficiency leads to multiple organ failure accompanied by early appearance of multiple age-related disorders and early death, whereas overexpression of Klotho results in the opposite effects. Klotho, an enzyme and hormone, has been reported to participate in the regulation of cellular transport processes across the plasma membrane either indirectly through inhibiting calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D3) formation or other mechanism, or by directly affecting transporter proteins, including ion channels, cellular carriers, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Accordingly, Klotho protein serves as a powerful regulator of cellular transport across the plasma membrane. Importantly, Klotho-dependent cellular transport regulation implies stimulatory or inhibitory effects. Klotho has been shown to play a key role in the regulation of multiple calcium and potassium ion channels, and various cellular carriers including the Na(+)-coupled cotransporters such as NaPi-IIa, NaPi-IIb, EAAT3, and EAAT4, CreaT1 as well as Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. These regulations are parts of the antiaging function of Klotho, which will be discussing throughout this chapter. Clearly, further experimental efforts are required to investigate the effect of Klotho on other transport proteins and underlying molecular mechanisms by which Klotho

  14. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for distinguishing Taylorella equigenitalis from Taylorella equigenitalis-like organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, A B; Cooke, C L; Jang, S S; Hirsh, D C

    2001-05-01

    It is difficult to distinguish isolates of Taylorella equigenitalis, the cause of contagious equine metritis, from a T. equigenitalis-like organism isolated from asymptomatic donkeys and horses. Although T. equigenitalis is responsible for a severe, contagious disease of the reproductive tract of equids, the T. equigenitalis-like organism, although contagious, does not appear to produce disease. Because of the economic consequences of correctly distinguishing isolates of these 2 microorganisms, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay was developed that will distinguish isolates of T. equigenitalis from the T. equigenitalis-like microorganism. The primers used in the PCR assay were designed to amplify unique regions of the gene encoding the 16S ribosomal RNA.

  15. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Sue Frantz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2016 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Sue Frantz. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the Distinguished Teaching Award at the 124th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 5, 2016, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2016 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; David H. Barlow, vice president; Melba J. T. Vasquez, secretary; Richard C. McCarty, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Cynthia Belar; Camilla Benbow; Rosie Phillips Bingham; Connie S. Chan; Anthony Jackson; Terence M. Keane; Archie L. Turner; W. Bruce Walsh; and Bonnie Markham and Rick McGraw, APA Board of Directors liaisons. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. A Robust Classifier to Distinguish Noise from fMRI Independent Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochat, Vanessa; Supekar, Kaustubh; Bustillo, Juan; Calhoun, Vince; Turner, Jessica A.; Rubin, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) of resting brains to determine the spatial location and activity of intrinsic brain networks–a novel and burgeoning research field–is limited by the lack of ground truth and the tendency of analyses to overfit the data. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is commonly used to separate the data into signal and Gaussian noise components, and then map these components on to spatial networks. Identifying noise from this data, however, is a tedious process that has proven hard to automate, particularly when data from different institutions, subjects, and scanners is used. Here we present an automated method to delineate noisy independent components in ICA using a data-driven infrastructure that queries a database of 246 spatial and temporal features to discover a computational signature of different types of noise. We evaluated the performance of our method to detect noisy components from healthy control fMRI (sensitivity = 0.91, specificity = 0.82, cross validation accuracy (CVA) = 0.87, area under the curve (AUC) = 0.93), and demonstrate its generalizability by showing equivalent performance on (1) an age- and scanner-matched cohort of schizophrenia patients from the same institution (sensitivity = 0.89, specificity = 0.83, CVA = 0.86), (2) an age-matched cohort on an equivalent scanner from a different institution (sensitivity = 0.88, specificity = 0.88, CVA = 0.88), and (3) an age-matched cohort on a different scanner from a different institution (sensitivity = 0.72, specificity = 0.92, CVA = 0.79). We additionally compare our approach with a recently published method [1]. Our results suggest that our method is robust to noise variations due to population as well as scanner differences, thereby making it well suited to the goal of automatically distinguishing noise from functional networks to enable investigation of human brain function. PMID:24748378

  17. Can Asperger syndrome be distinguished from autism? An anatomic likelihood meta-analysis of MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kevin K; Cheung, Charlton; Chua, Siew E; McAlonan, Gráinne M

    2011-11-01

    The question of whether Asperger syndrome can be distinguished from autism has attracted much debate and may even incur delay in diagnosis and intervention. Accordingly, there has been a proposal for Asperger syndrome to be subsumed under autism in the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, in 2013. One approach to resolve this question has been to adopt the criterion of absence of clinically significant language or cognitive delay--essentially, the "absence of language delay." To our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of people with autism to compare absence with presence of language delay. It capitalizes on the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach to systematically explore the whole brain for anatomic correlates of delay and no delay in language acquisition in people with autism spectrum disorders. We conducted a systematic search for VBM MRI studies of grey matter volume in people with autism. Studies with a majority (at least 70%) of participants with autism diagnoses and a history of language delay were assigned to the autism group (n = 151, control n = 190). Those with a majority (at least 70%) of individuals with autism diagnoses and no language delay were assigned to the Asperger syndrome group (n = 149, control n = 214). We entered study coordinates into anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis software with sampling size weighting to compare grey matter summary maps driven by Asperger syndrome or autism. The summary autism grey matter map showed lower volumes in the cerebellum, right uncus, dorsal hippocampus and middle temporal gyrus compared with controls; grey matter volumes were greater in the bilateral caudate, prefrontal lobe and ventral temporal lobe. The summary Asperger syndrome map indicated lower grey matter volumes in the bilateral amygdala/hippocampal gyrus and prefrontal lobe, left occipital gyrus, right cerebellum, putamen and precuneus

  18. Soil forensics: How far can soil clay analysis distinguish between soil vestiges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, R S; Melo, V F; Abreu, G G F; Sousa, M H; Chaker, J A; Gomes, J A

    2018-03-01

    Soil traces are useful as forensic evidences because they frequently adhere to individuals and objects associated with crimes and can place or discard a suspect at/from a crime scene. Soil is a mixture of organic and inorganic components and among them soil clay contains signatures that make it reliable as forensic evidence. In this study, we hypothesized that soils can be forensically distinguished through the analysis of their clay fraction alone, and that samples of the same soil type can be consistently distinguished according to the distance they were collected from each other. To test these hypotheses 16 Oxisol samples were collected at distances of between 2m and 1.000m, and 16 Inceptisol samples were collected at distances of between 2m and 300m from each other. Clay fractions were extracted from soil samples and analyzed for hyperspectral color reflectance (HSI), X-ray diffraction crystallographic (XRD), and for contents of iron oxides, kaolinite and gibbsite. The dataset was submitted to multivariate analysis and results were from 65% to 100% effective to distinguish between samples from the two soil types. Both soil types could be consistently distinguished for forensic purposes according to the distance that samples were collected from each other: 1000m for Oxisol and 10m for Inceptisol. Clay color and XRD analysis were the most effective techniques to distinguish clay samples, and Inceptisol samples were more easily distinguished than Oxisol samples. Soil forensics seems a promising field for soil scientists as soil clay can be useful as forensic evidence by using routine analytical techniques from soil science. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lonnie R. Snowden Jr.: Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy is given to a psychologist who has made a distinguished empirical and/or theoretical contribution to research in public policy, either through a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of work. The 2014 recipient of this award is Lonnie R. Snowden Jr. "Over the past several decades, Lonnie R. Snowden Jr. has systematically built a research agenda on the financing and organization of mental health services that has driven much of our current health policy reform efforts." Snowden Jr.'s award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. A Vizing-like theorem for union vertex-distinguishing edge coloring

    OpenAIRE

    Bousquet, Nicolas; Dailly, Antoine; Duchene, Eric; Kheddouci, Hamamache; Parreau, Aline

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a variant of the vertex-distinguishing edge coloring problem, where each edge is assigned a subset of colors. The label of a vertex is the union of the sets of colors on edges incident to it. In this paper we investigate the problem of finding a coloring with the minimum number of colors where every pair of vertices receive distinct labels. Finding such a coloring generalizes several other well-known problems of vertex-distinguishing colorings in graphs. We show that for any grap...

  1. Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Kevin L. Nadal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2017 recipient of the Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Kevin L. Nadal, who has advanced "scholarship on stigma through his work on microaggressions related to sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, race/ethnicity, and religion." Nadal's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. MECHANISMS OF CELLULAR CYTOTOXICITY INDUCTION IN GASTRIC MUCOSAL INFLAMMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Matveeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and chronicity of inflammatory process in gastric mucosa may contribute to persistence of a number of microorganisms – Helicobacter (H. pylori, Staphylococcus (S. aureus, Candida species (spp., Herpesvirus and others in the host organism. Many authors have recognized an important role of T helper (Th type 1 and regulatory T cells in evolvement of gastritis, whereas importance of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs is still to be confirmed. This review presents analysis of available scientific data about induction mechanisms of cellular cytotoxicity in inflammatory process affecting gastric mucosa. Bacterial populations, depending on their density, are able to regulate expression of genes encoding synthesis of protein virulence factors, thus accelerating adaptation for changing environmental conditions. Upon receptor-mediated recognition of characteristic microbial structures, i.e., pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and danger signals altered by stress, or cellular structures damaged by infectious pathogens (DAMPs, transcription factors are activated, thus leading to production of early pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL, interferons (IFN type I and induction of immune responses. It is shown that the antigens of H. pylori and Candida spp. promote infiltration of mucosa gastric by activated CD8+CTLs, and Herpesvirus induce a significant increase in the number of perforin-positive (Pr+ CD8+ and CD16+ cells, phenotypic changes in CD4+lymphocytes, with acquisition of direct cytolytic activity.

  3. The Cellular Differential Evolution Based on Chaotic Local Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfeng Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To avoid immature convergence and tune the selection pressure in the differential evolution (DE algorithm, a new differential evolution algorithm based on cellular automata and chaotic local search (CLS or ccDE is proposed. To balance the exploration and exploitation tradeoff of differential evolution, the interaction among individuals is limited in cellular neighbors instead of controlling parameters in the canonical DE. To improve the optimizing performance of DE, the CLS helps by exploring a large region to avoid immature convergence in the early evolutionary stage and exploiting a small region to refine the final solutions in the later evolutionary stage. What is more, to improve the convergence characteristics and maintain the population diversity, the binomial crossover operator in the canonical DE may be instead by the orthogonal crossover operator without crossover rate. The performance of ccDE is widely evaluated on a set of 14 bound constrained numerical optimization problems compared with the canonical DE and several DE variants. The simulation results show that ccDE has better performances in terms of convergence rate and solution accuracy than other optimizers.

  4. Cellular adaptation facilitates sparse and reliable coding in sensory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkhooi, Farzad; Froese, Anja; Muller, Eilif; Menzel, Randolf; Nawrot, Martin P

    2013-01-01

    Most neurons in peripheral sensory pathways initially respond vigorously when a preferred stimulus is presented, but adapt as stimulation continues. It is unclear how this phenomenon affects stimulus coding in the later stages of sensory processing. Here, we show that a temporally sparse and reliable stimulus representation develops naturally in sequential stages of a sensory network with adapting neurons. As a modeling framework we employ a mean-field approach together with an adaptive population density treatment, accompanied by numerical simulations of spiking neural networks. We find that cellular adaptation plays a critical role in the dynamic reduction of the trial-by-trial variability of cortical spike responses by transiently suppressing self-generated fast fluctuations in the cortical balanced network. This provides an explanation for a widespread cortical phenomenon by a simple mechanism. We further show that in the insect olfactory system cellular adaptation is sufficient to explain the emergence of the temporally sparse and reliable stimulus representation in the mushroom body. Our results reveal a generic, biophysically plausible mechanism that can explain the emergence of a temporally sparse and reliable stimulus representation within a sequential processing architecture.

  5. Non-genetic phenotypic variability and its effect on population performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emonet, Thierry; Waite, Adam J.; Frankel, Nicholas W.; Dufour, Yann S.; Long, Junjiajia; Johnston, Jessica F.

    Substantial non-genetic diversity in complex behaviors, such as chemotaxis in E. coli, has been observed for decades, but the relevance of this diversity for the population is not well understood. What are the trade-offs that bacteria face in performing chemotaxis in different environments? Can population diversity be tailored to resolve these trade-offs? We examined the functional role of non-genetic diversity in cellular migration by measuring the phenotype and chemotactic performance of tens of thousands of individual, freely-swimming Escherichia coli as they climbed a gradient of attractant. We discovered that spatial structure spontaneously emerged from initially well-mixed wild type populations due to non-genetic diversity. By manipulating the expression of a key chemotaxis protein, we established a causal relationship between protein expression, non-genetic diversity, and performance that was theoretically predicted. This approach generated a complete phenotype-to-performance map, in which we found a nonlinear regime. We used this map to demonstrate how the shape of a phenotypic distribution can have as large of an effect on performance as changing the mean phenotype, suggesting that evolution could act on both during the process of adaptation. We thank Yale HPC, NIGMS 1R01GM106189, and the Allen Distinguished Investigator Program through The Paul G. Allen Frontiers Group for support.

  6. Cellular responses of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli to the Gram stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, T J; Davies, J A

    1983-11-01

    Exponentially growing cells of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli were Gram stained with potassium trichloro(eta 2-ethylene)platinum(II) (TPt) in place of the usual KI-I2 mordant. This electron-dense probe allowed the staining mechanism to be followed and compared with cellular perturbations throughout the staining process. A crystal violet (CV)-TPt chemical complex was formed within the cell substance and at the cell surface of B. subtilis when the dye and Pt mordant were added. The ethanol decolorization step dissolved the precipitate from the cell surface, but the internal complex was retained by the cell wall and remained within the cell. This was not the case for E. coli; the ethanol decolorization step removed both surface-bound and cellular CV-TPt. During its removal, the outer membrane was sloughed off the cells until only the murein sacculus and plasma membrane remained. We suspect that the plasma membrane was also perturbed, but that it was retained within the cell by the murein sacculus. Occasionally, small holes within the murein and plasma membrane could be distinguished through which leaked CV-TPt and some cellular debris. Biochemical identification of distinct envelope markers confirmed the accuracy of these images.

  7. Enzymatic synthesis and characterizations of cyclic GDP-ribose. A procedure for distinguishing enzymes with ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, R M; Walseth, T F; Fryxell, K; Branton, W D; Lee, H C

    1994-12-02

    Cyclic nucleotides such as cAMP and cGMP are second messengers subserving various signaling pathways. Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), a recently discovered member of the family, is derived from NAD+ and is a mediator of Ca2+ mobilization in various cellular systems. The synthesis and degradation of cADPR are, respectively, catalyzed by ADP-ribosyl cyclase and cADPR hydrolase. CD38, a differentiation antigen of B lymphocytes, has recently been shown to be a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing both the formation and hydrolysis of cADPR. The overall reaction catalyzed by CD38 is the formation of ADP-ribose and nicotinamide from NAD+, identical to that catalyzed by NADase. The difficulties in detecting the formation of cADPR have led to frequent identification of CD38 as a classical NADase. In this study, we show that both ADP-ribosyl cyclase and CD38, but not NADase, can cyclize nicotinamide guanine dinucleotide (NGD+) producing a new nucleotide. Analyses by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy indicate the product is cyclic GDP-ribose (cGDPR) with a structure similar to cADPR except with guanine replacing adenine. Compared to cADPR, cGDPR is a more stable compound showing 2.8 times more resistance to heat-induced hydrolysis. These results are consistent with a catalytic scheme for CD38 where the cyclization of the substrate precedes the hydrolytic reaction. Spectroscopic analyses show that cGDPR is fluorescent and has an absorption spectrum different from both NGD+ and GDPR, providing a very convenient way for monitoring its enzymatic formation. The use of NGD+ as substrate for assaying the cyclization reaction was found to be applicable to pure enzymes as well as crude tissue extracts making it a useful diagnostic tool for distinguishing CD38-like enzymes from degradative NADases.

  8. Distinguishing between HII regions and planetary nebulae with Hi-GAL, WISE, MIPSGAL, and GLIMPSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. D.; Zavagno, A.; Barlow, M. J.; García-Lario, P.; Noriega-Crespo, A.

    2012-01-01

    Context. H II regions and planetary nebulae (PNe) both emit at radio and infrared (IR) wavelengths, and angularly small H II regions can be mistaken for PNe. This problem of classification is most severe for H II regions in an early evolutionary stage, those that are extremely distant, or those that are both young and distant. Previous work has shown that H II regions and PNe can be separated based on their infrared colors. Aims: Using data from the Herschel Hi-GAL survey, as well as WISE and the Spitzer MIPSGAL and GLIMPSE surveys, we wish to establish characteristic IR colors that can be used to distinguish between H II regions and PNe. Methods: We perform aperture photometry measurements for a sample of 126 H II regions and 43 PNe at wavelengths from 8.0 μm to 500 μm. Results: We find that H II regions and PNe have distinct IR colors. The most robust discriminating color criteria are [F12/F8] 1.3, and [F160/F24] > 0.8 (or alternately [F160/F22] > 0.8), where the brackets indicate the log of the flux ratio. All three of these criteria are individually satisfied by over 98% of our sample of H II regions and by ~10% of our sample of PNe. Combinations of these colors are more robust in separating the two populations; for example all H II regions and no PNe satisfy [F12/F8] F22] > 0.8. When applied to objects of unknown classification, these criteria prove useful in separating the two populations. The dispersion in color is relatively small for H II regions; this suggests that any evolution in these colors with time for H II regions must be relatively modest. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of H II regions can be separated into "warm" and "cold" components. The "cold" component is well-fit by a grey-body of temperature 25 K. The SEDs of nearly two-thirds of our sample of H II regions peak at 160 μm and one third peak at 70 μm. For PNe, 67% of the SEDs peak at 70 μm, 23% peak at either 22 μm or 24 μm, and 9% (two sources) peak at 160 μm. Herschel is

  9. Glycerol stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Cellular responses and evolved adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattenberger, Florian; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Hallsworth, John E; Fares, Mario A

    2017-03-01

    Glycerol synthesis is key to central metabolism and stress biology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yet the cellular adjustments needed to respond and adapt to glycerol stress are little understood. Here, we determined impacts of acute and chronic exposures to glycerol stress in S. cerevisiae. Glycerol stress can result from an increase of glycerol concentration in the medium due to the S. cerevisiae fermenting activity or other metabolic activities. Acute glycerol-stress led to a 50% decline in growth rate and altered transcription of more than 40% of genes. The increased genetic diversity in S. cerevisiae population, which had evolved in the standard nutrient medium for hundreds of generations, led to an increase in growth rate and altered transcriptome when such population was transferred to stressful media containing a high concentration of glycerol; 0.41 M (0.990 water activity). Evolution of S. cerevisiae populations during a 10-day period in the glycerol-containing medium led to transcriptome changes and readjustments to improve control of glycerol flux across the membrane, regulation of cell cycle, and more robust stress response; and a remarkable increase of growth rate under glycerol stress. Most of the observed regulatory changes arose in duplicated genes. These findings elucidate the physiological mechanisms, which underlie glycerol-stress response, and longer-term adaptations, in S. cerevisiae; they also have implications for enigmatic aspects of the ecology of this otherwise well-characterized yeast. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Syncope in Brugada syndrome: prevalence, clinical significance, and clues from history taking to distinguish arrhythmic from nonarrhythmic causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olde Nordkamp, Louise R A; Vink, Arja S; Wilde, Arthur A M; de Lange, Freek J; de Jong, Jonas S S G; Wieling, Wouter; van Dijk, Nynke; Tan, Hanno L

    2015-02-01

    Syncope in Brugada syndrome (BrS) patients is a sign of increased risk for sudden cardiac death and usually is ascribed to cardiac arrhythmias. However, syncope often occurs in the general population, mostly from nonarrhythmic causes (eg, reflex syncope). The purpose of this study was to distinguish arrhythmic events from nonarrhythmic syncope in BrS and to establish the clinical relevance of nonarrhythmic syncope. We reviewed the patient records of 342 consecutively included BrS patients and conducted systematic interviews in 141 patients with aborted cardiac arrest (ACA) or syncope. In total, 23 patients (7%) experienced ECG-documented ACA and 118 (34%) syncope; of these 118, 67 (57%) were diagnosed with suspected nonarrhythmic syncope. Compared to suspected nonarrhythmic syncope patients, ACA patients were older at first event (45 vs 20 years), were more likely to be male (relative risk 2.1) and to have urinary incontinence (relative risk 4.6), and were less likely to report prodromes. ACA was never triggered by hot/crowded surroundings, pain or other emotional stress, seeing blood, or prolonged standing. During follow-up (median 54 months), ACA rate was 8.7% per year among ACA patients and 0% per year among suspected nonarrhythmic syncope patients. Syncope, especially nonarrhythmic syncope, often occurs in BrS. The high incidence of nonarrhythmic syncope must be taken into account during risk stratification. Arrhythmic events and nonarrhythmic syncope may be distinguished by clinical characteristics (absence of prodromes and, particularly, specific triggers), demonstrating the importance of systematic history taking. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Incontinentia pigmenti with defect in cellular immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Chávez, Antonio; Escobar-Sánchez, Argelia; Sadowinski-Pine, Stanislaw; Saucedo-Ramírez, Omar Josué; Delgado-Barrera, Palmira; Enríquez-Quiñones, Claudia G

    Incontinentia pigmenti is a rare, X-linked genetic disease and affects all ectoderm-derived tissues such as skin, appendages, eyes, teeth and central nervous system as well as disorders of varying degree of cellular immunity characterized by decreasing melanin in the epidermis and increase in the dermis. When the condition occurs in males, it is lethal. We present the case of a 2-month-old infant with severe incontinentia pigmenti confirmed by histological examination of skin biopsy. The condition evolved with severe neurological disorders and seizures along with severe cellular immune deficiency, which affected the development of severe infections and caused the death of the patient. The importance of early clinical diagnosis is highlighted along with the importance of multidisciplinary management of neurological disorders and infectious complications. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular aspects of cellular responses to radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarnold, John

    1997-01-01

    Advances have been made in unravelling the molecular chains of cause and effect that determine cellular responses to radiotherapy, including cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and apoptosis. To begin with, cells must have mechanisms that enable them to sense DNA damage. Little was known about this until recently, when a DNA-protein kinase (DNA-PK) system for detecting radiation-induced strand breaks was described. The ataxia telengiectasia (ATM) gene has amino acid sequence similarities to DNA-PK, raising the possibility that the ATM protein also functions in some way as a sensor of DNA damage. However, just knowing the DNA damage is present is not enough. Signals must be transmitted via afferent biochemical pathways to proteins, such as p53, that determine which cellular responses are activated. The responses include cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA repair, all of which relate closely to loss of clonogenic capacity and the outcome of treatment in our patients

  13. Physiological and pathological consequences of cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Dominick G A; Krizhanovsky, Valery

    2014-11-01

    Cellular senescence, a permanent state of cell cycle arrest accompanied by a complex phenotype, is an essential mechanism that limits tumorigenesis and tissue damage. In physiological conditions, senescent cells can be removed by the immune system, facilitating tumor suppression and wound healing. However, as we age, senescent cells accumulate in tissues, either because an aging immune system fails to remove them, the rate of senescent cell formation is elevated, or both. If senescent cells persist in tissues, they have the potential to paradoxically promote pathological conditions. Cellular senescence is associated with an enhanced pro-survival phenotype, which most likely promotes persistence of senescent cells in vivo. This phenotype may have evolved to favor facilitation of a short-term wound healing, followed by the elimination of senescent cells by the immune system. In this review, we provide a perspective on the triggers, mechanisms and physiological as well as pathological consequences of senescent cells.

  14. Prodrug Approach for Increasing Cellular Glutathione Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cacciatore

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced glutathione (GSH is the most abundant non-protein thiol in mammalian cells and the preferred substrate for several enzymes in xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidant defense. It plays an important role in many cellular processes, such as cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. GSH deficiency has been observed in aging and in a wide range of pathologies, including neurodegenerative disorders and cystic fibrosis (CF, as well as in several viral infections. Use of GSH as a therapeutic agent is limited because of its unfavorable biochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. Several reports have provided evidence for the use of GSH prodrugs able to replenish intracellular GSH levels. This review discusses different strategies for increasing GSH levels by supplying reversible bioconjugates able to cross the cellular membrane more easily than GSH and to provide a source of thiols for GSH synthesis.

  15. SELF-ORGANIZED CRITICALITY AND CELLULAR AUTOMATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,M.

    2007-01-01

    Cellular automata provide a fascinating class of dynamical systems based on very simple rules of evolution yet capable of displaying highly complex behavior. These include simplified models for many phenomena seen in nature. Among other things, they provide insight into self-organized criticality, wherein dissipative systems naturally drive themselves to a critical state with important phenomena occurring over a wide range of length and the scales. This article begins with an overview of self-organized criticality. This is followed by a discussion of a few examples of simple cellular automaton systems, some of which may exhibit critical behavior. Finally, some of the fascinating exact mathematical properties of the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sand-pile model [1] are discussed.

  16. Cellular automata in image processing and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Sun, Xianfang

    2014-01-01

    The book presents findings, views and ideas on what exact problems of image processing, pattern recognition and generation can be efficiently solved by cellular automata architectures. This volume provides a convenient collection in this area, in which publications are otherwise widely scattered throughout the literature. The topics covered include image compression and resizing; skeletonization, erosion and dilation; convex hull computation, edge detection and segmentation; forgery detection and content based retrieval; and pattern generation. The book advances the theory of image processing, pattern recognition and generation as well as the design of efficient algorithms and hardware for parallel image processing and analysis. It is aimed at computer scientists, software programmers, electronic engineers, mathematicians and physicists, and at everyone who studies or develops cellular automaton algorithms and tools for image processing and analysis, or develops novel architectures and implementations of mass...

  17. Cellular Dynamics Revealed by Digital Holographic Microscopy☆

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, P.

    2016-11-22

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a new optical method that provides, without the use of any contrast agent, real-time, three-dimensional images of transparent living cells, with an axial sensitivity of a few tens of nanometers. They result from the hologram numerical reconstruction process, which permits a sub wavelength calculation of the phase shift, produced on the transmitted wave front, by the optically probed cells, namely the quantitative phase signal (QPS). Specifically, in addition to measurements of cellular surface morphometry and intracellular refractive index (RI), various biophysical cellular parameters including dry mass, absolute volume, membrane fluctuations at the nanoscale and biomechanical properties, transmembrane water permeability as swell as current, can be derived from the QPS. This article presents how quantitative phase DHM (QP-DHM) can explored cell dynamics at the nanoscale with a special attention to both the study of neuronal dynamics and the optical resolution of local neuronal network.

  18. Cellular automata and statistical mechanical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rujan, P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors elaborate on the analogy between the transfer matrix of usual lattice models and the master equation describing the time development of cellular automata. Transient and stationary properties of probabilistic automata are linked to surface and bulk properties, respectively, of restricted statistical mechanical systems. It is demonstrated that methods of statistical physics can be successfully used to describe the dynamic and the stationary behavior of such automata. Some exact results are derived, including duality transformations, exact mappings, disorder, and linear solutions. Many examples are worked out in detail to demonstrate how to use statistical physics in order to construct cellular automata with desired properties. This approach is considered to be a first step toward the design of fully parallel, probabilistic systems whose computational abilities rely on the cooperative behavior of their components

  19. Minimal entropy approximation for cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukś, Henryk

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for the construction of approximate orbits of measures under the action of cellular automata which is complementary to the local structure theory. The local structure theory is based on the idea of Bayesian extension, that is, construction of a probability measure consistent with given block probabilities and maximizing entropy. If instead of maximizing entropy one minimizes it, one can develop another method for the construction of approximate orbits, at the heart of which is the iteration of finite-dimensional maps, called minimal entropy maps. We present numerical evidence that the minimal entropy approximation sometimes outperforms the local structure theory in characterizing the properties of cellular automata. The density response curve for elementary CA rule 26 is used to illustrate this claim. (paper)

  20. Quantum features of natural cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elze, Hans-Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Cellular automata can show well known features of quantum mechanics, such as a linear rule according to which they evolve and which resembles a discretized version of the Schrödinger equation. This includes corresponding conservation laws. The class of “natural” Hamiltonian cellular automata is based exclusively on integer-valued variables and couplings and their dynamics derives from an Action Principle. They can be mapped reversibly to continuum models by applying Sampling Theory. Thus, “deformed” quantum mechanical models with a finite discreteness scale l are obtained, which for l → 0 reproduce familiar continuum results. We have recently demonstrated that such automata can form “multipartite” systems consistently with the tensor product structures of nonrelativistic many-body quantum mechanics, while interacting and maintaining the linear evolution. Consequently, the Superposition Principle fully applies for such primitive discrete deterministic automata and their composites and can produce the essential quantum effects of interference and entanglement. (paper)

  1. Intravital microscopy: new insights into cellular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavins, Felicity N E

    2012-10-01

    Inflammation is the body's way of combating invading pathogens or noxious stimuli. Under normal conditions, the complex host response of rubor, dolor, calor, tumor, and functio laesa is essential for survival and the return to homeostasis. However, unregulated inflammation is all too often observed in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, stroke, and cancer. The host inflammatory response is governed by a number of tightly regulated processes that enable cellular trafficking to occur at the sites of damage to ultimately ensure the resolution of inflammation. Intravital microscopy (IVM) provides quantitative, qualitative, and dynamic insights into cell biology and these cellular interactions. This review highlights the pros and cons of this specialized technique and how it has evolved to help understand the physiology and pathophysiology of inflammatory events in a number of different disease states, leading to a number of potential therapeutic targets for drug discovery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A cellular glass substrate solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, R.; Bell, D.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a second generation point focusing solar concentration is discussed. The design is based on reflective gores fabricated of thin glass mirror bonded continuously to a contoured substrate of cellular glass. The concentrator aperture and structural stiffness was optimized for minimum concentrator cost given the performance requirement of delivering 56 kWth to a 22 cm diameter receiver aperture with a direct normal insolation of 845 watts sq m and an operating wind of 50 kmph. The reflective panel, support structure, drives, foundation and instrumentation and control subsystem designs, optimized for minimum cost, are summarized. The use of cellular glass as a reflective panel substrate material is shown to offer significant weight and cost advantages compared to existing technology materials.

  3. Cellular and Molecular Basis of Cerebellar Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador eMartinez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of cerebellar development were investigated through structural descriptions and studying spontaneous mutations in animal models and humans. Advances in experimental embryology, genetic engineering and neuroimaging techniques render today the possibility to approach the analysis of molecular mechanisms underlying histogenesis and morphogenesis of the cerebellum by experimental designs. Several genes and molecules were identified to be involved in the cerebellar plate regionalization, specification and differentiation of cerebellar neurons, as well as the establishment of cellular migratory routes and the subsequent neuronal connectivity. Indeed, pattern formation of the cerebellum requires the adequate orchestration of both key morphogenetic signals, arising from distinct brain regions, and local expression of specific transcription factors. Thus, the present review wants to revisit and discuss these morphogenetic and molecular mechanisms taking place during cerebellar development in order to understand causal processes regulating cerebellar cytoarchitecture, its highly topographically ordered circuitry and its role in brain function.

  4. Study on distinguishing of Chinese ancient porcelains by neutron activation and fuzzy cluster analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang An

    1992-01-01

    By means of the method of neutron activation, the contents of trace elements in some samples of Chinese ancient porcelains from different places of production were determined. The data were analysed by fuzzy cluster analysis. On the basis of the above mentioned works, a method with regard to the distinguishing and determining of Chinese ancient porcelain was suggested

  5. C. Cybele Raver: Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the 2012 winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training. C. Cybele Raver is a prolific and award-winning writer who has published widely and served as a reviewer on many high-quality journals. Her publications are well…

  6. Comments on "Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience in School Psychology:" Evidence-Based Interventions for Grandiose Bragging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide some perspectives on Lilienfeld, Ammirati, and David's (2012) paper on distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology. In many respects their work represents an intervention for "grandiose bragging," a problem that has occasionally occurred when various non-evidence-based or discredited…

  7. Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience in School Psychology: Science and Scientific Thinking as Safeguards against Human Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for…

  8. A Methodology for Distinguishing between Extinction and Punishment Effects Associated with Response Blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C.; Iwata, Brian A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a method for distinguishing between extinction and punishment effects. In extinction and punishment, different schedules of reinforcement or punishment are in effect when a given proportion of responses is blocked. Response patterns in treatment of hand mouthing in an adult with profound mental retardation suggest that a…

  9. How to Distinguish Attacks by the Black Turpentine Beetle and Dioryctria Amatella on Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl W. Fatzinger; Gary L. DeBarr

    1969-01-01

    Trunk attacks by the black turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus terebrans (Oh.), and the larvae of Dioryctria amatella (Hulst) on the southern pines results in a copious flow of pitch. This external pitch mass or pitch tube exhibits characteristics that can be used as symptoms to distinguish between attacks by these two insects.

  10. Bethany Ann Teachman: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Bethany Ann Teachman for transformative, translational research integrating social cognition, life-span, and perceptual approaches to investigating clinical…

  11. A high-throughput screening assay for distinguishing nitrile hydratases from nitrilases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Mara Lima Angelini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A modified colorimetric high-throughput screen based on pH changes combined with an amidase inhibitor capable of distinguishing between nitrilases and nitrile hydratases. This enzymatic screening is based on a binary response and is suitable for the first step of hierarchical screening projects.

  12. Linear Distinguishers in the Key-less Setting: Application to PRESENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Martin Mehl; Rechberger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The application of the concept of linear cryptanalysis to the domain of key-less primitives is largely an open problem. In this paper we, for the first time, propose a model in which its application is meaningful for distinguishing block ciphers. Combining our model with ideas from message...

  13. Mie scattering distinguishes the topological charge of an optical vortex: a homage to Gustav Mie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbin, V.; Garbin, Valeria; Volpe, Giovanni; Ferrari, Enrico; Versluis, Michel; Cojoc, Dan; Petrov, Dmitri

    2009-01-01

    One century after Mie's original paper, Mie scattering is still a fertile field of scientific endeavor. We show that the Mie scattering distinguishes the topological charge of light beams with phase dislocations. We experimentally and numerically study the scattering of highly focused

  14. Distinguishing Lewd and Lascivious Acts from Related Crimes Against Minors’ Sexual Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragozina I. G.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the criminal law norms related to the crime provided for by Article 135 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. The authors estimate judicial practice and outline disputable issues of correlation of the given norms and offer the criteria to distinguish lewd and lascivious acts from related crimes

  15. Science 101: How Do We Distinguish between Living and Nonliving Things?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Since nearly every science curriculum in the country contains a section on living and non-living things, Bill Robertson believes that pretty much anyone who has taught the subject has run into difficulties. It seems as if no matter what criteria you use to distinguish between the two you can nearly always find exceptions. This article provides a…

  16. Are Children Able to Distinguish among the Concepts of Aloneness, Loneliness, and Solitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanaki, Evangelia

    2004-01-01

    School-age children's ability to distinguish among the concepts of aloneness, loneliness, and solitude was the focus of this study. This ability has been largely neglected by researchers. Also, the relation of this ability with self-reported loneliness was examined. Individual interviews were conducted with 180 second, fourth, and sixth graders…

  17. Distinguished-Level Learning Online: Support Materials from LangNet and RussNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Betty Lou; Ehrman, Madeline; Lekic, Maria

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces the reader to two online sources of materials for working on improving listening and reading skills. The materials are intended for learners already at Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR) Level 3 (Superior) proficiency in Arabic, Chinese, Hindi, Korean, Russian, and Spanish, who desire to reach Level 4 (Distinguished, or…

  18. Computable categoricity of the Boolean algebra B(omega) with a distinguished automorphism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bazhenov, N. A.; Tukhbatullina, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2013), s. 89-97 ISSN 0002-5232 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : Boolean algebra with distinguished automorphism * computable categoricity * categoricity spectrum Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.488, year: 2013

  19. Wavelet coherence analysis: A new approach to distinguish organic and functional tremor types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, G; Van der Stouwe, A M M; Maurits, N M; Tijssen, M A J; Elting, J W J

    2018-01-01

    To distinguish tremor subtypes using wavelet coherence analysis (WCA). WCA enables to detect variations in coherence and phase difference between two signals over time and might be especially useful in distinguishing functional from organic tremor. In this pilot study, polymyography recordings were studied retrospectively of 26 Parkinsonian (PT), 26 functional (FT), 26 essential (ET), and 20 enhanced physiological (EPT) tremor patients. Per patient one segment of 20 s in duration, in which tremor was present continuously in the same posture, was selected. We studied several coherence and phase related parameters, and analysed all possible muscle combinations of the flexor and extensor muscles of the upper and fore arm. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) was applied to compare WCA and standard coherence analysis to distinguish tremor subtypes. The percentage of time with significant coherence (PTSC) and the number of periods without significant coherence (NOV) proved the most discriminative parameters. FT could be discriminated from organic (PT, ET, EPT) tremor by high NOV (31.88 vs 21.58, 23.12 and 10.20 respectively) with an AUC-ROC of 0.809, while standard coherence analysis resulted in an AUC-ROC of 0.552. EMG-EMG WCA analysis might provide additional variables to distinguish functional from organic tremor. WCA might prove to be of additional value to discriminate between tremor types. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Thomas L. Griffiths: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology (2012). Thomas L. Griffiths won the award for bringing mathematical precision to the deepest questions in human learning, reasoning, and concept formation. In his pioneering work,…