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Sample records for distinct lipooligosaccharide glycoforms

  1. Identification of distinct glycoforms of IgA1 in plasma from patients with IgA nephropathy and healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehoux, Sylvain; Mi, Rongjuan; Aryal, Rajindra P

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of glomerulonephritis worldwide and is histologically characterized by the deposition of IgA1 and consequent inflammation in the glomerular mesangium. Prior studies suggested that serum IgA1 from IgAN patients contains aberrant, undergal......Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of glomerulonephritis worldwide and is histologically characterized by the deposition of IgA1 and consequent inflammation in the glomerular mesangium. Prior studies suggested that serum IgA1 from IgAN patients contains aberrant...... there are different glycoforms of IgA1 in plasma from patients with IgAN and healthy individuals. While total plasma IgA in IgAN patients was elevated ~1.6-fold compared to that in healthy donors, IgA1 in all samples was unexpectedly separable into two distinct glycoforms: one with core 1 based O......-glycans, and the other exclusively containing Tn/STn structures. Importantly, Tn antigen present on IgA1 from IgAN patients and controls was convertible into the core 1 structure in vitro by recombinant T-synthase. Our results demonstrate that undergalactosylation of O-glycans in IgA1 is not restricted to Ig...

  2. Fatty Acyl Chains of Mycobacterium marinum Lipooligosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, Yoann; Alibaud, Laeticia; Carrère-Kremer, Séverine; Maes, Emmanuel; Tokarski, Caroline; Elass, Elisabeth; Kremer, Laurent; Guérardel, Yann

    2011-01-01

    We have recently established the fine structure of the glycan backbone of lipooligosaccharides (LOS-I to LOS-IV) isolated from Mycobacterium marinum, a close relative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These studies culminated with the description of an unusual terminal N-acylated monosaccharide that confers important biological functions to LOS-IV, such as macrophage activation, that may be relevant to granuloma formation. It was, however, also suggested that the lipid moiety was required for LOSs to exert their immunomodulatory activity. Herein, using highly purified LOSs from M. marinum, we have determined through a combination of mass spectrometric and NMR techniques, the structure and localization of the fatty acids composing the lipid moiety. The occurrence of two distinct polymethyl-branched fatty acids presenting specific localizations is consistent with the presence of two highly related polyketide synthases (Pks5 and Pks5.1) in M. marinum and presumably involved in the synthesis of these fatty acyl chains. In addition, a bioinformatic search permitted us to identify a set of enzymes potentially involved in the biosynthesis or transfer of these lipids to the LOS trehalose unit. These include MMAR_2343, a member of the Pap (polyketide-associated protein) family, that acylates trehalose-based glycolipids in M. marinum. The participation of MMAR_2343 to LOS assembly was demonstrated using a M. marinum mutant carrying a transposon insertion in the MMAR_2343 gene. Disruption of MMAR_2343 resulted in a severe LOS breakdown, indicating that MMAR_2343, hereafter designated PapA4, fulfills the requirements for LOS acylation and assembly. PMID:21803773

  3. Meet the multifunctional and sexy glycoforms of glycodelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapid, Kfir; Sharon, Nathan

    2006-03-01

    Glycodelin, a human-secreted glycoprotein that appears in a small number of glycoforms, exhibits diverse biological activities, such as in contraception and immunosuppression. Moreover, different tissue-specific glycoforms appear to mediate diverse functions. Quite unusually, the glycodelin N-linked glycans differ between the male and female glycoforms. The fact that these glycans are fundamental for exerting the physiological activities of the different glycoforms, makes them an interesting target for glycobiology research. This review will focus on the involvement of the glycans in glycodelin activity and compare between the several glycoforms.

  4. Galectin-3 guides intracellular trafficking of some human serotransferrin glycoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Carl Michael; Bengtson, Per; Cucak, Helena

    2013-01-01

    these transferrin glycoforms differently after preloading with exogenously added galectin-3. In all, this study provides the first evidence of a functional role for transferrin glycans, in intracellular trafficking after uptake. Moreover, the galectin-3 bound glycoform increased in cancer, suggesting...

  5. Characterization of lipooligosaccharide-biosynthetic loci of Campylobacter jejuni reveals new lipooligosaccharide classes: Evidence of mosaic organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.T. Parker (Craig); M. Gilbert (Michel); N. Yuki (Nobuhiro); H.P. Endtz (Hubert); R.E. Mandrell (Robert)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe lipooligosaccharide (LOS) biosynthesis region is one of the more variable genomic regions between strains of Campylobacter jejuni. Indeed, eight classes of LOS biosynthesis loci have been established previously based on gene content and organization. In this study, we characterize

  6. Preferential Acquisition and Activation of Plasminogen Glycoform II by PAM Positive Group A Streptococcal Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, David M P; Law, Ruby H P; Ly, Diane; Cook, Simon M; Quek, Adam J; McArthur, Jason D; Whisstock, James C; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L

    2015-06-30

    Plasminogen (Plg) circulates in the host as two predominant glycoforms. Glycoform I Plg (GI-Plg) contains glycosylation sites at Asn289 and Thr346, whereas glycoform II Plg (GII-Plg) is exclusively glycosylated at Thr346. Surface plasmon resonance experiments demonstrated that Plg binding group A streptococcal M protein (PAM) exhibits comparative equal affinity for GI- and GII-Plg in the "closed" conformation (for GII-Plg, KD = 27.4 nM; for GI-Plg, KD = 37.0 nM). When Plg was in the "open" conformation, PAM exhibited an 11-fold increase in affinity for GII-Plg (KD = 2.8 nM) compared with that for GI-Plg (KD = 33.2 nM). The interaction of PAM with Plg is believed to be mediated by lysine binding sites within kringle (KR) 2 of Plg. PAM-GI-Plg interactions were fully inhibited with 100 mM lysine analogue ε-aminocaproic acid (εACA), whereas PAM-GII-Plg interactions were shown to be weakened but not inhibited in the presence of 400 mM εACA. In contrast, binding to the KR1-3 domains of GII-Plg (angiostatin) by PAM was completely inhibited in the presence 5 mM εACA. Along with PAM, emm pattern D GAS isolates express a phenotypically distinct SK variant (type 2b SK) that requires Plg ligands such as PAM to activate Plg. Type 2b SK was able to generate an active site and activate GII-Plg at a rate significantly higher than that of GI-Plg when bound to PAM. Taken together, these data suggest that GAS selectively recruits and activates GII-Plg. Furthermore, we propose that the interaction between PAM and Plg may be partially mediated by a secondary binding site outside of KR2, affected by glycosylation at Asn289.

  7. Variation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide directs dendritic cell-induced T helper responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra J van Vliet

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Gonorrhea is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in the world. A naturally occurring variation of the terminal carbohydrates on the lipooligosaccharide (LOS molecule correlates with altered disease states. Here, we investigated the interaction of different stable gonoccocal LOS phenotypes with human dendritic cells and demonstrate that each variant targets a different set of receptors on the dendritic cell, including the C-type lectins MGL and DC-SIGN. Neisseria gonorrhoeae LOS phenotype C constitutes the first bacterial ligand to be described for the human C-type lectin receptor MGL. Both MGL and DC-SIGN are locally expressed at the male and female genital area, the primary site of N. gonorrhoeae infection. We show that targeting of different C-type lectins with the N. gonorrhoeae LOS variants results in alterations in dendritic cell cytokine secretion profiles and the induction of distinct adaptive CD4(+ T helper responses. Whereas N. gonorrhoeae variant A with a terminal N-acetylglucosamine on its LOS was recognized by DC-SIGN and induced significantly more IL-10 production, phenotype C, carrying a terminal N-acetylgalactosamine, primarily interacted with MGL and skewed immunity towards the T helper 2 lineage. Together, our results indicate that N. gonorrhoeae LOS variation allows for selective manipulation of dendritic cell function, thereby shifting subsequent immune responses in favor of bacterial survival.

  8. Insertions in the OCL1 locus of Acinetobacter baumannii lead to shortened lipooligosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Johanna J.; Holt, Kathryn E.; Pickard, Derek; Dougan, Gordon; Hall, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    Genomes of 82 Acinetobacter baumannii global clones 1 (GC1) and 2 (GC2) isolates were sequenced and different forms of the locus predicted to direct synthesis of the outer core (OC) of the lipooligosaccharide were identified. OCL1 was in all GC2 genomes, whereas GC1 isolates carried OCL1, OCL3 or a new locus, OCL5. Three mutants in which an insertion sequence (ISAba1 or ISAba23) interrupted OCL1 were identified. Isolates with OCL1 intact produced only lipooligosaccharide, while the mutants produced lipooligosaccharide of reduced molecular weight. Thus, the assignment of the OC locus as that responsible for the synthesis of the OC is correct. PMID:24861001

  9. Variation in the OC locus of Acinetobacter baumannii genomes predicts extensive structural diversity in the lipooligosaccharide.

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    Johanna J Kenyon

    Full Text Available Lipooligosaccharide (LOS is a complex surface structure that is linked to many pathogenic properties of Acinetobacter baumannii. In A. baumannii, the genes responsible for the synthesis of the outer core (OC component of the LOS are located between ilvE and aspS. The content of the OC locus is usually variable within a species, and examination of 6 complete and 227 draft A. baumannii genome sequences available in GenBank non-redundant and Whole Genome Shotgun databases revealed nine distinct new types, OCL4-OCL12, in addition to the three known ones. The twelve gene clusters fell into two distinct groups, designated Group A and Group B, based on similarities in the genes present. OCL6 (Group B was unique in that it included genes for the synthesis of L-Rhamnosep. Genetic exchange of the different configurations between strains has occurred as some OC forms were found in several different sequence types (STs. OCL1 (Group A was the most widely distributed being present in 18 STs, and OCL6 was found in 16 STs. Variation within clones was also observed, with more than one OC locus type found in the two globally disseminated clones, GC1 and GC2, that include the majority of multiply antibiotic resistant isolates. OCL1 was the most abundant gene cluster in both GC1 and GC2 genomes but GC1 isolates also carried OCL2, OCL3 or OCL5, and OCL3 was also present in GC2. As replacement of the OC locus in the major global clones indicates the presence of sub-lineages, a PCR typing scheme was developed to rapidly distinguish Group A and Group B types, and to distinguish the specific forms found in GC1 and GC2 isolates.

  10. New futures of sialyated lipo-oligosaccharide structures in campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.L. Louwen (Rogier)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe zoonotic human enteric pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is acquired by humans through contaminated water, poultry, shellfish and pets 1. Motility, chemotaxis, glycosylation and lipo-oligosaccharides (LOS) structures are all different virulence features exploited by C. jejuni to adhere,

  11. Temperature-dependent phenotypic variation of Campylobacter jejuni lipooligosaccharides

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semchenko, Evgeny A

    2010-11-30

    Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major bacterial cause of food-borne enteritis, and its lipooligosaccharide (LOS) plays an initiating role in the development of the autoimmune neuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, by induction of anti-neural cross-reactive antibodies through ganglioside molecular mimicry. Results Herein we describe the existence and heterogeneity of multiple LOS forms in C. jejuni strains of human and chicken origin grown at 37°C and 42°C, respectively, as determined on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels with carbohydrate-specific silver staining and blotting with anti-ganglioside ligands, and confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The C. jejuni NCTC 11168 original isolate (11168-O) was compared to its genome-sequenced variant (11168-GS), and both were found to have a lower-Mr LOS form, which was different in size and structure to the previously characterized higher-Mr form bearing GM1 mimicry. The lower-Mr form production was found to be dependent on the growth temperature as the production of this form increased from ~5%, observed at 37°C to ~35% at 42°C. The structure of the lower-Mr form contained a β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-GalNAc disaccharide moiety which is consistent with the termini of the GM1, asialo-GM1, GD1, GT1 and GQ1 gangliosides, however, it did not display GM1 mimicry as assessed in blotting studies but was shown in NMR to resemble asialo-GM1. The production of multiple LOS forms and lack of GM1 mimicry was not a result of phase variation in the genes tested of NCTC 11168 and was also observed in most of the human and chicken isolates of C. jejuni tested. Conclusion The presence of differing amounts of LOS forms at 37 and 42°C, and the variety of forms observed in different strains, indicate that LOS form variation may play a role in an adaptive mechanism or a stress response of the bacterium during the colonization of different hosts.

  12. Glycoform-independent prion conversion by highly efficient, cell-based, protein misfolding cyclic amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Mekrouti, Mériem; Reine, Fabienne; Herzog, Laetitia; Sibille, Pierre; Laude, Hubert; Vilette, Didier; Andréoletti, Olivier; Rezaei, Human; Dron, Michel; Béringue, Vincent

    2016-07-07

    Prions are formed of misfolded assemblies (PrP(Sc)) of the variably N-glycosylated cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). In infected species, prions replicate by seeding the conversion and polymerization of host PrP(C). Distinct prion strains can be recognized, exhibiting defined PrP(Sc) biochemical properties such as the glycotype and specific biological traits. While strain information is encoded within the conformation of PrP(Sc) assemblies, the storage of the structural information and the molecular requirements for self-perpetuation remain uncertain. Here, we investigated the specific role of PrP(C) glycosylation status. First, we developed an efficient protein misfolding cyclic amplification method using cells expressing the PrP(C) species of interest as substrate. Applying the technique to PrP(C) glycosylation mutants expressing cells revealed that neither PrP(C) nor PrP(Sc) glycoform stoichiometry was instrumental to PrP(Sc) formation and strainness perpetuation. Our study supports the view that strain properties, including PrP(Sc) glycotype are enciphered within PrP(Sc) structural backbone, not in the attached glycans.

  13. A Gastric Glycoform of MUC5AC Is a Biomarker of Mucinous Cysts of the Pancreas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Sinha

    Full Text Available Molecular indicators to specify the risk posed by a pancreatic cyst would benefit patients. Previously we showed that most cancer-precursor cysts, termed mucinous cysts, produce abnormal glycoforms of the proteins MUC5AC and endorepellin. Here we sought to validate the glycoforms as a biomarker of mucinous cysts and to specify the oligosaccharide linkages that characterize MUC5AC. We hypothesized that mucinous cysts secrete MUC5AC displaying terminal N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc in either alpha or beta linkage. We used antibody-lectin sandwich assays to detect glycoforms of MUC5AC and endorepellin in cyst fluid samples from three independent cohorts of 49, 32, and 66 patients, and we used monoclonal antibodies to test for terminal, alpha-linked GlcNAc and the enzyme that produces it. A biomarker panel comprising the previously-identified glycoforms of MUC5AC and endorepellin gave 96%, 96%, and 87% accuracy for identifying mucinous cysts in the three cohorts with an average sensitivity of 92% and an average specificity of 94%. Glycan analysis showed that MUC5AC produced by a subset of mucinous cysts displays terminal alpha-GlcNAc, a motif expressed in stomach glands. The alpha-linked glycoform of MUC5AC was unique to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN, whereas terminal beta-linked GlcNAc was increased in both IPMNs and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN. The enzyme that synthesizes alpha-GlcNAc, A4GNT, was expressed in the epithelia of mucinous cysts that expressed alpha-GlcNAc, especially in regions with high-grade dysplasia. Thus IPMNs secrete a gastric glycoform of MUC5AC that displays terminal alpha-GlcNAc, and the combined alpha-GlcNAc and beta-GlcNAc glycoforms form an accurate biomarker of mucinous cysts.

  14. Activation of Murine Macrophages by Lipoprotein and Lipooligosaccharide of Treponema denticola

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Graciela; Sela, Michael N.; Naor, Ronit; Halabi, Amal; Barak, Vivian; Shapira, Lior

    1999-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the periodontopathogenic oral spirochete Treponema denticola possesses membrane-associated lipoproteins in addition to lipooligosaccharide (LOS). The aim of the present study was to test the potential of these oral spirochetal components to induce the production of inflammatory mediators by human macrophages, which in turn may stimulate tissue breakdown as observed in periodontal diseases. An enriched lipoprotein fraction (dLPP) from T. denticola ATCC 35404 ...

  15. Glycoform-selective prion formation in sporadic and familial forms of prion disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, X.; Yuan, J.; Haïk, S.; Cali, I.; Zhan, Y.; Moudjou, M.; Li, B.; Laplanche, J.L.; Laude, H.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Gambetti, P.

    2013-01-01

    The four glycoforms of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) variably glycosylated at the two N-linked glycosylation sites are converted into their pathological forms (PrP(Sc)) in most cases of sporadic prion diseases. However, a prominent molecular characteristic of PrP(Sc) in the recently identified

  16. Pre-evacuation hCG glycoforms in uneventful complete hydatidiform mole and persistent trophoblastic disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, C.M.G.; Kerkmeijer, L.G.W.; Ariaens, H.J.; Steen, R. van der; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Sweep, F.C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the glycoform distribution patterns of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) obtained by chromatofocusing in pre-evacuation serum are different for patients who will eventually develop into persistent trophoblastic disease in case of complete hydatidiform mole

  17. Zonal variation in the distribution of an alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoform receptor in human adrenal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U O; Bøg-Hansen, T C; Kirkeby, S

    1999-01-01

    receptor was located in the cytoplasm of glomerulosa and outer fasciculata cells. The intensity of the reaction product decreased in the fasciculata, and no staining was seen in inner fasciculata and reticularis. Inhibition with the simple sugars, mannose and GlcNAc confirmed a lectin-like reaction...... specific receptor. The binding of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoform B and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoform C to the glycoform specific receptor is inhibited by the steroid hormones cortisone, aldosterone, estradiol and progesterone but not by testosterone. The pronounced changes in the distribution...

  18. Localized Chemical Remodeling for Live Cell Imaging of Protein-Specific Glycoform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Jingjing; Bao, Lei; Li, Siqiao; Zhang, Yi; Feng, Yimei; Ding, Lin; Ju, Huangxian

    2017-07-03

    Live cell imaging of protein-specific glycoforms is important for the elucidation of glycosylation mechanisms and identification of disease states. The currently used metabolic oligosaccharide engineering (MOE) technology permits routinely global chemical remodeling (GCM) for carbohydrate site of interest, but can exert unnecessary whole-cell scale perturbation and generate unpredictable metabolic efficiency issue. A localized chemical remodeling (LCM) strategy for efficient and reliable access to protein-specific glycoform information is reported. The proof-of-concept protocol developed for MUC1-specific terminal galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (Gal/GalNAc) combines affinity binding, off-on switchable catalytic activity, and proximity catalysis to create a reactive handle for bioorthogonal labeling and imaging. Noteworthy assay features associated with LCM as compared with MOE include minimum target cell perturbation, short reaction timeframe, effectiveness as a molecular ruler, and quantitative analysis capability. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Discovery of novel differentiation markers in the early stage of chondrogenesis by glycoform-focused reverse proteomics and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Takeshi; Kakiya, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Koji; Miwa, Hiroto; Rokushima, Masatomo; Yoshinaga, Tomoyo; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Ito, Takaomi; Togame, Hiroko; Takemoto, Hiroshi; Amano, Maho; Iwasaki, Norimasa; Minami, Akio; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common chronic diseases among adults, especially the elderly, which is characterized by destruction of the articular cartilage. Despite affecting more than 100 million individuals all over the world, therapy is currently limited to treating pain, which is a principal symptom of OA. New approaches to the treatment of OA that induce regeneration and repair of cartilage are strongly needed. To discover potent markers for chondrogenic differentiation, glycoform-focused reverse proteomics and genomics were performed on the basis of glycoblotting-based comprehensive approach. Expression levels of high-mannose type N-glycans were up-regulated significantly at the late stage of differentiation of the mouse chondroprogenitor cells. Among 246 glycoproteins carrying this glycotype identified by ConA affinity chromatography and LC/MS, it was demonstrated that 52% are classified as cell surface glycoproteins. Gene expression levels indicated that mRNAs for 15 glycoproteins increased distinctly in the earlier stages during differentiation compared with Type II collagen. The feasibility of mouse chondrocyte markers in human chondrogenesis model was demonstrated by testing gene expression levels of these 15 glycoproteins during differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells. The results showed clearly an evidence of up-regulation of 5 genes, ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 1, collagen alpha-1(III) chain, collagen alpha-1(XI) chain, aquaporin-1, and netrin receptor UNC5B, in the early stages of differentiation. These cell surface 5 glycoproteins become highly sensitive differentiation markers of human chondrocytes that contribute to regenerative therapies, and development of novel therapeutic reagents. © 2013.

  20. Towards Controlling the Glycoform: A Model Framework Linking Extracellular Metabolites to Antibody Glycosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Jedrzejewski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycoproteins represent the largest group of the growing number of biologically-derived medicines. The associated glycan structures and their distribution are known to have a large impact on pharmacokinetics. A modelling framework was developed to provide a link from the extracellular environment and its effect on intracellular metabolites to the distribution of glycans on the constant region of an antibody product. The main focus of this work is the mechanistic in silico reconstruction of the nucleotide sugar donor (NSD metabolic network by means of 34 species mass balances and the saturation kinetics rates of the 60 metabolic reactions involved. NSDs are the co-substrates of the glycosylation process in the Golgi apparatus and their simulated dynamic intracellular concentration profiles were linked to an existing model describing the distribution of N-linked glycan structures of the antibody constant region. The modelling framework also describes the growth dynamics of the cell population by means of modified Monod kinetics. Simulation results match well to experimental data from a murine hybridoma cell line. The result is a modelling platform which is able to describe the product glycoform based on extracellular conditions. It represents a first step towards the in silico prediction of the glycoform of a biotherapeutic and provides a platform for the optimisation of bioprocess conditions with respect to product quality.

  1. Characterization of the structure and immunostimulatory activity of a vaccine adjuvant, de-O-acylated lipooligosaccharide.

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    Ji Eun Han

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is a major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS elicits strong immunopathological responses during bacterial infection, and the lipid A moiety of LPS is responsible for this immunostimulatory activity. Lipid A exerts its biological activity by sending signals via TLR4 present on immune cells, and TLR4 agonists have been a target for vaccine adjuvant. Previously, we demonstrated an adjuvant activity of deacylated lipooligosaccharide (dLOS to viral and bacterial antigens. In this study, we characterized the chemical structure of dLOS and evaluated its immunostimulatory activity on mouse and human immune cells in comparison with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL. dLOS consists of the R3-type core, a glucosamine disaccharide with two phosphate groups, and two N-linked acyl groups [corrected], and two N-linked acyl groups. dLOS was similar to MPL in induction of cytokine production in mouse peritoneal macrophages, but was a more potent activator in human monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs. Results of an analysis of allogeneic T cell responses revealed that dLOS induces Th1, Th2, and Th17-type immune responses in a dose-dependent manner. The immunostimulatory activities of dLOS were completely abrogated in TLR4(-/- mice, which confirms its TLR4-dependency. These results suggest that in the presence of the core oligosaccharide, O-linked acyl groups of LPS are dispensable for activating the TLR4 signaling pathway. dLOS did not cause any pathological effects or death at 0.25, 0.5, or 1 mg per kg body weight in mice in the acute toxicity tests. This result suggests that dLOS has a low toxicity. dLOS should be considered for further development as a safe and effective adjuvant for human vaccines.

  2. Activation of murine macrophages by lipoprotein and lipooligosaccharide of Treponema denticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, G; Sela, M N; Naor, R; Halabi, A; Barak, V; Shapira, L

    1999-03-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the periodontopathogenic oral spirochete Treponema denticola possesses membrane-associated lipoproteins in addition to lipooligosaccharide (LOS). The aim of the present study was to test the potential of these oral spirochetal components to induce the production of inflammatory mediators by human macrophages, which in turn may stimulate tissue breakdown as observed in periodontal diseases. An enriched lipoprotein fraction (dLPP) from T. denticola ATCC 35404 obtained upon extraction of the treponemes with Triton X-114 was found to stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1 (IL-1) by mouse macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Induction of NO by dLPP was at 25% of the levels obtained by Salmonella typhosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at similar concentrations, while IL-1 was produced at similar levels by both inducers. dLPP-mediated macrophage activation was unaffected by amounts of polymyxin B that neutralized the induction produced by S. typhosa LPS. dLPP also induced NO and TNF-alpha secretion from macrophages isolated from endotoxin-unresponsive C3H/HeJ mice to an extent similar to the stimulation produced in endotoxin-responsive mice. Purified T. denticola LOS also produced a concentration-dependent activation of NO and TNF-alpha in LPS-responsive and -nonresponsive mouse macrophages. However, macrophage activation by LOS was inhibited by polymyxin B. These results suggest that T. denticola lipoproteins and LOS may play a role in the inflammatory processes that characterize periodontal diseases.

  3. Activation of Murine Macrophages by Lipoprotein and Lipooligosaccharide of Treponema denticola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Graciela; Sela, Michael N.; Naor, Ronit; Halabi, Amal; Barak, Vivian; Shapira, Lior

    1999-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the periodontopathogenic oral spirochete Treponema denticola possesses membrane-associated lipoproteins in addition to lipooligosaccharide (LOS). The aim of the present study was to test the potential of these oral spirochetal components to induce the production of inflammatory mediators by human macrophages, which in turn may stimulate tissue breakdown as observed in periodontal diseases. An enriched lipoprotein fraction (dLPP) from T. denticola ATCC 35404 obtained upon extraction of the treponemes with Triton X-114 was found to stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 (IL-1) by mouse macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Induction of NO by dLPP was at 25% of the levels obtained by Salmonella typhosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at similar concentrations, while IL-1 was produced at similar levels by both inducers. dLPP-mediated macrophage activation was unaffected by amounts of polymyxin B that neutralized the induction produced by S. typhosa LPS. dLPP also induced NO and TNF-α secretion from macrophages isolated from endotoxin-unresponsive C3H/HeJ mice to an extent similar to the stimulation produced in endotoxin-responsive mice. Purified T. denticola LOS also produced a concentration-dependent activation of NO and TNF-α in LPS-responsive and -nonresponsive mouse macrophages. However, macrophage activation by LOS was inhibited by polymyxin B. These results suggest that T. denticola lipoproteins and LOS may play a role in the inflammatory processes that characterize periodontal diseases. PMID:10024558

  4. Sialylation of lipooligosaccharides is dispensable for the virulence of Haemophilus ducreyi in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinola, Stanley M; Li, Wei; Fortney, Kate R; Janowicz, Diane M; Zwickl, Beth; Katz, Barry P; Munson, Robert S

    2012-02-01

    Sialylated glycoconjugates on the surfaces of mammalian cells play important roles in intercellular communication and self-recognition. The sialic acid preferentially expressed in human tissues is N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac). In a process called molecular mimicry, many bacterial pathogens decorate their cell surface glycolipids with Neu5Ac. Incorporation of Neu5Ac into bacterial glycolipids promotes bacterial interactions with host cell receptors called Siglecs. These interactions affect bacterial adherence, resistance to serum killing and phagocytosis, and innate immune responses. Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, expresses lipooligosaccharides (LOS) that are highly sialylated. However, an H. ducreyi sialyltransferase (lst) mutant, whose LOS contain reduced levels of Neu5Ac, is fully virulent in human volunteers. Recently, a second sialyltransferase gene (Hd0053) was discovered in H. ducreyi, raising the possibility that Hd0053 compensated for the loss of lst during human infection. CMP-Neu5Ac is the obligate nucleotide sugar donor for all bacterial sialyltransferases; LOS derived from an H. ducreyi CMP-Neu5Ac synthetase (neuA) mutant has no detectable Neu5Ac. Here, we compared an H. ducreyi neuA mutant to its wild-type parent in several models of pathogenesis. In human inoculation experiments, the neuA mutant formed papules and pustules at rates that were no different than those of its parent. When grown in media with and without Neu5Ac supplementation, the neuA mutant and its parent had similar phenotypes in bactericidal, macrophage uptake, and dendritic cell activation assays. Although we cannot preclude a contribution of LOS sialylation to ulcerative disease, these data strongly suggest that sialylation of LOS is dispensable for H. ducreyi pathogenesis in humans.

  5. Molecular characterization of phosphorylcholine expression on the lipooligosaccharide of Histophilus somni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elswaifi, Shaadi F.; St. Michael, Frank; Sreenivas, Avula; Cox, Andrew; Carman, George M.; Inzana, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Histophilus somni (Haemophilus somnus) is an important pathogen of cattle that is responsible for respiratory disease, septicemia, and systemic diseases such as thrombotic meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, and abortion. A variety of virulence factors have been identified in H. somni, including compositional and antigenic variation of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS). Phosphorylcholine (ChoP) has been identified as one of the components of H. somni LOS that undergoes antigenic variation. In this study, five genes (lic1ABCDHs and glpQ) with homology to genes responsible for ChoP expression in Haemophilus influenzae LOS were identified in the H. somni genome. An H. somni open reading frame (ORF) with homology to H. influenzae lic1A (lic1AHi) contained a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). However, whereas the tetranucleotide repeat 5′-CAAT-3′ is present in lic1AHi, the VNTR in H. somni lic1A (lic1AHs) consisted of 5′-AACC-3′. Due to the propensity of VNTR to vary during replication and cause the ORF to shift in and out of frame with the upstream start codon, the VNTR were deleted from lic1AHs to maintain the gene constitutively on. This construct was cloned into Escherichia coli, and functional enzyme assays confirmed that lic1AHs encoded a choline kinase, and that the VNTR were not required for expression of a functional gene product. Variation in the number of VNTR in lic1AHs correlated with antigenic variation of ChoP expression in H. somni strain 124P. However, antigenic variation of ChoP expression in strain 738 predominately occurred through variable extension/truncation of the LOS outer core. These results indicated that the lic1Hs genes controlled expression of ChoP on the LOS, but that in H. somni there are two potential mechanisms that account for antigenic variation of ChoP. PMID:19682567

  6. Glycoform-Selective Prion Formation in Sporadic and Familial Forms of Prion Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiangzhu; Yuan, Jue; Haïk, Stéphane; Cali, Ignazio; Zhan, Yian; Moudjou, Mohammed; Li, Baiya; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Laude, Hubert; Langeveld, Jan; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Kong, Qingzhong; Brandel, Jean-Philippe; Cobb, Brian A.; Petersen, Robert B.; Zou, Wen-Quan

    2013-01-01

    The four glycoforms of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) variably glycosylated at the two N-linked glycosylation sites are converted into their pathological forms (PrPSc) in most cases of sporadic prion diseases. However, a prominent molecular characteristic of PrPSc in the recently identified variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr) is the absence of a diglycosylated form, also notable in familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD), which is linked to mutations in PrP either from Val to Ile at residue 180 (fCJDV180I) or from Thr to Ala at residue 183 (fCJDT183A). Here we report that fCJDV180I, but not fCJDT183A, exhibits a proteinase K (PK)-resistant PrP (PrPres) that is markedly similar to that observed in VPSPr, which exhibits a five-step ladder-like electrophoretic profile, a molecular hallmark of VPSPr. Remarkably, the absence of the diglycosylated PrPres species in both fCJDV180I and VPSPr is likewise attributable to the absence of PrPres glycosylated at the first N-linked glycosylation site at residue 181, as in fCJDT183A. In contrast to fCJDT183A, both VPSPr and fCJDV180I exhibit glycosylation at residue 181 on di- and monoglycosylated (mono181) PrP prior to PK-treatment. Furthermore, PrPV180I with a typical glycoform profile from cultured cells generates detectable PrPres that also contains the diglycosylated PrP in addition to mono- and unglycosylated forms upon PK-treatment. Taken together, our current in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that sporadic VPSPr and familial CJDV180I share a unique glycoform-selective prion formation pathway in which the conversion of diglycosylated and mono181 PrPC to PrPSc is inhibited, probably by a dominant-negative effect, or by other co-factors. PMID:23527023

  7. Structural characterization of the Man5 glycoform of human IgG3 Fc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Ishan S.; Lovell, Scott; Mehzabeen, Nurjahan; Battaile, Kevin P.; Tolbert, Thomas J. (Kansas); (HWMRI)

    2017-12-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) consists of four subclasses in humans: IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4, which are highly conserved but have unique differences that result in subclass-specific effector functions. Though IgG1 is the most extensively studied IgG subclass, study of other subclasses is important to understand overall immune function and for development of new therapeutics. When compared to IgG1, IgG3 exhibits a similar binding profile to Fcγ receptors and stronger activation of complement. All IgG subclasses are glycosylated at N297, which is required for Fcγ receptor and C1q complement binding as well as maintaining optimal Fc conformation. We have determined the crystal structure of homogenously glycosylated human IgG3 Fc with a GlcNAc2Man5 (Man5) high mannose glycoform at 1.8 Å resolution and compared its structural features with published structures from the other IgG subclasses. Although the overall structure of IgG3 Fc is similar to that of other subclasses, some structural perturbations based on sequence differences were revealed. For instance, the presence of R435 in IgG3 (and H435 in the other IgG subclasses) has been implicated to result in IgG3-specific properties related to binding to protein A, protein G and the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). The IgG3 Fc structure helps to explain some of these differences. Additionally, protein-glycan contacts observed in the crystal structure appear to correlate with IgG3 affinity for Fcγ receptors as shown by binding studies with IgG3 Fc glycoforms. Finally, this IgG3 Fc structure provides a template for further studies aimed at engineering the Fc for specific gain of function.

  8. The role of lipooligosaccharide phosphorylcholine in colonization and pathogenesis of Histophilus somni in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elswaifi Shaadi F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Histophilus somni is a Gram-negative bacterium and member of the Pasteurellaceae that is responsible for respiratory disease and other systemic infections in cattle. One of the bacterium’s virulence factors is antigenic phase variation of its lipooligosaccharide (LOS. LOS antigenic variation may occur through variation in composition or structure of glycoses or their substitutions, such as phosphorylcholine (ChoP. However, the role of ChoP in the pathogenesis of H. somni disease has not been established. In Haemophilus influenzae ChoP on the LOS binds to platelet activating factor on epithelial cells, promoting bacterial colonization of the host upper respiratory tract. However, ChoP is not expressed in the blood as it also binds C-reactive protein, resulting in complement activation and killing of the bacteria. In order to simulate the susceptibility of calves with suppressed immunity due to stress or previous infection, calves were challenged with bovine herpes virus-1 or dexamethazone 3 days prior to challenge with H. somni. Following challenge, expression of ChoP on the LOS of 2 different H. somni strains was associated with colonization of the upper respiratory tract. In contrast, lack of ChoP expression was associated with bacteria recovered from systemic sites. Histopathology of cardiac tissue from myocarditis revealed lesions containing bacterial clusters that appeared similar to a biofilm. Furthermore, some respiratory cultures contained substantial numbers of Pasteurella multocida, which were not present on preculture screens. Subsequent biofilm experiments have shown that H. somni and P. multocida grow equally well together in a biofilm, suggesting a commensal relationship may exist between the two species. Our results also showed that ChoP contributed to, but was not required for, adhesion to respiratory epithelial cells. In conclusion, expression of ChoP on H. somni LOS contributed to colonization of the bacteria to the

  9. Distinguishing Truncated and Normal MUC1 Glycoform Targeting from Tn-MUC1-Specific CAR T Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posey, Avery D; Clausen, Henrik; June, Carl H

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) demonstrate potent clinical antitumor effects in a variety of blood cancers. However, clinical activity in solid tumors has been disappointing and toxicity has been a serious concern (Lamers et al., 2013; Morgan et al., 2010......). We recently found that a CAR composed of a scFv antibody fragment specific for the Tn-glycoform of MUC1 had potent activity in preclinical models of blood cancer and adenocarcinoma (Posey et al., 2016)....

  10. Identification of new cancer biomarkers based on aberrant mucin glycoforms by in situ proximity ligation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Rita; Carvalho, Ana S; Conze, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Mucin glycoproteins are major secreted or membrane-bound molecules that, in cancer, show modifications in both the mucin proteins expression and in the O-glycosylation profile, generating some of the most relevant tumour markers in clinical use for decades. Thus far, the identification of these b......Mucin glycoproteins are major secreted or membrane-bound molecules that, in cancer, show modifications in both the mucin proteins expression and in the O-glycosylation profile, generating some of the most relevant tumour markers in clinical use for decades. Thus far, the identification...... of these biomarkers has been based on the detection of either the protein or the O-glycan modifications. We therefore aimed to identify the combined mucin and O-glycan features, that is, specific glycoforms, in an attempt to increase specificity of these cancer biomarkers. Using in situ proximity ligation assays (PLA......) based on existing monoclonal antibodies directed to MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6 mucins and to cancer-associated carbohydrate antigens Tn, Sialyl-Tn (STn), T, Sialyl-Le(a) (SLe(a) ) and Sialyl-Le(x) (SLe(x) ) we screened a series of 28 mucinous adenocarcinomas from different locations (stomach, ampulla...

  11. Correlating the Impact of Well-Defined Oligosaccharide Structures on Physical Stability Profiles of IgG1-Fc Glycoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Apurva S; Toprani, Vishal M; Okbazghi, Solomon Z; Kim, Jae H; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Middaugh, C Russell; Tolbert, Thomas J; Volkin, David B

    2016-02-01

    As part of a series of articles in this special issue describing 4 well-defined IgG1-Fc glycoforms as a model system for biosimilarity analysis (high mannose-Fc, Man5-Fc, GlcNAc-Fc and N297Q-Fc aglycosylated), the focus of this work is comparisons of their physical properties. A trend of decreasing apparent solubility (thermodynamic activity) by polyethylene glycol precipitation (pH 4.5, 6.0) and lower conformational stability by differential scanning calorimetry (pH 4.5) was observed with reducing size of the N297-linked oligosaccharide structures. Using multiple high-throughput biophysical techniques, the physical stability of the Fc glycoproteins was then measured in 2 formulations (NaCl and sucrose) across a wide range of temperatures (10°C-90°C) and pH (4.0-7.5) conditions. The data sets were used to construct 3-index empirical phase diagrams and radar charts to visualize the regions of protein structural stability. Each glycoform showed improved stability in the sucrose (vs. salt) formulation. The HM-Fc and Man5-Fc displayed the highest relative stability, followed by GlcNAc-Fc, with N297Q-Fc being the least stable. Thus, the overall physical stability profiles of the 4 IgG1-Fc glycoforms also show a correlation with oligosaccharide structure. These data sets are used to develop a mathematical model for biosimilarity analysis (as described in a companion article by Kim et al. in this issue). Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlation between the glycan variations and defibrinogenating activities of acutobin and its recombinant glycoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ming Wang

    Full Text Available Acutobin isolated from Deinagkistrodon acutus venom has been used to prevent or treat stroke in patients. This defibrinogenating serine protease is a 39 kDa glycoprotein containing terminal disialyl-capped N-glycans. After sialidase treatment, the enzyme showed similar catalytic activities toward chromogenic substrate, and cleaved the Aα chain of fibrinogen as efficiently as the native acutobin did. However, the level of fibrinogen degradation products in mice after i.p.-injection of desialylated-acutobin was significantly lower than the level after acutobin injection, suggesting that the disialyl moieties may improve or prolong the half-life of acutobin. Two recombinant enzymes with identical protein structures and similar amidolytic activities to those of native acutobin were expressed from HEK293T and SW1353 cells and designated as HKATB and SWATB, respectively. Mass spectrometric profiling showed that their glycans differed from those of acutobin. In contrast to acutobin, HKATB cleaved not only the Aα chain but also the Bβ and γ chains of human fibrinogens, while SWATB showed a reduced α-fibrinogenase activity. Non-denaturing deglycosylation of these proteases by peptide N-glycosidase F significantly reduced their fibrinogenolytic activities and thermal stabilities. The in vivo defibrinogenating effect of HKATB was inferior to that of acutobin in mice. Taken together, our results suggest that the conjugated glycans of acutobin are involved in its interaction with fibrinogen, and that the selection of cells optimally expressing efficient glycoforms and further glycosylation engineering are desirable before a recombinant product can replace the native enzyme for clinical use.

  13. Structural Investigation of the Oligosaccharide Portion Isolated from the Lipooligosaccharide of the Permafrost Psychrophile Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillo, Angela; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Filomena, Sannino; Lindner, Buko; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Tutino, Maria Luisa; Corsaro, Maria Michela

    2015-07-22

    Psychrophilic microorganisms have successfully colonized all permanently cold environments from the deep sea to mountain and polar regions. The ability of an organism to survive and grow in cryoenviroments depends on a number of adaptive strategies aimed at maintaining vital cellular functions at subzero temperatures, which include the structural modifications of the membrane. To understand the role of the membrane in the adaptation, it is necessary to characterize the cell-wall components, such as the lipopolysaccharides, that represent the major constituent of the outer membrane. The aim of this study was to investigate the structure of the carbohydrate backbone of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) isolated from the cold-adapted Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4. The strain, isolated from a 20,000-to-30,000-year-old continuously frozen permafrost in Siberia, was cultivated at 4 °C. The LOS was isolated from dry cells and analyzed by means of chemical methods. In particular, it was degraded either by mild acid hydrolysis or by hydrazinolysis and investigated in detail by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and by ESI FT-ICR mass spectrometry. The oligosaccharide was characterized by the substitution of the heptose residue, usually linked to Kdo in the inner core, with a glucose, and for the unusual presence of N-acetylmuramic acid.

  14. Lipooligosaccharide structure is an important determinant in the resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to antimicrobial agents of innate host defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline T Balthazar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The strict human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae has caused the sexually transmitted infection termed gonorrhea for thousands of years. Over the millennia, the gonococcus has likely evolved mechanisms to evade host defense systems that operate on the genital mucosal surfaces in both males and females. Past research has shown that the presence or modification of certain cell envelope structures can significantly impact levels of gonococcal susceptibility to host-derived antimicrobial compounds that bathe genital mucosal surfaces and participate in innate host defense against invading pathogens. In order to facilitate the identification of gonococcal genes that are important in determining levels of bacterial susceptibility to mediators of innate host defense, we used the Himar I mariner in vitro mutagenesis system to construct a transposon insertion library in strain F62. As proof of principle that this strategy would be suitable for this purpose, we screened the library for mutants expressing decreased susceptibility to the bacteriolytic action of normal human serum (NHS. We found that a transposon insertion in the lgtD gene, which encodes an N-acetylgalactosamine transferase involved in the extension of the α-chain of lipooligosaccharide (LOS, could confer decreased susceptibility of strain F62 to complement-mediated killing by NHS. By complementation and chemical analyses, we demonstrated both linkage of the transposon insertion to the NHS-resistance phenotype and chemical changes in LOS structure that resulted from loss of LgtD production. Further truncation of the LOS α-chain or loss of phosphoethanolamine (PEA from the lipid A region of LOS also impacted levels of NHS-resistance. PEA decoration of lipid A also increased gonococcal resistance to the model cationic antimicrobial polymyxin B. Taken together, we conclude that the Himar I mariner in vitro mutagenesis procedure can facilitate studies on structures involved in gonococcal

  15. Utilizing CMP-Sialic Acid Analogs to Unravel Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide-Mediated Complement Resistance and Design Novel Therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Gulati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae deploys a novel immune evasion strategy wherein the lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT structure of lipooligosaccharide (LOS is capped by the bacterial sialyltransferase, using host cytidine-5'-monophosphate (CMP-activated forms of the nine-carbon nonulosonate (NulO sugar N-acetyl-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, a sialic acid (Sia abundant in humans. This allows evasion of complement-mediated killing by recruiting factor H (FH, an inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, and by limiting classical pathway activation ("serum-resistance". We utilized CMP salts of six additional natural or synthetic NulOs, Neu5Gc, Neu5Gc8Me, Neu5Ac9Ac, Neu5Ac9Az, legionaminic acid (Leg5Ac7Ac and pseudaminic acid (Pse5Ac7Ac, to define structural requirements of Sia-mediated serum-resistance. While all NulOs except Pse5Ac7Ac were incorporated into the LNnT-LOS, only Neu5Gc incorporation yielded high-level serum-resistance and FH binding that was comparable to Neu5Ac, whereas Neu5Ac9Az and Leg5Ac7Ac incorporation left bacteria fully serum-sensitive and did not enhance FH binding. Neu5Ac9Ac and Neu5Gc8Me rendered bacteria resistant only to low serum concentrations. While serum-resistance mediated by Neu5Ac was associated with classical pathway inhibition (decreased IgG binding and C4 deposition, Leg5Ac7Ac and Neu5Ac9Az incorporation did not inhibit the classical pathway. Remarkably, CMP-Neu5Ac9Az and CMP-Leg5Ac7Ac each prevented serum-resistance despite a 100-fold molar excess of CMP-Neu5Ac in growth media. The concomitant presence of Leg5Ac7Ac and Neu5Ac on LOS resulted in uninhibited classical pathway activation. Surprisingly, despite near-maximal FH binding in this instance, the alternative pathway was not regulated and factor Bb remained associated with bacteria. Intravaginal administration of CMP-Leg5Ac7Ac to BALB/c mice infected with gonorrhea (including a multidrug-resistant isolate reduced clearance times and infection burden. Bacteria recovered

  16. Trehalose-containing lipooligosaccharides of Mycobacterium gordonae: presence of a mono-O-methyltetra-O-acyltrehalose "core" and branching in the oligosaccharide backbone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besra, G S; McNeil, M R; Khoo, K H; Dell, A; Morris, H R; Brennan, P J

    1993-11-30

    Past evidence has indicated that Mycobacterium gordonae, as isolated from soil and as an occasional opportunistic pathogen, exists as a serocomplex. We now demonstrate that the basis of seroreactivity and diversity is a novel series of alkali-labile, trehalose-containing lipooligosaccharides (LOS). The structures from two strains were established by per-O-methylation, partial acid hydrolysis, infrared and high-field NMR spectroscopy, electron-impact MS, and fast atom bombardment/mass spectrometry of the native lipooligosaccharides and hydrolysis products. The structure of the major lipooligosaccharide, LOS-I, of M. gordonae strain 989 was defined as 2-O-CH3-4-O-CH3CO-alpha-L-Fucp-(1-->3)- beta-D-Glcp-(1-->3)-2-O-CH3-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->3)-[beta-D-Xylp++ +-(1-->2)-]- alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->3)-beta-D-Glcp-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->3 )-6-O- CH3-alpha-D-Glcp-(11)-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acyl-alpha-D-Glcp, which was further glycosylated at C-3 of the terminal 2-O-CH3-4-O-CH3CO-alpha-L-Fucp by an incompletely defined N-acyl derivative of 4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-2,3-di-O-CH3-Galp. The structure of the major lipooligosaccharide, LOS-I, of a second strain of M. gordonae (strain 990) was defined as alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->2)-3-O-CH3-alpha-L-Rhap- (1-->3)-[beta-D-Xylp-(1-->2)-]-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->3)-beta-D-G lcp- (1-->3)[beta-D-Xylp-(1-->2)-]-alpha-L-Rhap- (1-->3)-beta-D-Glcp-(1-->3)-beta-D-Glcp-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1--> 3)-6-O-CH3- alpha-D-Glcp-(11)-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acyl-alpha-D-Glcp. The other minor LOSs from both strains were also defined. Both families of LOSs from the two strains contain a novel mono-6'-O-CH3-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acyltrehalose unit, representing the first example of such a unit among the LOSs isolated to date from mycobacteria. Also, the more polar antigenic products, LOS-I, -II', -II", and -III from M. gordonae 989 and LOS-I, -II, and -II' from M. gordonae 990, are characterized by branching of the oligosaccharide backbone, the first instance of sugar branching in these products. In

  17. Effects of cell culture conditions on antibody N-linked glycosylation--what affects high mannose 5 glycoform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacis, Efren; Yu, Marcella; Autsen, Jennifer; Bayer, Robert; Li, Feng

    2011-10-01

    The glycosylation profile of therapeutic antibodies is routinely analyzed throughout development to monitor the impact of process parameters and to ensure consistency, efficacy, and safety for clinical and commercial batches of therapeutic products. In this study, unusually high levels of the mannose-5 (Man5) glycoform were observed during the early development of a therapeutic antibody produced from a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line, model cell line A. Follow up studies indicated that the antibody Man5 level was increased throughout the course of cell culture production as a result of increasing cell culture medium osmolality levels and extending culture duration. With model cell line A, Man5 glycosylation increased more than twofold from 12% to 28% in the fed-batch process through a combination of high basal and feed media osmolality and increased run duration. The osmolality and culture duration effects were also observed for four other CHO antibody producing cell lines by adding NaCl in both basal and feed media and extending the culture duration of the cell culture process. Moreover, reduction of Man5 level from model cell line A was achieved by supplementing MnCl2 at appropriate concentrations. To further understand the role of glycosyltransferases in Man5 level, N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I GnT-I mRNA levels at different osmolality conditions were measured. It has been hypothesized that specific enzyme activity in the glycosylation pathway could have been altered in this fed-batch process. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Galectin-1-binding glycoforms of haptoglobin with altered intracellular trafficking, and increase in metastatic breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Carlsson

    Full Text Available Sera from 25 metastatic breast cancer patients and 25 healthy controls were subjected to affinity chromatography using immobilized galectin-1. Serum from the healthy subjects contained on average 1.2 mg per ml (range 0.7-2.2 galectin-1 binding glycoproteins, whereas serum from the breast cancer patients contained on average 2.2 mg/ml (range 0.8-3.9, with a higher average for large primary tumours. The major bound glycoproteins were α-2-macroglobulin, IgM and haptoglobin. Both the IgM and haptoglobin concentrations were similar in cancer compared to control sera, but the percentage bound to galectin-1 was lower for IgM and higher for haptoglobin: about 50% (range 20-80 in cancer sera and about 30% (range 25-50 in healthy sera. Galectin-1 binding and non-binding fractions were separated by affinity chromatography from pooled haptoglobin from healthy sera. The N-glycans of each fraction were analyzed by mass spectrometry, and the structural differences and galectin-1 mutants were used to identify possible galectin-1 binding sites. Galectin-1 binding and non-binding fractions were also analyzed regarding their haptoglobin function. Both were similar in forming complex with haemoglobin and mediate its uptake into alternatively activated macrophages. However, after uptake there was a dramatic difference in intracellular targeting, with the galectin-1 non-binding fraction going to a LAMP-2 positive compartment (lysosomes, while the galectin-1 binding fraction went to larger galectin-1 positive granules. In conclusion, galectin-1 detects a new type of functional biomarker for cancer: a specific type of glycoform of haptoglobin, and possibly other serum glycoproteins, with a different function after uptake into tissue cells.

  19. Absolute Quantitation of Glycoforms of Two Human IgG Subclasses Using Synthetic Fc Peptides and Glycopeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Rini; Ang, Evelyn; Komatsu, Emy; Domalaon, Ronald; Bosseboeuf, Adrien; Harb, Jean; Hermouet, Sylvie; Krokhin, Oleg; Schweizer, Frank; Perreault, Hélène

    2018-05-01

    Immunoglobulins, such as immunoglobulin G (IgG), are of prime importance in the immune system. Polyclonal human IgG comprises four subclasses, of which IgG1 and IgG2 are the most abundant in healthy individuals. In an effort to develop an absolute MALDI-ToF-MS quantitative method for these subclasses and their Fc N-glycoforms, (glyco)peptides were synthesized using a solid-phase approach and used as internal standards. Tryptic digest glycopeptides from monoclonal IgG1 and IgG2 samples were first quantified using EEQYN(GlcNAc)STYR and EEQFN(GlcNAc)STFR standards, respectively. For IgG1, a similar glycopeptide where tyrosine (Y) was isotopically labelled was used to quantify monoclonal IgG1 that had been treated with the enzyme Endo-F2, i.e., yielding tryptic glycopeptide EEQYN(GlcNAc)STYR. The next step was to quantify single subclasses within polyclonal human IgG samples. Although ion abundances in the MALDI spectra often showed higher signals for IgG2 than IgG1, depending on the spotting solvent used, determination of amounts using the newly developed quantitative method allowed to obtain accurate concentrations where IgG1 species were predominant. It was observed that simultaneous analysis of IgG1 and IgG2 yielded non-quantitative results and that more success was obtained when subclasses were quantified one by one. More experiments served to assess the respective extraction and ionization efficiencies of EEQYNSTYR/EEQFNSTFR and EEQYN(GlcNAc)STYR/EEQFN(GlcNAc)STFR mixtures under different solvent and concentration conditions.

  20. Distinctive Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    The refugee, in India's Partition history, appears as an enigmatic construct - part pitiful, part heroic, though mostly shorn of agency - representing the surface of the human tragedy of Partition. Yet this archetype masks the undercurrent of social distinctions that produced hierarchies of post...

  1. Identification of the Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I-binding protein as a unique glycoform of the neural cell adhesion molecule in the olfactory sensory axons of adults rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestean, A; Krizbai, I; Böttcher, H; Párducz, A; Joó, F; Wolff, J R

    1995-08-04

    Histochemical localization of two lectins, Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) and Tetragonolobus purpureus (TPA), was studied in the olfactory bulb of adult rats. In contrast to TPA, UEA-I detected a fucosylated glycoprotein that is only present in the surface membranes of olfactory sensory cells including the whole course of their neurites up to the final arborization in glomeruli. Immunoblotting revealed that UEA-I binds specifically to a protein of 205 kDa, while TPA stains several other glycoproteins. Affinity chromatography with the use of a UEA-I column identified the 205 kDa protein as a glycoform of neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM), specific for the rat olfactory sensory nerves.

  2. Site-specific glycoprofiling of N-linked glycopeptides using MALDI-TOF MS: strong correlation between signal strength and glycoform quantities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Mysling, Simon; Højrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Site-specific glycoprofiling of N-linked glycopeptides using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an emerging technique, but its quantitative accuracy lacks documentation. Thus, a systematic study of widely different glycopeptides was perf......Site-specific glycoprofiling of N-linked glycopeptides using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an emerging technique, but its quantitative accuracy lacks documentation. Thus, a systematic study of widely different glycopeptides...... was performed to determine the relationship between the relative abundances of the individual glycoforms and the MALDI-TOF MS signal strength. Glycopeptides derived from glycoproteins containing neutral glycans (ribonuclease B, IgG, and ovalbumin) were initially profiled and yielded excellent and reproducible...... quantitation (correlation coefficient r = 0.9958, n = 5) when evaluated against a normal phase HPLC 2-AB glycan profile. Similarly, precise quantitation was observed for various forms of N-glycans (free, permethylated, and fluorescence-labeled) using MS. In addition, three different sialoglycopeptides from...

  3. Quantum Distinction: Quantum Distinctiones!

    OpenAIRE

    Zeps, Dainis

    2009-01-01

    10 pages; How many distinctions, in Latin, quantum distinctiones. We suggest approach of anthropic principle based on anthropic reference system which should be applied equally both in theoretical physics and in mathematics. We come to principle that within reference system of life subject of mathematics (that of thinking) should be equated with subject of physics (that of nature). For this reason we enter notions of series of distinctions, quantum distinction, and argue that quantum distinct...

  4. Tumor-associated Tn-MUC1 glycoform is internalized through the macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin and delivered to the HLA class I and II compartments in dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Napoletano, Chiara; Rughetti, Aurelia; Agervig Tarp, Mads P

    2007-01-01

    . This results in the expression of tumor-associated glycoforms and in MUC1 carrying the tumor-specific glycan Tn (GalNAcalpha1-O-Ser/Thr). Glycopeptides corresponding to three tandem repeats of MUC1, enzymatically glycosylated with 9 or 15 mol of GalNAc, were shown to specifically bind and to be internalized...... and ELISA done on subcellular fractions of iDCs showed that the Tn-MUC1 glycopeptides colocalized with HLA class I and II compartments after internalization. Importantly, although Tn-MUC1 recombinant protein was bound and internalized by MGL, the glycoprotein entered the HLA class II compartment......, but not the HLA class I pathway. These data indicate that MGL expressed on iDCs is an optimal receptor for the internalization of short GalNAcs carrying immunogens to be delivered into HLA class I and II compartments. Such glycopeptides therefore represent a new way of targeting the HLA class I and II pathways...

  5. Touch communicates distinct emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertenstein, Matthew J; Keltner, Dacher; App, Betsy; Bulleit, Brittany A; Jaskolka, Ariane R

    2006-08-01

    The study of emotional signaling has focused almost exclusively on the face and voice. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether people can identify emotions from the experience of being touched by a stranger on the arm (without seeing the touch). In the 3rd study, they investigated whether observers can identify emotions from watching someone being touched on the arm. Two kinds of evidence suggest that humans can communicate numerous emotions with touch. First, participants in the United States (Study 1) and Spain (Study 2) could decode anger, fear, disgust, love, gratitude, and sympathy via touch at much-better-than-chance levels. Second, fine-grained coding documented specific touch behaviors associated with different emotions. In Study 3, the authors provide evidence that participants can accurately decode distinct emotions by merely watching others communicate via touch. The findings are discussed in terms of their contributions to affective science and the evolution of altruism and cooperation. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Distinct Campylobacter jejuni capsular types are related to Guillain-Barré syndrome in The Netherlands and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infection with the intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni leads to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in around one in thousand cases. It is established that sialylated lipooligosaccharides (LOS) of C. jejuni are a crucial virulence factor in GBS development. Frequent detection of C. jejuni with sia...

  7. Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.

  8. Distinction

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Pr Serge Haroche La Médaille d’or 2009 du CNRS est décernée au Pr Serge Haroche, titulaire de la chaire de Physique quantique depuis 2001. Serge Haroche est spécialiste de physique atomique et d’optique quantique. Il est l’un des fondateurs de l’électrodynamique quantique en cavité, domaine qui permet, par des expériences conceptuellement simples, d’éclairer les fondements de la théorie quantique et de réaliser des prototypes de systèmes de traitement quantique de l’information. Serge Haroche...

  9. Defining poverty as distinctively human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.P. Lötter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available While it is relatively easy for most people to identify human beings suffering from poverty, it is rather more difficult to come to a proper understanding of poverty. In this article the author wants to deepen our understanding of poverty by interpreting the conventional definitions of poverty in a new light. The article starts with a defence of a claim that poverty is a concept uniquely applicable to humans. It then present a critical discussion of the distinction between absolute and relative poverty and it is then argued that a revision of this distinction can provide general standards applicable to humans everywhere.

  10. Presidential address: distinction or extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Barry D

    2008-10-01

    Despite its continuing scientific successes in imaging, radiology as a specialty is faced with a very difficult and competitive environment. Nonradiologists are more and more interested in vertically integrating imaging into their practices, while teleradiology and picture archiving and communication systems are resulting in the greater isolation of radiologists. Commoditization is a realistic and devastating threat to the survival and professionalism of the specialty. To remain viable as a specialty, radiologists must elevate their practice by subspecializing, becoming more involved with clinical care, and actively interacting with patients and referring clinicians. Distinction will prevent extinction.

  11. Social conformity despite individual preferences for distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E; Epstein, Joshua M

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that individual behaviours directed at the attainment of distinctiveness can in fact produce complete social conformity. We thus offer an unexpected generative mechanism for this central social phenomenon. Specifically, we establish that agents who have fixed needs to be distinct and adapt their positions to achieve distinctiveness goals, can nevertheless self-organize to a limiting state of absolute conformity. This seemingly paradoxical result is deduced formally from a small number of natural assumptions and is then explored at length computationally. Interesting departures from this conformity equilibrium are also possible, including divergence in positions. The effect of extremist minorities on these dynamics is discussed. A simple extension is then introduced, which allows the model to generate and maintain social diversity, including multimodal distinctiveness distributions. The paper contributes formal definitions, analytical deductions and counterintuitive findings to the literature on individual distinctiveness and social conformity.

  12. Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Chia-Ting; Parham, L. Diane

    2014-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis testing whether sensory questionnaire items represented distinct sensory system constructs found, using data from two age groups, that such constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data.

  13. Visual distinctiveness can enhance recency effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, B H; Neely, C B; LeCompte, D C

    1995-05-01

    Experimental efforts to meliorate the modality effect have included attempts to make the visual stimulus more distinctive. McDowd and Madigan (1991) failed to find an enhanced recency effect in serial recall when the last item was made more distinct in terms of its color. In an attempt to extend this finding, three experiments were conducted in which visual distinctiveness was manipulated in a different manner, by combining the dimensions of physical size and coloration (i.e., whether the stimuli were solid or outlined in relief). Contrary to previous findings, recency was enhanced when the size and coloration of the last item differed from the other items in the list, regardless of whether the "distinctive" item was larger or smaller than the remaining items. The findings are considered in light of other research that has failed to obtain a similar enhanced recency effect, and their implications for current theories of the modality effect are discussed.

  14. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manssour Habbash

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs (Preparatory Year Programs in Saudi Arabia. This study examines the distinctiveness with regard to the learning attitudes of Saudi students that are often cultivated by the culture and academic environment in their homeland. Employing an emic approach for collecting the required data an analysis was carried out in light of the other studies on ‘education’ in Saudi Arabia that have particular reference to the factors that can positively influence student motivation, student success and the academic environment. The findings were used in constructing the rationale behind such distinctiveness. Assuming that the outcome of the discussion on the findings of this exploration can be helpful for teachers in adapting their teaching methodology and improving their teacher efficacy in dealing with students both from the kingdom and in the kingdom, some recommendations are made. Keywords: China Distinctiveness, Saudi Arabian University context, Expatriate teachers’ perspective, Distinctiveness Theory

  15. On Hobbes’s distinction of accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupoli Agostino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An interpolation introduced by K. Schuhmann in his critical edition of "De corpore" (chap. VI, § 13 diametrically overturns the meaning of Hobbes’s doctrine of distinction of accidents in comparison with all previous editions. The article focuses on the complexity of this crucial juncture in "De corpore" argument on which depends the interpretation of Hobbes’s whole conception of science. It discusses the reasons pro and contra Schuhmann’s interpolation and concludes against it, because it is not compatible with the rationale underlying the complex architecture of "De corpore", which involves a symmetry between the ‘logical’ distinction of accidents and the ‘metaphysical’ distinction of phantasms.

  16. What makes health promotion research distinct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, James; Warwick-Booth, Louise; South, Jane; Cross, Ruth

    2018-02-01

    There have been concerns about the decline of health promotion as a practice and discipline and, alongside this, calls for a clearer articulation of health promotion research and what, if anything, makes it distinct. This discussion paper, based on a review of the literature, the authors' own experiences in the field, and a workshop delivered by two of the authors at the 8th Nordic Health Promotion Conference, seeks to state the reasons why health promotion research is distinctive. While by no means exhaustive, the paper suggests four distinctive features. The paper hopes to be a catalyst to enable health promotion researchers to be explicit in their practice and to begin the process of developing an agreed set of research principles.

  17. Intergroup Leadership Across Distinct Subgroups and Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, David E; Hogg, Michael A; van Knippenberg, Daan

    2018-03-01

    Resolving intergroup conflict is a significant and often arduous leadership challenge, yet existing theory and research rarely, if ever, discuss or examine this situation. Leaders confront a significant challenge when they provide leadership across deep divisions between distinct subgroups defined by self-contained identities-The challenge is to avoid provoking subgroup identity distinctiveness threat. Drawing on intergroup leadership theory, three studies were conducted to test the core hypothesis that, where identity threat exists, leaders promoting an intergroup relational identity will be better evaluated and are more effective than leaders promoting a collective identity; in the absence of threat, leaders promoting a collective identity will prevail. Studies 1 and 2 ( N = 170; N = 120) supported this general proposition. Study 3 ( N = 136) extended these findings, showing that leaders promoting an intergroup relational identity, but not a collective identity, improved intergroup attitudes when participants experienced an identity distinctiveness threat.

  18. Distinctive Dynamic Capabilities for New Business Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenø, Axel; Enkel, Ellen; Mezger, Florian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation in established companies. We argue that these are very different from those for managing incremental innovation within a company's core business. We also propose that such capabilities are needed in both slow...... and fast-paced industries, and that similarities exist across industries. Hence, the study contributes to dynamic capabilities literature by: 1) identifying the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation; 2) shifting focus away from dynamic capabilities in environments characterised by high...... clock-speed and uncertainty towards considering dynamic capabilities for the purpose of developing new businesses, which also implies a high degree of uncertainty. Based on interviews with 33 companies, we identify distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation, find that dynamic...

  19. Fermionic bound states in distinct kinklike backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Mohammadi, A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    This work deals with fermions in the background of distinct localized structures in the two-dimensional spacetime. Although the structures have a similar topological character, which is responsible for the appearance of fractionally charged excitations, we want to investigate how the geometric deformations that appear in the localized structures contribute to the change in the physical properties of the fermionic bound states. We investigate the two-kink and compact kinklike backgrounds, and we consider two distinct boson-fermion interactions, one motivated by supersymmetry and the other described by the standard Yukawa coupling. (orig.)

  20. Common and distinct components in data fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilde, Age Klaas; Mage, Ingrid; Næs, Tormod

    2016-01-01

    and understanding their relative merits. This paper provides a unifying framework for this subfield of data fusion by using rigorous arguments from linear algebra. The most frequently used methods for distinguishing common and distinct components are explained in this framework and some practical examples are given...

  1. Knowledge Affords Distinctive Processing in Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R. Reed; Rawson, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of knowledge on memory generally is processing. However, both conceptual and empirical reasons exist to suspect that the organizational account is incomplete. Recently a revised version of that account has been proposed under the rubric of distinctiveness theory (Rawson & Van Overschelde, 2008). The goal of the experiments reported…

  2. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbash, Manssour; Idapalapati, Srinivasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs…

  3. Embarrassment: its distinct form and appeasement functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltner, D; Buswell, B N

    1997-11-01

    The authors address 2 questions about embarrassment. First, Is embarrassment a distinct emotion? The evidence indicates that the antecedents, experience, and display of embarrassment, and to a limited extent its autonomic physiology, are distinct from shame, guilt, and amusement and share the dynamic, temporal characteristics of emotion. Second, What are the theoretical accounts of embarrassment? Three accounts focus on the causes of embarrassment, positioning that it follows the loss of self-esteem, concern for others' evaluations, or absence of scripts to guide interactions. A fourth account focuses on the effects of the remedial actions of embarrassment, which correct preceding transgressions. A fifth account focuses on the functional parallels between embarrassment and nonhuman appeasement. The discussion focuses on unanswered questions about embarrassment.

  4. Distinctive skeletal dysplasia in Cockayne syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silengo, M.C.; Franceschini, P.; Bianco, R.; Biagioli, M.; Pastorin, L.; Vista, N.; Baldassar, A.; Benso, L.

    1986-01-01

    Cockayne syndrom is a well-known autosomal recessive form of dwarfism with senile-like appearance. Skeletal changes such as flattening of vertebral bodies, ivory epiphyses and thickening of cranial vault, have been observed in some patients with this condition. We describe here a 5.5-year-old girl with the typical clinical signs of Cockayne syndrome and a distinctive form of bone dysplasia with major involvment of the spine. (orig.)

  5. Distinctive skeletal dysplasia in Cockayne syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silengo, M.C.; Franceschini, P.; Bianco, R.; Biagioli, M.; Pastorin, L.; Vista, N.; Baldassar, A.; Benso, L.

    1986-03-01

    Cockayne syndrome is a well-known autosomal recessive form of dwarfism with senile-like appearance. Skeletal changes such as flattening of vertebral bodies, ivory epiphyses and thickening of cranial vault, have been observed in some patients with this condition. We describe here a 5.5-year-old girl with the typical clinical signs of Cockayne syndrome and a distinctive form of bone dysplasia with major involvement of the spine.

  6. Army nurses in wartime: distinction and pride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, L P

    1996-08-01

    Nurses have served with distinction in wartime since Florence Nightingale went to the Crimea. Women often accompanied their husbands to battle during the Revolutionary and Civil Wars, caring for the sick and wounded. Although not officially given officer status until 1920, Army nurses served in the Spanish-American War and World War I. As officers, thousands of nurses served in subsequent wars, distinguishing themselves by their heroism, devotion to duty, and sheer tenacity of spirit.

  7. A distinction of two discourses concerning wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    2017-01-01

    and behavioral mental health interventions, while the latter defines wellbeing in positive terms with a focus on wellbeing as the result of learning and with pedagogical interventions that only indirectly can support the individual’s learning activity. The former sees wellbeing as the result of a “wellbeing cure......The article concerns the current discourses concerning well-being with the point that it is important to make a distinction between a healthcare oriented discourse and a learning oriented discourse. The former defines wellbeing in negative terms and looks at causally oriented aspects of wellbeing......”, while the latter sees wellbeing as the result of wellbeing learning processes....

  8. Approaching the Distinction between Intuition and Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonglu; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intuition and insight share similar cognitive and neural basis. Though, there are still some essential differences between the two. Here in this short review, we discriminated between intuition, and insight in two aspects. First, intuition, and insight are toward different aspects of information processing. Whereas intuition involves judgment about "yes or no," insight is related to "what" is the solution. Second, tacit knowledge play different roles in between intuition and insight. On the one hand, tacit knowledge is conducive to intuitive judgment. On the other hand, tacit knowledge may first impede but later facilitate insight occurrence. Furthermore, we share theoretical, and methodological views on how to access the distinction between intuition and insight.

  9. The neural signatures of distinct psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Justin M; Hyde, Luke W; Neumann, Craig S; Viding, Essi; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that psychopathy may be associated with dysfunction in the neural circuitry supporting both threat- and reward-related processes. However, these studies have involved small samples and often focused on extreme groups. Thus, it is unclear to what extent current findings may generalize to psychopathic traits in the general population. Furthermore, no studies have systematically and simultaneously assessed associations between distinct psychopathy facets and both threat- and reward-related brain function in the same sample of participants. Here, we examined the relationship between threat-related amygdala reactivity and reward-related ventral striatum (VS) reactivity and variation in four facets of self-reported psychopathy in a sample of 200 young adults. Path models indicated that amygdala reactivity to fearful facial expressions is negatively associated with the interpersonal facet of psychopathy, whereas amygdala reactivity to angry facial expressions is positively associated with the lifestyle facet. Furthermore, these models revealed that differential VS reactivity to positive versus negative feedback is negatively associated with the lifestyle facet. There was suggestive evidence for gender-specific patterns of association between brain function and psychopathy facets. Our findings are the first to document differential associations between both threat- and reward-related neural processes and distinct facets of psychopathy and thus provide a more comprehensive picture of the pattern of neural vulnerabilities that may predispose to maladaptive outcomes associated with psychopathy.

  10. The Distinction Between Curative and Assistive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramondo, Joseph A

    2018-05-01

    Disability activists have sometimes claimed their disability has actually increased their well-being. Some even say they would reject a cure to keep these gains. Yet, these same activists often simultaneously propose improvements to the quality and accessibility of assistive technology. However, for any argument favoring assistive over curative technology (or vice versa) to work, there must be a coherent distinction between the two. This line is already vague and will become even less clear with the emergence of novel technologies. This paper asks and tries to answer the question: what is it about the paradigmatic examples of curative and assistive technologies that make them paradigmatic and how can these defining features help us clarify the hard cases? This analysis will begin with an argument that, while the common views of this distinction adequately explain the paradigmatic cases, they fail to accurately pick out the relevant features of those technologies that make them paradigmatic and to provide adequate guidance for parsing the hard cases. Instead, it will be claimed that these categories of curative or assistive technologies are defined by the role the technologies play in establishing a person's relational narrative identity as a member of one of two social groups: disabled people or non-disabled people.

  11. Corticosteroid receptors adopt distinct cyclical transcriptional signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Billan, Florian; Amazit, Larbi; Bleakley, Kevin; Xue, Qiong-Yao; Pussard, Eric; Lhadj, Christophe; Kolkhof, Peter; Viengchareun, Say; Fagart, Jérôme; Lombès, Marc

    2018-05-07

    Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are two closely related hormone-activated transcription factors that regulate major pathophysiologic functions. High homology between these receptors accounts for the crossbinding of their corresponding ligands, MR being activated by both aldosterone and cortisol and GR essentially activated by cortisol. Their coexpression and ability to bind similar DNA motifs highlight the need to investigate their respective contributions to overall corticosteroid signaling. Here, we decipher the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that underlie selective effects of MRs and GRs on shared genomic targets in a human renal cellular model. Kinetic, serial, and sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation approaches were performed on the period circadian protein 1 ( PER1) target gene, providing evidence that both receptors dynamically and cyclically interact at the same target promoter in a specific and distinct transcriptional signature. During this process, both receptors regulate PER1 gene by binding as homo- or heterodimers to the same promoter region. Our results suggest a novel level of MR-GR target gene regulation, which should be considered for a better and integrated understanding of corticosteroid-related pathophysiology.-Le Billan, F., Amazit, L., Bleakley, K., Xue, Q.-Y., Pussard, E., Lhadj, C., Kolkhof, P., Viengchareun, S., Fagart, J., Lombès, M. Corticosteroid receptors adopt distinct cyclical transcriptional signatures.

  12. Distinct types of eigenvector localization in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Castellano, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The spectral properties of the adjacency matrix provide a trove of information about the structure and function of complex networks. In particular, the largest eigenvalue and its associated principal eigenvector are crucial in the understanding of nodes’ centrality and the unfolding of dynamical processes. Here we show that two distinct types of localization of the principal eigenvector may occur in heterogeneous networks. For synthetic networks with degree distribution P(q) ~ q-γ, localization occurs on the largest hub if γ > 5/2 for γ < 5/2 a new type of localization arises on a mesoscopic subgraph associated with the shell with the largest index in the K-core decomposition. Similar evidence for the existence of distinct localization modes is found in the analysis of real-world networks. Our results open a new perspective on dynamical processes on networks and on a recently proposed alternative measure of node centrality based on the non-backtracking matrix.

  13. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  14. 10 distinct stellar populations in omega Centauri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Andrea; Anderson, Jay; Bedin, Luigi R.; Cool, Adrienne; King, Ivan R.; van der marel, roeland p.

    2015-08-01

    We are constructing the most comprehensive catalog of photometry and proper motions ever assembled for a globular cluster. The core of omega Centauri has been imaged over 600 times through WFC3’s UVIS and IR channels for the purposes of detector calibration. There exist ~30 exposures each for 26 filters, stretching uniformly from F225W in the UV to F160W in the infrared. Furthermore, the 12-year baseline between this data and a 2002 ACS survey will more than triple both the accuracy and the number of well-measured stars compared to previous studies.This totally unprecedented complete spectral coverage for over 400,000 stars, from the red-giant branch down to the white dwarfs, provides the best chance yet to understand the multiple-population phenomenon in any globular cluster. A preliminary analysis of the color-magnitude diagrams in different bands already allows us to identify 10 distinct sequences.

  15. Anticancer properties of distinct antimalarial drug classes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen

    Full Text Available We have tested five distinct classes of established and experimental antimalarial drugs for their anticancer potential, using a panel of 91 human cancer lines. Three classes of drugs: artemisinins, synthetic peroxides and DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors effected potent inhibition of proliferation with IC50s in the nM- low µM range, whereas a DHODH (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and a putative kinase inhibitor displayed no activity. Furthermore, significant synergies were identified with erlotinib, imatinib, cisplatin, dasatinib and vincristine. Cluster analysis of the antimalarials based on their differential inhibition of the various cancer lines clearly segregated the synthetic peroxides OZ277 and OZ439 from the artemisinin cluster that included artesunate, dihydroartemisinin and artemisone, and from the DHFR inhibitors pyrimethamine and P218 (a parasite DHFR inhibitor, emphasizing their shared mode of action. In order to further understand the basis of the selectivity of these compounds against different cancers, microarray-based gene expression data for 85 of the used cell lines were generated. For each compound, distinct sets of genes were identified whose expression significantly correlated with compound sensitivity. Several of the antimalarials tested in this study have well-established and excellent safety profiles with a plasma exposure, when conservatively used in malaria, that is well above the IC50s that we identified in this study. Given their unique mode of action and potential for unique synergies with established anticancer drugs, our results provide a strong basis to further explore the potential application of these compounds in cancer in pre-clinical or and clinical settings.

  16. Anticancer Properties of Distinct Antimalarial Drug Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob; Guy, R. Kiplin; Chibale, Kelly; Haynes, Richard K.; Peitz, Ingmar; Kelter, Gerhard; Phillips, Margaret A.; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Wells, Timothy N. C.

    2013-01-01

    We have tested five distinct classes of established and experimental antimalarial drugs for their anticancer potential, using a panel of 91 human cancer lines. Three classes of drugs: artemisinins, synthetic peroxides and DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase) inhibitors effected potent inhibition of proliferation with IC50s in the nM- low µM range, whereas a DHODH (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase) and a putative kinase inhibitor displayed no activity. Furthermore, significant synergies were identified with erlotinib, imatinib, cisplatin, dasatinib and vincristine. Cluster analysis of the antimalarials based on their differential inhibition of the various cancer lines clearly segregated the synthetic peroxides OZ277 and OZ439 from the artemisinin cluster that included artesunate, dihydroartemisinin and artemisone, and from the DHFR inhibitors pyrimethamine and P218 (a parasite DHFR inhibitor), emphasizing their shared mode of action. In order to further understand the basis of the selectivity of these compounds against different cancers, microarray-based gene expression data for 85 of the used cell lines were generated. For each compound, distinct sets of genes were identified whose expression significantly correlated with compound sensitivity. Several of the antimalarials tested in this study have well-established and excellent safety profiles with a plasma exposure, when conservatively used in malaria, that is well above the IC50s that we identified in this study. Given their unique mode of action and potential for unique synergies with established anticancer drugs, our results provide a strong basis to further explore the potential application of these compounds in cancer in pre-clinical or and clinical settings. PMID:24391728

  17. Neurophysiological Distinction between Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathalon, Daniel H.; Hoffman, Ralph E.; Watson, Todd D.; Miller, Ryan M.; Roach, Brian J.; Ford, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Schizoaffective disorder (SA) is distinguished from schizophrenia (SZ) based on the presence of prominent mood symptoms over the illness course. Despite this clinical distinction, SA and SZ patients are often combined in research studies, in part because data supporting a distinct pathophysiological boundary between the disorders are lacking. Indeed, few studies have addressed whether neurobiological abnormalities associated with SZ, such as the widely replicated reduction and delay of the P300 event-related potential (ERP), are also present in SA. Scalp EEG was acquired from patients with DSM-IV SA (n = 15) or SZ (n = 22), as well as healthy controls (HC; n = 22) to assess the P300 elicited by infrequent target (15%) and task-irrelevant distractor (15%) stimuli in separate auditory and visual ”oddball” tasks. P300 amplitude was reduced and delayed in SZ, relative to HC, consistent with prior studies. These SZ abnormalities did not interact with stimulus type (target vs. task-irrelevant distractor) or modality (auditory vs. visual). Across sensory modality and stimulus type, SA patients exhibited normal P300 amplitudes (significantly larger than SZ patients and indistinguishable from HC). However, P300 latency and reaction time were both equivalently delayed in SZ and SA patients, relative to HC. P300 differences between SA and SZ patients could not be accounted for by variation in symptom severity, socio-economic status, education, or illness duration. Although both groups show similar deficits in processing speed, SA patients do not exhibit the P300 amplitude deficits evident in SZ, consistent with an underlying pathophysiological boundary between these disorders. PMID:20140266

  18. The pursuit of optimal distinctiveness and consumer preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lingnan; Cong, Feng; Liu, Yanping; Zhou, Xinyue

    2010-10-01

    This article investigates the effect of optimal distinctiveness on consumer product consumption. The authors argue that consumers acquire and display material possessions to restore their optimal levels of distinctiveness. Results showed that placing consumers in a state of low distinctiveness increased desire to acquire distinctive products, whereas perceptions of high distinctiveness reduced desire to acquire such products. Consumers' desire for distinctiveness-related products held true for various consumer choices, including willingness to pay more for limited-edition products and preference for unpopular gifts. This finding has implications for understanding consumer choice in expressing identity. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  19. Endpoint distinctiveness facilitates analogical mapping in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Cook, Robert G

    2015-03-01

    Analogical thinking necessitates mapping shared relations across two separate domains. We investigated whether pigeons could learn faster with ordinal mapping of relations across two physical dimensions (circle size & choice spatial position) relative to random mapping of these relations. Pigeons were trained to relate six circular samples of different sizes to horizontally positioned choice locations in a six alternative matching-to-sample task. Three pigeons were trained in a mapped condition in which circle size mapped directly onto choice spatial position. Three other pigeons were trained in a random condition in which the relations between size and choice position were arbitrarily assigned. The mapped group showed an advantage over the random group in acquiring this task. In a subsequent second phase, relations between the dimensions were ordinally reversed for the mapped group and re-randomized for the random group. There was no difference in how quickly matching accuracy re-emerged in the two groups, although the mapped group eventually performed more accurately. Analyses suggested this mapped advantage was likely due to endpoint distinctiveness and the benefits of proximity errors during choice responding rather than a conceptual or relational advantage attributable to the common or ordinal mapping of the two dimensions. This potential difficulty in mapping relations across dimensions may limit the pigeons' capacity for more advanced types of analogical reasoning. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Endpoint Distinctiveness Facilitates Analogical Mapping in Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Cook, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Analogical thinking necessitates mapping shared relations across two separate domains. We investigated whether pigeons could learn faster with ordinal mapping of relations across two physical dimensions (circle size & choice spatial position) relative to random mapping of these relations. Pigeons were trained to relate six circular samples of different sizes to horizontally positioned choice locations in a six alternative matching-to-sample task. Three pigeons were trained in a mapped condition in which circle size mapped directly onto choice spatial position. Three other pigeons were trained in a random condition in which the relations between size and choice position were arbitrarily assigned. The mapped group showed an advantage over the random group in acquiring this task. In a subsequent second phase, reassignment, relations between the dimensions were ordinally reversed for the mapped group and re-randomized for the random group. There was no difference in how quickly matching accuracy re-emerged in the two groups, although the mapped group eventually performed more accurately. Analyses suggested this mapped advantage was likely due endpoint distinctiveness and the benefits of proximity errors during choice responding rather than a conceptual or relational advantage attributable to the common or ordinal map of the two dimensions. This potential difficulty in mapping relations across dimensions may limit the pigeons’ capacity for more advanced types of analogical reasoning. PMID:25447511

  1. Reservoir floodplains support distinct fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Wigen, S. L.; Dagel, Jonah D.

    2014-01-01

    Reservoirs constructed on floodplain rivers are unique because the upper reaches of the impoundment may include extensive floodplain environments. Moreover, reservoirs that experience large periodic water level fluctuations as part of their operational objectives seasonally inundate and dewater floodplains in their upper reaches, partly mimicking natural inundations of river floodplains. In four flood control reservoirs in Mississippi, USA, we explored the dynamics of connectivity between reservoirs and adjacent floodplains and the characteristics of fish assemblages that develop in reservoir floodplains relative to those that develop in reservoir bays. Although fish species richness in floodplains and bays were similar, species composition differed. Floodplains emphasized fish species largely associated with backwater shallow environments, often resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Conversely, dominant species in bays represented mainly generalists that benefit from the continuous connectivity between the bay and the main reservoir. Floodplains in the study reservoirs provided desirable vegetated habitats at lower water level elevations, earlier in the year, and more frequently than in bays. Inundating dense vegetation in bays requires raising reservoir water levels above the levels required to reach floodplains. Therefore, aside from promoting distinct fish assemblages within reservoirs and helping promote diversity in regulated rivers, reservoir floodplains are valued because they can provide suitable vegetated habitats for fish species at elevations below the normal pool, precluding the need to annually flood upland vegetation that would inevitably be impaired by regular flooding. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Health and morality: two conceptually distinct categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2012-03-01

    When seeing immoral actions, criminal or not, we sometimes deem the people who perform them unhealthy. This is especially so if the actions are of a serious nature, e.g. involving murder, assault, or rape. We turn our moral evaluation into an evaluation about health and illness. This tendency is partly supported by some diagnoses found in the DMS-IV, such as Antisocial personality disorder, and the ICD-10, such as Dissocial personality disorder. The aim of the paper is to answer the question: How analytically sound is the inclusion of morality into a theory of health? The holistic theory of Lennart Nordenfelt is used as a starting point, and it is used as an example of a theory where morality and health are conceptually distinct categories. Several versions of a pluralistic holistic theory are then discussed in order to see if, and if so, how, morality can be conceptually related to health. It is concluded that moral abilities (and dispositions) can be seen as being part of the individual's health. It is harder to incorporate moral virtues and moral actions into such a theory. However, if immoral actions "cluster" in an individual, and are of a severe kind, causing serious harm to other people, it is more likely that the person, for those reasons only, be deemed unhealthy.

  3. Are empathy and concern psychologically distinct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Matthew R; Amir, Dorsa; Bloom, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Researchers have long been interested in the relationship between feeling what you believe others feel-often described as empathy-and caring about the welfare of others-often described as compassion or concern. Many propose that empathy is a prerequisite for concern and is therefore the ultimate motivator of prosocial actions. To assess this hypothesis, the authors developed the Empathy Index, which consists of 2 novel scales, and explored their relationship to a measure of concern as well as to measures of cooperative and altruistic behavior. A series of factor analyses reveal that empathy and concern consistently load on different factors. Furthermore, they show that empathy and concern motivate different behaviors: concern for others is a uniquely positive predictor of prosocial action whereas empathy is either not predictive or negatively predictive of prosocial actions. Together these studies suggest that empathy and concern are psychologically distinct and empathy plays a more limited role in our moral lives than many believe. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Medical student empathy: interpersonal distinctions and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kevin D; Foster, Penni Smith

    2016-12-01

    Attention to interpersonal behaviors, communication, and relational factors is taking on increasing importance in medical education. Medical student empathy is one aspect of the physician-patient relationship that is often involved in beneficial interactions leading to improved clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. As an interpersonal quality, empathy is a social behavior well-suited to be examined from an interpersonal perspective. The present study used the interpersonal theory of clinical, personality, and social psychology to examine the construct of empathy and theorize about likely interpersonal correlates. One hundred and sixty-three students from an academic health center in the southeastern United States participated in this study. The medical student version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy was used to assess empathy and its factors: Perspective taking, compassionate care, and walking in the patient's shoes. Interpersonal assessments included the International Personality Item Pool-Interpersonal Circumplex, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Distinct interpersonal styles and correlates emerged among empathy and its factors. While all factors of empathy were related to interpersonal warmth, perspective taking and compassionate care were also associated with submissiveness. Of note, only walking in the patient's shoes was correlated with both social support and less loneliness. These findings are discussed in light of interpersonal theory with particular attention paid to the implications for medical education and professional development.

  5. Distinctiveness of Initial Preform Properties in Renovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies of renovation form a special group of resource-and energy saving technological processes as they are, by definition, already aimed either at increasing resource of the objects satisfying needs of the society life support and practical activities in different spheres, or at extension of their life cycle including a reuse of material from which they are made. Renovation is used where there is a material object, which does not meet requirements of standard or technical documentation.A characteristic feature of the renovation technologies is lack of procedure for a choice of the preform as in all cases an initial preform is the renovation object itself. Thus each object, acting as an initial preform, has the exclusively individual properties, including technological ones.Distinctiveness of renovation object properties is correlated, first of all, with the personified conditions of formation and (or change of condition of their properties in time at all stages of life cycle (production – transportation – warehousing – operation starting with a preform material when manufacturing under all types of loadings (technological and operational. As a result each object forms its "history" of loading and damages and, therefore, its information base which has to consider the phenomenon of “heredity of life cycle”. The term "heredity of life cycle" characterizes information support of object at any moment under review, including both information of technological inheritance, and data of operational heredity.As a result at every moment of time we have a product with a set of new, uncertain properties caused by the phenomena of heredity of life cycle. These properties are individual for each object to be renovated, which changed its status for the status of initial preform for different types of renovation technologies. This is one of the most important distinctions of renovation technology from the technology used to manufacture a new

  6. Distinct genetic alterations in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ashktorab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colon cancer (CRC development often includes chromosomal instability (CIN leading to amplifications and deletions of large DNA segments. Epidemiological, clinical, and cytogenetic studies showed that there are considerable differences between CRC tumors from African Americans (AAs and Caucasian patients. In this study, we determined genomic copy number aberrations in sporadic CRC tumors from AAs, in order to investigate possible explanations for the observed disparities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied genome-wide array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH using a 105k chip to identify copy number aberrations in samples from 15 AAs. In addition, we did a population comparative analysis with aCGH data in Caucasians as well as with a widely publicized list of colon cancer genes (CAN genes. There was an average of 20 aberrations per patient with more amplifications than deletions. Analysis of DNA copy number of frequently altered chromosomes revealed that deletions occurred primarily in chromosomes 4, 8 and 18. Chromosomal duplications occurred in more than 50% of cases on chromosomes 7, 8, 13, 20 and X. The CIN profile showed some differences when compared to Caucasian alterations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chromosome X amplification in male patients and chromosomes 4, 8 and 18 deletions were prominent aberrations in AAs. Some CAN genes were altered at high frequencies in AAs with EXOC4, EPHB6, GNAS, MLL3 and TBX22 as the most frequently deleted genes and HAPLN1, ADAM29, SMAD2 and SMAD4 as the most frequently amplified genes. The observed CIN may play a distinctive role in CRC in AAs.

  7. Municipal solid waste landfills harbor distinct microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Blake W.; Lyles, Christopher N.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Stevenson, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its “built environments.” Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2) and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of “landfill microbiomes” and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity.

  8. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Harbor Distinct Microbiomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Warren Stamps

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its built environments. Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2 and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of landfill microbiomes and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity.

  9. Distinction between epigenic and hypogenic maze caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Arthur N.

    2011-11-01

    Certain caves formed by dissolution of bedrock have maze patterns composed of closed loops in which many intersecting fractures or pores have enlarged simultaneously. Their origin can be epigenic (by shallow circulation of meteoric groundwater) or hypogenic (by rising groundwater or production of deep-seated solutional aggressiveness). Epigenic mazes form by diffuse infiltration through a permeable insoluble caprock or by floodwater supplied by sinking streams. Most hypogenic caves involve deep sources of aggressiveness. Transverse hypogenic cave origin is a recently proposed concept in which groundwater of mainly meteoric origin rises across strata in the distal portions of large flow systems, to form mazes in soluble rock sandwiched between permeable but insoluble strata. The distinction between maze types is debated and is usually based on examination of diagnostic cave features and relation of caves to their regional setting. In this paper, the principles of mass transfer are applied to clarify the limits of each model, to show how cave origin is related to groundwater discharge, dissolution rate, and time. The results show that diffuse infiltration and floodwater can each form maze caves at geologically feasible rates (typically within 500 ka). Transverse hypogenic mazes in limestone, to enlarge significantly within 1 Ma, require an unusually high permeability of the non-carbonate beds (generally ≥ 10-4 cm/s), large discharge, and calcite saturation no greater than 90%, which is rare in deep diffuse flow in sedimentary rocks. Deep sources of aggressiveness are usually required. The origin of caves by transverse hypogenic flow is much more favorable in evaporite rocks than in carbonate rocks.

  10. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-03-18

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards.

  11. Two distinct origins for Archean greenstone belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithies, R. Hugh; Ivanic, Tim J.; Lowrey, Jack R.; Morris, Paul A.; Barnes, Stephen J.; Wyche, Stephen; Lu, Yong-Jun

    2018-04-01

    Applying the Th/Yb-Nb/Yb plot of Pearce (2008) to the well-studied Archean greenstone sequences of Western Australia shows that individual volcanic sequences evolved through one of two distinct processes reflecting different modes of crust-mantle interaction. In the Yilgarn Craton, the volcanic stratigraphy of the 2.99-2.71 Ga Youanmi Terrane mainly evolved through processes leading to Th/Yb-Nb/Yb trends with a narrow range of Th/Nb ('constant-Th/Nb' greenstones). In contrast, the 2.71-2.66 Ga volcanic stratigraphy of the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane evolved through processes leading to Th/Yb-Nb/Yb trends showing a continuous range in Th/Nb ('variable-Th/Nb' greenstones). Greenstone sequences of the Pilbara Craton show a similar evolution, with constant-Th/Nb greenstone evolution between 3.13 and 2.95 Ga and variable-Th/Nb greenstone evolution between 3.49 and 3.23 Ga and between 2.77 and 2.68 Ga. The variable-Th/Nb trends dominate greenstone sequences in Australia and worldwide, and are temporally associated with peaks in granite magmatism, which promoted crustal preservation. The increasing Th/Nb in basalts correlates with decreasing εNd, reflecting variable amounts of crustal assimilation during emplacement of mantle-derived magmas. These greenstones are typically accompanied in the early stages by komatiite, and can probably be linked to mantle plume activity. Thus, regions such as the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane simply developed as plume-related rifts over existing granite-greenstone crust - in this case the Youanmi Terrane. Their Th/Nb trends are difficult to reconcile with modern-style subduction processes. The constant-Th/Nb trends may reflect derivation from a mantle source already with a high and constant Th/Nb ratio. This, and a lithological association including boninite-like lavas, basalts, and calc-alkaline andesites, all within a narrow Th/Nb range, resembles compositions typical of modern-style subduction settings. These greenstones are very

  12. NSAID gastropathy and enteropathy: distinct pathogenesis likely necessitates distinct prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John L

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the ability of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to cause ulceration in the stomach and proximal duodenum are well understood, and this injury can largely be prevented through suppression of gastric acid secretion (mainly with proton pump inhibitors). In contrast, the pathogenesis of small intestinal injury induced by NSAIDs is less well understood, involving more complex mechanisms than those in the stomach and proximal duodenum. There is clear evidence for important contributions to NSAID enteropathy of enteric bacteria, bile and enterohepatic recirculation of the NSAID. There is no evidence that suppression of gastric acid secretion will reduce the incidence or severity of NSAID enteropathy. Indeed, clinical data suggest little, if any, benefit. Animal studies suggest a significant exacerbation of NSAID enteropathy when proton pump inhibitors are co-administered with the NSAID. This worsening of damage appears to be linked to changes in the number and types of bacteria in the small intestine during proton pump inhibitor therapy. The distinct mechanisms of NSAID-induced injury in the stomach/proximal duodenum versus the more distal small intestine likely dictate distinct strategies for prevention. © 2011 The Author. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Creating fair lineups for suspects with distinctive features

    OpenAIRE

    Zarkadi, Theodora; Wade, Kimberley A.; Stewart, Neil

    2009-01-01

    In their descriptions, eyewitnesses often refer to a culprit's distinctive facial features. However, in a police lineup, selecting the only member with the described distinctive feature is unfair to the suspect and provides the police with little further information. For fair and informative lineups, the distinctive feature should be either replicated across foils or concealed on the target. In the present experiments, replication produced more correct identifications in target-present lineup...

  14. Identity-specific motivation: How distinct identities direct self-regulation across distinct situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browman, Alexander S; Destin, Mesmin; Molden, Daniel C

    2017-12-01

    Research on self-regulation has traditionally emphasized that people's thoughts and actions are guided by either (a) domain-general motivations that emerge from a cumulative history of life experiences, or (b) situation-specific motivations that emerge in immediate response to the incentives present in a particular context. However, more recent studies have illustrated the importance of understanding the interplay between such domain-general and situation-specific motivations across the types of contexts people regularly encounter. The present research, therefore, expands existing perspectives on self-regulation by investigating how people's identities -the internalized roles, relationships, and social group memberships that define who they are-systemically guide when and how different domain-general motivations are activated within specific types of situations. Using the motivational framework described by regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997), Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that people indeed have distinct, identity-specific motivations that uniquely influence their current self-regulation when such identities are active. Studies 3-5 then begin to explore how identity-specific motivations are situated within people's larger self-concept. Studies 3a and 3b demonstrate that the less compatible people's specific identities, the more distinct are the motivations connected to those identities. Studies 4-5 then provide some initial, suggestive evidence that identity-specific motivations are not a separate, superordinate feature of people's identities that then alter how they pursue any subordinate, identity-relevant traits, but instead that such motivations emerge from the cumulative motivational significance of the subordinate traits to which the identities themselves become attached. Implications for understanding the role of the self-concept in self-regulation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Distinctiveness of Encoding and Memory for Learning Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, John A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A distinctiveness of encoding hypothesis, as applied to the facilitative effects that higher order objectives have on readers' prose recall, was evaluated in three experiments. Results suggest that distinctiveness of encoding may offer a theoretical basis for the effects of adjunct aids as well as a guide to their construction. (Author/GK)

  16. A Novel Algorithm for the Generation of Distinct Kinematic Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medapati, Sreenivasa Reddy; Kuchibhotla, Mallikarjuna Rao; Annambhotla, Balaji Srinivasa Rao

    2016-07-01

    Generation of distinct kinematic chains is an important topic in the design of mechanisms for various industrial applications i.e., robotic manipulator, tractor, crane etc. Many researchers have intently focused on this area and explained various processes of generating distinct kinematic chains which are laborious and complex. It is desirable to enumerate the kinematic chains systematically to know the inherent characteristics of a chain related to its structure so that all the distinct chains can be analyzed in depth, prior to the selection of a chain for a purpose. This paper proposes a novel and simple method with set of rules defined to eliminate isomorphic kinematic chains generating distinct kinematic chains. Also, this method simplifies the process of generating distinct kinematic chains even at higher levels i.e., 10-link, 11-link with single and multiple degree of freedom.

  17. Tagging like Humans: Diverse and Distinct Image Annotation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2018-03-31

    In this work we propose a new automatic image annotation model, dubbed {\\\\bf diverse and distinct image annotation} (D2IA). The generative model D2IA is inspired by the ensemble of human annotations, which create semantically relevant, yet distinct and diverse tags. In D2IA, we generate a relevant and distinct tag subset, in which the tags are relevant to the image contents and semantically distinct to each other, using sequential sampling from a determinantal point process (DPP) model. Multiple such tag subsets that cover diverse semantic aspects or diverse semantic levels of the image contents are generated by randomly perturbing the DPP sampling process. We leverage a generative adversarial network (GAN) model to train D2IA. Extensive experiments including quantitative and qualitative comparisons, as well as human subject studies, on two benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed model can produce more diverse and distinct tags than the state-of-the-arts.

  18. Many-Objective Distinct Candidates Optimization using Differential Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Peter; Ursem, Rasmus Kjær

    2010-01-01

    for each objective. The Many-Objective Distinct Candidates Optimization using Differential Evolution (MODCODE) algorithm takes a novel approach by focusing search using a user-defined number of subpopulations each returning a distinct optimal solution within the preferred region of interest. In this paper......, we present the novel MODCODE algorithm incorporating the ROD measure to measure and control candidate distinctiveness. MODCODE is tested against GDE3 on three real world centrifugal pump design problems supplied by Grundfos. Our algorithm outperforms GDE3 on all problems with respect to all...

  19. Creating fair lineups for suspects with distinctive features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkadi, Theodora; Wade, Kimberley A; Stewart, Neil

    2009-12-01

    In their descriptions, eyewitnesses often refer to a culprit's distinctive facial features. However, in a police lineup, selecting the only member with the described distinctive feature is unfair to the suspect and provides the police with little further information. For fair and informative lineups, the distinctive feature should be either replicated across foils or concealed on the target. In the present experiments, replication produced more correct identifications in target-present lineups--without increasing the incorrect identification of foils in target-absent lineups--than did concealment. This pattern, and only this pattern, is predicted by the hybrid-similarity model of recognition.

  20. The rhetorician's craft, distinctions in science, and political morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, John Z

    2006-01-01

    In his response to Szasz' Secular Humanism and Scientific Psychiatry, the author considers the use of rhetorical devices in Szasz' work, Szasz' avoidance of acknowledging psychiatry's scientific distinctions, and Szaszian libertarianism versus liberalism. PMID:16759356

  1. Education and Training: Is There Any Longer a Useful Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Paul; Laurent, John

    1990-01-01

    Although education and training were distinct concepts when Taylorism dominated the workplace, it is no longer appropriate to separate them. Today's highly competitive environment requires the education of a flexible, multiskilled workforce, not training for narrowly defined employment tasks. (SK)

  2. The rhetorician's craft, distinctions in science, and political morality

    OpenAIRE

    Sadler, John Z

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In his response to Szasz' Secular Humanism and Scientific Psychiatry, the author considers the use of rhetorical devices in Szasz' work, Szasz' avoidance of acknowledging psychiatry's scientific distinctions, and Szaszian libertarianism versus liberalism.

  3. The rhetorician's craft, distinctions in science, and political morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadler John Z

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In his response to Szasz' Secular Humanism and Scientific Psychiatry, the author considers the use of rhetorical devices in Szasz' work, Szasz' avoidance of acknowledging psychiatry's scientific distinctions, and Szaszian libertarianism versus liberalism.

  4. Tagging like Humans: Diverse and Distinct Image Annotation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan; Chen, Weidong; Sun, Peng; Liu, Wei; Ghanem, Bernard; Lyu, Siwei

    2018-01-01

    including quantitative and qualitative comparisons, as well as human subject studies, on two benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed model can produce more diverse and distinct tags than the state-of-the-arts.

  5. Identification of distinct phenotypes of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Teo, Minyuen

    2013-03-01

    A significant number of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma present as locally advanced disease. Optimal treatment remains controversial. We sought to analyze the clinical course of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma (LAPC) in order to identify potential distinct clinical phenotypes.

  6. Fetterman-House: A Process Use Distinction and a Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the concept of process use as an important distinction between the evaluation theories of E. House and D. Fetterman, thus helping to explain the discordant results of C. Christie for these two theories. (SLD)

  7. 29 CFR 549.3 - Distinction between plan and trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinction between plan and trust. 549.3 Section 549.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS OF A âBONA FIDE PROFIT-SHARING PLAN OR TRUSTâ § 549.3 Distinction between plan and trust. As used in this part: (a) Profit-sharing plan...

  8. An Adult Developmental Approach to Perceived Facial Attractiveness and Distinctiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie C. Ebner; Natalie C. Ebner; Natalie C. Ebner; Joerg Luedicke; Manuel C. Voelkle; Manuel C. Voelkle; Michaela Riediger; Michaela Riediger; Tian Lin; Ulman Lindenberger; Ulman Lindenberger

    2018-01-01

    Attractiveness and distinctiveness constitute facial features with high biological and social relevance. Bringing a developmental perspective to research on social-cognitive face perception, we used a large set of faces taken from the FACES Lifespan Database to examine effects of face and perceiver characteristics on subjective evaluations of attractiveness and distinctiveness in young (20–31 years), middle-aged (44–55 years), and older (70–81 years) men and women. We report novel findings su...

  9. Distinctions, Affiliations, and Professional Knowledge in Financial Reform Commissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    the different stresses in reports with and without clear mandates, and the role of important members of the policy community in promoting particular reform ideas. The article finds that differences in ideas emerging from the financial reform expert groups reflect nested power relationships in the commissioning...... the reports. Fractal distinctions, such as between ‘behavior’ or ‘system’ as a reform focus, allow us to locate the object of regulation within expert groups, experts’ professional context, and the politics behind the commissioning of work. Analyzing fractal distinctions provides a useful way to understand...... of work, constituent audiences, and reform priorities among governing institutions, rather than distinct ‘European’ and ‘American’ ideas....

  10. Distinctions, Affiliations, and Professional Knowledge in Financial Reform Expert Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    to understand the different stresses in reports with and without clear mandates, and the role of important members of the policy community in promoting particular reform ideas. The contribution finds that differences in ideas emerging from the financial reform expert groups reflect nested power relationships...... the reports. Fractal distinctions, such as between ‘behaviour’ or ‘system’ as a reform focus, allow us to locate the object of regulation within expert groups, the experts' professional context and the politics behind the commissioning of work. Analysing fractal distinctions provides a useful way...... in the commissioning of work, constituent audiences and reform priorities among governing institutions, rather than distinct ‘European’ and ‘American’ ideas....

  11. Liquidity spillover in international stock markets through distinct time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Marcelo Brutti; Vieira, Kelmara Mendes

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies liquidity spillovers through different time scales based on a wavelet multiscaling method. We decompose daily data from U.S., British, Brazilian and Hong Kong stock markets indices in order to calculate the scale correlation between their illiquidities. The sample is divided in order to consider non-crisis, sub-prime crisis and Eurozone crisis. We find that there are changes in correlations of distinct scales and different periods. Association in finest scales is smaller than in coarse scales. There is a rise on associations in periods of crisis. In frequencies, there is predominance for significant distinctions involving the coarsest scale, while for crises periods there is predominance for distinctions on the finest scale.

  12. What History Tells Us about the Distinct Nature of Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hasok

    2017-11-01

    Attention to the history of chemistry can help us recognise the characteristics of chemistry that have helped to maintain it as a separate scientific discipline with a unique identity. Three such features are highlighted in this paper. First, chemistry has maintained a distinct type of theoretical thinking, independent from that of physics even in the era of quantum chemistry. Second, chemical research has always been shaped by its ineliminable practical relevance and usefulness. Third, the lived experience of chemistry, spanning the laboratory, the classroom and everyday life, is distinctive in its multidimensional sensuousness. Furthermore, I argue that the combination of these three features makes chemistry an exemplary science.

  13. Revitalizing the “civic” and “ethnic” distinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2017-01-01

    This article describes how contemporary publics think about the nation along Kohn’s classic distinction between “civic” and “ethnic” nationalism. The article makes three contributes to the existing literature. Firstly, it introduces a new statistical tool, multi-classification-analysis, to establ......This article describes how contemporary publics think about the nation along Kohn’s classic distinction between “civic” and “ethnic” nationalism. The article makes three contributes to the existing literature. Firstly, it introduces a new statistical tool, multi...

  14. Grammar-Lexicon Distinction in a Neurocognitive Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishkhanyan, Byurakn

    hypotheses and testing them through using various methods. The grammar-lexicon distinction and working memory are thus central topics of this thesis. The results suggest a potential for a successful integration of the two theories. The findings further provide evidence for Boye & Harder’s (2012......) understanding of the grammar-lexicon distinction, and for the involvement of working memory in language production, as the REF-model would predict. As a starting point for integrating the two theories, the present thesis gives directions for future research on the neurocognitive underpinning of language and its...... relation to working memory....

  15. Neural correlates of the food/non-food visual distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourides, Kleovoulos; Shariat, Shahriar; Nejati, Hossein; Gandhi, Tapan K; Cardinaux, Annie; Simons, Christopher T; Cheung, Ngai-Man; Pavlovic, Vladimir; Sinha, Pawan

    2016-03-01

    An evolutionarily ancient skill we possess is the ability to distinguish between food and non-food. Our goal here is to identify the neural correlates of visually driven 'edible-inedible' perceptual distinction. We also investigate correlates of the finer-grained likability assessment. Our stimuli depicted food or non-food items with sub-classes of appealing or unappealing exemplars. Using data-classification techniques drawn from machine-learning, as well as evoked-response analyses, we sought to determine whether these four classes of stimuli could be distinguished based on the patterns of brain activity they elicited. Subjects viewed 200 images while in a MEG scanner. Our analyses yielded two successes and a surprising failure. The food/non-food distinction had a robust neural counterpart and emerged as early as 85 ms post-stimulus onset. The likable/non-likable distinction too was evident in the neural signals when food and non-food stimuli were grouped together, or when only the non-food stimuli were included in the analyses. However, we were unable to identify any neural correlates of this distinction when limiting the analyses only to food stimuli. Taken together, these positive and negative results further our understanding of the substrates of a set of ecologically important judgments and have clinical implications for conditions like eating-disorders and anhedonia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Magnetic mirror fusion systems: Characteristics and distinctive features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    A tutorial account is given of the main characteristics and distinctive features of conceptual magnetic fusion systems employing the magnetic mirror principle. These features are related to the potential advantages that mirror-based fusion systems may exhibit for the generation of economic fusion power

  17. Visual Distinctiveness and the Development of Children's False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    Distinctiveness effects in children's (5-, 7-, and 11-year-olds) false memory illusions were examined using visual materials. In Experiment 1, developmental trends (increasing false memories with age) were obtained using Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists presented as words and color photographs but not line drawings. In Experiment 2, when items were…

  18. Effectiveness, Improvement and Educational Change: A Distinctively Canadian Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Andy; Fink, Dean

    1998-01-01

    A distinctive Canadian school of thought on educational change is inclined to synthesize diverse bodies of work and integrate nonrational and emotional dimensions with rational and technically effective ones in a socially critical way. Highlights the Canadian perspective through discussions about complex systems, contexts of change, critical…

  19. Distinct patterns of epigenetic marks and transcription factor binding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Distinct patterns of epigenetic marks and transcription factor binding sites across promoters of sense-intronic long noncoding RNAs. Sourav Ghosh, Satish Sati, Shantanu Sengupta and Vinod Scaria. J. Genet. 94, 17–25. Gencode V9 lncRNA gene : 11004. Known lncRNA : 1175. Novel lncRNA : 5898. Putative lncRNA :.

  20. Genetic Determinism and the Innate-Acquired Distinction in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates in which sense genetic determinism is still part of the contemporary interactionist consensus in medicine. Three dimensions of this consensus are discussed: kinds of causes, a continuum of traits ranging from monogenetic diseases to car accidents, and different kinds of determination due to different norms of reaction. On this basis, this article explicates in which sense the interactionist consensus presupposes the innate–acquired distinction. After a descriptive Part 1, Part 2 reviews why the innate–acquired distinction is under attack in contemporary philosophy of biology. Three arguments are then presented to provide a limited and pragmatic defense of the distinction: an epistemic, a conceptual, and a historical argument. If interpreted in a certain manner, and if the pragmatic goals of prevention and treatment (ideally specifying what medicine and health care is all about) are taken into account, then the innate–acquired distinction can be a useful epistemic tool. It can help, first, to understand that genetic determination does not mean fatalism, and, second, to maintain a system of checks and balances in the continuing nature–nurture debates. PMID:20234831

  1. Amnesia, rehearsal, and temporal distinctiveness models of recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gordon D A; Della Sala, Sergio; Foster, Jonathan K; Vousden, Janet I

    2007-04-01

    Classical amnesia involves selective memory impairment for temporally distant items in free recall (impaired primacy) together with relative preservation of memory for recency items. This abnormal serial position curve is traditionally taken as evidence for a distinction between different memory processes, with amnesia being associated with selectively impaired long-term memory. However recent accounts of normal serial position curves have emphasized the importance of rehearsal processes in giving rise to primacy effects and have suggested that a single temporal distinctiveness mechanism can account for both primacy and recency effects when rehearsal is considered. Here we explore the pattern of strategic rehearsal in a patient with very severe amnesia. When the patient's rehearsal pattern is taken into account, a temporal distinctiveness model can account for the serial position curve in both amnesic and control free recall. The results are taken as consistent with temporal distinctiveness models of free recall, and they motivate an emphasis on rehearsal patterns in understanding amnesic deficits in free recall.

  2. Are there distinctive indigenous methods of inquiry? | Le Grange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores whether there are methods that might be referred to as being distinctly indigenous. In doing so the nature of method is examined and it is concluded that method is not universal and neutral, but rather situated and performative. The upshot of this is that research methods can be transformed and that ...

  3. Blurring Boundaries : Carnap, Quine, and the Internal-External Distinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, Sander

    Quine is routinely perceived as saving metaphysics from Carnapian positivism. Where Carnap rejects metaphysical existence claims as meaningless, Quine is taken to restore their intelligibility by dismantling the former's internal-external distinction. The problem with this picture, however, is that

  4. 48 CFR 307.7001 - Distinction between acquisition and assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distinction between acquisition and assistance. 307.7001 Section 307.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN... barter, of property or services for the direct benefit or use of the Government; or (2) Government...

  5. MAGDM linear-programming models with distinct uncertain preference structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zeshui S; Chen, Jian

    2008-10-01

    Group decision making with preference information on alternatives is an interesting and important research topic which has been receiving more and more attention in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to investigate multiple-attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) problems with distinct uncertain preference structures. We develop some linear-programming models for dealing with the MAGDM problems, where the information about attribute weights is incomplete, and the decision makers have their preferences on alternatives. The provided preference information can be represented in the following three distinct uncertain preference structures: 1) interval utility values; 2) interval fuzzy preference relations; and 3) interval multiplicative preference relations. We first establish some linear-programming models based on decision matrix and each of the distinct uncertain preference structures and, then, develop some linear-programming models to integrate all three structures of subjective uncertain preference information provided by the decision makers and the objective information depicted in the decision matrix. Furthermore, we propose a simple and straightforward approach in ranking and selecting the given alternatives. It is worth pointing out that the developed models can also be used to deal with the situations where the three distinct uncertain preference structures are reduced to the traditional ones, i.e., utility values, fuzzy preference relations, and multiplicative preference relations. Finally, we use a practical example to illustrate in detail the calculation process of the developed approach.

  6. Differential Recruitment of Distinct Amygdalar Nuclei across Appetitive Associative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Sindy; Powell, Daniel J.; Petrovich, Gorica D.

    2013-01-01

    The amygdala is important for reward-associated learning, but how distinct cell groups within this heterogeneous structure are recruited during appetitive learning is unclear. Here we used Fos induction to map the functional amygdalar circuitry recruited during early and late training sessions of Pavlovian appetitive conditioning. We found that a…

  7. An Objective Approach to Identify Spectral Distinctiveness for Hearing Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeou-Jiunn Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate the process of developing speech perception, speech-language pathologists have to teach a subject with hearing loss the differences between two syllables by manually enhancing acoustic cues of speech. However, this process is time consuming and difficult. Thus, this study proposes an objective approach to automatically identify the regions of spectral distinctiveness between two syllables, which is used for speech-perception training. To accurately represent the characteristics of speech, mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients are selected as analytical parameters. The mismatch between two syllables in time domain is handled by dynamic time warping. Further, a filter bank is adopted to estimate the components in different frequency bands, which are also represented as mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients. The spectral distinctiveness in different frequency bands is then easily estimated by using Euclidean metrics. Finally, a morphological gradient operator is applied to automatically identify the regions of spectral distinctiveness. To evaluate the proposed approach, the identified regions are manipulated and then the manipulated syllables are measured by a close-set based speech-perception test. The experimental results demonstrated that the identified regions of spectral distinctiveness are very useful in speech perception, which indeed can help speech-language pathologists in speech-perception training.

  8. Distinctiveness and Bidirectional Effects in Input Enhancement for Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcroft, Joe

    2003-01-01

    This study examined input enhancement and second language (L2) vocabulary learning while exploring the role of "distinctiveness," the degree to which an item in the input diverges from the form in which other items in the input are presented, with regard to the nature and direction of the effects of enhancement. In this study,…

  9. BMP signalling differentially regulates distinct haematopoietic stem cell types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Crisan (Mihaela); P. Solaimani Kartalaei (Parham); C.S. Vink (Chris); T. Yamada-Inagawa (Tomoko); K. Bollerot (Karine); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); R. Van Der Linden (Reinier); S.C. de Sousa Lopes (Susana Chuva); R. Monteiro (Rui); C.L. Mummery (Christine); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAdult haematopoiesis is the outcome of distinct haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) subtypes with self-renewable repopulating ability, but with different haematopoietic cell lineage outputs. The molecular basis for this heterogeneity is largely unknown. BMP signalling regulates HSCs as they

  10. An Adult Developmental Approach to Perceived Facial Attractiveness and Distinctiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie C. Ebner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Attractiveness and distinctiveness constitute facial features with high biological and social relevance. Bringing a developmental perspective to research on social-cognitive face perception, we used a large set of faces taken from the FACES Lifespan Database to examine effects of face and perceiver characteristics on subjective evaluations of attractiveness and distinctiveness in young (20–31 years, middle-aged (44–55 years, and older (70–81 years men and women. We report novel findings supporting variations by face and perceiver age, in interaction with gender and emotion: although older and middle-aged compared to young perceivers generally rated faces of all ages as more attractive, young perceivers gave relatively higher attractiveness ratings to young compared to middle-aged and older faces. Controlling for variations in attractiveness, older compared to young faces were viewed as more distinctive by young and middle-aged perceivers. Age affected attractiveness more negatively for female than male faces. Furthermore, happy faces were rated as most attractive, while disgusted faces were rated as least attractive, particularly so by middle-aged and older perceivers and for young and female faces. Perceivers largely agreed on distinctiveness ratings for neutral and happy emotions, but older and middle-aged compared to young perceivers rated faces displaying negative emotions as more distinctive. These findings underscore the importance of a lifespan perspective on perception of facial characteristics and suggest possible effects of age on goal-directed perception, social motivation, and in-group bias. This publication makes available picture-specific normative data for experimental stimulus selection.

  11. Xanthomonas campestris lipooligosaccharides trigger innate immunity and oxidative burst in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proietti, S; Giangrande, C; Amoresano, A; Pucci, P; Molinaro, A; Bertini, L; Caporale, C; Caruso, C

    2014-01-01

    Plants lack the adaptive immunity mechanisms of jawed vertebrates, so they rely on innate immune responses to defense themselves from pathogens. The plant immune system perceives the presence of pathogens by recognition of molecules known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PAMPs have

  12. Directed networks' different link formation mechanisms causing degree distribution distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behfar, Stefan Kambiz; Turkina, Ekaterina; Cohendet, Patrick; Burger-Helmchen, Thierry

    2016-11-01

    Within undirected networks, scientists have shown much interest in presenting power-law features. For instance, Barabási and Albert (1999) claimed that a common property of many large networks is that vertex connectivity follows scale-free power-law distribution, and in another study Barabási et al. (2002) showed power law evolution in the social network of scientific collaboration. At the same time, Jiang et al. (2011) discussed deviation from power-law distribution; others indicated that size effect (Bagrow et al., 2008), information filtering mechanism (Mossa et al., 2002), and birth and death process (Shi et al., 2005) could account for this deviation. Within directed networks, many authors have considered that outlinks follow a similar mechanism of creation as inlinks' (Faloutsos et al., 1999; Krapivsky et al., 2001; Tanimoto, 2009) with link creation rate being the linear function of node degree, resulting in a power-law shape for both indegree and outdegree distribution. Some other authors have made an assumption that directed networks, such as scientific collaboration or citation, behave as undirected, resulting in a power-law degree distribution accordingly (Barabási et al., 2002). At the same time, we claim (1) Outlinks feature different degree distributions than inlinks; where different link formation mechanisms cause the distribution distinctions, (2) in/outdegree distribution distinction holds for different levels of system decomposition; therefore this distribution distinction is a property of directed networks. First, we emphasize in/outlink formation mechanisms as causal factors for distinction between indegree and outdegree distributions (where this distinction has already been noticed in Barker et al. (2010) and Baxter et al. (2006)) within a sample network of OSS projects as well as Java software corpus as a network. Second, we analyze whether this distribution distinction holds for different levels of system decomposition: open

  13. Distinction of Fly Artifacts from Human Blood using Immunodetection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, David B; Acca, Gillian; Fink, Marc; Brogan, Rebecca; Chen, Dorothy; Schoeffield, Andrew

    2018-02-21

    Insect stains produced by necrophagous flies are indistinguishable morphologically from human bloodstains. At present, no diagnostic tests exist to overcome this deficiency. As the first step toward developing a chemical test to recognize fly artifacts, polyclonal antisera were generated in rats against three distinct antigenic sequences of fly cathepsin D-like proteinase, an enzyme that is structurally distinct in cyclorrhaphous Diptera from other animals. The resulting rat antisera bound to artifacts produced by Protophormia terraenovae and synthetic peptides used to generate the polyclonal antisera, but not with any type of mammalian blood tested in immunoassays. Among the three antisera, anti-md3 serum displayed the highest reactivity for fly stains, demonstrated cross-reactivity for all synthetic peptides representing antigenic sequences of the mature fly enzyme, and bound artifacts originating from the fly digestive tract. Further work is needed to determine whether the antisera are suitable for non-laboratory conditions. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Morphological distinctiveness of Javan Tupaia hypochrysa (Scandentia, Tupaiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargis, Eric J.; Woodman, Neal; Morningstar, Natalie C.; Reese, Aspen T.; Olson, Link E.

    2013-01-01

    The common treeshrew, Tupaia glis, represents a species complex with a complicated taxonomic history. It is distributed mostly south of the Isthmus of Kra on the Malay Peninsula and surrounding islands. In our recent revision of a portion of this species complex, we did not fully assess the population from Java (T. “glis” hypochrysa) because of our limited sample. Herein, we revisit this taxon using multivariate analyses in comparisons with T. glis, T. chrysogaster of the Mentawai Islands, and T. ferruginea from Sumatra. Analyses of both the manus and skull of Javan T. “glis” hypochrysa show it to be most similar to T. chrysogaster and distinct from both T. glis and T. ferruginea. Yet, the Javan population and T. chrysogaster have different mammae counts, supporting recognition of T. hypochrysa as a distinct species. The change in taxonomic status of T. hypochrysa has conservation implications for both T. glis and this Javan endemic.

  15. Neonatal lethal dwarfism with distinct skeletal malformations - a separate entity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, K.; Maurseth, K.; Olsen, Oe.E. [Dept. of Paediatric Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Halvorsen, O.J. [Dept. of Pathology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Gjelland, K. [Dept. of Gynaecology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Engebretsen, L. [Dept. of Genetics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway)

    2001-09-01

    We describe a case of neonatal lethal dwarfism characterised by short trunk, short, stick-like tubular bones, deficient ossification of the axial skeleton and broad, sclerotic horizontal ribs. Two similar cases have previously been reported as examples of the Neu-Laxova syndrome. However, the radiological findings of the Neu-Laxova syndrome, as reported in 16 out of 40 documented cases, show a heterogeneous pattern of minor features, which differ distinctively from those found in the previous two cases and by us. A literature research did not reveal similar cases, and we therefore suggest that our case, together with the two previous cases, may represent a new distinctive form of neonatal lethal dwarfism. (orig.)

  16. Neonatal lethal dwarfism with distinct skeletal malformations - a separate entity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosendahl, K.; Maurseth, K.; Olsen, Oe.E.; Halvorsen, O.J.; Gjelland, K.; Engebretsen, L.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a case of neonatal lethal dwarfism characterised by short trunk, short, stick-like tubular bones, deficient ossification of the axial skeleton and broad, sclerotic horizontal ribs. Two similar cases have previously been reported as examples of the Neu-Laxova syndrome. However, the radiological findings of the Neu-Laxova syndrome, as reported in 16 out of 40 documented cases, show a heterogeneous pattern of minor features, which differ distinctively from those found in the previous two cases and by us. A literature research did not reveal similar cases, and we therefore suggest that our case, together with the two previous cases, may represent a new distinctive form of neonatal lethal dwarfism. (orig.)

  17. Distinctive safety aspects of the CANDU-PHW reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugler, G.

    1980-01-01

    Two lectures are presented in this report. They were prepared in response to a request from IAEA to provide information on the 'Special characteristics of the safety analysis of heavy water reactors' to delegates from member states attending the Interregional Training Course on Safety Analysis Review, held at Karlsruhe, November 19 to December 20, 1979. The CANDU-PHW reactor is used as a model for discussion. The first lecture describes the distinctive features of the CANDU reactor and how they impact on reactor safety. In the second lecture the Canadian safety philosophy, the safety design objective, and other selected topics on reactor safety analysis are discussed. The material in this report was selected with a view to assisting those not familiar with the CANDU heavy water reactor design in evaluating the distinctive safety aspects of these reactors. (auth)

  18. Mapping Phylogenetic Trees to Reveal Distinct Patterns of Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michelle; Colijn, Caroline

    2016-10-01

    Evolutionary relationships are frequently described by phylogenetic trees, but a central barrier in many fields is the difficulty of interpreting data containing conflicting phylogenetic signals. We present a metric-based method for comparing trees which extracts distinct alternative evolutionary relationships embedded in data. We demonstrate detection and resolution of phylogenetic uncertainty in a recent study of anole lizards, leading to alternate hypotheses about their evolutionary relationships. We use our approach to compare trees derived from different genes of Ebolavirus and find that the VP30 gene has a distinct phylogenetic signature composed of three alternatives that differ in the deep branching structure. phylogenetics, evolution, tree metrics, genetics, sequencing. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. A distinct bacterial dysbiosis associated skin inflammation in ovine footrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboni, Grazieli; Blanchard, Adam; Frosth, Sara; Stewart, Ceri; Emes, Richard; Tötemeyer, Sabine

    2017-03-01

    Ovine footrot is a highly prevalent bacterial disease caused by Dichelobacter nodosus and characterised by the separation of the hoof horn from the underlying skin. The role of innate immune molecules and other bacterial communities in the development of footrot lesions remains unclear. This study shows a significant association between the high expression of IL1β and high D. nodosus load in footrot samples. Investigation of the microbial population identified distinct bacterial populations in the different disease stages and also depending on the level of inflammation. Treponema (34%), Mycoplasma (29%) and Porphyromonas (15%) were the most abundant genera associated with high levels of inflammation in footrot. In contrast, Acinetobacter (25%), Corynebacteria (17%) and Flavobacterium (17%) were the most abundant genera associated with high levels of inflammation in healthy feet. This demonstrates for the first time there is a distinct microbial community associated with footrot and high cytokine expression.

  20. The emotional memory effect: differential processing or item distinctiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen R; Saari, Bonnie

    2007-12-01

    A color-naming task was followed by incidental free recall to investigate how emotional words affect attention and memory. We compared taboo, nonthreatening negative-affect, and neutral words across three experiments. As compared with neutral words, taboo words led to longer color-naming times and better memory in both within- and between-subjects designs. Color naming of negative-emotion nontaboo words was slower than color naming of neutral words only during block presentation and at relatively short interstimulus intervals (ISIs). The nontaboo emotion words were remembered better than neutral words following blocked and random presentation and at both long and short ISIs, but only in mixed-list designs. Our results support multifactor theories of the effects of emotion on attention and memory. As compared with neutral words, threatening stimuli received increased attention, poststimulus elaboration, and benefit from item distinctiveness, whereas nonthreatening emotional stimuli benefited only from increased item distinctiveness.

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa diversity in distinct paediatric patient groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tramper-Stranders, G.A.; Ent, C.K. van der; Wolfs, T.F.

    2008-01-01

    the other groups. A group of clonal isolates was observed among patients from the CF-chronic and CF-1 groups. These or different clonal isolates were not encountered among the three other patient groups. No characteristic resistance pattern could be identified among isolates from the distinct patient groups......Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogen that often infects patients who are either immunocompromised or have local defects in host defences. It is known that cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are sometimes infected with certain clonal isolates. It is not clear whether these clonal isolates also infect non......-CF patients and whether clonality of isolates occurs in other patient groups. The aim of this study was to investigate P. aeruginosa diversity and the occurrence of clones within five distinct paediatric patient groups susceptible to P. aeruginosa infection. P. aeruginosa isolates were cultured from 157...

  2. The True Self: A Psychological Concept Distinct From the Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohminger, Nina; Knobe, Joshua; Newman, George

    2017-07-01

    A long tradition of psychological research has explored the distinction between characteristics that are part of the self and those that lie outside of it. Recently, a surge of research has begun examining a further distinction. Even among characteristics that are internal to the self, people pick out a subset as belonging to the true self. These factors are judged as making people who they really are, deep down. In this paper, we introduce the concept of the true self and identify features that distinguish people's understanding of the true self from their understanding of the self more generally. In particular, we consider recent findings that the true self is perceived as positive and moral and that this tendency is actor-observer invariant and cross-culturally stable. We then explore possible explanations for these findings and discuss their implications for a variety of issues in psychology.

  3. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L.; Saad, Ziad S.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The hemispheric lateralization of certain faculties in the human brain has long been held to be beneficial for functioning. However, quantitative relationships between the degree of lateralization in particular brain regions and the level of functioning have yet to be established. Here we demonstrate that two distinct forms of functional lateralization are present in the left vs. the right cerebral hemisphere, with the left hemisphere showing a preference to interact more exclusively with itself, particularly for cortical regions involved in language and fine motor coordination. In contrast, right-hemisphere cortical regions involved in visuospatial and attentional processing interact in a more integrative fashion with both hemispheres. The degree of lateralization present in these distinct systems selectively predicted behavioral measures of verbal and visuospatial ability, providing direct evidence that lateralization is associated with enhanced cognitive ability. PMID:23959883

  4. New approach to equipment quality evaluation method with distinct functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents new approach for improving method for quality evaluation and selection of equipment (devices and machinery by applying distinct functions. Quality evaluation and selection of devices and machinery is a multi-criteria problem which involves the consideration of numerous parameters of various origins. Original selection method with distinct functions is based on technical parameters with arbitrary evaluation of each parameter importance (weighting. Improvement of this method, presented in this paper, addresses the issue of weighting of parameters by using Delphi Method. Finally, two case studies are provided, which included quality evaluation of standard boilers for heating and evaluation of load-haul-dump (LHD machines, to demonstrate applicability of this approach. Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP is used as a control method.

  5. Recognition of distinctive patterns of gallium-67 distribution in sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulavik, S.B.; Spencer, R.P.; Weed, D.A.; Shapiro, H.R.; Shiue, S.T.; Castriotta, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Assessment of gallium-67 ( 67 Ga) uptake in the salivary and lacrimal glands and intrathoracic lymph nodes was made in 605 consecutive patients including 65 with sarcoidosis. A distinctive intrathoracic lymph node 67 Ga uptake pattern, resembling the Greek letter lambda, was observed only in sarcoidosis (72%). Symmetrical lacrimal gland and parotid gland 67 Ga uptake (panda appearance) was noted in 79% of sarcoidosis patients. A simultaneous lambda and panda pattern (62%) or a panda appearance with radiographic bilateral, symmetrical, hilar lymphadenopathy (6%) was present only in sarcoidosis patients. The presence of either of these patterns was particularly prevalent in roentgen Stages I (80%) or II (74%). We conclude that simultaneous (a) lambda and panda images, or (b) a panda image with bilateral symmetrical hilar lymphadenopathy on chest X-ray represent distinctive patterns which are highly specific for sarcoidosis, and may obviate the need for invasive diagnostic procedures

  6. The influence of context on distinct facial expressions of disgust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Peter J; Walle, Eric A; Knothe, Jennifer M; Lopez, Lukas D

    2018-06-11

    Face perception is susceptible to contextual influence and perceived physical similarities between emotion cues. However, studies often use structurally homogeneous facial expressions, making it difficult to explore how within-emotion variability in facial configuration affects emotion perception. This study examined the influence of context on the emotional perception of categorically identical, yet physically distinct, facial expressions of disgust. Participants categorized two perceptually distinct disgust facial expressions, "closed" (i.e., scrunched nose, closed mouth) and "open" (i.e., scrunched nose, open mouth, protruding tongue), that were embedded in contexts comprising emotion postures and scenes. Results demonstrated that the effect of nonfacial elements was significantly stronger for "open" disgust facial expressions than "closed" disgust facial expressions. These findings provide support that physical similarity within discrete categories of facial expressions is mutable and plays an important role in affective face perception. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Ethical distinctions between different kinds of plant breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myskja, B.K.; Schouten, H.J.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses whether there are ethically significant distinctions between different forms of plant breeding. We distinguish different forms of plant breeding according to the kind of technology and degree of human intervention compared to plant reproduction occurring in nature. According...... differences between plant breeding methods. The framework can contribute to an improved dialogue between the scientific community and the wider public by making the scepticism towards GM-technology more intelligible....

  8. Parakeratosis pustulosa - a distinct but less familiar disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandhi Deepika

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Parakeratosis pustulosa (PP is a distinct but less commonly known skin disease, which is frequently seen, in young girls. We describe the clinical and histological features of PP in a 7 month old female baby. Further, it is stressed that unless carefully looked for, this entity may be easily misdiagnosed as chronic paronychia, acrodermatitis of Hallopeau, pustular psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, tinea pedis or dry fissured eczematoid dermatitis and mistreated subsequently.

  9. Early- versus Late-Onset Dysthymia: A Meaningful Clinical Distinction?

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, dysthymic disorder is categorized as either early-onset or late-onset, based upon the emergence of symptoms before or after the age of 21, respectively. Does this diagnostic distinction have any meaningful clinical implications? In this edition of The Interface, we present empirical studies that have, within a single study, compared individuals with early-versus late-onset dysthymia. In this review, we found that, compared ...

  10. Distinct types of glial cells populate the Drosophila antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhaveri Dhanisha

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of nervous systems involves reciprocal interactions between neurons and glia. In the Drosophila olfactory system, peripheral glial cells arise from sensory lineages specified by the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Atonal. These glia wrap around the developing olfactory axons early during development and pattern the three distinct fascicles as they exit the antenna. In the moth Manduca sexta, an additional set of central glia migrate to the base of the antennal nerve where axons sort to their glomerular targets. In this work, we have investigated whether similar types of cells exist in the Drosophila antenna. Results We have used different P(Gal4 lines to drive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP in distinct populations of cells within the Drosophila antenna. Mz317::GFP, a marker for cell body and perineural glia, labels the majority of peripheral glia. An additional ~30 glial cells detected by GH146::GFP do not derive from any of the sensory lineages and appear to migrate into the antenna from the brain. Their appearance in the third antennal segment is regulated by normal function of the Epidermal Growth Factor receptor and small GTPases. We denote these distinct populations of cells as Mz317-glia and GH146-glia respectively. In the adult, processes of GH146-glial cells ensheath the olfactory receptor neurons directly, while those of the Mz317-glia form a peripheral layer. Ablation of GH146-glia does not result in any significant effects on the patterning of the olfactory receptor axons. Conclusion We have demonstrated the presence of at least two distinct populations of glial cells within the Drosophila antenna. GH146-glial cells originate in the brain and migrate to the antenna along the newly formed olfactory axons. The number of cells populating the third segment of the antenna is regulated by signaling through the Epidermal Growth Factor receptor. These glia share several features of the sorting

  11. Is fuel poverty in Ireland a distinct type of deprivation?

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Dorothy; Maitre, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on the Central Statistics Office SILC data for Ireland to ask whether fuel poverty is a distinctive type of deprivation that warrants a fundamentally different policy response than poverty in general. We examine the overlap between fuel poverty (based on three self-report items) and poverty in general – with a particular emphasis on the national indicator of basic deprivation which is used in the measurement of poverty for policy purposes in Ireland. We examine changes ...

  12. Distinctively human motivation and another view on human evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Prudkov, Pavel N.

    2006-01-01

    Human evolution is a multidisciplinary problem, one of its aspects is the origin and development of distinctively human psychological features. Cognitive properties (language, symbolic thinking) are considered as such features and numerous authors hypothesize its evolution. We suggest that the most important human characteristic is connected with motivation rather than cognition; this is the ability to construct and maintain long-term goal-directed processes having no biological basis. Once...

  13. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia induce distinct host responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Kevin W; McDunn, Jonathan E; Clark, Andrew T; Dunne, W Michael; Dixon, David J; Turnbull, Isaiah R; Dipasco, Peter J; Osberghaus, William F; Sherman, Benjamin; Martin, James R; Walter, Michael J; Cobb, J Perren; Buchman, Timothy G; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2010-01-01

    Pathogens that cause pneumonia may be treated in a targeted fashion by antibiotics, but if this therapy fails, then treatment involves only nonspecific supportive measures, independent of the inciting infection. The purpose of this study was to determine whether host response is similar after disparate infections with similar mortalities. Prospective, randomized controlled study. Animal laboratory in a university medical center. Pneumonia was induced in FVB/N mice by either Streptococcus pneumoniae or two different concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from septic animals was assayed by a microarray immunoassay measuring 18 inflammatory mediators at multiple time points. The host response was dependent on the causative organism as well as kinetics of mortality, but the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses were independent of inoculum concentration or degree of bacteremia. Pneumonia caused by different concentrations of the same bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, also yielded distinct inflammatory responses; however, inflammatory mediator expression did not directly track the severity of infection. For all infections, the host response was compartmentalized, with markedly different concentrations of inflammatory mediators in the systemic circulation and the lungs. Hierarchical clustering analysis resulted in the identification of five distinct clusters of the host response to bacterial infection. Principal components analysis correlated pulmonary macrophage inflammatory peptide-2 and interleukin-10 with progression of infection, whereas elevated plasma tumor necrosis factor sr2 and macrophage chemotactic peptide-1 were indicative of fulminant disease with >90% mortality within 48 hrs. Septic mice have distinct local and systemic responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Targeting specific host inflammatory responses induced by distinct bacterial infections could represent a

  14. Number of perceptually distinct surface colors in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Franch, Iván; Foster, David H

    2010-09-30

    The ability to perceptually identify distinct surfaces in natural scenes by virtue of their color depends not only on the relative frequency of surface colors but also on the probabilistic nature of observer judgments. Previous methods of estimating the number of discriminable surface colors, whether based on theoretical color gamuts or recorded from real scenes, have taken a deterministic approach. Thus, a three-dimensional representation of the gamut of colors is divided into elementary cells or points which are spaced at one discrimination-threshold unit intervals and which are then counted. In this study, information-theoretic methods were used to take into account both differing surface-color frequencies and observer response uncertainty. Spectral radiances were calculated from 50 hyperspectral images of natural scenes and were represented in a perceptually almost uniform color space. The average number of perceptually distinct surface colors was estimated as 7.3 × 10(3), much smaller than that based on counting methods. This number is also much smaller than the number of distinct points in a scene that are, in principle, available for reliable identification under illuminant changes, suggesting that color constancy, or the lack of it, does not generally determine the limit on the use of color for surface identification.

  15. Mistakes To Avoid In Attacking The Moral/Conventional Distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rosas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In an experimental critique of the moral/conventional (M/C distinction, Kelly et al. (2007 present new experimental data about responses to transgressions involving harm, where the novelty is that transgressors are grown-ups, rather than children. Their data do not support the moral/conventional distinction. The contrast between grown-up and schoolyard transgressions does not seem, however, to explain their results: they also use two schoolyard transgressions with similar negative results for the M/C distinction.I here attempt to explain away their results by calling attention to two mistakes in their experimental design. One refers to the use of questionnaire-items of the type that Turiel and collaborators have called mixed-domain situations, which extend over both a moral and a conventional domain. Participants respond to these cases differently than to prototypical moral situations, because some allow the authority rule to override the moral rule. The second mistake emerges in the grown-up transgressions labeled as Whipping/temporal, Whipping/Authority, Spanking/Authority, Prisoner abuse/Authority. These are not the typical transgressions unambiguously “involving a victim who has been harmed, whose rights have been violated, or who has been subject to an injustice”. The victims are also transgressors and harm is inflicted on them as punishment. Plausibly, rules about corporal punishment depend on authority in a way that rules about harming the innocent do not.

  16. Adaptation of flower and fruit colours to multiple, distinct mutualists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoult, Julien P; Valido, Alfredo; Jordano, Pedro; Schaefer, H Martin

    2014-01-01

    Communication in plant-animal mutualisms frequently involves multiple perceivers. A fundamental uncertainty is whether and how species adapt to communicate with groups of mutualists having distinct sensory abilities. We quantified the colour conspicuousness of flowers and fruits originating from one European and two South American plant communities, using visual models of pollinators (bee and fly) and seed dispersers (bird, primate and marten). We show that flowers are more conspicuous than fruits to pollinators, and the reverse to seed dispersers. In addition, flowers are more conspicuous to pollinators than to seed dispersers and the reverse for fruits. Thus, despite marked differences in the visual systems of mutualists, flower and fruit colours have evolved to attract multiple, distinct mutualists but not unintended perceivers. We show that this adaptation is facilitated by a limited correlation between flower and fruit colours, and by the fact that colour signals as coded at the photoreceptor level are more similar within than between functional groups (pollinators and seed dispersers). Overall, these results provide the first quantitative demonstration that flower and fruit colours are adaptations allowing plants to communicate simultaneously with distinct groups of mutualists. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Ataques de nervios: culturally bound and distinct from panic attacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keough, Meghan E; Timpano, Kiara R; Schmidt, Norman B

    2009-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000) has emphasized the importance of understanding psychopathology within a cultural framework by including culture-bound syndromes within its appendices. These syndromes are proposed to be bound to certain cultures and distinct from other psychological disorders. Included among the syndromes are ataques de nervios (ADN), which are reported to be bound to the Hispanic culture and closely resemble panic attacks. However, the cultural distinctiveness and phenomenology of ADN has not been adequately investigated. The current study employed an ethnically diverse study sample (N=342) of undergraduates. Participants completed a number of measures that assessed acculturation, syndrome and anxiety risk factors. In contrast to the DSM-IV's conceptualization of ADN, the rate of ADN did not significantly vary across the three main groups (African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic participants) nor did it vary based on acculturation. More consistent with the DSM-IV, the symptom comparisons indicated some differentiation between ADN and panic attacks. The present report provides data indicating that ADNs, as described by the DSM-IV, are not unique to the Hispanic culture and are experienced by non-Hispanic individuals at similar rates to Hispanic-endorsement. The findings are consistent with the DSM-IV assertion that ADNs and PAs are distinct syndromes. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Participation and social participation: are they distinct concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piškur, Barbara; Daniëls, Ramon; Jongmans, Marian J; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Smeets, Rob J E M; Norton, Meghan; Beurskens, Anna J H M

    2014-03-01

    The concept of participation has been extensively used in health and social care literature since the World Health Organization introduced its description in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in 2001. More recently, the concept of social participation is frequently used in research articles and policy reports. However, in the ICF, no specific definition exists for social participation, and an explanation of differences between the concepts is not available. The central question in this discussion article is whether participation, as defined by the ICF, and social participation are distinct concepts. This article illustrates the concepts of participation and social participation, presents a critical discussion of their definitions, followed by implications for rehabilitation and possible future directions. A clear definition for participation or social participation does not yet exist. Definitions for social participation differ from each other and are not sufficiently distinct from the ICF definition of participation. Although the ICF is regarded an important conceptual framework, it is criticised for not being comprehensive. The relevance of societal involvement of clients is evident for rehabilitation, but the current ICF definition of participation does not sufficiently capture societal involvement. Changing the ICF's definition of participation towards social roles would overcome a number of its shortcomings. Societal involvement would then be understood in the light of social roles. Consequently, there would be no need to make a distinction between social participation and participation.

  19. Distinct Evening Fatigue Profiles in Oncology Outpatients Receiving Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Fay; Cooper, Bruce A.; Conley, Yvette P.; Hammer, Marilyn J.; Chen, Lee-May; Paul, Steven M.; Levine, Jon D.; Miaskowski, Christine; Kober, Kord M.

    2018-01-01

    Background Fatigue is the most common and debilitating symptom experienced by oncology patients during chemotherapy (CTX). Fatigue severity demonstrates a large amount of inter-individual and diurnal variability. Purpose Study purposes were to evaluate for subgroups of patients with distinct evening fatigue profiles and evaluate how these subgroups differed on demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics. Methods Outpatients with breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, or lung cancer (n=1332) completed questionnaires six times over two cycles of CTX. Lee Fatigue Scale (LFS) evaluated evening fatigue severity. Latent profile analysis was used to identify distinct evening fatigue profiles. Results Four distinct evening fatigue classes (i.e., Low (14.0%), Moderate (17.2%), High (36.0%), Very High (32.8%)) were identified. Compared to the Low class, patients in the Very High evening fatigue class were: younger, female, had childcare responsibilities, had more years of education, had a lower functional status, had a higher comorbidity burden, and were diagnosed with breast cancer. Patients in the Very High class reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance, and evening fatigue at enrollment. Conclusions Findings provide new insights into modifiable risk factors for higher levels of evening fatigue. Clinicians can use this information to identify higher risk patients and plan appropriate interventions. PMID:29725554

  20. Organism versus mechanism: Losing our grip on the distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk Reitsema

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between organism and mechanism is often subtle or unclear and yet can prove to be fundamental to our understanding of the world. It has been tempting for many thinkers to seek to ‘understand’ all of reality through the lens of either the one or the other of these concepts rather than by giving both a place. This article sets out to argue that there is a substantial loss of understanding when either of these metaphors is absolutised to explain all causal processes and patterns in reality. Clarifying the distinction between the two may provide one more tool to grasp what is reductionist in many of the perspectives that have come to dominate public life and science today. This contention is tested on the quest for the design of self-replicating systems (i.e. synthetic organisms in the nanotech industry. It is common that the concepts of organic functioning and mechanism are used imprecisely and in an overlapping way. This is also true of much scientific debate, especially in the fields of biology, micro-biology and nano-science. This imprecise use signals a reductionist tendency both in the way that the organic is perceived and in terms of the distinctive nature of mechanisms.

  1. Processing vertical size disparities in distinct depth planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Philip A; Howard, Ian P

    2012-08-17

    A textured surface appears slanted about a vertical axis when the image in one eye is horizontally enlarged relative to the image in the other eye. The surface appears slanted in the opposite direction when the same image is vertically enlarged. Two superimposed textured surfaces with different horizontal size disparities appear as two surfaces that differ in slant. Superimposed textured surfaces with equal and opposite vertical size disparities appear as a single frontal surface. The vertical disparities are averaged. We investigated whether vertical size disparities are averaged across two superimposed textured surfaces in different depth planes or whether they induce distinct slants in the two depth planes. In Experiment 1, two superimposed textured surfaces with different vertical size disparities were presented in two depth planes defined by horizontal disparity. The surfaces induced distinct slants when the horizontal disparity was more than ±5 arcmin. Thus, vertical size disparities are not averaged over surfaces with different horizontal disparities. In Experiment 2 we confirmed that vertical size disparities are processed in surfaces away from the horopter, so the results of Experiment 1 cannot be explained by the processing of vertical size disparities in a fixated surface only. Together, these results show that vertical size disparities are processed separately in distinct depth planes. The results also suggest that vertical size disparities are not used to register slant globally by their effect on the registration of binocular direction of gaze.

  2. Natural Microbial Assemblages Reflect Distinct Organismal and Functional Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmes, P.; Andersson, A.; Kalnejais, L. H.; Verberkmoes, N. C.; Lefsrud, M. G.; Wexler, M.; Singer, S. W.; Shah, M.; Bond, P. L.; Thelen, M. P.; Hettich, R. L.; Banfield, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    The ability to link microbial community structure to function has long been a primary focus of environmental microbiology. With the advent of community genomic and proteomic techniques, along with advances in microscopic imaging techniques, it is now possible to gain insights into the organismal and functional makeup of microbial communities. Biofilms growing within highly acidic solutions inside the Richmond Mine (Iron Mountain, Redding, California) exhibit distinct macro- and microscopic morphologies. They are composed of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life, including archaea, bacteria and eukarya. The proportion of each organismal type depends on sampling location and developmental stage. For example, mature biofilms floating on top of acid mine drainage (AMD) pools exhibit layers consisting of a densely packed bottom layer of the chemoautolithotroph Leptospirillum group II, a less dense top layer composed mainly of archaea, and fungal filaments spanning across the entire biofilm. The expression of cytochrome 579 (the most highly abundant protein in the biofilm, believed to be central to iron oxidation and encoded by Leptospirillum group II) is localized at the interface of the biofilm with the AMD solution, highlighting that biofilm architecture is reflected at the functional gene expression level. Distinct functional partitioning is also apparent in a biological wastewater treatment system that selects for distinct polyphosphate accumulating organisms. Community genomic data from " Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" dominated activated sludge has enabled high mass-accuracy shotgun proteomics for identification of key metabolic pathways. Comprehensive genome-wide alignment of orthologous proteins suggests distinct partitioning of protein variants involved in both core-metabolism and specific metabolic pathways among the dominant population and closely related species. In addition, strain- resolved proteogenomic analysis of the AMD biofilms

  3. STRUCTURAL IDENTIFICATION OF DISTINCT INVERSIONS OF PLANAR KINEMATIC CHAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Shubhashis Sanyal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 171 979 International Islamic University 8 2 1148 14.0 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Inversions are various structural possibilities of a kinematic chain. The number of inversions depends on the number of links of a kinematic chain. At the stage of structural synthesis, identification of distinct structural inversions of a particular type of kinematic chain is necessary. Various researchers have proposed methods for identification of distinct inversions. Present method based on Link joint connectivity is proposed to identify the distinct inversions of a planar kinematic chain. Method is tested successfully on single degree and multiple degree of freedom planar kinematic chains. ABSTRAK: Penyonsangan merupakan kebarangkalian pelbagai struktur suatu rangkaian kinematik. Jumlah songsangan bergantung kepada jumlah hubungan suatu rangkaian kinematik. Pada peringkat sintesis struktur, pengenalan songsangan struktur yang berbeza untuk suatu jenis rangkaian kinematik adalah perlu. Ramai penyelidik telah mencadangkan pelbagai kaedah pengenalan songsangan yang berbeza. Kaedah terkini berdasarkan hubungan kesambungan bersama telah dicadangkan untuk mengenalpasti songsangan yang berbeza dalam suatu satah rangkaian kinematik.

  4. Genetically Distinct Subsets within ANCA-Associated Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Paul A.; Rayner, Tim F.; Trivedi, Sapna; Holle, Julia U.; Watts, Richard A.; Jayne, David R.W.; Baslund, Bo; Brenchley, Paul; Bruchfeld, Annette; Chaudhry, Afzal N.; Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen; Deloukas, Panos; Feighery, Conleth; Gross, Wolfgang L.; Guillevin, Loic; Gunnarsson, Iva; P, Lorraine Harper M.R.C; Hrušková, Zdenka; Little, Mark A.; Martorana, Davide; Neumann, Thomas; Ohlsson, Sophie; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pusey, Charles D.; Salama, Alan D.; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F.; Savage, Caroline O.; Segelmark, Mårten; Stegeman, Coen A.; Tesař, Vladimir; Vaglio, Augusto; Wieczorek, Stefan; Wilde, Benjamin; Zwerina, Jochen; Rees, Andrew J.; Clayton, David G.; Smith, Kenneth G.C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)–associated vasculitis is a severe condition encompassing two major syndromes: granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly known as Wegener’s granulomatosis) and microscopic polyangiitis. Its cause is unknown, and there is debate about whether it is a single disease entity and what role ANCA plays in its pathogenesis. We investigated its genetic basis. METHODS A genomewide association study was performed in a discovery cohort of 1233 U.K. patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis and 5884 controls and was replicated in 1454 Northern European case patients and 1666 controls. Quality control, population stratification, and statistical analyses were performed according to standard criteria. RESULTS We found both major-histocompatibility-complex (MHC) and non-MHC associations with ANCA-associated vasculitis and also that granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis were genetically distinct. The strongest genetic associations were with the antigenic specificity of ANCA, not with the clinical syndrome. Anti–proteinase 3 ANCA was associated with HLA-DP and the genes encoding α1-antitrypsin (SERPINA1) and proteinase 3 (PRTN3) (P = 6.2×10−89, P = 5.6×10−12, and P = 2.6×10−7, respectively). Anti–myeloperoxidase ANCA was associated with HLA-DQ (P = 2.1×10−8). CONCLUSIONS This study confirms that the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis has a genetic component, shows genetic distinctions between granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis that are associated with ANCA specificity, and suggests that the response against the autoantigen proteinase 3 is a central pathogenic feature of proteinase 3 ANCA–associated vasculitis. These data provide preliminary support for the concept that proteinase 3 ANCA–associated vasculitis and myeloperoxidase ANCA–associated vasculitis are distinct autoimmune syndromes. (Funded by the British Heart Foundation and others.) PMID

  5. Rhinovirus infection induces distinct transcriptome profiles in polarized human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Charu; Walsh, Megan P; Eder, Breanna N; Metitiri, Ediri E; Popova, Antonia P; Hershenson, Marc B

    2018-05-01

    Infections with rhinovirus (RV) cause asthma exacerbations. Recent studies suggest that macrophages play a role in asthmatic airway inflammation and the innate immune response to RV infection. Macrophages exhibit phenotypes based on surface markers and gene expression. We hypothesized that macrophage polarization state alters gene expression in response to RV infection. Cells were derived from human peripheral blood derived monocytes. M1 and M2 polarization was carried out by using IFN-γ and IL-4, respectively, and RNA was extracted for Affymetrix Human Gene ST2.1 exon arrays. Selected genes were validated by quantitative (q)PCR. Treatment of nonactivated (M0) macrophages with IFN-γ and IL-4 induced the expression of 252 and 153 distinct genes, respectively, including previously-identified M1 and M2 markers. RV infection of M0 macrophages induced upregulation of 232 genes; pathway analysis showed significant overrepresentation of genes involved in IFN-α/β signaling and cytokine signaling in the immune system. RV infection induced differential expression of 195 distinct genes in M1-like macrophages but only seven distinct genes in M2-like-polarized cells. In a secondary analysis, comparison between M0-, RV-infected, and M1-like-polarized, RV-infected macrophages revealed differential expression of 227 genes including those associated with asthma and its exacerbation. qPCR demonstrated increased expression of CCL8, CXCL10, TNFSF10, TNFSF18, IL6, NOD2, and GSDMD and reduced expression of VNN1, AGO1, and AGO2. Together, these data show that, in contrast to M2-like-polarized macrophages, gene expression of M1-like macrophages is highly regulated by RV.

  6. Group Frames With Few Distinct Inner Products and Low Coherence

    KAUST Repository

    Thill, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    Frame theory has been a popular subject in the design of structured signals and codes in recent years, with applications ranging from the design of measurement matrices in compressive sensing, to spherical codes for data compression and data transmission, to spacetime codes for MIMO communications, and to measurement operators in quantum sensing. High-performance codes usually arise from designing frames whose elements have mutually low coherence. Building off the original “group frame” design of Slepian which has since been elaborated in the works of Vale and Waldron, we present several new frame constructions based on cyclic and generalized dihedral groups. Slepian\\'s original construction was based on the premise that group structure allows one to reduce the number of distinct inner pairwise inner products in a frame with n elements from [(n(n-1))/2] to n-1. All of our constructions further utilize the group structure to produce tight frames with even fewer distinct inner product values between the frame elements. When n is prime, for example, we use cyclic groups to construct m-dimensional frame vectors with at most [(n-1)/m] distinct inner products. We use this behavior to bound the coherence of our frames via arguments based on the frame potential, and derive even tighter bounds from combinatorial and algebraic arguments using the group structure alone. In certain cases, we recover well-known Welch bound achieving frames. In cases where the Welch bound has not been achieved, and is not known to be achievable, we obtain frames with close to Welch bound performance.

  7. Puerto Rico and Florida manatees represent genetically distinct groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret E.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; King, Timothy L.; Bonde, Robert K.; Gray, Brian A.; McGuire, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) populations in Florida (T. m. latirostris) and Puerto Rico (T. m. manatus) are considered distinct subspecies and are listed together as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act. Sustained management and conservation efforts for the Florida subspecies have led to the suggested reclassification of the species to a threatened or delisted status. However, the two populations are geographically distant, morphologically distinct, and habitat degradation and boat strikes continue to threaten the Puerto Rico population. Here, 15 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control region sequences were used to determine the relatedness of the two populations and investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeographic organization of the Puerto Rico population. Highly divergent allele frequencies were identified between Florida and Puerto Rico using microsatellite (F ST = 0.16; R ST = 0.12 (P ST = 0.66; Φ ST = 0.50 (P E = 0.45; NA = 3.9), were similar, but lower than those previously identified in Florida (HE = 0.48, NA = 4.8). Within Puerto Rico, the mitochondrial genetic diversity values (π = 0.001; h = 0.49) were slightly lower than those previously reported (π = 0.002; h = 0.54) and strong phylogeographic structure was identified (F ST global = 0.82; Φ ST global = 0.78 (P population size (N = 250), and distinct threats and habitat emphasize the need for separate protections in Puerto Rico. Conservation efforts including threat mitigation, migration corridors, and protection of subpopulations could lead to improved genetic variation in the endangered Puerto Rico manatee population.

  8. Distinctive Design A Practical Guide to a Useful, Beautiful Web

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Learn to produce a web site that stands out from the crowd One of the web designer's greatest challenges is to create a site distinctive enough to get noticed among the millions of sites already on the web. This book examines the bond between code, content and visuals to guide you through the factors that increase your design's visibility, usability and beauty. Using this practical advice, even web designers who lack strong artistic skills can develop super sites that strengthen the message and stand out from the crowd.Most books focus primarily on graphic design principles; this one shows you

  9. Rolie-Poly fluid flowing through constrictions: Two distinct instabilities

    KAUST Repository

    Reis, T.; Wilson, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Elastic instabilities of entangled polymer melts are common in industrial processes but the physics responsible is not well understood. We present a numerical linear stability study of a molecular based constitutive model which grants us physical insight into the underlying mechanics involved. Two constriction flows are considered - one shear dominated, the other extension dominated - and two distinct instabilities are found. The influence of the molecular structure and the behaviour of the polymer dynamics are investigated and in both cases chain relaxation and orientation play a crucial role. This suggests a molecular-based physical interpretation of the underlying mechanisms responsible for flow instabilities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  10. A microarray analysis of two distinct lymphatic endothelial cell populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schweighofer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have recently identified lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs to form two morphologically different populations, exhibiting significantly different surface protein expression levels of podoplanin, a major surface marker for this cell type. In vitro shockwave treatment (IVSWT of LECs resulted in enrichment of the podoplaninhigh cell population and was accompanied by markedly increased cell proliferation, as well as 2D and 3D migration. Gene expression profiles of these distinct populations were established using Affymetrix microarray analyses. Here we provide additional details about our dataset (NCBI GEO accession number GSE62510 and describe how we analyzed the data to identify differently expressed genes in these two LEC populations.

  11. Distinct termination morphologies for vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinten, P; Marshall, P; Lefebvre, J; Finnie, P

    2010-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests, including single-walled nanotubes, are imaged optically as they grow in situ from cobalt/alumina catalyst using water-assisted acetylene chemical vapor deposition. Three distinct termination morphologies are identified and investigated optically and via scanning electron microscopy. Quantitative growth dynamics are extracted and show gradual deceleration and sudden termination of growth. The termination morphology is discussed in terms of the balance of forces within the forest. We speculate that sudden termination is a collective effect arising from an imbalance in these forces.

  12. Rolie-Poly fluid flowing through constrictions: Two distinct instabilities

    KAUST Repository

    Reis, T.

    2013-05-01

    Elastic instabilities of entangled polymer melts are common in industrial processes but the physics responsible is not well understood. We present a numerical linear stability study of a molecular based constitutive model which grants us physical insight into the underlying mechanics involved. Two constriction flows are considered - one shear dominated, the other extension dominated - and two distinct instabilities are found. The influence of the molecular structure and the behaviour of the polymer dynamics are investigated and in both cases chain relaxation and orientation play a crucial role. This suggests a molecular-based physical interpretation of the underlying mechanisms responsible for flow instabilities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Responses of an isolation system with distinct multiple frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Base isolation systems are generally designed with a single natural frequency. A major concern for these isolation systems is that, if the dominant frequency of a future earthquake is equal or close to the system's natural frequency, the ground motion will be greatly amplified because of resonance,and the superstructure would suffer severe damages. This paper present an isolation system designed with two distinct frequencies. Its responses to different ground motions, including a harmonic motion, show that no excessive amplification will occur. Adoption of this isolation system would greatly enhance the safety of an isolated superstructure against future strong earthquakes. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Seismic isolation systems designed with distinct multiple frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Two systems for seismic base isolation are presented. The main feature of these system is that, instead of only one isolation frequency as in conventional isolation systems, they are designed to have two distinct isolation frequencies. When the responses during an earthquake exceed the design value(s), the system will automatically and passively shift to the secondly isolation frequency. Responses of these two systems to different ground motions including a harmonic motion with frequency same as the primary isolation frequency, show that no excessive amplification will occur. Adoption of these new systems certainly will greatly enhance the safety and reliability of an isolated superstructure against future strong earthquakes. 3 refs

  15. Timing the Generation of Distinct Retinal Cells by Homeobox Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decembrini, Sarah; Andreazzoli, Massimiliano; Vignali, Robert; Barsacchi, Giuseppina; Cremisi, Federico

    2006-01-01

    The reason why different types of vertebrate nerve cells are generated in a particular sequence is still poorly understood. In the vertebrate retina, homeobox genes play a crucial role in establishing different cell identities. Here we provide evidence of a cellular clock that sequentially activates distinct homeobox genes in embryonic retinal cells, linking the identity of a retinal cell to its time of generation. By in situ expression analysis, we found that the three Xenopus homeobox genes Xotx5b, Xvsx1, and Xotx2 are initially transcribed but not translated in early retinal progenitors. Their translation requires cell cycle progression and is sequentially activated in photoreceptors (Xotx5b) and bipolar cells (Xvsx1 and Xotx2). Furthermore, by in vivo lipofection of “sensors” in which green fluorescent protein translation is under control of the 3′ untranslated region (UTR), we found that the 3′ UTRs of Xotx5b, Xvsx1, and Xotx2 are sufficient to drive a spatiotemporal pattern of translation matching that of the corresponding proteins and consistent with the time of generation of photoreceptors (Xotx5b) and bipolar cells (Xvsx1 and Xotx2). The block of cell cycle progression of single early retinal progenitors impairs their differentiation as photoreceptors and bipolar cells, but is rescued by the lipofection of Xotx5b and Xvsx1 coding sequences, respectively. This is the first evidence to our knowledge that vertebrate homeobox proteins can work as effectors of a cellular clock to establish distinct cell identities. PMID:16903786

  16. Francis Bacon and the Art-Nature Distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Sophie

    2007-07-01

    Commentators generally expound Bacon's position on the art-nature relationship in terms of how much it retained or departed from traditional conceptions. This paper argues that an appreciation of the Baconian meaning of the terms "art" and "nature" requires a close examination of his wider cosmogonical speculations. Bacon's cosmogonical account moves from a state of unbridled chaos to the relatively stable system for which the term "nature" is normally used. The fundamental principle lying at the heart of Baconian cosmogony is an enriched and appetitive matter: eternal, unchanging, and the plenipotentiary source of all things. Successive limitations of matter's absolute power produced a lazy and habitual nature, which Bacon labelled "nature free." To shift nature from this otiose condition, the Baconian operator recapitulates the original binding of matter. Bacon designated the systematic procedures of binding nature the science of magic. Magic is Bacon's human counterpart to the original cosmogonical process that gave rise to the current system of nature. In Bacon's cosmogony, all possible worlds unfold out of matter: the function of art is to shake out nature's hidden folds. Hence, the distinction between naturalia and artificialia maps on to the distinction between actual and potential. Nature free is without purpose, but art - nature bound - knowingly brings into being an alternative nature designed for human utility.

  17. BARE retrotransposons are translated and replicated via distinct RNA pools.

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    Wei Chang

    Full Text Available The replication of Long Terminal Repeat (LTR retrotransposons, which can constitute over 80% of higher plant genomes, resembles that of retroviruses. A major question for retrotransposons and retroviruses is how the two conflicting roles of their transcripts, in translation and reverse transcription, are balanced. Here, we show that the BARE retrotransposon, despite its organization into just one open reading frame, produces three distinct classes of transcripts. One is capped, polyadenylated, and translated, but cannot be copied into cDNA. The second is not capped or polyadenylated, but is destined for packaging and ultimate reverse transcription. The third class is capped, polyadenylated, and spliced to favor production of a subgenomic RNA encoding only Gag, the protein forming virus-like particles. Moreover, the BARE2 subfamily, which cannot synthesize Gag and is parasitic on BARE1, does not produce the spliced sub-genomic RNA for translation but does make the replication competent transcripts, which are packaged into BARE1 particles. To our knowledge, this is first demonstration of distinct RNA pools for translation and transcription for any retrotransposon.

  18. Branchial Cilia and Sperm Flagella Recruit Distinct Axonemal Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Alu; Shiba, Kogiku; Cai, Chunhua; Inaba, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cilia and flagella have highly conserved 9 + 2 structures. They are functionally diverged to play cell-type-specific roles even in a multicellular organism. Although their structural components are therefore believed to be common, few studies have investigated the molecular diversity of the protein components of the cilia and flagella in a single organism. Here we carried out a proteomic analysis and compared protein components between branchial cilia and sperm flagella in a marine invertebrate chordate, Ciona intestinalis. Distinct feature of protein recruitment in branchial cilia and sperm flagella has been clarified; (1) Isoforms of α- and β-tubulins as well as those of actins are distinctly used in branchial cilia or sperm flagella. (2) Structural components, such as dynein docking complex, tektins and an outer dense fiber protein, are used differently by the cilia and flagella. (3) Sperm flagella are specialized for the cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent regulation of outer arm dynein and for energy metabolism by glycolytic enzymes. Our present study clearly demonstrates that flagellar or ciliary proteins are properly recruited according to their function and stability, despite their apparent structural resemblance and conservation. PMID:25962172

  19. Distinctive personality profiles of fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N. Ablin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current study is an innovative exploratory investigation, aiming at identifying differences in personality profiles within Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS patients. Method In total, 344 participants (309 female, 35 male reported suffering from FMS and/or CFS and consented to participate in the study. Participants were recruited at an Israeli FM/CFS patient meeting held in May 2013, and through an announcement posted on several social networks. Participants were asked to complete a research questionnaire, which included FMS criteria and severity scales, and measures of personality, emotional functioning, positivity, social support and subjective assessment of general health. In total, 204 participants completed the research questionnaire (40.7% attrition rate. Results A cluster analysis produced two distinct clusters, which differed significantly on psychological variables, but did not differ on demographic variables or illness severity. As compared to cluster number 2 (N = 107, participants classified into cluster number 1 (N = 97 showed a less adaptive pattern, with higher levels of Harm Avoidance and Alexithymia; higher prevalence of Type D personality; and lower levels of Persistence (PS, Reward dependence (RD, Cooperation, Self-directedness (SD, social support and positivity. Conclusion The significant pattern of results indicates at least two distinct personality profiles of FM and CFS patients. Findings from this research may help improve the evaluation and treatment of FM and CFS patients, based on each patient’s unique needs, psychological resources and weaknesses, as proposed by the current trend of personalized medicine.

  20. Temporomandibular joint formation requires two distinct hedgehog-dependent steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Patricia; Joo, Brian W; Hu, Jimmy K; Tran, Pamela V; Calicchio, Monica L; O'Connell, Daniel J; Maas, Richard L; Tabin, Clifford J

    2009-10-27

    We conducted a genetic analysis of the developing temporo-mandibular or temporomandi-bular joint (TMJ), a highly specialized synovial joint that permits movement and function of the mammalian jaw. First, we used laser capture microdissection to perform a genome-wide expression analysis of each of its developing components. The expression patterns of genes identified in this screen were examined in the TMJ and compared with those of other synovial joints, including the shoulder and the hip joints. Striking differences were noted, indicating that the TMJ forms via a distinct molecular program. Several components of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway are among the genes identified in the screen, including Gli2, which is expressed specifically in the condyle and in the disk of the developing TMJ. We found that mice deficient in Gli2 display aberrant TMJ development such that the condyle loses its growth-plate-like cellular organization and no disk is formed. In addition, we used a conditional strategy to remove Smo, a positive effector of the Hh signaling pathway, from chondrocyte progenitors. This cell autonomous loss of Hh signaling allows for disk formation, but the resulting structure fails to separate from the condyle. Thus, these experiments establish that Hh signaling acts at two distinct steps in disk morphogenesis, condyle initiation, and disk-condyle separation and provide a molecular framework for future studies of the TMJ.

  1. Timing the generation of distinct retinal cells by homeobox proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Decembrini

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The reason why different types of vertebrate nerve cells are generated in a particular sequence is still poorly understood. In the vertebrate retina, homeobox genes play a crucial role in establishing different cell identities. Here we provide evidence of a cellular clock that sequentially activates distinct homeobox genes in embryonic retinal cells, linking the identity of a retinal cell to its time of generation. By in situ expression analysis, we found that the three Xenopus homeobox genes Xotx5b, Xvsx1, and Xotx2 are initially transcribed but not translated in early retinal progenitors. Their translation requires cell cycle progression and is sequentially activated in photoreceptors (Xotx5b and bipolar cells (Xvsx1 and Xotx2. Furthermore, by in vivo lipofection of "sensors" in which green fluorescent protein translation is under control of the 3' untranslated region (UTR, we found that the 3' UTRs of Xotx5b, Xvsx1, and Xotx2 are sufficient to drive a spatiotemporal pattern of translation matching that of the corresponding proteins and consistent with the time of generation of photoreceptors (Xotx5b and bipolar cells (Xvsx1 and Xotx2. The block of cell cycle progression of single early retinal progenitors impairs their differentiation as photoreceptors and bipolar cells, but is rescued by the lipofection of Xotx5b and Xvsx1 coding sequences, respectively. This is the first evidence to our knowledge that vertebrate homeobox proteins can work as effectors of a cellular clock to establish distinct cell identities.

  2. Distinct pathways of neural coupling for different basic emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tettamanti, Marco; Rognoni, Elena; Cafiero, Riccardo; Costa, Tommaso; Galati, Dario; Perani, Daniela

    2012-01-16

    Emotions are complex events recruiting distributed cortical and subcortical cerebral structures, where the functional integration dynamics within the involved neural circuits in relation to the nature of the different emotions are still unknown. Using fMRI, we measured the neural responses elicited by films representing basic emotions (fear, disgust, sadness, happiness). The amygdala and the associative cortex were conjointly activated by all basic emotions. Furthermore, distinct arrays of cortical and subcortical brain regions were additionally activated by each emotion, with the exception of sadness. Such findings informed the definition of three effective connectivity models, testing for the functional integration of visual cortex and amygdala, as regions processing all emotions, with domain-specific regions, namely: i) for fear, the frontoparietal system involved in preparing adaptive motor responses; ii) for disgust, the somatosensory system, reflecting protective responses against contaminating stimuli; iii) for happiness: medial prefrontal and temporoparietal cortices involved in understanding joyful interactions. Consistently with these domain-specific models, the results of the effective connectivity analysis indicate that the amygdala is involved in distinct functional integration effects with cortical networks processing sensorimotor, somatosensory, or cognitive aspects of basic emotions. The resulting effective connectivity networks may serve to regulate motor and cognitive behavior based on the quality of the induced emotional experience. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Network analysis reveals distinct clinical syndromes underlying acute mountain sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Hall

    Full Text Available Acute mountain sickness (AMS is a common problem among visitors at high altitude, and may progress to life-threatening pulmonary and cerebral oedema in a minority of cases. International consensus defines AMS as a constellation of subjective, non-specific symptoms. Specifically, headache, sleep disturbance, fatigue and dizziness are given equal diagnostic weighting. Different pathophysiological mechanisms are now thought to underlie headache and sleep disturbance during acute exposure to high altitude. Hence, these symptoms may not belong together as a single syndrome. Using a novel visual analogue scale (VAS, we sought to undertake a systematic exploration of the symptomatology of AMS using an unbiased, data-driven approach originally designed for analysis of gene expression. Symptom scores were collected from 292 subjects during 1110 subject-days at altitudes between 3650 m and 5200 m on Apex expeditions to Bolivia and Kilimanjaro. Three distinct patterns of symptoms were consistently identified. Although fatigue is a ubiquitous finding, sleep disturbance and headache are each commonly reported without the other. The commonest pattern of symptoms was sleep disturbance and fatigue, with little or no headache. In subjects reporting severe headache, 40% did not report sleep disturbance. Sleep disturbance correlates poorly with other symptoms of AMS (Mean Spearman correlation 0.25. These results challenge the accepted paradigm that AMS is a single disease process and describe at least two distinct syndromes following acute ascent to high altitude. This approach to analysing symptom patterns has potential utility in other clinical syndromes.

  4. Two Distinct Scene-Processing Networks Connecting Vision and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassano, Christopher; Esteva, Andre; Fei-Fei, Li; Beck, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    A number of regions in the human brain are known to be involved in processing natural scenes, but the field has lacked a unifying framework for understanding how these different regions are organized and interact. We provide evidence from functional connectivity and meta-analyses for a new organizational principle, in which scene processing relies upon two distinct networks that split the classically defined parahippocampal place area (PPA). The first network of strongly connected regions consists of the occipital place area/transverse occipital sulcus and posterior PPA, which contain retinotopic maps and are not strongly coupled to the hippocampus at rest. The second network consists of the caudal inferior parietal lobule, retrosplenial complex, and anterior PPA, which connect to the hippocampus (especially anterior hippocampus), and are implicated in both visual and nonvisual tasks, including episodic memory and navigation. We propose that these two distinct networks capture the primary functional division among scene-processing regions, between those that process visual features from the current view of a scene and those that connect information from a current scene view with a much broader temporal and spatial context. This new framework for understanding the neural substrates of scene-processing bridges results from many lines of research, and makes specific functional predictions.

  5. The uses and abuses of the coherence – correspondence distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonioli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Kenneth Hammond introduced a distinction between coherence and correspondence criteria of rationality as a tool in the study of judgment and decision-making. This distinction has been widely used in the field. Yet, as this paper seeks to show, the relevant notions of coherence and correspondence have been progressively considered to be too narrow and have undergone non-trivial conceptual changes since their original introduction. I try to show, first, that the proliferation of conceptualizations of coherence and correspondence has created confusion in the literature and that appealing to such notions has not helped to elucidate discussions over the nature of rational judgment and decision-making. Nevertheless, I also argue for a reframing of the debate. In fact, what seems to underlie several contemporary appeals to the notions of coherence and correspondence is best explained in terms of a contrast between what I call rule-based and goal-based rationality. Whilst these categories do need further refinement, they do seem to be useful for organizing and understanding research on rational judgment and decision-making. PMID:25983700

  6. Vertically distinct microbial communities in the Mariana and Kermadec trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Sierra; Osuntokun, Oladayo; Xia, Qing; Nelson, Alex; Blanton, Jessica; Allen, Eric E.; Church, Matthew J.; Bartlett, Douglas H.

    2018-01-01

    Hadal trenches, oceanic locations deeper than 6,000 m, are thought to have distinct microbial communities compared to those at shallower depths due to high hydrostatic pressures, topographical funneling of organic matter, and biogeographical isolation. Here we evaluate the hypothesis that hadal trenches contain unique microbial biodiversity through analyses of the communities present in the bottom waters of the Kermadec and Mariana trenches. Estimates of microbial protein production indicate active populations under in situ hydrostatic pressures and increasing adaptation to pressure with depth. Depth, trench of collection, and size fraction are important drivers of microbial community structure. Many putative hadal bathytypes, such as members related to the Marinimicrobia, Rhodobacteraceae, Rhodospirilliceae, and Aquibacter, are similar to members identified in other trenches. Most of the differences between the two trench microbiomes consists of taxa belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria whose distributions extend throughout the water column. Growth and survival estimates of representative isolates of these taxa under deep-sea conditions suggest that some members may descend from shallower depths and exist as a potentially inactive fraction of the hadal zone. We conclude that the distinct pelagic communities residing in these two trenches, and perhaps by extension other trenches, reflect both cosmopolitan hadal bathytypes and ubiquitous genera found throughout the water column. PMID:29621268

  7. Distinct functional programming of human fetal and adult monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth R; Kim, Charles C; Burt, Trevor D; McCune, Joseph M

    2014-03-20

    Preterm birth affects 1 out of 9 infants in the United States and is the leading cause of long-term neurologic handicap and infant mortality, accounting for 35% of all infant deaths in 2008. Although cytokines including interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-6, and IL-1 are produced in response to in utero infection and are strongly associated with preterm labor, little is known about how human fetal immune cells respond to these cytokines. We demonstrate that fetal and adult CD14(+)CD16(-) classical monocytes are distinct in terms of basal transcriptional profiles and in phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) in response to cytokines. Fetal monocytes phosphorylate canonical and noncanonical STATs and respond more strongly to IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-4 than adult monocytes. We demonstrate a higher ratio of SOCS3 to IL-6 receptor in adult monocytes than in fetal monocytes, potentially explaining differences in STAT phosphorylation. Additionally, IFN-γ signaling results in upregulation of antigen presentation and costimulatory machinery in adult, but not fetal, monocytes. These findings represent the first evidence that primary human fetal and adult monocytes are functionally distinct, potentially explaining how these cells respond differentially to cytokines implicated in development, in utero infections, and the pathogenesis of preterm labor.

  8. Analysis of pharmacogenetic traits in two distinct South African populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikediobi Ogechi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Our knowledge of pharmacogenetic variability in diverse populations is scarce, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we characterised population frequencies of clinically relevant pharmacogenetic traits in two distinct South African population groups. We genotyped 211 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs in 12 genes that influence antiretroviral drug disposition, in 176 South African individuals belonging to two distinct population groups residing in the Western Cape: the Xhosa (n = 109 and Cape Mixed Ancestry (CMA (n = 67 groups. The minor allele frequencies (MAFs of eight tagSNPs in six genes (those encoding the ATP binding cassette sub-family B, member 1 [ABCB1], four members of the cytochrome P450 family [CYP2A7P1, CYP2C18, CYP3A4, CYP3A5] and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 [UGT1A1] were significantly different between the Xhosa and CMA populations (Bonferroni p CYP2C18, CYP3A4, the gene encoding solute carrier family 22 member 6 [SLC22A6] and UGT1A1 between the two South African populations. Characterising the Xhosa and CMA population frequencies of variant alleles important for drug transport and metabolism can help to establish the clinical relevance of pharmacogenetic testing in these populations.

  9. The mechanism of the emergence of distinct overstretched DNA states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, You-Liang; Sun, Zhao-Yan, E-mail: zysun@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Lu, Zhong-Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2016-01-14

    Although multiple overstretched DNA states were identified in experiments, the mechanism of the emergence of distinct states is still unclear. Molecular dynamics simulation is an ideal tool to clarify the mechanism, but the force loading rates in stretching achieved by conventional all-atom DNA models are much faster, which essentially affect overstretching states. We employed a modified coarse-grained DNA model with an unprecedented low loading rate in simulations to study the overstretching transitions of end-opened double-stranded DNA. We observed two-strand peeling off for DNA with low stability and the S-DNA with high stability under tension. By introducing a melting-forbidden model which prevents base-pair breaking, we still observed the overstretching transition induced by the formation of S-DNA due to the change of dihedral angle. Hence, we confirmed that the competition between the two strain-softening manners, i.e., base-pair breaking and dihedral angle variation, results in the emergence of distinct overstretched DNA states.

  10. Peptidomic and transcriptomic profiling of four distinct spider venoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Oldrati

    Full Text Available Venom based research is exploited to find novel candidates for the development of innovative pharmacological tools, drug candidates and new ingredients for cosmetic and agrochemical industries. Moreover, venomics, as a well-established approach in systems biology, helps to elucidate the genetic mechanisms of the production of such a great molecular biodiversity. Today the advances made in the proteomics, transcriptomics and bioinformatics fields, favor venomics, allowing the in depth study of complex matrices and the elucidation even of minor compounds present in minute biological samples. The present study illustrates a rapid and efficient method developed for the elucidation of venom composition based on NextGen mRNA sequencing of venom glands and LC-MS/MS venom proteome profiling. The analysis of the comprehensive data obtained was focused on cysteine rich peptide toxins from four spider species originating from phylogenetically distant families for comparison purposes. The studied species were Heteropoda davidbowie (Sparassidae, Poecilotheria formosa (Theraphosidae, Viridasius fasciatus (Viridasiidae and Latrodectus mactans (Theridiidae. This led to a high resolution profiling of 284 characterized cysteine rich peptides, 111 of which belong to the Inhibitor Cysteine Knot (ICK structural motif. The analysis of H. davidbowie venom revealed a high richness in term of venom diversity: 95 peptide sequences were identified; out of these, 32 peptides presented the ICK structural motif and could be classified in six distinct families. The profiling of P. formosa venom highlighted the presence of 126 peptide sequences, with 52 ICK toxins belonging to three structural distinct families. V. fasciatus venom was shown to contain 49 peptide sequences, out of which 22 presented the ICK structural motif and were attributed to five families. The venom of L. mactans, until now studied for its large neurotoxins (Latrotoxins, revealed the presence of 14

  11. Euthanasia: The conceptualization of the problem and important distinctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Milijana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is twofold. On the one hand, the intention is to provide analysis of the issue of euthanasia. On the other hand, this approach necessarily leads to a discussion toward the provision of an adequate definition of euthanasia. Therefore the article, first of all, refers to the multi­layered aspect of the term euthanasia. To avoid ambiguity and other uncer­tainties while providing the definition of euthanasia, the authors carefully perform a conceptual analysis. This leads to the establishment of a clear distinction between actions which, due to their motives or their method of execution, cast a shadow on the meaning of this medical procedure. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179041: Dinamički sistemi u prirodi i društvu: filozofski i empirijski aspekti

  12. Amygdala and ventral striatum make distinct contributions to reinforcement learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vincent D.; Monte, Olga Dal; Lucas, Daniel R.; Murray, Elisabeth A.; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Reinforcement learning (RL) theories posit that dopaminergic signals are integrated within the striatum to associate choices with outcomes. Often overlooked is that the amygdala also receives dopaminergic input and is involved in Pavlovian processes that influence choice behavior. To determine the relative contributions of the ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala to appetitive RL we tested rhesus macaques with VS or amygdala lesions on deterministic and stochastic versions of a two-arm bandit reversal learning task. When learning was characterized with a RL model relative to controls, amygdala lesions caused general decreases in learning from positive feedback and choice consistency. By comparison, VS lesions only affected learning in the stochastic task. Moreover, the VS lesions hastened the monkeys’ choice reaction times, which emphasized a speed-accuracy tradeoff that accounted for errors in deterministic learning. These results update standard accounts of RL by emphasizing distinct contributions of the amygdala and VS to RL. PMID:27720488

  13. Memory Synapses Are Defined by Distinct Molecular Complexes: A Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossin, Wayne S

    2018-01-01

    Synapses are diverse in form and function. While there are strong evidential and theoretical reasons for believing that memories are stored at synapses, the concept of a specialized "memory synapse" is rarely discussed. Here, we review the evidence that memories are stored at the synapse and consider the opposing possibilities. We argue that if memories are stored in an active fashion at synapses, then these memory synapses must have distinct molecular complexes that distinguish them from other synapses. In particular, examples from Aplysia sensory-motor neuron synapses and synapses on defined engram neurons in rodent models are discussed. Specific hypotheses for molecular complexes that define memory synapses are presented, including persistently active kinases, transmitter receptor complexes and trans-synaptic adhesion proteins.

  14. The picture superiority effect: support for the distinctiveness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzer, M Z; Snodgrass, J G

    1999-01-01

    The form change paradigm was used to explore the basis for the picture superiority effect. Recognition memory for studied pictures and words was tested in their study form or the alternate form. Form change cost was defined as the difference between recognition performance for same and different form items. Based on the results of Experiment 1 and previous studies, it was difficult to determine the relative cost for studied pictures and words due to a reversal of the mirror effect. We hypothesized that the reversed mirror effect results from subjects' basing their recognition decisions on their assumptions about the study form. Experiments 2 and 3 confirmed this hypothesis and generated a method for evaluating the relative cost for pictures and words despite the reversed mirror effect. More cost was observed for pictures than words, supporting the distinctiveness model of the picture superiority effect.

  15. Troubling distinctions: a semiotics of the nursing/technology relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, M

    1999-09-01

    I consider the discursive practices that have served conceptually and ontologically to trouble the boundaries between nursing and technology: between nurse/human/subject and machine/non-human/object. Nursing and technology have been semiotically related largely by two processes: (a) by the metaphor that depicts nursing as technology and (b) by opposition, or as not like and even in conflict with technology. Less frequently but no less significantly, nursing and technology have been semiotically linked (c) by the metaphor that depicts technology as nursing and (d) by metonymy, or by word or picture juxtapositions of nursing with technology. The troubling distinctions between nursing and technology suggest yet another reason why the construction of difference continues to elude nursing.

  16. Distinct conflict resolution deficits related to different facets of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, John G

    2009-11-01

    An important issue in understanding the nature of conflict processing is whether it is a unitary or multidimensional construct. One way to examine this is to study whether people with impaired conflict processing exhibit a general pattern of deficits or whether they exhibit impairments in distinct aspects of conflict processing. One group who might exhibit conflict deficits are people with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder, with one way to break down the heterogeneity of schizophrenia is to examine specific symptoms. Previous research has found that specific symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with specific deficits in conflict processing. In particular, disorganization is associated with increased response conflict, alogia is associated with increased retrieval conflict, and anhedonia is associated with increased emotional conflict. Moreover, there is evidence that different types of conflict processing are unassociated with each other. This evidence suggests that conflict processing is a multidimensional construct and that different aspects of schizophrenia are associated with impairments in processing different types of conflict.

  17. Two Distinct Moral Mechanisms for Ascribing and Denying Intentionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Lawrence; Kelly, Meagan; Coutlee, Christopher G; Carter, R McKell; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Huettel, Scott A

    2015-12-04

    Philosophers and legal scholars have long theorized about how intentionality serves as a critical input for morality and culpability, but the emerging field of experimental philosophy has revealed a puzzling asymmetry. People judge actions leading to negative consequences as being more intentional than those leading to positive ones. The implications of this asymmetry remain unclear because there is no consensus regarding the underlying mechanism. Based on converging behavioral and neural evidence, we demonstrate that there is no single underlying mechanism. Instead, two distinct mechanisms together generate the asymmetry. Emotion drives ascriptions of intentionality for negative consequences, while the consideration of statistical norms leads to the denial of intentionality for positive consequences. We employ this novel two-mechanism model to illustrate that morality can paradoxically shape judgments of intentionality. This is consequential for mens rea in legal practice and arguments in moral philosophy pertaining to terror bombing, abortion, and euthanasia among others.

  18. Distinctive Facial Cues Predict Leadership Rank and Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Daniel E; Rule, Nicholas

    2017-09-01

    Facial appearance correlates with leadership, both in terms of who is chosen (leader selection) and how they do (leader success). Leadership theories suggest that exceptional individuals acquire positions as leaders. Exceptional traits can differ between domains, however, and so the qualities valued in leaders in one occupation may not match those valued among leaders in another. To test this, we compared the relationship between facial appearance and leadership across two domains: law firms and mafia families. Perceptions of power correlated with leadership among law executives whereas social skill correlated with leadership in organized crime. Critically, these traits were distinctive within their respective groups. Furthermore, an experimental test showed that the relative frequency of facial traits in a group can render them either an asset or liability. Perceived leadership ability is therefore enhanced by characteristics that appear unique among individuals who satisfy the basic criteria for their group.

  19. Distinct pattern of p53 mutations in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spruck, C H; Rideout, W M; Olumi, A F

    1993-01-01

    A distinct mutational spectrum for the p53 tumor suppressor gene in bladder carcinomas was established in patients with known exposures to cigarette smoke. Single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis of exons 5 through 8 of the p53 gene showed inactivating mutations in 16 of 40 (40%) bladder...... tumors from smokers and 13 of 40 (33%) tumors from lifetime nonsmokers. Overall, 13 of the 50 (26%) total point mutations discovered in this and previous work were G:C-->C:G transversions, a relatively rare mutational type in human tumors. In six tumors, identical AGA (Arg)-->ACA (Thr) point mutations...... double mutations, four of which were tandem mutations on the same allele. No double mutations were found in tumors from nonsmoking patients. None of the mutations in smokers were G:C-->T:A transversions, which would be anticipated for exposure to the suspected cigarette smoke carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl...

  20. Application of distinct element method to toppling failure of slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Hibino, Satoshi; Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Asai, Yoshiyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Recently, the stability of slopes during earthquakes has become to be an important engineering problem, especially in case of the earthquake-proof design of nuclear power plants. But, for fissured rock slopes, some problems are remained unresolved, because they can not be treated as continua. The authors have been investigating toppling failure of slopes, from a point of view which regards a fissured rock mass as an assemblage of rigid blocks. DEM (Distinct Element Method) proposed by Cundall (1974) seems to be very helpful to such a investigation. So, in this paper, the applicability of DEM to toppling failure of slopes is examined through the comparison between DEM results and theoretical or experimental results using 3 simple models. (author)

  1. Application of distinct element method of toppling failure of slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Hibino, Satoshi; Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Ito, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    The authors have pointed out, in the latest report, that DEM (Distinct Element Method) seems to be a very helpful numerical method to examine the stability of fissured rock slopes, in which toppling failure would occur during earthquakes. In this report, the applicability of DEM for such rock slopes is examined through the following comparisons between theoretical results and DEM results, referring Voegele's works (1982): (1) Stability of one block on a slope. (2) Failure of a rock block column composed of 10 same size rectangular blocks. (3) Cable force required to make a slope stable. Through above 3 comparisons, it seems that DEM give the reasonable results. Considering that these problems may not be treated by the other numerical methods such as FEM and so on, so DEM seems to be a very useful method for fissured rock slope analysis. (author)

  2. Fuel -coolant interactions in LWRs and LMFBRs: relationships and distinctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffey, R B; Lellouche, G S [Nuclear Safety and Analysis Department, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1979-10-15

    The question of fuel-coolant interaction and of potential vapor explosion is raised here. lt is the contention of the authors that there is in fact no need to study this question vis a vis Light Water Reactors (LWR) except from an academic point of view since it does not impact on safety considerations. As for LMFBRs, the design basis whole core accidents for LWRs are derived from the fundamental concern of maintaining core geometry to provide for convective cooling. However, the important distinction is that the core is in its most reactive configuration, and core and fuel rearrangement is therefore not of such concern. The author's thesis is that even if the probability of steam explosion following core melt were two orders of magnitude greater than currently assumed (10{sup -2}) the total LWR risk would increase only by a factor of 2-6 for BWRs and less a factor of 10 for PWRs

  3. Distinctive striatal dopamine signaling after dieting and gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Mohammed K; Ashrafian, Hutan; Hesse, Swen; Horstmann, Annette; Fenske, Wiebke K

    2015-05-01

    Highly palatable and/or calorically dense foods, such as those rich in fat, engage the striatum to govern and set complex behaviors. Striatal dopamine signaling has been implicated in hedonic feeding and the development of obesity. Dieting and bariatric surgery have markedly different outcomes on weight loss, yet how these interventions affect central homeostatic and food reward processing remains poorly understood. Here, we propose that dieting and gastric bypass produce distinct changes in peripheral factors with known roles in regulating energy homeostasis, resulting in differential modulation of nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopaminergic reward circuits. Enhancement of intestinal fat metabolism after gastric bypass may also modify striatal dopamine signaling contributing to its unique long-term effects on feeding behavior and body weight in obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Context and scale: Distinctions for improving debates about physician "rationing".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilburt, Jon C; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2017-08-29

    Important discussions about limiting care based on professional judgment often devolve into heated debates over the place of physicians in bedside rationing. Politics, loaded rhetoric, and ideological caricature from both sides of the rationing debate obscure precise points of disagreement and consensus, and hinder critical dialogue around the obligations and boundaries of professional practice. We propose a way forward by reframing the rationing conversation, distinguishing between the scale of the decision (macro vs. micro) and its context (ordinary allocation vs. extraordinary re-allocation) avoiding the word "rationing." We propose to shift the terminology, using specific, descriptive words to defuse conflict and re-focus the debate towards substantive issues. These distinctions can clarify the real ethical differences at stake and facilitate a more constructive conversation about the clinical and social responsibilities of physicians to use resources ethically at the bedside and their role in allocating medical resources at a societal level.

  5. Stalled replication forks generate a distinct mutational signature in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolai B.; Liberti, Sascha E.; Vogel, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Proliferating cells acquire genome alterations during the act of DNA replication. This leads to mutation accumulation and somatic cell mosaicism in multicellular organisms, and is also implicated as an underlying cause of aging and tumorigenesis. The molecular mechanisms of DNA replication...... Escherichia coli Tus/Ter complex) engineered into the yeast genome. We demonstrate that transient stalling at this barrier induces a distinct pattern of genome rearrangements in the newly replicated region behind the stalled fork, which primarily consist of localized losses and duplications of DNA sequences....... These genetic alterations arise through the aberrant repair of a single-stranded DNA gap, in a process that is dependent on Exo1- and Shu1-dependent homologous recombination repair (HRR). Furthermore, aberrant processing of HRR intermediates, and elevated HRR-associated mutagenesis, is detectable in a yeast...

  6. A Canonical Approach to the Argument/Adjunct Distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Forker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an account of the argument/adjunct distinction implementing the 'canonical approach'. I identify five criteria (obligatoriness, latency, co-occurrence restrictions, grammatical relations, and iterability and seven diagnostic tendencies that can be used to distinguish canonical arguments from canonical adjuncts. I then apply the criteria and tendencies to data from the Nakh-Daghestanian language Hinuq. Hinuq makes extensive use of spatial cases for marking adjunct-like and argument-like NPs. By means of the criteria and tendencies it is possible to distinguish spatial NPs that come close to canonical arguments from those that are canonical adjuncts, and to place the remaining NPs bearing spatial cases within the argument-adjunct continuum.

  7. Pediatric schwannomatosis, a rare but distinct form of neurofibromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Anna K. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Egelhoff, John C.; Curran, John G. [Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Thomas, Bobby

    2016-03-15

    Schwannomatosis is the third major form of neurofibromatosis, distinct from neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and type 1 (NF1). This condition is rare with a variable phenotypic presentation and complex molecular and genetic findings. In this case, a previously healthy teenager was found to have multiple spinal lesions and an enhancing right parotid mass on MRI. On extensive further work-up, this patient met the existing clinical criteria for schwannomatosis. This case report aims to review the clinical features and current diagnostic criteria for schwannomatosis and compare it to NF1 and NF2. Special emphasis will be placed on imaging features that should prompt the radiologist to suggest this rare diagnosis. (orig.)

  8. Distinct facial processing in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Cataldo, Andrea; Norton, Daniel J; Ongur, Dost

    2011-01-01

    Although schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders have both similar and differing clinical features, it is not well understood whether similar or differing pathophysiological processes mediate patients’ cognitive functions. Using psychophysical methods, this study compared the performances of schizophrenia (SZ) patients, patients with schizoaffective disorder (SA), and a healthy control group in two face-related cognitive tasks: emotion discrimination, which tested perception of facial affect, and identity discrimination, which tested perception of non-affective facial features. Compared to healthy controls, SZ patients, but not SA patients, exhibited deficient performance in both fear and happiness discrimination, as well as identity discrimination. SZ patients, but not SA patients, also showed impaired performance in a theory-of-mind task for which emotional expressions are identified based upon the eye regions of face images. This pattern of results suggests distinct processing of face information in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. PMID:21868199

  9. Distinct bone marrow blood vessels differentially regulate haematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Tomer; Gur-Cohen, Shiri; Spencer, Joel A; Schajnovitz, Amir; Ramasamy, Saravana K; Kusumbe, Anjali P; Ledergor, Guy; Jung, Yookyung; Milo, Idan; Poulos, Michael G; Kalinkovich, Alexander; Ludin, Aya; Kollet, Orit; Shakhar, Guy; Butler, Jason M; Rafii, Shahin; Adams, Ralf H; Scadden, David T; Lin, Charles P; Lapidot, Tsvee

    2016-04-21

    Bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs) form a network of blood vessels that regulate both leukocyte trafficking and haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) maintenance. However, it is not clear how BMECs balance these dual roles, and whether these events occur at the same vascular site. We found that mammalian bone marrow stem cell maintenance and leukocyte trafficking are regulated by distinct blood vessel types with different permeability properties. Less permeable arterial blood vessels maintain haematopoietic stem cells in a low reactive oxygen species (ROS) state, whereas the more permeable sinusoids promote HSPC activation and are the exclusive site for immature and mature leukocyte trafficking to and from the bone marrow. A functional consequence of high permeability of blood vessels is that exposure to blood plasma increases bone marrow HSPC ROS levels, augmenting their migration and differentiation, while compromising their long-term repopulation and survival. These findings may have relevance for clinical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and mobilization protocols.

  10. Two Distinct Moral Mechanisms for Ascribing and Denying Intentionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Lawrence; Kelly, Meagan; Coutlee, Christopher G.; Carter, R. McKell; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Huettel, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Philosophers and legal scholars have long theorized about how intentionality serves as a critical input for morality and culpability, but the emerging field of experimental philosophy has revealed a puzzling asymmetry. People judge actions leading to negative consequences as being more intentional than those leading to positive ones. The implications of this asymmetry remain unclear because there is no consensus regarding the underlying mechanism. Based on converging behavioral and neural evidence, we demonstrate that there is no single underlying mechanism. Instead, two distinct mechanisms together generate the asymmetry. Emotion drives ascriptions of intentionality for negative consequences, while the consideration of statistical norms leads to the denial of intentionality for positive consequences. We employ this novel two-mechanism model to illustrate that morality can paradoxically shape judgments of intentionality. This is consequential for mens rea in legal practice and arguments in moral philosophy pertaining to terror bombing, abortion, and euthanasia among others. PMID:26634909

  11. Long term stability and individual distinctiveness in captive orca vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Michael; Suchak, Malini

    2005-04-01

    With focus on the question of signature calling in killer whales, recordings from five captive orcas (of Icelandic origin) held at Marineland of Canada were compared. For the present analysis, samples of three different call syllables were selected from recordings made five years apart and from instances in which the identity of the calling whale was unambiguous due to temporary isolation, concomitant bubbling, and/or head nodding. The Raven software package was used to ascertain the frequency range, frequency (max), duration, and timing of maximum and minimum power within each sample. For two of the three call syllables, statistically significant differences were found among the five whales for call length and for the timing of maximums and minimums (porcas are distinct from one another in ways that are stable over the course of multiple years.

  12. Metal transport across biomembranes: emerging models for a distinct chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüello, José M; Raimunda, Daniel; González-Guerrero, Manuel

    2012-04-20

    Transition metals are essential components of important biomolecules, and their homeostasis is central to many life processes. Transmembrane transporters are key elements controlling the distribution of metals in various compartments. However, due to their chemical properties, transition elements require transporters with different structural-functional characteristics from those of alkali and alkali earth ions. Emerging structural information and functional studies have revealed distinctive features of metal transport. Among these are the relevance of multifaceted events involving metal transfer among participating proteins, the importance of coordination geometry at transmembrane transport sites, and the presence of the largely irreversible steps associated with vectorial transport. Here, we discuss how these characteristics shape novel transition metal ion transport models.

  13. Seronegative necrolytic acral erythema: A distinct clinical subset?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient was referred to us with asymptomatic, erythematous, nonitchy, scaly lesions present bilaterally on the dorsa of his feet and toes since the last 2 months. Both the legs had pitting edema as well. There were hyperkeratosis, focal parakeratosis, acanthosis and scattered spongiosis in the epidermis, and proliferation of capillaries with perivascular infiltration of lymphomononuclear cells in the dermis. There was no serological evidence of hepatitis C virus. Laboratory investigations revealed hypoalbuminemia and low-normal serum zinc. On clinicopathological correlation, we made a diagnosis of necrolytic acral erythema (NAE. The lesions responded dramatically to oral zinc sulfate and topical clobetasol propionate within 3 weeks with disappearance of edema and scaling and only a minimal residual erythema. This is the first reported case of NAE from Eastern India. NAE with negative serology for hepatitis C may be viewed as a distinct subset of the condition that had been originally described.

  14. Mammalian odorant receptor tuning breadth persists across distinct odorant panels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin Kepchia

    Full Text Available The molecular receptive range (MRR of a mammalian odorant receptor (OR is the set of odorant structures that activate the OR, while the distribution of these odorant structures across odor space is the tuning breadth of the OR. Variation in tuning breadth is thought to be an important property of ORs, with the MRRs of these receptors varying from narrowly to broadly tuned. However, defining the tuning breadth of an OR is a technical challenge. For practical reasons, a screening panel that broadly covers odor space must be limited to sparse coverage of the many potential structures in that space. When screened with such a panel, ORs with different odorant specificities, but equal tuning breadths, might appear to have different tuning breadths due to chance. We hypothesized that ORs would maintain their tuning breadths across distinct odorant panels. We constructed a new screening panel that was broadly distributed across an estimated odor space and contained compounds distinct from previous panels. We used this new screening panel to test several murine ORs that were previously characterized as having different tuning breadths. ORs were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and assayed by two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology. MOR256-17, an OR previously characterized as broadly tuned, responded to nine novel compounds from our new screening panel that were structurally diverse and broadly dispersed across an estimated odor space. MOR256-22, an OR previously characterized as narrowly tuned, responded to a single novel compound that was structurally similar to a previously known ligand for this receptor. MOR174-9, a well-characterized receptor with a narrowly tuned MRR, did not respond to any novel compounds in our new panel. These results support the idea that variation in tuning breadth among these three ORs is not an artifact of the screening protocol, but is an intrinsic property of the receptors.

  15. Moderate Load Eccentric Exercise; A Distinct Novel Training Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppeler, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400–500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20–30 min. This type of training has been characterizes as moderate load eccentric exercise. It has also been denoted RENEW (Resistance Exercise via Negative Eccentric Work by LaStayo et al., 2014). It is distinct from plyometric exercises (i.e., drop jumps) that impose muscle loads of several thousand Watts on muscles and tendons. It is also distinct from eccentric overload training whereby loads in a conventional strength training setting are increased in the eccentric phase of the movement to match concentric loads. Moderate load eccentric exercise (or RENEW) has been shown to be similarly effective as conventional strength training in increasing muscle strength and muscle volume. However, as carried out at higher angular velocities of joint movement, it reduces joint loads. A hallmark of moderate load eccentric exercise is the fact that the energy requirements are typically 4-fold smaller than in concentric exercise of the same load. This makes moderate load eccentric exercise training the tool of choice in medical conditions with limitations in muscle energy supply. The use and effectiveness of moderate load eccentric exercise has been demonstrated mostly in small scale studies for cardiorespiratory conditions, sarcopenia of old age, cancer, diabetes type 2, and neurological conditions. It has also been used effectively in the prevention and rehabilitation of injuries of the locomotor system in particular the rehabilitation after anterior

  16. Common and distinct brain networks underlying verbal and visual creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenfeng; Chen, Qunlin; Xia, Lingxiang; Beaty, Roger E; Yang, Wenjing; Tian, Fang; Sun, Jiangzhou; Cao, Guikang; Zhang, Qinglin; Chen, Xu; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Creativity is imperative to the progression of human civilization, prosperity, and well-being. Past creative researches tends to emphasize the default mode network (DMN) or the frontoparietal network (FPN) somewhat exclusively. However, little is known about how these networks interact to contribute to creativity and whether common or distinct brain networks are responsible for visual and verbal creativity. Here, we use functional connectivity analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate visual and verbal creativity-related regions and networks in 282 healthy subjects. We found that functional connectivity within the bilateral superior parietal cortex of the FPN was negatively associated with visual and verbal creativity. The strength of connectivity between the DMN and FPN was positively related to both creative domains. Visual creativity was negatively correlated with functional connectivity within the precuneus of the pDMN and right middle frontal gyrus of the FPN, and verbal creativity was negatively correlated with functional connectivity within the medial prefrontal cortex of the aDMN. Critically, the FPN mediated the relationship between the aDMN and verbal creativity, and it also mediated the relationship between the pDMN and visual creativity. Taken together, decreased within-network connectivity of the FPN and DMN may allow for flexible between-network coupling in the highly creative brain. These findings provide indirect evidence for the cooperative role of the default and executive control networks in creativity, extending past research by revealing common and distinct brain systems underlying verbal and visual creative cognition. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2094-2111, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Detection of Evolutionarily Distinct Avian Influenza A Viruses in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Butler, Jeffrey; Baas, Chantal; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Silva-de-la-Fuente, M. Carolina; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Olsen, Bjorn; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G.; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra- and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. PMID:24803521

  18. Distinct cardiac transcriptional profiles defining pregnancy and exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhee Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the hypertrophic responses of the heart to pregnancy and exercise are both considered to be physiological processes, they occur in quite different hormonal and temporal settings. In this study, we have compared the global transcriptional profiles of left ventricular tissues at various time points during the progression of hypertrophy in exercise and pregnancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The following groups of female mice were analyzed: non-pregnant diestrus cycle sedentary control, mid-pregnant, late-pregnant, and immediate-postpartum, and animals subjected to 7 and 21 days of voluntary wheel running. Hierarchical clustering analysis shows that while mid-pregnancy and both exercise groups share the closest relationship and similar gene ontology categories, late pregnancy and immediate post-partum are quite different with high representation of secreted/extracellular matrix-related genes. Moreover, pathway-oriented ontological analysis shows that metabolism regulated by cytochrome P450 and chemokine pathways are the most significant signaling pathways regulated in late pregnancy and immediate-postpartum, respectively. Finally, increases in expression of components of the proteasome observed in both mid-pregnancy and immediate-postpartum also result in enhanced proteasome activity. Interestingly, the gene expression profiles did not correlate with the degree of cardiac hypertrophy observed in the animal groups, suggesting that distinct pathways are employed to achieve similar amounts of cardiac hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that cardiac adaptation to the later stages of pregnancy is quite distinct from both mid-pregnancy and exercise. Furthermore, it is very dynamic since, by 12 hours post-partum, the heart has already initiated regression of cardiac growth, and 50 genes have changed expression significantly in the immediate-postpartum compared to late-pregnancy. Thus, pregnancy

  19. The Role of Techne in the Authenticity-Inauthenticity Distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Lebedeva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose to do the following: I will discuss the notions of intentionality and self-understanding of Dasein as developed in Heidegger's Basic Problems of Phenomenology. In doing so, I will try to show the interrelation of Dasein's always being intentionally directed towards something and its self-interpretation. As we will see, the everyday world has, for Heidegger, a character of "equipmental contexture." This means that Dasein returns to itself from out of things, equipment, tools, or - quite differently - the work of art. In a word, Dasein is mirrored back toward itself from the things made, from the products of techne. From this will follow the important distinction between authenticity and inauthenticity. There is a sense in which the following pairings could be discerned: tools or pieces of equipment link up with inauthenticity, while the work of art links up with authenticity. I will say more on the subject of tools a bit later in the essay. Both kinds of things are things insofar as they are entrenched in techne. The common root seems almost inexplicable in the light of the vast difference between tools and the artwork. Moreover, both Dasein and techne seem to have another equally enigmatic common root: that of temporality. Temporality is the essential bond between Dasein and the double sense of techne, which suggests the double-sidedness of temporality itself. It is precisely this doublesidedness that I would like to have as the backdrop to my discussion as a whole. Finally, I will turn to a few pages of Heidegger's Being and Time and Bernard Stiegler's book Technics and Time I in order to complicate this notion of the two senses of temporality, the owned and disowned, originary and everyday, and its relation to work and techne. The overarching question here will be: Can the distinction between authenticity and inauthenticity be sustained?

  20. CLT and CLS job responsibilities: current distinctions and updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, K; Beck, S J; Kolenc, K

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to address the following questions: 1. What tasks distinguish the job of a clinical laboratory scientist (CLS) from that of a clinical laboratory technician (CLT)? 2. What changes in role distinctions, have occurred for entry-level CLS and CLT practitioners over the five-year period 1993-98? 3. What tasks have been deleted from the CLT and CLS content outlines because they were not frequently performed or not considered entry-level? 4. What changes in practice are reflected in the current job analyses? A national job analysis of tasks constituting the job of clinical laboratory scientists (CLSs) and clinical laboratory technicians (CLTs) was conducted in 1998-99 as part of a standard setting process for the certifying examinations of the National Credentialing Agency for Laboratory Personnel (NCA). The job analyses relied upon mail surveys to 1200 individuals for each job level asking respondents to identify tasks significant to effective practice at job entry. The task lists resulting from statistical analysis of those surveys were examined to answer the study questions. The sample for each survey included 1200 practitioners, educators and laboratory managers selected at random from membership in professional organizations or from NCA certificant lists. Sampling was stratified to insure adequate practitioner representation. The mean rating on a four point scale for each item on the surveys was evaluated for overall significance as well as significance across geographic regions. The tasks meeting specified criteria were retained in the final task lists. Tasks were counted and their content evaluated to compare CLS and CLT job tasks. The response rates to the surveys were 33% for CLT and 21% for CLS. Reliability was judged based on average intraclass correlation coefficients of .86 and .82 for the CLT and CLS surveys, respectively. There were 952 tasks retained on the CLS content outline and 725 retained on the CLT content outline of the

  1. Is there a distinct continental slope fauna in the Antarctic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Stefanie; Griffiths, Huw J.; Barnes, David K. A.; Brandão, Simone N.; Brandt, Angelika; O'Brien, Philip E.

    2011-02-01

    The Antarctic continental slope spans the depths from the shelf break (usually between 500 and 1000 m) to ˜3000 m, is very steep, overlain by 'warm' (2-2.5 °C) Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW), and life there is poorly studied. This study investigates whether life on Antarctica's continental slope is essentially an extension of the shelf or the abyssal fauna, a transition zone between these or clearly distinct in its own right. Using data from several cruises to the Weddell Sea and Scotia Sea, including the ANDEEP (ANtarctic benthic DEEP-sea biodiversity, colonisation history and recent community patterns) I-III, BIOPEARL (BIOdiversity, Phylogeny, Evolution and Adaptive Radiation of Life in Antarctica) 1 and EASIZ (Ecology of the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone) II cruises as well as current databases (SOMBASE, SCAR-MarBIN), four different taxa were selected (i.e. cheilostome bryozoans, isopod and ostracod crustaceans and echinoid echinoderms) and two areas, the Weddell Sea and the Scotia Sea, to examine faunal composition, richness and affinities. The answer has important ramifications to the link between physical oceanography and ecology, and the potential of the slope to act as a refuge and resupply zone to the shelf during glaciations. Benthic samples were collected using Agassiz trawl, epibenthic sledge and Rauschert sled. By bathymetric definition, these data suggest that despite eurybathy in some of the groups examined and apparent similarity of physical conditions in the Antarctic, the shelf, slope and abyssal faunas were clearly separated in the Weddell Sea. However, no such separation of faunas was apparent in the Scotia Sea (except in echinoids). Using a geomorphological definition of the slope, shelf-slope-abyss similarity only changed significantly in the bryozoans. Our results did not support the presence of a homogenous and unique Antarctic slope fauna despite a high number of species being restricted to the slope. However, it remains the case that there may be

  2. Convergent Metabolic Specialization through Distinct Evolutionary Paths in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Ruggero; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Molin, Søren

    2018-04-10

    Evolution by natural selection under complex and dynamic environmental conditions occurs through intricate and often counterintuitive trajectories affecting many genes and metabolic solutions. To study short- and long-term evolution of bacteria in vivo , we used the natural model system of cystic fibrosis (CF) infection. In this work, we investigated how and through which trajectories evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs when migrating from the environment to the airways of CF patients, and specifically, we determined reduction of growth rate and metabolic specialization as signatures of adaptive evolution. We show that central metabolic pathways of three distinct Pseudomonas aeruginosa lineages coevolving within the same environment become restructured at the cost of versatility during long-term colonization. Cell physiology changes from naive to adapted phenotypes resulted in (i) alteration of growth potential that particularly converged to a slow-growth phenotype, (ii) alteration of nutritional requirements due to auxotrophy, (iii) tailored preference for carbon source assimilation from CF sputum, (iv) reduced arginine and pyruvate fermentation processes, and (v) increased oxygen requirements. Interestingly, although convergence was evidenced at the phenotypic level of metabolic specialization, comparative genomics disclosed diverse mutational patterns underlying the different evolutionary trajectories. Therefore, distinct combinations of genetic and regulatory changes converge to common metabolic adaptive trajectories leading to within-host metabolic specialization. This study gives new insight into bacterial metabolic evolution during long-term colonization of a new environmental niche. IMPORTANCE Only a few examples of real-time evolutionary investigations in environments outside the laboratory are described in the scientific literature. Remembering that biological evolution, as it has progressed in nature, has not taken place in test tubes, it is not

  3. Secretion of biologically active glycoforms of bovine follicle stimulating hormone in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirnberger, D.; Steinkellner, H.; Abdennebi, L.; Remy, J.J.; Wiel, van de D.

    2001-01-01

    We chose the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), a pituitary heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone, as a model to assess the ability of the plant cell to express a recombinant protein that requires extensive N-glycosylation for subunit folding and assembly, intracellular trafficking, signal

  4. VHL-dependent regulation of a β-dystroglycan glycoform and glycogene expression in renal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggelis, Vassilis; Craven, Rachel A; Peng, Jianhe; Harnden, Patricia; Schaffer, Lana; Hernandez, Gilberto E; Head, Steven R; Maher, Eamonn R; Tonge, Robert; Selby, Peter J; Banks, Rosamonde E

    2013-11-01

    Identification of novel biomarkers and targets in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains a priority and one cellular compartment that is a rich potential source of such molecules is the plasma membrane. A shotgun proteomic analysis of cell surface proteins enriched by cell surface biotinylation and avidin affinity chromatography was explored using the UMRC2- renal cancer cell line, which lacks von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumour suppressor gene function, to determine whether proteins of interest could be detected. Of the 814 proteins identified ~22% were plasma membrane or membrane-associated, including several with known associations with cancer. This included β-dystroglycan, the transmembrane subunit of the DAG1 gene product. VHL-dependent changes in the form of β-dystroglycan were detected in UMRC2-/+VHL transfectants. Deglycosylation experiments showed that this was due to differential sialylation. Analysis of normal kidney cortex and conventional RCC tissues showed that a similar change also occurred in vivo. Investigation of the expression of genes involved in glycosylation in UMRC2-/+VHL cells using a focussed microarray highlighted a number of enzymes involved in sialylation; upregulation of bifunctional UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE) was validated in UMRC2- cells compared with their +VHL counterparts and also found in conventional RCC tissue. These results implicate VHL in the regulation of glycosylation and raise interesting questions regarding the extent and importance of such changes in RCC.

  5. Glycoforms of B-Lactoglobulin with improved thermostability and preserved structural packing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersen, K.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this article we show how various degrees of glycosylation can be used to control the thermal stability of proteins. The primary amines of -lactoglobulin were glycosylated with glucose or fructose within a range of non-denaturing reaction parameters. The modified fractions were characterized and

  6. Detection of cerebrospinal fluid leakage by specific measurement of transferrin glycoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seok-Joon; Zhang, Fuming; Dordick, Jonathan S; Sonstein, William J; Linhardt, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    A simple and rapid detection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage would benefit spine surgeons making critical postoperative decisions on patient care. We have assessed novel approaches to selectively determine CSF β2-transferrin (β2TF), an asialo-transferrin (aTF) biomarker, without interference from serum sialo-transferrin (sTF) in test samples. First, we performed mild periodate oxidation to selectively generate aldehyde groups in sTF for capture with magnetic hydrazide microparticles, and selective removal with a magnetic separator. Using this protocol sTF was selectively removed from mixtures of CSF and serum containing CSF aTF (β2TF) and serum sTF, respectively. Second, a two-step enzymatic method was developed with neuraminidase and galactose oxidase for generating aldehyde groups in sTF present in CSF and serum mixtures for magnetic hydrazide microparticle capture. After selectively removing sTF from mixtures of CSF and serum, ELISA could detect significant TF signal only in CSF, while the TF signal in serum was negligible. The new approach for selective removal of only sTF in test samples will be promising for the required intervention by a spine surgeon. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Dynamics of immature mAb glycoform secretion during CHO cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez del Val, Ioscani; Fan, Yuzhou; Weilguny, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring consistent glycosylation-associated quality of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has become a priority in pharmaceutical bioprocessing given that the distribution and composition of the carbohydrates (glycans) bound to these molecules determines their therapeutic efficacy and immu......Ensuring consistent glycosylation-associated quality of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has become a priority in pharmaceutical bioprocessing given that the distribution and composition of the carbohydrates (glycans) bound to these molecules determines their therapeutic efficacy...

  8. Identification of Fc Gamma Receptor Glycoforms That Produce Differential Binding Kinetics for Rituximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jerrard M; Frostell, Asa; Karlsson, Robert; Müller, Steffen; Martín, Silvia Míllan; Pauers, Martin; Reuss, Franziska; Cosgrave, Eoin F; Anneren, Cecilia; Davey, Gavin P; Rudd, Pauline M

    2017-10-01

    Fc gamma receptors (FcγR) bind the Fc region of antibodies and therefore play a prominent role in antibody-dependent cell-based immune responses such as ADCC, CDC and ADCP. The immune effector cell activity is directly linked to a productive molecular engagement of FcγRs where both the protein and glycan moiety of antibody and receptor can affect the interaction and in the present study we focus on the role of the FcγR glycans in this interaction. We provide a complete description of the glycan composition of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) expressed human Fcγ receptors RI (CD64), RIIa Arg131/His131 (CD32a), RIIb (CD32b) and RIIIa Phe158/Val158 (CD16a) and analyze the role of the glycans in the binding mechanism with IgG. The interactions of the monoclonal antibody rituximab with each FcγR were characterized and we discuss the CHO-FcγRIIIa Phe158/Val158 and CHO-FcγRI interactions and compare them to the equivalent interactions with human (HEK293) and murine (NS0) produced receptors. Our results reveal clear differences in the binding profiles of rituximab, which we attribute in each case to the differences in host cell-dependent FcγR glycosylation. The glycan profiles of CHO expressed FcγRI and FcγRIIIa Phe158/Val158 were compared with the glycan profiles of the receptors expressed in NS0 and HEK293 cells and we show that the glycan type and abundance differs significantly between the receptors and that these glycan differences lead to the observed differences in the respective FcγR binding patterns with rituximab. Oligomannose structures are prevalent on FcγRI from each source and likely contribute to the high affinity rituximab interaction through a stabilization effect. On FcγRI and FcγRIIIa large and sialylated glycans have a negative impact on rituximab binding, likely through destabilization of the interaction. In conclusion, the data show that the IgG1-FcγR binding kinetics differ depending on the glycosylation of the FcγR and further support a stabilizing role of FcγR glycans in the antibody binding interaction. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Distinct growth of the nasomaxillary complex in Au. sediba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Bromage, Timothy G; O'Higgins, Paul; Toro-Ibacache, Viviana; Warshaw, Johanna; Berger, Lee R

    2015-10-15

    Studies of facial ontogeny in immature hominins have contributed significantly to understanding the evolution of human growth and development. The recently discovered hominin species Autralopithecus sediba is represented by a well-preserved and nearly complete facial skeleton of a juvenile (MH1) which shows a derived facial anatomy. We examined MH1 using high radiation synchrotron to interpret features of the oronasal complex pertinent to facial growth. We also analyzed bone surface microanatomy to identify and map fields of bone deposition and bone resorption, which affect the development of the facial skeleton. The oronasal anatomy (premaxilla-palate-vomer architecture) is similar to other Australopithecus species. However surface growth remodeling of the midface (nasomaxillary complex) differs markedly from Australopithecus, Paranthropus, early Homo and from KNM-WT 15000 (H. erectus/ergaster) showing a distinct distribution of vertically disposed alternating depository and resorptive fields in relation to anterior dental roots and the subnasal region. The ontogeny of the MH1 midface superficially resembles some H. sapiens in the distribution of remodeling fields. The facial growth of MH1 appears unique among early hominins representing an evolutionary modification in facial ontogeny at 1.9 my, or to changes in masticatory system loading associated with diet.

  10. Distinct timing mechanisms produce discrete and continuous movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul Huys

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The differentiation of discrete and continuous movement is one of the pillars of motor behavior classification. Discrete movements have a definite beginning and end, whereas continuous movements do not have such discriminable end points. In the past decade there has been vigorous debate whether this classification implies different control processes. This debate up until the present has been empirically based. Here, we present an unambiguous non-empirical classification based on theorems in dynamical system theory that sets discrete and continuous movements apart. Through computational simulations of representative modes of each class and topological analysis of the flow in state space, we show that distinct control mechanisms underwrite discrete and fast rhythmic movements. In particular, we demonstrate that discrete movements require a time keeper while fast rhythmic movements do not. We validate our computational findings experimentally using a behavioral paradigm in which human participants performed finger flexion-extension movements at various movement paces and under different instructions. Our results demonstrate that the human motor system employs different timing control mechanisms (presumably via differential recruitment of neural subsystems to accomplish varying behavioral functions such as speed constraints.

  11. Distinct Habitats Select Particular Bacterial Communities in Mangrove Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidianne L. Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship among environmental variables, composition, and structure of bacterial communities in different habitats in a mangrove located nearby to an oil exploitation area, aiming to retrieve the natural pattern of bacterial communities in this ecosystem. The T-RFLP analysis showed a high diversity of bacterial populations and an increase in the bacterial richness from habitats closer to the sea and without vegetation (S1 to habitats covered by Avicennia schaueriana (S2 and Rhizophora mangle (S3. Environmental variables in S1 and S2 were more similar than in S3; however, when comparing the bacterial compositions, S2 and S3 shared more OTUs between them, suggesting that the presence of vegetation is an important factor in shaping these bacterial communities. In silico analyses of the fragments revealed a high diversity of the class Gammaproteobacteria in the 3 sites, although in general they presented quite different bacterial composition, which is probably shaped by the specificities of each habitat. This study shows that microhabitats inside of a mangrove ecosystem harbor diverse and distinct microbiota, reinforcing the need to conserve these ecosystems as a whole.

  12. Differentiating intolerance of uncertainty from three related but distinct constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Natalie O; Ivanova, Elena; Knäuper, Bärbel

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in uncertainty have been associated with heightened anxiety, stress and approach-oriented coping. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a trait characteristic that arises from negative beliefs about uncertainty and its consequences. Researchers have established the central role of IU in the development of problematic worry and maladaptive coping, highlighting the importance of this construct to anxiety disorders. However, there is a need to improve our understanding of the phenomenology of IU. The goal of this paper was to present hypotheses regarding the similarities and differences between IU and three related constructs--intolerance of ambiguity, uncertainty orientation, and need for cognitive closure--and to call for future empirical studies to substantiate these hypotheses. To assist with achieving this goal, we conducted a systematic review of the literature, which also served to identify current gaps in knowledge. This paper differentiates these constructs by outlining each definition and general approaches to assessment, reviewing the existing empirical relations, and proposing theoretical similarities and distinctions. Findings may assist researchers in selecting the appropriate construct to address their research questions. Future research directions for the application of these constructs, particularly within the field of clinical and health psychology, are discussed.

  13. Distinctive fingerprints of erosional regimes in terrestrial channel networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau Galofre, A.; Jellinek, M.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite imagery and digital elevation maps capture the large scale morphology of channel networks attributed to long term erosional processes, such as fluvial, glacial, groundwater sapping and subglacial erosion. Characteristic morphologies associated with each of these styles of erosion have been studied in detail, but there exists a knowledge gap related to their parameterization and quantification. This knowledge gap prevents a rigorous analysis of the dominant processes that shaped a particular landscape, and a comparison across styles of erosion. To address this gap, we use previous morphological descriptions of glaciers, rivers, sapping valleys and tunnel valleys to identify and measure quantitative metrics diagnostic of these distinctive styles of erosion. From digital elevation models, we identify four geometric metrics: The minimum channel width, channel aspect ratio (longest length to channel width at the outlet), presence of undulating longitudinal profiles, and tributary junction angle. We also parameterize channel network complexity in terms of its stream order and fractal dimension. We then perform a statistical classification of the channel networks using a Principal Component Analysis on measurements of these six metrics on a dataset of 70 channelized systems. We show that rivers, glaciers, groundwater seepage and subglacial meltwater erode the landscape in rigorously distinguishable ways. Our methodology can more generally be applied to identify the contributions of different processes involved in carving a channel network. In particular, we are able to identify transitions from fluvial to glaciated landscapes or vice-versa.

  14. Molecular evidence for species-level distinctions in clouded leopards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley-Beason, Valerie A; Johnson, Warren E; Nash, Willliam G; Stanyon, Roscoe; Menninger, Joan C; Driscoll, Carlos A; Howard, JoGayle; Bush, Mitch; Page, John E; Roelke, Melody E; Stone, Gary; Martelli, Paolo P; Wen, Ci; Ling, Lin; Duraisingam, Ratna K; Lam, Phan V; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2006-12-05

    Among the 37 living species of Felidae, the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is generally classified as a monotypic genus basal to the Panthera lineage of great cats. This secretive, mid-sized (16-23 kg) carnivore, now severely endangered, is traditionally subdivided into four southeast Asian subspecies (Figure 1A). We used molecular genetic methods to re-evaluate subspecies partitions and to quantify patterns of population genetic variation among 109 clouded leopards of known geographic origin (Figure 1A, Tables S1 ans S2 in the Supplemental Data available online). We found strong phylogeographic monophyly and large genetic distances between N. n. nebulosa (mainland) and N. n. diardi (Borneo; n = 3 individuals) with mtDNA (771 bp), nuclear DNA (3100 bp), and 51 microsatellite loci. Thirty-six fixed mitochondrial and nuclear nucleotide differences and 20 microsatellite loci with nonoverlapping allele-size ranges distinguished N. n. nebulosa from N. n. diardi. Along with fixed subspecies-specific chromosomal differences, this degree of differentiation is equivalent to, or greater than, comparable measures among five recognized Panthera species (lion, tiger, leopard, jaguar, and snow leopard). These distinctions increase the urgency of clouded leopard conservation efforts, and if affirmed by morphological analysis and wider sampling of N. n. diardi in Borneo and Sumatra, would support reclassification of N. n. diardi as a new species (Neofelis diardi).

  15. Distinct neutrophil subpopulations phenotype by flow cytometry in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikentiou, Myrofora; Psarra, Katerina; Kapsimali, Violetta; Liapis, Konstantinos; Michael, Michalis; Tsionos, Konstantinos; Lianidou, Evi; Papasteriades, Chryssa

    2009-03-01

    The cardinal feature of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is dysplasia involving one or more myeloid cell lineages. In the present study, we used 4-color flow cytometric analysis to investigate dysgranulopoiesis in bone marrow specimens from 65 patients with MDS. The antigen expression patterns of total neutrophil granulocytes (TNG) and of the two distinct neutrophil granulocytic subpopulations (NGSs), NGS-1 (dimmer CD45 expression) and NGS-2 (stronger CD45 expression) identified on the side scatter (SS) vs. CD45-intensity plot, were studied. The neutrophil granulocytes from patients with MDS showed characteristic antigen expression aberrancies which were more pronounced in NGS-2 subpopulation. Studying separately the NGS-2 subpopulation with the CD16/MPO/LF combination, the low CD16(+)/MPO(+) and low CD16(+)/LF(+) percentages seemed to discriminate between lower-risk and higher-risk patients with MDS in most occasions. Furthermore, a detailed assessment of the NGS-1 and NGS-2 immunophenotypic patterns revealed early dysplastic changes, not otherwise observed by standard TNG analysis, especially in cases of lower-risk MDS.

  16. Uniform and Complementary Social Interaction: Distinct Pathways to Solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H; van Mourik Broekman, Aafke

    2015-01-01

    We examine how different forms of co-action give rise to feelings of solidarity. We propose that (a) coordinated action elicits a sense of solidarity, and (b) the process through which such solidarity emerges differs for different forms of co-action. We suggest that whether solidarity within groups emerges from uniform action (e.g. synchronizing, as when people speak in unison) or from more complementary forms of action (e.g. alternating, when speaking in turns) has important consequences for the emergent position of individuals within the group. Uniform action relies on commonality, leaving little scope for individuality. In complementary action each individual makes a distinctive contribution to the group, thereby increasing a sense of personal value to the group, which should contribute to the emergence of solidarity. The predictions receive support from five studies, in which we study groups in laboratory and field settings. Results show that both complementary and uniform co-action increase a sense of solidarity compared to control conditions. However, in the complementary action condition, but not in the uniform action (or synchrony) condition, the effect on feelings of solidarity is mediated by a sense of personal value to the group.

  17. Topic Modeling Reveals Distinct Interests within an Online Conspiracy Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Klein

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Conspiracy theories play a troubling role in political discourse. Online forums provide a valuable window into everyday conspiracy theorizing, and can give a clue to the motivations and interests of those who post in such forums. Yet this online activity can be difficult to quantify and study. We describe a unique approach to studying online conspiracy theorists which used non-negative matrix factorization to create a topic model of authors' contributions to the main conspiracy forum on Reddit.com. This subreddit provides a large corpus of comments which spans many years and numerous authors. We show that within the forum, there are multiple sub-populations distinguishable by their loadings on different topics in the model. Further, we argue, these differences are interpretable as differences in background beliefs and motivations. The diversity of the distinct subgroups places constraints on theories of what generates conspiracy theorizing. We argue that traditional “monological” believers are only the tip of an iceberg of commenters. Neither simple irrationality nor common preoccupations can account for the observed diversity. Instead, we suggest, those who endorse conspiracies seem to be primarily brought together by epistemological concerns, and that these central concerns link an otherwise heterogenous group of individuals.

  18. Minerals in soil select distinct bacterial communities in their microhabitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Jennifer K; Campbell, Louise; Rooney, Deirdre; Clipson, Nicholas; Gleeson, Deirdre B

    2009-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that different minerals in soil select distinct bacterial communities in their microhabitats. Mica (M), basalt (B) and rock phosphate (RP) were incubated separately in soil planted with Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium rigidum or left unplanted. After 70 days, the mineral and soil fractions were separated by sieving. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis was used to determine whether the bacterial community structure was affected by the mineral, fraction and plant treatments. Principal coordinate plots showed clustering of bacterial communities from different fraction and mineral treatments, but not from different plant treatments. Permutational multivariate anova (permanova) showed that the microhabitats of M, B and RP selected bacterial communities different from each other in unplanted and L. rigidum, and in T. subterraneum, bacterial communities from M and B differed (Ppermanova also showed that each mineral fraction selected bacterial communities different from the surrounding soil fraction (P<0.05). This study shows that the structure of bacterial communities in soil is influenced by the mineral substrates in their microhabitat and that minerals in soil play a greater role in bacterial ecology than simply providing an inert matrix for bacterial growth. This study suggests that mineral heterogeneity in soil contributes to the spatial variation in bacterial communities.

  19. Freedom of conscience in health care: distinctions and limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean; Genuis, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    The widespread emergence of innumerable technologies within health care has complicated the choices facing caregivers and their patients. The escalation of knowledge and technical innovation has been accompanied by an erosion of moral and ethical consensus among health providers that is reflected in the abandonment of the Hippocratic Oath as the immutable bedrock of medical ethics. Ethical conflicts arise when the values of health professionals collide with the expressed wishes of patients or the dictates of regulatory bodies and administrators. Increasing attempts by groups outside of the medical profession to limit freedom of conscience for health providers has raised concern and consternation among some health professionals. The personal and professional impact of health professionals surrendering freedom of conscience and participating in actions they deem malevolent or unethical has not been adequately studied and may not be inconsequential when considering the recognized impact of other circumstances of coerced complicity. We argue that the distinction between the two ways that freedom of conscience is exercised (avoiding a perceived evil and seeking a perceived good) provides a rational basis for a principled limitation of this fundamental freedom.

  20. Perceptual learning shapes multisensory causal inference via two distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, David P; Roudaia, Eugenie; Newell, Fiona N; Roach, Neil W

    2016-04-19

    To accurately represent the environment, our brains must integrate sensory signals from a common source while segregating those from independent sources. A reasonable strategy for performing this task is to restrict integration to cues that coincide in space and time. However, because multisensory signals are subject to differential transmission and processing delays, the brain must retain a degree of tolerance for temporal discrepancies. Recent research suggests that the width of this 'temporal binding window' can be reduced through perceptual learning, however, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these experience-dependent effects. Here, in separate experiments, we measure the temporal and spatial binding windows of human participants before and after training on an audiovisual temporal discrimination task. We show that training leads to two distinct effects on multisensory integration in the form of (i) a specific narrowing of the temporal binding window that does not transfer to spatial binding and (ii) a general reduction in the magnitude of crossmodal interactions across all spatiotemporal disparities. These effects arise naturally from a Bayesian model of causal inference in which learning improves the precision of audiovisual timing estimation, whilst concomitantly decreasing the prior expectation that stimuli emanate from a common source.

  1. Distinct Habitats Select Particular Bacterial Communities in Mangrove Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Lidianne L.; Colares, Geórgia B.; Nogueira, Vanessa L. R.; Paes, Fernanda A.; Melo, Vânia M. M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship among environmental variables, composition, and structure of bacterial communities in different habitats in a mangrove located nearby to an oil exploitation area, aiming to retrieve the natural pattern of bacterial communities in this ecosystem. The T-RFLP analysis showed a high diversity of bacterial populations and an increase in the bacterial richness from habitats closer to the sea and without vegetation (S1) to habitats covered by Avicennia schaueriana (S2) and Rhizophora mangle (S3). Environmental variables in S1 and S2 were more similar than in S3; however, when comparing the bacterial compositions, S2 and S3 shared more OTUs between them, suggesting that the presence of vegetation is an important factor in shaping these bacterial communities. In silico analyses of the fragments revealed a high diversity of the class Gammaproteobacteria in the 3 sites, although in general they presented quite different bacterial composition, which is probably shaped by the specificities of each habitat. This study shows that microhabitats inside of a mangrove ecosystem harbor diverse and distinct microbiota, reinforcing the need to conserve these ecosystems as a whole. PMID:26989418

  2. Specialization of the Rostral Prefrontal Cortex for Distinct Analogy Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Sam J.; Benoit, Roland G.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is central to learning and abstract thinking. It involves using a more familiar situation (source) to make inferences about a less familiar situation (target). According to the predominant cognitive models, analogical reasoning includes 1) generation of structured mental representations and 2) mapping based on structural similarities between them. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to specify the role of rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC) in these distinct processes. An experimental paradigm was designed that enabled differentiation between these processes, by temporal separation of the presentation of the source and the target. Within rostral PFC, a lateral subregion was activated by analogy task both during study of the source (before the source could be compared with a target) and when the target appeared. This may suggest that this subregion supports fundamental analogy processes such as generating structured representations of stimuli but is not specific to one particular processing stage. By contrast, a dorsomedial subregion of rostral PFC showed an interaction between task (analogy vs. control) and period (more activated when the target appeared). We propose that this region is involved in comparison or mapping processes. These results add to the growing evidence for functional differentiation between rostral PFC subregions. PMID:20156841

  3. Plasma neuropeptide Y levels differ in distinct diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Aysegül; Rasul, Sazan; Dimitrov, Alexander; Handisurya, Ammon; Gartner, Wolfgang; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina; Wagner, Ludwig; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Base, Wolfgang

    2010-12-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an important hormone in appetite regulation. Although the contribution of NPY to metabolic disease has been previously demonstrated, there are only a few reports addressing NPY plasma levels under distinct diabetic conditions. In this study we evaluated NPY plasma levels in diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) patients with (n=34) and without (n=34) diabetic polyneuropathy (PNP) and compared these with age and gender matched healthy controls (n=34). We also analyzed NPY plasma levels in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients with age and pregnancy-week matched controls with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). NPY concentration was determined using a commercially available radioimmunoassay kit. In addition, metabolic parameters of DM2 and GDM patients were recorded. One-way ANOVA tests with appropriate post hoc corrections showed elevated levels of NPY in DM2 patients with and without PNP when compared with those of healthy controls (122.32±40.86 and 117.33±29.92 vs. 84.65±52.17 pmol/L; pwomen with NGT (74.87±14.36 vs. 84.82±51.13 pmol/L, respectively). Notably, the NPY concentration correlated positively with insulin levels in DM2 patients (R=0.35, pDM2 pathology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Heavy water: a distinctive and essential component of CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.I.; van Alstyne, H.M.

    1994-06-01

    The exceptional properties of heavy water as a neutron moderator provide one of the distinctive features of CANDU reactors. Although most of the chemical and physical properties of deuterium and protium (mass 1 hydrogen) are appreciably different, the low terrestrial abundance of deuterium makes the separation of heavy water a relatively costly process, and so of considerable importance to the CANDU system. World heavy-water supplies are currently provided by the Girdler-Sulphide process or processes based on ammonia-hydrogen exchange. Due to cost and hazard considerations, new processes will be required for the production of heavy water in and beyond the next decade. Through AECL's development and refinement of wetproofed catalysts for the exchange of hydrogen isotopes between water and hydrogen, a family of new processes is expected to be deployed. Two monothermal processes, CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange, using water-to-hydrogen conversion by electrolysis) and CIRCE (Combined Industrially Reformed hydrogen and Catalytic Exchange, based on steam reforming of hydrocarbons), are furthest advanced. Besides its use for heavy-water production, the CECE process is a highly effective technology for heavy-water upgrading and for tritium separation from heavy (or light) water. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  5. Excitations Partition into Two Distinct Populations in Bulk Perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lili [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute, The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Brawand, Nicholas P. [The Institute for Molecular Engineering, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Vörös, Márton [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Dahlberg, Peter D. [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute, The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Otto, John P. [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute, The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Williams, Nicholas E. [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute, The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Tiede, David M. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Galli, Giulia [The Institute for Molecular Engineering, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Engel, Gregory S. [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute, The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA

    2018-01-09

    Organolead halide perovskites convert optical excitations to charge carriers with remarkable efficiency in optoelectronic devices. Previous research predominantly documents dynamics in perovskite thin films; however, extensive disorder in this platform may obscure the observed carrier dynamics. Here, carrier dynamics in perovskite single-domain single crystals is examined by performing transient absorption spectroscopy in a transmissive geometry. Two distinct sets of carrier populations that coexist at the same radiation fluence, but display different decay dynamics, are observed: one dominated by second-order recombination and the other by third-order recombination. Based on ab initio simulations, this observation is found to be most consistent with the hypothesis that free carriers and localized carriers coexist due to polaron formation. The calculations suggest that polarons will form in both CH3NH3PbBr3 and CH3NH3PbI3 crystals, but that they are more pronounced in CH3NH3PbBr3. Single-crystal CH3NH3PbBr3 could represent the key to understanding the impact of polarons on the transport properties of perovskite optoelectronic devices.

  6. Tributyltin Differentially Promotes Development of a Phenotypically Distinct Adipocyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, Shane M.; El-Hashani, Essam; Kamau, Wakanene; Zhang, Xiaojie; Massad, Nicole L.; Sargis, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. Evidence implicates various EDCs as being pro-adipogenic, including tributyltin (TBT), which activates the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). However, the conditions required for TBT-induced adipogenesis and its functional consequences are incompletely known. Methods The co-stimulatory conditions necessary for preadipocyte-to-adipocyte differentiation were compared between TBT and the pharmacological PPARγ agonist troglitazone (Trog) in the 3T3-L1 cell line; basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake were assessed using radiolabeled 2-deoxyglucose. Results TBT enhanced expression of the adipocyte marker C/EBPα with co-exposure to either isobutylmethylxanthine or insulin in the absence of other adipogenic stimuli. Examination of several adipocyte-specific proteins revealed that TBT and Trog differentially affected protein expression despite comparable PPARγ stimulation. In particular, TBT reduced adiponectin expression upon maximal adipogenic stimulation. Under submaximal stimulation, TBT and Trog differentially promoted adipocyte-specific gene expression despite similar lipid accumulation. Moreover, TBT attenuated Trog-induced adipocyte gene expression under conditions of co-treatment. Finally, TBT-induced adipocytes exhibited altered glucose metabolism, with increased basal glucose uptake. Conclusions TBT-induced adipocytes are functionally distinct from those generated by a pharmacological PPARγ agonist, suggesting that obesogen-induced adipogenesis may generate dysfunctional adipocytes with the capacity to deleteriously affect global energy homeostasis. PMID:26243053

  7. Tributyltin differentially promotes development of a phenotypically distinct adipocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, Shane M; El-Hashani, Essam; Kamau, Wakanene; Zhang, Xiaojie; Massad, Nicole L; Sargis, Robert M

    2015-09-01

    Environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. Evidence implicates various EDCs as being proadipogenic, including tributyltin (TBT), which activates the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). However, the conditions required for TBT-induced adipogenesis and its functional consequences are incompletely known. The costimulatory conditions necessary for preadipocyte-to-adipocyte differentiation were compared between TBT and the pharmacological PPARγ agonist troglitazone (Trog) in the 3T3-L1 cell line; basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake were assessed using radiolabeled 2-deoxyglucose. TBT enhanced expression of the adipocyte marker C/EBPα with coexposure to either isobutylmethylxanthine or insulin in the absence of other adipogenic stimuli. Examination of several adipocyte-specific proteins revealed that TBT and Trog differentially affected protein expression despite comparable PPARγ stimulation. In particular, TBT reduced adiponectin expression upon maximal adipogenic stimulation. Under submaximal stimulation, TBT and Trog differentially promoted adipocyte-specific gene expression despite similar lipid accumulation. Moreover, TBT attenuated Trog-induced adipocyte gene expression under conditions of cotreatment. Finally, TBT-induced adipocytes exhibited altered glucose metabolism, with increased basal glucose uptake. TBT-induced adipocytes are functionally distinct from those generated by a pharmacological PPARγ agonist, suggesting that obesogen-induced adipogenesis may generate dysfunctional adipocytes with the capacity to deleteriously affect global energy homeostasis. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  8. Distinct Motivational Effects of Contingent and Noncontingent Rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Sanjay G; Finzi, Rebecca Dawn; Drew, Daniel; Husain, Masud

    2017-07-01

    When rewards are available, people expend more energy, increasing their motivational vigor. In theory, incentives might drive behavior for two distinct reasons: First, they increase expected reward; second, they increase the difference in subjective value between successful and unsuccessful performance, which increases contingency-the degree to which action determines outcome. Previous studies of motivational vigor have never compared these directly. Here, we indexed motivational vigor by measuring the speed of eye movements toward a target after participants heard a cue indicating how outcomes would be determined. Eye movements were faster when the cue indicated that monetary rewards would be contingent on performance than when the cue indicated that rewards would be random. But even when the cue indicated that a reward was guaranteed regardless of speed, movement was still faster than when no reward was available. Motivation by contingent and certain rewards was uncorrelated across individuals, which suggests that there are two separable, independent components of motivation. Contingent motivation generated autonomic arousal, and unlike noncontingent motivation, was effective with penalties as well as rewards.

  9. Constructing Taxonomies to Identify Distinctive Forms of Primary Healthcare Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgès Da Silva, Roxane; Pineault, Raynald; Hamel, Marjolaine; Levesque, Jean-Frédéric; Roberge, Danièle; Lamarche, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background. Primary healthcare (PHC) renewal gives rise to important challenges for policy makers, managers, and researchers in most countries. Evaluating new emerging forms of organizations is therefore of prime importance in assessing the impact of these policies. This paper presents a set of methods related to the configurational approach and an organizational taxonomy derived from our analysis. Methods. In 2005, we carried out a study on PHC in two health and social services regions of Quebec that included urban, suburban, and rural areas. An organizational survey was conducted in 473 PHC practices. We used multidimensional nonparametric statistical methods, namely, multiple correspondence and principal component analyses, and an ascending hierarchical classification method to construct a taxonomy of organizations. Results. PHC organizations were classified into five distinct models: four professional and one community. Study findings indicate that the professional integrated coordination and the community model have great potential for organizational development since they are closest to the ideal type promoted by current reforms. Conclusion. Results showed that the configurational approach is useful to assess complex phenomena such as the organization of PHC. The analysis highlights the most promising organizational models. Our study enhances our understanding of organizational change in health services organizations. PMID:24959575

  10. Forged Signature Distinction Using Convolutional Neural Network for Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungsoo Nam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic verification scheme for finger-drawn signatures in smartphones. As a dynamic feature, the movement of a smartphone is recorded with accelerometer sensors in the smartphone, in addition to the moving coordinates of the signature. To extract high-level longitudinal and topological features, the proposed scheme uses a convolution neural network (CNN for feature extraction, and not as a conventional classifier. We assume that a CNN trained with forged signatures can extract effective features (called S-vector, which are common in forging activities such as hesitation and delay before drawing the complicated part. The proposed scheme also exploits an autoencoder (AE as a classifier, and the S-vector is used as the input vector to the AE. An AE has high accuracy for the one-class distinction problem such as signature verification, and is also greatly dependent on the accuracy of input data. S-vector is valuable as the input of AE, and, consequently, could lead to improved verification accuracy especially for distinguishing forged signatures. Compared to the previous work, i.e., the MLP-based finger-drawn signature verification scheme, the proposed scheme decreases the equal error rate by 13.7%, specifically, from 18.1% to 4.4%, for discriminating forged signatures.

  11. Pyrosequencing Analysis of Subgingival Microbiota in Distinct Periodontal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, O-J; Yi, H; Jeon, J H; Kang, S-S; Koo, K-T; Kum, K-Y; Chun, J; Yun, C-H; Han, S H

    2015-07-01

    Subgingival microorganisms are potentially associated with periodontal diseases. However, changes in the subgingival microbiota during the progress of periodontal diseases are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed bacterial communities in the subgingival paper point samples from 32 Korean individuals with no sign of disease, gingivitis, or periodontitis using 454 FLX Titanium pyrosequencing. A total of 256,113 reads representing 26 phyla, 433 genera, and 1,016 species were detected. Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Synergistetes, and Spirochaetes were the abundant phyla in periodontitis subjects, whereas Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were identified as the dominant phyla in the gingivitis and healthy subjects, respectively. Although high levels of Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Fretibacterium, Rothia, Filifactor, and Treponema genera were observed in the periodontitis subjects, Streptococcus, Capnocytophaga, Leptotrichia, and Haemophilus genera were found at high frequency in the gingivitis subjects. Species including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Fretibacterium fastidiosum were significantly increased in periodontitis subjects. On the other hand, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Leptotrichia hongkongensis were preferentially observed in the gingivitis subjects. Intriguingly, the halophile Halomonas hamiltonii was revealed as a predominant species in the healthy subjects. Based on Fast UniFrac analysis, distinctive bacterial clusters were classified for the healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis state. The current findings might be useful for understanding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of periodontal diseases. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  12. Hypochondriasis and somatization: two distinct aspects of somatoform disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibbrand, R; Hiller, W; Fichter, M M

    2000-01-01

    We investigated boundaries and overlap between somatization and hypochondriasis on different levels of psychopathology: (1) comorbidity between hypochondriasis and somatization on the level of diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994): (2) comorbidity with other mental disorders; (3) differences in clinical characteristics: and (4) overlap on the level of psychometric measures. The sample consisted of 120 psycho somatic inpatients. Somatoform, hypochondriacal, and depressive symptomatology, cognitions about body and health, and further aspects of general symptomatology were investigated. Diagnoses of Axis I and II were based on DSM-IV Our results suggest a large overlap on the level of DSM-IV-diagnoses: only 3 of 31 hypochondriacal patients had no multiple somatoform symptoms, while 58 of 86 patients with multiple somatoform symptoms had no hypochondriasis. However, the overlap between hypochondriacal and somatization symptomatology on the level of psychometric measurement is only moderate, indicating that hypochondriasis is a markedly distinct aspect of somatoform disorders.

  13. Virus Infection Triggers MAVS Polymers of Distinct Molecular Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Zamorano Cuervo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS adaptor protein is a central signaling hub required for cells to mount an antiviral response following virus sensing by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I-like receptors. MAVS localizes in the membrane of mitochondria and peroxisomes and in mitochondrial-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Structural and functional studies have revealed that MAVS activity relies on the formation of functional high molecular weight prion-like aggregates. The formation of protein aggregates typically relies on a dynamic transition between oligomerization and aggregation states. The existence of intermediate state(s of MAVS polymers, other than aggregates, has not yet been documented. Here, we used a combination of non-reducing SDS-PAGE and semi-denaturing detergent agarose gel electrophoresis (SDD-AGE to resolve whole cell extract preparations to distinguish MAVS polymerization states. While SDD-AGE analysis of whole cell extracts revealed the formation of previously described high molecular weight prion-like aggregates upon constitutively active RIG-I ectopic expression and virus infection, non-reducing SDS-PAGE allowed us to demonstrate the induction of lower molecular weight oligomers. Cleavage of MAVS using the NS3/4A protease revealed that anchoring to intracellular membranes is required for the appropriate polymerization into active high molecular weight aggregates. Altogether, our data suggest that RIG-I-dependent MAVS activation involves the coexistence of MAVS polymers with distinct molecular weights.

  14. Distinct Viral and Mutational Spectrum of Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Abate

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL is primarily found in children in equatorial regions and represents the first historical example of a virus-associated human malignancy. Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection and MYC translocations are hallmarks of the disease, it is unclear whether other factors may contribute to its development. We performed RNA-Seq on 20 eBL cases from Uganda and showed that the mutational and viral landscape of eBL is more complex than previously reported. First, we found the presence of other herpesviridae family members in 8 cases (40%, in particular human herpesvirus 5 and human herpesvirus 8 and confirmed their presence by immunohistochemistry in the adjacent non-neoplastic tissue. Second, we identified a distinct latency program in EBV involving lytic genes in association with TCF3 activity. Third, by comparing the eBL mutational landscape with published data on sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL, we detected lower frequencies of mutations in MYC, ID3, TCF3 and TP53, and a higher frequency of mutation in ARID1A in eBL samples. Recurrent mutations in two genes not previously associated with eBL were identified in 20% of tumors: RHOA and cyclin F (CCNF. We also observed that polyviral samples showed lower numbers of somatic mutations in common altered genes in comparison to sBL specimens, suggesting dual mechanisms of transformation, mutation versus virus driven in sBL and eBL respectively.

  15. Distinct Grammars and their Role in Interlanguage Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida de Araújo Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The expression of temporality encompasses the concepts of tense and aspect, typically conveyed by lexical and inflectional morphemes that usually vary from language to language. This kind of cross-linguistic distinctions often affects L2 learning. In this paper I discuss the role of the Portuguese grammar in the acquisition of the English present perfect tense by eighteen Brazilian EFL learners. I compared patterns found in interlanguage data to L2 patterns, and, as expected, L1 phonology affected learners’ production of regular past tenses, especially in early interlanguage. As for form-function mappings, besides L2 patterns, learners created two major meaning categories of current relevance, based on persisting / non-persisting situations, which were systematically conveyed by forms that resembled their L1 grammar. Durative events and states (imperfective situations persisting into the present were expressed by present tenses, while all aspectual categories of concluded (perfective situations were encoded by past tenses. Specific adverbials were used in each category

  16. Forgetting in immediate serial recall: decay, temporal distinctiveness, or interference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2008-07-01

    Three hypotheses of forgetting from immediate memory were tested: time-based decay, decreasing temporal distinctiveness, and interference. The hypotheses were represented by 3 models of serial recall: the primacy model, the SIMPLE (scale-independent memory, perception, and learning) model, and the SOB (serial order in a box) model, respectively. The models were fit to 2 experiments investigating the effect of filled delays between items at encoding or at recall. Short delays between items, filled with articulatory suppression, led to massive impairment of memory relative to a no-delay baseline. Extending the delays had little additional effect, suggesting that the passage of time alone does not cause forgetting. Adding a choice reaction task in the delay periods to block attention-based rehearsal did not change these results. The interference-based SOB fit the data best; the primacy model overpredicted the effect of lengthening delays, and SIMPLE was unable to explain the effect of delays at encoding. The authors conclude that purely temporal views of forgetting are inadequate. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Soft and hard pomerons: Is there a distinction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    One of the big unsolved problems of QCD remains the problem of the Pomeron: what is the relation of high energy elastic and diffractive phenomena to the underlying theory? This is not a subject in which I have actively worked. But my interest in it has in this year increased greatly. The reason has to do with ideas for experimentation at SSC/LHC which either directly address the problem or which require the understanding of strong-interaction diffractive phenomena as backgrounds for discovery-physics processes involving electroweak boson exchanges. I will in this talk omit these motivations, which can be found elsewhere, and instead concentrate on some personal veiwpoints regarding the Pomeron which may or may not be conventional. The main question has to do with the distinction between the original, old-fashioned ''soft'' Pomeron of the 1960s, built out of multiperipheral hadron-exchanges, and the more modern perturbative-QCD ''hard'' Pomeron, built out of multiperipheral gluon exchanges. The perspective I offer comes mainly from two sources: one is heavy-flavor physics, and the other is the Manohar-Georgi view of constituent quark physics. 27 refs., 5 figs

  18. Distinct Reward Properties are Encoded via Corticostriatal Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David V; Rigney, Anastasia E; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2016-02-02

    The striatum serves as a critical brain region for reward processing. Yet, understanding the link between striatum and reward presents a challenge because rewards are composed of multiple properties. Notably, affective properties modulate emotion while informative properties help obtain future rewards. We approached this problem by emphasizing affective and informative reward properties within two independent guessing games. We found that both reward properties evoked activation within the nucleus accumbens, a subregion of the striatum. Striatal responses to informative, but not affective, reward properties predicted subsequent utilization of information for obtaining monetary reward. We hypothesized that activation of the striatum may be necessary but not sufficient to encode distinct reward properties. To investigate this possibility, we examined whether affective and informative reward properties were differentially encoded in corticostriatal interactions. Strikingly, we found that the striatum exhibited dissociable connectivity patterns with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, with increasing connectivity for affective reward properties and decreasing connectivity for informative reward properties. Our results demonstrate that affective and informative reward properties are encoded via corticostriatal interactions. These findings highlight how corticostriatal systems contribute to reward processing, potentially advancing models linking striatal activation to behavior.

  19. Social Media Blurred the Distinction Between Author and Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambiotte, Renaud

    The last few years have seen the emergence of the sharing economy. As social media blurred the distinction between author and reader, everyone can now offer or receive services thanks to the networking tools provided by new technological companies. Take Uber, and its billion of journeys in 2015 alone, with tens of thousands of vehicles crawling every moment in the globe's biggest cities. As often, when confronted with a technological change, we observe a polarization of society, and the search for an equilibrium characterized by new norms, rights, and obligations. Understanding the mechanisms behind this re-organization requires an integrated, interdisciplinary approach, covering an intricate web of legal, societal, economical, and computational issues which, we believe, could benefit from a complex systems perspective. As a first step, we are currently studying the dynamics of pricing in Uber. In this new de-regulated world, journey prices fluctuate in time depending on traffic but also on the service's perceived balance of passenger demand and driver supply...

  20. Different Selection Pressures Give Rise to Distinct Ethnic Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Cristina; Boyd, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Many accounts of ethnic phenomena imply that processes such as stereotyping, essentialism, ethnocentrism, and intergroup hostility stem from a unitary adaptation for reasoning about groups. This is partly justified by the phenomena’s co-occurrence in correlational studies. Here we argue that these behaviors are better modeled as functionally independent adaptations that arose in response to different selection pressures throughout human evolution. As such, different mechanisms may be triggered by different group boundaries within a single society. We illustrate this functionalist framework using ethnographic work from the Quechua-Aymara language boundary in the Peruvian Altiplano. We show that different group boundaries motivate different ethnic phenomena. For example, people have strong stereotypes about socioeconomic categories, which are not cooperative units, whereas they hold fewer stereotypes about communities, which are the primary focus of cooperative activity. We also show that, despite the cross-cultural importance of ethnolinguistic boundaries, the Quechua-Aymara linguistic distinction does not strongly motivate any of these intergroup processes. PMID:25731969

  1. Beyond the realism debate: The metaphysics of 'racial' distinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeire, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    The current metaphysical race debate is very much focused on the realism question whether races exist. In this paper I argue against the importance of this question. Philosophers, biologists and anthropologists expect that answering this question will tell them something substantive about the metaphysics of racial classifications, and will help them to decide whether it is justified to use racial categories in scientific research and public policy. I argue that there are two reasons why these expectations are not fulfilled. First of all, the realism question about race leads to a very broad philosophical debate about the semantics of general terms and the criteria for real kinds, rather than to a debate about the metaphysics of racial categories specifically. Secondly, there is a type of race realism that is so toothless that it is almost completely uninformative about the metaphysics of race. In response to these worries, I argue that the metaphysical race debate should rather be focused on the question in what way and to what extent 'racial' distinctions can ground the epistemic practices of various scientific disciplines. I spell out what I mean by this, and go on to demonstrate that trying to answer this question leads to a more fruitful metaphysical debate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microvasular and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus: Distinct or continuum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aastha Chawla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and related complications are associated with long-term damage and failure of various organ systems. The line of demarcation between the pathogenic mechanisms of microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes and differing responses to therapeutic interventions is blurred. Diabetes induces changes in the microvasculature, causing extracellular matrix protein synthesis, and capillary basement membrane thickening which are the pathognomic features of diabetic microangiopathy. These changes in conjunction with advanced glycation end products, oxidative stress, low grade inflammation, and neovascularization of vasa vasorum can lead to macrovascular complications. Hyperglycemia is the principal cause of microvasculopathy but also appears to play an important role in causation of macrovasculopathy. There is thought to be an intersection between micro and macro vascular complications, but the two disorders seem to be strongly interconnected, with micro vascular diseases promoting atherosclerosis through processes such as hypoxia and changes in vasa vasorum. It is thus imperative to understand whether microvascular complications distinctly precede macrovascular complications or do both of them progress simultaneously as a continuum. This will allow re-focusing on the clinical issues with a unifying perspective which can improve type 2 diabetes mellitus outcomes.

  3. Astragalus polysaccharides lowers plasma cholesterol through mechanisms distinct from statins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjiu Cheng

    Full Text Available To determine the efficacy and underlying mechanism of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemia hamsters. The effect of APS (0.25 g/kg/d on plasma and liver lipids, fecal bile acids and neutral sterol, cholesterol absorption and synthesis, HMG-CoA reductase activity, and gene and protein expressions in the liver and small intestine was investigated in twenty-four hypercholesterolemia hamsters. Treatment periods lasted for three months. APS significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol by 45.8%, triglycerides by 30%, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 47.4%, comparable to simvastatin. Further examinations revealed that APS reduced total cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver, increased fecal bile acid and neutral sterol excretion, inhibited cholesterol absorption, and by contrast, increased hepatic cholesterol synthesis and HMG-CoA reductase activity. Plasma total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were significantly correlated with cholesterol absorption rates. APS up-regulated cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase and LDL-receptor gene expressions. These new findings identify APS as a potential natural cholesterol lowering agent, working through mechanisms distinct from statins.

  4. Distinct frontal regions for processing sentence syntax and story grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirigu, A; Cohen, L; Zalla, T; Pradat-Diehl, P; Van Eeckhout, P; Grafman, J; Agid, Y

    1998-12-01

    Time is a fundamental dimension of cognition. It is expressed in the sequential ordering of individual elements in a wide variety of activities such as language, motor control or in the broader domain of long range goal-directed actions. Several studies have shown the importance of the frontal lobes in sequencing information. The question addressed in this study is whether this brain region hosts a single supramodal sequence processor, or whether separate mechanisms are required for different kinds of temporally organised knowledge structures such as syntax and action knowledge. Here we show that so-called agrammatic patients, with lesions in Broca's area, ordered word groups correctly to form a logical sequence of actions but they were severely impaired when similar word groups had to be ordered as a syntactically well-formed sentence. The opposite performance was observed in patients with dorsolateral prefrontal lesions, that is, while their syntactic processing was intact at the sentence level, they demonstrated a pronounced deficit in producing temporally coherent sequences of actions. Anatomical reconstruction of lesions from brain scans revealed that the sentence and action grammar deficits involved distinct, non-overlapping sites within the frontal lobes. Finally, in a third group of patients whose lesions encompassed both Broca's area and the prefrontal cortex, the two types of deficits were found. We conclude that sequence processing is specific to knowledge domains and involves different networks within the frontal lobes.

  5. Distinct Functions of Endophilin Isoforms in Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophilin isoforms perform distinct characteristics in their interactions with N-type Ca2+ channels and dynamin. However, precise functional differences for the endophilin isoforms on synaptic vesicle (SV endocytosis remain unknown. By coupling RNA interference and electrophysiological recording techniques in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, we investigated the functional differences of three isoforms of endophilin in SV endocytosis. The results showed that the amplitude of normalized evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents in endophilin1 knockdown neurons decreased significantly for both single train and multiple train stimulations. Similar results were found using endophilin2 knockdown neurons, whereas endophilin3 siRNA exhibited no change compared with control neurons. Endophilin1 and endophilin2 affected SV endocytosis, but the effect of endophilin1 and endophilin2 double knockdown was not different from that of either knockdown alone. This result suggested that endophilin1 and endophilin2 functioned together but not independently during SV endocytosis. Taken together, our results indicate that SV endocytosis is sustained by endophilin1 and endophilin2 isoforms, but not by endophilin3, in primary cultured hippocampal neurons.

  6. Distinct phenotype of PHF6 deletions in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donato, N; Isidor, B; Lopez Cazaux, S; Le Caignec, C; Klink, B; Kraus, C; Schrock, E; Hackmann, K

    2014-02-01

    We report on two female patients carrying small overlapping Xq26.2 deletions of 100 kb and 270 kb involving the PHF6 gene. Mutations in PHF6 have been reported in individuals with Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome, a condition present almost exclusively in males. Two very recent papers revealed de novo PHF6 defects in seven female patients with intellectual disability and a phenotype resembling Coffin-Siris syndrome (sparse hair, bitemporal narrowing, arched eyebrows, synophrys, high nasal root, bulbous nasal tip, marked clinodactyly with the hypoplastic terminal phalanges of the fifth fingers and cutaneous syndactyly of the toes, Blaschkoid linear skin hyperpigmentation, dental anomalies and occasional major malformations). The clinical presentation of these patients overlaps completely with our first patient, who carries a germline deletion involving PHF6. The second patient has a mosaic deletion and presented with a very mild phenotype of PHF6 loss in females. Our report confirms that PHF6 loss in females results in a recognizable phenotype overlapping with Coffin-Siris syndrome and distinct from Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome. We expand the clinical spectrum and provide the first summary of the recommended medical evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Continental smokers couple mantle degassing and distinctive microbiology within continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossey, Laura J.; Karlstrom, Karl E.; Schmandt, Brandon; Crow, Ryan R.; Colman, Daniel R.; Cron, Brandi; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Northup, Diana E.; Hilton, David R.; Ricketts, Jason W.; Lowry, Anthony R.

    2016-02-01

    The discovery of oceanic black (and white) smokers revolutionized our understanding of mid-ocean ridges and led to the recognition of new organisms and ecosystems. Continental smokers, defined here to include a broad range of carbonic springs, hot springs, and fumaroles that vent mantle-derived fluids in continental settings, exhibit many of the same processes of heat and mass transfer and ecosystem niche differentiation. Helium isotope (3He/4He) analyses indicate that widespread mantle degassing is taking place in the western U.S.A., and that variations in mantle helium values correlate best with low seismic-velocity domains in the mantle and lateral contrasts in mantle velocity rather than crustal parameters such as GPS, proximity to volcanoes, crustal velocity, or composition. Microbial community analyses indicate that these springs can host novel microorganisms. A targeted analysis of four springs in New Mexico yield the first published occurrence of chemolithoautotrophic Zetaproteobacteria in a continental setting. These observations lead to two linked hypotheses: that mantle-derived volatiles transit through conduits in extending continental lithosphere preferentially above and at the edges of mantle low velocity domains. High CO2 and other constituents ultimately derived from mantle volatiles drive water-rock interactions and heterogeneous fluid mixing that help structure diverse and distinctive microbial communities.

  8. Distinct eye movement patterns enhance dynamic visual acuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palidis, Dimitrios J.; Wyder-Hodge, Pearson A.; Fooken, Jolande; Spering, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is the ability to resolve fine spatial detail in dynamic objects during head fixation, or in static objects during head or body rotation. This ability is important for many activities such as ball sports, and a close relation has been shown between DVA and sports expertise. DVA tasks involve eye movements, yet, it is unclear which aspects of eye movements contribute to successful performance. Here we examined the relation between DVA and the kinematics of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements in a cohort of 23 varsity baseball players. In a computerized dynamic-object DVA test, observers reported the location of the gap in a small Landolt-C ring moving at various speeds while eye movements were recorded. Smooth pursuit kinematics—eye latency, acceleration, velocity gain, position error—and the direction and amplitude of saccadic eye movements were linked to perceptual performance. Results reveal that distinct eye movement patterns—minimizing eye position error, tracking smoothly, and inhibiting reverse saccades—were related to dynamic visual acuity. The close link between eye movement quality and DVA performance has important implications for the development of perceptual training programs to improve DVA. PMID:28187157

  9. The evolution of compositionally and functionally distinct actin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Peter W; Ghoshdastider, Umesh; Whitaker, Shane; Popp, David; Robinson, Robert C

    2015-06-01

    The actin filament is astonishingly well conserved across a diverse set of eukaryotic species. It has essentially remained unchanged in the billion years that separate yeast, Arabidopsis and man. In contrast, bacterial actin-like proteins have diverged to the extreme, and many of them are not readily identified from sequence-based homology searches. Here, we present phylogenetic analyses that point to an evolutionary drive to diversify actin filament composition across kingdoms. Bacteria use a one-filament-one-function system to create distinct filament systems within a single cell. In contrast, eukaryotic actin is a universal force provider in a wide range of processes. In plants, there has been an expansion of the number of closely related actin genes, whereas in fungi and metazoa diversification in tropomyosins has increased the compositional variety in actin filament systems. Both mechanisms dictate the subset of actin-binding proteins that interact with each filament type, leading to specialization in function. In this Hypothesis, we thus propose that different mechanisms were selected in bacteria, plants and metazoa, which achieved actin filament compositional variation leading to the expansion of their functional diversity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Sublingual epidermoid cyst presenting with distinctive magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naohiro; Kodama, Kozue; Iino, Yukiko

    2014-06-18

    A case of sublingual epidermoid cyst presenting distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings is described. A 39-year-old man presented to our hospital with a three months progressive left submandibular swelling, difficulty moving his tongue, and snoring. Preoperative evaluation with MRI and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) revealed that the heterogeneous cystic lesion contained the squamous cells, which is compatible with ectodermal tissue. The mass was located above the mylohyoid muscle and spread to the pharyngeal space. By considering the size, infection history, patient age, and location, the cyst was completely resected under general anesthesia via cervical approach without any complication. Histopathologically, the cyst wall was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with no skin appendage, suggesting an epidermoid cyst. Ultrasound (US), MRI and FNAC were very useful of the preoperative diagnosis for oral and sublingual lesion. The postoperative course was uneventful and without recurrence after 24 months. This case showed that epidermoid cysts formed the rarely heterogeneous cystic tumor and it underlined usefulness of preoperative diagnosis, such as US, MRI and FNAC for oral and sublingual tumor.

  11. Distinct Viral and Mutational Spectrum of Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Francesco; Ambrosio, Maria Raffaella; Mundo, Lucia; Laginestra, Maria Antonella; Fuligni, Fabio; Rossi, Maura; Zairis, Sakellarios; Gazaneo, Sara; De Falco, Giulia; Lazzi, Stefano; Bellan, Cristiana; Rocca, Bruno Jim; Amato, Teresa; Marasco, Elena; Etebari, Maryam; Ogwang, Martin; Calbi, Valeria; Ndede, Isaac; Patel, Kirtika; Chumba, David; Piccaluga, Pier Paolo; Pileri, Stefano; Leoncini, Lorenzo; Rabadan, Raul

    2015-10-01

    Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is primarily found in children in equatorial regions and represents the first historical example of a virus-associated human malignancy. Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and MYC translocations are hallmarks of the disease, it is unclear whether other factors may contribute to its development. We performed RNA-Seq on 20 eBL cases from Uganda and showed that the mutational and viral landscape of eBL is more complex than previously reported. First, we found the presence of other herpesviridae family members in 8 cases (40%), in particular human herpesvirus 5 and human herpesvirus 8 and confirmed their presence by immunohistochemistry in the adjacent non-neoplastic tissue. Second, we identified a distinct latency program in EBV involving lytic genes in association with TCF3 activity. Third, by comparing the eBL mutational landscape with published data on sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL), we detected lower frequencies of mutations in MYC, ID3, TCF3 and TP53, and a higher frequency of mutation in ARID1A in eBL samples. Recurrent mutations in two genes not previously associated with eBL were identified in 20% of tumors: RHOA and cyclin F (CCNF). We also observed that polyviral samples showed lower numbers of somatic mutations in common altered genes in comparison to sBL specimens, suggesting dual mechanisms of transformation, mutation versus virus driven in sBL and eBL respectively.

  12. Bacterial protease uses distinct thermodynamic signatures for substrate recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Gustavo Arruda; Ohara-Nemoto, Yuko; Cornaciu, Irina; Fedosyuk, Sofiya; Hoffmann, Guillaume; Round, Adam; Márquez, José A; Nemoto, Takayuki K; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina

    2017-06-06

    Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis are important bacteria related to periodontitis, the most common chronic inflammatory disease in humans worldwide. Its comorbidity with systemic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, oral cancers and cardiovascular diseases, continues to generate considerable interest. Surprisingly, these two microorganisms do not ferment carbohydrates; rather they use proteinaceous substrates as carbon and energy sources. However, the underlying biochemical mechanisms of their energy metabolism remain unknown. Here, we show that dipeptidyl peptidase 11 (DPP11), a central metabolic enzyme in these bacteria, undergoes a conformational change upon peptide binding to distinguish substrates from end products. It binds substrates through an entropy-driven process and end products in an enthalpy-driven fashion. We show that increase in protein conformational entropy is the main-driving force for substrate binding via the unfolding of specific regions of the enzyme ("entropy reservoirs"). The relationship between our structural and thermodynamics data yields a distinct model for protein-protein interactions where protein conformational entropy modulates the binding free-energy. Further, our findings provide a framework for the structure-based design of specific DPP11 inhibitors.

  13. Segmental stiff skin syndrome (SSS): A distinct clinical entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kathryn L; Mir, Adnan; Schaffer, Julie V; Meehan, Shane A; Orlow, Seth J; Brinster, Nooshin K

    2016-07-01

    Stiff skin syndrome (SSS) is a noninflammatory, fibrosing condition of the skin, often affecting the limb girdles. We present 4 new patients with SSS with largely unilateral, segmental distribution. To date, reported cases of SSS have been grouped based on generally accepted clinical and histopathologic findings. The purpose of this study was to analyze differences in clinical and histopathologic findings between previously reported SSS cases. This is a retrospective review of 4 new cases and 48 previously published cases of SSS obtained from PubMed search. Of 52 total cases, 18 (35%) were segmentally distributed and 34 (65%) were widespread. The average age of onset was 4.1 years versus 1.6 years for segmental versus widespread SSS, respectively. Limitation in joint mobility affected 44% of patients with segmental SSS and 97% of patients with widespread SSS. Histopathologic findings were common between the 2 groups. This was a retrospective study of previously published cases limited by the completeness and accuracy of the reviewed cases. We propose a distinct clinical entity, segmental SSS, characterized by a segmental distribution, later age of onset, and less severe functional limitation. Both segmental SSS and widespread SSS share common diagnostic histopathologic features. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Distinct eye movement patterns enhance dynamic visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palidis, Dimitrios J; Wyder-Hodge, Pearson A; Fooken, Jolande; Spering, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is the ability to resolve fine spatial detail in dynamic objects during head fixation, or in static objects during head or body rotation. This ability is important for many activities such as ball sports, and a close relation has been shown between DVA and sports expertise. DVA tasks involve eye movements, yet, it is unclear which aspects of eye movements contribute to successful performance. Here we examined the relation between DVA and the kinematics of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements in a cohort of 23 varsity baseball players. In a computerized dynamic-object DVA test, observers reported the location of the gap in a small Landolt-C ring moving at various speeds while eye movements were recorded. Smooth pursuit kinematics-eye latency, acceleration, velocity gain, position error-and the direction and amplitude of saccadic eye movements were linked to perceptual performance. Results reveal that distinct eye movement patterns-minimizing eye position error, tracking smoothly, and inhibiting reverse saccades-were related to dynamic visual acuity. The close link between eye movement quality and DVA performance has important implications for the development of perceptual training programs to improve DVA.

  15. 76 FR 14883 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ...-XZ58 Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of..., published a proposed rule to list the Beringia and Okhotsk Distinct Population Segments (DPSs) of the... published a proposed rule to list the Beringia and Okhotsk Distinct Population Segments (DPSs) of the...

  16. Distinct metal-exchange pathways of doped Ag25 nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Bootharaju, Megalamane Siddaramappa

    2016-09-09

    Atomically precise metal nanoclusters (NCs) containing more than one type of metal atom (i.e., doped or alloyed), due to synergistic effects, open new avenues for engineering the catalytic and optical properties of NCs in a manner that homometal NCs cannot. Unfortunately, it is still a major challenge to controllably introduce multimetallic dopants in NCs, understanding the dopants\\' positions, mechanism, and synergistic effects. To overcome these challenges, we designed a metal-exchange approach involving NCs as molecular templates and metal ions as the source of the incoming dopant. In particular, two structurally similar monodoped silver-rich NCs, [MAg24(SR)(18)](2-) (M = Pd/Pt and SR: thiolate), were synthesized as templates to study their mechanistic transformation in response to the introduction of gold atoms. The controllable incorporation of Au atoms into the MAg24 framework facilitated the elucidation of distinct doping pathways through high-resolution mass spectrometry, optical spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Interestingly, gold replaced the central Pd atom of [PdAg24(SR)(18)](2-) clusters to produce predominantly bimetallic [AuAg24(SR)(18)](-) clusters along with a minor product of an [Au2Ag23(SR)(18)](-) cluster. In contrast, the central Pt atom remained intact in [PtAg24(SR)(18)](2-) clusters, and gold replaced the noncentral Ag atoms to form trimetallic [AuxPtAg24-x(SR)(18)](2-) NCs, where x = 1-2, with a portion of the starting [PtAg24(SR)(18)](2-) NCs remaining. This study reveals some of the unusual metal-exchange pathways of doped NCs and the important role played by the initial metal dopant in directing the position of a second dopant in the final product.

  17. Women with preterm birth have a distinct cervicovaginal metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghartey, Jeny; Bastek, Jamie A; Brown, Amy G; Anglim, Laura; Elovitz, Michal A

    2015-06-01

    Metabolomics has the potential to reveal novel pathways involved in the pathogenesis of preterm birth (PTB). The objective of this study was to investigate whether the cervicovaginal (CV) metabolome was different in asymptomatic women destined to have a PTB compared with term birth. A nested case-control study was performed using CV fluid collected from a larger prospective cohort. The CV fluid was collected between 20-24 weeks (V1) and 24-28 weeks (V2). The metabolome was compared between women with a spontaneous PTB (n = 10) to women who delivered at term (n = 10). Samples were extracted and prepared for analysis using a standard extraction solvent method. Global biochemical profiles were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. An ANOVA was used to detect differences in biochemical compounds between the groups. A false discovery rate was estimated to account for multiple comparisons. A total of 313 biochemicals were identified in CV fluid. Eighty-two biochemicals were different in the CV fluid at V1 in those destined to have a PTB compared with term birth, whereas 48 were different at V2. Amino acid, carbohydrate, and peptide metabolites were distinct between women with and without PTB. These data suggest that the CV space is metabolically active during pregnancy. Changes in the CV metabolome may be observed weeks, if not months, prior to any clinical symptoms. Understanding the CV metabolome may hold promise for unraveling the pathogenesis of PTB and may provide novel biomarkers to identify women most at risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. RASopathies are associated with a distinct personality profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizaoui, Varoona; Gage, Jessica; Brar, Rita; Rauen, Katherine A; Weiss, Lauren A

    2018-06-01

    Personality is a complex, yet partially heritable, trait. Although some Mendelian diseases like Williams-Beuren syndrome are associated with a particular personality profile, studies have failed to assign the personality features to a single gene or pathway. As a family of monogenic disorders caused by mutations in the Ras/MAPK pathway known to influence social behavior, RASopathies are likely to provide insight into the genetic basis of personality. Eighty subjects diagnosed with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, Costello syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, and Noonan syndrome were assessed using a parent-report BFQ-C (Big Five Questionnaire for Children) evaluating agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, intellect/openness, and neuroticism, along with 55 unaffected sibling controls. A short questionnaire was added to assess sense of humor. RASopathy subjects and sibling controls were compared for individual components of personality, multidimensional personality profiles, and individual questions using Student tests, analysis of variance, and principal component analysis. RASopathy subjects were given lower scores on average compared to sibling controls in agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, openness, and sense of humor, and similar scores in neuroticism. When comparing the multidimensional personality profile between groups, RASopathies showed a distinct profile from unaffected siblings, but no difference in this global profile was found within RASopathies, revealing a common profile for the Ras/MAPK-related disorders. In addition, several syndrome-specific strengths or weaknesses were observed in individual domains. We describe for the first time an association between a single pathway and a specific personality profile, providing a better understanding of the genetics underlying personality, and new tools for tailoring educational and behavioral approaches for individuals with RASopathies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Genetic distinctions between autoimmune hepatitis in Italy and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Paolo; Czaja, Albert-J; Muratori, Luigi; Pappas, Georgios; Maccariello, Silvana; Cassani, Fabio; Granito, Alessandro; Ferrari, Rodolfo; Mantovani, Vilma; Lenzi, Marco; Bianchi, Francesco-B

    2005-03-28

    Our goals were to analyze the known genetic predispositions for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in AIH Italian population and to compare them with North American counterparts. Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) B8, C7, DR3, DR4, DR7, DR11, DR13, DQ2 and the B8-DR3-DQ2 phenotype were determined by microlymphocytotoxicity and polymerase chain reaction in 74 Italian patients (57 with type 1 and 17 with type 2 AIH) and 149 North American patients with type 1 AIH, and in adequate controls. B8-DR3-DQ2 occurred more frequently in Italian patients with type 1 AIH than in Italian controls (30% vs 7%, P<0.0001), but less frequently than in North American counterparts (30% vs 48%, P = 0.02). DR4 occurred less frequently in Italian patients with type 1 AIH (23% vs 43%, P = 0.01) and in controls (16% vs 34%, P = 0.0003) than in North American counterparts. No differences were found in alleles' frequency between type 1 and type 2 Italian AIH patients. DR11 had a frequency lower in type 1 Italian AIH patients than controls (17% vs 35%, P = 0.01). HLA DR4 is not associated with AIH in Italy. The known HLA risk factors for AIH occur similarly in Italian patients with type 1 and type 2 AIH, and they are less frequent than in North American patients. B8-DR3-DQ2 is the predominant phenotype of type 1 AIH also in Italy, and HLA DR11 may be a regionally distinctive protective factor against type 1 AIH.

  20. Towards a Logical Distinction Between Swarms and Aftershock Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardine, M.; Burris, L.; McNutt, S.

    2007-12-01

    The distinction between swarms and aftershock sequences has, up to this point, been fairly arbitrary and non- uniform. Typically 0.5 to 1 order of magnitude difference between the mainshock and largest aftershock has been a traditional choice, but there are many exceptions. Seismologists have generally assumed that the mainshock carries most of the energy, but this is only true if it is sufficiently large compared to the size and numbers of aftershocks. Here we present a systematic division based on energy of the aftershock sequence compared to the energy of the largest event of the sequence. It is possible to calculate the amount of aftershock energy assumed to be in the sequence using the b-value of the frequency-magnitude relation with a fixed choice of magnitude separation (M-mainshock minus M-largest aftershock). Assuming that the energy of an aftershock sequence is less than the energy of the mainshock, the b-value at which the aftershock energy exceeds that of the mainshock energy determines the boundary between aftershock sequences and swarms. The amount of energy for various choices of b-value is also calculated using different values of magnitude separation. When the minimum b-value at which the sequence energy exceeds that of the largest event/mainshock is plotted against the magnitude separation, a linear trend emerges. Values plotting above this line represent swarms and values plotting below it represent aftershock sequences. This scheme has the advantage that it represents a physical quantity - energy - rather than only statistical features of earthquake distributions. As such it may be useful to help distinguish swarms from mainshock/aftershock sequences and to better determine the underlying causes of earthquake swarms.

  1. Two distinct microbial communities revealed in the sponge Cinachyrella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvelier, Marie L.; Blake, Emily; Mulheron, Rebecca; McCarthy, Peter J.; Blackwelder, Patricia; Thurber, Rebecca L. Vega; Lopez, Jose V.

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges are vital components of benthic and coral reef ecosystems, providing shelter and nutrition for many organisms. In addition, sponges act as an essential carbon and nutrient link between the pelagic and benthic environment by filtering large quantities of seawater. Many sponge species harbor a diverse microbial community (including Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes), which can constitute up to 50% of the sponge biomass. Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing. Cinachyrella specimens and seawater samples were collected from the same South Florida reef at two different times of year. In total, 639 OTUs (12 archaeal and 627 bacterial) belonging to 2 archaeal and 21 bacterial phyla were detected in the sponges. Based on their microbiomes, the six sponge samples formed two distinct groups, namely sponge group 1 (SG1) with lower diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 3.73 ± 0.22) and SG2 with higher diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 5.95 ± 0.25). Hosts' 28S rRNA gene sequences further confirmed that the sponge specimens were composed of two taxa closely related to Cinachyrella kuekenthalli. Both sponge groups were dominated by Proteobacteria, but Alphaproteobacteria were significantly more abundant in SG1. SG2 harbored many bacterial phyla (>1% of sequences) present in low abundance or below detection limits (<0.07%) in SG1 including: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, PAUC34f, Poribacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Furthermore, SG1 and SG2 only had 95 OTUs in common, representing 30.5 and 22.4% of SG1 and SG2's total OTUs, respectively. These results suggest that the sponge host may exert a pivotal influence on the nature and structure of the microbial community and may only be marginally affected by external environment parameters. PMID:25408689

  2. Two distinct microbial communities revealed in the sponge Cinachyrella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Laure Cuvelier

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are vital components of benthic and coral reef ecosystems, providing shelter and nutrition for many organisms. In addition, sponges act as an essential carbon and nutrient link between the pelagic and benthic environment by filtering large quantities of seawater. Many sponge species harbor a diverse microbial community (including Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes, which can constitute up to 50% of the sponge biomass. Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rDNA tag pyrosequencing. Cinachyrella specimens and seawater samples were collected from the same South Florida reef at two different times of year. In total, 639 OTUs (12 archaeal and 627 bacterial belonging to 2 archaeal and 21 bacterial phyla were detected in the sponges. Based on their microbiomes, the six sponge samples formed two distinct groups, namely sponge group 1 (SG1 with low diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 3.73 ± 0.22 and SG2 with higher diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 5.95 ± 0.25. Hosts’ 28S rDNA sequences further confirmed that the sponge specimens were composed of two taxa closely related to Cinachyrella kuekenthalli. Both sponge groups were dominated by Proteobacteria, but Alphaproteobacteria were significantly more abundant in SG1. SG2 harbored many bacterial phyla (>1% of sequences present in low abundance or below detection limits (<0.07% in SG1 including: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, PAUC34f, Poribacteria and Verrucomicrobia. Furthermore, SG1 and SG2 only had 95 OTUs in common, representing 30.5% and 22.4% of SG1 and SG2’s total OTUs, respectively. These results suggest that the sponge host may exert a pivotal influence on the nature and structure of the microbial community and may only be marginally affected by external environment parameters.

  3. Benign multiple sclerosis: physical and cognitive impairment follow distinct evolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajofatto, A; Turatti, M; Bianchi, M R; Forlivesi, S; Gobbin, F; Azzarà, A; Monaco, S; Benedetti, M D

    2016-03-01

    Benign multiple sclerosis (BMS) definitions rely on physical disability level but do not account sufficiently for cognitive impairment which, however, is not rare. To study the evolution of physical disability and cognitive performance of a group of patients with BMS followed at an University Hospital Multiple Sclerosis Center. A consecutive sample of 24 BMS cases (diagnosis according to 2005 McDonald's criteria, relapsing-remitting course, disease duration ≥ 10 years, and expanded disability status scale [EDSS] score ≤ 2.0) and 13 sex- and age-matched non-BMS patients differing from BMS cases for having EDSS score 2.5-5.5 were included. Main outcome measures were as follows: (i) baseline and 5-year follow-up cognitive impairment defined as failure of at least two tests of the administered neuropsychological battery; (ii) EDSS score worsening defined as confirmed increase ≥ 1 point (or 0.5 point if baseline EDSS score = 5.5). At inclusion, BMS subjects were 41 ± 8 years old and had median EDSS score 1.5 (range 0-2), while non-BMS patients were 46 ± 8 years old and had median EDSS score 3.0 (2.5-5.5). At baseline 16% of patients in both groups were cognitively impaired. After 5 years, EDSS score worsened in 8% of BMS and 46% of non-BMS patients (P = 0.008), while the proportion of cognitively impaired subjects increased to 25% in both groups. Patients with BMS had better physical disability outcome at 5 years compared to non-BMS cases. However, cognitive impairment frequency and decline over time appeared similar. Neuropsychological assessment is essential in patients with BMS given the distinct pathways followed by disease progression in cognitive and physical domains. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Distinct soil bacterial communities revealed under a diversely managed agroecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymon S Shange

    Full Text Available Land-use change and management practices are normally enacted to manipulate environments to improve conditions that relate to production, remediation, and accommodation. However, their effect on the soil microbial community and their subsequent influence on soil function is still difficult to quantify. Recent applications of molecular techniques to soil biology, especially the use of 16S rRNA, are helping to bridge this gap. In this study, the influence of three land-use systems within a demonstration farm were evaluated with a view to further understand how these practices may impact observed soil bacterial communities. Replicate soil samples collected from the three land-use systems (grazed pine forest, cultivated crop, and grazed pasture on a single soil type. High throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to generate sequence datasets. The different land use systems showed distinction in the structure of their bacterial communities with respect to the differences detected in cluster analysis as well as diversity indices. Specific taxa, particularly Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and classes of Proteobacteria, showed significant shifts across the land-use strata. Families belonging to these taxa broke with notions of copio- and oligotrphy at the class level, as many of the less abundant groups of families of Actinobacteria showed a propensity for soil environments with reduced carbon/nutrient availability. Orders Actinomycetales and Solirubrobacterales showed their highest abundance in the heavily disturbed cultivated system despite the lowest soil organic carbon (SOC values across the site. Selected soil properties ([SOC], total nitrogen [TN], soil texture, phosphodiesterase [PD], alkaline phosphatase [APA], acid phosphatase [ACP] activity, and pH also differed significantly across land-use regimes, with SOM, PD, and pH showing variation consistent with shifts in community structure and composition. These results suggest that use of

  5. Psoriasis and cardiometabolic traits: modest association but distinct genetic architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Manja; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Ried, Janina S.; Rodriguez, Elke; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Volks, Natalie; Gieger, Christian; Rückert, Ina-Maria; Heinrich, Luise; Willenborg, Christina; Smith, Catherine; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Jansen, Henning; Kronenberg, Florian; Seissler, Jochen; Thiery, Joachim; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Schunkert, Heribert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Barker, Jonathan; Nair, Rajan P; Tsoi, Lam C; Elder, James T; Mrowietz, Ulrich; Weichenthal, Michael; Mucha, Sören; Schreiber, Stefan; Franke, Andre; Schmitt, Jochen; Lieb, Wolfgang; Weidinger, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis has been linked to cardiometabolic diseases, but epidemiological findings are inconsistent. We investigated the association between psoriasis and cardiometabolic outcomes in a German cross-sectional study (n=4.185) and a prospective cohort of German Health Insurance beneficiaries (n=1.811.098). A potential genetic overlap was explored using genome-wide data from >22.000 coronary artery disease (CAD) and >4.000 psoriasis cases, and with a dense genotyping study of cardiometabolic risk loci on 927 psoriasis cases and 3.717 controls. Controlling for major confounders, in the cross-sectional analysis psoriasis was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D, adjusted odd’s ratio OR=2.36; 95% confidence interval CI=1.26–4.41) and myocardial infarction (MI, OR=2.26, 95% CI=1.03–4.96). In the longitudinal study, psoriasis slightly increased the risk for incident T2D (adjusted relative risk RR=1.11; 95%CI=1.08–1.14) and MI (RR=1.14; 95%CI=1.06–1.22), with highest risk increments in systemically treated psoriasis, which accounted for 11 and 17 excess cases of T2D and MI per 10,000 person-years. Except for weak signals from within the MHC, there was no evidence for genetic risk loci shared between psoriasis and cardiometabolic traits. Our findings suggest that psoriasis, in particular severe psoriasis, increases risk for T2D and MI, and that the genetic architecture of psoriasis and cardiometabolic traits is largely distinct. PMID:25599394

  6. Distinct modes of adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, L da Rocha; Troleis, J; Mastroberti, A A; Mariath, J E A; Fett-Neto, A G

    2012-01-01

    The literature describes different rooting protocols for Arabidopsis thaliana as models to study adventitious rooting, and results are generally perceived as comparable. However, there is a lack of investigations focusing on the distinct features, advantages and limitations of each method in the study of adventitious rooting with both wild-type (WT) ecotypes and their respective mutants. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the adventitious rooting process in three different experimental systems, all using A. thaliana, analysing the same rooting parameters after transient exposure to auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) and control conditions: excised leaves, de-rooted plants and etiolated seedlings. The founding tissues and sites of origin of roots differed depending on the system used, whereas all rooting patterns were of the direct type (i.e., without callus formation). None of the systems had an absolute requirement for exogenous auxin, although rooting was enhanced by this phytohormone, with the exception of de-rooted plants, which had adventitious rooting strongly inhibited by exogenous auxin. Root elongation was much favoured in isolated leaves. Auxin-overproducing mutants could not be used in the detached leaf system due to precocious senescence; in the de-rooted plant system, these mutants had a WT-like rooting response, whereas the expression of the 'rooty' phenotype was only evident in the etiolated seedling system. Adventitious rooting of etiolated WT seedlings in the presence of exogenous auxin was inhibited by exogenous flavonoids, which act as auxin transport inhibitors; surprisingly, the flavonoid-deficient mutant chs had a lower rooting response compared to WT. Although Arabidopsis is an excellent model system to study adventitious rooting, physiological and developmental responses differed significantly, underlining the importance of avoiding data generalisation on rooting responses derived from different experimental systems with this species.

  7. Using choice architecture to exploit a university Distinct Urban Mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierron, Xavier; Williams, Ian D; Shaw, Peter J; Cleaver, Victoria

    2017-10-01

    There are widespread concerns regarding the potential future scarcity of ferrous and non-ferrous materials. However, there are already potentially rich reserves of secondary materials via high ownership of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) in economically-developed nations. Young people are particularly high consumers of EEE, thus university students and campuses may present an opportunity to harness this potential. University Distinct Urban Mines (DUM) may be used to exemplify how potential reserves of secondary metals may be exploited, and could contribute to the transition from a linear to a circular economy. This study aimed to evaluate small household appliances (SHA) DUM from a UK university, with the objectives to identify and quantify student households' SHA ownership, WEEE recycling, stockpiling and discarding habits amongst student households, assess and evaluate the monetary potential of SHA DUM at UK level, and propose methods to exploit DUM for universities in the UK. To this purpose, a quantitative survey was undertaken to measure students' ownership and discarding behaviour with respect to SHA. The amounts of ferrous and non-ferrous materials were then estimated and converted to monetary values from secondary materials market data to appraise the SHA DUM overall value. Thirty-five per cent of SHA are discarded in the general refuse. Broken personal care appliances (PCA) tend to be discarded due to hygiene and small size factors. When in working order, SHA tend to be equally reused, recycled or stockpiled. We conclude that a total of 189 tonnes of ferrous and non-ferrous materials were available via discarding or being stockpiled at the University of Southampton. Extrapolated to UK higher education level, discarded and stockpiled SHA represent a potential worth ∼USD 11 million. To initiate DUM exploitation within Higher Education campuses, we suggest improving users' choice architecture by providing collection methods specific to broken SHA

  8. Origin of chemically distinct discs in the Auriga cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Robert J. J.; Bustamante, Sebastián; Gómez, Facundo A.; Kawata, Daisuke; Marinacci, Federico; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Rix, Hans-Walter; Simpson, Christine M.; Sparre, Martin; Springel, Volker

    2018-03-01

    The stellar disc of the Milky Way shows complex spatial and abundance structure that is central to understanding the key physical mechanisms responsible for shaping our Galaxy. In this study, we use six very high resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations of Milky Way-sized haloes to study the prevalence and formation of chemically distinct disc components. We find that our simulations develop a clearly bimodal distribution in the [α/Fe]-[Fe/H] plane. We find two main pathways to creating this dichotomy, which operate in different regions of the galaxies: (a) an early (z > 1) and intense high-[α/Fe] star formation phase in the inner region (R ≲ 5 kpc) induced by gas-rich mergers, followed by more quiescent low-[α/Fe] star formation; and (b) an early phase of high-[α/Fe] star formation in the outer disc followed by a shrinking of the gas disc owing to a temporarily lowered gas accretion rate, after which disc growth resumes. In process (b), a double-peaked star formation history around the time and radius of disc shrinking accentuates the dichotomy. If the early star formation phase is prolonged (rather than short and intense), chemical evolution proceeds as per process (a) in the inner region, but the dichotomy is less clear. In the outer region, the dichotomy is only evident if the first intense phase of star formation covers a large enough radial range before disc shrinking occurs; otherwise, the outer disc consists of only low-[α/Fe] sequence stars. We discuss the implication that both processes occurred in the Milky Way.

  9. Is there anything distinctive about epileptic deja vu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Zeman, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Déjà vu can occur as an aura of temporal lobe epilepsy and in some psychiatric conditions but is also common in the general population. It is unclear whether any clinical features distinguish pathological and physiological forms of déjà vu. 50 epileptic patients with ictal déjà vu, 50 non-epileptic patients attending general neurology clinics and 50 medical students at Edinburgh University were recruited. Data were collected on demographic factors, the experience of déjà vu using a questionnaire based on Sno's Inventory for Déjà Vu Experiences Assessment, symptoms of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as well as seizure characteristics, anti-epileptic medications, handedness, EEG and neuroimaging findings for epileptic patients. 73.5% of neurology patients, 88% of students and (by definition) all epilepsy patients had experienced déjà vu. The experience of déjà vu itself was similar in the three groups. Epileptic déjà vu occurred more frequently and lasted somewhat longer than physiological déjà vu. Epilepsy patients were more likely to report prior fatigue and concentrated activity, associated derealisation, olfactory and gustatory hallucinations, physical symptoms such as headaches, abdominal sensations and fear. After controlling for study group, anxiety and depression scores were not associated with déjà vu frequency. Déjà vu is common and qualitatively similar whether it occurs as an epileptic aura or normal phenomenon. However ictal déjà vu occurs more frequently and is accompanied by several distinctive features. It is distinguished primarily by 'the company it keeps'.

  10. Heterogeneity in Neutrophil Microparticles Reveals Distinct Proteome and Functional Properties*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalli, Jesmond; Montero-Melendez, Trinidad; Norling, Lucy V; Yin, Xiaoke; Hinds, Charles; Haskard, Dorian; Mayr, Manuel; Perretti, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Altered plasma neutrophil microparticle levels have recently been implicated in a number of vascular and inflammatory diseases, yet our understanding of their actions is very limited. Herein, we investigate the proteome of neutrophil microparticles in order to shed light on their biological actions. Stimulation of human neutrophils, either in suspension or adherent to an endothelial monolayer, led to the production of microparticles containing >400 distinct proteins with only 223 being shared by the two subsets. For instance, postadherent microparticles were enriched in alpha-2 macroglobulin and ceruloplasmin, whereas microparticles produced by neutrophils in suspension were abundant in heat shock 70 kDa protein 1. Annexin A1 and lactotransferrin were expressed in both microparticle subsets. We next determined relative abundance of these proteins in three types of human microparticle samples: healthy volunteer plasma, plasma of septic patients and skin blister exudates finding that these proteins were differentially expressed on neutrophil microparticles from these samples reflecting in part the expression profiles we found in vitro. Functional assessment of the neutrophil microparticles subsets demonstrated that in response to direct stimulation neutrophil microparticles produced reactive oxygen species and leukotriene B4 as well as locomoted toward a chemotactic gradient. Finally, we investigated the actions of the two neutrophil microparticles subsets described herein on target cell responses. Microarray analysis with human primary endothelial cells incubated with either microparticle subset revealed a discrete modulation of endothelial cell gene expression profile. These findings demonstrate that neutrophil microparticles are heterogenous and can deliver packaged information propagating the activation status of the parent cell, potentially exerting novel and fundamental roles both under homeostatic and disease conditions. PMID:23660474

  11. Rethinking the distinction between black and brown carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, G. A.; Franchin, A.; Lamb, K. D.; Manfred, K.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Schwarz, J. P.; Wagner, N.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Womack, C.; Murphy, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol radiative properties contribute large uncertainty to modeling of the earth's radiative budget. Black carbon (BC) aerosols originate from combustion processes and substantially contribute to warming and uncertainty - ongoing efforts are focused on reducing their anthropogenic emissions even as their emissions from biomass burning sources, such as wildfire, may increase in the future. Quantifying the radiative effect of BC is challenging, in part due to its association with other light absorbing materials including Brown carbon organic aerosol (BrC) that absorbs primarily blue and ultraviolet light while BC absorbs broadly across the visible. Conventionally BrC is thought of a low volatility spherical particles, distinguishing it from BC, which has a distinctive agglomerate morphology and is refractory at high temperatures. However, the separation of BC and BrC is often operationally defined and dependent on the measurement method. Using measurements of aerosol morphology, mass, absorption, and refractory BC mass content we were able to identify a light absorbing contribution from biomass burning aerosol that does not correspond to either BC or BrC as conventionally defined. Our measurements were collected from realistic biomass burning fires at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory as part of the NOAA FIREX project (2016) and from extensive natural wildfire sampled aloft during NASA SEAC4RS field study (2013). We coin the term Dark Brown Carbon (DBrC) to describe this material, which absorbs broadly across the visible and survives thermal denuding at 250°C but does not incandesce in laser induced incandesce (LII) measurements. DBrC may be an intermediate burning stage product between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the mature soot. DBrC deserves further study to quantify its abundance and aging in ambient biomass burning plumes, and its relationship to tar balls. Our findings show that more than half of the light absorption in biomass burning

  12. Distinct Element modeling of geophysical signatures during sinkhole collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Holohan, Eoghan P.; Taheri, Abbas; Dahm, Torsten

    2017-04-01

    A sinkhole forms due to the collapse of rocks or soil near the Earth's surface into an underground cavity. Such cavities represent large secondary pore spaces derived by dissolution and subrosion in the underground. By changing the stress field in the surrounding material, the growth of cavities can lead to a positive feedback, in which expansion and mechanical instability in the surrounding material increases or generates new secondary pore space (e.g. by fracturing), which in turn increases the cavity size, etc. A sinkhole forms due to the eventual subsidence or collapse of the overburden that becomes destabilized and fails all the way to the Earth's surface. Both natural processes like (sub)surface water movement and earthquakes, and human activities, such as mining, construction and groundwater extraction, intensify such feedbacks. The development of models for the mechanical interaction of a growing cavity and fracturing of its surrounding material, thus capturing related precursory geophysical signatures, has been limited, however. Here we report on the advances of a general, simplified approach to simulating cavity growth and sinkhole formation by using 2D Distinct Element Modeling (DEM) PFC5.0 software and thereby constraining pre-, syn- and post-collapse geophysical and geodetic signatures. This physically realistic approach allows for spontaneous cavity development and dislocation of rock mass to be simulated by bonded particle formulation of DEM. First, we present calibration and validation of our model. Surface subsidence above an instantaneously excavated circular cavity is tracked and compared with an incrementally increasing dissolution zone both for purely elastic and non-elastic material.This validation is important for the optimal choice of model dimensions and particles size with respect to simulation time. Second, a cavity growth approach is presented and compared to a well-documented case study, the deliberately intensified sinkhole collapse at

  13. Two distinct classes of QTL determine rust resistance in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemin; Mace, Emma; Hunt, Colleen; Cruickshank, Alan; Henzell, Robert; Parkes, Heidi; Jordan, David

    2014-12-31

    rust resistance QTL. The distinction of disease resistance QTL hot-spots, enriched with defence-related gene families from QTL which impact on development and partitioning, provides plant breeders with knowledge which will allow for fast-tracking varieties with both durable pathogen resistance and appropriate adaptive traits.

  14. A distinct epigenetic signature at targets of a leukemia protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Spek Peter

    2007-02-01

    leukemia-associated fusion protein can impose a distinct epigenetic repressive signature at specific sites in the genome. These findings strengthen the conclusion that leukemia-specific oncoproteins can induce non-random epigenetic changes.

  15. The effects of distinctiveness on memory and metamemory for face-name associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watier, Nicholas; Collin, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of face and name distinctiveness on memory and metamemory for face-name associations. Four types of monitoring judgements were solicited during encoding and retrieval of face-name pairs that contained distinct or typical faces (Experiment 1) or names (Experiment 2). The beneficial effects of distinctiveness on associative memory were symmetrical between faces and names, such that relative to their typical counterparts, distinct faces enhanced memory for names, and distinct names enhanced memory for faces. These effects were also apparent in metamemory. Estimates of prospective and retrospective memory performance were greater for face-name associations that contained a distinct face or name compared with a typical face or name, regardless of whether the distinct item was a cue or target. Moreover, the predictive validity of prospective monitoring improved with name distinctiveness, whereas the predictive validity of retrospective monitoring improved with facial distinctiveness. Our results indicate that distinctiveness affects not only the strength of the association between a face and a name, but also the ability to monitor that association.

  16. False Memories in Children and Adults: Age, Distinctiveness, and Subjective Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information, and subjective experience of true/false memories. Found that 5-year-olds recalled more false memories than adults but no age differences in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false…

  17. Legal distinction between employee and independent contractor as applied to collective bargaining activities in timber harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Granskog; William C. Siegal

    1977-01-01

    Collective bargaining attempts by timber harvesting labor groups is often complicated by lack of a clear legal distinction between "employees" and "independent contractors." the primary criterion to make the distinction - the "right-to-control" test of common law - has now been amplified by a number of secondary tests, including: 1) the...

  18. 76 FR 9734 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Population Segments of the Bearded Seal AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... December 10, 2010, we, NMFS, published a proposed rule to list the Beringia and Okhotsk Distinct Population..., 2010 (75 FR 77476), we published a proposed rule to list the Beringia and Okhotsk Distinct Population...

  19. The usefulness of the grammaticality-acceptability distinction in functional approaches to language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    2013-01-01

    between competence and performance, rather than on a distinction between syntax and meaning. The basic rationale for having such a distinction is that much of linguistics is concerned with describing relatively stable grammatical knowledge, rather than the psycholinguistic dynamics of language use...

  20. Unsentimental Ethics: Towards a Content-Specific Account of the Moral-Conventional Distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royzman, Edward B.; Leeman, Robert F.; Baron, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we offer an overview and a critique of the existing theories of the moral-conventional distinction, with emphasis on Nichols's [Nichols, S. (2002). Norms with feeling: Towards a psychological account of moral judgment. "Cognition, 84", 221-236] neo-sentimentalist approach. After discussing some distinctive features of Nichols's…

  1. What Makes Counsellors Working in Primary Care Distinct from Counsellors Working in Other Settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson-Allez, Glyn

    2000-01-01

    Counseling in primary care can be considered a fast-evolving profession that is distinct from counseling in the private sector. Differences in counselor roles, specifically confidentiality ethics and working hours, are discussed. Referrals and attrition are also discussed. The distinctiveness of primary care counseling versus working in more…

  2. Dissociative effects of orthographic distinctiveness in pure and mixed lists: an item-order account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Mark A; Cahill, Michael; Bugg, Julie M; Meadow, Nathaniel G

    2011-10-01

    We apply the item-order theory of list composition effects in free recall to the orthographic distinctiveness effect. The item-order account assumes that orthographically distinct items advantage item-specific encoding in both mixed and pure lists, but at the expense of exploiting relational information present in the list. Experiment 1 replicated the typical free recall advantage of orthographically distinct items in mixed lists and the elimination of that advantage in pure lists. Supporting the item-order account, recognition performances indicated that orthographically distinct items received greater item-specific encoding than did orthographically common items in mixed and pure lists (Experiments 1 and 2). Furthermore, order memory (input-output correspondence and sequential contiguity effects) was evident in recall of pure unstructured common lists, but not in recall of unstructured distinct lists (Experiment 1). These combined patterns, although not anticipated by prevailing views, are consistent with an item-order account.

  3. Moral fiction or moral fact? The distinction between doing and allowing in medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Thomas S

    2013-06-01

    Opponents of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) maintain that physician withdrawal-of-life-sustaining-treatment cannot be morally equated to voluntary active euthanasia. PAS opponents generally distinguish these two kinds of act by positing a possible moral distinction between killing and allowing-to-die, ceteris paribus. While that distinction continues to be widely accepted in the public discourse, it has been more controversial among philosophers. Some ethicist PAS advocates are so certain that the distinction is invalid that they describe PAS opponents who hold to the distinction as in the grip of 'moral fictions'. The author contends that such a diagnosis is too hasty. The possibility of a moral distinction between active euthanasia and allowing-to-die has not been closed off by the argumentative strategies employed by these PAS advocates, including the contrasting cases strategy and the assimilation of doing and allowing to a common sense notion of causation. The philosophical debate over the doing/allowing distinction remains inconclusive, but physicians and others who rely upon that distinction in thinking about the ethics of end-of-life care need not give up on it in response to these arguments. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Host-Pathogen Interactions in Guillain-Barré Syndrome : the role of Campylobacter jejuni lipooligosaccharide sialylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Heikema (Astrid)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract*Campylobacter jejuni* (*C. jejuni*) is a spiral, comma-shaped Gram-negative bacterium which is motile due to bipolar flagella. *C. jejuni* is frequently present in the intestines of poultry and birds, where it is considered to be part of the normal intestinal flora (1).

  5. Distinctly December.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instructor, 1982

    1982-01-01

    This special section presents Christmas and Hanukkah holiday activities and describes decorations and gifts that children can make. Other seasonal ideas include a Christmas luau dance, a magic Christmas tree, and Christmas and Hanukkah games and stories. (PP)

  6. Distinctive marketing and information technology capabilities and strategic types : A cross-national investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Michael; Nason, Robert W.; Di Benedetto, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine the relationship between strategic type and development of distinctive marketing, market-linking, technology, and information technology (IT) capabilities to implement innovation strategy. They hypothesize that prospectors must build technical and IT capabilities, whereas

  7. The picture superiority effect in conceptual implicit memory: a conceptual distinctiveness hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Maryellen; Geraci, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    According to leading theories, the picture superiority effect is driven by conceptual processing, yet this effect has been difficult to obtain using conceptual implicit memory tests. We hypothesized that the picture superiority effect results from conceptual processing of a picture's distinctive features rather than a picture's semantic features. To test this hypothesis, we used 2 conceptual implicit general knowledge tests; one cued conceptually distinctive features (e.g., "What animal has large eyes?") and the other cued semantic features (e.g., "What animal is the figurehead of Tootsie Roll?"). Results showed a picture superiority effect only on the conceptual test using distinctive cues, supporting our hypothesis that this effect is mediated by conceptual processing of a picture's distinctive features.

  8. Contesting the science/ethics distinction in the review of clinical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Angus J; Yentis, Steve M

    2007-01-01

    Recent policy in relation to clinical research proposals in the UK has distinguished between two types of review: scientific and ethical. This distinction has been formally enshrined in the recent changes to research ethics committee (REC) structure and operating procedures, introduced as the UK response to the EU Directive on clinical trials. Recent reviews and recommendations have confirmed the place of the distinction and the separate review processes. However, serious reservations can be mounted about the science/ethics distinction and the policy of separate review that has been built upon it. We argue here that, first, the science/ethics distinction is incoherent, and, second, that RECs should not only be permitted to consider a study's science, but that they have anobligation do so. PMID:17329389

  9. Distinctive research patterns on public sector performance measurement of public administration and accounting disciplines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Helden, G. Jan; Johnsen, Age; Vakkuri, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    This article explores distinctive research patterns of public administration and accounting disciplines concerning public sector performance measurement (PSPM). Our review shows that accounting researchers from Europe investigate reasons for limited PM use and factors explaining a rational or

  10. Place preference and vocal learning rely on distinct reinforcers in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Don; Chen, Ruidong; Goldberg, Jesse H

    2018-04-30

    In reinforcement learning (RL) agents are typically tasked with maximizing a single objective function such as reward. But it remains poorly understood how agents might pursue distinct objectives at once. In machines, multiobjective RL can be achieved by dividing a single agent into multiple sub-agents, each of which is shaped by agent-specific reinforcement, but it remains unknown if animals adopt this strategy. Here we use songbirds to test if navigation and singing, two behaviors with distinct objectives, can be differentially reinforced. We demonstrate that strobe flashes aversively condition place preference but not song syllables. Brief noise bursts aversively condition song syllables but positively reinforce place preference. Thus distinct behavior-generating systems, or agencies, within a single animal can be shaped by correspondingly distinct reinforcement signals. Our findings suggest that spatially segregated vocal circuits can solve a credit assignment problem associated with multiobjective learning.

  11. 37 CFR 2.41 - Proof of distinctiveness under section 2(f).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mark may be accepted as prima facie evidence of distinctiveness. Also, if the mark is said to have... with § 2.20, in the application may, in appropriate cases, be accepted as prima facie evidence of...

  12. Functionally distinct dopamine signals in nucleus accumbens core and shell in the freely moving rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Jakob K.; Vander Weele, Caitlin M.; Lovic, Vedran

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic signaling of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons has been implicated in reward learning, drug abuse, and motivation. However, this system is complex because firing patterns of these neurons are heterogeneous; subpopulations receive distinct synaptic inputs, and project to anatomically...

  13. False memories in children and adults: age, distinctiveness, and subjective experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S

    2002-09-01

    This study investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information in false-memory formation, and participants' subjective experience of true and false memories. Children (5- and 7-year-olds) and adults studied lists of semantically associated words. Half of the participants studied words alone, and half studied words accompanied by pictures. There were significant age differences in recall (5-year-olds evinced more false memories than did adults) but not in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false memory for all age groups. Younger children provided with distinctive information, and older children and adults regardless of whether they viewed distinctive information, expressed higher levels of confidence in true than in false memories. Source attributions did not significantly differ between true and false memories. Implications for theories of false memory and memory development are discussed.

  14. SIFT-CCH: Increasing the SIFT distinctness by color co-occurrence histograms

    OpenAIRE

    ANCUTI, Cosmin; BEKAERT, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Describing regions in a distinctive way, in order to find correct correspondences in images of two separated views, represents a complex and essential task of computer vision. Until now, SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) has been proven to be the most reliable descriptor among the others. One of the main drawbacks of SIFT is its vulnerability to color images, being designed mainly for the gray images. To overcome this problem and also to increase the overall distinctness of the SIFT ...

  15. Culture and the distinctiveness motive: constructing identity in individualistic and collectivistic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Maja; Vignoles, Vivian L; Owe, Ellinor; Brown, Rupert; Smith, Peter B; Easterbrook, Matt; Herman, Ginette; de Sauvage, Isabelle; Bourguignon, David; Torres, Ana; Camino, Leoncio; Lemos, Flávia Cristina Silveira; Ferreira, M Cristina; Koller, Silvia H; González, Roberto; Carrasco, Diego; Cadena, Maria Paz; Lay, Siugmin; Wang, Qian; Bond, Michael Harris; Trujillo, Elvia Vargas; Balanta, Paola; Valk, Aune; Mekonnen, Kassahun Habtamu; Nizharadze, George; Fülöp, Marta; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Brambilla, Maria; Harb, Charles; Aldhafri, Said; Martin, Mariana; Macapagal, Ma Elizabeth J; Chybicka, Aneta; Gavreliuc, Alin; Buitendach, Johanna; Gallo, Inge Schweiger; Ozgen, Emre; Güner, Ulkü E; Yamakoğlu, Nil

    2012-04-01

    The motive to attain a distinctive identity is sometimes thought to be stronger in, or even specific to, those socialized into individualistic cultures. Using data from 4,751 participants in 21 cultural groups (18 nations and 3 regions), we tested this prediction against our alternative view that culture would moderate the ways in which people achieve feelings of distinctiveness, rather than influence the strength of their motivation to do so. We measured the distinctiveness motive using an indirect technique to avoid cultural response biases. Analyses showed that the distinctiveness motive was not weaker-and, if anything, was stronger-in more collectivistic nations. However, individualism-collectivism was found to moderate the ways in which feelings of distinctiveness were constructed: Distinctiveness was associated more closely with difference and separateness in more individualistic cultures and was associated more closely with social position in more collectivistic cultures. Multilevel analysis confirmed that it is the prevailing beliefs and values in an individual's context, rather than the individual's own beliefs and values, that account for these differences. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Distinctiveness enhances long-term event memory in non-human primates, irrespective of reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amy; Call, Josep; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2017-08-01

    Non-human primates are capable of recalling events that occurred as long as 3 years ago, and are able to distinguish between similar events; akin to human memory. In humans, distinctiveness enhances memory for events, however, it is unknown whether the same occurs in non-human primates. As such, we tested three great ape species on their ability to remember an event that varied in distinctiveness. Across three experiments, apes witnessed a baiting event in which one of three identical containers was baited with food. After a delay of 2 weeks, we tested their memory for the location of the baited container. Apes failed to recall the baited container when the event was undistinctive (Experiment 1), but were successful when it was distinctive (Experiment 2), although performance was equally good in a less-distinctive condition. A third experiment (Experiment 3) confirmed that distinctiveness, independent of reinforcement, was a consistent predictor of performance. These findings suggest that distinctiveness may enhance memory for events in non-human primates in the same way as in humans, and provides further evidence of basic similarities between the ways apes and humans remember past events. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Everyday distinction and omnivorous orientation: An analysis of food choice, attitudinal dispositions and social background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahma, Nina; Niva, Mari; Helakorpi, Satu; Jallinoja, Piia

    2016-01-01

    In recent years studies on cultural consumption have experienced a Bourdieusian renaissance. This is indicated by a growing body of research analysing distinctions in different areas of culture, and numerous studies on the homology thesis applying the concepts of distinction, field and capital. Concurrently, however, it has been argued that instead of distinctive tastes, distinction and class status are increasingly manifested by cultural omnivorousness. For a good part studies focussing on distinction in food have analysed eating out and stylization through restaurant preferences, rather than everyday food choices. In this article we investigate everyday food choices from the perspective of distinction and omnivorousness. Our analysis draws on cross-sectional quantitative data collected in 2012 among 15-64-year-old Finns (N = 2601). The article maps out the relationship between food choice frequencies, dispositions and social background with Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). The results show that the consumption of fruit and vegetables, ready-meals and convenience foods were among the most divisive food choices. The first structuring dimension juxtaposed processed, fatty and sugared foods with unprocessed foods and fresh ingredients. This dimension was associated with healthiness and weight control as dispositions. On the second structuring dimension there were differences in the valuation of taste, pleasure and sociability, and a contrast between moderate and restrictive choices. Particularly the first dimension was associated with educational, occupational, and gender differences. Distinction within everyday food choices was manifested in the use of healthy and unprocessed foods and 'moderate hedonism' in contrast to more restrictive tastes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Unified thalamic model generates multiple distinct oscillations with state-dependent entrainment by stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoshi Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The thalamus plays a critical role in the genesis of thalamocortical oscillations, yet the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. To understand whether the isolated thalamus can generate multiple distinct oscillations, we developed a biophysical thalamic model to test the hypothesis that generation of and transition between distinct thalamic oscillations can be explained as a function of neuromodulation by acetylcholine (ACh and norepinephrine (NE and afferent synaptic excitation. Indeed, the model exhibited four distinct thalamic rhythms (delta, sleep spindle, alpha and gamma oscillations that span the physiological states corresponding to different arousal levels from deep sleep to focused attention. Our simulation results indicate that generation of these distinct thalamic oscillations is a result of both intrinsic oscillatory cellular properties and specific network connectivity patterns. We then systematically varied the ACh/NE and input levels to generate a complete map of the different oscillatory states and their transitions. Lastly, we applied periodic stimulation to the thalamic network and found that entrainment of thalamic oscillations is highly state-dependent. Our results support the hypothesis that ACh/NE modulation and afferent excitation define thalamic oscillatory states and their response to brain stimulation. Our model proposes a broader and more central role of the thalamus in the genesis of multiple distinct thalamo-cortical rhythms than previously assumed.

  19. 14- to 16-Month-Olds Attend to Distinct Labels in an Inductive Reasoning Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Jessica L; Graham, Susan A

    2017-01-01

    We examined how naming objects with unique labels influenced infants' reasoning about the non-obvious properties of novel objects. Seventy 14- to 16-month-olds participated in an imitation-based inductive inference task during which they were presented with target objects possessing a non-obvious sound property, followed by test objects that varied in shape similarity in comparison to the target. Infants were assigned to one of two groups: a No Label group in which objects were introduced with a general attentional phrase (i.e., "Look at this one") and a Distinct Label group in which target and test objects were labeled with two distinct count nouns (i.e., fep vs. wug ). Infants in the Distinct Label group performed significantly fewer target actions on the high-similarity objects than infants in the No Label group but did not differ in performance of actions on the low-similarity object. Within the Distinct Label group, performance on the inductive inference task was related to age, but not to working memory, inhibitory control, or vocabulary. Within the No Label condition, performance on the inductive inference task was related to a measure of inhibitory control. Our findings suggest that between 14- and 16-months, infants begin to use labels to carve out distinct categories, even when objects are highly perceptually similar.

  20. 14- to 16-Month-Olds Attend to Distinct Labels in an Inductive Reasoning Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. Graham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined how naming objects with unique labels influenced infants’ reasoning about the non-obvious properties of novel objects. Seventy 14- to 16-month-olds participated in an imitation-based inductive inference task during which they were presented with target objects possessing a non-obvious sound property, followed by test objects that varied in shape similarity in comparison to the target. Infants were assigned to one of two groups: a No Label group in which objects were introduced with a general attentional phrase (i.e., “Look at this one” and a Distinct Label group in which target and test objects were labeled with two distinct count nouns (i.e., fep vs. wug. Infants in the Distinct Label group performed significantly fewer target actions on the high-similarity objects than infants in the No Label group but did not differ in performance of actions on the low-similarity object. Within the Distinct Label group, performance on the inductive inference task was related to age, but not to working memory, inhibitory control, or vocabulary. Within the No Label condition, performance on the inductive inference task was related to a measure of inhibitory control. Our findings suggest that between 14- and 16-months, infants begin to use labels to carve out distinct categories, even when objects are highly perceptually similar.

  1. Substantial Union or Substantial Distinction of Mind and Body in Descartes' Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahime Jamei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Descartes’ metaphysics there are two different kinds of substances in the world of creatures: “thinking substance” and “extended substance” or soul and matter. In Descartes’ philosophy the soul is equal to the mind and considered as a “thinking substance”. This immaterial substance is the essence of the human being. Body, being considered as a “matter“, is an “extended substance” and entirely distinct from the soul. The soul, therefore, exists and may be known prior to body and, not being corporeal, can exist after human death. Hence, Descartes can prove the immortality of human soul in the framework of the principle of substantial distinction. On the other hand, as a physiologist and psychologist, Descartes indeed believes in mind-body union, so that some causal interactions between mind and body show their substantial union. In this essay, the authors show that Descartes faces a serious problem in combining substantial union of mind and body with their substantial distinction; despite of his efforts in introducing the idea of pineal gland, the problem remains unsolved. Therefore it seems that as he cannot dispense with his only reason for proving the immortality of human soul, he has to hold the mind-body distinction theory in his metaphysics. Indeed, Descartes prefers to support the distinction theory rather than union theory in confronting a thesis and an antithesis stating one of two theories

  2. Substantial :union: or Substantial Distinction of Mind and Body in Descartes\\' Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    f Jamei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Descartes’ metaphysics there are two different kinds of substances in the world of creatures: “thinking substance” and “extended substance” or soul and matter. In Descartes’ philosophy the soul is equal to the mind and considered as a “thinking substance”. This immaterial substance is the essence of the human being. Body, being considered as a “matter“, is an “extended substance” and entirely distinct from the soul. The soul, therefore, exists and may be known prior to body and, not being corporeal, can exist after human death. Hence, Descartes can prove the immortality of human soul in the framework of the principle of substantial distinction. On the other hand, as a physiologist and psychologist, Descartes indeed believes in mind-body :union:, so that some causal interactions between mind and body show their substantial :union:. In this essay, the authors show that Descartes faces a serious problem in combining substantial :union: of mind and body with their substantial distinction despite of his efforts in introducing the idea of pineal gland, the problem remains unsolved. Therefore it seems that as he cannot dispense with his only reason for proving the immortality of human soul, he has to hold the mind-body distinction theory in his metaphysics. Indeed, Descartes prefers to support the distinction theory rather than :union: theory in confronting a thesis and an antithesis stating one of two theories.

  3. Molecular polymorphism of a cell surface proteoglycan: distinct structures on simple and stratified epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, R D; Bernfield, M

    1988-12-01

    Epithelial cells are organized into either a single layer (simple epithelia) or multiple layers (stratified epithelia). Maintenance of these cellular organizations requires distinct adhesive mechanisms involving many cell surface molecules. One such molecule is a cell surface proteoglycan, named syndecan, that contains both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains. This proteoglycan binds cells to fibrillar collagens and fibronectin and thus acts as a receptor for interstitial matrix. The proteoglycan is restricted to the basolateral surface of simple epithelial cells, but is located over the entire surface of stratified epithelial cells, even those surfaces not contacting matrix. We now show that the distinct localization in simple and stratified epithelia correlates with a distinct proteoglycan structure. The proteoglycan from simple epithelia (modal molecular size, 160 kDa) is larger than that from stratified epithelia (modal molecular size, 92 kDa), but their core proteins are identical in size and immunoreactivity. The proteoglycan from simple epithelia has more and larger heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains than the proteoglycan from stratified epithelia. Thus, the cell surface proteoglycan shows a tissue-specific structural polymorphism due to distinct posttranslational modifications. This polymorphism likely reflects distinct proteoglycan functions in simple and stratified epithelia, potentially meeting the different adhesive requirements of the cells in these different organizations.

  4. 30 CFR 75.1720-1 - Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1720-1 Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced miners. Hard hats or hard caps distinctively different in color...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1710-1 - Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps... Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced miners. Hard hats or hard caps distinctively different in color from those worn by experienced miners shall be worn at...

  6. 50 CFR 226.217 - Critical habitat for the Gulf of Maine Distinct Population Segment of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Distinct Population Segment of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). 226.217 Section 226.217 Wildlife and... Distinct Population Segment of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). Critical habitat is designated to include all... the Gulf of Maine Distinct Population Segment of Atlantic Salmon (GOM DPS), except for those...

  7. Motivation to hide emotion and children's understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Pierre; Warren, Madeleine; Diotte, Michèle

    2002-12-01

    The authors investigated the extent to which children's understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotions varied according to the motivation to hide emotions. Children, aged 6-7 and 10-11 years, were read stories designed to elicit either prosocial or self-protective motivated display rules and were asked to predict the facial expressions the protagonists would make to hide felt emotions. Children were found to understand the distinction between real and apparent emotions very well, independently of the type of motivation. Contrary to predictions, boys understood this distinction better than did girls when the motivation to hide positive emotions was prosocial. Children perceived neutralization as the most appropriate strategy to hide felt emotions, followed by masking.

  8. Spatial and Single-Cell Transcriptional Profiling Identifies Functionally Distinct Human Dermal Fibroblast Subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippeos, Christina; Telerman, Stephanie B; Oulès, Bénédicte; Pisco, Angela O; Shaw, Tanya J; Elgueta, Raul; Lombardi, Giovanna; Driskell, Ryan R; Soldin, Mark; Lynch, Magnus D; Watt, Fiona M

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that mouse dermis is composed of functionally distinct fibroblast lineages. To explore the extent of fibroblast heterogeneity in human skin, we used a combination of comparative spatial transcriptional profiling of human and mouse dermis and single-cell transcriptional profiling of human dermal fibroblasts. We show that there are at least four distinct fibroblast populations in adult human skin, not all of which are spatially segregated. We define markers permitting their isolation and show that although marker expression is lost in culture, different fibroblast subpopulations retain distinct functionality in terms of Wnt signaling, responsiveness to IFN-γ, and ability to support human epidermal reconstitution when introduced into decellularized dermis. These findings suggest that ex vivo expansion or in vivo ablation of specific fibroblast subpopulations may have therapeutic applications in wound healing and diseases characterized by excessive fibrosis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. European freshwater VHSV genotype Ia isolates divide into two distinct subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahns, Søren; Skall, Helle Frank; Kaas, Rolf Sommer

    2012-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), caused by the novirhabdovirus VHSV, often leads to significant economic losses to European rainbow trout production. The virus isolates are divided into 4 distinct genotypes with additional subgroups including sublineage Ia, isolates of which are the main...... detected in Denmark since January 2009. Full-length G-genes of all Danish VHSV isolates that were submitted for diagnostic analyses in the period 2004−2009 were sequenced and analysed. All 58 Danish isolates from rainbow trout grouped with sublineage Ia isolates. Furthermore, VHSV isolates from infected...... Danish freshwater catchments appear to have evolved into a distinct clade within sublineage Ia, herein designated clade Ia-1, whereas trout isolates originating from other continental European countries cluster in another distinct clade, designated clade Ia-2. In addition, phylogenetic analyses indicate...

  10. The death of distinctions: From 9/11 to Abu Ghraib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, John Ellis van Courtland

    2004-09-01

    War, the great simplifier, is the inevitable enemy of distinctions, especially when conflicts evoke survival fears, sounding echoes from humanity's environment of evolutionary adaptation. Throughout the twentieth century, attackers and targets grew more distant, weaponry grew more destructive, and distinctions -- between combatants and civilians, between legitimate and protected targets, between defensive and offensive strategies, between the innocent and the guilty -- faded. In the twenty-first century's first major conflict, "the war against terror," distinctions have faded still further, making nearly indistinguishable the frontier between preemption and prevention and between interrogation and torture. Proclaimed a "new type of war" in which old rules and customary safeguards would often be inapplicable, this conflict quickly came to be characterized by political embarrassment and operational scandal.

  11. Crafty Entanglements: Knitting and Hard Distinctions in Aesthetics and Political Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate M. Daley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many theoretical writings on aesthetics and politics rely on hard distinctions between what is and is not art, and what is and is not political. In this article, I draw on the work of theorists, knitters, and fiber artists to argue that hand knitting provides a lens through which to unsettle some of these distinctions. I illustrate some of the ways in which aesthetic theory relies on hard distinctions between art and not-art and politics and not-politics, with particular focus on the work of Kant, Hegel, Heidegger, and Rancière. I explain how knitting is often seen as falling clearly outside the definitions of art and politics, and explore the surprising ways in which knitting shows the instability of these categories and expectations. I show that common social traditions and practices that often go unanalyzed can provide insight into the limitations and complexities of prevalent theoretical assumptions.

  12. Concurrent topological design of composite structures and materials containing multiple phases of distinct Poisson's ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kai; Yuan, Philip F.; Xu, Shanqing; Xie, Yi Min

    2018-04-01

    Most studies on composites assume that the constituent phases have different values of stiffness. Little attention has been paid to the effect of constituent phases having distinct Poisson's ratios. This research focuses on a concurrent optimization method for simultaneously designing composite structures and materials with distinct Poisson's ratios. The proposed method aims to minimize the mean compliance of the macrostructure with a given mass of base materials. In contrast to the traditional interpolation of the stiffness matrix through numerical results, an interpolation scheme of the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio using different parameters is adopted. The numerical results demonstrate that the Poisson effect plays a key role in reducing the mean compliance of the final design. An important contribution of the present study is that the proposed concurrent optimization method can automatically distribute base materials with distinct Poisson's ratios between the macrostructural and microstructural levels under a single constraint of the total mass.

  13. Differential regulation of microtubule severing by APC underlies distinct patterns of projection neuron and interneuron migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Tae-Yeon; Stanco, Amelia; Guo, Jiami; Wilkins, Gary; Deslauriers, Danielle; Yan, Jessica; Monckton, Chase; Blair, Josh; Oon, Eesim; Perez, Abby; Salas, Eduardo; Oh, Adrianna; Ghukasyan, Vladimir; Snider, William D.; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Anton, E. S.

    2014-01-01

    Coordinated migration of distinct classes of neurons to appropriate positions leads to the formation of functional neuronal circuitry in the cerebral cortex. Two major classes of cortical neurons, interneurons and projection neurons, utilize distinctly different modes (radial vs. tangential) and routes of migration to arrive at their final positions in the cerebral cortex. Here, we show that adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) modulates microtubule (MT) severing in interneurons to facilitate tangential mode of interneuron migration, but not the glial-guided, radial migration of projection neurons. APC regulates the stability and activity of the MT severing protein p60-katanin in interneurons to promote the rapid remodeling of neuronal processes necessary for interneuron migration. These findings reveal how severing and restructuring of MTs facilitate distinct modes of neuronal migration necessary for laminar organization of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex. PMID:25535916

  14. Molecular cloning and pharmacology of functionally distinct isoforms of the human histamine H(3) receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Goodman, M W; Burstein, E S

    2002-01-01

    The pharmacology of histamine H(3) receptors suggests the presence of distinct receptor isoforms or subtypes. We herein describe multiple, functionally distinct, alternatively spliced isoforms of the human H(3) receptor. Combinatorial splicing at three different sites creates at least six distinct...... receptor isoforms, of which isoforms 1, 2, and 4, encode functional proteins. Detailed pharmacology on isoforms 1 (unspliced receptor), and 2 (which has an 80 amino acid deletion within the third intracellular loop of the protein) revealed that both isoforms displayed robust responses to a series of known...... revealed a rank order of potency at both isoforms of clobenpropit>iodophenpropit>thioperamide, and these drugs are fivefold less potent at isoform 2 than isoform 1. To further explore the pharmacology of H(3) receptor function, we screened 150 clinically relevant neuropsychiatric drugs for H(3) receptor...

  15. Confluence for classical logic through the distinction between values and computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Espírito Santo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We apply an idea originated in the theory of programming languages - monadic meta-language with a distinction between values and computations - in the design of a calculus of cut-elimination for classical logic. The cut-elimination calculus we obtain comprehends the call-by-name and call-by-value fragments of Curien-Herbelin's lambda-bar-mu-mu-tilde-calculus without losing confluence, and is based on a distinction of "modes" in the proof expressions and "mode" annotations in types. Modes resemble colors and polarities, but are quite different: we give meaning to them in terms of a monadic meta-language where the distinction between values and computations is fully explored. This meta-language is a refinement of the classical monadic language previously introduced by the authors, and is also developed in the paper.

  16. The physician-administrator as patient: distinctive aspects of medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, Mitchell S

    2011-01-01

    This article examines distinctive aspects of medical care experienced by a 55-year-old hospitalized for quintuple coronary artery bypass surgery who was also a senior physician-administrator (chief of gastroenterology) at the same hospital. The article describes eight distinctive aspects of administrator-physicians as patients, including special patient treatment; exalted patient expectations by hospital personnel; patient suppression of emotions; patient denial; self-doctoring; job stress contributing to disease; self-sacrifice to achieve better health; and rational medical decisions when not under stress. Health-care workers should recognize how these distinctive aspects of medical care and behavior affect administrator-physicians as patients, in order to mitigate their negative effects, potentiate their positive effects, and optimize the care of these patients.

  17. Agent-specific learning signals for self-other distinction during mentalising.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Ereira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Humans have a remarkable ability to simulate the minds of others. How the brain distinguishes between mental states attributed to self and mental states attributed to someone else is unknown. Here, we investigated how fundamental neural learning signals are selectively attributed to different agents. Specifically, we asked whether learning signals are encoded in agent-specific neural patterns or whether a self-other distinction depends on encoding agent identity separately from this learning signal. To examine this, we tasked subjects to learn continuously 2 models of the same environment, such that one was selectively attributed to self and the other was selectively attributed to another agent. Combining computational modelling with magnetoencephalography (MEG enabled us to track neural representations of prediction errors (PEs and beliefs attributed to self, and of simulated PEs and beliefs attributed to another agent. We found that the representational pattern of a PE reliably predicts the identity of the agent to whom the signal is attributed, consistent with a neural self-other distinction implemented via agent-specific learning signals. Strikingly, subjects exhibiting a weaker neural self-other distinction also had a reduced behavioural capacity for self-other distinction and displayed more marked subclinical psychopathological traits. The neural self-other distinction was also modulated by social context, evidenced in a significantly reduced decoding of agent identity in a nonsocial control task. Thus, we show that self-other distinction is realised through an encoding of agent identity intrinsic to fundamental learning signals. The observation that the fidelity of this encoding predicts psychopathological traits is of interest as a potential neurocomputational psychiatric biomarker.

  18. The Meritocratic Ideal in Education Systems: The Mechanisms of Academic Distinction in the International Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Quaresma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The state school lives immersed in the tension between democratic purposes and the ideals of merit and selectivity. In this context, state schools establish instruments of public praise for students who stand out academically or in other dimensions. We propose to map the rituals of academic distinction in Portuguese state schools and to discuss the widespread adoption of these mechanisms by secondary schools. However, neither their configuration nor the selection criteria are homogeneous, which points to the existence of distinct conceptualisations of excellence and margins of freedom for each school to define their own criteria for success.

  19. Genetically distinct isolates of Spirocerca sp. from a naturally infected red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hansen, Mette Sif; Chriél, Mariann

    2014-01-01

    sugar-salt solu-tion, and sieving failed to detect eggs of Spirocerca sp. in feces collected from the colon.This is the first report of spirocercosis in Denmark, and may have been caused by a recentintroduction by migrating paratenic or definitive host. Analysis of two overlapping par-tial sequences...... of the cox1 gene, from individual worms, revealed distinct genetic variation(7–9%) between the Danish worms and isolates of S. lupi from Europe, Asia and Africa.This was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis that clearly separated the Danish worms fromother isolates of S. lupi. The distinct genetic differences...

  20. Differences in virulence and sporulation of Phytophthora kernoviae isolates originating from two distinct geographical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora kernoviae has only been isolated from the United Kingdom (U.K.) and New Zealand. To understand what differences may exist between isolates from these two distinct geographical regions, virulence studies on three host plants and sporulation on host leaves were conducted on select isolat...

  1. Role of Importance and Distinctiveness of Semantic Features in People with Aphasia: A Replication Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Baughman, Mary Beth; Wallace, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that people with aphasia have incomplete lexical-semantic representations with decreased low-importance distinctive (LID) feature knowledge. In addition, decreased LID feature knowledge correlates with ability to discriminate among semantically related words. The current study seeks to replicate and extend previous…

  2. Gene expression profiling of two distinct neuronal populations in the rodent spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryge, Jesper; Westerdahl, Ann Charlotte; Alstøm, Preben

    2008-01-01

    Background: In the field of neuroscience microarray gene expression profiles on anatomically defined brain structures are being used increasingly to study both normal brain functions as well as pathological states. Fluorescent tracing techniques in brain tissue that identifies distinct neuronal p...

  3. Your Divided Attention, Please! The Maintenance of Multiple Attentional Control Sets over Distinct Regions in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Maha; Pun, Carson; Pratt, Jay; Ferber, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    When non-informative peripheral cues precede a target defined by a specific feature, cues that share the critical feature will capture attention while cues that do not will be effectively ignored. We tested whether different attentional control sets can be simultaneously maintained over distinct regions of space. Participants were instructed to…

  4. AUDITORY NUCLEI: DISTINCTIVE RESPONSE PATTERNS TO WHITE NOISE AND TONES IN UNANESTHETIZED CATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GALIN, D

    1964-10-09

    Electrical responses to "white" noise and tonal stimuli were recorded from unanesthetized cats with permanently implanted bipolar electrodes. The cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus, and medial geniculate each showed distinctive patterns of evoked activity. White noise and tones produced qualitatively different types of response. A decrease in activity characterized the response of the inferior colliculus to tonal stimuli.

  5. Dealing with Distinctiveness. Development of Chinese in the "Australian Curriculum: Languages"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimgeour, Andrew; Foster, Marnie; Mao, Weifeng

    2013-01-01

    This article explores some of the distinctive challenges in Chinese language education in schools and discusses how the development of the "Australian Curriculum: Chinese" has responded to these challenges. It details how the curriculum framework outlined in the "Shape of the Australian Curriculum: Languages" (ACARA, 2011)…

  6. The Darjeeling Distinction: Labor and Justice on Fair-Trade Tea Plantations in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Poerting

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: The Darjeeling Distinction: Labor and Justice on Fair-Trade Tea Plantations in India. By Sarah Besky. Berkeley, CA: University of California press, 2014. xxxi + 233 pp. US$ 29.95. ISBN 978-0-520-27739-7.

  7. Deep Levels of Processing Elicit a Distinctiveness Heuristic: Evidence from the Criterial Recollection Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, David A.; Meadow, Nathaniel G.; Johnson, Elizabeth L.; Foster, Katherine T.

    2008-01-01

    Thinking about the meaning of studied words (deep processing) enhances memory on typical recognition tests, relative to focusing on perceptual features (shallow processing). One explanation for this levels-of-processing effect is that deep processing leads to the encoding of more distinctive representations (i.e., more unique semantic or…

  8. Differential autoshaping to common and distinctive elements of positive and negative discriminative stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, E A; Anderson, P A

    1974-11-01

    The learning by hungry pigeons of a discrimination between two successively presented compound visual stimuli was investigated using a two-key autoshaping procedure. Common and distinctive stimulus elements were simultaneously presented on separate keys and either followed by food delivery, S+, or not, S-. The subjects acquired both between-trial and within-trial discriminations. On S+ trials, pigeons pecked the distinctive stimulus more than the common stimulus; before responding ceased on S- trials, they pecked the common stimulus more than the distinctive one. Mastery of the within-display discrimination during S+ trials preceded mastery of the between-trials discrimination. These findings extend the Jenkins-Sainsbury analysis of discriminations based upon a single distinguishing feature to discriminations in which common and distinctive elements are associated with both the positive and negative discriminative stimuli. The similarity of these findings to other effects found in autoshaping-approach to signals that forecast reinforcement and withdrawal from signals that forecast nonreinforcement-is also discussed.

  9. Differential autoshaping to common and distinctive elements of positive and negative discriminative stimuli1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Anderson, Patricia A.

    1974-01-01

    The learning by hungry pigeons of a discrimination between two successively presented compound visual stimuli was investigated using a two-key autoshaping procedure. Common and distinctive stimulus elements were simultaneously presented on separate keys and either followed by food delivery, S+, or not, S−. The subjects acquired both between-trial and within-trial discriminations. On S+ trials, pigeons pecked the distinctive stimulus more than the common stimulus; before responding ceased on S− trials, they pecked the common stimulus more than the distinctive one. Mastery of the within-display discrimination during S+ trials preceded mastery of the between-trials discrimination. These findings extend the Jenkins-Sainsbury analysis of discriminations based upon a single distinguishing feature to discriminations in which common and distinctive elements are associated with both the positive and negative discriminative stimuli. The similarity of these findings to other effects found in autoshaping—approach to signals that forecast reinforcement and withdrawal from signals that forecast nonreinforcement—is also discussed. PMID:16811812

  10. 37 CFR 212.5 - Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... identification of vessel hull designer. 212.5 Section 212.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PROTECTION OF VESSEL HULL DESIGNS § 212.5 Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer. (a) General. Any owner of a vessel hull may...

  11. Distinct HbA1c trajectories in a type 2 diabetes cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, I.; Mast, M.R.; Hoekstra, T.; Jansen, A.P.D.; van der Heijden, A.A.W.A.; Rauh, S.P.; Rutters, F.; van 't Riet, E.; Elders, P.J.M.; Moll, A.C.; Polak, B.C.P.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with distinct hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) trajectories. Subgroup characteristics were determined and the prevalence of microvascular complications over time was investigated. Study design and setting: Data from a

  12. A fractographic distinction between hydride cracking and stress corrosion cracking in zircaloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.

    1978-06-01

    The fractographic details of SCC and delayed hydride failures are compared by scanning and replica electron microscopy. It is shown that there are distinct features ascribable to the fracture of hydride platelets which are absent from SCC fractures and which distinguish them from fractures produced by delayed hydride cracking. (author)

  13. 77 FR 20774 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 223 RIN 0648-XZ58 Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of the Bearded Seal AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  14. Chemically different non-thermal plasmas target distinct cell death pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, O.; Zablotskyy, V.; Chrupina, O.; Lunova, M.; Jirsa, M.; Dejneka, A.; Kubinová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, apr (2017), s. 600 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : chemically different * non-thermal plasmas * target distinct cell death pathways Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  15. Development of the Distinct Multiple Intelligences in Primary Students through Interest Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas Macías, Fredy Alonso

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an action research study that focused on developing the distinct multiple intelligences of an English class of fifth graders through interest centers at a Colombian school. A multiple intelligences questionnaire, an open-ended observation form, and a student mini-report sheet were used to collect data. Findings revealed…

  16. Distinct trajectories of positive and negative affect after colorectal cancer diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciere, Yvette; Janse, Moniek; Almansa, Josué; Visser, Annemieke; Sanderman, Robbert; Sprangers, Mirjam A.G.; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Fleer, Joke

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Insight into trajectories of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) across the cancer continuum may improve understanding of the nature of adjustment problems. The primary aim of this study was to identify subgroups of patients with distinct trajectories of PA and NA following

  17. Distinct Trajectories of Positive and Negative Affect After Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciere, Yvette; Janse, Moniek; Almansa, Josué; Visser, Annemieke; Sanderman, Robbert; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Ranchor, Adelita V; Fleer, Joke

    OBJECTIVE: Insight into trajectories of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) across the cancer continuum may improve understanding of the nature of adjustment problems. The primary aim of this study was to identify subgroups of patients with distinct trajectories of PA and NA following

  18. On Determinatives and the Category-Function Distinction: A Reply to Brett Reynolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenchuk, Iryna; Ahmed, Amer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the arguments made in the article "Determiners, Feline Marsupials, and the Category-Function Distinction: A Critique of ELT Grammars" by Brett Reynolds recently published in the "TESL Canada Journal" (2013). In our response, we demonstrate that the author's arguments are problematic on both…

  19. Disturbance and net ecosystem production across three climatically distinct forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Campbell; O.J. Sun; B.E. Law

    2004-01-01

    Biometric techniques were used to measure net ecosystem production (NEP) across three climatically distinct forest chronosequences in Oregon. NEP was highly negative immediately following stand-replacing disturbance in all forests and recovered to positive values by 10, 20, and 30 years of age for the mild mesic Coast Range, mesic West Cascades, and semi-arid East...

  20. Two distinctive new species of Commicarpus (Nyctaginaceae) from gypsum outcrops in eastern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Gilbert, Michael G.; Weber, Odile

    2016-01-01

    During field trips in 2013 and 2014, two distinctive plants belonging to the genus Commicarpus were collected in the Lele Hills, Bale Zone, eastern Ethiopia, on outcrops of sedimentary rock belonging to the Gorrahei Formation with high contents of gypsum. The plants are here described as two new...

  1. Examining the Personal-Professional Distinction: Ethics Codes and the Difficulty of Drawing a Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipes, Randolph B.; Holstein, Jaymee E.; Aguirre, Maria G.

    2005-01-01

    The Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association (APA) applies to the professional role behaviors of members and not to their personal behavior. This article discusses some of the difficulties inherent in drawing distinctions between the personal and the professional. Consideration is given to the importance of clarifying public…

  2. Forensic microbiology: Evolving from discriminating distinct microbes to characterizing entire microbial communities on decomposing remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The body of an animal encompasses a multitude of compositionally and functionally unique microbial environments, from the skin to the gastrointestinal system. Each of these systems harbor microbial communities that have adapted in order to cohabitate with their specific host resulting in a distinct...

  3. Distinct kinetics of serine and threonine dephosphorylation are essential for mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein, Jamin B; Hertz, Emil P T; Garvanska, Dimitriya H

    2017-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in complex with B55 regulatory subunits reverses cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) phosphorylations at mitotic exit. Interestingly, threonine and serine residues phosphorylated by Cdk1 display distinct phosphorylation dynamics, but the biological significance remains ...

  4. Mostly Heterosexual as a Distinct Sexual Orientation Group: A Systematic Review of the Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Vrangalova, Zhana

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed empirical evidence regarding whether mostly heterosexual exists as a sexual orientation distinct from two adjacent groups on a sexual continuum--exclusively heterosexual and substantially bisexual. We addressed the question: Do mostly heterosexuals show a unique profile of sexual and romantic characteristics that distinguishes them as…

  5. Distribution of Disease-Associated Copy Number Variants across Distinct Disorders of Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescosolido, Matthew F.; Gamsiz, Ece D.; Nagpal, Shailender; Morrow, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to discover the extent to which distinct "DSM" disorders share large, highly recurrent copy number variants (CNVs) as susceptibility factors. We also sought to identify gene mechanisms common to groups of diagnoses and/or specific to a given diagnosis based on associations with CNVs. Method:…

  6. Keeping conceptual boundaries distinct between decision making and learning is necessary to understand social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mens, Gaël

    2014-02-01

    Bentley et al. make the deliberate choice to blur the distinction between learning and decision making. This obscures the social influence mechanisms that operate in the various empirical settings that their map aims to categorize. Useful policy prescriptions, however, require an accurate understanding of the social influence mechanisms that underlie the dynamics of popularity.

  7. Using the Ubiquitin-modified Proteome to Monitor Distinct and Spatially Restricted Protein Homeostasis Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Joshua M; Webb, Kristofor; Yang, Bing; Rising, Lisa; Zuzow, Nathan; Bennett, Eric J

    2016-08-01

    Protein homeostasis dysfunction has been implicated in the development and progression of aging related human pathologies. There is a need for the establishment of quantitative methods to evaluate global protein homoeostasis function. As the ubiquitin (ub) proteasome system plays a key role in regulating protein homeostasis, we applied quantitative proteomic methods to evaluate the sensitivity of site-specific ubiquitylation events as markers for protein homeostasis dysfunction. Here, we demonstrate that the ub-modified proteome can exceed the sensitivity of engineered fluorescent reporters as a marker for proteasome dysfunction and can provide unique signatures for distinct proteome challenges which is not possible with engineered reporters. We demonstrate that combining ub-proteomics with subcellular fractionation can effectively separate degradative and regulatory ubiquitylation events on distinct protein populations. Using a recently developed potent inhibitor of the critical protein homeostasis factor p97/VCP, we demonstrate that distinct insults to protein homeostasis function can elicit robust and largely unique alterations to the ub-modified proteome. Taken together, we demonstrate that proteomic approaches to monitor the ub-modified proteome can be used to evaluate global protein homeostasis and can be used to monitor distinct functional outcomes for spatially separated protein populations. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Gene regulatory and signaling networks exhibit distinct topological distributions of motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gustavo Rodrigues; Nakaya, Helder Imoto; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2018-04-01

    The biological processes of cellular decision making and differentiation involve a plethora of signaling pathways and gene regulatory circuits. These networks in turn exhibit a multitude of motifs playing crucial parts in regulating network activity. Here we compare the topological placement of motifs in gene regulatory and signaling networks and observe that it suggests different evolutionary strategies in motif distribution for distinct cellular subnetworks.

  9. Distinction between the model of vector dominance and the model of oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshtoev, Kh.M.

    2010-01-01

    The distinction between the model of vector dominance and the model of oscillations is considered on the example of γ→ρ 0 transitions. It is shown that transition probabilities in these cases differ by a factor of 2. The physical reason of these transition schemes is also discussed

  10. Papillary haemangioma. A distinctive cutaneous haemangioma of the head and neck area containing eosinophilic hyaline globules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurmeijer, A. J. H.; Fletcher, C. D. M.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To investigate and define a morphologically distinctive group of cutaneous papillary haemangiomas. Methods and results: Eleven patients (seven male, four female, age range 1-77 years, median 57) were identified with a solitary bluish cutaneous papule (median size 11 mm) arising in the head and

  11. Distinct collective states due to trade-off between attractive and repulsive couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyadevi, K.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilkumar, D. V.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the effect of repulsive coupling together with an attractive coupling in a network of nonlocally coupled oscillators. To understand the complex interaction between these two couplings we introduce a control parameter in the repulsive coupling which plays a crucial role in inducing distinct complex collective patterns. In particular, we show the emergence of various cluster chimera death states through a dynamically distinct transition route, namely the oscillatory cluster state and coherent oscillation death state as a function of the repulsive coupling in the presence of the attractive coupling. In the oscillatory cluster state, the oscillators in the network are grouped into two distinct dynamical states of homogeneous and inhomogeneous oscillatory states. Further, the network of coupled oscillators follow the same transition route in the entire coupling range. Depending upon distinct coupling ranges, the system displays different number of clusters in the death state and oscillatory state. We also observe that the number of coherent domains in the oscillatory cluster state exponentially decreases with increase in coupling range and obeys a power-law decay. Additionally, we show analytical stability for observed solitary state, synchronized state, and incoherent oscillation death state.

  12. Different risk-increasing drugs in recurrent versus single fallers: are recurrent fallers a distinct population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Askari, Marjan; Eslami, Saied; Scheffer, Alice C.; Medlock, Stephanie; de Rooij, Sophia E.; van der Velde, Nathalie; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Polypharmacy, and specifically the use of multiple fall-risk-increasing drugs (FRID), have been associated with increased risk of falling in older age. However, it is not yet clear whether the known set of FRIDs can be extrapolated to recurrent fallers, since they form a distinct group of more

  13. Weighting of Acoustic Cues to a Manner Distinction by Children with and without Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Children must develop optimal perceptual weighting strategies for processing speech in their first language. Hearing loss can interfere with that development, especially if cochlear implants are required. The three goals of this study were to measure, for children with and without hearing loss: (a) cue weighting for a manner distinction,…

  14. The Distinctive Sequelae of Children's Coping with Interparental Conflict: Testing the Reformulated Emotional Security Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Patrick T.; Martin, Meredith J.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Ripple, Michael T.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2016-01-01

    Two studies tested hypotheses about the distinctive psychological consequences of children's patterns of responding to interparental conflict. In Study 1, 174 preschool children (M = 4.0 years) and their mothers participated in a cross-sectional design. In Study 2, 243 preschool children (M = 4.6 years) and their parents participated in 2 annual…

  15. Replicating distinctive facial features in lineups: identification performance in young versus older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P; Wade, Kimberley A; Watts, Hannah J E; Woods, Natalie G; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2013-04-01

    Criminal suspects with distinctive facial features, such as tattoos or bruising, may stand out in a police lineup. To prevent suspects from being unfairly identified on the basis of their distinctive feature, the police often manipulate lineup images to ensure that all of the members appear similar. Recent research shows that replicating a distinctive feature across lineup members enhances eyewitness identification performance, relative to removing that feature on the target. In line with this finding, the present study demonstrated that with young adults (n = 60; mean age = 20), replication resulted in more target identifications than did removal in target-present lineups and that replication did not impair performance, relative to removal, in target-absent lineups. Older adults (n = 90; mean age = 74) performed significantly worse than young adults, identifying fewer targets and more foils; moreover, older adults showed a minimal benefit from replication over removal. This pattern is consistent with the associative deficit hypothesis of aging, such that older adults form weaker links between faces and their distinctive features. Although replication did not produce much benefit over removal for older adults, it was not detrimental to their performance. Therefore, the results suggest that replication may not be as beneficial to older adults as it is to young adults and demonstrate a new practical implication of age-related associative deficits in memory.

  16. The relationship between information prioritization and visual distinctness in two progressive image transmission schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, R.; Fdez-Valdivia, J.; Toet, A.; García, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to analyze the relation between the visual distinctness and the priority assigned to the information in two di2erent progressive transmission schemes: the Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT) and the Rational Embedded Wavelet Image Coding (REWIC). SPIHT assigns

  17. Neurobiological Correlates and Predictors of Two Distinct Personality Trait Pathways to Escalated Alcohol Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malak Abu Shakra

    2018-01-01

    Interpretation: This double dissociation provides evidence of distinct neurobiological profiles in a priori identified personality trait-based risk groups for AUDs, and links these signatures to clinically relevant substance use outcomes at follow-up. AUD subtypes might benefit from motivationally and personality-specific ameliorative and preventative interventions.

  18. Distinct Patterns of Grey Matter Abnormality in High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlonan, Grainne M.; Suckling, John; Wong, Naikei; Cheung, Vinci; Lienenkaemper, Nina; Cheung, Charlton; Chua, Siew E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Autism exists across a wide spectrum and there is considerable debate as to whether children with Asperger's syndrome, who have normal language milestones, should be considered to comprise a subgroup distinct other from high-functioning children with autism (HFA), who have a history of delayed language development. Magnetic resonance…

  19. 76 FR 15932 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Listing of Nine Distinct Population Segments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... Loggerhead Sea Turtles as Endangered or Threatened AGENCIES: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Distinct Population Segments (DPS) of loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, as endangered or threatened... populations of loggerhead sea turtle'' as an endangered species under the ESA. NMFS published a notice in the...

  20. 75 FR 30769 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Listing of Nine Distinct Population Segments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Parts 223 and 224 RIN 0648-AY49 Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Listing of Nine Distinct Population Segments of Loggerhead Sea Turtles as Endangered or... loggerhead sea turtles as endangered or threatened, which was published on March 16, 2010, until September 13...

  1. How Does Knowledge Promote Memory? The Distinctiveness Theory of Skilled Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Katherine A.; Van Overschelde, James P.

    2008-01-01

    The robust effects of knowledge on memory for domain-relevant information reported in previous research have largely been attributed to improved organizational processing. The present research proposes the distinctiveness theory of skilled memory, which states that knowledge improves memory not only through improved organizational processing but…

  2. A natural M RNA reassortant arising from two distinct tospovirus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a tospovirus isolate from south Florida tomatoes was determined. Phylogenetic reconstructions of each genomic RNA segment showed that this isolate was produced by reassortment of segments from two distinct tospovirus species. The S and L segments are most closel...

  3. Distinctive fungal and bacterial communities are associated with mats formed by ectomycorrhizal fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel A. Kluber; Jane E. Smith; David D. Myrold

    2011-01-01

    The distinct rhizomorphic mats formed by ectomycorrhizal Piloderma fungi are common features of the organic soil horizons of coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. These mats have been found to cover 25-40% of the forest floor in some Douglas-fir stands, and are associated with physical and biochemical properties that distinguish them from...

  4. 76 FR 58867 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Determination of Nine Distinct Population Segments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... Northern District of California modified the February 19, 2010, deadline to March 8, 2010. On March 16... markedly separated from other populations of the same taxon (an organism or group of organisms) as a... to identify two genetically distinct nesting populations in the Pacific--a northern hemisphere...

  5. Core Competence, Distinctive Competence, and Competitive Advantage: What Is the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Core competence, distinctive competence, and competitive advantage are 3 of the most important business concepts that managers, researchers, and educators rely on for decision making, pedagogy, and research. However, little attention has been paid to defining these concepts. As a result, they have become buzzwords that are used so frequently that…

  6. In-stem labelling allows visualization of DNA strand displacements by distinct fluorescent colour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrois, Sebastian; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2013-05-21

    The combination of thiazole orange (TO) and thiazole red (TR) as an internal pair of fluorescent DNA base surrogates ("DNA traffic lights") allows us to follow at least two consecutive DNA strand displacements in real time through a distinct fluorescence colour change from green to red and vice versa.

  7. Mapping the Profit Motive: The Distinct Geography and Demography of For-Profit Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, W. Brett

    2015-01-01

    For-profit charter schools represent a controversial new market-based education reform (Garcia, Barber, & Molnar, 2009; Conn, 2002). This essay explores how schools operated by for-profit corporations differ from those operated by non-profit organizations. Specifically, do for-profit charter schools locate in demographically distinct areas and…

  8. The Uses of Informality : Urban Development and Social Distinction in Mexico City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, F.; Segura, R.

    “Urban informality” is a signifier that is disputed by real estate developers, politicians, and residents in undertaking strategies of social distinction and gaining particular political and economic benefits. Research in the western periphery of Mexico City distinguishes three cases of such use of

  9. Maintaining a Distinction Between Possible and Impossible Topics of Conversation in the Outpatient Respiratory Medical Clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgitte Skov Jensen, Lone; Larsen, Kristian; Konradsen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    by maintaining a distinction between possible and impossible topics to counseling. Three subcategories explaining the effort that maintain the impossible and possible topics separated were identified: (a) an effort to maintain the diseased lungs as the main task in counseling, (b) navigating interactions...

  10. Radiological features of bilateral hereditary micro-epiphyseal dysplasia - a distinct entity in the skeletal dysplasias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morstert, AK; Dijkstra, PF; van Horn, [No Value; Jansen, BRH; Heutink, P; Lindhout, D

    Aim: To prove that bilateral hereditary micro-epiphyseal dysplasia (BHMED), first described by Elsbach in 1959 [1], is a distinct disorder radiologically as well as clinically, compared with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED). Material and Methods: We used the data of the revised pedigree with 84

  11. 45 CFR 91.18 - Age distinctions contained in HHS regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....18 Section 91.18 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... distinctions contained in a rule or regulation issued by HHS shall be presumed to be necessary to the achievement of a statutory objective of the program or activity to which the rule or regulation applies...

  12. Bourdieu's Distinction between Rules and Strategies and Secondary Principal Practice: A Review of Selected Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews a selection of literature on secondary principal practice from which to propose an approach for further research. The review demonstrates that applications of Bourdieu's theory of practice have contributed to understandings about secondary principal practice, and that the distinction he made between rules and strategies has the…

  13. Articulatory Distinctiveness of Vowels and Consonants: A Data-Driven Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Green, Jordan R.; Samal, Ashok; Yunusova, Yana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the articulatory distinctiveness of 8 major English vowels and 11 English consonants based on tongue and lip movement time series data using a data-driven approach. Method: Tongue and lip movements of 8 vowels and 11 consonants from 10 healthy talkers were

  14. Reliability, Dimensionality, and Internal Consistency as Defined by Cronbach: Distinct Albeit Related Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Ernest C.; Davison, Mark L.; Liou, Pey-Yan; Love, Quintin U.

    2015-01-01

    This article uses definitions provided by Cronbach in his seminal paper for coefficient a to show the concepts of reliability, dimensionality, and internal consistency are distinct but interrelated. The article begins with a critique of the definition of reliability and then explores mathematical properties of Cronbach's a. Internal consistency…

  15. Different AMPA receptor subtypes mediate the distinct kinetic components of a biphasic EPSC in hippocampal interneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd eStincic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available CA1 hippocampal interneurons at the border between stratum radiatum and stratum lacunosum-moleculare have AMPA receptor (AMPAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs that consist of two distinct phases: a typical fast component (FC, and a highly unusual slow component (SC that persists for hundreds of milliseconds. To determine whether these kinetically distinct components of the EPSC are mediated by distinct AMPAR subpopulations, we examined the relative contributions of GluA2-containing and –lacking AMPARs to the SC. GluA2-containing AMPARs mediated the majority of the FC whereas GluA2-lacking AMPARs preferentially generated the SC. When glutamate uptake through the glial glutamate transporter EAAT1 was inhibited, spill over-mediated AMPAR activation recruited an even slower third kinetic component that persisted for several seconds; however, this spillover-mediated current was mediated predominantly by GluA2-containing AMPARs and therefore was clearly distinct from the SC when uptake is intact. Thus, different AMPAR subpopulations that vary in GluA2 content mediate the distinct components of the AMPAR EPSC. The SC is developmentally downregulated in mice, declining after the second postnatal week. This downregulation affects both GluA2-containing and GluA2-lacking AMPARs mediating the SC, and is not accompanied by developmental changes in the GluA2 content of AMPARs underlying the FC. Thus, the downregulation of the SC appears to be independent of synaptic GluA2 expression, suggesting the involvement of another AMPAR subunit or an auxiliary protein. Our results therefore identify GluA2-dependent and GluA2-independent determinants of the SC: GluA2-lacking AMPARs preferentially contribute to the SC, while the developmental downregulation of the SC is independent of GluA2 content.

  16. Evidence and characterization of a glide-vowel distinction in American English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Scott Jaggers

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study tests whether native speakers of American English exhibit a glide-vowel distinction ([j]-[i] in a speech elicitation experiment. When reading sentences out loud, participants’ pronunciations of 4 near-minimal pairs of pre-existing lexical items (e.g., 'Eston'[iə] vs. 'pneumon'[jə] exhibit significant differences when acoustically measured, confirming the presence of a [j]-[i] distinction. This distinction is also found to be productively extended to the production of 20 near-minimal pairs of nonce words (e.g., 'Súmia '→ [sumiə] vs. 'Fímya '→ [fimjə], diversified and balanced along different phonologically relevant factors of the surrounding environment. Multiple acoustic measurements are compared to test what aspects most consistently convey the distinction: F2 (frontness, F1 (height, intensity, vocalic sequence duration, transition earliness, and transition speed. This serves the purpose of documenting the distinction’s acoustic phonetic realization. It also serves in the comparison of phonological representations. Multiple types of previously proposed phonological representations are considered along with the competing predictions they generate regarding the acoustic measurements performed. Results suggest that the primary and most consistent characteristic of the distinction is earliness of transition into the following vowel, with results also suggesting that the [j] glide has a greater degree of constriction. The [j] glide is found to have a significantly 'less 'anterior articulation, challenging the application of a representation based on place or articulator differences that would predict [j] to be 'more 'anterior.

  17. Distinct retrosplenial cortex cell populations and their spike dynamics during ketamine-induced unconscious state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace E Fox

    Full Text Available Ketamine is known to induce psychotic-like symptoms, including delirium and visual hallucinations. It also causes neuronal damage and cell death in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC, an area that is thought to be a part of high visual cortical pathways and at least partially responsible for ketamine's psychotomimetic activities. However, the basic physiological properties of RSC cells as well as their response to ketamine in vivo remained largely unexplored. Here, we combine a computational method, the Inter-Spike Interval Classification Analysis (ISICA, and in vivo recordings to uncover and profile excitatory cell subtypes within layers 2&3 and 5&6 of the RSC in mice within both conscious, sleep, and ketamine-induced unconscious states. We demonstrate two distinct excitatory principal cell sub-populations, namely, high-bursting excitatory principal cells and low-bursting excitatory principal cells, within layers 2&3, and show that this classification is robust over the conscious states, namely quiet awake, and natural unconscious sleep periods. Similarly, we provide evidence of high-bursting and low-bursting excitatory principal cell sub-populations within layers 5&6 that remained distinct during quiet awake and sleep states. We further examined how these subtypes are dynamically altered by ketamine. During ketamine-induced unconscious state, these distinct excitatory principal cell subtypes in both layer 2&3 and layer 5&6 exhibited distinct dynamics. We also uncovered different dynamics of local field potential under various brain states in layer 2&3 and layer 5&6. Interestingly, ketamine administration induced high gamma oscillations in layer 2&3 of the RSC, but not layer 5&6. Our results show that excitatory principal cells within RSC layers 2&3 and 5&6 contain multiple physiologically distinct sub-populations, and they are differentially affected by ketamine.

  18. Distinctive tropical forest variants have unique soil microbial communities, but not always low microbial diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu M Tripathi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been little study of whether different variants of tropical rainforest have distinct soil microbial communities and levels of diversity. We compared bacterial and fungal community composition and diversity between primary mixed dipterocarp, secondary mixed dipterocarp, white sand heath, inland heath, and peat swamp forests in Brunei Darussalam, northwest Borneo by analyzing Illumina Miseq sequence data of 16S rRNA gene and ITS1 region. We hypothesized that white sand heath, inland heath and peat swamp forests would show lower microbial diversity and relatively distinct microbial communities (compared to MDF primary and secondary forests due to their distinctive environments. We found that soil properties together with bacterial and fungal communities varied significantly between forest types. Alpha and beta-diversity of bacteria was highest in secondary dipterocarp and white sand heath forests. Also, bacterial alpha diversity was strongly structured by pH, adding another instance of this widespread pattern in nature. The alpha diversity of fungi was equally high in all forest types except peat swamp forest, although fungal beta-diversity was highest in primary and secondary mixed dipterocarp forests. The relative abundance of ectomycorrhizal (EcM fungi varied significantly between forest types, with highest relative abundance observed in MDF primary forest. Overall, our results suggest that the soil bacterial and fungal communities in these forest types are to a certain extent predictable and structured by soil properties, but that diversity is not determined by how distinctive the conditions are. This contrasts with the diversity patterns seen in rainforest trees, where distinctive soil conditions have consistently lower tree diversity.

  19. Engineered CAR T Cells Targeting the Cancer-Associated Tn-Glycoform of the Membrane Mucin MUC1 Control Adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posey, Avery D; Schwab, Robert D; Boesteanu, Alina C

    2016-01-01

    with sufficient cancer-specific expression. The majority of CAR targets have been normal self-antigens on dispensable hematopoietic tissues or overexpressed shared antigens. Here, we established that abnormal self-antigens can serve as targets for tumor rejection. We developed a CAR that recognized cancer...

  20. Evaluation of different glycoforms of honeybee venom major allergen phospholipase A2 (Api m 1) produced in insect cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Simon; Seismann, Henning; Plum, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings are one of the major reasons for IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. However, proper diagnosis using venom extracts is severely affected by molecular cross-reactivity. In this study recombinant honeybee venom major allergen phospholipase A2 (Api m 1) was produced......-derived recombinant Api m 1 with defined CCD phenotypes might provide further insights into hymenoptera venom IgE reactivities and contribute to an improved diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy....

  1. Evaluation of different glycoforms of honeybee venom major allergen phospholipase A2 (Api m 1) produced in insect cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Simon; Seismann, Henning; Plum, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    for the first time in insect cells. Using baculovirus infection of different insect cell lines allergen versions providing a varying degree of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants as well as a non glycosylated variant could be obtained as secreted soluble proteins in high yields. The resulting molecules...... were analyzed for their glycosylation and proved to show advantageous properties regarding cross-reactivity in sIgE-based assays. Additionally, in contrast to the enzymatically active native protein the inactivated allergen did not induce IgE-independent effector cell activation. Thus, insect cell...

  2. A Glycoform of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) as an Early Biomarker of Exposure to Nonhuman Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    the usual closed conformation adopted by immunoglobulin CH2 domains, which are known to deny all glycan access. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Aleuria aurantia...reactive IgG in the closed conformation and AAL-reactive IgG, or primebody, in the flip-out conformation .....................15 TABLES...adjuvant b IP, intraperitoneal injection c KLH, keyhole limpet hemocyanin d N/A, not applicable e CFA, complete Freund’s adjuvant f RV, rabies

  3. Abstract and Effector-Selective Decision Signals Exhibit Qualitatively Distinct Dynamics before Delayed Perceptual Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Deirdre M; Kelly, Simon P; O'Connell, Redmond G

    2016-07-13

    Electrophysiological research has isolated neural signatures of decision formation in a variety of brain regions. Studies in rodents and monkeys have focused primarily on effector-selective signals that translate the emerging decision into a specific motor plan, but, more recently, research on the human brain has identified an abstract signature of evidence accumulation that does not appear to play any direct role in action preparation. The functional dissociations between these distinct signal types have only begun to be characterized, and their dynamics during decisions with deferred actions with or without foreknowledge of stimulus-effector mapping, a commonly studied task scenario in single-unit and functional imaging investigations, have not been established. Here we traced the dynamics of distinct abstract and effector-selective decision signals in the form of the broad-band centro-parietal positivity (CPP) and limb-selective β-band (8-16 and 18-30 Hz) EEG activity, respectively, during delayed-reported motion direction decisions with and without foreknowledge of direction-response mapping. With foreknowledge, the CPP and β-band signals exhibited a similar gradual build-up following evidence onset, but whereas choice-predictive β-band activity persisted up until the delayed response, the CPP dropped toward baseline after peaking. Without foreknowledge, the CPP exhibited identical dynamics, whereas choice-selective β-band activity was eliminated. These findings highlight qualitative functional distinctions between effector-selective and abstract decision signals and are of relevance to the assumptions founding functional neuroimaging investigations of decision-making. Neural signatures of evidence accumulation have been isolated in numerous brain regions. Although animal neurophysiology has largely concentrated on effector-selective decision signals that translate the emerging decision into a specific motor plan, recent research on the human brain has

  4. DETERMINATION OF DISTINCTIVE COMPETENCIES IN SMES: THE CASE OF VIGO AND ITS AREA OF INFLUENCE (SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M., Jardon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The sources of competitive advantages are characteristic of the enterprises that allow them to be placed in better position than their competitors. As from the theory of resources and capacities it is habitual to consider that those sources are in internal and external factors of the enterprises. The entrepreneur, by means of the strategy combines these factors establishing his distinctive competencies. This paper analyzes the formation of distinguishing competences. The obtained results show the form in which the small and medium enterprises (SME organize their resources and capacities to form distinctive competencies. The SMEs of Vigo study their area of influence, a region of northwest Spain. In that case it is obtained that they form 5 great distinguishing competencies: management of human and technological resources, management of territorial resources, management of clients, management of products and innovation. These agree to a large extent with previous papers, although their contents present some differences.

  5. Distinct mutational signatures characterize concurrent loss of polymerase proofreading and mismatch repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haradhvala, N J; Kim, J; Maruvka, Y E; Polak, P; Rosebrock, D; Livitz, D; Hess, J M; Leshchiner, I; Kamburov, A; Mouw, K W; Lawrence, M S; Getz, G

    2018-05-01

    Fidelity of DNA replication is maintained using polymerase proofreading and the mismatch repair pathway. Tumors with loss of function of either mechanism have elevated mutation rates with characteristic mutational signatures. Here we report that tumors with concurrent loss of both polymerase proofreading and mismatch repair function have mutational patterns that are not a simple sum of the signatures of the individual alterations, but correspond to distinct, previously unexplained signatures: COSMIC database signatures 14 and 20. We then demonstrate that in all five cases in which the chronological order of events could be determined, polymerase epsilon proofreading alterations precede the defect in mismatch repair. Overall, we illustrate that multiple distinct mutational signatures can result from different combinations of a smaller number of mutational processes (of either damage or repair), which can influence the interpretation and discovery of mutational signatures.

  6. A Distinct Population of Microglia Supports Adult Neurogenesis in the Subventricular Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro Xavier, Anna L.; Kress, Benjamin T.; Goldman, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    found that microglia residing in the SVZ and adjacent rostral migratory stream (RMS) comprise a morphologically and antigenically distinct phenotype of immune effectors. Whereas exhibiting characteristics of alternatively activated microglia, the SVZ/RMS microglia were clearly distinguished by their low...... STATEMENT: Microglial cells are a specialized population of macrophages in the CNS, playing key roles as immune mediators. As integral components in the CNS, the microglia stand out for using the same mechanisms, phagocytosis and cytochemokine release, to promote homeostasis, synaptic pruning, and neural...... toward olfactory bulb layers. In addition to other unique populations residing in the SVZ niche, microglia display distinct morphofunctional properties that boost neuronal progenitor survival and migration in the mammalian brain....

  7. Development of distinction method of production area of ginsengs by using a neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjin; Chung, Yongsam; Sim, Chulmuu; Sun, Gwangmin; Lee, Yuna; Yoo, Sangho

    2011-01-15

    During the last 2 years of the project, we have tried to develop the technology to make a distinction of the production areas for Korean ginsengs cultivated in the various provinces in Korea and foreign countries. It will contribute to secure the health food safety for public and stability of its market. In this year, we collected ginseng samples cultivated in the northeastern province in Chinese mainland such as Liaoning province, Jilin province and Baekdu mountain within Jilin province. 10 ginseng samples were collected at each province. The elemental concentrations in the ginseng were analyzed by using a neutron activation analysis technique at the HANARO research reactor. The distinction of production area was made by using a statistical software. As a result, the Chinese Korean ginsengs were certainly differentiated from those cultivated in the famous province in Korea though there was a limitation that the number of our sample we analyzed is very small.

  8. Toward an implicit measure of emotions: ratings of abstract images reveal distinct emotional states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszek, Gregory; Cervone, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Although implicit tests of positive and negative affect exist, implicit measures of distinct emotional states are scarce. Three experiments examined whether a novel implicit emotion-assessment task, the rating of emotion expressed in abstract images, would reveal distinct emotional states. In Experiment 1, participants exposed to a sadness-inducing story inferred more sadness, and less happiness, in abstract images. In Experiment 2, an anger-provoking interaction increased anger ratings. In Experiment 3, compared to neutral images, spider images increased fear ratings in spider-fearful participants but not in controls. In each experiment, the implicit task indicated elevated levels of the target emotion and did not indicate elevated levels of non-target negative emotions; the task thus differentiated among emotional states of the same valence. Correlations also supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the implicit task. Supporting the possibility that heuristic processes underlie the ratings, group differences were stronger among those who responded relatively quickly.

  9. Managing today's complex healthcare business enterprise: reflections on distinctive requirements of healthcare management education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, William E

    2004-01-01

    In early 2001, the community of educational programs offering master's-level education in healthcare management began an odyssey to modernize its approach to the organization and delivery of healthcare management education. The community recognized that cumulative long-term changes within healthcare management practice required a careful examination of healthcare management context and manpower requirements. This article suggests an evidence-based rationale for defining the distinctive elements of healthcare management, thus suggesting a basis for review and transformation of master's-level healthcare management curricula. It also suggests ways to modernize these curricula in a manner that recognizes the distinctiveness of the healthcare business enterprise as well as the changing management roles and careers within these complex organizations and systems. Through such efforts, the healthcare management master's-level education community would be better prepared to meet current and future challenges, to increase its relevance to the management practice community, and to allocate scarce faculty and program resources more effectively.

  10. The effects of cue distinctiveness on odor-based context-dependent memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, R S

    1997-05-01

    The distinctiveness of an ambient odor was examined in relation to its success as a cue in context-dependent memory. Distinctiveness was examined in terms of both cue novelty and contextual appropriateness. Two experiments were conducted in which three different ambient odors that varied in familiarity and contextual appropriateness were manipulated at an incidental word learning encoding session and at a free recall retrieval session 48 h later. Experiment 1 revealed that when a novel ambient odor (osmanthus) was the available context cue, word recall was better than in any other condition. Further, among familiar odor cues, recall was better with a contextually inappropriate odor (peppermint) than with a contextually appropriate odor (clean fresh pine). Experiment 2 confirmed that superior word recall with osmanthus and peppermint depended on the odor cue's being available at both encoding and retrieval, and that the relation of an odor to the situational context is a key factor for predicting its effectiveness as a retrieval cue.

  11. The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, R M; Kenny, D A

    1986-12-01

    In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.

  12. Selfish genetic elements favor the evolution of a distinction between soma and germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Louise J

    2008-08-01

    Many multicellular organisms have evolved a dedicated germline. This can benefit the whole organism, but its advantages to genetic parasites have not been explored. Here I model the evolutionary success of a selfish element, such as a transposable element or endosymbiont, which is capable of creating or strengthening a germline-soma distinction in a primitively multicellular host, and find that it will always benefit the element to do so. Genes causing germline sequestration can therefore spread in a population even if germline sequestration is maladaptive for the host organism. Costly selfish elements are expected to survive only in sexual populations, so sexual species may experience an additional push toward germline-soma distinction, and hence toward cell differentiation and multicellularity.

  13. A two process model of burnout and work engagement: distinct implications of demands and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, M P

    2008-01-01

    A model of job burnout proposes two distinct processes. The first process concerns balance of demands to resources. A poor balance leads to chronic exhaustion, an integral aspect of the burnout syndrome. The second process concerns the congruence of individual and organizational values. The model proposes that value conflicts have implications for all three aspects of burnout. It also proposes that the impact of value conflicts has only minor implications for the exhaustion aspect of burnout; they are more relevant for the cynicism and inefficacy aspects of the syndrome. The model considers distinct processes at work that concern employees' perception of organizational justice and their trust in leadership. With a sample of 725 nurses, the analysis tested one component of the theory: the extent to which value congruence enhances the prediction of burnout beyond the prediction provided by demands and resources. Future directions are discussed.

  14. Role of codeposited impurities during growth. I. Explaining distinctive experimental morphology on Cu(0 0 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Ajmi Bh.; Sathiyanarayanan, Rajesh; Pimpinelli, Alberto; Einstein, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    A unified explanation of the physics underlying all the distinctive features of the growth instabilities observed on Cu vicinals has long eluded theorists. Recently, kinetic Monte Carlo studies showed that codeposition of impurities during growth could account for the key distinctive experimental observations [Hamouda , Phys. Rev. BPLRBAQ0556-280510.1103/PhysRevB.77.245430 77, 245430 (2008)]. To identify the responsible impurity atom, we compute the nearest-neighbor binding energies (ENN) and terrace diffusion barriers (Ed) for several candidate impurity atoms on Cu(0 0 1) using DFT-based VASP. Our calculations show that codeposition (with Cu) of midtransition elements, such as Fe, Mn, and W, could—in conjunction with substantial Ehrlich-Schwoebel barriers—cause the observed instabilities; when the experimental setup is considered, W emerges to be the most likely candidate. We discuss the role of impurities in nanostructuring of surfaces.

  15. Phylogeographic Evidence for 2 Genetically Distinct Zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi Parasites, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Ruhani; Ahmed, Md Atique; Jelip, Jenarun; Ngian, Hie Ung; Mustakim, Sahlawati; Hussin, Hani Mat; Fong, Mun Yik; Mahmud, Rohela; Sitam, Frankie Anak Thomas; Japning, J Rovie-Ryan; Snounou, Georges; Escalante, Ananias A; Lau, Yee Ling

    2016-08-01

    Infections of humans with the zoonotic simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi occur throughout Southeast Asia, although most cases have occurred in Malaysia, where P. knowlesi is now the dominant malaria species. This apparently skewed distribution prompted an investigation of the phylogeography of this parasite in 2 geographically separated regions of Malaysia, Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo. We investigated samples collected from humans and macaques in these regions. Haplotype network analyses of sequences from 2 P. knowlesi genes, type A small subunit ribosomal 18S RNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, showed 2 genetically distinct divergent clusters, 1 from each of the 2 regions of Malaysia. We propose that these parasites represent 2 distinct P. knowlesi types that independently became zoonotic. These types would have evolved after the sea-level rise at the end of the last ice age, which separated Malaysian Borneo from Peninsular Malaysia.

  16. The radiographic distinction of degenerative slippage (spondylolisthesis and retrolisthesis) from traumatic slippage of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.; Woodring, J.H.; Rogers, L.F.; Kim, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    In a review of 42 cases of degenerative arthritis of the cervical spine and 22 cases of cervical spine trauma with an observed anterior slip-page (spondylolisthesis) or posterior slippage (retrolisthesis) of the vertebral bodies of 2 mm or more, characteristic features were observed which allowed distinction between degenerative and traumatic slippage of the cervical spine. In degenerative slippage the shape of the articular facets and width of the facet joint space may remain normal; however, in most cases the articular facets become 'ground-down' with narrowing of the facet joint space and the articular facets themselves becoming thinned or ribbon-like. In traumatic slippage the articular facets will either be normally shaped or fractured and the facet joint space will be abnormally widened. Plain radiographs will usually allow this distinction to be made; however, in difficult cases polytomography may be required. (orig.)

  17. Pengabaian Distinction Principle dalam Situasi Blokade oleh Israel di Jalur Gaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Erwin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak      Konflik bersenjata (perang telah ada dan terjadi ribuan tahun yang lalu walaupun berbeda situasi dan derajat konfliknya dengan konflik bersenjata (perang pada masa modern seperti sekarang. Salah satu konflik yang terjadi dalam sejarah modern peradaban manusia adalah konflik Israel-Palestina. Dalam catatan sejarah peradaban manusia, konflik Israel-Palestina merupakan salah satu konflik terpanjang di dunia, karena sampai saat inipun masih terjadi. Terdapat banyak upaya perdamaian dan perjanjian terus dilakukan berbagai pihak untuk merintis dan mencapai kesepakatan perdamaian, akan tetapi konflik tetap terus terjadi. Adapun peristiwa yang terjadi sebagai bagian dari konflik Israel-Palestina adalah terjadinya blokade atas Gaza pada bulan Juli tahun 2007 oleh Israel. Blokade Israel di Gaza telah mengabaikan prinsip pembedaan (distinction combatan dan civilian (penduduk sipil. Dengan alasan apapun tindakan blokade Israel telah melanggar hukum internasional pada umumnya dan Hukum Humaniter Internasional (HHI pada khususnya.Kata Kunci : Blokade, Gaza, Distinction Principle

  18. Laboratory-Cultured Strains of the Sea Anemone Exaiptasia Reveal Distinct Bacterial Communities

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera Sarrias, Marcela; Ziegler, Maren; Voolstra, Christian R.; Aranda, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Exaiptasia is a laboratory sea anemone model system for stony corals. Two clonal strains are commonly used, referred to as H2 and CC7, that originate from two genetically distinct lineages and that differ in their Symbiodinium specificity. However, little is known about their other microbial associations. Here, we examined and compared the taxonomic composition of the bacterial assemblages of these two symbiotic Exaiptasia strains, both of which have been cultured in the laboratory long-term under identical conditions. We found distinct bacterial microbiota for each strain, indicating the presence of host-specific microbial consortia. Putative differences in the bacterial functional profiles (i.e., enrichment and depletion of various metabolic processes) based on taxonomic inference were also detected, further suggesting functional differences of the microbiomes associated with these lineages. Our study contributes to the current knowledge of the Exaiptasia holobiont by comparing the bacterial diversity of two commonly used strains as models for coral research.

  19. Development of distinction method of production area of ginsengs by using a neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngjin; Chung, Yongsam; Sim, Chulmuu; Sun, Gwangmin; Lee, Yuna; Yoo, Sangho

    2011-01-01

    During the last 2 years of the project, we have tried to develop the technology to make a distinction of the production areas for Korean ginsengs cultivated in the various provinces in Korea and foreign countries. It will contribute to secure the health food safety for public and stability of its market. In this year, we collected ginseng samples cultivated in the northeastern province in Chinese mainland such as Liaoning province, Jilin province and Baekdu mountain within Jilin province. 10 ginseng samples were collected at each province. The elemental concentrations in the ginseng were analyzed by using a neutron activation analysis technique at the HANARO research reactor. The distinction of production area was made by using a statistical software. As a result, the Chinese Korean ginsengs were certainly differentiated from those cultivated in the famous province in Korea though there was a limitation that the number of our sample we analyzed is very small

  20. HIV-1 Env trimer opens through an asymmetric intermediate in which individual protomers adopt distinct conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaochu; Lu, Maolin; Gorman, Jason; Terry, Daniel S; Hong, Xinyu; Zhou, Zhou; Zhao, Hong; Altman, Roger B; Arthos, James; Blanchard, Scott C; Kwong, Peter D; Munro, James B; Mothes, Walther

    2018-03-21

    HIV-1 entry into cells requires binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) to receptor CD4 and coreceptor. Imaging of individual Env molecules on native virions shows Env trimers to be dynamic, spontaneously transitioning between three distinct well-populated conformational states: a pre-triggered Env (State 1), a default intermediate (State 2) and a three-CD4-bound conformation (State 3), which can be stabilized by binding of CD4 and coreceptor-surrogate antibody 17b. Here, using single-molecule Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (smFRET), we show the default intermediate configuration to be asymmetric, with individual protomers adopting distinct conformations. During entry, this asymmetric intermediate forms when a single CD4 molecule engages the trimer. The trimer can then transition to State 3 by binding additional CD4 molecules and coreceptor.

  1. Laboratory-Cultured Strains of the Sea Anemone Exaiptasia Reveal Distinct Bacterial Communities

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera Sarrias, Marcela

    2017-05-02

    Exaiptasia is a laboratory sea anemone model system for stony corals. Two clonal strains are commonly used, referred to as H2 and CC7, that originate from two genetically distinct lineages and that differ in their Symbiodinium specificity. However, little is known about their other microbial associations. Here, we examined and compared the taxonomic composition of the bacterial assemblages of these two symbiotic Exaiptasia strains, both of which have been cultured in the laboratory long-term under identical conditions. We found distinct bacterial microbiota for each strain, indicating the presence of host-specific microbial consortia. Putative differences in the bacterial functional profiles (i.e., enrichment and depletion of various metabolic processes) based on taxonomic inference were also detected, further suggesting functional differences of the microbiomes associated with these lineages. Our study contributes to the current knowledge of the Exaiptasia holobiont by comparing the bacterial diversity of two commonly used strains as models for coral research.

  2. Distinctly visible right upper lobe bronchus on the lateral chest: A clue to adolescent cystic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinig, J.W.; Sanchez, F.W.; Thomason, D.M.; Gobien, R.P.

    1985-05-01

    Radiographic differentiation between cystic fibrosis and asthma presenting in teenagers and young adults can be difficult. Many patients with a late presentation of cystic fibrosis display minimal changes on a chest radiograph. However, a large majority (90%) of cystic fibrosis patients with an essentially normal PA chest radiograph will have a distinctly outlined orifice of right upper lobe bronchus on a lateral chest film as opposed to a small number of asthmatics (25%) or normal patients (18%). This observation correlates well with the pathologic finding that the initial pulmonary involvement in cystic fibrosis is typically in the right upper lobe in adolescents. Teenager or young adult patients presenting with a history of repeated respiratory infections, asthma-like symptoms and a distinctly visible right upper lobe bronchus on a lateral chest film should be sweat-tested to exclude cystic fibrosis.

  3. Competitively Distinct Operations as a Key for Superior and Sustainable Business Performance: An Example from Walmart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Timilsina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing research on the resource-based view (RBV has provided limited evidence on how firms achieve superior and sustainable business performance; this failure is because current literature de-emphasizes the importance of operations. This paper argues that to gain and sustain superior business performance, a firm’s sustainable competitive advantage is not enough, its operations also needs to be competitively distinct. Therefore, through unifying the necessary conditions of superior and sustainable business performance the paper presents a better understanding of the RBV. The success story of Walmart, from existing literature, is considered as an example to support the proposed framework. The paper concludes that the cost of operations, opportunity cost, cost of resources and possible output are the crucial factors in resource choice and operations decision to secure competitively distinct operations. Finally, theoretical and managerial implications, research limitations and future research possibilities are discussed.

  4. Comparative analysis of distinct phenotypes in gambling disorder based on gambling preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Moragas, Laura; Granero, Roser; Stinchfield, Randy; Fern?ndez-Aranda, Fernando; Fr?berg, Frida; Aymam?, Neus; G?mez-Pe?a, M?nica; Fagundo, Ana B; Islam, Mohammed A; del Pino-Guti?rrez, Amparo; Ag?era, Zaida; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Arcelus, Jon; Witcomb, Gemma L; Sauchelli, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background: studies examining gambling preferences have identified the importance of the type of gambling practiced on distinct individual profiles. The objectives were to compare clinical, psychopathological and personality variables between two different groups of individuals with a gambling disorder (strategic and non-strategic gamblers) and to evaluate the statistical prediction capacity of these preferences with respect to the severity of the disorder. Method: a total sample of 2010 trea...

  5. The Amish: A Distinctive Cosmos Serving Well For A Philological Dualism

    OpenAIRE

    Erbay, Şakire

    2016-01-01

    The success of the Amish in maintaining their ancestral language until now has been well-documented in the related literature, and the arguments about this maintenance sound not to dry up any time soon. At the heart of the existing discussions stand the questions of how and to what extent they have managed to protect their language. The present theoretical commentary serves as an explanatory account of this distinctive issue. To that end, without going into much detail , the author first sets...

  6. Compositionally and functionally distinct sinus microbiota in chronic rhinosinusitis patients have immunological and clinically divergent consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Emily K; Goldberg, Andrew N; Pletcher, Steven D; Lynch, Susan V

    2017-05-12

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by persistent sinonasal inflammation and sinus microbiome dysbiosis. The basis of this heterogeneity is poorly understood. We sought to address the hypothesis that a limited number of compositionally distinct pathogenic bacterial microbiota exist in CRS patients and invoke discrete immune responses and clinical phenotypes in CRS patients. Sinus brushings from patients with CRS (n = 59) and healthy individuals (n = 10) collected during endoscopic sinus surgery were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, predicted metagenomics, and RNA profiling of the mucosal immune response. We show that CRS patients cluster into distinct sub-groups (DSI-III), each defined by specific pattern of bacterial co-colonization (permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA); p = 0.001, r 2  = 0.318). Each sub-group was typically dominated by a pathogenic family: Streptococcaceae (DSI), Pseudomonadaceae (DSII), Corynebacteriaceae [DSIII(a)], or Staphylococcaceae [DSIII(b)]. Each pathogenic microbiota was predicted to be functionally distinct (PERMANOVA; p = 0.005, r 2  = 0.217) and encode uniquely enriched gene pathways including ansamycin biosynthesis (DSI), tryptophan metabolism (DSII), two-component response [DSIII(b)], and the PPAR-γ signaling pathway [DSIII(a)]. Each is also associated with significantly distinct host immune responses; DSI, II, and III(b) invoked a variety of pro-inflammatory, T H 1 responses, while DSIII(a), which exhibited significantly increased incidence of nasal polyps (Fisher's exact; p = 0.034, relative risk = 2.16), primarily induced IL-5 expression (Kruskal Wallis; q = 0.045). A large proportion of CRS patient heterogeneity may be explained by the composition of their sinus bacterial microbiota and related host immune response-features which may inform strategies for tailored therapy in this patient population.

  7. Compositionally and functionally distinct sinus microbiota in chronic rhinosinusitis patients have immunological and clinically divergent consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Cope, Emily K.; Goldberg, Andrew N.; Pletcher, Steven D.; Lynch, Susan V.

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by persistent sinonasal inflammation and sinus microbiome dysbiosis. The basis of this heterogeneity is poorly understood. We sought to address the hypothesis that a limited number of compositionally distinct pathogenic bacterial microbiota exist in CRS patients and invoke discrete immune responses and clinical phenotypes in CRS patients. Results Sinus brushings from patients with CRS (n?=?59) and healthy individ...

  8. A search for distinctive features of demand-led growth models

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Parrinello

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at a critical and constructive assessment of some extensions of Keynes’s analysis of effective demand to the long period and growth. A criticism is addressed to a single-cause interpretation of the demand-led growth models and to the notion of normal capacity utilization adopted in such models. A positive argument tries to find a distinctive characterization of those extensions in the productive and financial conditions that make effective the autonomous changes in aggregate d...

  9. NMR metabolomics of human lung tumours reveals distinct metabolic signatures for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, CM; Barros, AS; Goodfellow, BJ; Carreira, IM; Gomes, AA; Sousa, V; Bernardo, J; Carvalho, L; Gil, AM; Duarte, IF

    2015-01-01

    Lung tumour subtyping, particularly the distinction between adenocarcinoma (AdC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC), is a critical diagnostic requirement. In this work, the metabolic signatures of lung carcinomas were investigated through (1)H NMR metabolomics, with a view to provide additional criteria for improved diagnosis and treatment planning. High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to analyse matched tumour and adjacent control tissue...

  10. Same same but different: why we should care about the distinction between professionalism and ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Salloch, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Medical professionalism forms a belief system which is used to defend physicians? ethos against counterforces which might threaten the integrity of medical practice. The current debates on professionalism, however, are characterized by the lack of a clear distinction between professional and ethical aspects of physicians? conduct. This article argues that a differentiation between professionalism and ethics is not of mere academic interest. Instead, it is of great practical importance with re...

  11. On the Distinct Effects of Left-Wing and Right-Wing Populism on Democratic Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Robert A.; Schimpf, Christian H.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the differences and commonalities of how populist parties of the left and right relate to democracy. The focus is narrowed to the relationship between these parties and two aspects of democratic quality, minority rights and mutual constraints. Our argument is twofold: first, we contend that populist parties can exert distinct influences on minority rights, depending on whether they are left-wing or right-wing populist parties. Second, by contrast, we propose that the assoc...

  12. Time-based forgetting in visual working memory reflects temporal distinctiveness, not decay

    OpenAIRE

    Souza Alessandra S.; Oberauer Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Is forgetting from working memory (WM) better explained by decay or interference? The answer to this question is the topic of an ongoing debate. Recently a number of studies showed that performance in tests of visual WM declines with an increasing unfilled retention interval. This finding was interpreted as revealing decay. Alternatively it can be explained by interference theories as an effect of temporal distinctiveness. According to decay theories forgetting depends on the absolute time el...

  13. Long-term future risk of severe exacerbations: Distinct 5-year trajectories of problematic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yii, A C A; Tan, J H Y; Lapperre, T S; Chan, A K W; Low, S Y; Ong, T H; Tan, K L; Chotirmall, S H; Sterk, P J; Koh, M S

    2017-09-01

    Assessing future risk of exacerbations is an important component of asthma management. Existing studies have investigated short- but not long-term risk. Problematic asthma patients with unfavorable long-term disease trajectory and persistently frequent severe exacerbations need to be identified early to guide treatment. To identify distinct trajectories of severe exacerbation rates among "problematic asthma" patients and develop a risk score to predict the most unfavorable trajectory. Severe exacerbation rates over five years for 177 "problematic asthma" patients presenting to a specialist asthma clinic were tracked. Distinct trajectories of severe exacerbation rates were identified using group-based trajectory modeling. Baseline predictors of trajectory were identified and used to develop a clinical risk score for predicting the most unfavorable trajectory. Three distinct trajectories were found: 58.5% had rare intermittent severe exacerbations ("infrequent"), 32.0% had frequent severe exacerbations at baseline but improved subsequently ("nonpersistently frequent"), and 9.5% exhibited persistently frequent severe exacerbations, with the highest incidence of near-fatal asthma ("persistently frequent"). A clinical risk score composed of ≥2 severe exacerbations in the past year (+2 points), history of near-fatal asthma (+1 point), body mass index ≥25kg/m 2 (+1 point), obstructive sleep apnea (+1 point), gastroesophageal reflux (+1 point), and depression (+1 point) was predictive of the "persistently frequent" trajectory (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.84, sensitivity 72.2%, specificity 81.1% using cutoff ≥3 points). The trajectories and clinical risk score had excellent performance in an independent validation cohort. Patients with problematic asthma follow distinct illness trajectories over a period of five years. We have derived and validated a clinical risk score that accurately identifies patients who will have persistently

  14. Learning-performance distinction and memory processes for motor skills: a focused review and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, Shailesh S; Winstein, Carolee J

    2012-03-01

    Behavioral research in cognitive psychology provides evidence for an important distinction between immediate performance that accompanies practice and long-term performance that reflects the relative permanence in the capability for the practiced skill (i.e. learning). This learning-performance distinction is strikingly evident when challenging practice conditions may impair practice performance, but enhance long-term retention of motor skills. A review of motor learning studies with a specific focus on comparing differences in performance between that at the end of practice and at delayed retention suggests that the delayed retention or transfer performance is a better indicator of motor learning than the performance at (or end of) practice. This provides objective evidence for the learning-performance distinction. This behavioral evidence coupled with an understanding of the motor memory processes of encoding, consolidation and retrieval may provide insight into the putative mechanism that implements the learning-performance distinction. Here, we propose a simplistic empirically-based framework--motor behavior-memory framework--that integrates the temporal evolution of motor memory processes with the time course of practice and delayed retention frequently used in behavioral motor learning paradigms. In the context of the proposed framework, recent research has used noninvasive brain stimulation to decipher the role of each motor memory process, and specific cortical brain regions engaged in motor performance and learning. Such findings provide beginning insights into the relationship between the time course of practice-induced performance changes and motor memory processes. This in turn has promising implications for future research and practical applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The origin of the distinction between microscopic formulas for stress and Cauchy stress

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Youping

    2016-01-01

    Stress is calculated routinely in atomistic simulations. The widely used microscopic stress formulas derived from classical or quantum mechanics, however, are distinct from the concept of Cauchy stress, i.e., the true mechanical tress. This work examines various atomistic stress formulations and their inconsistencies. Using standard mathematic theorems and the law of mechanics, we show that Cauchy stress results unambiguously from the definition of internal force density, thereby removing the...

  16. Embryonic Stem Cell Culture Conditions Support Distinct States Associated with Different Developmental Stages and Potency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin Gonzalez, Javier; Morgani, Sophie M; Bone, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    . Conversely, the transcriptome of serum-cultured ESCs correlated with later stages of development (E4.5), at which point embryonic cells are more restricted in their developmental potential. Thus, ESC culture systems are not equivalent, but support cell types that resemble distinct developmental stages. Cells...... derived in one condition can be reprogrammed to another developmental state merely by adaptation to another culture condition....

  17. Chemically different non-thermal plasmas target distinct cell death pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Churpita, Olexandr; Lunova, M.; Jirsa, M.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kubinová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-17, č. článku 600. ISSN 2045-2322 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : chemically different * non-thermal plasmas * target distinct cell death pathways Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  18. Invasive lobular carcinoma with extracellular mucin as a distinct variant of lobular carcinoma: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Haltas, Hacer; Bayrak, Reyhan; Yenidunya, Sibel; Kosehan, Dilek; Sen, Meral; Akin, Kayihan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The differences between invasive lobular and ductal carcinomas affect the diagnostic and therapeutic management for patients with breast cancer. In most cases, this can be accomplished because of distinct histomorphologic features. However, occasionally, this task may become quite difficult, in particular when dealing with the variants of infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Lobular carcinoma has been considered a variant of mucin-secreting carcinoma with only intracytoplasmic mucin. The ...

  19. Behavior of grape breeding lines with distinct resistance alleles to downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Mora, Fernando D.; Saifert, Luciano; Zanghelini, Jean; Assumpção, Wilson T.; Guginski-Piva, Cláudia A.; Giacometti, Renan; Novak, Eduardo I.; Klabunde, Gustavo H.; Eibach, Rudolf; Dal Vesco, Lirio; Nodari, Rubens O.; Welter, Leocir J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) is the main grapevine disease in humid regions. In the present investigation, marker-assisted selection (MAS) was used to develop grapevine lines homozygous in loci Rpv1 and Rpv3 for resistance against P. viticola. The experimental populations UFSC-2013-1 (n = 420) and UFSC-2013-2 (n = 237) were obtained by self-pollination of two full-sib plants, originated from a cross between two distinct breeding lines containin...

  20. Genomic analyses of breast cancer progression reveal distinct routes of metastasis emergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Brasch-Andersen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Our data provide support for both linear and parallel progression towards metastasis. We report for the first time evidence of metastasis-to-metastasis seeding in breast cancer. Our results point to three distinct routes of metastasis emergence. This may have profound...... clinical implications and provides substantial novel molecular insights into the timing and mutational evolution of breast cancer metastasis....

  1. Taxonomic distinctness and richness of helminth parasite assemblages of freshwater fishes in Mexican hydrological basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz-Martínez, Benjamín; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the distributional patterns of adult helminth parasites of freshwater fishes with respect to the main hydrological basins of Mexico. We use the taxonomic distinctness and the variation in taxonomic distinctness to explore patterns of parasite diversity and how these patterns change between zoogeographical regions. We address questions about the factors that determine the variation of observed diversity of helminths between basins. We also investigate patterns of richness, taxonomic distinctness and distance decay of similarity amongst basins. Our analyses suggest that the evolution of the fauna of helminth parasites in Mexico is mostly dominated by independent host colonization events and that intra--host speciation could be a minor factor explaining the origin of this diversity. This paper points out a clear separation between the helminth faunas of northern--nearctic and southern--neotropical components in Mexican continental waters, suggesting the availability of two distinct taxonomic pools of parasites in Mexican drainage basins. Data identifies Mexican drainage basins as unities inhabited by freshwater fishes, hosting a mixture of neotropical and nearctic species, in addition, data confirms neotropical and neartic basins/helminth faunas. The neotropical basins of Mexico are host to a richest and more diversified helminth fauna, including more families, genera and species, compared to the less rich and less diverse helminth fauna in the nearctic basins. The present analysis confirms distance--decay as one of the important factors contributing to the patterns of diversity observed. The hypothesis that helminth diversity could be explained by the ichthyological diversity of the basin received no support from present analysis.

  2. Taxonomic distinctness and richness of helminth parasite assemblages of freshwater fishes in Mexican hydrological basins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Quiroz-Martínez

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse the distributional patterns of adult helminth parasites of freshwater fishes with respect to the main hydrological basins of Mexico. We use the taxonomic distinctness and the variation in taxonomic distinctness to explore patterns of parasite diversity and how these patterns change between zoogeographical regions. We address questions about the factors that determine the variation of observed diversity of helminths between basins. We also investigate patterns of richness, taxonomic distinctness and distance decay of similarity amongst basins. Our analyses suggest that the evolution of the fauna of helminth parasites in Mexico is mostly dominated by independent host colonization events and that intra--host speciation could be a minor factor explaining the origin of this diversity. This paper points out a clear separation between the helminth faunas of northern--nearctic and southern--neotropical components in Mexican continental waters, suggesting the availability of two distinct taxonomic pools of parasites in Mexican drainage basins. Data identifies Mexican drainage basins as unities inhabited by freshwater fishes, hosting a mixture of neotropical and nearctic species, in addition, data confirms neotropical and neartic basins/helminth faunas. The neotropical basins of Mexico are host to a richest and more diversified helminth fauna, including more families, genera and species, compared to the less rich and less diverse helminth fauna in the nearctic basins. The present analysis confirms distance--decay as one of the important factors contributing to the patterns of diversity observed. The hypothesis that helminth diversity could be explained by the ichthyological diversity of the basin received no support from present analysis.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of the lux operon distinguishes two evolutionarily distinct clades of Photobacterium leiognathi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ast, Jennifer C; Dunlap, Paul V

    2004-05-01

    The luminous marine bacterium Photobacterium mandapamensis was synonymized several years ago with Photobacterium leiognathi based on a high degree of phenotypic and genetic similarity. To test the possibility that P. leiognathi as now formulated, however, actually contains two distinct bacterial groups reflecting the earlier identification of P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi as separate species, we compared P. leiognathi strains isolated from light-organ symbiosis with leiognathid fishes (i.e., ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1) with strains from seawater originally described as P. mandapamensis and later synonymized as P. leiognathi (i.e., ATCC 27561(T) and ATCC 33981) and certain strains initially identified as P. leiognathi (i.e., PL-721, PL-741, 554). Analysis of the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes did not resolve distinct clades, affirming a close relationship among these strains. However, strains ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554 were found to bear a luxF gene in the lux operon ( luxABFE), whereas ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1 lack this gene ( luxABE). Phylogenetic analysis of the luxAB(F)E region confirmed this distinction. Furthermore, ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554 all produced a higher level of luminescence on high-salt medium, as previously described for PL-721, whereas ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1 all produced a higher level of luminescence on low-salt medium, a characteristic of P. leiognathi from leiognathid fish light organs. These results demonstrate that P. leiognathi contains two evolutionarily and phenotypically distinct clades, P. leiognathi subsp. leiognathi (strains ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1), and P. leiognathi subsp. mandapamensis (strains ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554).

  4. Ultrasound Microbubble Treatment Enhances Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis and Fluid-Phase Uptake through Distinct Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Fekri

    Full Text Available Drug delivery to tumors is limited by several factors, including drug permeability of the target cell plasma membrane. Ultrasound in combination with microbubbles (USMB is a promising strategy to overcome these limitations. USMB treatment elicits enhanced cellular uptake of materials such as drugs, in part as a result of sheer stress and formation of transient membrane pores. Pores formed upon USMB treatment are rapidly resealed, suggesting that other processes such as enhanced endocytosis may contribute to the enhanced material uptake by cells upon USMB treatment. How USMB regulates endocytic processes remains incompletely understood. Cells constitutively utilize several distinct mechanisms of endocytosis, including clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME for the internalization of receptor-bound macromolecules such as Transferrin Receptor (TfR, and distinct mechanism(s that mediate the majority of fluid-phase endocytosis. Tracking the abundance of TfR on the cell surface and the internalization of its ligand transferrin revealed that USMB acutely enhances the rate of CME. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy experiments revealed that USMB treatment altered the assembly of clathrin-coated pits, the basic structural units of CME. In addition, the rate of fluid-phase endocytosis was enhanced, but with delayed onset upon USMB treatment relative to the enhancement of CME, suggesting that the two processes are distinctly regulated by USMB. Indeed, vacuolin-1 or desipramine treatment prevented the enhancement of CME but not of fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB, suggesting that lysosome exocytosis and acid sphingomyelinase, respectively, are required for the regulation of CME but not fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB treatment. These results indicate that USMB enhances both CME and fluid phase endocytosis through distinct signaling mechanisms, and suggest that strategies for potentiating the enhancement of endocytosis upon USMB treatment may

  5. The Biology of Atherosclerosis: General Paradigms and Distinct Pathogenic Mechanisms Among HIV-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Janet; Plutzky, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Complications of atherosclerosis, including myocardial infarction and stroke, are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Recent data strongly implicate cardiovascular death as a contributor to mortality among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, with evidence suggesting increased incidence of atherosclerosis among these patients. Therefore, greater understanding of atherosclerotic mechanisms and how these responses may be similar or distinct in HIV-infecte...

  6. Distinctive identity claims in federal systems: Judicial policing of subnational variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni; Gardner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    nationally imposed limits on their power typically have at their disposal many tools with which to press against formal boundaries. Federal systems, moreover, frequently display a surprising degree of tolerance for subnational obstruction, disobedience, and other behaviors intended to expand subnational...... authority and influence, even over national objection. This tolerance, however, has limits. In this article, we examine a set of rulings by national constitutional courts invalidating formalized claims by subnational units to a distinctive subnational identity. The emphatically negative reactions...

  7. IMP-27, a Unique Metallo-β-Lactamase Identified in Geographically Distinct Isolates of Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Nyssa; Fowler, Randal C; Yoshizumi, A; Horiyama, Tsukasa; Ishii, Y; Harrison, Lucas; Geyer, Chelsie N; Moland, Ellen Smith; Thomson, Kenneth; Hanson, Nancy D

    2016-10-01

    A novel metallo-β-lactamase gene, blaIMP-27, was identified in unrelated Proteus mirabilis isolates from two geographically distinct locations in the United States. Both isolates harbor blaIMP-27 as part of the first gene cassette in a class 2 integron. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing indicated susceptibility to aztreonam, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ceftazidime but resistance to ertapenem. However, hydrolysis assays indicated that ceftazidime was a substrate for IMP-27. Copyright © 2016 Dixon et al.

  8. Distinct Signaling Roles of cIMP, cCMP, and cUMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Roland

    2016-10-04

    The cyclic purine nucleotide cIMP and the cyclic pyrimidine nucleotides cCMP and cUMP are emerging second messengers. These cNMPs show different biological effects, but the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this issue of Structure, Ng et al. (2016) provide structural evidence for distinct interactions of cIMP, cCMP, and cUMP with ion channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tp53 gene mediates distinct dopaminergic neuronal damage in different dopaminergic neurotoxicant models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tp53, a stress response gene, is involved in diverse cell death pathways and its activation is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. However, whether the neuronal Tp53 protein plays a direct role in regulating dopaminergic (DA neuronal cell death or neuronal terminal damage in different neurotoxicant models is unknown. In our recent studies, in contrast to the global inhibition of Tp53 function by pharmacological inhibitors and in traditional Tp53 knock-out mice, we examined the effects of DA-specific Tp53 gene deletion after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and methamphetamine exposure. Our data suggests that the Tp53 gene might be involved in both neuronal apoptosis and neuronal terminal damage caused by different neurotoxicants. Additional results from other studies also suggest that as a master regulator of many pathways that regulate apoptosis and synaptic terminal damage, it is possible that Tp53 may function as a signaling hub to integrate different signaling pathways to mediate distinctive target pathways. Tp53 protein as a signaling hub might be able to evaluate the microenvironment of neurons, assess the forms and severities of injury incurred, and determine whether apoptotic cell death or neuronal terminal degeneration occurs. Identification of the precise mechanisms activated in distinct neuronal damage caused by different forms and severities of injuries might allow for development of specific Tp53 inhibitors or ways to modulate distinct downstream target pathways involved.

  10. Phenotype specific analyses reveal distinct regulatory mechanism for chronically activated p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Kirschner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The downstream functions of the DNA binding tumor suppressor p53 vary depending on the cellular context, and persistent p53 activation has recently been implicated in tumor suppression and senescence. However, genome-wide information about p53-target gene regulation has been derived mostly from acute genotoxic conditions. Using ChIP-seq and expression data, we have found distinct p53 binding profiles between acutely activated (through DNA damage and chronically activated (in senescent or pro-apoptotic conditions p53. Compared to the classical 'acute' p53 binding profile, 'chronic' p53 peaks were closely associated with CpG-islands. Furthermore, the chronic CpG-island binding of p53 conferred distinct expression patterns between senescent and pro-apoptotic conditions. Using the p53 targets seen in the chronic conditions together with external high-throughput datasets, we have built p53 networks that revealed extensive self-regulatory 'p53 hubs' where p53 and many p53 targets can physically interact with each other. Integrating these results with public clinical datasets identified the cancer-associated lipogenic enzyme, SCD, which we found to be directly repressed by p53 through the CpG-island promoter, providing a mechanistic link between p53 and the 'lipogenic phenotype', a hallmark of cancer. Our data reveal distinct phenotype associations of chronic p53 targets that underlie specific gene regulatory mechanisms.

  11. The loss of short-term visual representations over time: decay or temporal distinctiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Tom

    2014-12-01

    There has been much recent interest in the loss of visual short-term memories over the passage of time. According to decay theory, visual representations are gradually forgotten as time passes, reflecting a slow and steady distortion of the memory trace. However, this is controversial and decay effects can be explained in other ways. The present experiment aimed to reexamine the maintenance and loss of visual information over the short term. Decay and temporal distinctiveness models were tested using a delayed discrimination task, in which participants compared complex and novel objects over unfilled retention intervals of variable length. Experiment 1 found no significant change in the accuracy of visual memory from 2 to 6 s, but the gap separating trials reliably influenced task performance. Experiment 2 found evidence for information loss at a 10-s retention interval, but temporally separating trials restored the fidelity of visual memory, possibly because temporally isolated representations are distinct from older memory traces. In conclusion, visual representations lose accuracy at some point after 6 s, but only within temporally crowded contexts. These findings highlight the importance of temporal distinctiveness within visual short-term memory. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Flow shear stress differentially regulates endothelial uptake of nanocarriers targeted to distinct epitopes of PECAM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingyan; Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Davies, Peter F; Eckmann, David M; Muro, Silvia; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2015-07-28

    Targeting nanocarriers (NC) to endothelial cell adhesion molecules including Platelet-Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (PECAM-1 or CD31) improves drug delivery and pharmacotherapy of inflammation, oxidative stress, thrombosis and ischemia in animal models. Recent studies unveiled that hydrodynamic conditions modulate endothelial endocytosis of NC targeted to PECAM-1, but the specificity and mechanism of effects of flow remain unknown. Here we studied the effect of flow on endocytosis by human endothelial cells of NC targeted by monoclonal antibodies Ab62 and Ab37 to distinct epitopes on the distal extracellular domain of PECAM. Flow in the range of 1-8dyn/cm(2), typical for venous vasculature, stimulated the uptake of spherical Ab/NC (~180nm diameter) carrying ~50 vs 200 Ab62 and Ab37 per NC, respectively. Effect of flow was inhibited by disruption of cholesterol-rich plasmalemma domains and deletion of PECAM-1 cytosolic tail. Flow stimulated endocytosis of Ab62/NC and Ab37/NC via eliciting distinct signaling pathways mediated by RhoA/ROCK and Src Family Kinases, respectively. Therefore, flow stimulates endothelial endocytosis of Ab/NC in a PECAM-1 epitope specific manner. Using ligands of binding to distinct epitopes on the same target molecule may enable fine-tuning of intracellular delivery based on the hemodynamic conditions in the vascular area of interest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reduced effects of pictorial distinctiveness on false memory following dynamic visual noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew; Kember, Timothy; Dagnall, Neil

    2017-07-01

    High levels of false recognition for non-presented items typically occur following exposure to lists of associated words. These false recognition effects can be reduced by making the studied items more distinctive by the presentation of pictures during encoding. One explanation of this is that during recognition, participants expect or attempt to retrieve distinctive pictorial information in order to evaluate the study status of the test item. If this involves the retrieval and use of visual imagery, then interfering with imagery processing should reduce the effectiveness of pictorial information in false memory reduction. In the current experiment, visual-imagery processing was disrupted at retrieval by the use of dynamic visual noise (DVN). It was found that effects of DVN dissociated true from false memory. Memory for studied words was not influenced by the presence of an interfering noise field. However, false memory was increased and the effects of picture-induced distinctiveness was eliminated. DVN also increased false recollection and remember responses to unstudied items.

  14. SPATIALLY RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF EUROPA: THE DISTINCT SPECTRUM OF LARGE-SCALE CHAOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P. D.; Brown, M. E.; Hand, K. P.

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of spatially resolved moderate spectral resolution near-infrared spectra obtained with the adaptive optics system at the Keck Observatory. We identify three compositionally distinct end member regions: the trailing hemisphere bullseye, the leading hemisphere upper latitudes, and a third component associated with leading hemisphere chaos units. We interpret the composition of the three end member regions to be dominated by irradiation products, water ice, and evaporite deposits or salt brines, respectively. The third component is associated with geological features and distinct from the geography of irradiation, suggesting an endogenous identity. Identifying the endogenous composition is of particular interest for revealing the subsurface composition. However, its spectrum is not consistent with linear mixtures of the salt minerals previously considered relevant to Europa. The spectrum of this component is distinguished by distorted hydration features rather than distinct spectral features, indicating hydrated minerals but making unique identification difficult. In particular, it lacks features common to hydrated sulfate minerals, challenging the traditional view of an endogenous salty component dominated by Mg-sulfates. Chloride evaporite deposits are one possible alternative

  15. Beyond the Sterility of a Distinct African Bioethics: Addressing the Conceptual Bioethics Lag in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssebunnya, Gerald M

    2017-04-01

    In the current debate on the future of bioethics in Africa, several authors have argued for a distinct communitarian African bioethics that can counter the dominancy of Western atomistic principlism in contemporary bioethics. In this article I examine this rather contentious argument and evaluate its validity and viability. Firstly, I trace the contextual origins of contemporary bioethics and highlight the rise and dominance of principlism. I particularly note that principlism was premised on a content-thin notion of the common morality that is in need of enrichment. I also contend that bioethics is essentially two-dimensional, being both conceptual and empirical, and indicate the lag in Africa with regard to conceptual bioethics. I then appeal for authentic engagement by 1) African health care professionals, 2) African health care training institutions, 3) Africa's bioethics development partners, and 4) African bioethicists and philosophers, towards addressing this critical lag. I underline the need to maintain the essential universality of bioethics as a discipline. I particularly argue against the pursuit of a distinct African bioethics, as it appears to be rooted in sterile African ethno-philosophy. Rather, African bioethicists and philosophers would do well to elucidate the universalisability of insights from traditional African thought, for the benefit of bioethics as a whole. Thus we must engage beyond the sterility of a distinct African bioethics - authentically reflecting on the essentially universal contemporary bioethical concerns - to effectively articulate a viable trajectory for bioethics in Africa. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Genetic approach identifies distinct asthma pathways in overweight vs normal weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsch Kovacic, M; Martin, L J; Biagini Myers, J M; He, H; Lindsey, M; Mersha, T B; Khurana Hershey, G K

    2015-08-01

    The pathogenesis of asthma in the context of excess body weight may be distinct from asthma that develops in normal weight children. The study's objective was to explore the biology of asthma in the context of obesity and normal weight status using genetic methodologies. Associations between asthma and SNPs in 49 genes were assessed, as well as, interactions between SNPs and overweight status in child participants of the Greater Cincinnati Pediatric Clinic Repository. Asthma was significantly associated with weight (OR = 1.38; P = 0.037). The number of genes and the magnitude of their associations with asthma were notably greater when considering overweight children alone vs normal weight and overweight children together. When considering weight, distinct sets of asthma-associated genes were observed, many times with opposing effects. We demonstrated that the underlying heterogeneity of asthma is likely due in part to distinct pathogenetic pathways that depend on preceding/comorbid overweight and/or allergy. It is therefore important to consider both obesity and asthma when conducting studies of asthma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Distinct Hippocampal Pathways Mediate Dissociable Roles of Context in Memory Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chun; Krabbe, Sabine; Gründemann, Jan; Botta, Paolo; Fadok, Jonathan P; Osakada, Fumitaka; Saur, Dieter; Grewe, Benjamin F; Schnitzer, Mark J; Callaway, Edward M; Lüthi, Andreas

    2016-11-03

    Memories about sensory experiences are tightly linked to the context in which they were formed. Memory contextualization is fundamental for the selection of appropriate behavioral reactions needed for survival, yet the underlying neuronal circuits are poorly understood. By combining trans-synaptic viral tracing and optogenetic manipulation, we found that the ventral hippocampus (vHC) and the amygdala, two key brain structures encoding context and emotional experiences, interact via multiple parallel pathways. A projection from the vHC to the basal amygdala mediates fear behavior elicited by a conditioned context, whereas a parallel projection from a distinct subset of vHC neurons onto midbrain-projecting neurons in the central amygdala is necessary for context-dependent retrieval of cued fear memories. Our findings demonstrate that two fundamentally distinct roles of context in fear memory retrieval are processed by distinct vHC output pathways, thereby allowing for the formation of robust contextual fear memories while preserving context-dependent behavioral flexibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Overexpressed Genes/ESTs and Characterization of Distinct Amplicons on 17823 in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse E. Erson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available 17823 is a frequent site of gene amplification in breast cancer. Several lines of evidence suggest the presence of multiple amplicons on 17823. To characterize distinct amplicons on 17823 and localize putative oncogenes, we screened genes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs in existing physical and radiation hybrid maps for amplification and overexpression in breast cancer cell lines by semiquantitative duplex PCR, semiquantitative duplex RT-PCR, Southern blot, Northern blot analyses. We identified two distinct amplicons on 17823, one including TBX2 and another proximal region including RPS6KB1 (PS6K and MUL. In addition to these previously reported overexpressed genes, we also identified amplification and overexpression of additional uncharacterized genes and ESTs, some of which suggest potential oncogenic activity. In conclusion, we have further defined two distinct regions of gene amplification and overexpression on 17823 with identification of new potential oncogene candidates. Based on the amplification and overexpression patterns of known and as of yet unrecognized genes on 17823, it is likely that some of these genes mapping to the discrete amplicons function as oncogenes and contribute to tumor progression in breast cancer cells.

  19. Identification of distinct fatigue trajectories in patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghaenel, Doerte U; Cohen, Jules; Schneider, Stefan; Neerukonda, Anu R; Broderick, Joan E

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize changes in daily fatigue in women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer. We examined whether there are subgroups of patients with distinct fatigue trajectories and explored potential psychosocial and biomedical predictors of these subgroups. Participants were 77 women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy with AC-T (2-week cycle) and TC or TCH (3-week cycle) regimens. They completed 28 daily ratings online using an adapted version of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) fatigue instrument. Both regimens followed an "inverted-U-shaped" fatigue pattern over approximately 2 weeks. Growth mixture modeling identified three patient subgroups with distinct trajectories. Fatigue scores in the "low fatigue" group (23 %) increased following the infusion and quickly abated. The "transient fatigue" (27 %) group had a very pronounced increase. Patients in the "high fatigue" (50 %) group reported consistently elevated fatigue with a relatively small increase. Demographic and medical variables were not associated with fatigue trajectory. Patients in the "high fatigue" group reported significantly poorer physical, emotional, and social functioning, poorer general health, and more depressed mood than patients in the "low fatigue" group. The "transient fatigue" group reported significantly better physical and social functioning than the "high fatigue" group, but emotional distress and depression similar to the "high fatigue" group. The identification of patient subgroups with distinct fatigue trajectories during chemotherapy is an essential step for developing preventative strategies and tailored interventions. Our results suggest that different trajectories are associated with patients' psychosocial and general health.

  20. Distinct prion-like strains of amyloid beta implicated in phenotypic diversity of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mark; Appleby, Brian; Safar, Jiri G

    2016-01-01

    Vast evidence on human prions demonstrates that variable disease phenotypes, rates of propagation, and targeting of distinct brain structures are determined by unique conformers (strains) of pathogenic prion protein (PrP(Sc)). Recent progress in the development of advanced biophysical tools that inventory structural characteristics of amyloid beta (Aβ) in the brain cortex of phenotypically diverse Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, revealed unique spectrum of oligomeric particles in the cortex of rapidly progressive cases, implicating these structures in variable rates of propagation in the brain, and in distict disease manifestation. Since only ∼30% of phenotypic diversity of AD can be explained by polymorphisms in risk genes, these and transgenic bioassay data argue that structurally distinct Aβ particles play a major role in the diverse pathogenesis of AD, and may behave as distinct prion-like strains encoding diverse phenotypes. From these observations and our growing understanding of prions, there is a critical need for new strain-specific diagnostic strategies for misfolded proteins causing these elusive disorders. Since targeted drug therapy can induce mutation and evolution of prions into new strains, effective treatments of AD will require drugs that enhance clearance of pathogenic conformers, reduce the precursor protein, or inhibit the conversion of precursors into prion-like states.

  1. On the roles of distinctiveness and semantic expectancies in episodic encoding of emotional words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Siri-Maria; Potts, Geoffrey F; Donchin, Emanuel

    2015-12-01

    We examined the factors that contribute to enhanced recall for emotionally arousing words by analyzing behavioral performance, the P300 as an index of distinctiveness, and the N400 as an index of semantic expectancy violation in a modified Von Restorff paradigm. While their EEG was recorded, participants studied three list types (1) neutral words including one emotionally arousing isolate (either positive or negative), (2) arousing, negative words including one neutral isolate, or (3) arousing, positive words including one neutral isolate. Immediately after each list, free recall was tested. Negative, but not positive, words exhibited enhanced recall when presented as isolates in lists of neutral words and elicited a larger P300 for subsequently recalled than not-recalled words. This suggests that arousing, negative words stand out and that their distinctiveness contributes to their superior recall. Positive valence had an enhancing effect on recall only when the list contained mostly other positive words. Neutral isolates placed in either positive or negative lists elicited an N400, suggesting that semantic expectations developed in emotional word lists regardless of valence. However, semantic relatedness appeared to more strongly contribute to recall for positive than negative words. Our results suggest that distinctiveness and semantic relatedness contribute to episodic encoding of arousing words, but the impact of each factor depends on both a word's valence and its context. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  2. Conceptual distinctiveness supports detailed visual long-term memory for real-world objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkle, Talia; Brady, Timothy F; Alvarez, George A; Oliva, Aude

    2010-08-01

    Humans have a massive capacity to store detailed information in visual long-term memory. The present studies explored the fidelity of these visual long-term memory representations and examined how conceptual and perceptual features of object categories support this capacity. Observers viewed 2,800 object images with a different number of exemplars presented from each category. At test, observers indicated which of 2 exemplars they had previously studied. Memory performance was high and remained quite high (82% accuracy) with 16 exemplars from a category in memory, demonstrating a large memory capacity for object exemplars. However, memory performance decreased as more exemplars were held in memory, implying systematic categorical interference. Object categories with conceptually distinctive exemplars showed less interference in memory as the number of exemplars increased. Interference in memory was not predicted by the perceptual distinctiveness of exemplars from an object category, though these perceptual measures predicted visual search rates for an object target among exemplars. These data provide evidence that observers' capacity to remember visual information in long-term memory depends more on conceptual structure than perceptual distinctiveness. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  3. The Role of Cognitive Content and Cognitive Processes in Chronic Pain: An Important Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Thorn, Beverly E; Carmody, James; Keefe, Francis J; Burns, John W

    2018-05-01

    Pain-related cognitive content (what people think about pain) and cognitive processes (how people think about pain; what they do with their pain-related thoughts) and their interaction are hypothesized to play distinct roles in patient function. However, questions have been raised regarding whether it is possible or practical to assess cognitive content and cognitive process as distinct domains. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which measures that seem to assess mostly pain-related cognitive content, cognitive processes, and content and process, are relatively independent from each other and contribute unique variance to the prediction of patient function. Individuals with chronic low back pain (N=165) participating in an ongoing RCT were administered measures of cognitions, pain, and function (depressive symptoms and pain interference) pretreatment. Analyses provided support for the hypothesis that cognitive content and cognitive process, while related, can be assessed as distinct components. However, the measure assessing a cognitive process-mindfulness-evidenced relatively weak associations with function, especially compared with the stronger and more consistent findings for the measures of content (catastrophizing and self-efficacy). The results provide preliminary evidence for the possibility that mindfulness could have both benefits and costs. Research to evaluate this possibility is warranted.

  4. Distinctive serum protein profiles involving abundant proteins in lung cancer patients based upon antibody microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rom William N

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer serum protein profiling by mass spectrometry has uncovered mass profiles that are potentially diagnostic for several common types of cancer. However, direct mass spectrometric profiling has a limited dynamic range and difficulties in providing the identification of the distinctive proteins. We hypothesized that distinctive profiles may result from the differential expression of relatively abundant serum proteins associated with the host response. Methods Eighty-four antibodies, targeting a wide range of serum proteins, were spotted onto nitrocellulose-coated microscope slides. The abundances of the corresponding proteins were measured in 80 serum samples, from 24 newly diagnosed subjects with lung cancer, 24 healthy controls, and 32 subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Two-color rolling-circle amplification was used to measure protein abundance. Results Seven of the 84 antibodies gave a significant difference (p Conclusion Our results suggest that a distinctive serum protein profile involving abundant proteins may be observed in lung cancer patients relative to healthy subjects or patients with chronic disease and may have utility as part of strategies for detecting lung cancer.

  5. Aping expressions? Chimpanzees produce distinct laugh types when responding to laughter of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila-Ross, Marina; Allcock, Bethan; Thomas, Chris; Bard, Kim A

    2011-10-01

    Humans have the ability to replicate the emotional expressions of others even when they undergo different emotions. Such distinct responses of expressions, especially positive expressions, play a central role in everyday social communication of humans and may give the responding individuals important advantages in cooperation and communication. The present work examined laughter in chimpanzees to test whether nonhuman primates also use their expressions in such distinct ways. The approach was first to examine the form and occurrence of laugh replications (laughter after the laughter of others) and spontaneous laughter of chimpanzees during social play and then to test whether their laugh replications represented laugh-elicited laugh responses (laughter triggered by the laughter of others) by using a quantitative method designed to measure responses in natural social settings. The results of this study indicated that chimpanzees produce laugh-elicited laughter that is distinct in form and occurrence from their spontaneous laughter. These findings provide the first empirical evidence that nonhuman primates have the ability to replicate the expressions of others by producing expressions that differ in their underlying emotions and social implications. The data further showed that the laugh-elicited laugh responses of the subjects were closely linked to play maintenance, suggesting that chimpanzees might gain important cooperative and communicative advantages by responding with laughter to the laughter of their social partners. Notably, some chimpanzee groups of this study responded more with laughter than others, an outcome that provides empirical support of a socialization of expressions in great apes similar to that of humans.

  6. Dynamic Changes in Amygdala Psychophysiological Connectivity Reveal Distinct Neural Networks for Facial Expressions of Basic Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diano, Matteo; Tamietto, Marco; Celeghin, Alessia; Weiskrantz, Lawrence; Tatu, Mona-Karina; Bagnis, Arianna; Duca, Sergio; Geminiani, Giuliano; Cauda, Franco; Costa, Tommaso

    2017-03-27

    The quest to characterize the neural signature distinctive of different basic emotions has recently come under renewed scrutiny. Here we investigated whether facial expressions of different basic emotions modulate the functional connectivity of the amygdala with the rest of the brain. To this end, we presented seventeen healthy participants (8 females) with facial expressions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and emotional neutrality and analyzed amygdala's psychophysiological interaction (PPI). In fact, PPI can reveal how inter-regional amygdala communications change dynamically depending on perception of various emotional expressions to recruit different brain networks, compared to the functional interactions it entertains during perception of neutral expressions. We found that for each emotion the amygdala recruited a distinctive and spatially distributed set of structures to interact with. These changes in amygdala connectional patters characterize the dynamic signature prototypical of individual emotion processing, and seemingly represent a neural mechanism that serves to implement the distinctive influence that each emotion exerts on perceptual, cognitive, and motor responses. Besides these differences, all emotions enhanced amygdala functional integration with premotor cortices compared to neutral faces. The present findings thus concur to reconceptualise the structure-function relation between brain-emotion from the traditional one-to-one mapping toward a network-based and dynamic perspective.

  7. Distinct signaling roles of ceramide species in yeast revealed through systematic perturbation and systems biology analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montefusco, David J; Chen, Lujia; Matmati, Nabil; Lu, Songjian; Newcomb, Benjamin; Cooper, Gregory F; Hannun, Yusuf A; Lu, Xinghua

    2013-10-29

    Ceramide, the central molecule of sphingolipid metabolism, is an important bioactive molecule that participates in various cellular regulatory events and that has been implicated in disease. Deciphering ceramide signaling is challenging because multiple ceramide species exist, and many of them may have distinct functions. We applied systems biology and molecular approaches to perturb ceramide metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and inferred causal relationships between ceramide species and their potential targets by combining lipidomic, genomic, and transcriptomic analyses. We found that during heat stress, distinct metabolic mechanisms controlled the abundance of different groups of ceramide species and provided experimental support for the importance of the dihydroceramidase Ydc1 in mediating the decrease in dihydroceramides during heat stress. Additionally, distinct groups of ceramide species, with different N-acyl chains and hydroxylations, regulated different sets of functionally related genes, indicating that the structural complexity of these lipids produces functional diversity. The transcriptional modules that we identified provide a resource to begin to dissect the specific functions of ceramides.

  8. Interpersonal Subtypes Within Social Anxiety: The Identification of Distinct Social Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Danielle; Anderson, Timothy

    2017-10-05

    Although social anxiety disorder is defined by anxiety-related symptoms, little research has focused on the interpersonal features of social anxiety. Prior studies (Cain, Pincus, & Grosse Holtforth, 2010; Kachin, Newman, & Pincus, 2001) identified distinct subgroups of socially anxious individuals' interpersonal circumplex problems that were blends of agency and communion, and yet inconsistencies remain. We predicted 2 distinct interpersonal subtypes would exist for individuals with high social anxiety, and that these social anxiety subtypes would differ on empathetic concern, paranoia, received peer victimization, perspective taking, and emotional suppression. From a sample of 175 undergraduate participants, 51 participants with high social anxiety were selected as above a clinical cutoff on the social phobia scale. Cluster analyses identified 2 interpersonal subtypes of socially anxious individuals: low hostility-high submissiveness (Cluster 1) and high hostility-high submissiveness (Cluster 2). Cluster 1 reported higher levels of empathetic concern, lower paranoia, less peer victimization, and lower emotional suppression compared to Cluster 2. There were no differences between subtypes on perspective taking or cognitive reappraisal. Findings are consistent with an interpersonal conceptualization of social anxiety, and provide evidence of distinct social features between these subtypes. Findings have implications for the etiology, classification, and treatment of social anxiety.

  9. Common and distinct brain networks underlying panic and social anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ku; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung

    2018-01-03

    Although panic disorder (PD) and phobic disorders are independent anxiety disorders with distinct sets of diagnostic criteria, there is a high level of overlap between them in terms of pathogenesis and neural underpinnings. Functional connectivity research using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) shows great potential in identifying the similarities and differences between PD and phobias. Understanding common and distinct networks between PD and phobic disorders is critical for identifying both specific and general neural characteristics of these disorders. We review recent rsfMRI studies and explore the clinical relevance of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in PD and phobias. Although findings differ between studies, there are some meaningful, consistent findings. Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and PD share common default mode network alterations. Alterations within the sensorimotor network are observed primarily in PD. Increased connectivity in the salience network is consistently reported in SAD. This review supports hypotheses that PD and phobic disorders share common rsFC abnormalities and that the different clinical phenotypes between the disorders come from distinct brain functional network alterations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effectiveness of PET for the distinction of perirectal lymph node metastasis of rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dae Yong; Choi, Chang Woon

    1999-12-01

    If the effectiveness for the distinction of perirectal lymph node metastasis is proved to be higher than the previous conventional detection methods, likewise CT and endorectal ultrasound, more precise and more specific information will be taken by this new modality. Preoperative biopsy-proven rectal adenocarcinoma patients with or without distant metastasis were included for this study. For the effectiveness of PET for the distinction of perirectal lymph node metastasis, CT and endorectal ultrasound versus findings of perirectal lymph node status were compared with permanent pathology results. The findings of preoperative conventional methods showed that 8 patients had not preirectal lymph node metastasis and 6 patients and perirectal lymph node metastasis. The accuracy of conventional methods was 50 % compared with 37.5 % of that of PET in the case of 8 patients. In the case of 6 patients, accuracy was 100 % in the conventional methods and 66.7 % in PET study. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 60 % and 100 % in the conventional methods and 40 % and 75 % in PET study respectively. Therefore, PET is not effective for the distinction of L/N metastasis of rectal cancer comparing with conventional methods such as CT and ERUS preoperatively.

  11. SPATIALLY RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF EUROPA: THE DISTINCT SPECTRUM OF LARGE-SCALE CHAOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, P. D.; Brown, M. E. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hand, K. P., E-mail: pfischer@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    We present a comprehensive analysis of spatially resolved moderate spectral resolution near-infrared spectra obtained with the adaptive optics system at the Keck Observatory. We identify three compositionally distinct end member regions: the trailing hemisphere bullseye, the leading hemisphere upper latitudes, and a third component associated with leading hemisphere chaos units. We interpret the composition of the three end member regions to be dominated by irradiation products, water ice, and evaporite deposits or salt brines, respectively. The third component is associated with geological features and distinct from the geography of irradiation, suggesting an endogenous identity. Identifying the endogenous composition is of particular interest for revealing the subsurface composition. However, its spectrum is not consistent with linear mixtures of the salt minerals previously considered relevant to Europa. The spectrum of this component is distinguished by distorted hydration features rather than distinct spectral features, indicating hydrated minerals but making unique identification difficult. In particular, it lacks features common to hydrated sulfate minerals, challenging the traditional view of an endogenous salty component dominated by Mg-sulfates. Chloride evaporite deposits are one possible alternative.

  12. The theory–practice distinction and the complexity of practical knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Miller-McLemore

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, theologians have recognised the value of practice but have been optimistic about the ease with which practice is incorporated into theology. People use all sorts of adjectives to characterise the complex relationship – ‘integrally related’, a ‘deeper reciprocity’, ‘bound up in thickly intertwined ways’ – but connecting the two is not as easy as these words suggest. This article returns to the age-old question about the relationship between theory and practice. But it studies this question from the angle of practice. Although many scholars have analysed the distinction between theory and practice as it functions conceptually, few have examined challenges in relating the two as they emerge in practice. The article argues that there is an inevitable distinction between theory and practice that receives considerably less attention and needs more understanding and even respect. It also argues that the discipline of practical theology adds a distinctive angle on this discussion because it considers how the concepts function practically.

  13. Neural dissociations in attitude strength: Distinct regions of cingulate cortex track ambivalence and certainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, Andrew; Stillman, Paul E; Hasinski, Adam E; Cunningham, William A

    2016-04-01

    People's behaviors are often guided by valenced responses to objects in the environment. Beyond positive and negative evaluations, attitudes research has documented the importance of attitude strength--qualities of an attitude that enhance or attenuate its impact and durability. Although neuroscience research has extensively investigated valence, little work exists on other related variables like metacognitive judgments about one's attitudes. It remains unclear, then, whether the various indicators of attitude strength represent a single underlying neural process or whether they reflect independent processes. To examine this, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to identify the neural correlates of attitude strength. Specifically, we focus on ambivalence and certainty, which represent metacognitive judgments that people can make about their evaluations. Although often correlated, prior neuroscience research suggests that these 2 attributes may have distinct neural underpinnings. We investigate this by having participants make evaluative judgments of visually presented words while undergoing fMRI. After scanning, participants rated the degree of ambivalence and certainty they felt regarding their attitudes toward each word. We found that these 2 judgments corresponded to distinct brain regions' activity during the process of evaluation. Ambivalence corresponded to activation in anterior cingulate cortex, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex. Certainty, however, corresponded to activation in unique areas of the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex. These results support a model treating ambivalence and certainty as distinct, though related, attitude strength variables, and we discuss implications for both attitudes and neuroscience research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Latent memory facilitates relearning through molecular signaling mechanisms that are distinct from original learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menges, Steven A; Riepe, Joshua R; Philips, Gary T

    2015-09-01

    A highly conserved feature of memory is that it can exist in a latent, non-expressed state which is revealed during subsequent learning by its ability to significantly facilitate (savings) or inhibit (latent inhibition) subsequent memory formation. Despite the ubiquitous nature of latent memory, the mechanistic nature of the latent memory trace and its ability to influence subsequent learning remains unclear. The model organism Aplysia californica provides the unique opportunity to make strong links between behavior and underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Using Aplysia, we have studied the mechanisms of savings due to latent memory for a prior, forgotten experience. We previously reported savings in the induction of three distinct temporal domains of memory: short-term (10min), intermediate-term (2h) and long-term (24h). Here we report that savings memory formation utilizes molecular signaling pathways that are distinct from original learning: whereas the induction of both original intermediate- and long-term memory in naïve animals requires mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and ongoing protein synthesis, 2h savings memory is not disrupted by inhibitors of MAPK or protein synthesis, and 24h savings memory is not dependent on MAPK activation. Collectively, these findings reveal that during forgetting, latent memory for the original experience can facilitate relearning through molecular signaling mechanisms that are distinct from original learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Distinct p53 genomic binding patterns in normal and cancer-derived human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botcheva K.; McCorkle S. R.; McCombie W. R.; Dunn J. J.; Anderson C. W.

    2011-12-15

    We report here genome-wide analysis of the tumor suppressor p53 binding sites in normal human cells. 743 high-confidence ChIP-seq peaks representing putative genomic binding sites were identified in normal IMR90 fibroblasts using a reference chromatin sample. More than 40% were located within 2 kb of a transcription start site (TSS), a distribution similar to that documented for individually studied, functional p53 binding sites and, to date, not observed by previous p53 genome-wide studies. Nearly half of the high-confidence binding sites in the IMR90 cells reside in CpG islands, in marked contrast to sites reported in cancer-derived cells. The distinct genomic features of the IMR90 binding sites do not reflect a distinct preference for specific sequences, since the de novo developed p53 motif based on our study is similar to those reported by genome-wide studies of cancer cells. More likely, the different chromatin landscape in normal, compared with cancer-derived cells, influences p53 binding via modulating availability of the sites. We compared the IMR90 ChIPseq peaks to the recently published IMR90 methylome1 and demonstrated that they are enriched at hypomethylated DNA. Our study represents the first genome-wide, de novo mapping of p53 binding sites in normal human cells and reveals that p53 binding sites reside in distinct genomic landscapes in normal and cancer-derived human cells.

  16. An holistic view on aquifer vulnerability based on a distinction of different types of vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela; Franchino, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    AN HOLISTIC VIEW ON AQUIFER VULNERABILITY BASED ON A DISTINCTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF VULNERABILITY D.A. De Luca1 , M. Lasagna1, E. Franchino1 1Department of Earth Sciences, University of Turin The concept of vulnerability is certainly useful in the field of groundwater protection. Nevertheless, within the scientific community, the definition of groundwater vulnerability is still debatable and not clear and conclusive. This is probably due to the fact that researchers often have very different experiences and education. A positive effect of it is a constant exchange of ideas, but there are also negative consequences and difficulties in deepening the issue. The different approaches are very important but they are usable only if the concept of vulnerability is standardized: thus, for the sake of clarity, a number of definitions should be laid down, based on the different types of vulnerability. These definitions can then provide the necessary holistic view for the aquifer vulnerability assessment. Nowadays vulnerability methods focus on the degree of vulnerability and the parameters needed for its evaluation, often neglecting to clarify what is the type of vulnerability the proposed methods are referred. The type of vulnerability, indeed, is both logically and hierarchically superior to the degree of vulnerability. More specifically the type of vulnerability represents the evaluation of the hydrogeological conditions considered in the vulnerability assessment and able to influence the way in which the contamination can take place. Currently the only distinction, based on of the type of vulnerability, is referred to intrinsic and specific vulnerability. Intrinsic vulnerability assesses the susceptibility of the receptor based on the natural properties of the land and subsurface; specific vulnerability also includes properties of the analyzed contaminant. This distinction is useful but not exhaustive. In addition to this, e.g., a distinction of vertical vulnerability

  17. Both differences in encoding processes and monitoring at retrieval reduce false alarms when distinctive information is studied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Mazzoni, Giuliana

    2011-04-01

    A reduction in false alarms to critical lures is observed in the DRM paradigm (Roediger & McDermott, 1995) when distinctive information is presented at encoding. Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for this reduction. According to the monitoring theory (e.g., the distinctiveness heuristic), lack of diagnostic recollection serves as a basis for discarding non-presented lures. According to the encoding theory, presenting distinctive information at study leads to impoverished relational processing, which results in a reduction in memorial information elicited by critical lures. In the present study a condition was created in which the use of the distinctiveness heuristic was precluded by associating, within the same study, lures with distinctive information in a context different from the study session. Under that condition reduction in false alarms to distinctive critical lures was still observed. This result supports the predictions of the encoding theory. However, when in the same study the use of the distinctiveness heuristic was not precluded, reductions in false alarms to unrelated lures were also observed when distinctive information was presented at study, indicating that both mechanisms are likely to contribute to the rejection of false memories.

  18. 77 FR 71396 - Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest; Nevada and California Greater Sage Grouse Bi-State Distinct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... Greater Sage Grouse Bi-State Distinct Population Segment Forest Plan Amendment Environmental Impact... Sage Grouse Bi- State Distinct Population Segment. DATES: Comments concerning the scope of the analysis..., but precluded'' Endangered Species Act (ESA) listing petition decision for the Greater Sage grouse Bi...

  19. Preserved Self-Other Distinction during Empathy in Autism Is Linked to Network Integrity of Right Supramarginal Gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Ferdinand; Koehne, Svenja; Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Dziobek, Isabel; Singer, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shows deficits in self-other distinction during theory of mind (ToM). Here we investigated whether ASD patients also show difficulties in self-other distinction during empathy and if potential deficits are linked to dysfunctional resting-state connectivity patterns. In a first study, ASD patients and controls…

  20. The distinct nature of hematopoietic stem cell subpopulations studied in long-term stroma-associated culture in the mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. van der Sluijs

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis a number of experiments is described which give evidence for the notion of a distinct nature of CFU-S and cells with LTRA in the mouse. The distinct nature is illustrated by the difference in growth characteristics of CFU-S and LTRA cells on preestablished bone

  1. 75 FR 19925 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List a Distinct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... List a Distinct Population Segment of the Fisher in Its United States Northern Rocky Mountain Range as...), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list a distinct population segment (DPS) of the fisher (Martes...). Taxonomy We accept the characterization of the fisher as a species, Martes pennanti, based on the review of...

  2. 75 FR 77602 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To Delist the Eastern Distinct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... the Eastern Distinct Population Segment of the Steller Sea Lion AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... delist the eastern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of the Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) under...-implementing regulations issued by NMFS and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) also establish procedures...

  3. Examining the Distinctiveness and the Socio-Emotional Correlates of Anxious-Withdrawal and Unsociability during Early Adolescence in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Findley-Van Nostrand, Danielle; Bowker, Julie C.; Markovic, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the distinctiveness of and the correlates associated with anxious-withdrawal and unsociability during early adolescence in Finland (N = 384; 12-14 years; 53% girls). As expected, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that anxious-withdrawal and unsociability were distinct and moderately positively correlated constructs. Only…

  4. Distinctive serum protein profiles involving abundant proteins in lung cancer patients based upon antibody microarray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Wei-Min; Haab, Brian B; Hanash, Samir M; Kuick, Rork; Orchekowski, Randal P; Misek, David E; Qiu, Ji; Greenberg, Alissa K; Rom, William N; Brenner, Dean E; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2005-01-01

    Cancer serum protein profiling by mass spectrometry has uncovered mass profiles that are potentially diagnostic for several common types of cancer. However, direct mass spectrometric profiling has a limited dynamic range and difficulties in providing the identification of the distinctive proteins. We hypothesized that distinctive profiles may result from the differential expression of relatively abundant serum proteins associated with the host response. Eighty-four antibodies, targeting a wide range of serum proteins, were spotted onto nitrocellulose-coated microscope slides. The abundances of the corresponding proteins were measured in 80 serum samples, from 24 newly diagnosed subjects with lung cancer, 24 healthy controls, and 32 subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Two-color rolling-circle amplification was used to measure protein abundance. Seven of the 84 antibodies gave a significant difference (p < 0.01) for the lung cancer patients as compared to healthy controls, as well as compared to COPD patients. Proteins that exhibited higher abundances in the lung cancer samples relative to the control samples included C-reactive protein (CRP; a 13.3 fold increase), serum amyloid A (SAA; a 2.0 fold increase), mucin 1 and α-1-antitrypsin (1.4 fold increases). The increased expression levels of CRP and SAA were validated by Western blot analysis. Leave-one-out cross-validation was used to construct Diagonal Linear Discriminant Analysis (DLDA) classifiers. At a cutoff where all 56 of the non-tumor samples were correctly classified, 15/24 lung tumor patient sera were correctly classified. Our results suggest that a distinctive serum protein profile involving abundant proteins may be observed in lung cancer patients relative to healthy subjects or patients with chronic disease and may have utility as part of strategies for detecting lung cancer

  5. Co-circulation of multiple hemorrhagic fever diseases with distinct clinical characteristics in Dandong, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hai Chen

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fevers (HF caused by viruses and bacteria are a major public health problem in China and characterized by variable clinical manifestations, such that it is often difficult to achieve accurate diagnosis and treatment. The causes of HF in 85 patients admitted to Dandong hospital, China, between 2011-2012 were determined by serological and PCR tests. Of these, 34 patients were diagnosed with Huaiyangshan hemorrhagic fever (HYSHF, 34 with Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS, one with murine typhus, and one with scrub typhus. Etiologic agents could not be determined in the 15 remaining patients. Phylogenetic analyses of recovered bacterial and viral sequences revealed that the causative infectious agents were closely related to those described in other geographical regions. As these diseases have no distinctive clinical features in their early stage, only 13 patients were initially accurately diagnosed. The distinctive clinical features of HFRS and HYSHF developed during disease progression. Enlarged lymph nodes, cough, sputum, and diarrhea were more common in HYSHF patients, while more HFRS cases presented with headache, sore throat, oliguria, percussion pain kidney area, and petechiae. Additionally, HYSHF patients displayed significantly lower levels of white blood cells (WBC, higher levels of creations kinase (CK and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, while HFRS patients presented with an elevation of blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine (CREA. These clinical features will assist in the accurate diagnosis of both HYSHF and HFRS. Overall, our data reveal the complexity of pathogens causing HFs in a single Chinese hospital, and highlight the need for accurate early diagnosis and a better understanding of their distinctive clinical features.

  6. Phylogenetic evidence that two distinct Trichuris genotypes infect both humans and non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiana F Ravasi

    Full Text Available Although there has been extensive debate about whether Trichuris suis and Trichuris trichiura are separate species, only one species of the whipworm T. trichiura has been considered to infect humans and non-human primates. In order to investigate potential cross infection of Trichuris sp. between baboons and humans in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, we sequenced the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of adult Trichuris sp. worms isolated from five baboons from three different troops, namely the Cape Peninsula troop, Groot Olifantsbos troop and Da Gama Park troop. This region was also sequenced from T. trichiura isolated from a human patient from central Africa (Cameroon for comparison. By combining this dataset with Genbank records for Trichuris isolated from other humans, non-human primates and pigs from several different countries in Europe, Asia, and Africa, we confirmed the identification of two distinct Trichuris genotypes that infect primates. Trichuris sp. isolated from the Peninsula baboons fell into two distinct clades that were found to also infect human patients from Cameroon, Uganda and Jamaica (named the CP-GOB clade and China, Thailand, the Czech Republic, and Uganda (named the DG clade, respectively. The divergence of these Trichuris clades is ancient and precedes the diversification of T. suis which clustered closely to the CP-GOB clade. The identification of two distinct Trichuris genotypes infecting both humans and non-human primates is important for the ongoing treatment of Trichuris which is estimated to infect 600 million people worldwide. Currently baboons in the Cape Peninsula, which visit urban areas, provide a constant risk of infection to local communities. A reduction in spatial overlap between humans and baboons is thus an important measure to reduce both cross-transmission and zoonoses of helminthes in Southern Africa.

  7. Degree of handedness and priming: Further evidence for a distinction between production and identification priming mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna J. LaVoie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between implicit and explicit forms of memory retrieval is long-standing, and important to the extent it reveals how different neural architecture supports different aspects of memory function. Similarly, distinctions have been made between kinds of repetition priming, a form of implicit memory retrieval. This study focuses on the production-identification priming distinction, which delineates priming tasks involving verification of stimulus features as compared to priming tasks that require use of a cue to guide response retrieval. Studies investigating this dissociation in dementia or similar patient populations indicate that these forms of priming may differ in their neural bases. The current study looks at degree of handedness as a way of investigating inferred neural architecture supporting these two forms of priming. A growing body of research indicates that degree of handedness (consistent, or CH, versus inconsistent, or ICH is associated with greater interhemispheric interaction and functional access to right hemisphere processing in ICH, with superior performance seen in ICH on memory tasks reliant on this processing. Arguments about the theoretical mechanisms underlying identification and production forms of perceptual priming tasks suggest that performance on these tasks will differ as a function of degree of handedness. We tested this question in a group of CH and ICH young adults, who were asked to study lists of words prior to performing a production priming task (word stem completion, a perceptual word identification task, and a word stem cued recall task. While both handedness groups exhibited reliable priming across tasks, word stem completion priming was greater in ICH than CH participants, with identification priming not differing between groups. This dissociation supports the argument that production and identification forms of priming have different underlying neural bases.

  8. Distinctive Correspondence Between Separable Visual Attention Functions and Intrinsic Brain Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rizzo, Adriana L.; Neitzel, Julia; Müller, Hermann J.; Sorg, Christian; Finke, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    Separable visual attention functions are assumed to rely on distinct but interacting neural mechanisms. Bundesen's “theory of visual attention” (TVA) allows the mathematical estimation of independent parameters that characterize individuals' visual attentional capacity (i.e., visual processing speed and visual short-term memory storage capacity) and selectivity functions (i.e., top-down control and spatial laterality). However, it is unclear whether these parameters distinctively map onto different brain networks obtained from intrinsic functional connectivity, which organizes slowly fluctuating ongoing brain activity. In our study, 31 demographically homogeneous healthy young participants performed whole- and partial-report tasks and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Report accuracy was modeled using TVA to estimate, individually, the four TVA parameters. Networks encompassing cortical areas relevant for visual attention were derived from independent component analysis of rs-fMRI data: visual, executive control, right and left frontoparietal, and ventral and dorsal attention networks. Two TVA parameters were mapped on particular functional networks. First, participants with higher (vs. lower) visual processing speed showed lower functional connectivity within the ventral attention network. Second, participants with more (vs. less) efficient top-down control showed higher functional connectivity within the dorsal attention network and lower functional connectivity within the visual network. Additionally, higher performance was associated with higher functional connectivity between networks: specifically, between the ventral attention and right frontoparietal networks for visual processing speed, and between the visual and executive control networks for top-down control. The higher inter-network functional connectivity was related to lower intra-network connectivity. These results demonstrate that separable visual attention

  9. Early experiences mediate distinct adult gene expression and reproductive programs in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ow, Maria C.; Nichitean, Alexandra M.; Dorus, Steve; Hall, Sarah E.

    2018-01-01

    Environmental stress during early development in animals can have profound effects on adult phenotypes via programmed changes in gene expression. Using the nematode C. elegans, we demonstrated previously that adults retain a cellular memory of their developmental experience that is manifested by differences in gene expression and life history traits; however, the sophistication of this system in response to different environmental stresses, and how it dictates phenotypic plasticity in adults that contribute to increased fitness in response to distinct environmental challenges, was unknown. Using transcriptional profiling, we show here that C. elegans adults indeed retain distinct cellular memories of different environmental conditions. We identified approximately 500 genes in adults that entered dauer due to starvation that exhibit significant opposite (“seesaw”) transcriptional phenotypes compared to adults that entered dauer due to crowding, and are distinct from animals that bypassed dauer. Moreover, we show that two-thirds of the genes in the genome experience a 2-fold or greater seesaw trend in gene expression, and based upon the direction of change, are enriched in large, tightly linked regions on different chromosomes. Importantly, these transcriptional programs correspond to significant changes in brood size depending on the experienced stress. In addition, we demonstrate that while the observed seesaw gene expression changes occur in both somatic and germline tissue, only starvation-induced changes require a functional GLP-4 protein necessary for germline development, and both programs require the Argonaute CSR-1. Thus, our results suggest that signaling between the soma and the germ line can generate phenotypic plasticity as a result of early environmental experience, and likely contribute to increased fitness in adverse conditions and the evolution of the C. elegans genome. PMID:29447162

  10. Early experiences mediate distinct adult gene expression and reproductive programs in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Ow

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stress during early development in animals can have profound effects on adult phenotypes via programmed changes in gene expression. Using the nematode C. elegans, we demonstrated previously that adults retain a cellular memory of their developmental experience that is manifested by differences in gene expression and life history traits; however, the sophistication of this system in response to different environmental stresses, and how it dictates phenotypic plasticity in adults that contribute to increased fitness in response to distinct environmental challenges, was unknown. Using transcriptional profiling, we show here that C. elegans adults indeed retain distinct cellular memories of different environmental conditions. We identified approximately 500 genes in adults that entered dauer due to starvation that exhibit significant opposite ("seesaw" transcriptional phenotypes compared to adults that entered dauer due to crowding, and are distinct from animals that bypassed dauer. Moreover, we show that two-thirds of the genes in the genome experience a 2-fold or greater seesaw trend in gene expression, and based upon the direction of change, are enriched in large, tightly linked regions on different chromosomes. Importantly, these transcriptional programs correspond to significant changes in brood size depending on the experienced stress. In addition, we demonstrate that while the observed seesaw gene expression changes occur in both somatic and germline tissue, only starvation-induced changes require a functional GLP-4 protein necessary for germline development, and both programs require the Argonaute CSR-1. Thus, our results suggest that signaling between the soma and the germ line can generate phenotypic plasticity as a result of early environmental experience, and likely contribute to increased fitness in adverse conditions and the evolution of the C. elegans genome.

  11. Identification of distinct layers within the stratified squamous epithelium of the adult human true vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdall, Jayme R; Sadow, Peter M; Hartnick, Christopher; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Mou, Hongmei; Zhao, Rui; Song, Phillip C; Franco, Ramon A; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2015-09-01

    A precise molecular schema for classifying the different cell types of the normal human vocal fold epithelium is lacking. We hypothesize that the true vocal fold epithelium has a cellular architecture and organization similar to that of other stratified squamous epithelia including the skin, cornea, oral mucosa, and esophagus. In analogy to disorders of the skin and gastrointestinal tract, a molecular definition of the normal cell types within the human vocal fold epithelium and a description of their geometric relationships should serve as a foundation for characterizing cellular changes associated with metaplasia, dysplasia, and cancer. Qualitative study with adult human larynges. Histologic sections of normal human laryngeal tissue were analyzed for morphology (hematoxylin and eosin) and immunohistochemical protein expression profile, including cytokeratins (CK13 and CK14), cornified envelope proteins (involucrin), basal cells (NGFR/p75), and proliferation markers (Ki67). We demonstrated that three distinct cell strata with unique marker profiles are present within the stratified squamous epithelium of the true vocal fold. We used these definitions to establish that cell proliferation is restricted to certain cell types and layers within the epithelium. These distinct cell types are reproducible across five normal adult larynges. We have established that three layers of cells are present within the normal adult stratified squamous epithelium of the true vocal fold. Furthermore, replicating cell populations are largely restricted to the parabasal strata within the epithelium. This delineation of distinct cell populations will facilitate future studies of vocal fold regeneration and cancer. N/A. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Distinct trajectories of positive and negative affect after colorectal cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciere, Yvette; Janse, Moniek; Almansa, Josué; Visser, Annemieke; Sanderman, Robbert; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Ranchor, Adelita V; Fleer, Joke

    2017-06-01

    Insight into trajectories of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) across the cancer continuum may improve understanding of the nature of adjustment problems. The primary aim of this study was to identify subgroups of patients with distinct trajectories of PA and NA following diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Secondary to this aim, the co-occurrence between trajectories and their association with goal-related processes was explored. CRC patients (n = 186) completed questionnaires within 1 month, 7 months, and 18 months after diagnosis. Multilevel models were used to study the trajectory of PA and NA, as measured with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Four classes with distinct PA trajectories were identified: low (18.8%), increasing (6.7%), moderate (68.2%), and high (6.3%); 2 trajectories of NA emerged: low (36.3%) and moderate (63.7%). There was no significant association between PA and NA trajectory class probabilities. The average trajectory of PA covaried with levels of goal disturbance and goal reengagement over time, while the average NA trajectory covaried with goal disturbance and goal disengagement. Compared with the general population, our sample of cancer patients suffered from a lack of positive emotions, but not a high presence of negative emotions. About one fifth of patients reported low PA up to 18 months after diagnosis and may benefit from supportive care. Furthermore, the trajectory of PA was independent of that of NA and related with a distinct goal adjustment process (i.e., goal disengagement vs. goal reengagement). This finding indicates the need to tailor psychological care to the nature of the adjustment problem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Distinctive Correspondence Between Separable Visual Attention Functions and Intrinsic Brain Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rizzo, Adriana L; Neitzel, Julia; Müller, Hermann J; Sorg, Christian; Finke, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    Separable visual attention functions are assumed to rely on distinct but interacting neural mechanisms. Bundesen's "theory of visual attention" (TVA) allows the mathematical estimation of independent parameters that characterize individuals' visual attentional capacity (i.e., visual processing speed and visual short-term memory storage capacity) and selectivity functions (i.e., top-down control and spatial laterality). However, it is unclear whether these parameters distinctively map onto different brain networks obtained from intrinsic functional connectivity, which organizes slowly fluctuating ongoing brain activity. In our study, 31 demographically homogeneous healthy young participants performed whole- and partial-report tasks and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Report accuracy was modeled using TVA to estimate, individually, the four TVA parameters. Networks encompassing cortical areas relevant for visual attention were derived from independent component analysis of rs-fMRI data: visual, executive control, right and left frontoparietal, and ventral and dorsal attention networks. Two TVA parameters were mapped on particular functional networks. First, participants with higher (vs. lower) visual processing speed showed lower functional connectivity within the ventral attention network. Second, participants with more (vs. less) efficient top-down control showed higher functional connectivity within the dorsal attention network and lower functional connectivity within the visual network. Additionally, higher performance was associated with higher functional connectivity between networks: specifically, between the ventral attention and right frontoparietal networks for visual processing speed, and between the visual and executive control networks for top-down control. The higher inter-network functional connectivity was related to lower intra-network connectivity. These results demonstrate that separable visual attention

  14. Two distinct Epichloë species symbiotic with Achnatherum inebrians, drunken horse grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Li, Xiuzhang; Li, Chunjie; Swoboda, Ginger A; Young, Carolyn A; Sugawara, Koya; Leuchtmann, Adrian; Schardl, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    Achnatherum inebrians, colloquially known as drunken horse grass, is associated with livestock toxicity in northern China. Epichloë gansuensis (Eg) was described from endophyte isolates from A. inebrians in Sunan County, Gansu Province, whereas a morphologically distinct variety, E. gansuensis var. inebrians (Ei), was described based on two isolates from A. inebrians seeds collected in Urumqi County, Xinjiang Province. Genome sequencing and alkaloid analyses also distinguish these taxa; the Ei isolates produce neurotropic lysergic acid amides (ergot alkaloids), and an Eg isolate produces paxilline (an indole-diterpene alkaloid). To better elucidate the taxonomic diversity of Epichloë spp. symbiotic with A. inebrians, we surveyed eight populations in Xinjiang, Gansu and Inner Mongolia provinces of China and analyzed their genotypes by multiplex PCR for alkaloid biosynthesis genes and mating-type genes. Genotypes consistent with Ei were present in all eight populations, of which they dominated seven. The Ei isolates were all mating type A and tested positive for the ergot alkaloid gene, dmaW. In contrast Eg isolates were all mating type B and had the indole-diterpene gene, idtG. The genome was sequenced from an Ei isolate from seeds collected in Xiahe County, Gansu, and compared to that of the varietal ex type isolate from Urumqi. Alkaloid genes and four different housekeeping genes were nearly identical between the two sequenced Ei isolates and were distinct from a sequenced Eg isolate. Phylogenetic analysis placed Ei, Eg and Epichloë sibirica into respective subclades of a clade that emanated from the base of the Epichloë phylogeny. Given its chemotypic, genotypic, morphological and phylogenetic distinctiveness, its widespread occurrence in rangelands of northern China, and its importance in livestock toxicity, we propose raising Ei to species rank as Epichloë inebrians. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  15. Connectivity from OR37 expressing olfactory sensory neurons to distinct cell types in the hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eBader

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory sensory neurons which express a member from the OR37 subfamily of odorant receptor genes are wired to the main olfactory bulb in a unique monoglomerular fashion; from these glomeruli an untypical connectivity into higher brain centers exists. In the present study we have investigated by DiI and transsynaptic tracing approaches how the connection pattern from these glomeruli into distinct hypothalamic nuclei is organized. The application of DiI onto the ventral domain of the bulb which harbors the OR37 glomeruli resulted in the labeling of fibers within the paraventricular and supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus; some of these fibers were covered with varicose-like structures. No DiI-labeled cell somata were detectable in these nuclei. The data indicate that projection neurons which originate in the OR37 region of the main olfactory bulb form direct connections into these nuclei. The cells that were labeled by the transsynaptic tracer WGA in these nuclei were further characterized. Their distribution pattern in the paraventricular nucleus was reminiscent of cells which produce distinct neuropeptides. Double labeling experiments confirmed that they contained vasopressin, but not the related neuropeptide oxytocin. Morphological analysis revealed that they comprise of magno- and parvocellular cells. A comparative investigation of the WGA-positive cells in the supraoptic nucleus demonstrated that these were vasopressin-positive, as well, whereas oxytocin-producing cells of this nucleus also contained no transsynaptic tracer. Together, the data demonstrate a connectivity from OR37 expressing sensory neurons to distinct hypothalamic neurons with the same neuropeptide content.

  16. Distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interaction on human recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ciara M; Flannery, Oliver; Soto, David

    2014-12-01

    The two dimensions of emotion, mood valence and arousal, have independent effects on recognition memory. At present, however, it is not clear how those effects are reflected in the human brain. Previous research in this area has generally dealt with memory for emotionally valenced or arousing stimuli, but the manner in which interacting mood and arousal states modulate responses in memory substrates remains poorly understood. We investigated memory for emotionally neutral items while independently manipulating mood valence and arousal state by means of music exposure. Four emotional conditions were created: positive mood/high arousal, positive mood/low arousal, negative mood/high arousal, and negative mood/low arousal. We observed distinct effects of mood valence and arousal in parietal substrates of recognition memory. Positive mood increased activity in ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and orbitofrontal cortex, whereas arousal condition modulated activity in dorsal PPC and the posterior cingulate. An interaction between valence and arousal was observed in left ventral PPC, notably in a parietal area distinct from the those identified for the main effects, with a stronger effect of mood on recognition memory responses here under conditions of relative high versus low arousal. We interpreted the PPC activations in terms of the attention-to-memory hypothesis: Increased arousal may lead to increased top-down control of memory, and hence dorsal PPC activation, whereas positive mood valence may result in increased activity in ventral PPC regions associated with bottom-up attention to memory. These findings indicate that distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interplay during recognition memory.

  17. Lifetime risk of distinct upper aerodigestive tract cancers and consumption of alcohol, betel and cigarette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wan-Lun; Chien, Yin-Chu; Chiang, Chun-Ju; Yang, Hwai-I; Lou, Pei-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Yu, Kelly J; You, San-Lin; Wang, Li-Yu; Chen, Shu-Yuan; Yang, Czau-Siung; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2014-09-15

    The cancer of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) is a common cancers in the world. However, its lifetime risk by consumption of alcohol, betel and cigarettes remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to estimate lifetime risk of distinct UADT cancers and assess their associations with alcohol, betel and cigarette consumption. Three cohorts of 25,611 men were enrolled in 1982-1992 in Taiwan. The history of alcohol, betel and cigarette consumption was enquired through questionnaire interview. Newly developed UADT cancers were ascertained through computerized linkage with national cancer registry profile. Lifetime (30-80 years old) risk and multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HRadj) of distinct UADT cancers by alcohol, betel and cigarette consumption were estimated. A total of 269 pathologically confirmed cases of UADT cancers were newly-diagnosed during 472,096 person-years of follow-up. The lifetime risk of UADT cancer was 9.42 and 1.65% for betel chewers and nonchewers, 3.22 and 1.21% for cigarette smokers and nonsmokers and 4.77 and 1.85% for alcohol drinkers and nondrinkers. The HRadj (95% confidence interval) of developing UADT cancer was 3.36 (2.51-4.49), 2.02 (1.43-2.84), 1.90 (1.46-2.49), respectively, for the consumption of betel, cigarette and alcohol. Alcohol, betel and cigarette had different effect on cancers at various anatomical sites of UADT. The cancer risk from the mouth, pharynx, esophagus to larynx increased for alcohol and cigarette consumption, but decreased for betel consumption. Alcohol, betel and cigarette consumption are independent risk predictors for distinct UADT cancers. © 2014 UICC.

  18. Distinctive phenotype in 9 patients with deletion of chromosome 1q24-q25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkardt, Deepika D'Cunha; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Helgeson, Maria L; Angle, Brad; Banks, Valerie; Smith, Wendy E; Gripp, Karen W; Moline, Jessica; Moran, Rocio T; Niyazov, Dmitriy M; Stevens, Cathy A; Zackai, Elaine; Lebel, Robert Roger; Ashley, Douglas G; Kramer, Nancy; Lachman, Ralph S; Graham, John M

    2011-06-01

    Reports of individuals with deletions of 1q24→q25 share common features of prenatal onset growth deficiency, microcephaly, small hands and feet, dysmorphic face and severe cognitive deficits. We report nine individuals with 1q24q25 deletions, who show distinctive features of a clinically recognizable 1q24q25 microdeletion syndrome: prenatal-onset microcephaly and proportionate growth deficiency, severe cognitive disability, small hands and feet with distinctive brachydactyly, single transverse palmar flexion creases, fifth finger clinodactyly and distinctive facial features: upper eyelid fullness, small ears, short nose with bulbous nasal tip, tented upper lip, and micrognathia. Radiographs demonstrate disharmonic osseous maturation with markedly delayed bone age. Occasional features include cleft lip and/or palate, cryptorchidism, brain and spinal cord defects, and seizures. Using oligonucleotide-based array comparative genomic hybridization, we defined the critical deletion region as 1.9 Mb at 1q24.3q25.1 (chr1: 170,135,865-172,099,327, hg18 coordinates), containing 13 genes and including CENPL, which encodes centromeric protein L, a protein essential for proper kinetochore function and mitotic progression. The growth deficiency in this syndrome is similar to what is seen in other types of primordial short stature with microcephaly, such as Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism, type II (MOPD2) and Seckel syndrome, which result from loss-of-function mutations in genes coding for centrosomal proteins. DNM3 is also in the deleted region and expressed in the brain, where it participates in the Shank-Homer complex and increases synaptic strength. Therefore, DNM3 is a candidate for the cognitive disability, and CENPL is a candidate for growth deficiency in this 1q24q25 microdeletion syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis and its clinical distinction from Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Christopher D; Finley, Richard W; Wright, Cynthia S; Robinson, Howard N; Schrodt, Barbara J; Lane, Carole C; Ekenna, Okechukwu; Blass, Mitchell A; Tamminga, Cynthia L; Ohl, Christopher A; McLellan, Susan L F; Goddard, Jerome; Holman, Robert C; Openshaw, John J; Sumner, John W; Zaki, Sherif R; Eremeeva, Marina E

    2008-11-01

    Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis, a recently identified spotted fever transmitted by the Gulf Coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum), was first described in 2004. We summarize the clinical and epidemiological features of 12 patients in the United States with confirmed or probable disease attributable to R. parkeri and comment on distinctions between R. parkeri rickettsiosis and other United States rickettsioses. Clinical specimens from patients in the United States who reside within the range of A. maculatum for whom an eschar or vesicular rash was described were evaluated by > or =1 laboratory assays at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, GA) to identify probable or confirmed infection with R. parkeri. During 1998-2007, clinical samples from 12 patients with illnesses epidemiologically and clinically compatible with R. parkeri rickettsiosis were submitted for diagnostic evaluation. Using indirect immunofluorescence antibody assays, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction assays, and cell culture isolation, we identified 6 confirmed and 6 probable cases of infection with R. parkeri. The aggregate clinical characteristics of these patients revealed a disease similar to but less severe than classically described Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Closer attention to the distinct clinical features of the various spotted fever syndromes that exist in the United States and other countries of the Western hemisphere, coupled with more frequent use of specific confirmatory assays, may unveil several unique diseases that have been identified collectively as Rocky Mountain spotted fever during the past century. Accurate assessments of these distinct infections will ultimately provide a more valid description of the currently recognized distribution, incidence, and case-fatality rate of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

  20. Cognitive, cultural, and linguistic sources of a handshape distinction expressing agentivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentari, Diane; Di Renzo, Alessio; Keane, Jonathan; Volterra, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the cognitive, cultural, and linguistic bases for a pattern of conventionalization of two types of iconic handshapes are described. Work on sign languages has shown that handling handshapes (H-HSs: those that represent how objects are handled or manipulated) and object handshapes (O-HSs: those that represent the class, size, or shape of objects) express an agentive/non-agentive semantic distinction in many sign languages. H-HSs are used in agentive event descriptions and O-HSs are used in non-agentive event descriptions. In this work, American Sign Language (ASL) and Italian Sign Language (LIS) productions are compared (adults and children) as well as the corresponding groups of gesturers in each country using "silent gesture." While the gesture groups, in general, did not employ an H-HS/O-HS distinction, all participants (signers and gesturers) used iconic handshapes (H-HSs and O-HSs together) more often in agentive than in no-agent event descriptions; moreover, none of the subjects produced an opposite pattern than the expected one (i.e., H-HSs associated with no-agent descriptions and O-HSs associated with agentive ones). These effects are argued to be grounded in cognition. In addition, some individual gesturers were observed to produce the H-HS/O-HS opposition for agentive and non-agentive event descriptions-that is, more Italian than American adult gesturers. This effect is argued to be grounded in culture. Finally, the agentive/non-agentive handshape opposition is confirmed for signers of ASL and LIS, but previously unreported cross-linguistic differences were also found across both adult and child sign groups. It is, therefore, concluded that cognitive, cultural, and linguistic factors contribute to the conventionalization of this distinction of handshape type. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.