WorldWideScience

Sample records for distilled water evidence

  1. Solar power water distillation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, Kamran; Khan, Muhammad Muzammil; Ateeq, Ijlal Shahrukh; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  2. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  3. Microbubble Distillation for Ethanol-Water Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atheer Al-yaqoobi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a novel approach for separating ethanol-water mixture by microbubble distillation technology was investigated. Traditional distillation processes require large amounts of energy to raise the liquid to its boiling point to effect removal of volatile components. The concept of microbubble distillation by comparison is to heat the gas phase rather than the liquid phase to achieve separation. The removal of ethanol from the thermally sensitive fermentation broths was taken as a case of study. Consequently the results were then compared with those which could be obtained under equilibrium conditions expected in an “ideal” distillation unit. Microbubble distillation has achieved vapour compositions higher than that which could be obtained under traditional equilibrium conditions. The separation was achieved at liquid temperature significantly less than the boiling point of the mixture. In addition, it was observed that the separation efficiency of the microbubble distillation could be increased by raising the injected air temperature, while the temperature of the liquid mixture increased only moderately. The separation efficiency of microbubble distillation was compared with that of pervaporation for the recovery of bioethanol from the thermally sensitive fermentation broths. The technology could be controlled to give high separation and energy efficiency. This could contribute to improving commercial viability of biofuel production and other coproducts of biorefinery processing.

  4. Distilled water nasal provocation in hyperreactive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudoin, T; Anzic, S A; Kalogjera, L

    1999-01-01

    Nonisotonic aerosol may act as a provocation agent in the upper and lower airways of hyperreactive individuals. The purpose of the study was to compare the results of nasal challenge with distilled water in patients with allergic rhinitis to those with noninfective nonallergic rhinitis (NINAR), with respect to the potential clinical use of the obtained data. A group of 68 ambulatory patients with allergic rhinitis or NINAR (39 perennial allergic, 6 seasonal, 23 NINAR) were challenged with 10 mL of distilled water aerosol after the baseline active anterior rhinomanometry. Patients with nasal polyposis at endoscopy, significant unilateral septal deviation, positive bacteriologic swab, recent nasal surgery, and uncertain anamnestic data about the medication taken 6 weeks before the provocation were excluded from the study. After 10 minutes of nasal provocation, rhinomanometry was repeated to assess the response. In 15 patients of the perennial allergic group, the same measurements were performed after a 2-week oral antihistamine and topical steroid therapy. Nasal resistance was significantly increased on the more patent side of the nose after nasal provocation with distilled water aerosol in allergic patients in comparison to the nasal resistance before provocation. In the patients with NINAR, the provocation resulted in a significant rise on the more patent side, but the total nasal airway resistance (NAR) levels were also significantly increased. The systemic antihistamine and topical steroid 2-week therapy in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis significantly reduced the response to nasal distilled water provocation. Nasal provocation with distilled water aerosol is a cheap, simple, and acceptable method that provides useful clinical data on the level of nonspecific nasal hyperreactivity and the therapy success.

  5. Vapor compression distiller and membrane technology for water revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, A.; Mitani, K.; Ebara, K.; Kurokawa, H.; Sawada, I.; Kashiwagi, H.; Tsuji, T.; Hayashi, S.; Otsubo, K.; Nitta, K.

    1987-01-01

    Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied: one is absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation, able to easily produce condensed water under zero gravity, was investigated experimentally and through simulated calculation. The vapor compression distiller was studied experimentally and it offers significant energy savings for evaporation of water.

  6. Advances in Membrane Distillation for Water Desalination and Purification Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gomez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation is a process that utilizes differences in vapor pressure to permeate water through a macro-porous membrane and reject other non-volatile constituents present in the influent water. This review considers the fundamental heat and mass transfer processes in membrane distillation, recent advances in membrane technology, module configurations, and the applications and economics of membrane distillation, and identifies areas that may lead to technological improvements in membrane distillation as well as the application characteristics required for commercial deployment.

  7. Thermo-economic performance of inclined solar water distillation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agboola Phillips O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the thermo-economic performance of different configurations of inclined solar water desalination for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost and distilled water production cost. The four different configurations considered for this study are as follows; 1. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (IISWD with daily production of 5.46 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 48.3%. 2. Inclined solar water distillation with wick on absorber plate (IISWDW with daily production of 6.41kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 50.3%. 3. Inclined solar water distillation with wire mesh on absorber plate (IISWDWM with daily production n of 3.03 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 32.6%. 4. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (ISWD. (Control System with daily production of 3.25 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 40.1%. The systems potable water cost price ranges from 0.03 $/L for IISWDW to 0.06$/L for IISWDWM System. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar distillation system for potable water in Northern Cyprus. The price of potable water from water vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.11-0.16 $/L. It is more economically viable to have the rooftop inclined solar water desalination system than procuring potable water from vendors.`

  8. Desalination and water recycling by air gap membrane distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Guijt, C.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for desalination. Membrane distillation differs from other membrane technologies in that the driving force for desalination is the difference in vapour pressure of water across the membrane, rather than total pressure. The membranes for MD are

  9. Desalination and Water Recycling by Air Gap Membrane Distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Guijt, C.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for desalination. Membrane distillation differs from other membrane technologies in that the driving force for desalination is the difference in vapour pressure of water across the membrane, rather than total pressure. The membranes for MD are

  10. Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

  11. Tissue free water tritium separation from foodstuffs by azeotropic distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, F.; Ciubotaru, A.; Popa, D.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the tritium separation from tissue free water in foodstuffs by azeotropic distillation is described. Tritium in tissue water is assayed by liquid scintillation counting using well-established quenched correction method. The mean value of the tritium concentration in tissue water from foodstuffs is about 6-12 Bq/l very similar to the tritium mean concentration measured in the surface waters of the area where the samples have been collected (about 12 Bq/l. Therefore, the tritium content in the water fraction of the food samples can be considered in equilibrium with the local environmental water sources. The azeotropic distillation it is an accessible separation method which does not need a sophisticated and expansive distillation apparatus. It is a fast method of separation tissue free water from foodstuffs being very important in the surveillance activity of the environmental within nuclear electric plant. It is suitable for processing a small quantity of samples and for a production type facility when a large number of samples must be processed because the solvent can be purified and reused. The azeotropic distillation has some limits being used to separate water from samples with high content of water (85-90%) and simple a simple chemical structures as: vegetables, fruits, cereal, soil, vegetation. According to the results obtained, the organic substituents of milk, wine, meat (casein, lactose, milk fat, alcohol, esters) may enhance the chemisorption of tritium on through exchange organic hydrogen as -OH, -SH, -NH, -COOH with tritium. Also, the tissue water separation by azeotropic distillation is not complete and can not guarantee the absence of the vaporization isotope effect of the HTO/H 2 O system., However, the azeotropic distillation is the preferred method of the water extraction from food samples, which makes it useful for the tritium transfer from soil to foodstuffs. (authors)

  12. Tissue free water tritium separation from foodstuffs by azeotropic distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, F; Ciubotaru, A; Popa, D [Inspectorate of Public Health of Bucharest (Romania)

    1999-12-31

    In this paper the tritium separation from tissue free water in foodstuffs by azeotropic distillation is described. Tritium in tissue water is assayed by liquid scintillation counting using well-established quenched correction method. The mean value of the tritium concentration in tissue water from foodstuffs is about 6-12 Bq/l very similar to the tritium mean concentration measured in the surface waters of the area where the samples have been collected (about 12 Bq/l. Therefore, the tritium content in the water fraction of the food samples can be considered in equilibrium with the local environmental water sources. The azeotropic distillation it is an accessible separation method which does not need a sophisticated and expansive distillation apparatus. It is a fast method of separation tissue free water from foodstuffs being very important in the surveillance activity of the environmental within nuclear electric plant. It is suitable for processing a small quantity of samples and for a production type facility when a large number of samples must be processed because the solvent can be purified and reused. The azeotropic distillation has some limits being used to separate water from samples with high content of water (85-90%) and simple a simple chemical structures as: vegetables, fruits, cereal, soil, vegetation. According to the results obtained, the organic substituents of milk, wine, meat (casein, lactose, milk fat, alcohol, esters) may enhance the chemisorption of tritium on through exchange organic hydrogen as -OH, -SH, -NH, -COOH with tritium. Also, the tissue water separation by azeotropic distillation is not complete and can not guarantee the absence of the vaporization isotope effect of the HTO/H{sub 2}O system., However, the azeotropic distillation is the preferred method of the water extraction from food samples, which makes it useful for the tritium transfer from soil to foodstuffs. (authors) 2 tabs.

  13. Membrane distillation of industrial cooling tower blowdown water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.E. Koeman-Stein

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of membrane distillation for desalination of cooling tower blowdown water (CTBD is investigated. Technical feasibility is tested on laboratory and pilot scale using real cooling tower blowdown water from Dow Benelux in Terneuzen (Netherlands. Two types of membranes, polytetrafluorethylene and polyethylene showed good performance regarding distillate quality and fouling behavior. Concentrating CTBD by a factor 4.5 while maintaining a flux of around 2 l/m2*h was possible with a water recovery of 78% available for reuse. Higher concentration factors lead to severe decrease in flux which was caused by scaling. Membrane distillation could use the thermal energy that would otherwise be discharged of in a cooling tower and function as a heat exchanger. This reduces the need for cooling capacity and could lead to a total reduction of 37% water intake for make-up water, as well as reduced energy and chemicals demands and greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Economical investigation of solar water distillation in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakr, I A; Khalil, M A; Delyannis, A; Delyannis, E [eds.

    1976-01-01

    Many ways of solar water distillation have been suggested but most of them are either too expensive or only a practical solution to different processes under investigation. Solar heat distillation has a bright future because the greatest potential needs appear to be in those sections where the availability of solar energy is high and the availability of potable water is low as in our Egyptian deserts where the solar intensity has a yearly mean value of about 6000 kcal/(m/sup 2/day). The solar distillation method has a number of economic characteristics which are different from other sea water conversion methods, including: The processing equipment is very simple and results in low equipment costs. No special skills are required for both erection and operation. It can be used with saline water of wide range of salt concentration. The still design is essentially modular, and can be made to meet any desired capacity. Scale formation and corrosion are minor problems as compared with other methods. Power requirements are negligible. The cost of unit construction is not markedly influenced by the size of the still. The lack of quantitative and operative data of solar water distillation techniques with respect to their cost needs in investigation from the economical standpoint of view in Egypt. The subject of this work is to find the order of magnitude of the fresh water cost by solar distillation.

  15. 27 CFR 28.40 - Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: distilled spirits and wine. 28.40 Section 28.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Provisions Evidence of Exportation and Use § 28.40 Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine. The exportation of any shipment of distilled spirits or wine may be evidenced by: (a) A copy of the export bill of...

  16. Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, A.; Yusof, K. W.; Sapari, N.; Singh, B. S.; Hashim, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

  17. Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riahi, A; Yusof, K W; Sapari, N; Hashim, A M; Singh, B S

    2013-01-01

    More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

  18. A High Rated Solar Water Distillation Unit for Solar Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available India is presently focusing on complete utilization of solar energy and saving fossil fuels, which are limited. Various solar energy systems like solar cookers, solar water heaters, solar lanterns, solar PV lights, and solar lamps are continuously availing by the people of India at a low cost and on good subsidies. Apart from this, India is a solar energy promising country with a good number of solar homes (carrying solar energy systems in its various locations. The present paper focuses on a unique combination of solar dish cooker (SDC and solar water heater (SWH to produce distilled water with a high distillate and a high daily productivity. The procedure has been discussed on the basis of experimental testing to produce distilled water by combining an evacuated type SWH and a SDC. Experimentation has been carried out in MIT, Moradabad (longitude, 28.83°N, and latitude, 78.78°E by developing the same experimental setup on behalf of solar homes. The daily productivity of distilled water was found around 3.66 litres per day in full sunshine hours for an approximated pH value of 7.7 and a ppm value of 21. The payback period (PBP has been estimated around 1.16 years of the present system.

  19. Water recycling and desalination by air gap membrane distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Guijt, C.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Because salt and other small components are the most common compounds in wastewater from the process industry, desalination techniques are likely to be suitable as treatment processes in many cases. Although membrane distillation (MD) is a well-known technology for desalination and water treatment,

  20. Submerged membrane distillation for desalination of water

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem

    2016-01-01

    Submerged membrane modules for use for desalination of water are disclosed. In one or more aspects, the membrane modules can be submerged either in a feed solution tank or the feed solution can pass through the lumen side of the membrane submerged within the tank. The feed solution can be a water-based feed stream containing an amount of salt.

  1. Submerged membrane distillation for desalination of water

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2016-10-27

    Submerged membrane modules for use for desalination of water are disclosed. In one or more aspects, the membrane modules can be submerged either in a feed solution tank or the feed solution can pass through the lumen side of the membrane submerged within the tank. The feed solution can be a water-based feed stream containing an amount of salt.

  2. Distilled Water Distribution Systems. Laboratory Design Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, J.C.

    Factors concerning water distribution systems, including an evaluation of materials and a recommendation of materials best suited for service in typical facilities are discussed. Several installations are discussed in an effort to bring out typical features in selected applications. The following system types are included--(1) industrial…

  3. Thermodynamic study of a regenerative atmospheric water distiller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Gustavo Koury

    1998-06-01

    The need of water for human consumption in our region where there is a great storage of non saline sources has motivated the study of new desalination technologies. The present work introduces a water distiller whose main characteristic, in relation to other units, is the high production allied to a good efficiency. This equipment that promotes the reuse of the water condensation heat is then called Regenerative Distiller. A theoretical study of the thermodynamic process involved is made, resulting in a numeric model for the project of new units accordingly to the required demands. The theoretical results are also compared with experimental data obtained through the testing of prototype, built and put into operation by the FAE/DEN group of the Federal University of Pernambuco. (author)

  4. Transient behavior of enrichment of tritium water in adsorption-distillation column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    Enrichment of tritium in an adsorption-distillation column was experimentally investigated under the two processes of simple distillation and total-reflux distillation. Adsorption of water on silica-gel pellets enhanced the total isotope separation factor in the water distillation column. The transient behavior of tritium enrichment was analyzed using material balance equations of tritium and water in each cell with a height corresponding to HETP. The experimental transient behavior was well simulated by the material balance equations with additional assumptions on vapor and liquid flow rates regardless of the different processes of simple distillation and total-reflux distillation. (author)

  5. Renewable water: Direct contact membrane distillation coupled with solar ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suárez, Francisco; Ruskowitz, Jeffrey A.; Tyler, Scott W.; Childress, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental investigation of direct contact membrane distillation driven by solar ponds. • The DCMD/SGSP system treats ∼6 times the water flow treated by an AGMD/SGSP system. • Half of the energy extracted from the SGSP was used to transport water across the membrane. • Reducing heat losses through the DCMD/SGSP system would yield higher water fluxes. - Abstract: Desalination powered by renewable energy sources is an attractive solution to address the worldwide water-shortage problem without contributing significant to greenhouse gas emissions. A promising system for renewable energy desalination is the utilization of low-temperature direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) driven by a thermal solar energy system, such as a salt-gradient solar pond (SGSP). This investigation presents the first experimental study of fresh water production in a coupled DCMD/SGSP system. The objectives of this work are to determine the experimental fresh water production rates and the energetic requirements of the different components of the system. From the laboratory results, it was found that the coupled DCMD/SGSP system treats approximately six times the water flow treated by a similar system that consisted of an air–gap membrane distillation unit driven by an SGSP. In terms of the energetic requirements, approximately 70% of the heat extracted from the SGSP was utilized to drive thermal desalination and the rest was lost in different locations of the system. In the membrane module, only half of the useful heat was actually used to transport water across the membrane and the remainder was lost by conduction in the membrane. It was also found that by reducing heat losses throughout the system would yield higher water fluxes, pointing out the need to improve the efficiency throughout the DCMD/SGSP coupled system. Therefore, further investigation of membrane properties, insulation of the system, or optimal design of the solar pond must be addressed in

  6. Preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem. [recovering potable water from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, G. S.; Wynveen, R. A.; Schubert, F. H.

    1979-01-01

    A three-person capacity preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem for recovering potable water from wastewater aboard spacecraft was designed, assembled, and tested. The major components of the subsystem are: (1) a distillation unit which includes a compressor, centrifuge, central shaft, and outer shell; (2) a purge pump; (3) a liquids pump; (4) a post-treat cartridge; (5) a recycle/filter tank; (6) an evaporator high liquid level sensor; and (7) the product water conductivity monitor. A computer based control monitor instrumentation carries out operating mode change sequences, monitors and displays subsystem parameters, maintains intramode controls, and stores and displays fault detection information. The mechanical hardware occupies 0.467 m3, requires 171 W of electrical power, and has a dry weight of 143 kg. The subsystem recovers potable water at a rate of 1.59 kg/hr, which is equivalent to a duty cycle of approximately 30% for a crew of three. The product water has no foul taste or odor. Continued development of the subsystem is recommended for reclaiming water for human consumption as well as for flash evaporator heat rejection, urinal flushing, washing, and other on-board water requirements.

  7. Changes in numbers and types of mast cell colony-forming cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice after injection of distilled water: evidence that mast cells suppress differentiation of bone marrow-derived precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanakura, Y.; Kuriu, A.; Waki, N.; Nakano, T.; Asai, H.; Yonezawa, T.; Kitamura, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Two different types of cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice produce mast cell colonies in methylcellulose. Large mast cell colonies are produced by bone marrow-derived precursors resembling lymphoid cells by light microscopy (L-CFU-Mast), whereas medium and small mast cell colonies are produced by morphologically identifiable mast cells (M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast, respectively). In the present study we eradicated peritoneal mast cells by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of distilled water. The regeneration process was investigated to clarify the relationship between L-CFU-Mast, M-CFU-Mast, and S-CFU-Mast. After injection of distilled water, M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast disappeared, but L-CFU-Mast increased, and then M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast appeared, suggesting the presence of a hierarchic relationship. When purified peritoneal mast cells were injected two days after the water injection, the L-CFU-Mast did not increase. In the peritoneal cavity of WBB6F1-+/+ mice that had been lethally irradiated and rescued by bone marrow cells of C57BL/6-bgJ/bgJ (beige, Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice, L-CFU-Mast were of bgJ/bgJ type, but M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast were of +/+ type. The injection of distilled water to the radiation chimeras resulted in the development of bgJ/bgJ-type M-CFU-Mast and then S-CFU-Mast. The presence of mast cells appeared to suppress the recruitment of L-CFU-Mast from the bloodstream and to inhibit the differentiation of L-CFU-Mast to M-CFU-Mast

  8. Direct contact membrane distillation: Capability to desalt raw water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Boubakri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the potentialities of membrane distillation to desalt raw waters were investigated. The experiments were performed on a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD unit using a flat sheet polypropylene (PP membrane with a low pore size of 0.064 μm. The effect of relevant operating parameters such as transmembrane temperature difference, hydrodynamic conditions and ionic strength on permeate flux and conductivity was studied. The results indicated that a permeate flux increases with increasing transmembrane temperature difference and Reynolds number, and slightly decreases with increasing ionic strength. The permeate flux reached 4.24 L/m2 h at a temperature difference of 60 °C and Reynolds number of 3740 and ionic strength of 8.56 × 10−2 M. DCMD process using PP with low pore size membrane present a very low salt passage through the membrane which was not affected by feed concentration. DCMD process has been applied during a long period to desalt raw water without any pretreatment. For brackish water, the variation of permeate flux and conductivity were slightly changed as function of operating time. For seawater, the permeate flux decreased slightly and the permeate conductivity increased sharply in which a simple pretreatment step is recommended to ameliorate the performance of DCMD process.

  9. Numerical study of a water distillation system using solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzoum, K.; Zhani, K.; Bacha, H. Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper tackles an optimization approach in order to boost the fresh water production of a new design of a solar still which is located at Sfax engineering national school in Tunisia. This optimization approach is based upon the above mentioned design's improvement by coupling the conventional solar still into at a condenser, solar air and water collector and humidifier. This new concept of a distiller solar still using humidification- dehumidification processes (HD) is exploited for the desalination purpose. As a result of this work, the humidification- dehumidification processes have an essential effect in improving the solar still performance. Performance has been predicted theoretically in terms of water and inner glass cover temperatures, the inlet temperature of air and water of the new concept of distiller on water condensation rate and fresh water production. A general model based on heat and mass transfers in each component of the unit has been developed in steady dynamic regime. The developed model is used, simulating the HD system, to investigate the influence of the meteorological and operating parameters on the system productivity. The obtained set of ordinary differential equations has been converted to a set of algebraic system of equations by the functional approximation method of orthogonal collocation. The developed model is used to simulate the HD system in order to investigate the steady state behavior of each component of the unit and the entire system exposed to a variation of the entrance parameters and meteorological conditions. The obtained results were compared with those of other studies and the comparison gives a good validity of the present results

  10. Numerical study of a water distillation system using solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarzoum, K.; Zhani, K. [Sfax University, (Turkey); Bacha, H. Ben [Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-02-15

    This paper tackles an optimization approach in order to boost the fresh water production of a new design of a solar still which is located at Sfax engineering national school in Tunisia. This optimization approach is based upon the above mentioned design's improvement by coupling the conventional solar still into at a condenser, solar air and water collector and humidifier. This new concept of a distiller solar still using humidification- dehumidification processes (HD) is exploited for the desalination purpose. As a result of this work, the humidification- dehumidification processes have an essential effect in improving the solar still performance. Performance has been predicted theoretically in terms of water and inner glass cover temperatures, the inlet temperature of air and water of the new concept of distiller on water condensation rate and fresh water production. A general model based on heat and mass transfers in each component of the unit has been developed in steady dynamic regime. The developed model is used, simulating the HD system, to investigate the influence of the meteorological and operating parameters on the system productivity. The obtained set of ordinary differential equations has been converted to a set of algebraic system of equations by the functional approximation method of orthogonal collocation. The developed model is used to simulate the HD system in order to investigate the steady state behavior of each component of the unit and the entire system exposed to a variation of the entrance parameters and meteorological conditions. The obtained results were compared with those of other studies and the comparison gives a good validity of the present results.

  11. Effectiveness of Water Desalination by Membrane Distillation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Gryta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The membrane distillation process constitutes one of the possibilities for a new method for water desalination. Four kinds of polypropylene membranes with different diameters of capillaries and pores, as well as wall thicknesses were used in studied. The morphology of the membrane used and the operating parameters significantly influenced process efficiency. It was found that the membranes with lower wall thickness and a larger pore size resulted in the higher yields. Increasing both feed flow rate and temperature increases the permeate flux and simultaneously the process efficiency. However, the use of higher flow rates also enhanced heat losses by conduction, which decreases the thermal efficiency. This efficiency also decreases when the salt concentration in the feed was enhanced. The influence of fouling on the process efficiency was considered.

  12. Polyurethane Nanofiber Membranes for Waste Water Treatment by Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jiříček

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-sustained electrospun polyurethane nanofiber membranes were manufactured and tested on a direct-contact membrane distillation unit in an effort to find the optimum membrane thickness to maximize flux rate and minimize heat losses across the membrane. Also salt retention and flux at high salinities up to 100 g kg−1 were evaluated. Even though the complex structure of nanofiber layers has extreme specific surface and porosity, membrane performance was surprisingly predictable; the highest flux was achieved with the thinnest membranes and the best energy efficiency was achieved with the thickest membranes. All membranes had salt retention above 99%. Nanotechnology offers the potential to find modern solutions for desalination of waste waters, by introducing new materials with revolutionary properties, but new membranes must be developed according to the target application.

  13. Influence of water air content on cavitation erosion in distilled water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Auret, JG

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of increased air content of the cavitating liquid (distilled water) was studied in a rotating disk test rig. A rise in the total air content including dissolved and entrained air of the water in the under saturated range resulted...

  14. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  15. Method of distillation of shale. [addition of water to vertical retort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultman, G H

    1915-09-11

    The method is characterized by adding water, finely distributed, to the warm shale being distilled in a vertical retort. By this procedure steam is generated which will drive out and protect the distilled oil vapors. The adding of finely distributed water, already mentioned, takes place in special chambers under the retort.

  16. 27 CFR 28.41 - Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of lading for use on vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. 28.41 Section 28.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... vessels or aircraft: distilled spirits and wine. The lading of distilled spirits or wine for use on...

  17. Systematic bias in the measurement of water in oils by tubular oven evaporation and azeotropic distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, S A; Mele, T

    2001-10-15

    Water in oil has been measured by tubular oven evaporation and by azeotropic distillation into a coulometric moisture analyzer. The results of these measurements were compared to the results obtained by volumetric titration of water in oil. The volumetric measurements were consistently higher than the measurements made by tubular oven evaporation or azeotropic distillation. A mass balance study was performed by volumetric Karl Fischer titration of the water in the oil that remained in the tubular oven and in the distillation apparatus. This study indicated that measurable amounts of water were not removed after exhaustive evaporation or distillation. The sum of the water removed by distillation from toluene and that remaining in the distillation chamber was equal to the amount of water measured in the oil by the volumetric method. The data are consistent with the existence of an oil-water azeotrope that does not release water upon evaporation at 160 degrees C or upon dissolution in toluene and distillation of the water-toluene azeotrope. These results were obtained for oils varying in viscosity from 8 to 850 m2/s, and the amount of water remaining associated with the oil appears to be dependent upon the composition of the oil and the method of analysis.

  18. Computational Studies of Positive and Negative Streamers in Bubbles Suspended in Distilled Water

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Ashish; Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2017-01-01

    We perform computational studies of nanosecond streamers generated in helium bubbles immersed in distilled water under high pressure conditions. The model takes into account the presence of water vapor in the gas bubble for an accurate description

  19. Polyoxadiazole hollow fibers for produced water treatment by direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jingli; Srivatsa Bettahalli, N.M.; Chisca, Stefan; Khalid, Mohammed Khalil; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Vilagines, Ré gis; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2018-01-01

    Treatment of produced water in the petroleum industry has been a challenge worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the use of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) for this purpose, removing oil and dissolved elements and supplying clean water

  20. Ignition modes of nanosecond discharge with bubbles in distilled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, Ahmad; Cha, Min Suk

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the microscopic physical characteristics of nanosecond discharges with an array of bubbles in distilled water. In particular, applying a single high-voltage pulse, four delayed intensified charge-coupled device cameras successfully visualized four successive images during a single discharge event. We identified three distinctive modes of ignition inside a bubble, depending on the relative location of the bubble with respect to pin-to-hollow needle electrodes when a single bubble was located in an inter-electrode gap of 1 mm: anode-driven ignition, cathode-driven ignition, and co-ignition near both electrodes. Anode- and cathode-driven ignitions evolved into either a complete propagation of the streamer or an incomplete propagation, which were limited in location by proximity to an ignition location, while co-ignitions consistently showed complete propagation. When we increased the gap to 2 mm to accommodate multiple bubbles in the gap, an ignited bubble near the cathode was able to cause the ignition of an upper adjacent bubble. Bubble–bubble interface zones can also be spots of ignition, such that we observed simultaneous co-ignitions in the zones of bubble–bubble interfaces and near electrodes with triple bubbles. We compared the experimental results of discharge propagation with different ignition modes between Ar, He, and N 2 bubbles. In addition, numerical simulations for static electric fields reasonably supported observed ignition behavior such that field intensity was locally enhanced. (paper)

  1. Improving distillation method and device of tritiated water analysis for ultra high decontamination efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hsin-Fa; Wang, Chu-Fang; Lin, Chien-Kung

    2015-01-01

    It is important that monitoring environmental tritiated water for understanding the contamination dispersion of the nuclear facilities. Tritium is a pure beta radionuclide which is usually measured by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). The average energy of tritum beta is only 5.658 keV that makes the LSC counting of tritium easily be interfered by the beta emitted by other radionuclides. Environmental tritiated water samples usually need to be decontaminated by distillation for reducing the interference. After Fukushima Nucleaer Accident, the highest gross beta concentration of groundwater samples obtained around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station is over 1,000,000 Bq/l. There is a need for a distillation with ultra-high decontamination efficiency for environmental tritiated water analysis. This study is intended to improve the heating temperature control for better sub-boiling distillation control and modify the height of the container of the air cooling distillation device for better fractional distillation effect. The DF of Cs-137 of the distillation may reach 450,000 which is far better than the prior study. The average loss rate of the improved method and device is about 2.6% which is better than the bias value listed in the ASTM D4107-08. It is proven that the modified air cooling distillation device can provide an easy-handling, water-saving, low cost and effective way of purifying water samples for higher beta radionuclides contaminated water samples which need ultra-high decontamination treatment. - Highlights: • The improvements of method and device make the decontaminatin factor (DF) of Cs-137 of distillation reach over 450,000. • The decontamination factor ( DF) value may be increased about 20 times by increasing the height of the container from 7 cm to 20 cm. • The device provides an easy-handling, water-saving, low cost, stable and effective way for the distillation of triated water analysis.

  2. Mathematical simulation of water distillation column for decreasing volume of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Masahiro; Naruse, Yuji

    1981-12-01

    Water distillation is an attractive method for decreasing volume of the tritiated water produced by operation of tritium facilities. The tritiated water is continuously fed to a column and it is separated into two streams. The top stream is discarded to the environment after addition of sufficient amount of uncontaminated water. The bottom stream is further treated for solidification and capsulation. The tridiagonal matrix method proved to provide surprisingly rapid convergences of the calculations. The concentration of deuterium naturally contained in the tritiated water is higher than the tritium concentration, but it was verified that presence of HDO can be ignored in the calculation. (author)

  3. Hemolysis in Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Using Distilled Water as the Irrigant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiou-Sheng Chen

    2006-06-01

    Conclusion: Using distilled water as an irrigant for TURP might cause hemolysis, especially in patients with larger prostates and longer resection times. It is necessary to carry out every effort to shorten resection time and avoid extravasation during surgery.

  4. Material gap membrane distillation: A new design for water vapor flux enhancement

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2013-08-19

    A new module design for membrane distillation, namely material gap membrane distillation (MGMD), for seawater desalination has been proposed and successfully tested. It has been observed that employing appropriate materials between the membrane and the condensation plate in an air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) module enhanced the water vapor flux significantly. An increase in the water vapor flux of about 200-800% was observed by filling the gap with sand and DI water at various feed water temperatures. However, insulating materials such as polypropylene and polyurethane have no effect on the water vapor flux. The influence of material thickness and characteristics has also been investigated in this study. An increase in the water gap width from 9. mm to 13. mm increases the water vapor flux. An investigation on an AGMD and MGMD performance comparison, carried out using two different commercial membranes provided by different manufacturers, is also reported in this paper. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Tritium isotope separation by water distillation column packed with silica-gel beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    Tritium enrichment or depletion by water distillation was investigated using a glass column of 32cm in height packed with silica-gel beads of 3.4mm in average diameter. The total separation factor of the silica-gel distillation column, α H-T , was compared with those of an open column distillation tower and of a column packed with stainless-steel Dixon rings. Depletion of the tritium activity in the distillate was enhanced by isotopic exchange with water absorbed on silica-gel beads that have a higher affinity for HTO than for H 2 O. The value of α H-T -1 of the silica-gel distillation column was about four times larger than that of a column without any packing and about two times larger than that of the Dixon-ring column. The improvement of α H-T by the silica-gel adsorbent indicated that the height of the distillation-adsorption column becomes shorter than that of the height of conventional distillation columns. (author)

  6. Polyurethane Nanofiber Membranes for Waste Water Treatment by Membrane Distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiříček, T.; Komárek, M.; Lederer, T.

    2017-01-01

    Self-sustained electrospun polyurethane nanofiber membranes were manufactured and tested on a direct-contact membrane distillation unit in an effort to find the optimum membrane thickness to maximize flux rate and minimize heat losses across the membrane. Also salt retention and flux at high salinities up to 100 g kg−1 were evaluated. Even though the complex structure of nanofiber layers has extreme specific surface and porosity, membrane performance was surprisingly predictable; the highest ...

  7. Separation of tritium from heavy water by vacuum distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, M.I.; Cabrera, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    In this report the feasibility of using vacuum distillation to detriate the moderator of a HWR nuclear power plant is studied. It is intended to use, for this purpose, the Atucha I nuclear power plant present facilities. The physical-chemistry of the system is described and the most appropriate range of operating conditions is examined. The availability of data to make use of the present equipment is also analyzed. (author). 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Multi-saline sample distillation apparatus for hydrogen isotope analyses: design and accuracy. Water-resources investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.A.

    1981-04-01

    A distillation apparatus for saline water samples was designed and tested. Six samples may be distilled simultaneously. The temperature was maintained at 400 degrees C to ensure complete dehydration of the precipitating salts. Consequently, the error in the measured ratio of stable hydrogen isotopes resulting from incomplete dehydration of hydrated salts during distillation was eliminated

  9. Use of azeotropic distillation for isotopic analysis of deuterium in soil water and saturate saline solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Antonio Vieira dos.

    1995-05-01

    The azeotropic distillation technique was adapted to extract soil water and saturate saline solution, which is similar to the sea water for the Isotopic Determination of Deuterium (D). A soil test was used to determine the precision and the nature of the methodology to extract soil water for stable isotopic analysis, using the azeotropic distillation and comparing with traditional methodology of heating under vacuum. This methodology has been very useful for several kinds of soil or saturate saline solution. The apparatus does not have a memory effect, and the chemical reagents do not affect the isotopic composition of soil water. (author). 43 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs

  10. Removal of antibiotics from surface and distilled water in conventional water treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, C.; Wang, Y.; Loftin, K.; Meyer, M.

    2002-01-01

    Conventional drinking water treatment processes were evaluated under typical water treatment plant conditions to determine their effectiveness in the removal of seven common antibiotics: carbadox, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and trimethoprim. Experiments were conducted using synthetic solutions prepared by spiking both distilled/ deionized water and Missouri River water with the studied compounds. Sorption on Calgon WPH powdered activated carbon, reverse osmosis, and oxidation with chlorine and ozone under typical plant conditions were all shown to be effective in removing the studied antibiotics. Conversely, coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation with alum and iron salts, excess lime/soda ash softening, ultraviolet irradiation at disinfection dosages, and ion exchange were all relatively ineffective methods of antibiotic removal. This study shows that the studied antibiotics could be effectively removed using processes already in use many water treatment plants. Additional work is needed on by-product formation and the removal of other classes of antibiotics.

  11. Distillation irrigation: a low-energy process for coupling water purification and drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method is proposed for combining solar distillation and drip irrigation to simultaneously desalinize water and apply this water to row crops. In this paper, the basic method is illustrated by a simple device constructed primarily of sheets of plastic, which uses solar energy to distill impaired water and apply the distillate to a widely spaced row crop. To predict the performance of the proposed device, an empirical equation for distillate production, dp, is developed from reported solar still production rates, and a modified Jensen-Haise equation is used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration, et, for a row crop. Monthly values for et and dp are calculated by using a generalized row crop at five locations in the Western United States. Calculated et values range from 1 to 22 cm month-1 and calculated dp values range from 2 to 11 cm month-1, depending on the location, the month, and the crop average. When the sum of dp plus precipitation, dp + P, is compared to et for the case of 50% distillation irrigation system coverage, the results indicate that the crop's et is matched by dp + P, at the cooler locations only. However, when the system coverage is increased to 66%, the crop's et is matched by dp + P even at the hottest location. Potential advantages of distillation irrigation include the ability: (a) to convert impaired water resources to water containing no salts or sediments; and (b) to efficiently and automatically irrigate crops at a rate that is controlled primarily by radiation intensities. The anticipated disadvantages of distillation irrigation include: (a) the high costs of a system, due to the large amounts of sheeting required, the short lifetime of the sheeting, and the physically cumbersome nature of a system; (b) the need for a widely spaced crop to reduce shading of the system by the crop; and (c) the production of a concentrated brine or precipitate, requiring proper off-site disposal. ?? 1989.

  12. Nanophotonics-enabled solar membrane distillation for off-grid water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongare, Pratiksha D; Alabastri, Alessandro; Pedersen, Seth; Zodrow, Katherine R; Hogan, Nathaniel J; Neumann, Oara; Wu, Jinjian; Wang, Tianxiao; Deshmukh, Akshay; Elimelech, Menachem; Li, Qilin; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2017-07-03

    With more than a billion people lacking accessible drinking water, there is a critical need to convert nonpotable sources such as seawater to water suitable for human use. However, energy requirements of desalination plants account for half their operating costs, so alternative, lower energy approaches are equally critical. Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential due to its low operating temperature and pressure requirements, but the requirement of heating the input water makes it energy intensive. Here, we demonstrate nanophotonics-enabled solar membrane distillation (NESMD), where highly localized photothermal heating induced by solar illumination alone drives the distillation process, entirely eliminating the requirement of heating the input water. Unlike MD, NESMD can be scaled to larger systems and shows increased efficiencies with decreased input flow velocities. Along with its increased efficiency at higher ambient temperatures, these properties all point to NESMD as a promising solution for household- or community-scale desalination.

  13. Use of an Electronic Tongue to Detect Geosmin in Distilled Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Guilherme S.; Paterno, Leonardo G.; Fonseca, Fernando J.

    2011-11-01

    An electronic tongue (ET) system consisting of conducting polymer sensors was employed to detect geosmin (GSM) in distilled water. GSM is a tainting compound and known to cause undesirable tastes and odors in water and aquaculture farming. Diluted solutions of GSM were prepared in distilled water at different concentrations. The electrical response (capacitance) of the sensors was analyzed using principal analysis component (PCA). The data obtained were separated into different clusters indicating a good sensibility of the ET system to this compound in distilled water. The ET showed signal saturation for concentrations higher than 300 ng.L-1. So far, the detection limit of our system is 25 ng.L-1. Nevertheless, close grouping between repeated tests indicated that the ET system response is reproducible.

  14. Investigation of the heavy water distillation system at the RA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zecevic, V.; Badrljica, R.

    1963-01-01

    The heavy water distillation system was tested because this was not done before the reactor start-up. Detailed inspection of the system components showed satisfactory results. Leak testing was done as well as the testing of the instrumentation which enables reliable performance of the system. Performance testing was done with ordinary water and later 2700 l of heavy water from the reactor was purified, decreasing the activity by 45%

  15. Spectrophotometric method for quantitative measuring essential oil in aromatic water and distillate with rose smell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, E; Moiseeva, I; Presnyakova, V; Goncharov, D; Goncharov, M; Presnyakova, E; Presnyakov, S; Kolesnikova, S

    2017-01-01

    In this connection, we improved the express methods of determining the mixture of volatile aromatic substances by the spectrophotometry of aromatic water and steam distillate of essential oil raw materials (traditional or biotechnological with rose smell). Direct spectrophotometry of distillation water is impossible because it is a colloid of liquid oil and law is not observed. Therefore, it is necessary to dissolve 1 ml of distillate in ethanol in the ratio 1:4, in this case we take real solution with no lipophilic fall-out on the walls of cuvette, also the light absorption law is observed. There are stable maximums in spectrums of studied oils. Optical density of these maximums is a result of summary absorption of terpenoid components (aromatic and monoterpene alcohols, its ethers). Optical density of tested and standard solutions is measured in appropriate wavelengths. Spectrophotometric method of determination of essential oil quantity in aromatic water with rose smell differs with high sensitivity (10 -5 -10 -6 gmol/l) and allows to determine oil concentration from 0,900 to 0,008 mg with an error less than 1%. At that, 1 ml is enough for analysis. It’s expedient to apply this method while operating with small quantity of water distillate in biochemical and biotechnological researches and also as express control for extraction and hydrodistillation of essential oil raw material (rose petals and flowers from different origin, eremothecium cultural liquid etc.). (paper)

  16. Low-dielectric layer increases nanosecond electric discharges in distilled water

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Ahmad; Cha, Min

    2016-01-01

    decreasing of the energy consumption are the main goals of today’s research. Here we present an experimental study of nanosecond discharge in distilled water covered by a layer of dielectric material. We demonstrate through this paper that the discharge

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of boron in water with prior distillation and hydrolysis of the methyl borate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzo, J.; Pomares, F.; Guardia, M. de la

    1988-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of boron in irrigation waters is proposed, involving the prior distillation and hydrolysis of methyl borate and subsequent spectrophotometric determination with azomethine-H. The selectivity is better than that of the direct analysis method. (author)

  18. Diametral tensile strength of two dental composites when immersed in ethanol, distilled water and artificial saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Abdur; Amin, Faiza; Abbas, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    To examine the effect of distilled water, artificial saliva and ethanol on the tensile strength of direct tooth-coloured restorative material. The study was conducted at Dr. Ishrat ul Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, from April 2011 to September 2012. The testing was performed at the Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) laboratories. Two composite resins Filtek Z250 and Spectrum TPH were tested. Specimens (13 mm x 3 mm x 2 mm) of each material were prepared in the stainless steel mould according to the manufacturers' instructions and distributed into 3 equal groups: one immersed in distilled water, the other in artificial saliva, and the last one in ethanol for 24 hours. Tensile strength was determined after 24 hours in universal Instron Testing Machine. There were 72 specimens in all; 36 (50%) each for Filtek Z250 and Spectrum TPH. The three sub-groups in each case had 12 (33.3%) specimens. For the Filtek Z250, there was no statistically significant difference between immersion in distilled water and artificial saliva, but the ethanol group presented lower tensile strength (ptensile strength compared to distilled water (ptested composite resins were affected by the immersion media and adversely affected the mechanical properties of composite resins.

  19. Sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) combined with distilled water, chlorhexidine, and doxycycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Roberta A A; Cunha, Rodrigo S; Miguita, Kenner B; Silveira, Cláudia F M; De Martin, Alexandre S; Pinheiro, Sérgio L; Rocha, Daniel G P; Bueno, Carlos E S

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA Bio) combined with different mixing agents (distilled water, chlorhexidine, doxycycline), used as an apical root-end filling material. Forty-two extracted human teeth were divided into three groups (n = 12); six teeth were used as controls. Root-ends were resected at 90 degrees, 3 mm from the apex. Root-end cavities were prepared using ultrasonic tips and filled with MTA Bio plus distilled water, 2% chlorhexidine solution, or 10% doxycycline solution. Apical sealing was assessed by microleakage of 50% silver nitrate solution. Roots were longitudinally sectioned in a buccolingual plane and analyzed using an operating microscope (20× magnification). Depth of dye leakage into the dentinal walls was measured in millimeters. Results were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (P = 0.05). MTA Bio plus distilled water showed significantly higher mean leakage results (1.06 mm) when compared with MTA Bio plus doxycycline (0.61 mm), and higher, although not significant, results when compared with MTA Bio plus chlorhexidine (0.79 mm). In conclusion, replacing distilled water with two biologically active mixing agents (doxycycline and chlorhexidine) did not alter the sealing properties of MTABio. The antimicrobial properties of these combinations should be further investigated.

  20. Measurement of the tritium concentration in the fractionated distillate from environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Robert; Eddy, Teresa; Kuhne, Wendy; Jannik, Tim; Brandl, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Standard procedures for the measurement of tritium in water samples often require distillation of an appropriate sample aliquot. This distillation process may result in a fractionation of tritiated water and regular light water due to the vapor pressure isotope effect, introducing either a bias or an additional contribution to the total tritium measurement uncertainty. The current study investigates the relative change in vapor pressure isotope effect in the course of the distillation process, distinguishing it from and extending previously published measurements. The separation factor as a quantitative measure of the vapor pressure isotope effect is found to assume values of 1.04 ± 0.036, 1.05 ± 0.026, and 1.07 ± 0.038, depending on the vigor of the boiling process during distillation of the sample. A lower heat setting in the experimental setup, and therefore a less vigorous boiling process, results in a larger value for the separation factor. For a tritium measurement in water samples where the first 5 mL are discarded, the tritium concentration could be underestimated by 4-7%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Detailed Modeling of Distillation Technologies for Closed-Loop Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Lange, Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed chemical process simulations are a useful tool in designing and optimizing complex systems and architectures for human life support. Dynamic and steady-state models of these systems help contrast the interactions of various operating parameters and hardware designs, which become extremely useful in trade-study analyses. NASA?s Exploration Life Support technology development project recently made use of such models to compliment a series of tests on different waste water distillation systems. This paper presents efforts to develop chemical process simulations for three technologies: the Cascade Distillation System (CDS), the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) system and the Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD) using the Aspen Custom Modeler and Aspen Plus process simulation tools. The paper discusses system design, modeling details, and modeling results for each technology and presents some comparisons between the model results and recent test data. Following these initial comparisons, some general conclusions and forward work are discussed.

  2. Energetic and economical evaluation of the geothermal water desalination by distillation; Evaluation energeco-economique du procede de dessalement de l'eau geothermale par distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasfi, N.; Hajji, N.; Benali, S.; Jeday, M.R. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Gabes, Lab. d' Energetique et d' Ingenierie, Gabes (Tunisia)

    2001-07-01

    This study is devoted to the energetic and economical performance of desalination units by geothermal water distillation, without and with vapor mechanical compression. The process and its block diagram are described. The obtained results allow the evaluation of the more economical process. (A.L.B.)

  3. Irrigation solutions in open fractures of the lower extremities: evaluation of isotonic saline and distilled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufemi, Olukemi Temiloluwa; Adeyeye, Adeolu Ikechukwu

    2017-01-01

    Open fractures are widely considered as orthopaedic emergencies requiring immediate intervention. The initial management of these injuries usually affects the ultimate outcome because open fractures may be associated with significant morbidity. Wound irrigation forms one of the pivotal principles in the treatment of open fractures. The choice of irrigation fluid has since been a source of debate. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of isotonic saline and distilled water as irrigation solutions in the management of open fractures of the lower extremities. Wound infection and wound healing rates using both solutions were evaluated. This was a prospective hospital-based study of 109 patients who presented to the Accident and Emergency department with open lower limb fractures. Approval was sought and obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Hospital. Patients were randomized into either the isotonic saline (NS) or the distilled water (DW) group using a simple ballot technique. Twelve patients were lost to follow-up, while 97 patients were available until conclusion of the study. There were 50 patients in the isotonic saline group and 47 patients in the distilled water group. Forty-one (42.3%) of the patients were in the young and economically productive strata of the population. There was a male preponderance with a 1.7:1 male-to-female ratio. The wound infection rate was 34% in the distilled water group and 44% in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.315). The mean time ± SD to wound healing was 2.7 ± 1.5 weeks in the distilled water group and 3.1 ± 1.8 weeks in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.389). It was concluded from this study that the use of distilled water compares favourably with isotonic saline as an irrigation solution in open fractures of the lower extremities. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  4. Irrigation solutions in open fractures of the lower extremities: evaluation of isotonic saline and distilled water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Olukemi Temiloluwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Open fractures are widely considered as orthopaedic emergencies requiring immediate intervention. The initial management of these injuries usually affects the ultimate outcome because open fractures may be associated with significant morbidity. Wound irrigation forms one of the pivotal principles in the treatment of open fractures. The choice of irrigation fluid has since been a source of debate. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of isotonic saline and distilled water as irrigation solutions in the management of open fractures of the lower extremities. Wound infection and wound healing rates using both solutions were evaluated. Methods: This was a prospective hospital-based study of 109 patients who presented to the Accident and Emergency department with open lower limb fractures. Approval was sought and obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Hospital. Patients were randomized into either the isotonic saline (NS or the distilled water (DW group using a simple ballot technique. Twelve patients were lost to follow-up, while 97 patients were available until conclusion of the study. There were 50 patients in the isotonic saline group and 47 patients in the distilled water group. Results: Forty-one (42.3% of the patients were in the young and economically productive strata of the population. There was a male preponderance with a 1.7:1 male-to-female ratio. The wound infection rate was 34% in the distilled water group and 44% in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.315. The mean time ± SD to wound healing was 2.7 ± 1.5 weeks in the distilled water group and 3.1 ± 1.8 weeks in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.389. Conclusions: It was concluded from this study that the use of distilled water compares favourably with isotonic saline as an irrigation solution in open fractures of the lower extremities.

  5. Water solar distiller productivity enhancement using concentrating solar water heater and phase change material (PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam T. Chaichan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates usage of thermal energy storage extracted from concentrating solar heater for water distillation. Paraffin wax selected as a suitable phase change material, and it was used for storing thermal energy in two different insulated treasurers. The paraffin wax is receiving hot water from concentrating solar dish. This solar energy stored in PCM as latent heat energy. Solar energy stored in a day time with a large quantity, and some heat retrieved for later use. Water’s temperature measured in a definite interval of time. Four cases were studied: using water as storage material with and without solar tracker. Also, PCM was as thermal storage material with and without solar tracker.The system working time was increased to about 5 h with sun tracker by concentrating dish and adding PCM to the system. The system concentrating efficiency, heating efficiency, and system productivity, has increased by about 64.07%, 112.87%, and 307.54%, respectively. The system working time increased to 3 h when PCM added without sun tracker. Also, the system concentrating efficiency increased by about 50.47%, and the system heating efficiency increased by about 41.63%. Moreover, the system productivity increased by about 180%.

  6. Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, I. D.; Uyazán, A. M.; Aguilar, J. L.; Rodríguez, G.; Caicedo, L. A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to describe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration pro...

  7. Treatment of Simulated Coalbed Methane Produced Water Using Direct Contact Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Wan Cho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Expolitation of coalbed methane (CBM involves production of a massive amount saline water that needs to be properly managed for environmental protection. In this study, direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD was utilized for treatment of CBM-produced water to remove saline components in the water. Simulated CBM waters containing varying concentrations of NaCl (1, 20, and 500 mM and NaHCO3 (1 and 25 mM were used as feed solutions under two transmembrane temperatures (Δ40 and 60 °C. In short-term distillation (~360 min, DCMD systems showed good performance with nearly 100% removal of salts for all solutes concentrations at both temperatures. The permeate flux increased with the feed temperature, but at a given temperature, it remained fairly stable throughout the whole operation. A gradual decline in permeate flux was observed at Δ60 °C at high NaHCO3 concentration (25 mM. In long-term distillation (5400 min, the presence of 25 mM NaHCO3 further decreased the flux to 25%–35% of the initial value toward the end of the operation, likely due to membrane fouling by deposition of Ca-carbonate minerals on the pore openings. Furthermore, pore wetting by the scalants occurred at the end of the experiment, and it increased the distillate conducitivity to 110 µS·cm−1. The precipitates formed on the surface were dominantly CaCO3 crystals, identified as aragonite.

  8. Measurements of distribution coefficient for U and Th on sand stone in synthesized sea water and distilled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Okada, Kenichi; Saito, Yoshihiko; Shibata, Masahiro; Sasamoto, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has developed the sorption database for bentonite and rocks in order to assess the retardation property of important radioactive elements in natural and engineered barriers in the H12 report. However, there are not enough distribution coefficient data for radioactive elements in saline type groundwater in the database. Thus the batch sorption tests were performed for uranium (U) and thorium (Th) in saline type groundwater. For these elements, there are little registration numbers in the JNC's sorption database, and also these elements are important to evaluate the safety of disposal system. The experiments for each radioactive element were performed on the following conditions; U: Kd measurements using the solutions (synthesized sea water and distilled water) reacted with sand stone as a function of carbonate concentration, under reducing conditions. Th: Kd measurements using the solutions (synthesized sea water and distilled water) reacted with sand stone. The results of the experiments are summarized below; In the case of U, Kd was approximately 6.5E-01 - 9.2E-01 m 3 /kg in synthesized sea water. On the other hand, Kd was 2.2E-02 - 2.4E-02 m 3 /kg in the high carbonate solution. And also, Kd was 6.5E-02 - 7.2E-02 m 3 /kg in synthesized sea water adjusted pH 10 and 3.4E-02 - 4.1E-02 m 3 /kg in distilled water adjusted pH 10, respectively. In the case of Th, Kd was measured in synthesized sea water adjusted to pH 10 and in distilled water adjusted to pH 10. At the sorption measurements of Th, precipitation might be occurred by very low solubility of Th. (author)

  9. Economic optimization of heat pump-assisted distillation columns in methanol-water separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahandeh, Hossein; Jafari, Mina; Kasiri, Norollah; Ivakpour, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Finding efficient alternative to CDiC (Conventional Distillation Column) for methanol-water separation has been an attractive field of study in literature. In this work, five heat pump-assisted schemes are proposed and compared to each other to find the optimal one; (1) VRC (Vapor Recompression Column), (2) external HIDiC (Heat-Integrated Distillation Column), (3) intensified HIDiC with feed preheater, (4) double compressor intensified HIDiC-1, and (5) double compressor intensified HIDiC-2. GA (Genetic Algorithm) is then implemented for optimization of the schemes when TAC (Total Annual Cost) is its objective function. During optimization, two new variables are added for using only appropriate amount of the overhead stream in VRC and double compressor intensified HIDiCs, and another new binary variable is also used for considering feed preheating. Although TAC of the intensified HIDiC with feed preheater is found higher than CDiC by 25.0%, all optimal VRC, external HIDiC, double compressor intensified HIDiCs schemes are reached lower optimal TAC by 3.1%, 27.2%, 24.4%, and 34.2%. Introduced for the first time, the optimal scheme is the double compressor intensified HIDiC-2 with 34.2% TAC saving, 70.4% TEC (Total Energy Consumption) reduction with payback period of 3.30 years. - Highlights: • Study of an industrial distillation unit in methanol-water separation. • Optimization of different heat pump-assisted distillation columns. • Implementation of genetic algorithm during optimization. • Economic and thermodynamic comparisons of optimal results with the industrial case

  10. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, R

    1884-04-04

    In obtaining paraffin by distillation of shales, etc., containing sulfur, the steam used for heating is charged with ammonia or ammonium carbonate in suspension. This prevents the sulfur from decomposing the paraffin. The ammonia, etc., may also be used alone or in solution in water.

  11. An Analytical Method to Measure Free-Water Tritium in Foods using Azeotropic Distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Keisuke; Kamei, Toshiyuki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has raised concerns about the discharge of contaminated water containing tritium ((3)H) from the nuclear power plant into the environment and into foods. In this study, we explored convenient analytical methods to measure free-water (3)H in foods using a liquid scintillation counting and azeotropic distillation method. The detection limit was 10 Bq/L, corresponding to about 0.01% of 1 mSv/year. The (3)H recoveries were 85-90% in fruits, vegetables, meats and fishes, 75-85% in rice and cereal crops, and less than 50% in sweets containing little water. We found that, in the case of sweets, adding water to the sample before the azeotropic distillation increased the recovery and precision. Then, the recoveries reached more than 75% and RSD was less than 10% in all food categories (13 kinds). Considering its sensitivity, precision and simplicity, this method is practical and useful for (3)H analysis in various foods, and should be suitable for the safety assessment of foods. In addition, we examined the level of (3)H in foods on the Japanese market. No (3)H radioactivity was detected in any of 42 analyzed foods.

  12. Postoperative complications with glycine and sterile distilled water after transurethral resection of prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesha, M.T.; Khan, M.A.; Jamal, Y.; Waahab, F.

    2015-01-01

    Transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) is considered the gold standard for the surgical treatment of BPH. Irrigant fluid absorption by the patient is a potentially serious complication of TURP and can lead to dilutional hyponatremia and TURP syndrome. Other common complications of TURP include urinary tract infection and secondary haemorrhage. The objective of this study was to compare the frequency of postoperative complications (Urinary Tract infection and dilutional hyponatremia) between 1.5% glycine and sterile distilled water used as irrigant in BPH patients after TURP. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted in department of Urology, PIMS Islamabad, from August 2013 to February 2014. A total of 170 adult male patients between 50-80 years of age undergoing TURP with prostate volume more than 30cc on ultrasound. 85 patients each were randomly allocated to two groups. In group-A, glycine was used as irrigant solution during TURP while in group-B distilled water was used. Serum sodium levels were measured at 6th postoperative hour to look for dilutional hyponatremia. On the 15th postoperative day they were inquired about any clinical features of urinary tract infection. Also urine routine examination was performed to look for the presence of WBCs in the urine. Results: Post-operative dilutional hyponatremia was observed in 13 (15.3%) patients in Group A and in 10 (11.8%) patients in group-B. The difference between both the groups being non-significant (p-value=0.501).Frequency of postoperative urinary tract infection on 15th postoperative day in group-A was 23(27.1%) while in group-B it was 16 (18.8%), the difference among both the groups being insignificant (p-value=0.202). Conclusion: Although the frequency of postoperative complications like UTI and dilutional hyponatremia was less with sterile distilled water, yet, the difference was statistically not significant. (author)

  13. Process for prevention of water build-up in cryogenic distillation column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopewell, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    In a process for the separation of a hydrocarbon and acid gas containing feed stream in a cryogenic distillation column, a zone of the column which is operated at a temperature of 60 0 F or less, wherein free water accumulates or forms hydrates in the column from water vapor in the feed stream during the cryogenic process, and which process comprises separating the feed stream in the column into an overhead stream and a bottom stream, this patent describes the improvement which comprises: withdrawing a hydrocarbon and acid gas vapor stream which stream is enriched in water vapor with respect to the feed stream, thereby preventing the excess accumulation of free water or the formation of hydrates in the cryogenic column

  14. Observation of Anomalous Potential Electric Energy in Distilled Water Under Solar Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin; Christianto, V.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a very simple experiment with distilled water which could exhibit anomalous potential electrical energy with very minimum preparation energy. While this observed excess energy here is less impressive than J-P. Beberian's and M. Porringa's, and the material used is also far less exotic than common LENR-CANR experiments, from the viewpoint of minimum preparation requirement --and therefore less barrier for rapid implementation--, it seems that further experiments could be recommended in order to verify and also to explore various implications of this new proposition.

  15. Preserving and Maintaining Culinary-Medicinal Royal Sun Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Agaricomycetes), in Sterile Distilled Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Del-Rlo, L M; Montoya, Sandra; Sepulveda-Arias, J C

    2017-01-01

    Strains of Agaricus brasiliensis require special procedures for conservation. Thus, the objective of this research was to establish conservation and maintenance procedures A. brasiliensis strain PSWC838 from the University of Pennsylvania (ABWC838) and an A. brasiliensis strain from the Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (ABC). The medium in which mycelia grew the quickest for both strains was selected using a multifactorial design with 2 strains, 4 culture media, and incubation for 5 different times; the growth rate (mm/day) was the response variable. Analysis of variance showed that the potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and potato extract did not display a significantly different growth rate, and PDA was selected for safety reasons. We also evaluated the viability of the strains grown on PDA and 0.2% activated carbon after 3 months of storage in sterile distilled water. A factorial design was applied with 2 factors, the strain and incubation for 10 different times. The Tukey post hoc test indicated that ABC showed quicker and more homogeneous growth than ABWC838. Finally, the results showed that pieces of mycelium of ABC and ABWC838 strains inoculated on the PDA medium with 0.2% activated carbon and preserved in sterile distilled water at 18 ± 1°C showed 100% viability after 3 months of storage. Moreover, the results of semiquantitative biochemical tests confirmed that the production of laccases and amylases was preserved in these strains after storage in sterile water, enhancing their ability to degrade substrates containing lignin and starchy waste.

  16. Organic Rankine Cycle recovering stage heat from MSF desalination distillate water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Weshahi, Mohammed A.; Anderson, Alexander; Tian, Guohong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The ORC model is validated against measured performance of an existing ORC unit. • This ORC model highlights the importance of refrigerant choice (R245fa performs better than R134a for this specific application). • For heat recovery from desalination plant, ORC evaporator and cooling water temperatures significantly influence the performance. - Abstract: This investigation addresses the potential for heat recovery from Multi Stage Flash (MSF) desalination plant hot distillate water to power an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), comparing R134a and R245fa refrigerants as the working fluid. Using design characteristics of an existing ORC unit, the model was first validated against its measured output. The distillate hot water from MSF stages is utilised to provide heat to the ORC and performance is investigated for both working fluids and for the number of MSF stages for heat recovery. For the specific MSF plant investigated, the net produced ORC power is found the highest with extraction up to MSF powering stage 8, generating 359 kW when R245fa is used and 307 kW when R134a is used. Both refrigerants exhibit an increase of power output and decrease of energy efficiency as heat is recovered from more MSF stages. The influence of variation of the evaporator and cooling temperature on ORC performance is demonstrated to be significant for both refrigerants, with R245fa performing better in this specific application

  17. Conceptual design and optimization for JET water detritiation system cryo-distillation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, X.; Hollingsworth, A.; Parracho, A.; Dalgliesh, P.; Butler, B.; Smith, R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Exhaust Detritiation System (EDS) of the JET Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) is to convert all Q-based species (Q 2 , Q-hydrocarbons) into Q 2 O (Q being indifferently H, D or T) which is then trapped on molecular sieve beds (MSB). Regenerating the saturated MSBs leads to the production of tritiated water which is stored in Briggs drums. An alternative disposal solution to offsite shipping, is to process the tritiated water onsite via the implementation of a Water Detritiation System (WDS) based, in part, on the combination of an electrolyser and a cryo-distillation (CD) facility. The CD system will separate a Q 2 mixture into a de-tritiated hydrogen stream for safe release and a tritiated stream for further processing on existing AGHS subsystems. A sensitivity study of the Souers' model using the simulation program ProSimPlus (edited by ProSim S.A.) has then been undertaken in order to perform an optimised dimensioning of the cryo-distillation system in terms of available cooling technologies, cost of investment, cost of operations, process performance and safety. (authors)

  18. Conceptual design and optimization for JET water detritiation system cryo-distillation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, X.; Hollingsworth, A.; Parracho, A.; Dalgliesh, P.; Butler, B.; Smith, R. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Center, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-15

    The aim of the Exhaust Detritiation System (EDS) of the JET Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) is to convert all Q-based species (Q{sub 2}, Q-hydrocarbons) into Q{sub 2}O (Q being indifferently H, D or T) which is then trapped on molecular sieve beds (MSB). Regenerating the saturated MSBs leads to the production of tritiated water which is stored in Briggs drums. An alternative disposal solution to offsite shipping, is to process the tritiated water onsite via the implementation of a Water Detritiation System (WDS) based, in part, on the combination of an electrolyser and a cryo-distillation (CD) facility. The CD system will separate a Q{sub 2} mixture into a de-tritiated hydrogen stream for safe release and a tritiated stream for further processing on existing AGHS subsystems. A sensitivity study of the Souers' model using the simulation program ProSimPlus (edited by ProSim S.A.) has then been undertaken in order to perform an optimised dimensioning of the cryo-distillation system in terms of available cooling technologies, cost of investment, cost of operations, process performance and safety. (authors)

  19. Plasma treatment of polyethersulfone membrane for benzene removal from water by air gap membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Sara; Mortaheb, Hamid Reza; Arefi-Khonsari, Farzaneh

    2018-01-01

    In order to obtain a durable cost-effective membrane for membrane distillation (MD) process, flat sheet polyethersulfone (PES) membranes were modified by an atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma generated using a dielectric barrier discharge in a mixture of argon and hexamethyldisiloxane as the organosilicon precursor. The surface properties of the plasma-modified membranes were characterized by water contact angle (CA), liquid entry pressure, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The water CA of the membrane was increased from 64° to 104° by depositing a Si(CH 3 )-rich thin layer. While the pristine PES membrane was not applicable in the MD process, the modified PES membrane could be applied for the first time in an air gap membrane distillation setup for the removal of benzene as a volatile organic compound from water. The experimental design using central composite design and response surface methodology was applied to study the effects of feed temperature, concentration, and flow rate as well as their binary interactions on the overall permeate flux and separation factor. The separation factor and permeation flux of the modified PES membrane at optimum conditions were comparable with those of commercial polytetrafluoroethylene membrane.

  20. PVDF hollow fiber and nanofiber membranes for fresh water reclamation using membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fiber and nanofibrous membranes are engineered and successfully fabricated using dry-jet wet spinning and electrospinning techniques, respectively. Fabricated membranes are characterized for their morphology, average pore size, pore size distribution, nanofiber diameter distribution, thickness, and water contact angle. Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) performances of the fabricated membranes have been investigated using a locally designed and fabricated, fully automated MD bench scale unit and DCMD module. Electrospun nanofibrous membranes showed a water flux as high as 36 L m-2 h-1 whereas hollow fiber membranes showed a water flux of 31.6 L m-2 h-1, at a feed inlet temperature of 80 °C and at a permeate inlet temperature of 20 °C.

  1. PVDF hollow fiber and nanofiber membranes for fresh water reclamation using membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2013-11-26

    Polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fiber and nanofibrous membranes are engineered and successfully fabricated using dry-jet wet spinning and electrospinning techniques, respectively. Fabricated membranes are characterized for their morphology, average pore size, pore size distribution, nanofiber diameter distribution, thickness, and water contact angle. Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) performances of the fabricated membranes have been investigated using a locally designed and fabricated, fully automated MD bench scale unit and DCMD module. Electrospun nanofibrous membranes showed a water flux as high as 36 L m-2 h-1 whereas hollow fiber membranes showed a water flux of 31.6 L m-2 h-1, at a feed inlet temperature of 80 °C and at a permeate inlet temperature of 20 °C.

  2. Exergy Analysis of Air-Gap Membrane Distillation Systems for Water Purification Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Woldemariam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Exergy analyses are essential tools for the performance evaluation of water desalination and other separation systems, including those featuring membrane distillation (MD. One of the challenges in the commercialization of MD technologies is its substantial heat demand, especially for large scale applications. Identifying such heat flows in the system plays a crucial role in pinpointing the heat loss and thermal integration potential by the help of exergy analysis. This study presents an exergetic evaluation of air-gap membrane distillation (AGMD systems at a laboratory and pilot scale. A series of experiments were conducted to obtain thermodynamic data for the water streams included in the calculations. Exergy efficiency and destruction for two different types of flat-plate AGMD were analyzed for a range of feed and coolant temperatures. The bench scale AGMD system incorporating condensation plate with more favorable heat conductivity contributed to improved performance parameters including permeate flux, specific heat demand, and exergy efficiency. For both types of AGMD systems, the contributions of the major components involved in exergy destruction were identified. The result suggested that the MD modules caused the highest fraction of destructions followed by re-concentrating tanks.

  3. Commissioning of Water Detritiation and Cryogenic Distillation Systems at TLK in View of ITER Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, I.; Doerr, L.; Glugla, M.; Hellriegel, G.; Schaefer, P.; Welte, St.; Wurster, W.; Murdoch, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Water Detritiation System (WDS) of ITER is one of the key systems to control the tritium content in the effluents streams, to recover as much tritium as possible and consequently to minimize the impact on the environment. In order to mitigate the concern over tritium release into the environment during pulsed operation of the Torus, the WDS and Isotope Separation System (ISS) will operate in such way that WDS will be a final barrier for the processed protium waste gas stream discharged from ISS. The ITER ISS consists of a cascade of four cryogenic distillation columns with the aim to process mainly two gas streams, one from Torus exhaust and other from WDS mixed with the returned stream from Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI). The behavior of the CD cascade has to be characterized with high accuracy with respect to thermal and isotopic fluctuations during Torus pulses. To support the research activities needed to characterize the performances of various components for WDS and ISS processes in various working conditions and configurations as needed for ITER design, an experimental facility called TRENTA based on the combination Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) - Cryogenic Distillation (CD), representative of the ITER WDS and ISS protium separation column, is under full commissioning at TLK. The CECE process consists of a solid polymer electrolyser unit as envisaged to be used in ITER WDS, and an 8 m Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange Column (LPCE). The Electrolysis unit was commissioned with tritiated water and the enrichment factor was measured. The experimental program on the Cryogenic distillation facility at TLK is conducted to provide the necessary design and operation information for ITER ISS. It is focused on two major issues: - To investigate the separation performances and liquid hold up of different packings in cryogenic distillation process and to validate the steady-state mathematical modeling of the process. - To investigate the CD process

  4. Material gap membrane distillation: A new design for water vapor flux enhancement

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    A new module design for membrane distillation, namely material gap membrane distillation (MGMD), for seawater desalination has been proposed and successfully tested. It has been observed that employing appropriate materials between the membrane

  5. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery, phases 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honegger, R. J.; Remus, G. A.; Krug, E. K.

    1973-01-01

    The research is reported on the development of an evaporator for vacuum distillation/vapor filtration VD/VF water reclamation system for use on manned space flights. The design, fabrication, and tests of a six-man evaporator are described. It is concluded that: (1) A condenser with an internal rotating impeller and coolant surfaces directly opposite the condensing surfaces is an effective condenser. (2) The VD/VF evaporator, catalyst unit and condenser function satisfactorily based on thermal, mechanical and recovery performance during a 145-hour evaluation test. (3) The quality of recovered water, as measured by analyses for total organic carbon, pH, conductivity, turbidity, and viable bacteria density was within established limits for potability.

  6. Removal of Radium-226 from Radium-Contaminated Soil using Distilled Water and Humic Acid: Effect of pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, E.; Muhammad Samudi Yasir; Muhamat Omar

    2011-01-01

    Effect of washing solutions' pH removal of radium-226 from radium-contaminated soil using distilled water and humic acid extracted from Malaysian peat soil was studied by batch washing method. The study encompassed the extraction of humic acid and the washing of radium-contaminated soil using distilled water and humic acid solutions of 100 ppm, both with varying pHs in the range of 3 to 11. The radioactivity concentration of radium-226 was determined by gamma spectrometer.The removal of radium-226 was greater when humic acid solutions were used compared to distilled water at the pH range studied and both washing solutions showed greater removal of radium-226 when basic solutions were used. Nevertheless, comparable removal efficiencies were observed when neutral and highly basic humic acid solutions were used. (author)

  7. Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Gil

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to describe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration process used two columns: the main extractive column and the recovery column. The solvent to feed molar ratio S/F=0.3, molar reflux ratio RR=0.35, number of theoretical stages Ns=18, feed stage Sf=12, feed solvent stage SS=3, and feed solvent temperature TS=80 ºC, were determined to obtain a distillate with at least 99.5 % mole of ethanol. A substantial reduction in the energy consumption, compared with the conventional processes, was predicted by using ethylene glycol and calcium chloride as entrainer.

  8. Simulation and optimization of stable isotope 18O separation by water vacuum distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuyan; Qin Chuanjiang; Xiao Bin; Xu Jing'an

    2012-01-01

    In the research, a stable isotope 18 O separation column was set up by water vacuum distillation with 20 m packing height and 0.1 m diameter of the column. The self-developed special packing named PAC- 18 O was packed inside the column. Firstly, a model was created by using the Aspen Plus software, and then the simulation results were validated by test results. Secondly, a group of simulation results were created by Aspen Plus, and the optimal operation conditions were gotten by using the artificial neural network (ANN) and Statistica software. Considering comprehensive factors drawn from column pressure and from withdrawing velocity, conclusions were reached on the study of the impact on the abundance of the isotope 18 O. The final results show that the abundance of the isotope 18 O increases as column pressure dropping and withdrawing velocity decreasing. Besides, the optimal column pressure and the incidence formula between the abundance of the isotope 18 O and withdrawing velocity were gotten. The conclusion is that the method of simulation and optimization can be applied to 18 O industrial design and will be popular in traditional distillation process to realize optimization design. (authors)

  9. Sustainable water recovery from oily wastewater via forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sui; Wang, Peng; Fu, Xiuzhu; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2014-04-01

    This study proposed and investigated a hybrid forward osmosis - membrane distillation (FO-MD) system for sustainable water recovery from oily wastewater by employing lab-fabricated FO and MD hollow fiber membranes. Stable oil-in-water emulsions of different concentrations with small droplet sizes (oil droplets and partial permeation of acetic acid could be achieved. Finally, an integrated FO-MD system was developed to treat the oily wastewater containing petroleum, surfactant, NaCl and acetic acid at 60 °C in the batch mode. The water flux in FO undergoes three-stage decline due to fouling and reduction in osmotic driving force, but is quite stable in MD regardless of salt concentration. Oily wastewater with relatively high salinity could be effectively recovered by the FO-MD hybrid system while maintaining large water flux, at least 90% feed water recovery could be readily attained with only trace amounts of oil and salts, and the draw solution was re-generated for the next rounds of FO-MD run. Interestingly, significant amount of acetic acid was also retained in the permeate for further reuse as a chemical additive during the production of crude oil. The work has demonstrated that not only water but also organic additives in the wastewater could be effectively recovered by FO-MD systems for reuse or other utilizations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Distilling tar; distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brash, P; Young, W

    1866-09-17

    The tarry residue, which separates on treating crude shale oil with sulfuric acid, is redistilled, in the manner described in Specification No. 1278, A.D. 1866, together with shale. Previous to the distillation, the acid is neutralized with lime, or may be separated by blowing steam into the tar and adding salt. The purified tar thus obtained is absorbed by ashes, or is mixed with lime or other alkaline matter, or the shale may be mixed with lime and distilled with the tar, which is allowed to flow over and through the shale during the process. The tar obtained in the purification of natural paraffin may be similarly utilized.

  11. Combined electrolysis and catalytic exchange (CECE) technology - an economical alternative for heavy water upgraders using water distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryland, D.K.; Sadhankar, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Heavy water upgrading is a unique and crucial part of a CANDU power station. Water distillation (DW) systems are used for heavy water upgrading in all CANDU stations. The DW upgrader is designed to take advantage of the difference in relative volatility (a measure of separation of isotopes) between H 2 O and D 2 O. However, the low relative volatility of the H 2 O/D 2 O system requires large number of stages (long columns) and large reflux ratios (large reboiler loads) - thus resulting in significant capital and operating costs. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) developed the Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE) technology as an economical alternative to the DW system. CECE-based upgraders have been demonstrated in pilot scale facilities at AECL Chalk River Laboratories and in Hamilton, Ontario. This design is based on catalytic hydrogen isotope exchange between water and hydrogen gas. (author)

  12. Enhanced configuration of a water detritiation system; impact on ITER Isotope Separation System based cryogenic distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, Ion, E-mail: ion.cristescu@kit.edu

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • An enhanced configuration of ITER WDS has been developed. • The proposed configuration allows minimization of hazards due to the reduction of tritium inventory. • The load on the tritium recovery system (ITER ISS) is minimized with benefits on mitigation of the explosion hazards. - Abstract: Tritiated water is generated in the ITER systems by various sources and may contain deuterium and tritium at various concentrations. The reference process for the ITER Water Detritiation System is based on Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) configuration. During long time operation of the CECE process, the accumulation of deuterium in the electrolysis unit and consequently along the Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange (LPCE) column is unavoidable with consequences on the overall detritiation factor of the system. Beside the deuterium issue in the process, the large amount of the tritiated water with tritium activity up to 500 Ci/kg in the electrolysis cells is a concern from the safety aspect of the plant. The enhanced configuration of a system for processing tritiated water allows mitigation of the effects due to deuterium accumulation and also reduction of tritium inventory within the electrolysis system. In addition the benefits concerning to the interface between the water detritiation system and tritium recovery based cryogenic distillation are also presented.

  13. Polyoxadiazole hollow fibers for produced water treatment by direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jingli

    2018-01-08

    Treatment of produced water in the petroleum industry has been a challenge worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the use of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) for this purpose, removing oil and dissolved elements and supplying clean water from waste. We synthesized fluorinated polyoxadiazole, a highly hydrophobic polymer, to fabricate hollow fiber membranes, which were optimized and tested for simulated produced water and real produced water treatment. The process performance was investigated under different operating parameters, such as feed temperature, feed flow velocity and length of the membrane module for 4 days. The results indicate that by increasing feed temperature and feed flow rate the vapor flux increases. The flux decreased with increasing the length of the module due to the decrease of the driving force along the module. The fouling behavior, which corresponds to flux decline and cleaning efficiency of the membrane, was studied. The performance of the fabricated hollow fiber membranes was demonstrated for the treatment of produced water, complying with the industrial reuse and discharge limits.

  14. Corrosion of copper in distilled water without molecular oxygen and the detection of produced hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultquist, G.; Graham, M.J.; Kodra, O.; Moisa, S.; Liu, R.; Bexell, U.; Smialek, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on hydrogen pressures measured during the longterm immersion (∼19 000 hours) of copper in oxygen-free distilled water. Hydrogen gas evolution is from copper corrosion and similar pressures (in the mbar range) are measured for copper contained in either a 316 stainless steel or titanium system. Copper corrosion products have been examined ex-situ by SEM and characterized by Xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). XPS strongly indicates a corrosion product containing both hydroxide and oxide. SIMS shows that oxygen is mainly present in the outer 0.3 μm surface region and that hydrogen penetrates to depths in the substrate well below the corrosion product

  15. Effect of the Heat Flux Density on the Evaporation Rate of a Distilled Water Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental dependence of the evaporation rate of a nondeaerated distilled water drop from the heat flux density on the surfaces of non-ferrous metals (copper and brass. A drop was placed on a heated substrate by electronic dosing device. To obtain drop profile we use a shadow optical system; drop symmetry was controlled by a high-speed video camera. It was found that the evaporation rate of a drop on a copper substrate is greater than on a brass. The evaporation rate increases intensively with raising volume of a drop. Calculated values of the heat flux density and the corresponding evaporation rates are presented in this work. The evaporation rate is found to increase intensively on the brass substrate with raising the heat flux density.

  16. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J M

    1884-06-03

    The invention relates to retorts for the destructive distillation of shale, dross, and other carbonaceous or oleaginous materials, and for the distillation and carbonization of sawdust, shavings, tan bark, and the like. The material is fed from a trapped hopper on a series of trays or casings of cast iron or other material, separated by flue spaces and arranged in a tier round a vertical rotating shaft passing through tubular pieces cast on the casings. The shaft is fitted with arms which carry stirring-blades so disposed that the material is shifted from side to side and slowly fed towards the ducts through which it passes to the casing next below, and is finally withdrawn from the apparatus by a pipe, which may be trapped or otherwise. Furnace gases are admitted through openings in the enclosing brickwork having settings to support the casings, the lowermost of which may be fitted below the inlet for furnace gases and their contents cooled by the circulation of cold water round them. The gaseous or volatile products of distillation pass to a condenser by means of openings and the pipe, which may be formed in sections to obtain access to the casings, or doors may be provided for this purpose. The ducts may be arranged alternately at the edge and center of the casings, which may be jacketed, and heated air or steam may be employed instead of furnace gases. Means may also be provided for admitting superheated steam into one or more of the casings.

  17. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, A V

    1856-04-22

    In order to obtain, at the first distillation, from coal, shale, and bituminous substances an oil sufficiently pure for illuminating and other purposes, the material broken into very small pieces and placed on the bottom of the retort, is evenly covered with common sand, about four times greater in weight than the weight of the coal. The coal and sand are then gradually raised to a temperature of 212/sup 0/F. Steam containing carbonaceous impurities first passes to the condenser, and subsequently oil, which rises to the surface of the water in the receiving-vessel. When some bituminous substances are employed, the temperature, after oil ceases to come over, may be gradually raised until the oil produced ceases to be pure. Most kinds of clay and earth, chalk, gypsum, black oxide of manganese, plumbago, or charcoal may be used separately, in combination, or with added chemicals, instead of sand as the medium for filtering the gas or vapor from which the oil is formed. Either the oil obtained by the first distillation or oils obtained by other means may be rectified by distilling with sand.

  18. Investigation of the heavy water distillation system at the RA reactor; Ispitivanje sistema za destilaciju teske vode reaktora RA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zecevic, V; Badrljica, R [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Reaktor RA, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-02-15

    The heavy water distillation system was tested because this was not done before the reactor start-up. Detailed inspection of the system components showed satisfactory results. Leak testing was done as well as the testing of the instrumentation which enables reliable performance of the system. Performance testing was done with ordinary water and later 2700 l of heavy water from the reactor was purified, decreasing the activity by 45%.

  19. Reference test methods for total water in lint cotton by Karl Fischer Titration and low temperature distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a study of comparability of total water contents (%) of conditioned cottons by Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) and Low Temperature Distillation (LTD) reference methods, we demonstrated a match of averaged results based on a large number of replications and weighing the test specimens at the same tim...

  20. Exergy efficiency enhancement of MSF desalination by heat recovery from hot distillate water stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Weshahi, Mohammed A.; Anderson, Alexander; Tian, Guohong

    2013-01-01

    This detailed exergy analysis of a 3800 m 3 /h Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) desalination plant is based on the latest published thermodynamics properties of water and seawater. The parameters of the study were extracted from a validated model of MSF desalination using IPSEpro software. The results confirmed that the overall exergy efficiency of the unit is lower than would be desirable at only 5.8%. Exergy inputs were destroyed by 55%, 17%, 10%, 4.3%, and 14% respectively, in the heat recovery stages, brine heater, heat rejection stages, pumps and brine streams disposal. Moreover, the detail of the study showed that the lowest exergy destruction occurs in the first stage, increasing gradually in heat recovery stages and sharply in heat rejection stages. The study concludes that recovering the heat from the hot distillate water stages can improve unit exergy efficiency from its low 5.8% to a more economical 14%, with the hot water parameters suitable for powering other thermal systems such as absorption chiller and multi-effect desalination

  1. Membrane distillation for wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate treatment with water reuse potential

    KAUST Repository

    Naidu, Gayathri

    2016-11-29

    Membrane distillation (MD) was evaluated as a treatment option of wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate (WWROC) discharged from wastewater reclamation plants (WRPs). A direct contact MD (DCMD), at obtaining 85% water recovery of WWROC showed only 13–15% flux decline and produced good quality permeate (10–15 µS/cm, 99% ion rejection) at moderate feed temperature of 55 °C. Prevalent calcium carbonate (CaCO3) deposition on the MD membrane occurred in treating WWROC at elevated concentrations. The combination of low salinity and loose CaCO3 adhesion on the membrane did not significantly contribute to DCMD flux decline. Meanwhile, high organic content in WWROC (58–60 mg/L) resulted in a significant membrane hydrophobicity reduction (70% lower water contact angle than virgin membrane) attributed to low molecular weight organic adhesion onto the MD membrane. Granular activated carbon (GAC) pretreatment helped in reducing organic contents of WWROC by 46–50%, and adsorbed a range of hydrophobic and hydrophilic micropollutants. This ensured high quality water production by MD (micropollutants-free) and enhanced its reuse potential. The MD concentrated WWROC was suitable for selective ion precipitation, promising a near zero liquid discharge in WRPs.

  2. Membrane distillation for wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate treatment with water reuse potential

    KAUST Repository

    Naidu, Gayathri; Jeong, Sanghyun; Choi, Youngkwon; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2016-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) was evaluated as a treatment option of wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate (WWROC) discharged from wastewater reclamation plants (WRPs). A direct contact MD (DCMD), at obtaining 85% water recovery of WWROC showed only 13–15% flux decline and produced good quality permeate (10–15 µS/cm, 99% ion rejection) at moderate feed temperature of 55 °C. Prevalent calcium carbonate (CaCO3) deposition on the MD membrane occurred in treating WWROC at elevated concentrations. The combination of low salinity and loose CaCO3 adhesion on the membrane did not significantly contribute to DCMD flux decline. Meanwhile, high organic content in WWROC (58–60 mg/L) resulted in a significant membrane hydrophobicity reduction (70% lower water contact angle than virgin membrane) attributed to low molecular weight organic adhesion onto the MD membrane. Granular activated carbon (GAC) pretreatment helped in reducing organic contents of WWROC by 46–50%, and adsorbed a range of hydrophobic and hydrophilic micropollutants. This ensured high quality water production by MD (micropollutants-free) and enhanced its reuse potential. The MD concentrated WWROC was suitable for selective ion precipitation, promising a near zero liquid discharge in WRPs.

  3. Computational Studies of Positive and Negative Streamers in Bubbles Suspended in Distilled Water

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Ashish

    2017-01-05

    We perform computational studies of nanosecond streamers generated in helium bubbles immersed in distilled water under high pressure conditions. The model takes into account the presence of water vapor in the gas bubble for an accurate description of the chemical kinetics of the discharge. We apply positive and negative trigger voltages much higher than the breakdown voltage and study the dynamic characteristics of the resulting discharge. We observe that, for high positive trigger voltages, the streamer moves along the surface of the gas bubble during the initial stages of the discharge. We also find a considerable difference in the evolution of the streamer discharge for positive and negative trigger voltages with more uniform volumetric distribution of species in the streamer channel for negative trigger voltages due to formation of multiple streamers. We also observe that the presence of water vapor does not influence the breakdown voltage of the discharge but greatly affects the composition of dominant species in the trail of the streamer channel.

  4. Technical and economical feasibility studies and preliminary plan of a heavy water plant by the criogenic distillation method of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias Vargas, F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the pre-feasibility study of a heavy water production plant, both from the technical and economical point of view. Criogenic distillation of hydrogen is used as the final enrichment stage. The deuterium source is water treated previously by a process of enrichment based on the water-hydrogen isotopic exchange. The economical analysis is aimed at the study of the feasibility of the installation of a heavy water moderated reaction in Chile. General properties of heavy water are presented and also the various materials of its enrichment at the industrial scale. The plant itself has a first stage based on the water-hydrogen isotopic exchange procesS, where deuterium is extracted from the water by the hydrogen which is subsequently treated in a criogenic distillation stage. An important fact of the plant analysis is the calculation of heat exchangers mainly in relation to the problem posed by tHe hydrogen's low point of liquifaction. The distillation units are also treated and designed. The economic evaluation produces project diScount rates of 15.71% and 21.97%, for 25 tons/year and 40 tons/year of production capacity. The heavy water price used for these evaluation was 600 $/Kg

  5. Membrane Distillation and Applications for Water Purification in Thermal Cogeneration - A Prestudy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuanfeng Liu; Martin, Andrew [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    Cost-effective, reliable, and energy efficient water treatment systems are an integral part of modern cogeneration facilities. Demineralized water is required for make-up water in district heating networks and in boilers. In addition, increasing attention has been paid to the treatment of flue gas condensate for possible recycling. A number of membrane technologies like reverse osmosis (RO) and electrode ionization (EDI) have been developed for the above applications. Besides these methods, membrane distillation (MD) is promising technology in this context. MD utilizes differences in vapor pressure to purify water via a hydrophobic membrane. The process can utilize district heat supply temperatures or low-grade steam, thus making it attractive for cogeneration applications. This investigation consists of a pre-study to evaluate the viability of membrane distillation as a new water treatment technology in cogeneration plants. Results obtained from the study will be used as an input to follow-on research, which may include the construction of a pilot plant. Target groups for this study include environmental engineers with particular interest in emerging water purification technologies. Specific elements of this work include a literature survey, theoretical considerations of heat and mass transfer, and scale-up of experimental results. Data obtained from the test facility owned by Xzero AB and located at Royal Inst. of Technology was employed for this purpose. Actual water production was found to be lower than the theoretical maximum, illustrating the potential for improvements in MD module design. A case study considering a 10 m{sup 3} pure water/hr system is explored to shed light on commercial-scale aspects. Results show that MD is a promising alternative to RO in existing or new treatment facilities. The most favorable results were obtained for alternatives where either the district heat supply line or low-grade steam (2-3 bar, 200 deg C) are available. Specific

  6. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1915-07-03

    Oils are extracted from coal, lignite, shale, boghead, butumen, asphalt, tar, pitch, etc., by distillation at a low temperature, which may be 300 to 425/sup 0/CC, solvent oils or vapors being circulated during the heating which may be conducted with or without increased or reduced pressure. The solvent oils and the extracted oils are recovered in condensers, etc., last traces being expelled from the material by a current of water vapor. The uncondensed gases may be used for heating, and the solid residue may be used for the production of gas and coke, or may be briquetted.

  7. Features investigation of corrosion-electrochemical behaviour of Al-alloys for engineering an effective protection of the water-distillings setups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fokin, M.N.; Lomakina, S.V.; Tselykh, O.G.; Shatova, T.S.; Trubetskaya, L.F.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of aluminium alloy application in distilling setups is studied. Investigation into the features of corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of aluminium alloys under sea water distillation allows one to reveal the main control factors and to propose optimal alloy compositions capable of providing the safe setup operation on their base. Preliminary treatment in tungsten and molybdenum isopolycompound solutions is proposed which reduces sedimentation which in its turn is very important for distilling setups

  8. Performance Investigation of O-Ring Vacuum Membrane Distillation Module for Water Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Alhathal Alanezi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new O-ring flat sheet membrane module design was used to investigate the performance of Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD for water desalination using two commercial polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF flat sheet hydrophobic membranes. The design of the membrane module proved its applicability for achieving a high heat transfer coefficient of the order of 103 (W/m2 K and a high Reynolds number (Re. VMD experiments were conducted to measure the heat and mass transfer coefficients within the membrane module. The effects of the process parameters, such as the feed temperature, feed flow rate, vacuum degree, and feed concentration, on the permeate flux have been investigated. The feed temperature, feed flow rate, and vacuum degree play an important role in enhancing the performance of the VMD process; therefore, optimizing all of these parameters is the best way to achieve a high permeate flux. The PTFE membrane showed better performance than the PVDF membrane in VMD desalination. The obtained water flux is relatively high compared to that reported in the literature, reaching 43.8 and 52.6 (kg/m2 h for PVDF and PTFE, respectively. The salt rejection of NaCl was higher than 99% for both membranes.

  9. Low-dielectric layer increases nanosecond electric discharges in distilled water

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Ahmad

    2016-10-24

    Electric discharge in liquids is an emerging field of research, and is involved into various environmental applications (water purification, fuel reforming, nanomaterial synthesis, etc.). Increasing the treatment efficiency with simultaneous decreasing of the energy consumption are the main goals of today’s research. Here we present an experimental study of nanosecond discharge in distilled water covered by a layer of dielectric material. We demonstrate through this paper that the discharge efficiency can be improved by changing the interface position regarding the anode tip. The efficiency increase is due to the increase of the discharge probability as well as the plasma volume. The understanding of the experimental results is brought and strengthened by simulating the electric field distribution, using Comsol Multiphysics software. Because the dielectric permittivity (ε) is discontinuous at the interface, the electric field is enhanced by a factor that depends on the relative value of ε of the two liquids. The present result is very promising in future: opportunities for potential applications as well as fundamental studies for discharges in liquid.

  10. Industrial cost assessment for ITER tritium plant system (water distillation, VPCE and ISS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, S.K.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Fong, C.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this Industrial Cost Assessment Task for ITER Tritium Plant System consists of providing and order of magnitude cost estimate for the following major subsystems, as outlined in the Scope of Task Agreement and Work Program: water distillation (WD) system, vapour phase catalytic exchange (VPCE) system and the isotope separation system (ISS). The methodology adopted in preparing the order of magnitude cost estimate for the above three subsystems of the ITER tritium plant system is based on building the estimate from the ground up, starting with equipment cost estimates, and adding labour activities separately for engineering, fabrication, assembly, testing installation commissioning, etc. The estimate has been developed assuming that the systems are to be engineered, fabricated and constructed in Canada, (to comply with the Codes, Standards, QA and Seismic Classification applicable in Canada) since information on ITER siting is not currently available. The estimate is based on Ontario Hydro in house cost data on similar systems and equipment, such as the heavy water upgrading plants. The cost estimates are not based on quotations from suppliers for specific ITER components, since this would require completion of detailed design and specifications. 4 refs., 9 tabs., 7 figs

  11. Calcium soap from palm fatty acid distillate for ruminant feed: The influence of water temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handojo, Lienda A.; Indarto, Antonius; Shofinita, Dian; Meitha, Anggina; Nabila, Rakhmawati; Triharyogi, Harry; Kevin, Leonardus

    2018-03-01

    As the largest palm oil producing country in the world, Indonesia also produces abundant amount of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD), a by-product of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) refining process. PFAD can be utilized as the raw material for calcium soap, ruminant feed that is widely used to increase milk yield, as well as to increase the ruminant’s fertility. However, the practice of feeding ruminants with calcium soap has not been practiced in Indonesia, which makes it imperative to develop calcium soap production process from PFAD within the country. This research aimed to study the effect of operating conditions of the saponification reaction using PFAD and CaO as reactants on the quality of the calcium soap obtained. The saponification reaction was carried out by modified fusion method. A range of stoichiometric mole ratios of CaO to PFAD (1.0 to 1.6) and the temperature of water (60-90°C) were studied in this research. An increase in the stoichiometric mole ratio of CaO/PFAD was observed to cause a decrease in the acid value, which indicates an increase in the reaction conversion. In contrast, the temperature of water was found to have little impact on the acid value of the product.

  12. Design of a Cryogenic Distillation Column for JET Water Detritiation System for Tritium Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parracho, A.I.; Camp, P.; Dalgliesh, P.; Hollingsworth, A.; Lefebvre, X.; Lesnoj, S.; Sacks, R.; Shaw, R.; Smith, R.; Wakeling, B.

    2015-01-01

    A Water Detritiation System (WDS) is currently being designed and manufactured to be installed in the Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) of JET, currently the largest magnetic fusion experiment in the world. JET has been designed and built to study fusion operating conditions with the plasma fuelling done by means of a deuterium-tritium gas mixture. AGHS is a plant designed and built to safely process gas mixtures and impurities containing tritium recovered from the JET torus exhaust gases. Tritium is removed from these gas mixtures and recycled. Tritium depleted gases are sent to Exhaust Detritiation System (EDS) for final tritium removal prior to discharge into the environment. In EDS, tritium and tritiated species are catalytically oxidized into water, this tritiated water is then adsorbed onto molecular sieve beds (MSB). After saturation the MSBs are heated and the water is desorbed and collected for tritium recovery. The WDS facility is designed to recover tritium from water with an average activity of 1.9 GBq/l, and is able to process water with activities of 85 GBq/l and higher. Tritiated water is filtered and supplied to the electrolyser where the water is converted into gaseous oxygen and tritiated hydrogen. The hydrogen stream is first purified by selective diffusion through membranes of palladium alloy and then is fed to two cryogenic distillation columns (CD). These operate in parallel or in series depending on the water activity. In the CD columns, hydrogen isotopes containing tritium are recovered as the bottom product and hydrogen, the top product, is safely discarded to a stack. The CD columns are foreseen to have a throughput between 200 and 300 mole/h of hydrogen isotopes vapour and they operate at approximately ≈21.2K and 105 kPa. The design of the CD columns will be presented in this work. This work has been carried out within the framework of the Contract for the Operation of the JET Facilities and has received funding from the European Union

  13. Membrane distillation for milk concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moejes, S.N.; Romero Guzman, Maria; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Barrera, K.H.; Feenstra, L.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an emerging technology to concentrate liquid products while producing high quality water as permeate. Application for desalination has been studied extensively the past years, but membrane distillation has also potential to produce concentrated food products like

  14. Kinetics and dynamics of nanosecond streamer discharge in atmospheric-pressure gas bubble suspended in distilled water under saturated vapor pressure conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Ashish; Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L; Cha, Min

    2016-01-01

    We perform computational studies of nanosecond streamer discharges generated in helium bubbles immersed in distilled water under atmospheric pressure conditions. The model takes into account the presence of water vapor in the gas bubble

  15. Shale distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacomini, V V

    1938-06-07

    To produce valuable oils from shale by continuous distillation it is preheated by a heated fluid and introduced into a distilling retort from which the oil vapours and spent material are separately removed and the vapours condensed to recover the oil. The shale is preheated to 400 to 500/sup 0/F in the hopper by combustion gases from a flue and is fed in measured quantities to a surge drum, a loading chamber and surge drum, the latter two being connected to a steam pipe which equalises the pressure thereon. The material passes by two screw conveyors to a retort with deflector bars to scatter the material so that lean hot cycling gas flowing through a pipe is spread out as it makes its way upwardly through the shale and heats the oil so that it is driven off as vapour, collected in the lean gas and carried off through an outlet pipe. A measuring valve is provided at the bottom of a retort and cutter knives cut the spent shale and distribute cooling water thereto. The gases travel through heat exchangers and a condenser to an accumulator where the cycling gas is separated from the vapours, passed to compression, and preheated in a gas exchanger and spiral coils before it is returned to the retort. The oil passes to a storage tank by way of a unit tank in which oil vapours are recovered. Water is collected by a pipe in the tank bottom and returned by shaft to a retort.

  16. Thermodynamic study of a regenerative atmospheric water distiller; Estudo termodinamico de um destilador de agua atmosferico do tipo regenerativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Gustavo Koury

    1998-06-01

    The need of water for human consumption in our region where there is a great storage of non saline sources has motivated the study of new desalination technologies. The present work introduces a water distiller whose main characteristic, in relation to other units, is the high production allied to a good efficiency. This equipment that promotes the reuse of the water condensation heat is then called Regenerative Distiller. A theoretical study of the thermodynamic process involved is made, resulting in a numeric model for the project of new units accordingly to the required demands. The theoretical results are also compared with experimental data obtained through the testing of prototype, built and put into operation by the FAE/DEN group of the Federal University of Pernambuco. (author)

  17. Elimination of 137Cs from trefoil (leaf and stem), ''Mitsuba'', cryptotaenia japonica hassk, boiled in a distilled and salted waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motegi, Misako; Miyake, Sadaaki; Ohsawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki; Izumo, Yoshiro

    1999-01-01

    Elimination of 137 Cs from highly accumulated trefoil (leaf and stem) through boiling in distilled and salted water were investigated in relation to study the effect of cooking and processing on biochemical states of radionuclides (RI) contaminating in foods. 137 Cs was hardly eliminated from the trefoil immersed in a distilled water at room temperature (about 15degC) during 10 min. 137 Cs was considerably eliminated from the trefoil when boiled in a distilled water, 0.3-3.0% salt concentration of the water and soy sauce: about 40-60% (after 2 min), 70-85% (5 min) and 80-90% (10 min), respectively. Elimination of 137 Cs in the soy sauce (e.g. 77.0±2.9%, at 1% salt concentration after 10 min) was restrictive comparing to that in the salt water (93.4±2.3%). These results are expected to contribute to evaluate the radiation exposure to man when a boiled trefoil contaminating with 137 Cs was ingested. (author)

  18. Extraction of citral oil from lemongrass (Cymbopogon Citratus) by steam-water distillation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, P. N.; Husin, H.; Asnawi, T. M.; Adisalamun

    2018-04-01

    In Indonesia, production of citral oil from lemon grass (Cymbopogon Cytratus) is done by a traditional technique whereby a low yield results. To improve the yield, an appropriate extraction technology is required. In this research, a steam-water distillation technique was applied to extract the essential oil from the lemongrass. The effects of sample particle size and bed volume on yield and quality of citral oil produced were investigated. The drying and refining time of 2 hours were used as fixed variables. This research results that minimum citral oil yield of 0.53% was obtained on sample particle size of 3 cm and bed volume of 80%, whereas the maximum yield of 1.95% on sample particle size of 15 cm and bed volume of 40%. The lowest specific gravity of 0.80 and the highest specific gravity of 0.905 were obtained on sample particle size of 8 cm with bed volume of 80% and particle size of 12 cm with bed volume of 70%, respectively. The lowest refractive index of 1.480 and the highest refractive index of 1.495 were obtained on sample particle size of 8 cm with bed volume of 70% and sample particle size of 15 cm with bed volume of 40%, respectively. The solubility of the produced citral oil in alcohol was 70% in ratio of 1:1, and the citral oil concentration obtained was around 79%.

  19. Simultaneous production of high-quality water and electrical power from aqueous feedstock’s and waste heat by high-pressure membrane distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, N.J.M.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Brouwer, H.; Medevoort, J. van; Jansen, A.; Altena, F.; Vleuten, P. van der; Bak, H.

    2015-01-01

    A new membrane distillation (MD) concept (MemPower) has been developed for the simultaneous production of high-quality water from various aqueous feedstocks with cogeneration of mechanical power (electricity). Driven by low-grade heat (waste, solar, geothermal, etc.) a pressurized distillate can be

  20. Experimental Validation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Energy Efficient Ethanol-Water Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step,...

  1. A comparison of the toluene distillation and vacuum/heat methods for extracting soil water for stable isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraham, Neil L.; Shadel, Craig

    1992-12-01

    Hanford Loam, from Richland, Washington, was used as a test soil to determine the precision, accuracy and nature of two methods to extract soil water for stable isotopic analysis: azeotropic distillation using toluene, and simple heating under vacuum. The soil was oven dried, rehydrated with water of known stable isotopic compositions, and the introduced water was then extracted. Compared with the introduced water, initial aliquots of evolved water taken during a toluene extraction were as much as 30 ‰ more depleted in D and 2.7 ‰ more depleted in 18O, whereas final aliquots were as much as 40 ‰ more enriched in D and 14.3 ‰ more enriched in 18O. Initial aliquots collected during the vacuum/heat extraction were as much as 64 ‰ more depleted in D and 8.4 ‰ more depleted in 18O than was the introduced water, whereas the final aliquots were as much as 139 ‰ more enriched in D, and 20.8 ‰ more enriched in 18O. Neither method appears quantitative; however, the difference in stable isotopic composition between the first and last aliquots of water extracted by the toluene method is less than that from the vacuum/heat method. This is attributed to the smaller fractionation factors involved with the higher average temperatures of distillation of the toluene. The average stable isotopic compositions of the extracted water varied from that of the introduced water by up to 1.4 ‰ in δD and 4.2 ‰ in δ18O with the toluene method, and by 11.0 ‰ in δD and 1.8 ‰ in δ18O for the vacuum/heat method. The lack of accuracy of the extraction methods is thought to be due to isotopic fractionation associated with water being weakly bound (not released below 110°C) in the soil. The isotopic effect of this heat-labile water is larger at low water contents (3.6 and 5.2% water by weight) as the water bound in the soil is a commensurately larger fraction of the total. With larger soilwater contents the small volume of water bound with an associated fractionation is

  2. Extraction of essential oil from baby Java orange (Citrus sinensis) solid waste using water and steam distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, I. A.; Prastyo, A. M.; Wijana, S.

    2018-03-01

    Baby java orange (Citrus sinensis) is commonly consumed as juice. Processing of baby java orange leaves organic waste which consist of the mesocarp, exocarp, seed, and wall of the orange. Therefore, it is necessary to process baby java orange waste to be valuable products. The purpose of this study was to provide added value to unutilized baby java orange waste, and to find out the pretreatment of time-delay process that maximize the yield of essential oil produced. Essential oil processing can be done by water and steam distillation. The study used randomized block design with one factor namely distillation time-delay process by air drying consisted of 4 levels i.e. the distillation delay for 2, 4, 6, and 8 days. The best treatment was determined based on the yield. The best essential oil from baby java orange waste was obtained from the treatment of distillation delay-process of 8 days. This pretreatment generated yield value of 0.63% with moisture content of 24.21%. By estimating the price of essential oil showed that this effort not only reduced the bulky organic waste but also provided potential economical value.

  3. Membrane Distillation and Applications for Water Purification in Thermal Cogeneration. Pilot Plant Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullab, Alaa; Martin, Andrew

    2007-12-15

    Water treatment is an important auxiliary process in all thermal cogeneration plants. In this context membrane distillation (MD) is a novel technology that is potentially advantageous to technologies like reverse osmosis in the following ways: ability to utilize low-grade heat; reduced sensitivity to fluctuations in pH or salt concentrations; and lower capital and operation and maintenance costs (assumed in the case of fully-developed technology only). This research is a continuation of a Varmeforsk prestudy (report no. 909) and encompasses field trials at Idbaecken Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Facility (Nykoeping). Target groups for this study include environmental engineers with particular interest in emerging water purification technologies. The test rig consisted of a five-module MD unit capable of producing 1-2 m3/day purified water. District heating supply was employed for heating; feed stocks include municipal water and flue gas condensate. Field trials can be divided into three phases: (1) parametric study of yield; (2) long term operation with municipal water as feed stock; and (3) evaluation of flue gas condensate as a feed stock. Testing commenced in the beginning of April 2006. The performance of MD concerning production rate is highly dependent on the feed stock temperature, flow rate and temperature difference across the membrane. Initial results for municipal water feed stocks showed that product water fluxes were in line with previous experiments, thus confirming the findings made in the prestudy. Connecting several MD modules in series has the advantage of reducing the electrical energy consumption needed for recirculation; the penalty comes in less efficient operation from flux point of view. This is more critical in the case of low flow rates, and hence much careful design studies are needed to optimize the system. Regarding the long term performance, the test period lasted for 13 days on a continuous operation basis before the first flux

  4. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitting, E K

    1882-08-09

    The broken-up shale is placed in cast-iron retorts, heated externally, having exit tubes placed at a low level. Each retort is provided with a steam-pipe with a regulating-cock outside, the pipe being carried around the walls of the retort in a spiral or zig-zag way to ensure superheating of the steam, perforations being made in the pipe to allow exit for the steam into the retort. The steam, which may if desired be superheated before entrance, is passed into the retort when the latter has attained a temperature of from 210 to 250/sup 0/C and the passage is continued while the temperature rises, as long as distillation goes on. The exit pipe to the retort leads to a condenser of much condensing-surface, provided with a drag obtained by an exhausting steam jet or otherwise. The distilled products consist of tar, oils, wax, ammoniacal water (stated to be in greater proportion through the use of the process), and lighting and heating gas. The latter gas goes through a scrubber to a gasholder. The carbonaceous residue in the retort is discharged when cooled below a red heat, into sheet-iron cylinders, with tightly fitting lids, to avoid as far as possible contact with the atmosphere.

  5. Distillation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konecny, C.

    1975-01-01

    Two main methods of separation using the distillation method are given and evaluated, namely evaporation and distillation in carrier gas flow. Two basic apparatus are described for illustrating the methods used. The use of the distillation method in radiochemistry is documented by a number of examples of the separation of elements in elemental state, volatile halogenides and oxides. Tables give a survey of distillation methods used for the separation of the individual elements and give conditions under which this separation takes place. The suitability of the use of distillation methods in radiochemistry is discussed with regard to other separation methods. (L.K.)

  6. Antibacterial effect of silk treated with silver and copper nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in distilled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Prahlad K.; Raman, Moghe A.; Chakrabartty, Ishani; Rangan, Latha; Sharma, Ashwini K.; Khare, Alika

    2018-05-01

    The antibacterial activity of three kinds of silks viz. Eri, Pat and Muga treated with silver and copper nanoparticles is reported in this paper. The nanoparticles have been synthesized by pulsed laser ablation of the respective metal targets in distilled water. Treatment of the silk pellets with the synthesized nanoparticles exhibited definite antibacterial activity whereas no such activity is observed in the untreated silk pellets.

  7. Time, Temperature and Amount of Distilled Water Effects on the Purity and Yield of Bis(2-hydroxyethyl Terephthalate Purification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.W. Goh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottle is one of the common plastic wastes existed in the municipal solid waste in Malaysia. One alternative to solve the abundant of PET wastes is chemical recycling of the wastes to produce a value added product. This technology not only can decrease the PET wastes in landfill sites but also can produce many useful recycled PET products. Bis(2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate (BHET obtained from glycolysis reaction of PET waste was purified using crystallization process. The hot distilled water was added to glycolysis product followed by cooling and filtration to extract BHET in white solid form from the product. The effect of three operating conditions namely crystallization time, crystallization temperatures and amount of distilled water used to the yield of crystallization process were investigated. The purity of crystallization products were analyzed using HPLC and DSC. The optimum conditions of 3 hours crystallization time, 2 °C crystallization temperature and 5:1 mass ratio of distilled water used to glycolize solid gave the highest yield and purity of the crystallization process. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 12nd August 2014; Revised: 4th February 2015; Accepted: 5th February 2015How to Cite: Goh, H.W., Salmiaton, A., Abdullah, N., Idris, A. (2015. Time, Temperature and Amount of Distilled Water Effects on the Purity and Yield of Bis(2-hydroxyethyl Terephthalate Purification System. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (2: 143-154. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7195.143-154 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7195.143-154  

  8. Purification of the Drain Water and Distillation Residues from Organic Compounds, Transuranic Elements and Uranium at the Chernobyl NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudenko, L.I.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Article examines the purification of drain water and distillation residue from organic (polymeric compounds, tran suranic elements and uranium. We propose the pretreatment method with the use of a type «Sizol» coagulant-flocculant and catalytic oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and ultrafiltration. This method prevents evaporator coking by dustsuppression and other organic substances, which are vulcanized by heating. Removing alpha-emitting radionuclides increases safety level at the nuclear power plant.

  9. Study on water desalination system by solar energy distillation; Taiyo energy wo riyoshita joryugata kaisui tansuika system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, M; Ameku, K; Yonamine, K [Univ. of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Discussions have been given on developing a seawater desalination system by solar energy distillation. The system is composed of evaporators installed on the seawater level, condensers placed on high and cool locations, and steam transport pipes to connect these two pieces of equipment. Steam is generated from seawater heated by solar heat in evaporators, and the steam is transported driven by low power consuming fans to higher locations through the steam transport pipes, where it is condensed by cool air in the condensers, and recovered as plain water. The concept is such that electric power required to operate the fans is supplied from photovoltaic panels, and all other energy is obtained from the sun. First, an experiment was performed upon noticing on methods of transporting and condensing the steam. The experiment used plain water rather than seawater. The heat source and evaporators were installed on the first floor, and the steam transporting fans on the second floor of an atrium. The thermal load was set to 1.5 times greater than average outdoor insolation amount. Increase in the distilled water recovery rate and distillation efficiency was verified by using the fans. The evaporation efficiency was found to tend to increase when the steam flow rate is increased. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Degree of mucosal coating on double contrast barium enema : comparison of distilled water and normal saline as a suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Tae Seok; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Joo Won; Han, Tae Il; Kim, Hyoung Jung

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the degree of mucosal coating on double contrast barium enema (DCBE), using barium suspension made with distilled water or normal saline Between June 1 and July 30, 1996, fifty-four patients prospectively underwent DCBE using 83% w/v(weight-to-volume) of barium suspension (room temperature, 24 deg C), which was made with 1,200mL of distilled water (Group 1;29cases) and normal saline (Group 2;25cases) per 1Kg of Solotop (Taejoon Pharmacy, Seoul, Korea). Bowel preparation and examination methods were the same in both groups, and four projections(erect view, supine view, both decubitus views) were taken. The mucosal coating was graded as excellent, good, ordinary, or poor by three radiologists working independently, and scored from 3 to 0. Significance was analyzed by t-test. Mean grading scores were 2.33±0.70 in group 1 and 1.56±0.99 in group 2 (P<0.003). When barium suspension made with distilled water was used, the degree of mucosal coating on DCBE was better than when the suspension was made with normal saline

  11. Gastric washing by distilled water can reduce free gastric cancer cells exfoliated into the stomach lumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, Atsuko; Abe, Nobutsugu; Yoshimoto, Eri; Hashimoto, Yoshikazu; Takeuchi, Hirohisa; Nagao, Gen; Masaki, Tadahiko; Mori, Toshiyuki; Ohkura, Yasuo; Sugiyama, Masanori

    2018-04-25

    Intragastric free cancer cells in patients with gastric cancer have rarely been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detection rate of intragastric free cancer cells in gastric washes using two types of solutions during endoscopic examination. We further clarified risk factors affecting the presence of exfoliated free cancer cells. A total of 175 patients with gastric cancer were enrolled. Lactated Ringer's solution (N = 89) or distilled water (DW; N = 86) via endoscopic working channel was sprayed onto the tumor surface, and the resultant fluid was collected for cytological examination. We compared the cancer-cell positivity rate between the two (Ringer and DW) groups. We also tested the correlation between cancer-cell positivity and clinicopathological factors in the Ringer group to identify risk factors for the presence of exfoliated cancer cells. The cancer-cell positivity rate was significantly higher in the Ringer group than that in the DW group (58 vs 6%). Cytomorphology in the Ringer group was well maintained, but not in the DW group. The larger tumor size (≥ 20 mm) and positive lymphatic involvement were significant risk factors of exfoliated free cancer cells. Cancer cells can be highly exfoliated from the tumor surface into the gastric lumen by endoscopic irrigation in large gastric cancer with lymphatic involvement. Gastric washing by DW can lead to cytoclasis of free cancer cells; therefore, it may minimize the possibility of cancer-cell seeding in procedures carrying potential risks of tumor-cell seeding upon transluminal communication, such as endoscopic full-thickness resection and laparoscopy-endoscopy cooperative surgery.

  12. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, A

    1863-11-12

    To obtain hydrocarbons, coal, shale, or other bituminous substance is distilled in an annular retort. The outer surface is heated by an arrangement of furnaces and flues, and the inner surface has a number of small openings through which the evolved hydrocarbons pass. The inner chamber is cooled by cold air or water pipes to condense the hydrocarbon which is then run off to purifying-apparatus. In a modification, the retort is heated from the inside, the hydrocarbon being condensed in an outer case. Another form of retort consists of a narrow flat chamber, heated from one side and with a cooled condensing-chamber on the other; or two retorts may be used, with one condensing-chamber between them.

  13. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W

    1875-09-07

    The invention relates to apparatus for absorbing and recovering volatile hydrocarbons from gases resulting from the distillation of coal, shale, and the like for the production of mineral oil, or from the coking of coal, charring of wood, and like operations. The apparatus is adapted for the repeated use of the same quantity of absorbent. The gases are passed by pipes through a coke tower down which is allowed to flow a stream of mineral oil or a fatty oil such as rape, olive, lard, tallow, and fish oils. The oil is supplied by a pipe and distributed by a plate which is held up against the opening of the pipe by a spring. The oil absorbs the volatile hydrocarbons contained in the gas and is drawn off by a pipe and passed through a tubular heat-exchanging apparatus, and thence by a pipe to a still formed at the bottom of the coke tower and constructed with a number of trays on the principle of the coffey still. The still is heated by a fire or by admitting the exhaust steam from an engine driving a fan, which draws the gases through the coke tower. The stream is admitted by a pipe and distributed by a perforated disk. Live steam may also be admitted if necessary by a pipe. The volatile oils are distilled off through a pipe to a coil condenser, and flow thence into a tank for separating any condensed water. This tank is covered preferably by a glass plate to allow inspection. The oil remaining in the still flows by a pipe to the heat-exchanger, in which it gives up heat to the oil flowing from the coke tower. It then flows by a pipe through a tubular cooler, cooled by water circulation, and thence to a store tank from which it is again pumped to the top of the coke tower.

  14. Steam direct re compression and energy recovery in ethanol-water distillation; Recompressao direta de vapor e recuperacao de energia na destilacao do sistema etanol-agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravagnani, T M.K.; Pereira, J A.F.R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    1985-12-31

    Steam re compression has been presented as the most promising and economical substitute for conventional distillation. The present work describes and analyze the application of the direct vapour re compression technique to ethanol-water distillation columns, when the azeotrope is the top product. Results shows that energy savings up to 80% can be obtained. The study takes in account the effects of the column operation conditions, addition of inert gas in the re compression circuit and compressor efficiency (assumed to be polytropic). Analysis of the results permits to obtain the optimum conditions for the use of the direct steam re compression in the ethanol-water distillation. (author). 5 figs., 7 refs

  15. Dry distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1939-11-30

    To heat rapidly, and prevent agglutination of carbonaceous material duriing distillation of shale, a furnace of the tunnel type has four compartments (the preheating chamber, the distillation chamber proper, and two cooling chambers). Waggons, which convey the material through the distilling chamber, have perforated bottoms. Above the waggons in the distilling chamber are three heating sections having pipes which pass through the sections and communicate with the distilling chamber. Fans cause the distillation gases to circulate through the material and the pipes. The heating gases from three fire boxes are introduced into the oven, and circulate around pipes and are drawn to the discharge apertures by the fans. The heating gases introduced at two points travel in the direction of the material being treated, while the gases introduced at a third point travel in counter flow thereto. Gas is discharged by two pipes. Trucks carrying treated material are passed to two cooling chambers.

  16. Shale distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanding, F H

    1946-08-29

    A continuous method of distilling shale to produce valuable hydrocarbon oils is described which comprises providing a fluidized mass of the shale in a distillation zone, withdrawing hydrocarbon vapors from the zone, mixing fresh cold shale with the hydrocarbon vapors to quench the same, whereby the fresh shale is preheated, recovering hydrocarbon vapors and product vapors from the mixture and withdrawing preheated shale from the mixture and charging it to a shale distillation zone.

  17. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-07-05

    A process and apparatus for the destructive distillation at low temperature of mineral or organic material particularly oil shale, is given in which the process comprises distilling the material in a horizontal gaseous stream, subjecting the hot residues to the action of a gaseous stream containing a predetermined amount of oxygen so as to burn, at least partly, the carbon-containing substances, and the process uses the gases from this combustion for the indirect heating of the gases serving for the distillation.

  18. Distilling shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyl, G E

    1917-02-06

    The yield of oil obtained by distilling shale is increased by first soaking the shale with about 10 percent of its volume of a liquid hydrocarbon for a period of 24 hours or longer. Distillation is carried on up to a temperature of about 220/sup 0/C., and a further 10 percent of hydrocarbon is then added and the distillation continued up to a temperature of about 400/sup 0/C.

  19. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF 2 AGENTS, AIR AND DISTILLED WATER FOR INFLATION OF THE CUFFS OF ENDOTRACHEAL TUBES DURING LAPAROSCOPIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES UNDER GENERAL ANAESTHESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sistla Gopala Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIM During Nitrous Oxide+ Oxygen anaesthesia and during laparoscopic surgeries using carbon dioxide for creating pneumoperitoneum, if cuff of endotracheal tube is inflated with air, cuff pressure can rise to dangerous limits and it can produce ischemia of tracheal mucosa. Hence distilled water as an alternative agent to air for inflation of cuffs of endotracheal tubes was used for our study. Our aim is to investigate the difference in increase of intra-cuff pressure with time during laparoscopic surgical procedures under general endotracheal anaesthesia with Nitrous oxide+ Oxygen+ relaxant technique when cuffs of endotracheal tube were inflated by air & distilled water. METHODS Fifty patients (n=50 undergoing different laparoscopic surgical procedures under general endotracheal anaesthesia were randomly divided into 2 groups. In group A, air was used & in group D, distilled water was used to inflate the cuffs of endotracheal tubes. General anaesthesia was given with Nitrous oxide+ Oxygen+ relaxant technique. The intra-cuff pressures of endotracheal tube cuffs were recorded in the beginning and at the end of laparoscopic surgical procedures. Increase of pressures with time were recorded and analysed. RESULTS In group in whom we inflated the cuffs with air, there was a significant increase in intra-cuff pressures with time and there was definite diffusion of gases into the cuffs. Increase of pressure with time was statistically highly significant (P=0.00001. But in group in whom we used distilled water to inflate the cuffs, there was no change in the volume of water used for inflation and water came out of cuffs at the end of the laparoscopic surgical procedures. No additional air could be aspirated from the cuffs at the end of laparoscopic surgeries in distilled water group, indicating that there was no diffusion of gases into the cuffs or the gases diffused got dissolved in distilled water. Hence there was no increase of volume

  20. Fouling in Membrane Distillation, Osmotic Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Laqbaqbi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Various membrane separation processes are being used for seawater desalination and treatment of wastewaters in order to deal with the worldwide water shortage problem. Different types of membranes of distinct morphologies, structures and physico-chemical characteristics are employed. Among the considered membrane technologies, membrane distillation (MD, osmotic distillation (OD and osmotic membrane distillation (OMD use porous and hydrophobic membranes for production of distilled water and/or concentration of wastewaters for recovery and recycling of valuable compounds. However, the efficiency of these technologies is hampered by fouling phenomena. This refers to the accumulation of organic/inorganic deposits including biological matter on the membrane surface and/or in the membrane pores. Fouling in MD, OD and OMD differs from that observed in electric and pressure-driven membrane processes such electrodialysis (ED, membrane capacitive deionization (MCD, reverse osmosis (RO, nanofiltration (NF, ultrafiltration (UF, microfiltration (MF, etc. Other than pore blockage, fouling in MD, OD and OMD increases the risk of membrane pores wetting and reduces therefore the quantity and quality of the produced water or the concentration efficiency of the process. This review deals with the observed fouling phenomena in MD, OD and OMD. It highlights different detected fouling types (organic fouling, inorganic fouling and biofouling, fouling characterization techniques as well as various methods of fouling reduction including pretreatment, membrane modification, membrane cleaning and antiscalants application.

  1. A Comparison of delO18 Composition of Water Extracted from Suction Lysimeters, Centrifugation, and Azeotropic Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, A.; Tindall, J. A.; Friedel, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    Concentration of delO18 in water samples extracted by suction lysimeters is compared to samples obtained by methods of centrifugation and azeotropic distillation. Intact soil cores (30 cm diameter by 40 cm height) were extracted from two different sites. Site 1 was rapid infiltration basin number 50, near Altamonte Springs in Seminole County, Florida on properties belonging to the Walt Disney World Resort Complex. Site 2 was the Missouri Management System Evaluation Area (MSEA) near Centralia in Boone County, Missouri. The delO18 water was analyzed on a mass spectrophotometer. Potassium Bromide (KBr) was also used as a tracer and analyzed by ion chromatography. A portion of the data obtained was modeled using CXTFIT. Water collected by centrifugation and azeotropic distillation data were about 2-5% more negative than that collected by suction lysimeter values from the Florida (sandy) soil and about 5-7 % more negative from the Missouri (well structured clay) soil. Results indicate that the majority of soil water in well structured soil is strongly bound to soil grain surfaces and is not easily sampled by suction lysimeters. Also, it is plausible that evaporation caused some delO18 enrichment in the suction lysimeters. Suction lysimeters preferentially sampled water held at lower matric potentials, which may not represent total soil water. In cases where a sufficient volume of water has passed through the soil profile and displaced all previous pore water, suction lysimeters will however collect a representative sample of all the water at that depth interval. It is suggested that for stable isotope studies monitoring precipitation and soil water, suction lysimeters be installed at shallow depths (10 cm). Samples should also be coordinated with precipitation events. The CXTFIT program worked well for Florida soils (a more homogeneous sand), but gave poor performance for Missouri soils (well structured clays) except for deeper depths where clay structure was less

  2. Destructive distillation under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1932-09-08

    A process of destructive distillation of distillable carbonaceous material under pressure is described, consisting of regulating the temperature by introducing the carbonaceous materials to a point where the reaction of hydrogenation has begun but has not stopped, by placing it in indirect heat-exchange with a cooling agent at a critical temperature below the reaction temperature, the agent being under pressure and introduced in the liquid state. Water is used as the cooling agent.

  3. Distilling shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justice, P M

    1917-09-19

    Light paraffin oils and other oils for motors are obtained from shale, and benzene, toluene, and solvent naphtha are obtained from coal by a process in which the coal or shale is preferably powered to pass through a mesh of 64 to the inch and is heated with a mixture of finely ground carbonate or the like which under the action of heat gives off carbonic acid, and with small iron scrap or its equivalent which is adapted to increase the volume of hydrocarbons evolved. The temperature of the retort is maintained between 175 and 800/sup 0/C., and after all the vapors are given off at the higher temperature a fine jet of water may be injected into the retort and the temperature increased. The produced oil is condensed and purified by fractional distillation, and the gas formed is stored after passing it through a tower packed with coke saturated with a non-volatile oil with recovery of an oil of light specific gravity which is condensed in the tower. The residuum from the still in which the produced oil is fractionated may be treated with carbonate and iron, as in the first stage of the process, and the distillate therefrom passed to a second retort containing manganese dioxide and iron scrap preferably in the proportion of one part or two. The mixture, e.g., one containing shale or oil with six to thirteen percent of oxygen, to which is added three to eight per cent of carbonate, and from one and a half to four per cent of scrap iron, is conveyed by belts and an overhead skip to a hopper of a retort in a furnace heated by burners supplied with producer gas. The retort is fitted with a detachable lid and the vapors formed are led by a pipe to a vertical water-cooled condenser with a drain-cock which leads the condensed oils to a tank, from which a pipe leads to a packed tower for removing light oils and from which the gas passes to a holder.

  4. Sequential Strategy Of Experimental Design I: Optimization Of Extractive Distillation Process Of Ethanol-water Using [bmim][n(cn)(2)] As Entrainer

    OpenAIRE

    Jaimes Figueroa; Jaiver Efren; Rodrigues; Maria Isabel; Wolf Maciel; Maria Regina

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the methods available to obtain the anhydrous ethanol is the extractive distillation process, which presents great potential depending on the solvent used. It is imperative that the solvent promotes dehydration, but low cost, the low energy consumption, and low waste generation and emissions must be taken into account. Within this context, there is high demand for new efficient solvents for extractive distillation of ethanol-water mixture, so, the ionic liquids (ILs) have som...

  5. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, T

    1862-03-03

    Apparatus for the primary distillation of shale or other bituminous minerals in large quantity is constructed as follows:--An annular retort chamber is heated by two or more furnaces, one of which communicates with a central or internal vertical flue, and the others with external or encircling flues preferably disposed in zig-zag, helical or other tortuous course; or the gases pass up the external flues and down the internal flue or flues. The retort chamber may be divided by partitions, or there may be two or more separate chambers disposed concentrically or otherwise with intermediate flues. A pipe or pipes are provided to carry away volatile matters, and valved hoppers are arranged at the top of the retort chamber. The refuse or waste passes off by discharge tubes between the furnaces, and the mouths of these tubes dip into water tanks. The bottom of the retort chamber is funnel-shaped at the discharging points. The apparatus is preferably cylindrical, but may be triangular, square, or polygonal, and may be inclined or horizontal instead of vertical.

  6. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, A

    1865-10-04

    To prevent oil distilled from coal, shale, or other minerals from being condensed and burnt in the retort, the oil is drawn off from the bottom of the retort. In order that the oil may be drawn off free from dirt and dust, the vertical retort is made of greater diameter at the bottom than at the top, and a vessel containing water is placed at the bottom. Within the retort is a cylinder built up of spaced rings, between which the oil percolates to the interior of the cylinder, whence it is drawn off through a pipe near its lower end. Externally, the rings present a smooth surface which offers no obstruction to the descent of the coal, and the passing of dust and dirt to the interior of the cylinder is prevented by making the lower edge of each ring overlap the upper edge of the ring below it. The cylinder may be replaced by a square, or other casing, and may be cast in one piece.

  7. Low temperature distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-21

    To distil mineral or organic material, the material is heated by means of a hot gas entering into contact with and traversing the material in a horizontal direction. The vertical retort is charged with material from the hopper and hot gases from the furnace after traversing the boiler enter the preheating zone, pass through the slots and charge therein and are educted through connection by the blower. The charge passes downwardly to the distillation zone wherein hot gases from the heater are passed via pipe and slots through the chambers and to the pipe controlled by the dampers. These gases are recycled by the fan through the heater and chamber, that portion of the gases corresponding to the amount of vapours evolved from the distillation being evacuated via the pipe to the condensing plant not shown. Steam and/or a limited quantity of water may be admitted to the distillation zone.

  8. Improved Dynamic Modeling of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem and Integration with Models of Other Water Recovery Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2015-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) is a rotary multistage distiller being developed to serve as the primary processor for wastewater recovery during long-duration space missions. The CDS could be integrated with a system similar to the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor Assembly (WPA) to form a complete Water Recovery System (WRS) for future missions. Independent chemical process simulations with varying levels of detail have previously been developed using Aspen Custom Modeler (ACM) to aid in the analysis of the CDS and several WPA components. The existing CDS simulation could not model behavior during thermal startup and lacked detailed analysis of several key internal processes, including heat transfer between stages. The first part of this paper describes modifications to the ACM model of the CDS that improve its capabilities and the accuracy of its predictions. Notably, the modified version of the model can accurately predict behavior during thermal startup for both NaCl solution and pretreated urine feeds. The model is used to predict how changing operating parameters and design features of the CDS affects its performance, and conclusions from these predictions are discussed. The second part of this paper describes the integration of the modified CDS model and the existing WPA component models into a single WRS model. The integrated model is used to demonstrate the effects that changes to one component can have on the dynamic behavior of the system as a whole.

  9. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hislop, G R

    1882-11-03

    Relates to apparatus for the treatment of cannel or common coal, shale, dross, peat, wood, and similar carbonaceous materials and ironstones for the purpose of obtaining gas, ammonia, and oil. A series of horizontal retorts are built into an arched chamber, and are supported by open arches. A series of vertical retorts in a chamber are situated beneath and in front of the retorts, so that the contents of the latter may easily be discharged into them. The carbonaceous material is first subjected to distillation in the retorts, the products passing by pipes to a hydraulic main where the coal tar and mineral oil are collected in the usual way. The gas is passed through oxide of iron and of lime if to be used for illuminating purposes, and through the former only, if to be used solely for heating purposes. The lower ends of the retorts are closed by doors, or may be sealed by water. They are preferably oblong in section and are surrounded by heating-flues, and each preferably contains the spent material from two of the primary retorts. They discharge their contents into a chamber at the bottom, from which they are withdrawn through a door. When the coke has been transferred from the horizontal to the vertical retorts the latter are closed by suitable covers, and the former are recharged with raw material. Superheated steam is introduced into the lower ends of the vertical retorts in order to facilitate the production of ammonia, which, together with the gases generated pass by a pipe to a main.

  10. EVALUATION OF SODIUM CHLORIDE CRYSTALLIZATION IN MEMBRANE DISTILLATION CRYSTALLIZATION APPLIED TO WATER DESALINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Nariyoshi

    Full Text Available Abstract Crystallization in a Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD process was studied both theoretically and experimentally. A mathematical model was proposed in order to predict the transmembrane flux in DCMD. The model fitted well experimental data for the system NaCl-H2O from undersaturated to supersaturated conditions in a specially designed crystallization setup at a bench scale. It was found that higher transmembrane fluxes induce higher temperature and concentration polarizations, as well as higher supersaturation in the vicinity of the solution-vapor interface. In this region, the supersaturation ratio largely exceeded the metastable limit for NaCl crystallization for the whole range of transmembrane fluxes of 0.37 to 1.54 kg/ (m2 h, implying that heterogeneous primary nucleation occurred close to such interface either in solution or on the membrane surface. Solids formed in solution accounted for 14 to 36% of the total solids, whereas solid formed on the membrane surface (fouling was responsible for 6 to 19%. The remaining solids deposited on other surfaces such as in pumps and pipe fittings. It was also discovered that, by increasing the supersaturation ratio, heterogeneous nucleation in solution increased and on the membrane surface decreased. Heterogeneous nuclei in solution grew in size both by a molecular mechanism and by agglomeration. Single crystals were cubic shaped with well-formed edges and dominant size of about 40 µm whereas agglomerates were about 240 µm in size. The approach developed here may be applied to understanding crystallization phenomena in Membrane Distillation Crystallization (MDC processes of any scale.

  11. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis−Membrane Distillation (PRO−MD) Process for Osmotic Power and Clean Water Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Gang

    2015-05-20

    A novel pressure retarded osmosis−membrane distillation (PRO−MD) hybrid process has been experimentally conceived for sustainable production of renewable osmotic power and clean water from various waters. The proposed PRO−MD system may possess unique advantages of high water recovery rate, huge osmotic power generation, well controlled membrane fouling, and minimal environmental impacts. Experimental results show that the PRO−MD hybrid process is promising that not only can harvest osmotic energy from freshwater but also from wastewater. When employing a 2 M NaCl MD concentrate as the draw solution, ultrahigh power densities of 31.0 W/m2 and 9.3 W/m2 have been demonstrated by the PRO subsystem using deionized water and real wastewater brine as the feeds, respectively. Simultaneously, high purity potable water with a flux of 32.5−63.1 L/(m2.h) can be produced by the MD subsystem at 40−60 °C without any detrimental effects of fouling. The energy consumption in the MD subsystem might be further reduced by applying a heat exchanger in the hybrid system and using low-grade heat or solar energy to heat up the feed solution. The newly developed PRO−MD hybrid process would provide insightful guidelines for the exploration of alternative green technologies for renewable osmotic energy and clean water production.

  12. Shale distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanding, F H

    1948-08-03

    A continuous method of distilling shale to produce valuable hydrocarbon oils is described, which comprises providing a fluidized mass of the shale in a distillation zone, withdrawing hydrocarbon vapors containing shale fines from the zone, mixing sufficient fresh cold shale with the hydrocarbon vapors to quench the same and to cause condensation of the higher boiling constituents thereof, charging the mixture of vapors, condensate, and cold shale to a separation zone where the shale is maintained in a fluidized condition by the upward movement of the hydrocarbon vapors, withdrawing condensate from the separation zone and recycling a portion of the condensate to the top of the separation zone where it flows countercurrent to the vapors passing therethrough and causes shale fines to be removed from the vapors by the scrubbing action of the condensate, recovering hydrocarbon vapors and product vapors from the separation zone, withdrawing preheated shale from the separation zone and charging it to a shale distillation zone.

  13. Report on the state of heavy water system during distillation - Annex 8; Prilog 8 - Izvestaj o stanju teskovodnog sistema u toku destilacije

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zecevic, V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-12-15

    Measurements of radiation level were done in 7 points of the heavy water system and distillation system. Measuring results shown in this report show that the radiation intensity was highest on the heat exchangers and lowest on the incoming pipe at the heavy water distillation system. [Serbo-Croat] Merenja intenziteta zracenja vrsena su u 7 tacaka teskovodnog sistema i sistema destilacije. Rezultati merenja prikazani u ovom izvestaju pokazuju da je intenzitet zracenja najveci na toploizmenjivacima, a najmanji na dovodnoj cevi teske vode na destilaciji.

  14. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, T

    1863-09-14

    Shales and other bituminous minerals are distilled in horizontal retorts arranged side by side and with furnaces beneath their front ends. The furnace gases pass, preferably through a brickwork grating, into spaces between the retorts and beneath a horizontal partition towards the back ends. They return above the partition to the front of the retorts, and finally enter a horizontal flue leading to a chimney. The front end of each retort is fitted with a hopper for charging and with a door for discharging. The products of distillation pass through perforated partitions inside the retorts and are conveyed away by pipes at the back.

  15. A new-generation asymmetric multi-bore hollow fiber membrane for sustainable water production via vacuum membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2013-06-18

    Due to the growing demand for potable water, the capacities for wastewater reclamation and saline water desalination have been increasing. More concerns are raised on the poor efficiency of removing certain contaminants by the current water purification technologies. Recent studies demonstrated superior separation performance of the vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) technology for the rejection of trace contaminants such as boron, dye, endocrine-disruptive chemical, and chloro-compound. However, the absence of suitable membranes with excellent wetting resistance and high permeation flux has severely hindered the VMD application as an effective water production process. This work presents a new generation multibore hollow fiber (MBF) membrane with excellent mechanical durability developed for VMD. Its micromorphology was uniquely designed with a tight surface and a fully porous matrix to maximize both high wetting resistance and permeation flux. Credit to the multibore configuration, a 65% improvement was obtained on the antiwetting property. Using a synthetic seawater feed, the new membrane with optimized fabrication condition exhibits a high flux and the salt rejection is consistently greater than 99.99%. In addition, a comparison of 7-bore and 6-bore MBF membranes was performed to investigate the optimum geometry design. The newly designed MBF membrane not only demonstrates its suitability for VMD but also makes VMD come true as an efficient process for water production.

  16. Effect of laser energy on the SPR and size of silver nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in distilled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Prahlad K.; Sharma, Ashwini K.; Khare, Alika

    2018-04-01

    The effect of incident laser energy on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and size of silver nanoparticles synthesized via pulsed laser ablation of silver immersed in distilled water is reported in this paper. The broadening in the plasmonic bandwidth of the synthesized nanoparticles with the increase in the laser energy incident onto the silver target indicates the reduction in size of the nanoparticles. This is confirmed by the transmission electron microscope (TEM) images which show a decrease in the average particle size of the nanoparticles from approximately 15 to 10 nm with the increase in incident laser energy from 30 to 70 mJ, respectively. The structural features as revealed by the selected area electron diffraction and ultra-high resolution TEM studies confirmed the formation of both silver as well as silver oxide nanoparticles.

  17. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, C A

    1906-05-22

    The invention relates to an apparatus in which the destructive distillation or coking of coal, peat, shale, etc., is carried out by means of a current of hot gases at a temperature of 700--800/sup 0/F., as described in Specification No. 11,925, A.D. 1906.

  18. Effect of inhaled furosemide and torasemide on bronchial response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresi, A; Pelucchi, A; Mastropasqua, B; Cavigioli, G; Carlesi, R M; Marazzini, L

    1992-08-01

    Inhaled furosemide has been shown to reduce the bronchoconstriction induced by several indirect stimuli, including ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (UNDW). Because the protective effect could be due to the inhibition of the Na(+)-2Cl(-)-K+ cotransport system of bronchial epithelium, we have compared the protective effect of inhaled furosemide with that of inhaled torasemide, a new and more potent loop diuretic, on UNDW-induced bronchoconstriction in a group of 12 asthmatic subjects. UNDW challenge was performed by constructing a stimulus-response curve with five increasing volume outputs of distilled water (from 0.5 to 5.2 ml/min) and the bronchial response expressed as the provocative output causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PO20UNDW). On different days, each subject inhaled an equal dose (28 mg) of furosemide and torasemide in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study 5 min prior to an UNDW challenge. Furosemide and torasemide had no significant effect on resting lung function. The geometric mean value of PO20UNDW measured after placebo was 1.73 ml/min. This was significantly lower than that recorded after furosemide (4.25 ml/min; p < 0.025), but not after torasemide (3.05 ml/min; p = 0.07). Inhaled furosemide totally blocked bronchial response to UNDW in five subjects. In two of five subjects the response was also blocked by inhaled torasemide. A remarkable increase in diuresis was noted only after torasemide in most subjects. We conclude that inhaled furosemide has a better protective effect than does inhaled torasemide against UNDW-induced bronchoconstriction. However, the protective effect of furosemide is variable, with some asthmatic patients showing no change in bronchial response to UNDW.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Effective use of thermal energy at both hot and cold side of thermoelectric module for developing efficient thermoelectric water distillation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Madhhachi, Hayder; Min, Gao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New distillation process using thermoelectric to assist evaporation/condensation. • Novel thermoelectric distillation system with reduced specific energy consumption. • Freshwater production by thermoelectrically assisted evaporation and condensation. - Abstract: An efficient thermoelectric distillation system has been designed and constructed for production of drinkable water. The unique design of this system is to use the heat from hot side of the thermoelectric module for water evaporation and the cold side for vapour condensation simultaneously. This novel design significantly reduces energy consumption and improves the system performance. The results of experiments show that the average water production is 28.5 mL/h with a specific energy consumption of 0.00114 kW h/mL in an evaporation chamber filled with 10 × 10 × 30 mm"3 of water. This is significantly lower than the energy consumption required by other existing thermoelectric distillation systems. The results also show that a maximum temperature difference between the hot and cold side of the thermoelectric module is 42.3 °C, which led to temperature increases of 26.4 °C and 8.4 °C in water and vapour, respectively.

  20. Efficiency of methods for Karl Fischer determination of water in oils based on oven evaporation and azeotropic distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, William; Jalbert, Jocelyn; Gilbert, Roland; Cedergren, Anders

    2003-03-15

    The efficiency of azeotropic distillation and oven evaporation techniques for trace determination of water in oils has recently been questioned by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), on the basis of measurements of the residual water found after the extraction step. The results were obtained by volumetric Karl Fischer (KF) titration in a medium containing a large excess of chloroform (> or = 65%), a proposed prerequisite to ensure complete release of water from the oil matrix. In this work, the extent of this residual water was studied by means of a direct zero-current potentiometric technique using a KF medium containing more than 80% chloroform, which is well above the concentration recommended by NIST. A procedure is described that makes it possible to correct the results for dilution errors as well as for chemical interference effects caused by the oil matrix. The corrected values were found to be in the range of 0.6-1.5 ppm, which should be compared with the 12-34 ppm (uncorrected values) reported by NIST for the same oils. From this, it is concluded that the volumetric KF method used by NIST gives results that are much too high.

  1. Fractional distillation of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L D

    1931-10-31

    A method of dividing oil into lubricating oil fractions without substantial cracking by introducing the oil in a heated state into a fractionating column from which oil fractions having different boiling points are withdrawn at different levels, while reflux liquid is supplied to the top of the column, and additional heat is introduced into the column by contacting with the oil therein a heated fluid of higher monlecular weight than water and less susceptible to thermal decomposition than is the highest boiling oil fraction resulting from the distillation, or of which any products produced by thermal decomposition will not occur in the highest boiling distillate withdrawn from the column.

  2. A sub-boiling distillation method for the preparation of low carbon content water from urine samples for tritium measurement by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogawa, Norio; Makide, Yoshihiro

    1999-01-01

    A new preparation method was developed for obtaining low carbon content water from urine samples for the measurement of tritium by a liquid scintillation counter. The method uses a simple and convenient subboiling distillation bottle. Many urine samples have been purified by this method and the change of tritium level in a tritium-handling radiation-worker was observed

  3. Tissue kinetics, ion transport, and recruitment of mitochondria-rich cells in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo) in response to exposure to distilled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz, Poul Egede; Christoffersen, Betina C.; Johansen, Jesper S.

    1995-01-01

    Mitochondria-rich cells (MRC) of the amphibian epidermis are responsible for active chloride uptake at low external salinity, and new MRCs are recruited in response to exposure to distilled (deionized) water. The time-course of this recruitment, the tissue kinetics and ion transport have been...

  4. Experimental investigation on thermal performance of a closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) using methanol and distilled water at different filling ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Swarna, Anindita Dhar; Ahmed, Syed Nasif Uddin; Perven, Sanjida; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Pulsating Heat Pipes, the new two-phase heat transfer devices, with no counter current flow between liquid and vapor have become a modern topic for research in the field of thermal management. This paper focuses on the performance of methanol and distilled water as working fluid in a closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP). This performances are compared in terms of thermal resistance, heat transfer co-efficient, and evaporator and condenser wall temperature with variable heat inputs. Methanol and Distilled water are selected for their lower surface tension, dynamic viscosity and sensible heat. A closed loop PHP made of copper with 2mm ID and 2.5mm OD having total 8 loops are supplied with power input varied from 10W to 60W. During the experiment the PHP is kept vertical, while the filling ratio (FR) is increased gradually from 40% to 70% with 10% increment. The optimum filling ratio for a minimum thermal resistance is found to be 60% and 40% for distilled water and methanol respectively and methanol is found to be the better working fluid compared to distilled water in terms of its lower thermal resistance and higher heat transfer coefficient.

  5. Destructive distillation: oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J; Glover, S

    1918-01-31

    Canned and other coals are destructively distilled in continuously operated vertical retorts which at their upper portions are maintained at temperatures suitable for low temperature oil distillation such as about 700/sup 0/C, and at their lower portions the temperature is higher and such as to be suitable for the production of gas, e.g., about 1400/sup 0/C. Superheated steam is introduced into the lower portion of the retort, preferably by means of the arrangement described in Specification 120,458, and this is converted into blue water gas which assists the distillation in the center of the coal charge. The retorts are preferably such as are described in Specifications 2663/07 and 7757/14.

  6. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, A; Renfrewshire, I; Black, W

    1889-06-14

    The invention relates to a method of, and apparatus for, distilling shale, coal, or other oil or tar-yielding minerals, to obtain gases, liquids, or other products. The distillation is effected in vertical retorts by the combustion of the partially spent material in the lower part of the retorts, to which steam and air are admitted. The retorts are built of firebrick, and provided with iron casings. They are fed through hoppers and discharged through the openings. The discharging is facilitated by a cone, or its equivalent, in the base of each retort. Steam and air are admitted through the pipes. The interior may be viewed through holes. The products are taken off from the space around the hopper.

  7. Distilling shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, J; Armour, H

    1889-05-07

    The invention relates to retorts and accessory apparatus for distilling shale or other oil-yielding minerals. A series of long vertical retorts, composed of fire-brick or similar refractory material, are arranged in two rows in a bench, being divided into groups of four by transverse vertical partitions. The retorts are surmounted by metal casings or hoppers into which the fresh mineral is charged, and from which the distillate passes off through lateral pipes. Any uncondensed gases from the retorts may be passed into the flues surrounding them by the pipe and burned. The products of combustion from a furnace pass through a series of horizontal flues, being compelled to pass completely round each retort before entering the flue above. The products from two or more sets pass from the upper flues into flues running along the top of the bench, and return through a central flue to the chimney.

  8. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquhart, D

    1882-08-19

    Manufacture of ammonia and purification of shale oils are described. In the distillation of shales, increase of ammonia is obtained and the oils are less contaminated by sulfur, by mixing a small proportion, about two to three percent, of lime or slaked line with the shale. The same process is used with other carbonaceous substances containing nitrogen, such as peat, coal, or the like; but a smaller proportion of lime is used than in the former case, and the lime is slaked with caustic soda solution. When slack or waste coal or other carbonaceous substances are distilled by heated air or gases arising from imperfect combustion, as in furnaces on the gas producer principle, slaked lime is added to the slack or other material.

  9. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosden, S; Cosden, J S

    1937-09-08

    A means and process are described for the destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials in which the process comprises charging the material, in a finely divided condition into a stream of hot combustion gases, and allows the hot gases to act pyrolytically on the organic compounds contained in the material, separating the volatile liberated constituents from residuary constituents. Hot reaction gases are generated by fuel ignition means in a generator and are immediately intermingled with comminuted carbonaceous material from a hopper, in a narrow conduit. The mixture of material and reaction fluid is then passed through an elongated confined path, which is exteriorly heated by the combustion chamber of the furnace, where the destructive distillation is effected. Volatile and solid constituents are separated in the chamber, and the volatile constituents are fractionated and condensed.

  10. Distilling oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leffer, L G

    1912-01-29

    In a process for converting heavy hydrocarbons, such as petroleum or shale oil, into light hydrocarbons by distilling under the pressure of an inert gas, the operation is conducted at a temperature not exceeding 410/sup 0/C and under an accurately regulated pressure, the gas being circulated through the still and the condenser by means of a pump. The oil in the still may be agitated by stirring vanes or by blowing the gas through it. Hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, or gases generated in the distillation may be used as pressure media; the gas is heated before its admission to the still. A pressure of from 11 to 12 atmospheres is used in treating gas oil. Specification 10,277/89 is referred to.

  11. Distilling shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, L

    1922-07-21

    In the distillation of shale and similar materials the shale is ground and briquetted and the briquettes are placed in a retort so that air passages are left between them, after which they are uniformly and slowly heated to at least 700/sup 0/C, the air passages facilitating the escape of the oil vapors, and the slow heating preventing fusion of the flux forming constituents. After the bitumen has been driven off, air is passed into the retort and heating continued to about 1050/sup 0/C, the result being a porous product suitable for insulating purposes or as a substitute for kieselguhr. The ground shale may be mixed prior to distillation with peat, sawdust, or the like, and with substances which yield acids, such as chlorides, more particularly magnesium chloride, the acids acting on the bitumen.

  12. Distilling coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blythe, F C

    1914-09-14

    In the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, heavy hydrocarbon oil, such as petroleum, kerosine, shale oil, and heavy tar oil, obtained in some cases during the process, is added to the coal, which is then distilled under pressure and at a comparatively low temperature regulated so as to produce a large proportion of hydrocarbon oils and a small proportion of permanent gas. In one method, about 5 to 10 parts of hydrocarbon oil are mixed with 100 parts of crushed or ground coal, and the mixture is heated in a closed vessel, provided in some cases with an agitator, under a pressure of about 60 lb/in/sup 2/, and the temperature may be gradually raised to 350/sup 0/C and then to about 500/sup 0/C. The heating may be by means of superheated steam with or without external heat.

  13. Experimental study on the adsorptive-distillation for dehydration of ethanol-water mixture using natural and synthetic zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megawati, Wicaksono, D.; Abdullah, M. S.

    2017-03-01

    This research studied adsorptive-distillation (AD) for dehydration of ethanol-water mixture using natural and synthetic zeolites as adsorbent for ethanol purification. Especially, the effect of purification time is recorded and studied to evaluate performance of designed AD equipment. This AD was performed in a batch condition using boiling flask covered with heating mantle and it was maintained at 78°C temperature and 1 atm pressure. The initial ethanol volume was 300 mL with 93.8% v/v concentration. The synthetic zeolite type used was zeolite 3A. The flowed vapour was condensed using water as a cooling medium. Every 5 minutes of time duration the samples were collected until the vapour could not be condensed in that condition and then be analyzed its concentration using Gas-Chromatography. Experiment shows that the designed AD equipment could increase ethanol concentration at first 5 minutes with highest ethanol concentration achieved using synthetic zeolite (97.47% v/v). However, ethanol concentration from AD process using natural zeolite only reached 96.5% v/v. Thus, synthetic zeolite as adsorbent could pass azeotropic point, but natural zeolite fail. The ratio of adsorbed water per adsorbent for natural and synthetic zeolites are about 0.023 and 0.056 gwater/gads, respectively, at 50 minutes of time. Finally, synthetic zeolite (at 55 minutes the value of C/C0 is about 0.85 and the average outlet water concentration is 4.70 mole/L) as adsorbent for AD of ethanol water is better than natural zeolite (at 55 minutes the value of C/C0 is about 0.63 and the average outlet water concentration is 6.43 mole/L).

  14. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W

    1877-03-29

    The method consists in agitating or circulating the distillation products inside the retort by means of jets of gas, steam, or vapor, or by means of reciprocating pistons; condensing certain of the heavy hydrocarbons; sealing or luting the doors of retorts or distilling-vessels; and conducting the distillation for the manufacture of oil so that the charging or discharging doors may be fitted with self-sealing lids. Several arrangements are shown and described; a single horizontal retort is divided into two compartments by a perforated plate which supports the coal, shale, or other bituminous substance, beneath which a piston is reciprocated or a jet of steam, gas, or vapor injected; a vertical retort is fitted with a central tube into which steam, gas, or vapor is injected, or it may be divided into two compartments and the jet injected into one of these; a pair of vertical retorts are connected by a horizontal passage at the top and bottom, and into the upper one steam, gas, or vapor is injected, or the lower one is fitted with a piston.

  15. Total water production capacity inversion phenomenon in multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation: A theoretical study

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2017-09-09

    The low thermal efficiency and low water production are among the major challenges that prevent membrane distillation (MD) process from being commercialized. In an effort to design an efficient multi-stage direct contact MD (DCMD) unit through mathematical simulation, a new phenomenon that we refer to as total water production capacity inversion (WPI) has been detected. It is represented by a decrease in the total water production beyond a number of stages or a certain module length. WPI phenomenon, which was confirmed by using two different mathematical models validated experimentally, was found to take place due to the decrease in water vapor flux across the membrane as well as the increase in heat loss by conduction as the membrane length increases. Therefore, WPI should be considered as a critical MD design-criterion, especially for large scale units. Investigations conducted for a simulated multi-stage DCMD process showed that inlet feed and permeate temperatures difference, feed and permeate flow rates, and feed salinity have different effects on WPI. The number of stages (or module length at constant width) that leads to a maximum water production has been determined for different operating parameters. Decreasing inlet feed and permeate temperatures difference, or inlet feed and permeate flow rates and increasing inlet feed temperature at constant temperature difference or inlet feed salinity cause the WPI to take place at lower number of stages. Even though the feed salinity affects negligibly the mean permeate flux, it was clearly shown that it can affect WPI. The results presented herein unveil a hidden phenomenon that is likely to occur during process scale-up procedures and should be considered by process engineers for a proper choice of system design and operating conditions.

  16. Distilling bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, C N; Hayden, H P

    1926-12-28

    Bituminous materials such as heavy asphaltic residues from petroleum distillation or natural bitumens such as gilsonite, grahamite, etc. are distilled in presence of a carrier consisting of pieces of inert refractory material and by the heat generated by combustion of the coke which remains on the carrier after distillation. A vertical cylindrical retort, in which a wood and coal fire is first made, is charged with an inert refractory substance such as pumice stone, broken firebrick, burnt fire clay, carborundum, ash, etc. mixed with a bituminous substance, which, if fusible, may be melted and added in a rotary drum. The mixture passes downwards through the retort, first through regions in which the hydrocarbons are distilled and cracked and then through a region in which the remaining carbon is burnt by a limited supply of air and steam admitted through a grate. The inert material is discharged through a water seal and used again. Vapors, withdrawn from the retort though an outlet, pass through a heat intercharger and separator and are treated with a spray of sulfuric acid to separate ammonia in a scrubber, with water sprays to condense oil in scrubbers, and with oil in a scrubber.

  17. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dow, P

    1884-09-11

    The invention has for its object to regulate the temperature at any point of vertical retorts in which steam or steam and air are employed for the distillation of shale, coal, and other substances. Vertical steam pipes at the exterior of each retort and connected with main pipes have a series of branches at different levels and furnished with regulating-valves or cocks. The admission of air is similarly regulated and spy-holes with shutters blocked or sealed against the escape of such products by the fuel intake at one end of the conduit and the congested masses of coke discharged at the other.

  18. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennie, G

    1875-11-12

    For distilling shale, or other oil-yielding minerals, two or more, preferably four, vertical retorts are mounted in a brickwork oven and are heated in the first place by coal, coke or other fuel on a grate. The spent material from the retorts is discharged from one or more in turn on to the grate and is used, together with additional fuel if necessary, to maintain the heat of the retorts. The retorts are charged by means of hoppers and lids and are discharged by means of movable bottoms actuated by rods and levers acting in combination with outlet valves. The retorts are tapered from the bottom upwards.

  19. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W; Brash, P

    1866-05-04

    In the distillation of oil from coal, shale, etc., hydrocarbon vapors which are condensed only with difficulty, and are of small value, are reheated and sent back into the retorts. A jet of steam, or a forcing or exhausting apparatus, may be used for this purpose, and the vapors are passed under false bottoms with which the retorts are preferably provided. In the rectification of the oils, a producer known as still bottoms results which, when redistilled, gives rise to vapors condensable only with difficulty. These vapors may be passed back into the still, or may be mixed and heated, in a separate vessel, with the vapors coming from the still.

  20. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medlrum, E

    1869-02-06

    The invention relates to the decomposition of the liquids with high boiling points, and the solids with low melting points, left in the purification of paraffin oil obtained from coal or shale. The liquids or melted solids, or their vapors, are passed through a heated iron tube or retort and c., which may be packed with broken stones, spent shale, and c. The temperature is regulated between 700/sup 0/F and a low red heat. The condensed products consist of a mixture of light and heavy oils, which may be separated by distillation. The heavier residues may be again passed through the decomposing apparatus.

  1. Distilling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataafsche, N V; de Brey, J H.C.

    1918-10-30

    Hydrocarbons containing a very volatile constituent and less volatile constituents, such as casing-head gases, still gases from the distillation of crude petroleum and bituminous shale are separated into their constituents by rectification under pressure; a pressure of 20 atmospheres and limiting temperatures of 150/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C are mentioned as suitable. The mixture may be subjected to a preliminary treatment consisting in heating to a temperature below the maximum rectification temperature at a pressure greater than that proposed to be used in the rectification.

  2. Elimination of {sup 137}Cs from trefoil (leaf and stem), ``Mitsuba``, cryptotaenia japonica hassk, boiled in a distilled and salted waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motegi, Misako; Miyake, Sadaaki; Ohsawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki [Saitama Inst. of Public Health (Japan); Izumo, Yoshiro

    1999-07-01

    Elimination of {sup 137}Cs from highly accumulated trefoil (leaf and stem) through boiling in distilled and salted water were investigated in relation to study the effect of cooking and processing on biochemical states of radionuclides (RI) contaminating in foods. {sup 137}Cs was hardly eliminated from the trefoil immersed in a distilled water at room temperature (about 15degC) during 10 min. {sup 137}Cs was considerably eliminated from the trefoil when boiled in a distilled water, 0.3-3.0% salt concentration of the water and soy sauce: about 40-60% (after 2 min), 70-85% (5 min) and 80-90% (10 min), respectively. Elimination of {sup 137}Cs in the soy sauce (e.g. 77.0{+-}2.9%, at 1% salt concentration after 10 min) was restrictive comparing to that in the salt water (93.4{+-}2.3%). These results are expected to contribute to evaluate the radiation exposure to man when a boiled trefoil contaminating with {sup 137}Cs was ingested. (author)

  3. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1927-12-23

    Oil bearing solids such as coal, tar sands, oil shales, or the like, are distilled in a current of hot gas and are first preheated to a temperature above that at which the heaviest oil fractions in the vapors are liable to condense, for example 100 to 250/sup 0/C, according to the volume of gas passing through the retort, temperature being in inverse proportion to the quantity of oxygen containing constituents in the charge. When the distillation takes place in a controlled volume of hot inert gas of 45,000 cubic feet per ton and the volume of oil recovered is about 20 gallons per ton, the material is preheated to 200 to 250/sup 0/C, when the volume of gas used is 100,000 cubic feet the preheating temperature is 150/sup 0/C. The temperatures of the retort dust extractor etc. do not fall below 100 to 150/sup 0/C until actual condensation of the oil vapor is desired. Specification 287,381 is referred to, and Specification 287,037 also is referred to in the Provisional Specification.

  4. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W

    1881-04-12

    Destructive distillation of shale for the manufacture of mineral oil and ammonia is described. The retorts are arranged in benches, each retort being placed over its own combustion chamber into which the spent shale is discharged and consumed in heating the next charge as described in Specification No. 1578, A. D. 1880. Two forms of retorts are shown, each consisting of two retorts placed above and communicating with one another, the upper being employed to distill the oil at a low red heat, and the lower to eliminate the nitrogen in the form of ammonia at a much higher temperature. The retorts are divided by a sliding damper and have an outlet for the passage of the products placed at the junction. The retorts have an outlet at the top for the escape of the products. Each retort has an opening closed by a cover for charging and a door for discharging. The products of combustion from the combustion chambers pass through ports to a chamber surrounding the lower retorts and thence through ports in the division wall controlled by dampers into the chamber surrounding the upper retorts, whence they pass through flues to the chimney. Around the bottom of each retort are openings communicating with a chamber to which steam is admitted through a valve from a pipe preferably placed in a coil in the flue.

  5. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrom, W A; Bennett, J A.B.

    1884-02-22

    Effecting the separation of the various products of the distillation of coal, shale, etc., by taking advantage of the graduated temperature of successive portions of the length of mechanical retorts is described. The substances entering from the hopper are gradually heated in their progress and give off a series of products in their order of volatilization, which pass from openings in the retort through a series of ascension pipes into collecting-vessels. The vessels are designed to contain different portions of the distillate and are sealed against the escape of uncondensed vapor or gas by the condensed liquid. Each of the ascension pipes communicates above its vessel with a common pipe to convey away permanent gases. The flues for heating the retort may be so arranged as to give the greatest heat at the end farthest from the point of entrance, or the stages of heat may be self-regulated by the time necessary for the material to acquire heat as it travels. If necessary the pipes may be fitted with refrigerating-appliances.

  6. Evidence for distillation in the formation of HAL and related hibonite inclusions. [from Allende, Dhajala, and Murchison chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Trevor R.; Zinner, Ernst K.; Fahey, Albert J.; Esat, Tezer M.

    1992-01-01

    New Ca- and Ti-isotopic analyses of DH-H1, 7-404, and 7-971, and Mg-isotopic analyses on DH-H1 and 7-404 are reported. O-isotopic analyses of HAL, 7-404, 7-971, and a variety of other refractory inclusions from Murchison were made in order to establish the presence or absence of FUN O-isotopic systematics. A higonite-rich residue produced by the evaporation of kaersutite was analyzed for its trace-element and isotopic abundances to see if any of the characteristics of FUN hibonite inclusions can be produced by distillation in the laboratory. These data are then used to evaluate for all four inclusions the HAL-type formation models originally proposed by Allen et al. (1980) and Lee et al. (1980). The four inclusions were found to have very similar chemical and isotopic features. All are characterized by large Ce depletions and very low Mg, Ti, and V concentrations compared to other meteoritic hibonites. All four inclusions have delta(C-48) within error of -5 per mil. Ca-, Ti-, and O-isotopic compositions are fractionated with enrichments of the heavy isotopes, and the Ti-isotopic mass fractionation is inversely correlated with Ti concentration. It is concluded that the inclusions formed primarily as distillation residues in accord with the early conclusions.

  7. Effect of operating parameters and membrane characteristics on air gap membrane distillation performance for the treatment of highly saline water

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jingli

    2016-04-07

    In this study, ten different commercially available PTFE, PP and PVDF membranes were tested in desalination of highly saline water by air gap membrane distillation (AGMD). Process performance was investigated under different operating parameters, such as feed temperatures, feed flow velocities and salt concentrations reaching 120 g/L, and different membrane characteristics, such as membrane material, thickness, pore size and support layer, using a locally designed and fabricatd AGMD module and spacer. Results showed that increasing feed temperature increases permeate flux regardless of the feed concentration. However, feed flow velocity does not significantly affect the flux, especially at low feed temperatures. The PP membrane showed a better performance than the PVDF and PTFE membranes. Permeate flux decreases with the increase of salt concentration of feed solution, especially at higher concentrations above 90 g/L. The existence of membrane support layer led to a slight decrease of permeate flux. Membranes with pore sizes of 0.2 and 0.45 μm gave the best performance. Smaller pore size led to lower flux and larger pore size led to pore wetting due to lower LEP values. The effect of concentration polarization and temperature polarization has also been studied and compared.

  8. The effects of gaseous bubble composition and gap distance on the characteristics of nanosecond discharges in distilled water

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Ahmad

    2016-05-17

    Electric discharge in liquids with bubbles can reduce the energy consumption, which increases treatment efficiency. We present an experimental study of nanosecond discharges in distilled water bubbled with the monoatomic gas argon and with the polyatomic gases methane, carbon dioxide, and propane. We monitor the time evolution of the voltage and current waveforms, and calculate the injected charges to characterize the discharge. We establish a relationship between the injected charges and the shape of the plasma by time-resolved imaging to find that increasing the size of the gap reduces the injected charges. Moreover, we determine the plasma characteristics, including electron density, excitation temperatures (for atoms and ions), and rotational temperature of the OH and C2 radicals found in the plasma. Our space- and time-averaged measurements allow us to propose a spatial distribution of the plasma that is helpful for understanding the plasma dynamics necessary to develop and optimize applications based on nanosecond discharges in bubbled liquids. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. Experimental Evaluation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Efficient Ethanol Recovery from Ethanol-Water Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions [1]. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation ...

  10. The influence of white and blue silica gels as adsorbents in adsorptive-distillation of ethanol-water mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megawati, Jannah, Reni Ainun; Rahayuningtiyas, Indi

    2017-01-01

    This research studied the difference of white and blue silica gels when used as an adsorbent for ethanol purification that is processed via Adsorptive-Distillation (AD) at 1 atm pressure. The effect of process duration to purification process is also recorded and studied to evaluate the performance of designed AD equipment. The experiment was conducted using boiling flask covered with a heating mantle and the temperature was maintained at 78°C. The vapour flowed into the adsorbent column and was condensed using water as a cooling medium. The initial ethanol concentration was 90.8% v/v and volume was 300 mL. Experiment shows that designed AD equipment could be used to purify ethanol. The average vapour velocity was about 39.29 and 45.91 m/s for white and blue silica gels, respectively, which is considered very high. Therefore the saturated adsorption could not be obtained. Highest ethanol concentration achieved using white silica gel is about 96.671% v/v after 50 minutes. Thus AD with white silica gel showed good performance and passed azeotropic point. But AD with blue silica gel showed a different result, the adsorption of blue silica gel failed to break the azeotropic point. The outlet average water concentration for white and blue silica gels is 3.54 and 3.42 mole/L. Based on the weight ratio of adsorbed water per adsorbent, at 55th minutes of time; this ratio of blue silica gel is about 0.053 gwater/gads. The time required by the blue silica to achieve 0.5 wwater-adsorbed/wwater-initial is 45 minutes, and the average outlet water concentration is 3.42 mole/L. Meanwhile, the time required by a white silica to complete 0.5 wwater-adsorbed/wwater-initial is 35 minutes, and the average outlet water level is 3.54 mole/L. Based on the results, the blue silica as an adsorbent for AD of ethanol-water mixture is better than white silica gel.

  11. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennent, R B

    1886-12-02

    The invention has reference to an improved construction or mode of building, arranging, and combining the parts of gas-heated retorts for the distillation of shale and other minerals, which by the improved mode and means comprised therein of heating the retorts by the gases, combined with highly heated air and the use of superheated steam in the retorts, and the utilization of the heat of the escaping waste gases for the superheating of the steam, and the raising of steam in boilers for motive power and other purposes. The retorts are erected in transverse pairs, each retort having its surrounding flame flues heating the air for each pair and with steam superheating chambers and pipes between for each pair heated by the escaping gases from the retorts.

  12. Destructive, distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, J

    1882-10-23

    The apparatus employed resembles a reverberatory furnace, having a brickwork chamber with pipes or passages leading from the bottom, through which gases and vapors, arising from destructive distillation or heating of the materials with which the chamber is charged to a certain depth, are drawn by suction produced by a fan or blower. The materials are heated from above by firegates admitted from a separate furnace or fireplace. When shale is thus treated, to obtain burning gas, oil, and ammonia, the suction may be so regulated as to give preponderance to whichever product is desired, the depth of material treated being also concerned in the result. The process is applicable also in the treatment of coal pit refuse, sawdust, peat, and other matters, to obtain volatile products; in burning limestone to obtain carbon dioxide; and in roasting ores. Reference is made to a former Specification for coking coal, No. 1947, A. D. 1882.

  13. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinjes, J F

    1867-03-12

    The invention relates to means for conveying the material through rotary retorts for distilling shale or the like. The retort is fitted with longitudinal ribs which lift the material and allow it to fall again as the retort rotates. Inclined deflecting plates attached to a fixed shaft cause the material as it falls to be gradually fed towards the discharge end of the retort. By means of the handle, which can be fixed in angular position by a pin entering holes in a quadrant, the angle of the plates may be adjusted and the rate of feed may be thus regulated. Or the plates may be hinged on the shaft or to the inside of the retort, and the angle is then adjusted by a longitudinal rod moved by a handwheel and nut. A similar arrangement may be applied to retorts with an oscillating motion.

  14. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, H; McAlley, R

    1871-05-18

    Shale or clay is coked or carbonized by the action of heat in retorts in the same way that coal is coked or by any of the methods used for coking or carbonizing coal, ironstone, or wood. Clay or shale, which is poor in carbon, is mixed or ground with coal, moss, peat, or earth mold, oil, tar, or other carbonaceous matter, shale, or the coke of certain kinds of coal after having been used in the manufacture of gas or oil by distillation. The mixture is coked or carbonized or the coke may be used alone and submitted to further coking or carbonization. The volatile hydrocarbons may be used in carbonizing or assisting to carbonize the shale by being burned beneath the retorts or they may be condensed along with sulfur, ammonia, etc., and kept for after use.

  15. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenshields, J

    1870-01-13

    In distilling shale or other carbonaceous substances to obtain oil, paraffin, ammonium salts, etc., sulfuric or other acid is added to the material, in the still or before treatment. The shale is first reduced to a fine powder. Acid tar from the treatment of oils may be used instead of acid. Hydrogen is sometimes passed into the still, or iron or other metal is mixed with the shale to generate hydrogen in the still. A figure is included which shows the condenser for paraffin and heavy oils, consisting of an iron cylinder connected with the still by a short pipe and surmounted by a long pipe communicating with other condensers. The pipe projects into the cylinder and perforated plates or baffles are fixed across the central portion of the cylinder. The condensed oils are drawn off by a pipe.

  16. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, G

    1865-05-16

    A retort for the destructive distillation of coal, shale, whereby hydrocarbons are produced, is described. The vertical retort is provided with a charging door, a discharging door, an outlet leading to the condensing plant, an inclined bottom, and a perforated cage to facilitate the escape of the vapor and to regulate the amount of materials operated upon in the retort. The upper part of the cage is conical to deflect the materials fed in by the door and the lower part is also slightly conical to facilitate emptying the retort. The bottom may incline from both back and front, and also from the sides to the center. The apparatus is heated from below, and the flues pass all round the lower part of the retort.

  17. Comparison of pore water samplers and cryogenic distillation under laboratory and field conditions for soil water stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Michael; Frentress, Jay; Tagliavini, Massimo; Scandellari, Francesca

    2018-02-15

    We used pore water samplers (PWS) to sample for isotope analysis (1) only water, (2) soil under laboratory conditions, and (3) soil in the field comparing the results with cryogenic extraction (CE). In (1) and (2), no significant differences between source and water extracted with PWS were detected with a mean absolute difference (MAD) always lower than 2 ‰ for δ 2 H and 1 ‰ for δ 18 O. In (2), CE water was more enriched than PWS-extracted water, with a MAD respect to source water of roughly 8 ‰ for δ 2 H and 4 ‰ for δ 18 O. In (3), PWS water was enriched relative to CE water by 3 ‰ for δ 2 H and 0.9 ‰ for δ 18 O. The latter result may be due to the distinct water portions sampled by the two methods. Large pores, easily sampled by PWS, likely retain recent, and enriched, summer precipitation while small pores, only sampled by CE, possibly retain isotopically depleted water from previous winter precipitation or irrigation inputs. Accuracy and precision were greater for PWS relative to CE. PWS is therefore suggested as viable tool to extract soil water for stable isotope analysis, particularly for soils used in this study (sandy and silty loams).

  18. Study on treatment of distilled ammonia waste water from coke plant with activated carbon-NaClO catalytic oxidation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, D.; Yi, P.; Liu, J.; Chen, A. [Xiangtan Polytechnic University, Xiangtan (China). Dept. of Chemical Enginering

    2001-12-01

    Catalytic oxidation method for the treatment of distilled ammonia waste water from coke plant was investigated using activated carbon as catalyst and NaClO as oxidant. The influences of main factors, such as NaClO, activated carbon, pH and reactionary time were discussed. The results showed that under the conditions of 25{degree}C, NaClO/CODO=1.5, carbon/NaClO=0.6 and pH=3.0, the reaction completed within 120 minutes with 99.5% of phenol removal and 75.8% of COD removal when the distilled ammonia waste water from coke plant which containing phenol 510 mg/L and CODO 8420 mg/L was treated. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W; Neilson, A; Young, A

    1876-10-09

    The invention relates to modifications of the retort apparatus, described in Specification No. 2487, A.D. 1872, for the destructive distillation of shale and other bituminous substances. The retorts instead of being worked continuously are completely filled and completely discharged in turn. They are made oblong in cross-section in order to present the material in thin layers and cause it to be acted upon more rapidly and economically. The retorts can thus be heated solely by the combustion of the carbonaceus matter contained in the discharged residues or with a small amount of coal in addition. Each retort is contracted at the bottom and is fitted with a box or chest having a hole in it corresponding to the opening in the retort and a sliding plate of iron, firebrick, or other suitable material, which can be operated by a rod passing through the front of the box, for opening or closing the retort. Underneath the box and over the combustion chamber are placed fireclay blocks leaving an opening, which can be closed by another plate of firebrick or the like. When distillation commences, the gases and vapors in the retort are drawn off through a pipe and a main by an exhauster. In order to prevent air from entering the retort or hydrocarbon vapor from being puffed back by the action of the wind, the gas which remains after the condensation of the oils is forced back into the box between the plates and part of it enters the retort and part the combustion chamber. In order to avoid the liability of the oil being carried past the condensers by the action of the gas, steam may be used as a substitute for the gas or mixed with it in large proportions, a steam jet being used to force the gas into the main supplying the boxes.

  20. Method of distilling organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, E G.T.

    1921-11-11

    In the distillation of organic materials, by means of coursing heated gases through the distillation chamber, that can be heated by other means also, a method is given by which the hot gases coming from the distillation chamber are cooled in one or more heat-absorbent devices (for example, in spray coolers, condensers and/or water). The greater part of the products or constituents condensable at ordinary temperature are separated from the vapors and gases, and thereafter the gases should be passed through the distillation chamber after the necessary additional heating in special heaters, as one or more heat producers, suitably of the same construction as the heat absorbers, for heating and saturation with steam by means of warm condensate and/or water obtained fully or partly from the heat absorbers, possibly after separation of tar or oil from them. The patent has 11 other claims.

  1. Anaerobic biogasification of domestic wastes and direct solar energy use to produce biogas, biofertilizer and distilled water in a city - a pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    kumar, R.A.; Pandya, N.H.; Patil, A.M.; Annamalai, M.; Iyer, M.V.; Nirmala, K.A.; Venkatesh, P.; Prasad, C.R.; Subramani, C.

    1982-01-01

    Domestic wastes are a source of gas of high calorific value as well as biofertilizer and distilled water. A pilot project undertaken by the Tata Electric Cos., Bombay on recycling sewage, garbage and garden wastes of a community by converting them into biogas, organic fertilizer and distilled water is described. Techniques used are anaerobic fermentation and Solar drying using Solar stills. A fish pond also can be fed the output slurry as feed material. In this pilot plant, 1 to 2 m/sup 3/ raw sewage and one to two tons of processed garden wastes and garbage would be input daily into the digester. The production is expected to be about 100 m/sup 3/ of gas per day, along with about 1500 litres of slurry from which organic fertilizer of 100 200 Kgs can be bagged and transported as well as distilled water of about 500 to 1000 litres Laboratory studies and studies on an approximate scale model of the plant are described. Scaling up to a pilot plant by about 2000 times would increase the efficiency of the rate of gas production as has been found by other workers. These tests and studies have shown that the project is technically and eonomically viable. Applications of the process on a mass scale would result in increasing replacement of fossil energy intensive processes with negentropic methods of economic and social activities.

  2. Design of a unit to produce hot distilled water for the same power consumption as a water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1973-01-01

    Unit recovers 97% of water contained in pretreated waste water. Some factors are: cleansing agent prevents fouling of heat transfer surface by highly concentrated waste; absence of dynamic seals reduces required purge gas flow rate; and recycle loop maintains constant flushing process to carry cleansing agent across evaporation surface.

  3. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W; Fyfe, J

    1897-06-03

    Improvements in retorts of the class described in Specification No. 1377, A. D. 1882, for the destructive distillation of shale are disclosed. The retorts are provided with enlarged multiple hoppers for the reception of the fresh shale, and with enlarged chambers for the reception of the exhausted shale. The hoppers are built up of steel plates, and are bolted at the bottom to flanges on the upper ends of the retorts so as to permit of differential expansion. The shale is fed continuously into the retorts by rods or chains carried by a rocking shaft, or by a slit tube attached to a rocking shaft, and in connection with the hydraulic main. The spent shale is discharged into the receiving chambers by means of a series of prongs extending through a grating and carried by a rocking shaft actuated by levers engaging with reciprocating bars. In an alternative arrangement, the pronged rocking shafts are replaced by worms or screws formed into one half with a right-hand thread and the other half with a left-hand thread.

  4. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinjes, J F

    1866-03-13

    Continuous distillation of shale, boghead coal, or other noncaking bituminous material is effected in one or more rotating or oscillating horizontal retorts constructed to advance the charge. In the former case, internal spiral ribs or projections are provided. In the latter case, the retort is subdivided by annular flanges provided each with an opening, and a series of double inclined projections is disposed opposite the openings. An apparatus is shown in which the material is fed continuously from a hopper, and is advanced through upper and lower oscillating retorts, provided with annular flanges, double inclined projections, and longitudinal ribs or ledges. The retorts are supported on antifriction rollers. The retort is oscillated by means of a mangle wheel and a pinion on a shaft connected by a universal joint to a driving-shaft. The retort is oscillated from the retort by means of a chain connection. The retort is situated in a chamber separated by perforated brickwork from the actual furnace chamber, so that it is subjected to a lower temperature than the retort. The hopper delivers to crushing-rollers in a lower hopper which delivers to a shoot controlled by a sliding door. A hook on the retort is connected by a pipe to the retort, and a pipe leads from the hood to a condenser. A hood at the delivery end of the retort is connected by a pipe to an airtight cooler for the residue, which is discharged through doors into a truck of other receiver.

  5. Optimization study of pressure-swing distillation for the separation process of a maximum-boiling azeotropic system of water-ethylenediamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulgueras, Alyssa Marie; Poudel, Jeeban; Kim, Dong Sun; Cho, Jungho [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The separation of ethylenediamine (EDA) from aqueous solution is a challenging problem because its mixture forms an azeotrope. Pressure-swing distillation (PSD) as a method of separating azeotropic mixture were investigated. For a maximum-boiling azeotropic system, pressure change does not greatly affect the azeotropic composition of the system. However, the feasibility of using PSD was still analyzed through process simulation. Experimental vapor liquid equilibrium data of water-EDA system was studied to predict the suitability of thermodynamic model to be applied. This study performed an optimization of design parameters for each distillation column. Different combinations of operating pressures for the low- and high-pressure columns were used for each PSD simulation case. After the most efficient operating pressures were identified, two column configurations, low-high (LP+HP) and high-low (HP+ LP) pressure column configuration, were further compared. Heat integration was applied to PSD system to reduce low and high temperature utility consumption.

  6. Optimization study of pressure-swing distillation for the separation process of a maximum-boiling azeotropic system of water-ethylenediamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulgueras, Alyssa Marie; Poudel, Jeeban; Kim, Dong Sun; Cho, Jungho

    2016-01-01

    The separation of ethylenediamine (EDA) from aqueous solution is a challenging problem because its mixture forms an azeotrope. Pressure-swing distillation (PSD) as a method of separating azeotropic mixture were investigated. For a maximum-boiling azeotropic system, pressure change does not greatly affect the azeotropic composition of the system. However, the feasibility of using PSD was still analyzed through process simulation. Experimental vapor liquid equilibrium data of water-EDA system was studied to predict the suitability of thermodynamic model to be applied. This study performed an optimization of design parameters for each distillation column. Different combinations of operating pressures for the low- and high-pressure columns were used for each PSD simulation case. After the most efficient operating pressures were identified, two column configurations, low-high (LP+HP) and high-low (HP+ LP) pressure column configuration, were further compared. Heat integration was applied to PSD system to reduce low and high temperature utility consumption.

  7. Driving Force Based Design of Cyclic Distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Fjordbak; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    with mixed phase feeds. A range of binary test cases, benzene toluene, methanol water, and ethanol water, are evaluated. The advantage of the design approach in cyclic distillation is shown to be analogous to the advantages obtained in conventional continuous distillation, including a minimal utility...

  8. Membrane distillation against a pressure difference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, L.; van der Ham, LV; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Kjelstrup, S

    2017-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an attractive technology for production of fresh water from seawater. The MemPower®MemPower® concept, studied in this work, uses available heat (86 °C) to produce pressurized water (2.2 bar and 46 °C) by membrane distillation, which again can be used to power a turbine for

  9. Membrane distillation against a pressure difference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, L.; Ham, L.V. van der; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Kjelstrup, S.

    2017-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an attractive technology for production of fresh water from seawater. The MemPower® concept, studied in this work, uses available heat (86 °C) to produce pressurized water (2.2 bar and 46 °C) by membrane distillation, which again can be used to power a turbine for

  10. Distilling solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1926-12-04

    In the distillation of solid carbonaceous materials with by-product recovery by direct heating with a gas such as water gas, producer gas, or combustion gas which is passed in counter-flow to the materials, the volume of the gas used is such as to lower the vapor tension of the volatiles to enable the oil vapor to be liberated at temperatures not exceeding 450 to 500/sup 0/C and so that the gaseous mixture may be cooled to from 80 to 100/sup 0/C without causing the highest boiling oil fraction to condense. Coking coals may be subjected to a preliminary heat treatment with gases containing an oxygen content of from 2 to 8 percent to reduce their coking properties, and oxygen may be added to the heating gases to assist the polymerization of resinous bodies. Lubricating oil may be obtained by treating the primary oil with caustic soda to remove tar acids, refining the residue with sulfuric acid, distilling off 25 percent of the refined oil and passing the remainder through a filter press at -5/sup 0/C to extract the paraffin wax. The residue of wax-free oil is distilled to yield a lubricating oil which at normal temperatures has a static coefficient of friction of from .1 to .185. Other specifications are referred to.

  11. Effect of using acetone and distilled water on the performance of open loop pulsating heat pipe (OLPHP) with different filling ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Afrose, Tonima; Tahmina, Halima Khatun; Rinky, Rumana Parvin; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Pulsating heat pipe (PHP) is a new innovation in the modern era of miniaturizes thermal management system for its higher heating and cooling capacity. The objective of this experiment is to observe the performance of open loop pulsating heat pipe using two fluids at different filling ratios. This OLPHP is a copper capillary tube of 2.5mm outer diameter and 2mm inner diameter. It consists of 8 loops where the evaporative section is 50mm, adiabatic section is 120mm and condensation section is 80mm. The experiment is conducted with distilled water and acetone at 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70% filling ratios where 0° (vertical) is considered as definite angle of inclination. Distilled water and acetone are selected as working fluids considering their different latent heat of vaporization and surface tension. It is found that acetone shows lower thermal resistance than water at all heat inputs. Best performance of acetone is attained at 70% filling ratio. Water displays better heat transfer capability at 50% filling ratio.

  12. Separation of tritium from heavy water by vacuum distillation; Separacion de tritio de agua pesada por destilacion al vacio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, M I; Cabrera, C A [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina). Unidad de Actividad Reactores y Centrales Nucleares

    1997-12-31

    In this report the feasibility of using vacuum distillation to detriate the moderator of a HWR nuclear power plant is studied. It is intended to use, for this purpose, the Atucha I nuclear power plant present facilities. The physical-chemistry of the system is described and the most appropriate range of operating conditions is examined. The availability of data to make use of the present equipment is also analyzed. (author). 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Comparing Color Change Value of Three Types of Composite Resins in Distilled Water during the First 24 Hours after Exposure to Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Afkhami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Color change of composite resin restorations is one the most common causes for replacing these restorations, which might occur due to internal and external factors. This research was carried out to study and compare color change value of three types of composite resins in distilled water during the first 24 hours after exposure to light. METHODS: In this laboratory research, 120 samples were prepared from three types of composites (Z350, Z250 and Heliomolar and were divided into 3 groups of 40. Samples with 2 mm thickness and 7 mm diameter were prepared. After assessing the initial color by spectrophotometer, samples were exposed to distilled water for 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours, respectively. Then, the final color was assessed by EasyShade device and the color change value (ΔE was calculated for all samples. Moreover, ΔE<3.3 was clinically acceptable. FINDINGS: In 12h group, Heliomolar composite showed lowest color change value compared with two other composites (Z350=1.385, Z250=1.179 and Heliomolar=0.854 (p<0.05, while no significant difference was observed in other groups. Furthermore, lowest color change value in each composite was observed 1 hour after curing (Z350=0.352, Z250=0.641 and Heliomolar=0.298 and color change value increased 24 hours after curing (Z350=1.888, Z250=1.903 and Heliomolar=1.929. CONCLUSION: Results of the study revealed that color change value of all three composites in distilled water was less than 3.3 after 24 hours and it was clinically acceptable

  14. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  15. Apparatus for distillation of bituminous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carthaus, E; von Rittersberg, K; Abraham, A

    1917-05-03

    Apparatus for dry distillation of bituminous material, such as oil shale and brown coal with simultaneous fractional separation of the distillate, consists in the fact, that the domed water-cooled condenser, arranged above the conveyer carrying it, is divided by double vertical partitions in the chamber.

  16. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broad, J

    1880-05-01

    The stills are preferably mounted in pairs with a fireplace between them, the flues from which circulate under the stills. By means of a damper either still can be cut off from communication with the fire. The still is preferably set in a pan or vessel of iron, the space between the bottom of the still and the vessel being filled with sand, water, or other material. The still is provided with a perforated plate or false bottom beneath which is introduced a steam pipe, another steam pipe being led into the upper part of the still. A quantity of Kimmeridge shale or other material is put into one of the stills, the fire is made to act on it, and superheated steam is blown in. The oils and waxy materials pass into the worm in the vessel, which is surrounded by some absorbent material kept wet by water from a tank. While one still is at work the other is being emptied and recharged, so that the evolution of volatile matter is continuous.

  17. Improvement studies on emission and combustion characteristics of DICI engine fuelled with colloidal emulsion of diesel distillate of plastic oil, TiO2 nanoparticles and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karisathan Sundararajan, Narayanan; Ammal, Anand Ramachandran Bhagavathi

    2018-04-01

    Experimentation was conducted on a single cylinder CI engine using processed colloidal emulsions of TiO 2 nanoparticle-water-diesel distillate of crude plastic diesel oil as test fuel. The test fuel was prepared with plastic diesel oil as the principal constituent by a novel blending technique with an aim to improve the working characteristics. The results obtained by the test fuel from the experiments were compared with that of commercial petro-diesel (CPD) fuel for same engine operating parameters. Plastic oil produced from high density polyethylene plastic waste by pyrolysis was subjected to fractional distillation for separating plastic diesel oil (PDO) that contains diesel range hydrocarbons. The blending process showed a little improvement in the field of fuel oil-water-nanometal oxide colloidal emulsion preparation due to the influence of surfactant in electrostatic stabilization, dielectric potential, and pH of the colloidal medium on the absolute value of zeta potential, a measure of colloidal stability. The engine tests with nano-emulsions of PDO showed an increase in ignition delay (23.43%), and decrease in EGT (6.05%), BSNO x (7.13%), and BSCO (28.96%) relative to PDO at rated load. Combustion curve profiles, percentage distribution of compounds, and physical and chemical properties of test fuels ascertains these results. The combustion acceleration at diffused combustion phase was evidenced in TiO 2 emulsion fuels under study.

  18. Catalytic distillation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  19. Distilling oils and bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutz, H

    1925-08-25

    In the distillation of bituminous materials such as coal, brown coal, peat, or mineral and tar oils or tar, in the presence of hot neutral gases such as hydrogen, illuminating gas, or water-gas, sulfur dioxide is also fed into the above-mentioned materials or into the vapors evolved therefrom. By this treatment better products are obtained.

  20. A comparative evaluation of effect on water sorption and solubility of a temporary soft denture liner material when stored either in distilled water, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite or artificial saliva: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Garg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soft denture liners have a key role in modern removable prosthodontics since they restore health to inflamed and abused mucosa by redistribution of forces transmitted to the edentulous ridges. The most common problems encountered using soft denture liners are water sorption and solubility when in contact with saliva or storage media. These problems are associated with swelling, distortion, support of Candida albicans growth, and stresses at the liner/denture base interface that reduces the bond strength. Objective: To evaluate the water sorption and solubility of commercially available acrylic based self cure soft denture lining material (GC RELINE™ Tissue Conditioner after immersion in three different storage media (distilled water, Shellis artificial saliva, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite disinfectant solution at time interval of 4, 7, 11, and 15 days. Material and Methods: The study involved preparation of artificial saliva using Shellis formula. A total 45 standardized samples of the material (GC RELINE™ were prepared in disk form (15 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness. The study was divided into three groups with storage in Control (distilled water, Shellis artificial saliva, and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. Samples were dried in a desiccator and weighed in the analytical balance to measure the initial weight (mg/cm2 of the disks (W1. The first groups (15 samples were placed in 30 ml distilled water (Group A at 37΀C, second group 30 ml of artificial saliva (Group B and third group in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (Group C. Disks were removed from disinfectant after 5 min and placed in 30 ml distilled water. On days 4, 7, 11, and 15, all samples were removed from their containers and reweighed to measure the weight (mg/cm2 of the disks after sorption (W2. The solubility was measured by placing the disks back in the desiccator after each sorption cycle and drying them to constant weight in the desiccator. These values were weight

  1. Refining shale-oil distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altpeter, J

    1952-03-17

    A process is described for refining distillates from shale oil, brown coal, tar, and other tar products by extraction with selective solvents, such as lower alcohols, halogen-hydrins, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, and so forth, as well as treating with alkali solution, characterized in that the distillate is first treated with completely or almost completely recovered phenol or cresotate solution, the oil is separated from the phenolate with solvent, for example concentrated or adjusted to a determined water content of lower alcohol, furfural, halogen-hydrin, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, or the like, extracted, and the raffinate separated from the extract layer, if necessary after distillation or washing out of solvent, and freeing with alkali solution from residual phenol or creosol.

  2. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1914-06-26

    Condensable volatile products are separated from solid carbonaceous material such as coal, shale, or peat by moving such material under non-oxidizing conditions through a retort, the various regions of which are maintained by indirect heating at temperatures increasing from the end at which the material is introduced, and by causing the gases evolved from the various portions of the material to pass into contact with relatively cooled portions of the material in its solid or partly vaporized state, whereby condensed volatile matter is obtained in, and can be removed from, the retort in liquid form. The gases may be conveyed by a gaseous medium, which may be the washed and purified product from the retort. The temperature at the hottest part of the retort meed not be more than about 600/sup 0/C. In the apparatus shown, material supplied from a hopper E through a rotary valve F is caught by scoops A/sup 2/, moved up inclined retorts A by conveyer D/sup 1/, and passes out through a rotary valve H. The conveyer comprises a helical blade and a sleeve formed in sections and mounted on a shaft D, and is driven by pawl levers partly balanced by a weight G/sup 2/ and raised by an hydraulic ram G/sup 1/. The retorts are each enclosed in fire-clay slabs B, an annular space being left which may be filled with broken brick or fire-clay and contains angularly adjustable pipes J conveying air and gas; these pipes have graduated perforations so that the temperature increases from the lower ends of the retorts. The gaseous medium enters at the top of the valve H and conveys the vapour down the retorts, the condensates being withdrawn through an outlet K. Water may be introduced into the retort near its hottest part. Graduated heating may also be applied to the material by using the conveyer as a radiator of heat as described in Specification 15,381/14.

  3. Distilling solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1926-12-04

    In a process of distilling solid carbonaceous materials with by-product recovery, the time factor and the temperature gradient during the distillation period are so controlled that a temperature difference exceeding 150/sup 0/C is avoided between the temperatures at the center and periphery of any suitable size of material or thickness of fuel bed. The material is heated by direct contact with an inert gas, such as water gas, producer gas, or combustion gases, which is passed in counterflow to the material and whose volume is such as to lower the vapor tension or partial pressure of the volatilizable oils and to withdraw the oils without cracking of the oil vapors. The material may be subjected to a preliminary heat treatment by gases containing 2 to 3 percent of free oxygen to reduce its coking properties, and free oxygen may be added either to the heating gases during the heat treatment, or to the retort and heating gases and vapors to polymerize resinous bodies prior to condensation or during condensation and while the oils are still wholly or partially in the vapor state.

  4. Retorts; distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, A C

    1869-11-09

    Relates to retorts for distilling shale or other purposes. Each retort has a mouthpiece, which projects into a water trough, having a curved bottom, and sides rising up to ridges, from which extend shoots. Attached to links is the reciprocating discharge bar, actuated from a steam engine, etc., which, through worm-wheel gearing and a shaft, imparts an intermittent motion to a pawl which propels a ratchet-wheel, which is prevented from turning backward by a catch, and drives a rotary shaft, the motion being transmitted to a bar through a crank and rod. The bar, in rising, pushes the residue from the retort out of the trough, over the ridges, and down the shoots into the truck, etc. The vertical retort is made in two lengths, at the joint between which is held the flange of the shell, joined to, or cast with, the part of the retort and forming a jacket into which steam or other vapor or gas is introduced by a pipe. The steam, etc., circulates through an external spiral rib of the shell and issues from the bottom of the shale among the shale, etc., being distilled.

  5. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for the extractive distillation of 2-propanol + water mixtures using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orchillés, A. Vicent; Miguel, Pablo J.; González-Alfaro, Vicenta; Llopis, Francisco J.; Vercher, Ernesto; Martínez-Andreu, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • VLE of binary and ternary systems of 2-propanol, water and [emim][DCA] at 100 kPa. • The e-NRTL model fits the VLE data of 2-propanol + water + [emim][DCA] system. • [emim][DCA] breaks the 2-propanol + water azeotrope at an IL mole fraction >0.085. - Abstract: Isobaric vapor–liquid equilibria for the binary systems 2-propanol + water, 2-propanol + 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([emim][DCA]), and water + [emim][DCA] as well as the vapor–liquid equilibria for the 2-propanol + water + [emim][DCA] ternary system have been obtained at 100 kPa using a recirculating still. The electrolyte nonrandom two-liquid (e-NRTL) model was used for fitting successfully the experimental data. The effect of [emim][DCA] on the 2-propanol + water system has been compared with that produced by other ionic liquids reported in the literature. From the results, [emim][DCA] appears as a good entrainer for the extractive distillation of this solvent mixture, causing the azeotrope to disappear at 100 kPa when the ionic liquid mole fraction is greater than 0.085.

  6. Osmotically and thermally isolated forward osmosis-membrane distillation (fo-md) integrated module for water treatment applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2016-09-01

    An integrated forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD) module and systems and methods incorporating the module is disclosed providing higher efficiencies and using less energy. The FO-MD module is osmotically and thermally isolated. The isolation can prevent mixing of FO draw solution/FO permeate and MD feed, and minimize dilution of FO draw solution and cooling of MD feed. The module provides MD feed solution and FO draw solution streams that flow in the same module but are separated by an isolation barrier. The osmotically and thermally isolated FO-MD integrated module, systems and methods offer higher driving forces of both FO and MD processes, higher recovery, and wider application than previously proposed hybrid FO- MD systems.

  7. Osmotically and thermally isolated forward osmosis-membrane distillation (fo-md) integrated module for water treatment applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, NorEddine; Francis, Lijo; Li, Zhenyu; Valladares, Rodrigo; Alsaadi, Ahmad S.; Ghdaib, Muhannad Abu; Amy, Gary L.

    2016-01-01

    An integrated forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD) module and systems and methods incorporating the module is disclosed providing higher efficiencies and using less energy. The FO-MD module is osmotically and thermally isolated. The isolation can prevent mixing of FO draw solution/FO permeate and MD feed, and minimize dilution of FO draw solution and cooling of MD feed. The module provides MD feed solution and FO draw solution streams that flow in the same module but are separated by an isolation barrier. The osmotically and thermally isolated FO-MD integrated module, systems and methods offer higher driving forces of both FO and MD processes, higher recovery, and wider application than previously proposed hybrid FO- MD systems.

  8. Distilling oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, W G

    1913-08-13

    Oils and other products are distilled continuously from materials containing or charged with hydrocarbons, such as coal, shale, absorbent materials containing oil, or metal turnings covered with oil, in a vertical or inclined combustion chamber supplied continuously or intermittently with a small quantity of air, and continuously with a large quantity of gases from the condenser admitted below the combustion zone. If desired, steam may also be supplied to the combustion chamber. In the apparatus shown are the combustion chamber, the air inlet, the gas-inlet pipe, the gas-outlet pipe, the condenser, and a mechanical separator which preferably also acts as a fan. A pair of slides is provided at the bottom of the combustion chamber to discharge the residue without admitting air, or a water seal may be used.

  9. Coal distillation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overton, P C

    1937-05-20

    To fractionally condense the vapours derived from the distillation of coal or shale, an apparatus comprises a low temperature carbonisation retort having a plurality of differently heating zones therein which connect with a manifold in which said gas oil vapours can expand. A dephlegmator, cold water jacketted and centrally air heated, causes the heavier matters of the vapours to settle out and the lighter oil gas vapours are conveyed to the bottom of an electrically operated fractionating apparatus comprising a column furnished with a plurality of compartments each heated by electrical elements connected to source of current by lead wires. Annular launders in the compartments collect the derived liquids at the various levels and deliver same by pipes to separate sump while pipe at head of column draws off incondensible gases for return to retort.

  10. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, J E

    1923-03-19

    In distilling mineral oils such as petroleum, shale oil, distillates and topped or residual oils, particularly to obtain lubricating oils, the distillation is carried out under reduced pressures below an absolute pressure of 25 mm. of mercury and preferably below about 5 mm. of mercury, and the distillate is collected in fractions determined by the physical characteristics, such as viscosity, flash point, fire point, etc. Superheated steam may be passed through the liquid during distillation. A horizontal cylindrical still provided with cross braces and peripheral ribs interrupted at the base is connected through a condensing coil immersed in a steam chest and a baffled chamber with distillate receiver and is evacuated by a pump. Steam from a boiler and superheater is injected into the still through a perforated pipe. Steam and light oil vapors passing from the chamber are condensed in a coil.

  11. Sodium distiller II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.C.; Castro, P.M. e; Torres, A.R.; Correa, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    A sodium distiller allows the evaluation of the sodium purity, contained in plants and circuits of Fast Reactors. The sodium distillers of the IEN Reactor's Department was developed initially as a prototype, for the testing of the distillation process and in a second step, as a equipment dedicated to attendance the operation of these circuits. This last one was build in stainless steel, with external heat, rotating crucible of nickel for four samples, purge system for pipe cleaning and a sight glass that permits the observation of the distillation during all the operation. The major advantage of this equipment is the short time to do a distillation operation, which permits its routine utilization. As a consequence of the development of the distillers and its auxiliary systems an important amount of new information was gathered concerning components and systems behaviour under high temperature, vacuum and sodium. (author)

  12. Multipartite nonlocality distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo

    2010-01-01

    The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

  13. Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2014-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  14. Distillation of bituminous shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguin, M

    1875-02-16

    The retort with its accessories constitutes a distillation apparatus for shale composed of a cylindrical, vertical, fixed, tubular, and of ring form metal retort. Also it is comprised of a special hearth of large dimensions in the form of a circular pocket receiving from the retort as heating agent the distilled shale and emitting by radiation the heat that makes the distillation apparatus for the shale act.

  15. Optimizing design parameter for light isotopes separation by distillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, M.

    1999-01-01

    More than methods are suggested in the world for producing heavy water, where between them chemical isotopic methods, distillation and electro lys are used widely in industrial scale. To select suitable method for heavy water production in Iran, taking into consideration, domestic technology an facilities, combination of hydrogen sulphide-water dual temperature process (Gs) and distillation (D W) may be proposed. Natural water, is firstly enriched up to 15 a% by G S process and then by distillation unit is enriched up to the grade necessary for Candu type reactors (99.8 a%). The aim of present thesis, is to achieve know-how, optimization of design parameters, and executing basic design for water isotopes separation using distillation process in a plant having minimum scale possible. In distillation, vapour phase resulted from liquid phase heating, is evidently composed of the same constituents as liquid phase. In isotopic distillation, the difference in composition of constituents is not considerable. In fact alteration of constituents composition is so small that makes the separation process impossible, however, direct separation and production of pure products without further processing which becomes possible by distillation, makes this process as one of the most important separation processes. Profiting distillation process to produce heavy water is based on difference existing between boiling point of heavy and light water. The trends of boiling points differences (heavy and light water) is adversely dependant with pressure. As the whole system pressure decreases, difference in boiling points increases. On the other hand according to the definition, separation factor is equal to the ratio of pure light water vapour pressure to that of heavy water, or we can say that the trend of whole system pressure decrease results in separation factor increase, which accordingly separation factor equation to pressure variable should be computed firstly. According to the

  16. Regenerative adsorption distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2013-12-26

    There is provided a regenerative adsorption distillation system comprising a train of distillation effects in fluid communication with each other. The train of distillation effects comprises at least one intermediate effect between the first and last distillation effects of the train, each effect comprising a vessel and a condensing tube for flow of a fluid therein. The system further comprises a pair of adsorption-desorption beds in vapour communication with the last effect and at least one intermediate effect, wherein the beds contain an adsorbent that adsorbs vapour from the last effect and transmits desorbed vapour into at least one of the intermediate effect.

  17. Regenerative adsorption distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon; Thu, Kyaw; Amy, Gary; Chunggaze, Mohammed; Al-Ghasham, Tawfiq

    2013-01-01

    There is provided a regenerative adsorption distillation system comprising a train of distillation effects in fluid communication with each other. The train of distillation effects comprises at least one intermediate effect between the first and last distillation effects of the train, each effect comprising a vessel and a condensing tube for flow of a fluid therein. The system further comprises a pair of adsorption-desorption beds in vapour communication with the last effect and at least one intermediate effect, wherein the beds contain an adsorbent that adsorbs vapour from the last effect and transmits desorbed vapour into at least one of the intermediate effect.

  18. Active solar distillation - A detailed review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampathkumar, K.; Pitchandi, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tamilnadu College of Engineering, Coimbatore 641659, Tamilnadu (India); Arjunan, T.V. [Department of Automobile Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641004, Tamilnadu (India); Senthilkumar, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KSR College of Engineering, Tiruchengode 637215, Tamilnadu (India)

    2010-08-15

    All over the world, access to potable water to the people are narrowing down day by day. Most of the human diseases are due to polluted or non-purified water resources. Even today, under developed countries and developing countries face a huge water scarcity because of unplanned mechanism and pollution created by manmade activities. Water purification without affecting the ecosystem is the need of the hour. In this context, many conventional and non-conventional techniques have been developed for purification of saline water. Among these, solar distillation proves to be both economical and eco-friendly technique particularly in rural areas. Many active distillation systems have been developed to overcome the problem of lower distillate output in passive solar stills. This article provides a detailed review of different studies on active solar distillation system over the years. Thermal modelling was done for various types of active single slope solar distillation system. This review would also throw light on the scope for further research and recommendations in active solar distillation system. (author)

  19. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Progress Toward a Distillation Comparison Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.

  20. Kinetics and dynamics of nanosecond streamer discharge in atmospheric-pressure gas bubble suspended in distilled water under saturated vapor pressure conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Ashish

    2016-09-08

    We perform computational studies of nanosecond streamer discharges generated in helium bubbles immersed in distilled water under atmospheric pressure conditions. The model takes into account the presence of water vapor in the gas bubble for an accurate description of the discharge kinetics. We find that the dynamic characteristics of the streamer discharge are different at low and high positive trigger voltages with the axial streamer evolution dominant for low voltages and a surface hugging mode favored for high voltages. We also find a substantial difference in initiation, transition and evolution stages of discharge for positive and negative trigger voltages with the volumetric distribution of species in the streamer channel much more uniform for negative trigger voltages on account of the presence of multiple streamers. We observe that the presence of water vapor does not affect the breakdown voltage even for oversaturated conditions but significantly influences the composition of dominant species in the trail of the streamer as well as the flux of the dominant species on the bubble surface. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. Catalytic distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  2. Furnaces for destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A

    1897-12-04

    Shale or other material is dropped from a hopper F into an annular retort or kiln A/sup 3/, the walls of which enclose annular flues C, C/sup 1/ in which gas is burnt to heat it. Radial flues also extend across the kiln. The kiln is supported above the ground level by pillars B. The material rests at the bottom on an annular plate H, having a flat middle portion with inclined sides. This is supported within an annular hopper I, provided with counterweighted discharging doors I/sup 1/, held by latches and sealed by placing water on them; or a large conical hopper may be used, provided with a conveyer screw, and containing water. Four long scrapers J are reciprocated radially on the flat part of the plate H by rods J/sup 1/, passed through stuffing-boxes in the hopper, and engaged with eccentric K which are rotated by worm gearing. Doors M in the hopper I, and holes in the plate H, permit stirring-tools to be introduced. The upper part of the kiln consists of iron rings a, a/sup 1/; the products of combustion from the flues pass through openings a/sup 5/ into a central chimney a/sup 3/. The products of distillation are delivered through tubes G.

  3. Destructive distillation of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollason, A

    1918-08-23

    To obtain light oils and ammonia from coals having volatile and oxygen contents, the crushed material is mixed with 5 percent of ground amorphous calcium carbonate and distilled slowly in a cast iron retort to remove the water and light oils, the ammonia being synthesized at a later stage. The crushed residue is gasified in a producer by a blast of air and superheated steam at about 950/sup 0/C. The steam and air are passed very slowly at low pressure through the fuel to cause the dissociation of the atmospheric nitrogen molecules into atoms. The gases are then passed to a heater, having a temperature of 500/sup 0/C, and thence to a continuously working externally-heated retort charged with fuel, such as the hard retort residues, maintained below 850/sup 0/C. The water vapor in the gases is dissociated by the incandescent fuel, the oxygen combining with the carbon, and the lime present in the fuel causes the hydrogen to combine with the free nitrogen atoms, thus forming ammonia. The gases after leaving the retort are cooled down to 85 to 95/sup 0/C and the ammonia may be recovered by conversion into ammonium sulphate. The resultant cooled gases may again be charged with superheated steam and utilized again in the heater and retort.

  4. Tritium Isotope Separation Using Adsorption-Distillation Column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    In order to miniaturize the height of a distillation tower for the detritiation of waste water from fusion reactors, two experiments were conducted: (1) liquid frontal chromatography of tritium water eluting through an adsorption column and (2) water distillation using a column packed with adsorbent particles. The height of the distillation tower depends on the height equivalent to a theoretical plate, HETP, and the equilibrium isotope separation factor, α H-T equi . The adsorption action improved not only HETP but also α H-T equi . Since the adsorption-distillation method proposed here can shorten the tower height with keeping advantages of the distillation, it may bring an excellent way for miniaturizing the distillation tower to detritiate a large amount of waste water from fusion reactors

  5. Improvement of solar ethanol distillation using ultrasonic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwat Jareanjit

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a study on the use of ultrasonic waves in solar ethanol distillation to investigate the performance of ultrasonic waves at a frequency of 30 kHz and at 100 Watts that were installed in the inlet area of a 10-litre distillation tank. Based on the non-continuous distillation process (batch distillation, the experiment demonstrated that using ultrasonic waves in solar ethanol distillation caused the average concentration of hourly distilled ethanol to be higher than that of a normal system (solar ethanol distillation without ultrasonic wave at the same or higher distillation rate and hourly distillation volume. The ultrasonic wave was able to enhance the separation of ethanol from the solution (water-ethanol mixture through solar distillation. The amount of pure ethanol product from each distilled batch was clearly larger than the amount of product obtained from a normal system when the initial concentration of ethanol was lower than 50%v/v (% by volume, where an average of approximately 40% and 20% are obtained for an initial ethanol concentration of 10%v/v and 30%v/v, respectively. Furthermore, the distillation rate varied based on the solar radiation value.

  6. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis−Membrane Distillation (PRO−MD) Process for Osmotic Power and Clean Water Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Gang; Zuo, Jian; Wan, Chunfeng; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    unique advantages of high water recovery rate, huge osmotic power generation, well controlled membrane fouling, and minimal environmental impacts. Experimental results show that the PRO−MD hybrid process is promising that not only can harvest osmotic

  7. An anaerobic membrane bioreactor - membrane distillation hybrid system for energy recovery and water reuse: Removal performance of organic carbon, nutrients, and trace organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoye; Luo, Wenhai; McDonald, James; Khan, Stuart J; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2018-07-01

    In this study, a direct contact membrane distillation (MD) unit was integrated with an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) to simultaneously recover energy and produce high quality water for reuse from wastewater. Results show that AnMBR could produce 0.3-0.5L/g COD added biogas with a stable methane content of approximately 65%. By integrating MD with AnMBR, bulk organic matter and phosphate were almost completely removed. The removal of the 26 selected trace organic contaminants by AnMBR was compound specific, but the MD process could complement AnMBR removal, leading to an overall efficiency from 76% to complete removal by the integrated system. The results also show that, due to complete retention, organic matter (such as humic-like and protein-like substances) and inorganic salts accumulated in the MD feed solution and therefore resulted in significant fouling of the MD unit. As a result, the water flux of the MD process decreased continuously. Nevertheless, membrane pore wetting was not observed throughout the operation. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Household water saving: Evidence from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisa, Rosa; Larramona, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on household water use in Spain by analyzing the influence of a detailed set of factors. We find that, although the presence of both water-saving equipment and water-conservation habits leads to water savings, the factors that influence each are not the same. In particular, our results show that those individuals most committed to the adoption of water-saving equipment and, at the same time, less committed to water-conservation habits tend to have higher incomes.

  9. Low temperature destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-07-05

    A process is given and apparatus is described for the destructive distillation at low temperature of coal, oil shale, and the like by subjection to the action of a stream of hot gases or superhearted steam, flowing in a closed circuit. Subsequent treatment of the distillation residues with a gas stream containing oxygen results in combustion of the carbon-containing material therein brings to a high temperature the solid residue, in which the process comprises subsequently contacting the hot solid residue with the fluid stream effecting the distillation.

  10. PARAFFIN SEPARATION VACUUM DISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid A. Abdulrahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulated column performance curves were constructed for existing paraffin separation vacuum distillation column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company/Baiji-Iraq. The variables considered in this study are the thermodynamic model option, top vacuum pressure, top and bottom temperatures, feed temperature, feed composition & reflux ratio. Also simulated columns profiles for the temperature, vapor & liquid flow rates composition were constructed. Four different thermodynamic model options (SRK, TSRK, PR, and ESSO were used, affecting the results within 1-25% variation for the most cases.The simulated results show that about 2% to 8 % of paraffin (C10, C11, C12, & C13 present at the bottom stream which may cause a problem in the LAB plant. The major variations were noticed for the top temperature & the  paraffin weight fractions at bottom section with top vacuum pressure. The bottom temperature above 240 oC is not recommended because the total bottom flow rate decreases sharply, where as  the weight fraction of paraffins decrease slightly. The study gives evidence about a successful simulation with CHEMCAD

  11. Total water production capacity inversion phenomenon in multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation: A theoretical study

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Karam, Ayman M.; Francis, Lijo; Soukane, Sofiane; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2017-01-01

    , which was confirmed by using two different mathematical models validated experimentally, was found to take place due to the decrease in water vapor flux across the membrane as well as the increase in heat loss by conduction as the membrane length

  12. Distilling carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karrick, L C

    1926-11-02

    Coal, shale and the like are distilled in a current of superheated steam which is passed into a retort at about midway between its ends a further supply being if necessary introduced at the bottom to generate water-gas, and the coke being dry quenched in a hopper below the retort. Combustion products may also be introduced and the temperature may be varied from 950 to 1725/sup 0/F, oil, gas, resin and a residual coke having good adsorbent value, being obtained. The charge from hoppers and auxiliary hoppers is fed to retorts situated between gas and steam preheaters, the rate of downward movement being controlled by discharge rollers having arms, counterweighted rocking arms allowing the residue to be fed downwards into hoppers. Steam from a pipe is superheated in horizontal passages, and admitted through ports into the retort. Preheated fuel gas is burnt in combustion flues and passes down through vertical flues, across horizontal flues and up flues adjacent the retorts, from which by ports and flues it passes down a chamber having an air or gas preheater each having two independent systems, one discharging into the combustion chamber beneath it and the other into an adjacent chamber. Air or gas enters by pipes and after being heated in pipes is fed by ports to the chamber. The volatiles pass off through outlets leading to a main air cooled condenser and a water-cooled condenser delivering to a separating tank connecting with pipes for quenching the residues and with pipes to preheat the charge in the hoppers and maintain a gas barrier the rein. Superheated steam may also be admitted through ports to generate water-gas and increase the total volume of gases and combustion products may be introduced through ports. The upper part of the retort is made of cast iron, the high temperature parts of silica or carborundum brick, and the lower part of chrome iron or other metal.

  13. Distillation of carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainscow, J W.H.

    1936-10-03

    To recover hydrocarbon products by distillation of carbonaceous material in a plurality of horizontal zones maintained at different temperatures, a retort has a plurality of superimposed (3) retort chambers, the uppermost being in communication at one end with a hopper and at the other end through coupled junction not shown with one end of the next lower chamber, whose opposite end communicates with lowermost chamber, the other end of which has a sealed discharge passage, tank, and conveyor not shown. Each retort chamber has stirring and conveying means consisting of helical blades (2) attached to radial arms on shaft mounted in water cooled bearings and driven through suitably mounted sprocket wheels and chains not shown. Each retort chamber has a gas dome, with pyrometer tube, and off-take connected to a common main opening into a dust eliminator which in turn connects with a plurality of vertical condensation towers of known construction, maintained at different temperatures by means of steam from a superheater not shown situated in one retort chamber. The retort heating gases pass from the furnace via zig-zag, (three) baffles under and around each retort chamber to a flue not shown.

  14. The effect of electrical conductivity on nanosecond discharges in distilled water and in methanol with argon bubbles

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Ahmad

    2017-03-27

    We investigated the effect of a liquid\\'s electrical conductivity (EC) on the physical characteristics of electrical discharges in liquids with gaseous bubbles. Argon gas was supplied into the liquid to form an array of gaseous bubbles in between two electrodes (a pin-to-hollow electrode setup). Methanol and water were considered as base liquids, representing a low and a high dielectric permittivity (ϵ) liquid respectively, while potassium chloride (KCl) was added to control the EC of the liquids. When increasing the EC of the liquids, we found that the discharge probability was reduced by 46% for in-water and 38% for in-methanol discharges. We also found that the injected charge decreased by ∼4 μC as the EC increased. Moreover, as the gap distance increased from 1 to 2.5 mm, the injected charge decreased by 2 μC for in-water discharge and by 4 μC for in-methanol discharge. The plasma emission is another important parameter in characterizing discharges. With increasing the EC, the plasma emission volume decreased linearly by a factor of ∼5. The plasma lifetime was shortened by around 33% for in-water and 20% for in-methanol discharges in the case of d = 1 mm, while the decrease was 40% for in-water and 30% for in-methanol discharges in the case of d = 2.5 mm. Using the broadening characteristics of the Hα line, the electron density was estimated during the first 100 ns by ∼3 × 10 cm for in-water discharges and by ∼2 × 10 cm for in-methanol discharges, and it decreased by about one order of magnitude after 800 ns; note that n dependence on the EC was not significant. The reported findings provide further understanding of electrical discharges in bubbled liquids and highlight the influence of a liquid\\'s EC, which are useful in the development and optimization of the applications based on such process.

  15. Distilling shale and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, H; Young, G

    1923-01-09

    In a process of recovering oil from shale or coal the material is ground and may be subjected to a cleaning or concentrating process of the kind described in Specification 153,663 after which it is distilled in a furnace as described in Specification 13,625/09 the sections of the furnace forming different temperature zones, and the rate of the passage of the material is regulated so that distillation is complete with respect to the temperature of each zone, the whole distillation being accomplished in successive stages. The vapors are taken off at each zone and superheated steam may be passed into the furnace at suitable points and the distillation terminated at any stage of the process.

  16. Effect of Storage in Distilled Water for Three Months on the Antimicrobial Properties of Poly(methyl methacrylate Denture Base Material Doped with Inorganic Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Chladek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The colonization of poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA denture base materials by pathogenic microorganisms is a major problem associated with the use of prostheses, and the incorporation of antimicrobial fillers is a method of improving the antimicrobial properties of these materials. Numerous studies have demonstrated the initial in vitro antimicrobial effectiveness of this type of material; however, reports demonstrating the stability of these fillers over longer periods are not available. In this study, silver sodium hydrogen zirconium phosphate was introduced into the powder component of a PMMA denture base material at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4%, and 8% (w/w. The survival rates of the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and yeast-type fungus Candida albicans were established after fungal or bacterial suspensions were incubated with samples that had been previously stored in distilled water. Storage over a three-month period led to the progressive reduction of the initial antimicrobial properties. The results of this study suggest that additional microbiological tests should be conducted for materials that are treated with antimicrobial fillers and intended for long-term use. Future long-term studies of the migration of silver ions from the polymer matrix and the influence of different media on this ion emission are required.

  17. Calculation of ethanol refining by means of extractive distillation with water using simulated data on phase equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosak, J; Mertl, I; Huml, M; Wichterle, I

    1980-01-01

    Available data on phase equilibria in binary mixtures pertaining to the system ethanol - water - impurities (7 compounds that represent the main impurities present in raw synthetic or fermentation ethanol) have been gathered for the computer calculation of a column to be used for the refining of ethanol. Missing experimental data on phase equilibria were supplied by simulation using the increment method UNIFAC which predicts phase equilibria on the basis of the chemical structure. All data about the behavior of binary mixtures were correlated by means of the NRTL method and the sets of constants thus obtained were then used in calculations of the column for the refining of ethanol. The results were compared with reality verified on industrial scale.

  18. Sealing ability of white and gray mineral trioxide aggregate mixed with distilled water and 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate as a root end filling material: An ex vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreegowri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of white and gray mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA mixed with distilled water and 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX gluconate when used as a root-end filling material using the dye-penetration technique. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 single-rooted human teeth were cleaned, shaped, and obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. The apical 3 mm of each root was resected, and 3-mm deep root-end cavity preparations were made. The teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups, each containing 8 teeth, and 2 negative and positive control groups, each containing 8 teeth. Root-end cavities in the experimental groups were filled with the experimental materials. After application of nail polish, the teeth were exposed to India ink for 72 h and longitudinally sectioned, and the extent of dye penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope. Results : No statistically significant differences were observed in the sealing ability of gray and white MTA mixed with distilled water and 0.12% CHX. Conclusion : CHX appears to be a good alternative to replace distilled water, as a solution to be mixed with MTA.

  19. Membrane distillation against a pressure difference

    OpenAIRE

    Keulen, L.; van der Ham, L.V.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Kjelstrup, S.

    2017-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an attractive technology for production of fresh water from seawater. The MemPower®MemPower® concept, studied in this work, uses available heat (86 °C) to produce pressurized water (2.2 bar and 46 °C) by membrane distillation, which again can be used to power a turbine for co-production of electricity. We develop a non-equilibrium thermodynamic model to accurately describe the transfer at the liquid-membrane interfaces, as well as through the hydrophobic membrane. The...

  20. Distilling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C

    1917-11-23

    In the fractional or destructive distillation of hydrocarbon oils or other liquids, the pressure in the still is raised and lowered alternately. The still is closed to raise the pressure, and is opened to lower the pressure rapidly solely by expansion of the vapors. The operation is effected without intermittent cooling, except such as may occur during the lowering of the pressure. In distilling hydrocarbon oil, pressure steam is blown into the oil until the pressure reaches 5 lb/in./sup 2/. The vapor outlet is then opened until the pressure falls to 2 lb/in./sup 2/, whereupon the vapor outlet is closed and steam is again admitted. The operation is continued until the steam, which is of 20 lb pressure, no longer effects distillation; after this stage, superheated steam is used.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging-radioguided occult lesion localization (ROLL) in breast cancer using Tc-99m macro-aggregated albumin and distilled water control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philadelpho Arantes Pereira, Fernanda; Martins, Gabriela; Gregorio Calas, Maria Julia; Fonseca Torres de Oliveira, Maria Veronica; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Barbosa da Fonseca, Lea Mirian

    2013-09-18

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided wire localization presents several challenges apart from the technical difficulties. An alternative to this conventional localization method using a wire is the radio-guided occult lesion localization (ROLL), more related to safe surgical margins and reductions in excision volume. The purpose of this study was to establish a safe and reliable magnetic resonance imaging-radioguided occult lesion localization (MRI-ROLL) technique and to report our initial experience with the localization of nonpalpable breast lesions only observed on MRI. Sixteen women (mean age 53.2 years) with 17 occult breast lesions underwent radio-guided localization in a 1.5-T MR system using a grid-localizing system. All patients had a diagnostic MRI performed prior to the procedure. An intralesional injection of Technetium-99m macro-aggregated albumin followed by distilled water was performed. After the procedure, scintigraphy was obtained. Surgical resection was performed with the help of a gamma detector probe. The lesion histopathology and imaging concordance; the procedure's positive predictive value (PPV), duration time, complications, and accuracy; and the rate of exactly excised lesions evaluated with MRI six months after the surgery were assessed. One lesion in one patient had to be excluded because the radioactive substance came back after the injection, requiring a wire placement. Of the remaining cases, there were four malignant lesions, nine benign lesions, and three high-risk lesions. Surgical histopathology and imaging findings were considered concordant in all benign and high-risk cases. The PPV of MRI-ROLL was greater if the indication for the initial MR examination was active breast cancer. The median procedure duration time was 26 minutes, and all included procedures were defined as accurate. The exact and complete lesion removal was confirmed in all (100%) patients who underwent six-month postoperative MRI (50%). MRI-ROLL offers a

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging-radioguided occult lesion localization (ROLL) in breast cancer using Tc-99m macro-aggregated albumin and distilled water control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philadelpho Arantes Pereira, Fernanda; Martins, Gabriela; Gregorio Calas, Maria Julia; Fonseca Torres de Oliveira, Maria Veronica; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Barbosa da Fonseca, Lea Mirian

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided wire localization presents several challenges apart from the technical difficulties. An alternative to this conventional localization method using a wire is the radio-guided occult lesion localization (ROLL), more related to safe surgical margins and reductions in excision volume. The purpose of this study was to establish a safe and reliable magnetic resonance imaging-radioguided occult lesion localization (MRI-ROLL) technique and to report our initial experience with the localization of nonpalpable breast lesions only observed on MRI. Sixteen women (mean age 53.2 years) with 17 occult breast lesions underwent radio-guided localization in a 1.5-T MR system using a grid-localizing system. All patients had a diagnostic MRI performed prior to the procedure. An intralesional injection of Technetium-99m macro-aggregated albumin followed by distilled water was performed. After the procedure, scintigraphy was obtained. Surgical resection was performed with the help of a gamma detector probe. The lesion histopathology and imaging concordance; the procedure’s positive predictive value (PPV), duration time, complications, and accuracy; and the rate of exactly excised lesions evaluated with MRI six months after the surgery were assessed. One lesion in one patient had to be excluded because the radioactive substance came back after the injection, requiring a wire placement. Of the remaining cases, there were four malignant lesions, nine benign lesions, and three high-risk lesions. Surgical histopathology and imaging findings were considered concordant in all benign and high-risk cases. The PPV of MRI-ROLL was greater if the indication for the initial MR examination was active breast cancer. The median procedure duration time was 26 minutes, and all included procedures were defined as accurate. The exact and complete lesion removal was confirmed in all (100%) patients who underwent six-month postoperative MRI (50%). MRI-ROLL offers a

  3. Techno-economic assessment of boiler feed water production by membrane distillation with reuse of thermal waste energy from cooling water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, N.J.M.; Leerdam, R.C. van; Medevoort, J. van; Tongeren, W.G.J.M. van; Verhasselt, B.; Verelst, L.; Vermeersch, M.; Corbisier, D.

    2015-01-01

    The European KIC-Climate project Water and Energy for Climate Change (WE4CC) aims at the technical demonstration, business case evaluation and implementation of new value chains for the production of high-quality water using low-grade thermal waste energy from cooling water. A typical large-scale

  4. Near term feasibility of nuclear reactor for sea-water desalting: coupling of standard condensing nuclear power stations to low grade heat multieffect distillation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adar, J.; Manor, S.; Schaal, M.

    1977-01-01

    Commercial nuclear power reactors exist only in standard sizes and designs. No large nuclear back-pressure turbines are available today. Therefore, near term large scale nuclear desalination plants must be tailored to the NSSS sizes and available turbines and not the contrary. Standard condensing nuclear turbines could operate continuously with a back-presure of up to 5-7'' Hg (depending on the supplier). It means that they can exhaust huge amounts of steam at 56 0 C - 64 0 C with a loss of electricity production of 6% - 10% when compared to 2 1/2'' Hg normal condensing pressure. The horizontal aluminium tube multi-effect distillation process developed by ''Israel Desalination Engineering'' Ltd. is very suitable for the use of such low-grade heat: 4 to 9 effects can operate within these temperature ranges. A special flash-chamber constitutes a positive barrier against any possible contamination being carried over by the steam exhausted from the turbine to the desalination plant. Flow sheets, heat and mass balances have been prepared for two standard sizes of NSSS and turbines (1882sup(Mwth) and 2785sup(Mwth)), two ''back-pressures'' (5 1/2'' and 7'' Hg), and corresponding desalination plants. Only standard equipment is being used in the steam and electricity producing plant. The desalination plant consists of 6 to 12 parallel double lines, each of them similar to a large prototype now being designed and which is going to be coupled to an old fossil power station. Water production varies between 50 and 123 sup(us MGD) and water cost between 23 and 36 sup(cents)/M 3 . Total energy requirements of the desalination plant represent only 19 to 50% of the total water cost as against 75% for a single purpose plant. Costs are based on actual bids for the power plant and actual estimates for the desalination prototype. The operation is designed to be flexible so that the power plant can be operated either in conjunction with the desalination plant, or as a single purpose

  5. Distilling carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, M J

    1925-06-29

    Carbonaceous materials such as coal, oil shale, peat, or wood are destructively distilled while being subjected to the action of superheated steam and hydrogen, the latter being provided by dissociating a part of the superheated steam. The materials are charged into a retort heated by a burner and superheated steam and hydrogen are passed in by a pipe and nozzles. The distillates enter a dust extractor through openings and escape through openings shielded by cones into an outlet pipe leading to condensers. The dust which settles in the bottom of the apparatus is periodically removed.

  6. Distilling coal, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J

    1917-12-21

    Coals of various kinds such as shales, bitumens, and oil sand, peat, etc. are distilled at 350 to 450/sup 0/C and in the presence of vapors and gases obtained by cracking hydrocarbon oils, or the gases obtained by separating the condensable hydrocarbons therefrom, and, if desired, with the addition of superheated steam. The hydrocarbons are properly cracked by passing through molten lead as described in Specification 116,304. According to the Provisional Specification, superheated steam alone may be used to effect the distillation.

  7. Transient simulation of a solar heating system for a small-scale ethanol-water distillation plant: Thermal, environmental and economic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas-Bautista, Juan Pablo; García-Cuéllar, Alejandro Javier; Pérez-García, Santiago L.; Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal simulation of a small solar ethanol distillation plant is performed. • The optimum collector area is obtained for two different thermal collectors types. • Higher solar fraction was found for parabolic trough collectors. • Economic analysis is performed for different scenarios to evaluate feasibility. - Abstract: The thermal, environmental and economic performance of a small-scale ethanol distillation system, where solar energy is used as primary energy source, was studied. Two different concentrations of ethanol at the feed stream (5 wt.% and 10 wt.%) were analysed to obtain a distillate product of 95 wt.% ethanol (hydrous ethanol). Evacuated tube solar collectors (ETC) and parabolic trough collectors (PTC) were considered for the solar heating system. A case of study for a specific geographical place (Monterrey, México) was developed herein to evaluate the solar ethanol distillation system; the results can be extended to other locations, weather conditions and operational parameters. The thermal results from the simulation showed that through an adequate selection of the solar collector area and an appropriate sizing of the different equipment of the solar distillation system, PTC represents a better option where energy savings of 80% and 71% can be achieved for 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% ethanol at the feed stream, respectively. However, the economic feasibility of the solar distillation system is achieved using ETC for a price of hydrous ethanol of 1.75 USD/L and a feed stream of 10 wt.% ethanol, reaching an internal rate of return (IRR) of 18.8% and payback period of 5.2 years. As an important technical result, selected ETC presented advantages over PTC where an average distillate product of 3.6 and 3.4 ml at 95 wt.% ethanol can be obtained per unit of solar energy (kW h) captured per area (m"2) of solar collector using 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% ethanol at the feed stream, respectively (36% more than PTC). The reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG

  8. Solar distillation between a simple and double-glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane KHECHEKHOUCHE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The south-east region of Algeria suffers from a great socio-economic problem that affects a large population. Faced with the unavailability of drinking water, solar distillation; which appears to be a suitable and inexpensive solution; was adopted by local researchers. Improving the productivity of a solar greenhouse distiller is the subject of several researches in the world. As it is well known, distiller with simple glazing is wildly studied but unfortunately has feeble efficiency. Double glazing is a method that increases the efficiency of a flat solar collector. The idea is to use the same technique on a single-slope solar distiller (50 x 50 cm. Two glass plates separated by 1 cm between them air is trapped. Experience shows that this technique has a negative effect on the productivity of the distiller with a rate of 88.63%; it means 9 times. So double glazing is not recommended in the single slope solar distiller.

  9. Vacuum distilling vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reik, H

    1928-12-27

    Vacuum distilling vessel for mineral oil and the like, characterized by the ring-form or polyconal stiffeners arranged inside, suitably eccentric to the casing, being held at a distance from the casing by connecting members of such a height that in the resulting space if necessary can be arranged vapor-distributing pipes and a complete removal of the residue is possible.

  10. Hydrothermal interaction of solid wafers of Topopah Spring Tuff with J-13 water and distilled water at 90, 150, and 250{sup 0}C, using Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauss, K.G.; Beiriger, W.J.; Peifer, D.W.; Piwinskii, A.J.

    1985-09-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project has conducted experiments to study the hydrothermal interaction of rock and water representative of a potential high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results of these experiments help define the near-field repository environment during and shortly after the thermal period that results from the emplacement of nuclear waste. When considered in conjunction with results contained in companion reports, these results can be used to assess our ability to accelerate tests using the surface area/volume parameter and/or temperature. These rock-water interaction experiments were conducted with solid polished wafers cut from both drillcore and outcrop samples of Topopah tuff, using both a natural ground water and distilled water as the reacting fluid. Pre- and post-test characterization of the reacting materials was extensive. Post-test identification and chemical analysis of secondary phases resulting from the hydrothermal interactions were aided by using monoliths of tuff rather than crushed material. All experiments were run in Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves that were periodically sampled at in situ conditions. A total of nine short-term (up to 66-day) experiments were run in this series; these experiments covered the range from 90 to 250{sup 0}C and from 50 to 100 bar. The results obtained from the experiments have been used to evaluate the modeled results produced by calculations using the geochemical reaction process code EQ3/6. 31 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Hydrothermal interaction of solid wafers of Topopah Spring Tuff with J-13 water and distilled water at 90, 150, and 2500C, using Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauss, K.G.; Beiriger, W.J.; Peifer, D.W.; Piwinskii, A.J.

    1985-09-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project has conducted experiments to study the hydrothermal interaction of rock and water representative of a potential high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results of these experiments help define the near-field repository environment during and shortly after the thermal period that results from the emplacement of nuclear waste. When considered in conjunction with results contained in companion reports, these results can be used to assess our ability to accelerate tests using the surface area/volume parameter and/or temperature. These rock-water interaction experiments were conducted with solid polished wafers cut from both drillcore and outcrop samples of Topopah tuff, using both a natural ground water and distilled water as the reacting fluid. Pre- and post-test characterization of the reacting materials was extensive. Post-test identification and chemical analysis of secondary phases resulting from the hydrothermal interactions were aided by using monoliths of tuff rather than crushed material. All experiments were run in Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves that were periodically sampled at in situ conditions. A total of nine short-term (up to 66-day) experiments were run in this series; these experiments covered the range from 90 to 250 0 C and from 50 to 100 bar. The results obtained from the experiments have been used to evaluate the modeled results produced by calculations using the geochemical reaction process code EQ3/6. 31 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Process and apparatus for distilling bituminous minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veyrier, J A

    1922-03-27

    This process of distillation of bituminous minerals and particularly bituminous limestone is characterized by the fact that the minerals are introduced into the retort where they stand only the temperature necessary to distill the water and lighter oils that they contain and then are drawn out into the hearth and serve for heating the retort. The apparatus is characterized by the fact that the retort has a screw conveyor, placed in the flue of the hearth, supplied with a chamber for evacuation below this hearth.

  13. Distilling shale and the like

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, H T.P.

    1922-02-23

    In distilling shale or like bituminous fuels by internal heating with hot gas obtained by the gasifying of the shale residues with air or steam or a mixture of these, the amount and temperature of the gaseous distilling medium is regulated between the gasifying and the distilling chambers, by the introduction of cold gas or air.

  14. Distillation with labelled transition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, Geoffrey William; Jones, Neil

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an improved basis for the " distillation" program transformation. It is known that superlinear speedups can be obtained using distillation, but cannot be obtained by other earlier automatic program transformation techniques such as deforestation, positive supercompilation...... and partial evaluation. We give distillation an improved semantic basis, and explain how superlinear speedups can occur....

  15. Purification of simple substances by distillation with impurity hydrothermal oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnik, O.N.; Nisel'son, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    A possibility of applying distillation method in water vapours for purification of simple substances from impurities is studied. Based on thermodynamic analysis of interaction processes in E-H 2 O system, conducted using a computer, it is as certained that SS, Se, Te, As, Cd, Hg can be purified from the majority of the impurities analysed by distillation in a water vapour flow. Behaviour of Zn, C, Ge, Al, Sb characteristic impurities under cadmium, arsenic and tellurium distillation is studied. Experiments on cadmium, arsenic and tellurium purification have confirmed, that distillation with hydrothermal oxidation of Zn, C, Ge impurities sometimes appears to be a more effective method as compared to distillation in a hydrogen flow

  16. Renormalizing Entanglement Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeldchen, Stephan; Gertis, Janina; Campbell, Earl T.; Eisert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics—ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators—with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow.

  17. Hoizontal retort for distilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, F; Papineau, W

    1854-12-15

    Improvements are disclosed in distilling peaty, schistose, bituminous and vegetable matters. These are arranging a retort in a horizontal position or so little inclined as not to permit matters charged at one end of the retort to fall readily to the other by gravity. The retort is heated externally by a fire at one end, near which end the spent products are discharged without opening the retort, which is done by the aid of two valves or slides, one being at all times closed when discharging products. The other end of the retort is provided with a divided hopper with two valves or slides, one of which is kept closed when the other is open, in order to charge the retort. Within is an endless chain carrying rakes so as to move the matters from the feeding to the discharging end. There are outlets for the distilled products furnished with condensers.

  18. Distillation apparatus for solid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lurmann, F

    1860-06-26

    The distillation room is continuously charged by the charging mechanism with the material to be distilled. The distillation products pass into the chamber, where they are drawn out through the tube for purifying. The distillation residue is finally pushed out by the fresh material from the room and falls in the common room, from which it is removed through the air-tight door. In the canals enclosing the room heating gas circulates, which carries to the room the heat necessary for the distillation.

  19. Distillation, destructive: gas retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, G; Buchanan, J

    1872-06-12

    Retorts used in the distillation of coal, cannel, shale, or other minerals are discharged by means of a joint metal bar or a chain inserted prior to or with the charge, and fitted with a plate or series of plates preferably with the back plate the largest. The rod or chain is formed with a hook, loop, or coupling for withdrawal, preferably by a steam windlass running on rails.

  20. Distilling carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, C A

    1924-04-15

    In apparatus of the kind set forth for distilling solid carbonaceous materials, a rotary retort in the form of a tubular, hollow cylindrical, or other similar hollow body, of small diameter, having a thin wall is provided to which the heat is applied externally, with means operative within it adapted, not only for cleaning the internal wall of the retort but also for distributing the heat throughout the mass of materials under treatment, substantially as described.

  1. Distillation of bituminous substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    du Buisson, M A.B.B.

    1845-06-23

    New and improved methods are described for the distillation of bituminous schistus and other bituminous substances, as well as for the purification, rectification, and preparation necessary for the employment of the productions obtained by such distillation for various useful purposes. This invention consists, first, in the arrangement and construction of furnace or apparatus for the distillation of schistus, and (any) other bituminous rocks. This furnace is made of circular brick-work, and is provided with the requisite number of fires placed round the circumference. The retort is of a conical or funnel shape, and when ready for use, has the appearance of one inverted cone being placed within a larger cone, in such a manner as to leave a space between the two cones for the reception of the schistus. Both cones are capable of being closed at their apexes, and their mouths, which are placed upwards, are connected together, and hermetically closed by a flat ring. The flame draft is caused to impinge against the lower portion of the outer cone and ascending, turns over the upper edge and descends within the inner cone to the mouth of the chimney, which is placed in the interior, and as low as may be convenient. A third cone is so placed within the inner cone as to cause the flame draft, in its descent, to bind against the surface of the retort.

  2. Multi-saline sample distillation apparatus for hydrogen isotope analyses : design and accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Afifa Afifi

    1981-01-01

    A distillation apparatus for saline water samples was designed and tested. Six samples may be distilled simultaneously. The temperature was maintained at 400 C to ensure complete dehydration of the precipitating salts. Consequently, the error in the measured ratio of stable hydrogen isotopes resulting from incomplete dehydration of hydrated salts during distillation was eliminated. (USGS)

  3. Experimental study of evaporation of distilled water and 10% NaCl and СaCl2 aqueous salt solutions droplets under their free falling on a heated surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feoktistov D.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the experimental results of evaporation of distilled water and 10% aqueous salt solutions of NaCl and СaCl2 droplets under their free falling on a heated surface. It is proved that it is more expedient to conduct the experimental research in this field according to classical multifactorial experiment. Laser treatment of surfaces is found to increase the evaporation rate and to biases the point of boiling crisis in the region of lower surface temperatures. In this case, in the conditions of boiling crisis the frequency of contact of a droplet with a heated surface will decrease.

  4. Distillation Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange,Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Gravity-based distillation methods may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be more advantageous than many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams.

  5. Honeywell Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a vacuum rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. The CDS was previously under development through Honeywell and NASA. In 2009, an assessment was performed to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. Based on the results of this testing, an expert panel concluded that the CDS showed adequate development maturity, TRL-4, together with the best product water quality and competitive weight and power estimates to warrant further development. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) worked to address weaknesses identified by The Panel; namely bearing design and heat pump power efficiency. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades. The CDS will also have been challenged with ISS analog waste streams and a subset of those being considered for Exploration architectures. This paper details interim results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  6. Distilling coal, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, W P

    1906-01-11

    Substances containing hydrocarbons, such as cannel coal, lignite, and shale, are destructively distilled by dividing the charge into small bodies confined in an air-tight chamber through which the products of combustion from a contiguous furnace are passed, the furnace serving also to heat the chamber. The temperature is kept below red heat so that the initial products, such as vapors of heavy oils, paraffin, waxes, naphthas, phenols, and cresols, are not decomposed and there is no formation of gaseous products such as naphthalene and benzol. The operation is of short duration, and large amounts of good coke are produced.

  7. Economic Analysis in Series-Distillation Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to produce potable water economically is the primary purpose of seawater desalination research. Reverse osmosis (RO and multi-stage flash (MSF cost more than potable water produced from fresh water resources. Therefore, this research investigates a high-efficiency mechanical vapor-compression distillation system that employs an improved water flow arrangement. The incoming salt concentration was 0.15% salt for brackish water and 3.5% salt for seawater, whereas the outgoing salt concentration was 1.5% and 7%, respectively. Distillation was performed at 439 K and 722 kPa for both brackish water feed and seawater feed. Water costs of the various conditions were calculated for brackish water and seawater feeds using optimum conditions considered as 25 and 20 stages, respectively. For brackish water at a temperature difference of 0.96 K, the energy requirement is 2.0 kWh/m3. At this condition, the estimated water cost is $0.39/m3 achieved with 10,000,000 gal/day distillate, 30-year bond, 5% interest rate, and $0.05/kWh electricity. For seawater at a temperature difference of 0.44 K, the energy requirement is 3.97 kWh/m3 and the estimated water cost is $0.61/m3. Greater efficiency of the vapor compression system is achieved by connecting multiple evaporators in series, rather than the traditional parallel arrangement. The efficiency results from the gradual increase of salinity in each stage of the series arrangement in comparison to parallel. Calculations using various temperature differences between boiling brine and condensing steam show the series arrangement has the greatest improvement at lower temperature differences. Keywords: desalination, dropwise condensation, mechanical-vapor compression

  8. Distillation with Sublogarithmic Overhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Matthew B.; Haah, Jeongwan

    2018-02-01

    It has been conjectured that, for any distillation protocol for magic states for the T gate, the number of noisy input magic states required per output magic state at output error rate ɛ is Ω [log (1 /ɛ )] . We show that this conjecture is false. We find a family of quantum error correcting codes of parameters ⟦ ∑ i =w +1 m (m i ),∑ i =0 w (m i ),∑ i =w +1 r +1 (r +1 i )⟧ for any integers m >2 r , r >w ≥0 , by puncturing quantum Reed-Muller codes. When m >ν r , our code admits a transversal logical gate at the ν th level of Clifford hierarchy. In a distillation protocol for magic states at the level ν =3 (T gate), the ratio of input to output magic states is O (logγ(1 /ɛ )) , where γ =log (n /k )/log (d )<0.678 for some m , r , w . The smallest code in our family for which γ <1 is on ≈258 qubits.

  9. Distilling carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrow, J R

    1921-04-16

    To obtain an increased yield of by-products such as oils, ammonia, and gas from coal, oil shale, wood, peat, and the like by low and medium temperature processes, the requisite quantity of hot producer gas from a gas producer, is caused to travel, without ignition, through the material as it passes in a continuous manner through the retort so that the sensible heat of the producer gas is utilized to produce distillation of the carbonaceous material, the gases passing to a condenser, absorption apparatus, and an ammonia absorber respectively. In a two-stage method of treatment of materials such as peat or the like, separate supplies of producer gas are utilized for a preliminary drying operation and for the distillation of the material, the drying receptacle and the retort being joined together to render the process continuous. The gas from the drying receptacle may be mixed with the combined producer and retort gas from the retort, after the hydrocarbon oils have deen removed therefrom.

  10. Distilling carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ironside, T G

    1921-09-01

    In the distillation of carbonaceous material such as shale, coal, lignite, wood or liquid hydrocarbons, the material is mixed with a heated granular substance such as sand which supplies the necessary heat. The shale or the like, which may be preheated, is fed from a hopper by a worm conveyer to a tube leading into a retort, and the heated granular material such as sand is supplied from a jacketed container through a tube. On the lower end of a rotary shaft are radial arms to which are fixed angularly disposed blades which serve to mix the shale and hot sand and deliver the residue to a central discharge pipe closed at the bottom by a conical valve which opens when the weight of the superimposed material is sufficient. The distillates are taken off by an outlet. Steam vapor or gas may be supplied to the retort, preferably through a hollow shaft leading to hollow stirrers perforated to permit of the gas passing into the material. The retort may be externally heated by hot gases in the space surrounding the retort, and the latter may be divided by horizontal floors so that the material is caused to funnel from the periphery to the center of the floor, then through a central opening on to the floor next below, and from the center to the periphery of this floor, and so on.

  11. Qutrit magic state distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, Hussain; Browne, Dan E; Campbell, Earl T

    2012-01-01

    Magic state distillation (MSD) is a purification protocol that plays an important role in fault-tolerant quantum computation. Repeated iteration of the steps of an MSD protocol generates pure single non-stabilizer states, or magic states, from multiple copies of a mixed resource state using stabilizer operations only. Thus mixed resource states promote the stabilizer operations to full universality. MSD was introduced for qubit-based quantum computation, but little has been known concerning MSD in higher-dimensional qudit-based computation. Here, we describe a general approach for studying MSD in higher dimensions. We use it to investigate the features of a qutrit MSD protocol based on the five-qutrit stabilizer code. We show that this protocol distils non-stabilizer magic states, and identify two types of states that are attractors of this iteration map. Finally, we show how these states may be converted, via stabilizer circuits alone, into a state suitable for state-injected implementation of a non-Clifford phase gate, enabling non-Clifford unitary computation. (paper)

  12. Modifications in the vacuum loop of the distillation system - Annex 7; Prilog 7 - Izmene u vakuumskoj grani destilacionog sistema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milosevic, D [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Reaktor RA, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1964-12-15

    The heavy water distillation system is foreseen to operate in a continuous regime during reactor operation. The vacuum loop is designed to achieve absolute pressure of 70 mmHg in the evaporator. Modifications in the vacuum loop of the distillation system were necessary in order to attain good efficiency of the distillation, i.e clean heavy water coolant.

  13. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on all... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits. 27.40...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Starter distillate. 184.1848 Section 184.1848 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1848 Starter distillate. (a) Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on...

  15. Distilling oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crozier, R H

    1923-04-18

    In the fractional distillation of oils from oil shale and similar materials the charge is passed continuously through a vertical retort heated externally by hot combustion gases in flues and internally by the passage of these gases through flues passing through the retort so that zones of increasing temperature are maintained. A vapor trap is provided in each zone having an exit pipe leading through a dust trap to a condenser. The bottoms of the conical vapor traps are provided with annular passages perforated to permit of steam being sprayed into the charge to form screens which prevent the vapors in different zones from mingling, and steam may also be introduced through perforations in an annular steam box. Dampers are provided to control the passage of the heating gases through the flues independently.

  16. Alkali cyanides; destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clancy, J C

    1925-12-02

    The destructive distillation of carbonaceous substances can be accomplished by heating them in a bath of molten alkali and cyanide. Liquid hydrocarbons are produced. The separation of the cyanide from the coke or carbonaceous residues by filtration leaves a substantial quantity of cyanide absorbed by the carbon. A feasible method for removal has been developed by mixing the mixture of cyanide and coke with sodium carbonate or other alkali in the molten state, then treating this substance with nitrogen with or without ammonia to convert most of the carbon to cyanide. The carbonaceous material may be mixed with a liquid hydrocarbon such as petroleum, shale oil, or heavy tar oil, heated, and introduced below the surface of the liquid cyanide which partially decomposes and hydrogenates the coal to increase the yield of hydrocarbons. Dry ammonia may be bubbled through the reaction mixture to effect agitation and to form more cyanide.

  17. Epidemiological evidence of carcinogenicity of chlorinated organics in drinking water.

    OpenAIRE

    Cantor, K P

    1982-01-01

    Concern has recently been voiced over possible chronic toxicity associated with chlorination of public drinking water supplies in the United States. This paper reviews the available evidence and the studies underway to further evaluate hypothesized associations between cancer risk and byproducts of chlorination. Preliminary data from measures of halogenated volatiles and personal exposure histories from respondents in a large epidemiologic study of bladder cancer are presented. These data sup...

  18. Design and construction of a Fresnel linear distiller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saettone, E.

    2014-01-01

    It was designed a Fresnel linear distiller based on optical calculations obtained from taking into account Lima's latitude value, Earth inclination angle and heat absorber cavity's dimensions. The 5.6 m 2 reflective surface concentrator of the distiller was constructed with 32 plane rectangular mirrors; the heat absorber cavity was made with a rectangular blackened aluminum tube 1 m long and installed 2.5 m over the plane of mirrors. The Fresnel linear distiller was installed at the University of Lima and experimental tests were performed during no cloudy summer days. There were measured ambient temperature, heat absorber cavity temperature, radiant flux and fresh water volume. From this, it was obtained a production of 0.89 liters/hour and 0.79 L/m 2 , and it was calculated a total performance of 34.5% in desalting sea water. Finally, it is presented a comparison between Fresnel linear distiller (FLD) and parabolic trough distiller (PTD) with similar dimensions and characteristics. It is obtained that the last one produced almost 32% more fresh water than the former, but at the same time, the FLD is almost 20% cheaper than PTD. However, water cost production with both distillers using is almost the same. (author)

  19. Heterogeneous Value of Water: Empirical Evidence in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic pressures have exacerbated self-sustaining river services, and growing concerns over sustaining river system become global problematic issues that lead us to implement river restoration projects. Of those projects, governing diverse needs and desires from stakeholders for those who have various water values are key elements of identifying the success of the project. In fact, the Korean government has had concern over restoring the rivers which brings to construct 16 weirs in four major rivers and may fail to achieve main goal of the project, which is to ameliorate water quality. In this study, principle component analysis and multinomial logit model were executed to investigate major socioeconomic variables to influence water values in terms of sustainability in Korea. Evitable evidences have been found that age, income, education level, and city dwelling are the most effective variables to estimate water values. In addition, a monotonous water development project and a myopic view could cause major dejection across the nation and may lead to the failure of water governance. Unfortunately, the latter may be observed in Korea as one of the reasons for the recent amplification of major conflicts.

  20. Cyclic distillation technology - A mini-review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bîldea, Costin Sorin; Pătruţ, Cătălin; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2016-01-01

    Process intensification in distillation systems has received much attention during the pastdecades, with the aim of increasing both energy and separation efficiency. Varioustechniques, such as internal heat-integrated distillation, membrane distillation, rotating packedbed, dividing-wall columns...

  1. Dissolution and time-dependent compaction of albite sand: experiments at 100°C and 160°C in pH-buffered organic acids and distilled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajash, Andrew; Carpenter, Thomas D.; Dewers, Thomas A.

    1998-09-01

    Aqueous fluids are important in the diagenesis and deformation of crustal rocks. Both chemical and physical interactions are involved and often they are strongly coupled. For example, pore waters not only dissolve, transport, and precipitate chemical species, but they also substantially affect the mechanical behavior of the rocks that contain them. Stresses magnified at grain contacts by differences in pore-fluid pressure ( Pp) and confining pressure ( Pc) can, in turn, influence the rate and extent of chemical exchange. To begin investigation of these coupled systems, compaction experiments were conducted using albite sand (250-500 μm) and distilled water (pH 5.8), 0.07 M acetate (pH 4.7), and 0.07 M acetate + 0.005 M citrate (pH 4.4) solutions in a hydrothermal flow-through system at conditions that simulate diagenesis. Pore-fluid chemistry and pore-volume loss were monitored to quantify the effects of organic acids on time-dependent compaction rates. The effects of stress and fluid chemistry on the dissolution kinetics were also examined. Albite dissolution rates, monitored by steady-state fluid chemistry, increased when an effective pressure ( Pe= Pc- Pp) was applied, probably due to increases in total surface area caused by grain breakage at contacts. These effects were transient in distilled water, however, Si and Al concentrations remained elevated in the acetate pore fluid. The average Si-based release rates indicate ≈35% increase in reactive surface area by application of Pe=34.5 MPa. At 100°C with Pe=34.5 MPa, steady-state Si concentrations were ≈2.3 times higher in 0.07 M acetate and 5.8 times higher in 0.07 M acetate + 0.005 M citrate than in distilled water. Al increased by even larger factors (3× in the acetate buffer and 10× in the citrate solution). These changes in fluid chemistry are attributed to both pH and ligand-enhanced reactions. Albite dissolution appears to be controlled by surface complexation reactions at Al sites. Rapid

  2. Recovery of acetic acid from waste streams by extractive distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiral, H; Yildirim, M Ercengiz

    2003-01-01

    Wastes have been considered to be a serious worldwide environmental problem in recent years. Because of increasing pollution, these wastes should be treated. However, industrial wastes can contain a number of valuable organic components. Recovery of these components is important economically. Using conventional distillation techniques, the separation of acetic acid and water is both impractical and uneconomical, because it often requires large number of trays and a high reflux ratio. In practice special techniques are used depending on the concentration of acetic acid. Between 30 and 70% (w/w) acetic acid contents, extractive distillation was suggested. Extractive distillation is a multicomponent-rectification method similar in purpose to azeotropic distillation. In extractive distillation, to a binary mixture which is difficult or impossible to separate by ordinary means, a third component termed an entrainer is added which alters the relative volatility of the original constituents, thus permitting the separation. In our department acetic acid is used as a solvent during the obtaining of cobalt(III) acetate from cobalt(II) acetate by an electrochemical method. After the operation, the remaining waste contains acetic acid. In thiswork, acetic acid which has been found in this waste was recovered by extractive distillation. Adiponitrile and sulfolane were used as high boiling solvents and the effects of solvent feed rate/solution feed rate ratio and type were investigated. According to the experimental results, it was seem that the recovery of acetic acid from waste streams is possible by extractive distillation.

  3. Water on Mars: Evidence from MER Mission Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    The Viking and the Mars Exploration Rover missions observed that the surface of Mars is encrusted by a thinly cemented layer, or "duricrust". Elemental analyzes at five sites on Mars show that these soils have sulfur content and chlorine content consistent with the presence of sulfates and halides as mineral cements. The soil is highly enriched in the salt-forming elements compared with rock. Analysis of the soil cementation indicates some features which may be evidence of liquid water. At both MER sites, duricrust textures revealed by the Microscopic Imager show features including the presence of fine sand-sized grains, some of which may be aggregates of fine silt and clay, surrounded by a pervasive light colored material that is associated with microtubular structures and networks of microfractures. Stereo views of undisturbed duricrust surfaces reveal rugged microrelief between 2-3 mm and minimal loose material. Comparisons of microscopic images of duricrust soils obtain before and after placement of the Mossbauer spectrometer indicate differing degrees of compaction and cementation. Two models of a transient water hypothesis are offered, a "top down" hypothesis that emphasizes the surface deposition of frost, melting and downward migration of liquid water and a "bottom up" alternative that proposes the presence of interstitial ice/brine, with the upward capillary migration of liquid water. The viability of both of these models ultimately hinges on the availability of seasonally transient liquid water for brief periods.

  4. Public responses to water reuse - Understanding the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H M; Brouwer, S; Jeffrey, P; Frijns, J

    2018-02-01

    Over the years, much research has attempted to unpack what drives public responses to water reuse, using a variety of approaches. A large amount of this work was captured by an initial review that covered research undertaken up to the early 2000s (Hartley, 2006). This paper showcases post-millennium evidence and thinking around public responses to water reuse, and highlights the novel insights and shifts in emphasis that have occurred in the field. Our analysis is structured around four broad, and highly interrelated, strands of thinking: 1) work focused on identifying the range of factors that influence public reactions to the concept of water reuse, and broadly looking for associations between different factors; 2) more specific approaches rooted in the socio-psychological modelling techniques; 3) work with a particular focus on understanding the influences of trust, risk perceptions and affective (emotional) reactions; and 4) work utilising social constructivist perspectives and socio-technical systems theory to frame responses to water reuse. Some of the most significant advancements in thinking in this field stem from the increasingly sophisticated understanding of the 'yuck factor' and the role of such pre-cognitive affective reactions. These are deeply entrenched within individuals, but are also linked with wider societal processes and social representations. Work in this area suggests that responses to reuse are situated within an overall process of technological 'legitimation'. These emerging insights should help stimulate some novel thinking around approaches to public engagement for water reuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Electrical Thermal Network for Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Modeling and Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.

    2015-02-04

    Membrane distillation is an emerging water distillation technology that offers several advantages compared to conventional water desalination processes. Although progress has been made to model and understand the physics of the process, many studies are based on steady-state assumptions or are computationally not appropriate for real time control. This paper presents the derivation of a novel dynamical model, based on analogy between electrical and thermal systems, for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). The proposed model captures the dynamics of temperature distribution and distilled water flux. To demonstrate the adequacy of the proposed model, validation with transient and steady-state experimental data is presented.

  6. Mathematical modeling of alcohol distillation columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ones Osney Pérez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available New evaluation modules are proposed to extend the scope of a modular simulator oriented to the sugar cane industry, called STA 4.0, in a way that it can be used to carry out x calculation and analysis in ethanol distilleries. Calculation modules were developed for the simulation of the columns that are combined in the distillation area. Mathematical models were supported on materials and energy balances, equilibrium relations and thermodynamic properties of the ethanol-water system. Ponchon-Savarit method was used for the evaluation of the theoretical stages in the columns. A comparison between the results using Ponchon- Savarit method and those obtained applying McCabe-Thiele method was done for a distillation column. These calculation modules for ethanol distilleries were applied to a real case for validation.

  7. Hydrogen isotope separation by cryogenic distillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Nobuo; Mitsui, Jin

    1987-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope separation in fusion fuel cycle and tritium recovery from heavy water reactor are very important, and therefore the early establishment of these separation techniques are desired. The cryogenic distillation method in particular is promising for the separation of hydrogen isotope and the recovery of high concentrated tritium. The studies of hydrogen isotope separation by cryogenic distillation method have been carried out by using the experimental apparatus made for the first time in Japan. The separation of three components (H 2 -HD-D 2 ) under total reflux conditions was got by using the packing tower of 500 mm height. It was confirmed that the Height Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) was 20 - 30 mm for the vapor's line velocity of 20 - 80 mm/s. (author)

  8. Distillation of oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, G A

    1926-03-22

    To distill oil shales, cannel coals, and other carbonaceous materials for the extraction therefrom of hydrocarbons and volatile nitrogenous compounds, hard non-condensable gases from the condensers and scrubbers are withdrawn by blowers and admixed with burnt gases, obtained through conduits from the flues of heaters, and forced downwardly through horizontal chambers, connected by vertical conduits, of the heaters and delivered into the retort beneath the grate. Passing upwardly through the charge they vaporize the volatile substances in the shale, and a suction pump removes the vapors from the top of the retort. Immediately they are produced and at substantially the same temperature as that at which they emanate, thus preventing cracking of the oil vapors and condensation of the oil at the top of the retort. The amount of burnt flue gas admixed with the hard gases is regulated by two valves until a required uniform temperature is obtained. A generator supplies producer gas to a heater at the commencement of the retorting operation for circulation through the shale charge to initially produce oil vapors. The generator is connected by a pipe to the gas conduit leading to blowers.

  9. Low temperature distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandegrift, J N; Postel, C

    1929-04-09

    To recover gas, oil tars, and coked residues by low temperature distillation from bituminous coals, lignites, oil shales, and the like, the raw material is fed from a hopper into a rotary retort which is zonally heated, the temperature being greatest at the discharge end. The material is heated first to a relatively low temperature, thereby removing the moisture and lighter volatiles which are withdrawn through a pipe by the suction of a pump, while the higher boiling point volatiles and fixed gases are withdrawn by suction through an outlet from the higher temperature zone. The vapors withdrawn from the opposite ends of the retort pass through separate vapor lines and condensers, and the suction in each end of the retort, caused by the pumps, is controlled by valves, which also control the location of the neutral point in the retort formed by said suction. Air and inert gas may be introduced into the retort from pipe and stack respectively through a pipe, and steam may be admitted into the high temperature zone through a pipe.

  10. Destructive distillation; retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beilby, G T

    1881-10-03

    For distilling shale and other oil-yielding minerals. Relates to apparatus described in Specification No. 2169 (1881) in which retorts arranged in sets, and mounted loosely in brickwork to allow expansion, are formed preferably of upper iron tubes, fixed by socket rings, to lower fireclay tubes formed with belts which, together with ledges in the sides of the oven, support fireclay slabs. In some cases the lower parts of the retorts may be formed of iron tubes. Each set of four upper tubes is supplied with a four-way hopper, suspended by means of a pair of counter-weighted levers, centered on bearing plates and connected with the hopper by links. A single pipe connected to the hopper serves for leading off the vapors from the four retorts. The retorts are heated by a furnace, the hot gases from which after acting on the retorts are led to ovens in which are placed steam generators and superheaters, from which steam is conveyed to the interior of the retorts to assist the decomposition.

  11. Ocean thermocline driven membrane distillation process

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2017-07-20

    Systems and methods using membrane distillation are provided for desalinating water, for example for the production of potable water, to address freshwater requirements. In an aspect the systems and methods do not require applying an external heat source, or the energy cost of the heating source, to heat the feed stream to the membrane. In an aspect, the sensible heat present in surface seawater is used for the heat energy for the warm stream fed to the membrane, and deep seawater is used as the cold/coolant feed to the membrane to provide the needed temperature gradient or differential across the membrane.

  12. Method of distilling solid materials, such as shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramen, A

    1917-09-04

    A method of distilling compact materials, such as shales, containing volatile matter, is characterized by heating the material in an oven or other apparatus or in a section or zone of same in the presence of some condensable gas (such as steam) which is indifferent to the vapors distillated during the heating of the material. The gas together with these products is conducted through a condensation apparatus, containing water or some other liquid, where the volatile matters are condensed. The steam which is produced in the gas regenerator is, after preheating, forced through the hot remaining residue from the distillation either in the same retort or in another retort in order to heat further this residue for the purpose of making it possible for the steam, by being forced through freshly charged material in the first oven or apparatus to bring about its distillation. The patent contains ten additional claims.

  13. Process of distilling heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-12-03

    This invention has for its object the distillation of heavy liquid hydrocarbons for the purpose of obtaining lighter hydrocarbons stable and immediately salable for fuels in combustion motors. The process is distinguished by the fact that the heavy hydrocarbon is distilled by means of heating to a temperature in keeping with the nature of the material to be treated up to 350/sup 0/C under pressure or without pressure the distillation being carried out on catalysts containing successively nickel, copper, and iron (3 parts of nickel, 1 part of copper, and 1 part of iron), the vapors produced by this distillation being exposed in turn to the action of catalysts of the same nature and in the same proportion.

  14. Retorts for distilling carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, H E

    1921-09-12

    A retort for distilling carbonaceous material is described in which a mass of such material is retained in a pocket formed between an outer wall and an internal wall which is perforated to permit the free escape of distilled products, the retorts having heating means that directly heat the retort but are so related to the pocket that the material therein is heated indirectly and simultaneously from all sides entirely by heat conducted thereto by the walls.

  15. Distillation process using microchannel technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee [Dublin, OH; Simmons, Wayne W [Dublin, OH; Silva, Laura J [Dublin, OH; Qiu, Dongming [Carbondale, IL; Perry, Steven T [Galloway, OH; Yuschak, Thomas [Dublin, OH; Hickey, Thomas P [Dublin, OH; Arora, Ravi [Dublin, OH; Smith, Amanda [Galloway, OH; Litt, Robert Dwayne [Westerville, OH; Neagle, Paul [Westerville, OH

    2009-11-03

    The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

  16. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  17. Integrated membrane distillation-crystallization: process design and cost estimations for seawater treatment and fluxes of single salt solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusen, R.J.M.; Medevoort, J. van; Roelands, C.P.M.; Renesse van Duivenbode, J.A.D. van; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Leerdam, R.C. van

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this research is to design an integrated membrane distillation-crystallization (MDC) process for desalination of seawater with pure water and dry salts as the only products. The process is based on a combination of membrane distillation (MD) and osmotic distillation (OD) steps with

  18. Biocatalytic desulfurization of petroleum and middle distillates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monticello, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Biocatalytic Desulfurization (BDS) represents an alternative approach to the reduction of sulfur in fossil fuels. The objective is to use bacteria to selectively remove sulfur from petroleum and middle distillate fractions, without the concomitant release of carbon. Recently, bacteria have been developed which have the ability to desulfurize dibenzothiophene (DBT) and other organosulfur molecules. These bacteria are being developed for use in a biocatalyst-based desulfurization process. Analysis of preliminary conceptual engineering designs has shown that this process has the potential to complement conventional technology as a method to temper the sulfur levels in crude oil, or remove the recalcitrant sulfur in middle distillates to achieve the deep desulfurization mandated by State and Federal regulations. This paper describes the results of initial feasibility studies, sensitivity analyses and conceptual design work. Feasibility studies with various crude oils and middle distillates achieved unoptimized desulfurization levels of 40-80%. Sensitivity analyses indicate that total desulfurization costs of about $3.00 per barrel for crude oil and less than $2.00 per barrel for diesel are possible. Key criteria for commercial success of the process include the cost and half-life of the biocatalyst, residence time in the reactor, oil/water ratios required to extract the sulfur and the disposition of the separated sulfur products. 9 refs., 3 figs

  19. Zone distillation: a new purification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    The features of zone distillation (with zone melting of refined material and with pulling of condensate) as a new purification method are shown. The method is based on similarity of equations of distillation and crystallization refining. The analogy between some distillation and condensation methods (particularly between zone distillation and zone recrystallization) is should up

  20. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results from the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, California) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was intended to be processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5 percent. The average specific energy of the system during testing was calculated to be less than 120 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  1. Commissioning and operation of distillation column at Madras Atomic Power Station (Paper No. 1.10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neelakrishnan, G.; Subramanian, N.

    1992-01-01

    In Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), an upgrading plant based on vacuum distillation was constructed to upgrade the downgraded heavy water collected in vapor recovery dryers. There are two distillation columns and each having a capacity of 77.5 tonne per annum of reactor grade heavy water with average feed concentration of 30% IP. The performance of the distillation columns has been very good. The column I and column II have achieved an operating factor of 92% and 90% respectively. The commissioning activities, and subsequent improvements carried out in the distillation columns are described. (author)

  2. Improvement of Egyptian vacuum distillates by urea dewaxing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehssan M.R. Nassef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dewaxing of paraffinic lube stocks is an essential step in the production of lubricants to improve the operability of machines especially in winter. The present work deals with study of the urea dewaxing process of two types of Egyptian vacuum distillates. The effect of different compositions of methanol to water saturated with urea and yield of the oil, percent of wax, pour point, refractive index, viscosity, viscosity index and specific gravity of the oil produced from the two types of distillates (I and II were evaluated. The operating conditions of the urea adduct formation with n-paraffins using methanol to water mixture achieved the best pour point at −3.88 °C from an initial temperature of 4.4 °C for distillate I at (25/75 methanol to water. At the same ratio of methanol to water the best specific gravity of oil produced changed from 0.865 to 0.867, with viscosity index of 80. Percent yield of 50% for oil and percent wax of 50% were obtained. Results for distillate II, of higher specific gravity, are comparatively higher than those for distillate I. Experiments were carried out at room temperature.

  3. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  4. Tritium separation factors in distillation and chemical exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, S.M.; Ghosh, S.K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.

    1982-01-01

    The vapour pressures of different isotopic hydrogen, water and ammonia molecules have been calculated. These vapour pressures can be used to evaluate relative volatilities of different species for separation of tritium isotopes by distillation. The equilibrium constants for various exchange reactions involving different deuterated and tritiated species of hydrogen, water and ammonia molecules have also been calculated for different temperatures. (author)

  5. Epidemiological evidence of carcinogenicity of chlorinated organics in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, K P

    1982-12-01

    Concern has recently been voiced over possible chronic toxicity associated with chlorination of public drinking water supplies in the United States. This paper reviews the available evidence and the studies underway to further evaluate hypothesized associations between cancer risk and byproducts of chlorination. Preliminary data from measures of halogenated volatiles and personal exposure histories from respondents in a large epidemiologic study of bladder cancer are presented. These data support the use in epidemiologic studies of categorical measures of exposure and suggest that results from completed case-control studies, based on death certificates, may have underestimated the true risk of exposure to chlorination by-products. The current generation of studies which use a case-control interview design offer many advantages over earlier efforts to evaluate this issue.

  6. Flow dynamics in distillation columns packed with Dixon rings as used in isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilath, C.; Cohen, H.; Wolf, D.

    1977-01-01

    Packed distillation columns are common in isotope separation. The pressure drop serves as an indication for the hydrodynamic state of the column. Models were formulated for flow and pressure drop dynamics in packed distillation columns. These models were confirmed on columns packed with Dixon rings and operated with water for separation of oxygen isotopes. Liquid holdup displacement is very important in isotope separation practice. Experiments proved that distillation columns packed with Dixon rings exhibit a behaviour close to plug flow. (author)

  7. Efficiency of fermionic quantum distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbrych, Jacek W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Feiguin, Adrian E. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Dagotto, Elbio R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Heidrich-Meisner, F. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Munchen, Munchen (Germany)

    2017-09-13

    Here, we present a time-dependent density-matrix renormalization group investigation of the quantum distillation process within the Fermi-Hubbard model on a quasi-one-dimensional ladder geometry. The term distillation refers to the dynamical, spatial separation of singlons and doublons in the sudden expansion of interacting particles in an optical lattice, i.e., the release of a cloud of atoms from a trapping potential. Remarkably, quantum distillation can lead to a contraction of the doublon cloud, resulting in an increased density of the doublons in the core region compared to the initial state. As a main result, we show that this phenomenon is not limited to chains that were previously studied. Interestingly, there are additional dynamical processes on the two-leg ladder such as density oscillations and self-trapping of defects that lead to a less efficient distillation process. An investigation of the time evolution starting from product states provides an explanation for this behavior. Initial product states are also considered since in optical lattice experiments, such states are often used as the initial setup. We propose configurations that lead to a fast and efficient quantum distillation.

  8. Evidence for organic complexed copper in sea water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slowey, J F; Jeffrey, L M; Hood, D W

    1967-04-22

    A few attempts have been made to characterize the chemical components contributing to the copper content of seawater. About 0.3 mu/liter of particulate copper in 2 stations in the English Channel and 15 mu/liter of ultrafilterable (10 mu) but non-dialyzable copper in a sample from Texas Bay has been reported. Also the evidence has been shown for copper in the organic form in waters of the Florida Current. The occasional presence of non- dialyzable copper for many samples from the Gulf of Mexico suggests that strongly complexed copper-organic compounds are present in seawater. This communication presents evidence for such complexes that are extractable into a nonpolar solvent in the absence of any added chelating agent. Preliminary results have shown that the copper- organic complex isolated by chloroform extraction occurs in the eighth fraction of the Hirsch and Ahrens lipid separation method using silica gel chromatography. This would indicate that copper complex is associated with the phospholipid, amino lipid, or porphyrin fraction of the lipids.

  9. Destructive distillation of shale, torbanite, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensvelt, M W

    1931-09-21

    In the production of oil by the distillation of coal, shale, torbanite, or the like below 600/sup 0/C the occurrence of tarry matters, free carbon, ammonia, or sulfur compounds in the oils is prevented by the addition of an alkali such as caustic soda, or an alkaline earth as lime, to which sodium carbonate may be added. The carbonaceous material is ground to pass through a 20 mesh screen, and is treated for example with a slurry of quicklime having an addition of sodium carbonate, the adherent water being evaporated before the material is passed into the retort.

  10. Gas manufacture, materials for; distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, G

    1866-03-15

    A A mixture of bituminous coal and shale oil, petroleum, or other mineral oil is distilled in a retort in order to obtain illuminating gas and oil according to the temperature, and a residue of good coke is also obtained. Preferably the coal is pulverized, and the mixture is made in a heated state. The oil may be treated for the removal of volatile oils and water before mixture with the coal. With the oil may be used the residues or bottoms from shale-oil stills.

  11. Energy savings in distillation via identification of useful configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vishesh Hemanshu

    with low heat duties. The heat duty requirements are estimated using the Underwood equations. Application of these frameworks has provided an array of distillation configurations that can potentially have up to 50% lower heat duty than the currently used distillation configuration for petroleum crude distillation. Since petroleum crude distillation is a highly energy-intensive process, these configurations have tremendous potential to improve the energy efficiency of a refinery. Furthermore, we provide evidence to disprove some conventional notions about thermally coupled configurations. We also describe some previously unknown distillation configurations that use less than (n-1) distillation columns for an n-component separation. We demonstrate that these novel distillation configurations have significantly lower heat duties than the currently known distillation configurations with less than (n-1) columns. Since these configurations have one or more distillation columns that produce sidestreams, a quick screening tool based on Underwood's equations cannot be used to estimate the heat duty requirements of these configurations. Therefore, we lay the foundation for equations analogous to Underwood's equations to estimate the minimum heat duty requirements of such distillation configurations.

  12. Three-phase fluidized distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravagnani, T.M.K.; Pereira, J.A.F.R.

    2001-01-01

    Separation efficiency in distillation operations can be improved by modifying the characteristics of the dispersions formed on the trays. The present work reports on the hydrodynamic and mass transfer characteristics of liquid-solid-vapour dispersions formed on sieve trays without downcomers of a distillation column operating under total reflux conditions. Murphree efficiency and the operating limits of distillation using the ethanol-n-butanol system are analyzed for a large range of vapour velocities and liquid mixture compositions, utilising wettable PVC particles and non-wettable silicone, PE, and Teflon((R)) particles. It was verified that wettable particles show a drastic reduction in the upper operating limit of vapour velocity, but this does not occur for non-wettable particles. Tray efficiency can be increased when non-wettable particles are used, mainly for high vapour velocity operations. (author)

  13. Continuous fractional distillation of petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-11-05

    This invention has for its object a process of distillation, fractional, and continuous, of shale oil, tar, etc., characterized by the vapors leaving the evaporation chamber being forced, before condensation, to go over a continuous circuit. The vapors traverse first a preheater then return to the vaporization chamber in which they are passed along large surfaces and by application of the counter-current principle in contact with the liquid to be distilled. They stream through the chamber in a continuous manner (the quantity of vapor emitted in the circuit being determined in a manner to advance the distillation just to completion); the excess of vapor formed being removed from the circuit and sent to a condensing apparatus for fractionation.

  14. Performance indicators of bioethanol distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriaga, Nilson

    2009-01-01

    The increase of biofuels demand accelerates the construction of new production plants and technological improvements in the process so the development of versatile tools for evaluating alternatives becomes an undeniable challenge. It was established through heuristic rules, thermodynamic analysis and simulation computer the energy consumption and performance indicators that govern, from fermented mash (ethanol 8.5 % v/v), the distillation of various capacities for bioethanol production: 20, 60, 100 and 150 KLD (kiloliters / day) through Aspen PlusTM simulator. It was found that the distillation demand nearly 30% of heat that would be obtained by burning alcohol fuel produced thus it is necessary the use of raw materials that generate enough biomass to produce the steam required. In addition, correlations were found to allow for easy diameters of distillation columns in terms of production capacity.

  15. Evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    static and dynamic moisture storage data and the more pronounced was the corresponding dynamic hysteresis. The paper thus provides clear experimental evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials. By that, data published by previous authors as Topp et......Hygrothermal simulation has become a widely applied tool for the design and assessment of building structures under possible indoor and outdoor climatic conditions. One of the most important prerequisites of such simulations is reliable material data. Different approaches exist here to derive...... the required material functions, i.e. the moisture storage characteristic and the liquid water conductivity, from measured basic properties. The current state of the art in material modelling as well as the corresponding transport theory implies that the moisture transport function is unique...

  16. Submerged membrane distillation for seawater desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    A submerged membrane distillation (SMD) process for fresh water production from Red Sea water using commercially available hollow fiber membranes has been successfully employed and compared with the conventional direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The hollow fiber membranes have been characterized for its morphology using field effect scanning electron microscope. In SMD process, a bunch of hollow fiber membranes are glued together at both ends to get a simplified open membrane module assembly submerged into the coolant tank equipped with a mechanical stirrer. Hot feed stream is allowed to pass through the lumen side of the membrane using a feed pump. Continuous stirring at the coolant side will reduce the temperature and concentration polarization. During the conventional DCMD process, using feed-coolant streams with co-current and counter-current flows has been tested and the results are compared in this study. In SMD process, a water vapor flux of 10.2 kg m-2 h-1 is achieved when using a feed inlet temperature of 80°C and coolant temperature of 20°C. Under the same conditions, during conventional DCMD process, a water vapor flux of 11.6 and 10.1 kg m-2 h-1 were observed during counter-current and co-current flow streams, respectively. Results show that the water production in the SMD process is comparable with the conventional DCMD process, while the feed-coolant flow streams are in the co-current direction. During conventional DCMD operation, a 15% increase in the water production is observed when feed-coolant streams are in the counter-current direction compared to the co-current direction. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  17. Submerged membrane distillation for seawater desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-08-11

    A submerged membrane distillation (SMD) process for fresh water production from Red Sea water using commercially available hollow fiber membranes has been successfully employed and compared with the conventional direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The hollow fiber membranes have been characterized for its morphology using field effect scanning electron microscope. In SMD process, a bunch of hollow fiber membranes are glued together at both ends to get a simplified open membrane module assembly submerged into the coolant tank equipped with a mechanical stirrer. Hot feed stream is allowed to pass through the lumen side of the membrane using a feed pump. Continuous stirring at the coolant side will reduce the temperature and concentration polarization. During the conventional DCMD process, using feed-coolant streams with co-current and counter-current flows has been tested and the results are compared in this study. In SMD process, a water vapor flux of 10.2 kg m-2 h-1 is achieved when using a feed inlet temperature of 80°C and coolant temperature of 20°C. Under the same conditions, during conventional DCMD process, a water vapor flux of 11.6 and 10.1 kg m-2 h-1 were observed during counter-current and co-current flow streams, respectively. Results show that the water production in the SMD process is comparable with the conventional DCMD process, while the feed-coolant flow streams are in the co-current direction. During conventional DCMD operation, a 15% increase in the water production is observed when feed-coolant streams are in the counter-current direction compared to the co-current direction. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  18. Water poverty and rural development: Evidence from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matshe, I

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available link between household water and economic poverty of rural households, with households’ total monthly income used as an indicator of economic poverty. An adaptation of a comprehensive water poverty index, which considers water access, quality, use...

  19. Distillation of oil-bearing minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-05-21

    In the process of distilling oil-bearing minerals such as oil shale which disintegrates during distillation, wherein the subdivided minerals are subjected to a distillation temperature in the form of a highly turbulent dense mass fluidized by an upwardly flowing gasiform medium in a distillation zone and the heat required by the distillation is supplied by burning solid distillation residue with a combustion-supporting gas in the form of a fluidized mass of solids in a separate combustion zone at a temperature substantially higher than the distillation temperature and returning solid combustion residue substantially at the higher temperature to the distillation zone. The steps of starting up the process which consists of maintaining in the distillation and combustion zones dense turbulent fluidized beds of non-disintegrating solids, circulating the non-disintegrating solids between said beds, heating the circulating solids by an auxiliary heat supply until the bed in the distillation zone has reached at least the distillation temperature, thereafter charging fresh oil-bearing minerals to the bed in the distillation zone, continuing the circulation, withdrawing solids which have passed through the combustion zone at a rate adequate to maintain a solids balance, supplying the combustion-supporting gas to the combustion zone to cause the combustion of the residue, and discontinuing the auxilary heating when sufficient heat for the distillation is being generated in the combustion zone.

  20. Performance analysis on a new multi-effect distillation combined with an open absorption heat transformer driven by waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Hu, Dapeng; Li, Zhiyi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new water distillation system, which consists of either a single- or multi-effect distiller combined with an open absorption heat transformer (OAHT), has been proposed. The new integrated system can be used for distilling waste water with high amounts of SiO 2 from heavy oil production, and the resultant distilled water can be supplied to steam boilers to produce high quality steam which in turn is injected into oil reservoirs to assist with heavy oil recovery. The thermodynamic cycle performances for these new integrated distillation systems were simulated based on the thermodynamic properties of the aqueous solution of LiBr as well as the mass and energy balance of the system. The results indicate that combined with OAHT, the waste heat at 70 °C can be elevated to 125 °C and thereby produce steam at 120 °C in the absorber, which is able to drive a four-effect distiller to produce distilled water. For a single-effect and four-effect distiller, the coefficients of performance (COP) are approximately 1.02 while the performance ratios are 2.19 and 5.72, respectively. Therefore, the four-effect distillation system combined with an OAHT is more thermally effective and is an ideal option to process the waste water in oilfields. -- Highlights: • A new absorption vapor compression distillation was proposed in present research. • An open absorption heat transformer has a coupled thermally evaporator and absorber. • Distillation of waste water with high content of SiO 2 from heavy oil production. • The waste heat of 70 °C can be elevated up to 125 °C and generate steam of 120 °C. • The waste heat is able to drive four-effect distillation to produce distilled water

  1. Konference Distillation and Absorption 2010

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bendová, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 10 (2009), s. 862 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : conference * announcement * distillation and absorption Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  2. Distillation of shale in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Ganahl, C F

    1922-07-04

    To distill buried shale or other carbon containing compounds in situ, a portion of the shale bed is rendered permeable to gases, and the temperature is raised to the point of distillation. An area in a shale bed is shattered by explosives, so that it is in a relatively finely divided form, and the tunnel is then blocked by a wall, and fuel and air are admitted through pipes until the temperature of the shale is raised to such a point that a portion of the released hydrocarbons will burn. When distillation of the shattered area takes place and the lighter products pass upwardly through uptakes to condensers and scrubbers, liquid oil passes to a tank and gas to a gasometer while heavy unvaporized products in the distillation zone collect in a drain, flow into a sump, and are drawn off through a pipe to a storage tank. In two modifications, methods of working are set out in cases where the shale lies beneath a substantially level surface.

  3. Esterification of industrial-grade palm fatty acid distillate over modified ZrO{sub 2} (with WO{sub 3}-, SO{sub 4} -and TiO{sub 2}-): Effects of co-solvent adding and water removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mongkolbovornkij, P.; Laosiripojana, N. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi (Thailand); Champreda, V. [National Center for Genetic Enginnering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), Pathumthani (Thailand); Sutthisripok, W. [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    The esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), a by-product from palm oil industry, in the presence of three modified zirconia-based catalysts i.e. SO{sub 4}-ZrO{sub 2}, WO{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} (with several sulfur- and tungsten-loading contents, Ti/Zr molar ratios, and calcination temperatures) was studied. It was found that, among all synthesized catalysts, the reaction in the presence of SO{sub 4}-ZrO{sub 2} and WO{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} (with 1.8%SO{sub 4} calcined at 500 C and/or 20%WO{sub 3} calcined at 800 C) enhances relatively high fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield (84.9-93.7%), which was proven to relate with the high acid site density and specific surface area as well as the formation of tetragonal phase over these catalysts. The greater benefit of WO{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} over SO{sub 4}-ZrO{sub 2} was its high stability after several reaction cycles, whereas significant deactivation was detected over SO{sub 4}-ZrO{sub 2} due to the leaching of sulfur from catalyst. For further improvement, the addition of toluene as co-solvent was found to increase the FAME yield along with reduce the requirement of methanol to PFAD molar ratio (while maintains the FAME yield above 90%). Furthermore, it was observed that the presence of water in the feed considerably lower the FAME yield due to the catalyst surface interfering by water and the further hydrolysis of FAME back to fatty acids. We proposed here that the negative effect can be considerably minimized by adding molecular sieve to remove water from the feed and/or during the reaction. (author)

  4. Distillation of shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J

    1877-01-05

    The retort consists of a trough fitted with a hood, the edges of which hood dip into a channel of water formed round the sides of the trough, and thereby seal the retort. The shale is introduced at one end of the hood through a double-valved inlet hopper, and is moved along the retort by transverse scrapers or paddles. At the other end it falls through a double-valved outlet upon a set of firebars which carry it along under the retort, where either alone or in admixture with other fuel it is used for heating the vessel. The vapors from the shale pass off through pipes in the hood, or an inverted channel may be formed along the center of the hood for collecting the vapors from different parts of the vessel. The scrapers are worked by rocking shafts supported on bearings in the edges of the trough, and are made to feather when moving in a direction from the discharged end. Levers from the rocking shafts project down into the water channel, where they are connected with horizontal bars made to reciprocate longitudinally by suitable means, thus working the scrapers without using stuffing-boxes. Rotating scrapers may be substituted for the reciprocating ones.

  5. Distillation of oil-bearing minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-12-03

    A process of distilling oil-bearing minerals of the type of oil shale which disintegrate during distillation consists of subjecting the subdivided minerals to a distillation temperature in the form of a highly turbulent dense mass fluidized by an upwardly flowing gasiform medium in a distillation zone and supplying the heat required for the distillation by burning solid distillation residue with a combustion-supporting gas in the form of a fluidized mass of solids in a separate combustion zone at a combustion temperature and returning solid combustion residue substantially at the combustion temperature to the distillation zone. Combustion temperature is positively maintained at a figure not exceeding 1,200/sup 0/F and at a figure which is not substantially more than 50/sup 0/F higher than the distillation temperature.

  6. Comparative study of the essential oil and hydrolate composition of Lythrum salicaria L. obtained by hydro-distillation and microwave distillation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Manayi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are considered as very complex natural mixtures containing numerous components at quite various concentrations. Lythrum salicaria has not been previously subjected to examination of its volatile oil. The present study was carried out to evaluate the essential oil composition of the flowering aerial parts of the plant by using conventionally hydro-distillation (HD and microwave assisted hydro-distillation (MAH methods along with the aromatic water obtained by hydro-distillation. Components of these three samples were recognized by GC/MS. Identification of components resulted in recognition of 14 (98% oil, 32 (98.4%, and 10 (95.5% compounds for HD, its hydrolate, and MAH samples, respectively. The predominant constituents in the HD oil were bis (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (29.2%, n-hexadecanoic acid (22%, and pentacosane (9.5%. The major constituents of the hydrolate were elucidated as 2(4H-benzofuranone-5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,4,7a-trimethyl (6.4%, neryl acetone (6%, pentanoic acid (5.7%, nonanoic acid (5.6%, and octanoic acid (5.5%. Accordingly, bis (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (43.2%, methyl-cyclopentane (36.5%, and pentacosane (4.7% were assessed as the main components of MAH oil. Comparing the three samples compositions, it was concluded that the extraction procedure led to variations in quality and quantity of volatiles. Besides, bis (2-ethylhexyl phthalate, the common plasticizer, was identified as the main pollutant in both HD and MAH oils. The presence of this substance in the oils provided the evidence of contaminations that was absorbed from water into the plant suggesting GC/MS as a suitable method for its detection in plant materials.

  7. Deteriorating water clarity in shallow waters: Evidence from long term MODIS and in-situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kun; Zhang, Yunlin; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang; Pan, Delu

    2018-06-01

    Water clarity (Secchi disk depth: SDD), as a proxy of water transparency, provides important information on the light availability to the water or lake ecosystem. Shallow lakes have been experienced dramatic environmental and climatic change. This study demonstrated using combination of long-term MODIS and in-situ measurements to track the dynamics of SDD with these environmental and climate changes in shallow water environments. We selected a typical turbid shallow Lake Taihu as our case study. Based on MODIS-Aqua data, an empirical model for estimating SDD was developed and validated. Subsequently, we employed the proposed model to derive the spatial and temporal SDD distribution patterns of Lake Taihu from 2003 to 2015. Combining MODIS-derived SDD time series of 2003-2015 and long-term in-situ SDD observations dated back to 1993, we elucidated SDD long-term variation trends and driving mechanism. Deteriorating water clarity from the long-term SDD observations indicated that Lake Taihu became more and more turbid and water quality was decreasing. Increasing in cyanobacterial bloom area, as a result of decreasing in wind speed and eutrophication, may partially be responsible for the decreasing trend. A predicted future decrease in the wind speed in Lake Taihu region could enhance the formation of cyanobacterial blooms and consequently lead to a further decrease in water clarity. This study suggested that coupling remote sensing monitoring and long-term in-situ observations could provide robust evidence and new insights to elucidate long-term dynamics in aquatic ecosystem evolution.

  8. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinger, Ben

    1979-01-01

    Water is a major component in many consumer products. Azeotropic distillation of products such as detergents and foodstuffs to form a two-phase distillate is a simple experimental method to determine the percentage of water in the product. (Author/GA)

  9. Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS): Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has dramatically increased in recent years; so has the quantity of associated coproducts. Nonfermentable components are removed from the process as whole stillage, centrifuged to remove water – which is then evaporated to produce condensed distillers solubles (CDS), a...

  10. Energy Efficient Bioethanol Purification by Heat Pump Assisted Extractive Distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Anton A.; Luo, Hao; Bildea, Costin Sorin

    2015-01-01

    The purification of bioethanol fuel requires an energy demanding separation process to concentrate the diluted streams obtained in the fermentation stage and to overcome the azeotropic behaviour of ethanol-water mixture. The classic separation sequence consists of three distillation columns that

  11. Novel heat-pump-assisted extractive distillation for bioethanol purification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Hao; Bildea, Costin Sorin; Kiss, Anton A.

    2015-01-01

    The purification of bioethanol fuel involves an energy-intensive separation process to concentrate the diluted streams obtained in the fermentation stage and to overcome the azeotropic behavior of the ethanol-water mixture. The conventional separation sequence employs three distillation columns that

  12. Cyclic distillation technology - A mini-review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bîldea, Costin Sorin; Pătruţ, Cătălin; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Abildskov, Jens; Kiss, Anton A.

    2016-01-01

    Process intensification in distillation systems has received much attention during past decades, with the aim of increasing both energy and separation efficiency. Various techniques, such as internal heat-integrated distillation, membrane distillation, rotating packed bed, dividing-wall columns and

  13. Dry-distillation of experimental animal wastes containing radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, Hideo; Saito, Kazumi; Kurihara, Norio

    1988-01-01

    Mice were dry-distilled at 800deg C for 10 min, after [ 32 P]orthophosphate or L-[4,5- 3 H]leucine was intraperitoneally administered. Phosphorus-32 was quantitatively recovered in the residual solid, whereas 95% of 3 H was found in the distillate (condensed water). When 14 C (L-[U- 14 C]malic acid or L-[U- 14 C]leucine) was administered to mice and they were dry-distilled, 14 C-radioactivity was distributed into two fractions; residual solid and exhaust gas. In these cases, the recovery percentage of 14 C in residual solid was not very high but increased as the treating temperature decreased. It reached about 40% of the administered 14 C at 400deg C for 120 min. By the dry-distillation of animals, their weight was reduced to about 10% in every animal tested (mice, rats and rabbits). The volume was reduced to about 20% in cases of mice and rats, and about 30% in case of rabbits. It was concluded that the dry-distillation can be useful as a pre-treatment for disposal of animal wastes containing radioisotopes. (author)

  14. Control of distributed heat transfer mechanisms in membrane distillation plants

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-01-05

    Various examples are provided that are related to boundary control in membrane distillation (MD) processes. In one example, a system includes a membrane distillation (MD) process comprising a feed side and a permeate side separated by a membrane boundary layer; and processing circuitry configured to control a water production rate of the MD process based at least in part upon a distributed heat transfer across the membrane boundary layer. In another example, a method includes determining a plurality of estimated temperature states of a membrane boundary layer separating a feed side and a permeate side of a membrane distillation (MD) process; and adjusting inlet flow rate or inlet temperature of at least one of the feed side or the permeate side to maintain a difference temperature along the membrane boundary layer about a defined reference temperature based at least in part upon the plurality of estimated temperature states.

  15. Drinking water infrastructure and environmental disparities: evidence and methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerslice, James

    2011-12-01

    Potable drinking water is essential to public health; however, few studies have investigated income or racial disparities in water infrastructure or drinking water quality. There were many case reports documenting a lack of piped water or serious water quality problems in low income and minority communities, including tribal lands, Alaskan Native villages, colonias along the United States-Mexico border, and small communities in agricultural areas. Only 3 studies compared the demographic characteristics of communities by the quality of their drinking water, and the results were mixed in these studies. Further assessments were hampered by difficulties linking specific water systems to the sociodemographic characteristics of communities, as well as little information about how well water systems operated and the effectiveness of governmental oversight.

  16. Drinking Water Infrastructure and Environmental Disparities: Evidence and Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Potable drinking water is essential to public health; however, few studies have investigated income or racial disparities in water infrastructure or drinking water quality. There were many case reports documenting a lack of piped water or serious water quality problems in low income and minority communities, including tribal lands, Alaskan Native villages, colonias along the United States–Mexico border, and small communities in agricultural areas. Only 3 studies compared the demographic characteristics of communities by the quality of their drinking water, and the results were mixed in these studies. Further assessments were hampered by difficulties linking specific water systems to the sociodemographic characteristics of communities, as well as little information about how well water systems operated and the effectiveness of governmental oversight. PMID:21836110

  17. Water Poverty and Rural Development: Evidence from South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Matshe, Innocent; Moyo-Maposa, Sibonginkosi; Zikhali, Precious

    2013-01-01

    Using household data from the 2009 General Household Survey, this paper examines the role of natural resource scarcity in rural development in South Africa, with a particular focus on water scarcity. It seeks to examine whether there is a direct link between household water and economic poverty of rural households, with households’ total monthly income used as an indicator of economic poverty. An adaptation of a comprehensive water poverty index, which considers water access, quality, use, ...

  18. Thermal distillation system utilizing biomass energy burned in stove by means of heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tanaka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A thermal distillation system utilizing a part of the thermal energy of biomass burned in a stove during cooking is proposed. The thermal energy is transported from the stove to the distiller by means of a heat pipe. The distiller is a vertical multiple-effect diffusion distiller, in which a number of parallel partitions in contact with saline-soaked wicks are set vertically with narrow gaps of air. A pilot experimental apparatus was constructed and tested with a single-effect and multiple-effect distillers to investigate primarily whether a heat pipe can transport thermal energy adequately from the stove to the distiller. It was found that the temperatures of the heated plate and the first partition of the distiller reached to about 100 °C and 90 °C, respectively, at steady state, showing that the heat pipe works sufficiently. The distilled water obtained was about 0.75 and 1.35 kg during the first 2 h of burning from a single-effect and multiple-effect distillers, respectively.

  19. Vacuum membrane distillation of liquid desiccants Utilizing Hollow Fiber Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Lefers, Ryan; Srivatsa Bettahalli, N.M.; Fedoroff, Nina V.; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Leiknes, TorOve

    2018-01-01

    This paper documents the testing of a vacuum membrane distillation system intended for use with liquid desiccants. Liquid desiccants offer the possibility for low-energy, ambient temperature dehumidification. Effective desalination and purification of diluted desiccants outputs two important products: a concentrated desiccant for reuse in dehumidification and fresh water. In this study, vacuum membrane distillation was used in the laboratory to purify diluted liquid desiccants. Calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were the desiccants selected for testing. Desiccant solutions were pumped through the lumens of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes at varying feed inlet temperatures, solution velocity rates and vacuum set points during membrane distillation. An average flux of 8 kg m-2 h-1 was obtained using 30 wt% magnesium chloride solution at a temperature of 50 °C while applying vacuum to achieve 25 mbar absolute pressure on the air side of the membrane. The results are promising for the development of a full-scale vacuum membrane distillation process for desiccant solution regeneration and fresh water recovery. In addition, the recovered condensate was of sufficient quality for use in agricultural irrigation or drinking water.

  20. Vacuum membrane distillation of liquid desiccants Utilizing Hollow Fiber Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Lefers, Ryan

    2018-01-31

    This paper documents the testing of a vacuum membrane distillation system intended for use with liquid desiccants. Liquid desiccants offer the possibility for low-energy, ambient temperature dehumidification. Effective desalination and purification of diluted desiccants outputs two important products: a concentrated desiccant for reuse in dehumidification and fresh water. In this study, vacuum membrane distillation was used in the laboratory to purify diluted liquid desiccants. Calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were the desiccants selected for testing. Desiccant solutions were pumped through the lumens of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes at varying feed inlet temperatures, solution velocity rates and vacuum set points during membrane distillation. An average flux of 8 kg m-2 h-1 was obtained using 30 wt% magnesium chloride solution at a temperature of 50 °C while applying vacuum to achieve 25 mbar absolute pressure on the air side of the membrane. The results are promising for the development of a full-scale vacuum membrane distillation process for desiccant solution regeneration and fresh water recovery. In addition, the recovered condensate was of sufficient quality for use in agricultural irrigation or drinking water.

  1. Experimental evidences of electro-thermal ablation acceleration of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1987-07-01

    We report the first demonstrations of driving water of about 1000 grams by electro-thermally ablated gas pressure in a cavity with a single exhauster. A blob of water was shot into the air with a shooting angle of about 45 deg, and the flight velocity observed was about 13 meters per second with the capacitor (28μF) charged up to 10 KV. The discharge sound was almost suppressed by the water blob loaded in the chamber possilbly because the energy of sound was dissipated into the water blob. The application of this ablation water driver to ship propulsion is also discussed. (author)

  2. Key distillation in quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, Boris Aron

    1998-11-01

    Quantum cryptography is a technique which permits two parties to communicate over an open channel and establish a shared sequence of bits known only to themselves. This task, provably impossible in classical cryptography, is accomplished by encoding the data on quantum particles and harnessing their unique properties. It is believed that no eavesdropping attack consistent with the laws of quantum theory can compromise the secret data unknowingly to the legitimate users of the channel. Any attempt by a hostile actor to monitor the data carrying particles while in transit reveals itself through transmission errors it must inevitably introduce. Unfortunately, in practice a communication is not free of errors even when no eavesdropping is present. Key distillation is a technique that permits the parties to overcome this difficulty and establish a secret key despite channel defects, under the assumption that every particle is handled independently from other particles by the enemy. In the present work, key distillation is described and its various aspects are studied. A relationship is derived between the average error rate resulting from an eavesdropping attack and the amount of information obtained by the attacker. Formal definition is developed of the security of the final key. The net throughput of secret bits in a quantum cryptosystem employing key distillation is assessed. An overview of quantum cryptographic protocols and related information theoretical results is also given.

  3. Distillation of combustibles at temperatures below fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalin, D

    1946-09-26

    A process is described for combustion and distillation for dry fuels, such as bituminous shales, below the temperature of fusion of the ash, for the production of heat, in which the temperature in the charge of fuel forming a vertical column is maintained beneath the temperature of fusion of the ash by a withdrawal of the heat from the combustible charge by means of a fluid absorbing this heat. This fluid being constituted, for example, by water in a suitable form, so that it can be circulated through a convenient cooling system, extending through the different parts of the charge. The fluid circulating also through the desired parts of the charge and absorbing the heat, the quantity of fluid or the surface of absorption increasing with the intensity of the combustion in the part of the combustible charge traversed by the fluid.

  4. Solar Distillation Practice For Water Desalination Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mahian, Omid; Kianifar, Ali; Jumpholkul, Chaiwat; Thiangtham, Phubate; Wongwises, Somchai; Srisomba, Raviwat

    2015-01-01

    references, it is suggested to add a chapter concerning CFD simulations of solar stills. In addition, a part can be devoted to using novel technologies such as nanotechnology for productivity enhancement of solar stills

  5. [Distiller Yeasts Producing Antibacterial Peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyachko, E V; Morozkina, E V; Zaitchik, B Ts; Benevolensky, S V

    2015-01-01

    A new method of controlling lactic acid bacteria contamination was developed with the use of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides. Genes encoding the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin with codons preferable for S. cerevisiae were synthesized, and a system was constructed for their secretory expression. Recombinant S. cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides effectively inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Pediacoccus pentasaceus, Pediacoccus acidilactici, etc. The application of distiller yeasts producing antibacterial peptides enhances the ethanol yield in cases of bacterial contamination. Recombinant yeasts producing the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin can successfully substitute the available industrial yeast strains upon ethanol production.

  6. Does osmotic distillation change the isotopic relation of wines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently partial alcohol reduction of wine is in the focus of research worldwide. There are several technologies available to achieve this target. These techniques are either based on distilling or membrane processes. Osmotic distillation, one of the possibilities, is a quite modern membrane process that can be used. During that process, wine is pumped in counter flow to water along a micro porous, hydrophobic membrane. The volatile components of the wine can permeate that membrane and are dissolved in water. The driving force of that process is the vapor pressure difference between the volatiles on the wine and water side of the membrane. The aim of this work was to determine if the alcohol reduction by osmotic distillation can change the isotopic relation in a wine. Can this enological practice change the composition of a wine in a way that an illegal water addition is simulated? Different wines were reduced by 2% alcohol v/v with varying process parameters. The isotopic analysis of the O 16/18 ratio in the wine were performed according to the OIV methods (353/2009 These analyses showed that the isotopic ratio is modified by an alcohol reduction of 2% v/v in a way that corresponds to an addition of 4–5% of external water.

  7. Low temperature distillation of coal, shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-08-12

    A process is disclosed for the low temperature distillation of solid carbonaceous fuels, such as coal, lignite, shale or the like, which comprises feeding or supplying the comminuted fuel in the form of a layer of shallow depth to drying and distilling zones in succession moving the fuel forward through the zones, submitting it to progressively increasing nonuniform heating therein by combustion gases supplied to the distillation zone and traveling thence to the drying zone, the gases heating the distillation zone indirectly and the drying zone both indirectly and then directly such that the fuel retains its solid discrete form during substantially the whole of its travel through the drying and distillation zones, subjecting the fuel for a portion of its travel to a zigzag ploughing and propelling movement on a heated sole, and increasing the heating so as to cause fusion of the fuel immediately prior to its discharge from the distillation zone.

  8. Evaluation of chemical composition of defect wine distillates

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaljević Žulj, Marin; Posavec, Barbara; Škvorc, Melanija; Tupajić, Pavica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the distillate obtained from wine with off-flavour. The chemical composition of wine distillates obtained by distillation of Chardonnay wine with oxidation off-flavour was investigated. Distillation of wine was carried out using a simple distillation pot still by double distillation and separation the different portion of the first fraction. Volatile compounds of wine and wine distillates (acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol ...

  9. Salt water and skin interactions: new lines of evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajo, Jose Manuel; Maraver, Francisco

    2018-04-01

    In Health Resort Medicine, both balneotherapy and thalassotherapy, salt waters and their peloids, or mud products are mainly used to treat rheumatic and skin disorders. These therapeutic agents act jointly via numerous mechanical, thermal, and chemical mechanisms. In this review, we examine a new mechanism of action specific to saline waters. When topically administered, this water rich in sodium and chloride penetrates the skin where it is able to modify cellular osmotic pressure and stimulate nerve receptors in the skin via cell membrane ion channels known as "Piezo" proteins. We describe several models of cutaneous adsorption/desorption and penetration of dissolved ions in mineral waters through the skin (osmosis and cell volume mechanisms in keratinocytes) and examine the role of these resources in stimulating cutaneous nerve receptors. The actions of salt mineral waters are mediated by a mechanism conditioned by the concentration and quality of their salts involving cellular osmosis-mediated activation/inhibition of cell apoptotic or necrotic processes. In turn, this osmotic mechanism modulates the recently described mechanosensitive piezoelectric channels.

  10. Evaluation by design of experiments of active clay specimens behavior in the presence of distilled water, saline solutions and cationic inhibitors; Avaliacao por analise estatistica experimental do comportamento de corpos de prova de argila aditivada na presenca de agua destilada, solucoes salinas e inibidores cationicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, Emanuella Layne Ferreira; Araujo, Bruno Alysson Barbosa Duarte; Borges, Mauricio Rodrigues; Garcia, Rosangela Balaban [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    During the drilling, in general, there are layers of clays which water absorption easily as smectites. In drilling with clays swelling when is applied water-base fluid there is necessary the use of the clay inhibitors to avoid the incorporation of the cutting to the drilling fluid. The most used chemical inhibitors in drilling fluids are sodium and potassium chlorides. However, the cationic inhibitors have been used as alternative form to increase the inhibition power of the drilling fluids. In this work was evaluated the behaviour of the activated clay test bodies in the presence of distilled water, aqueous solution potassium chlorides, and cationic inhibitors. The solutions were submitted at Capillary Suction Timer tests to evaluation the capacity of the water retention in activated clay samples. At the interpretation of the results was used Design of Experiments (DOE) by Response Surface Methodology (RSM), using Umetrics MODDE 7.0{sup TM} programme. It was observed that the clay samples when in contact with the solutions presented lower water retention than in the presence of distilled water only. This result indicates that the clay was inhibited. (author)

  11. Method and arrangement of distillation of shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, S V

    1920-03-29

    A method is given of distilling shale and other bituminous materials utilizing the heat from the combustion of the residue, possibly with additional heat from other fuels. It is characterized by the shale, which is arranged in layers, being first submitted to a process of distillation utilizing the heat mentioned, and at the same time recovering the products of distillation, and second the shale being burned without disturbing the layers to any appreciable extent. The patent has 16 more claims.

  12. Evidence of radicals created by plasma in bacteria in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chae Bok; Na, Young Ho; Hong, Tae-Eun; Choi, Eun Ha; Uhm, Han S.; Baik, Ku Youn; Kwon, Gichung

    2014-01-01

    Heavy water (D 2 O) was introduced into a non-thermal plasma-jet (NTPJ) device to generate deuterium monoxide (OD) radicals at room temperature. Owing to the similar reactivity and low prevalence of deuterium in nature, OD radicals can be utilized to visualize the OH radical interactions with water and living cells. Escherichia coli in water were treated with OD radicals, and D atom incorporation into cells was visualized using time-of-flight SIMS and Nano-SIMS. The results show that D atoms from NTPJ reach the cytoplasm of E. coli in H 2 O, indicating the usefulness of this OD-tracking method for the study of radical interactions with living cells.

  13. Low grade bioethanol for fuel mixing on gasoline engine using distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abikusna, Setia; Sugiarto, Bambang; Suntoro, Dedi; Azami

    2017-03-01

    Utilization of renewable energy in Indonesia is still low, compared to 34% oil, 20% coal and 20% gas, utilization of energy sources for water 3%, geothermal 1%, 2% biofuels, and biomass 20%. Whereas renewable energy sources dwindling due to the increasing consumption of gasoline as a fuel. It makes us have to look for alternative renewable energy, one of which is bio ethanol. Several studies on the use of ethanol was done to the researchers. Our studies using low grade bio ethanol which begins with the disitillation independently utilize flue gas heat at compact distillator, produces high grade bio ethanol and ready to be mixed with gasoline. Stages of our study is the compact distillator design of the motor dynamic continued with good performance and emission testing and ethanol distilled. Some improvement is made is through the flue gas heat control mechanism in compact distillator using gate valve, at low, medium, and high speed engine. Compact distillator used is kind of a batch distillation column. Column design process using the shortcut method, then carried the tray design to determine the overall geometry. The distillation is done by comparing the separator with a tray of different distances. As well as by varying the volume of the feed and ethanol levels that will feed distilled. In this study, we analyzed the mixing of ethanol through variation between main jet and pilot jet in the carburetor separately interchangeably with gasoline. And finally mixing mechanism bio ethanol with gasoline improved with fuel mixer for performance.

  14. Study on Gas-liquid Falling Film Flow in Internal Heat Integrated Distillation Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong

    2017-10-01

    Gas-liquid internally heat integrated distillation column falling film flow with nonlinear characteristics, study on gas liquid falling film flow regulation control law, can reduce emissions of the distillation column, and it can improve the quality of products. According to the distribution of gas-liquid mass balance internally heat integrated distillation column independent region, distribution model of heat transfer coefficient of building internal heat integrated distillation tower is obtained liquid distillation falling film flow in the saturated vapour pressure of liquid water balance, using heat transfer equation and energy equation to balance the relationship between the circulating iterative gas-liquid falling film flow area, flow parameter information, at a given temperature, pressure conditions, gas-liquid flow falling film theory makes the optimal parameters to achieve the best fitting value with the measured values. The results show that the geometric gas-liquid internally heat integrated distillation column falling film flow heat exchange area and import column thermostat, the average temperature has significant. The positive correlation between the heat exchanger tube entrance due to temperature difference between inside and outside, the heat flux is larger, with the increase of internal heat integrated distillation column temperature, the slope decreases its temperature rise, which accurately describes the internal gas-liquid heat integrated distillation tower falling film flow regularity, take appropriate measures to promote the enhancement of heat transfer. It can enhance the overall efficiency of the heat exchanger.

  15. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninić Neven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen using less than 10% of the distillate produced.

  16. Determination of methanol in Iranian herbal distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Kobra; Hassani, Faezeh Vahdati; Azar-Khiavi, Kamal Razavi; Moghaddam, Zohreh Samie; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2016-06-01

    Herbal distillates have been used as beverages, for flavoring, or as phytomedicines in many countries for a long time. Recently, the occurrence of blindness after drinking herbal distillates has created concerns in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of methanol in herbal distillates produced in Iran. Eighty-four most commonly used herbal distillates purchased from herbal distillate factories were analyzed for methanol contents by gas chromatography and flame ionization detection, with ethanol as internal standard. In 15 herbal distillates, the methanol concentration was below the limit of quantitation. The methanol concentrations in all samples ranged from 43 to 277 mg/L. Forty-five samples contained methanol in excess of the Iranian standard. The maximum concentration was found in an herbal distillate of Mentha piperita (factory E) (277±12), and the minimum in a distillate of Carum carvi (factory B) (42.6 ± 0.5). Since the 45 Iranian herbal distillates containing methanol levels were beyond the legal limits according to the Iranian standard, it seems necessary to monitor the amount of methanol and give a warning to watch out for the latent risk problem of methanol uptake, and establish a definitive relationship between the degree of intoxication observed and the accumulation of methanol in the blood.

  17. Dynamic effects of diabatization in distillation columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic effects of diabatization in distillation columns are investigated in simulation emphasizing the heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A generic, dynamic, first-principle model has been formulated, which is flexible enough to describe various diabatic distillation configurations....... Dynamic Relative Gain Array and Singular Value Analysis have been applied in a comparative study of a conventional distillation column and a HIDiC. The study showed increased input-output coupling due to diabatization. Feasible SISO control structures for the HIDiC were also found and control...

  18. Dynamic Effects of Diabatization in Distillation Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic eects of diabatization in distillation columns are investigated in simulation with primary focus on the heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A generic, dynamic, rst-principle model has been formulated, which is exible to describe various diabatic distillation congurations....... Dynamic Relative Gain Array and Singular Value Analysis have been applied in a comparative study of a conventional distillation column and a HIDiC. The study showed increased input-output coupling due to diabatization. Feasible SISO control structures for the HIDiC were also found. Control...

  19. DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF MULTIEFFECT DISTILLER/EVAPORATOR USING SCHEFFLER SOLAR CONCENTRATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJAY CHANDAK

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Authors designed and experimented with multistage evaporation system for production of distilled water. Two Scheffler concentrators of 16 sqm each were used for generating steam in the first stage at 8 bar pressure and the pressure is gradually brought down to 1 bar, in four stage distillation unit. Total yield obtained in the project was 2.3 times that of single stage distillation. Temperature drop in every subsequent stage was designed to 25 degree centigrade. Heat of condensation in the last stage and also sensible heat of the condensate in all the stages were used for preheating of water in the next batch. The system has great potential in food processing industry for applications of juice thickening, sauces, jams, salt concentrating systems and distilled water applications, desalination etc. Results of the project are very encouraging for commercial scale application.

  20. Experimental Evidence of Low Density Liquid Water under Decompression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, G.; Lin, C.; Sinogeikin, S. V.; Smith, J.

    2017-12-01

    Water is not only the most important substance for life, but also plays important roles in liquid science for its anomalous properties. It has been widely accepted that water's anomalies are not a result of simple thermal fluctuation, but are connected to the formation of various structural aggregates in the hydrogen bonding network. Among several proposed scenarios, one model of fluctuations between two different liquids has gradually gained traction. These two liquids are referred to as a low-density liquid (LDL) and a high-density liquid (HDL) with a coexistence line in the deeply supercooled regime at elevated pressure. The LDL-HDL transition ends with decreasing pressure at a liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) with its Widom line extending to low pressures. Above the Widom line lies mostly HDL which is favored by entropy, while LDL, mostly lying below the Widom line, is favored by enthalpy in the tetrahedral hydrogen bonding network. The origin of water's anomalies can then be explained by the increase in structural fluctuations, as water is cooled down to deeply supercooled temperatures approaching the Widom line. Because both the LLCP and the LDL-HDL transition line lie in water's "no man's land" between the homogeneous nucleation temperature (TH, 232 K) and the crystallization temperature (TX, 150 K), the success of experiments exploring this region has been limited thus far. Using a rapid decompression technique integrated with in situ x-ray diffraction, we observe that a high-pressure ice phase transforms to a low-density noncrystalline (LDN) form upon rapid release of pressure at temperatures of 140-165K. The LDN subsequently crystallizes into ice-Ic through a diffusion-controlled process. The change in crystallization rate with temperature indicates that the LDN is a LDL with its tetrahedrally-coordinated network fully developed and clearly linked to low-density amorphous ices. The observation of the tetrahedral LDL supports the two-liquid model for

  1. Spectrophotometric determination of boron in complex matrices by isothermal distillation of borate ester into curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavel, S.; Dhavile, S.M.; Dash, K.; Chaurasia, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    In situ distillation of borate ester into the curcumin solution has been developed for the spectrophotometric determination of boron in a variety of complex matrixes. A polypropylene vessel containing the sample solution was placed inside a vessel (PP) containing 10 ml of curcumin solution and the distillation was carried out at room temperature/on a water bath. The borate ester collected in to the curcumin solution was evaporated to dryness on the water bath, taken in acetone and the absorbance was measured at 550 nm. In situ distillation of borate ester directly into the chromogenic reagent eliminates tedious sample treatment (before and/or after borate separation), use of methanol, complicated quartz set up, possible loss of boron and reduces the analysis time significantly. In situ dehydration of sample solution by ethanolic vapour in the absence of dehydrating acid prevents the formation of fluoborate and co-distillation of potential anionic interferents (nitrate and fluoride). This developed method has been applied for the determination of traces of boric acid in boron powder by the distillation of methyl borate at room temperature. For other matrixes (water, uranium oxide, uranyl nitrate, fluoride salt, etc.) distillation of ethyl borate was carried out on the water bath. LOD (3σ) was 5 ng g -1 for water and 30 ng g -1 for solid samples

  2. 3 micron spectrophotometry of Comet Halley - Evidence for water ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Jesse D.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Witteborn, Fred C.; Rank, David M.; Wooden, Diane

    1988-01-01

    Structure has been observed in the 3-3.6 micron preperihelion spectrum of Comet Halley consistent with either an absorption band near 3.1 microns or emission near 3.3 microns. The results suggest that a large fraction of the water molecules lost by the comet are initially ejected in the form of small ice particles rather than in the gas phase.

  3. 27 CFR 19.322 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distillates containing... Distillates containing extraneous substances. (a) Use in production. Distillates containing substantial... produced. Distillates removed from the distilling system under the provisions of this paragraph shall be...

  4. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of distillates... distillates containing aldehydes. Distillates containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were...

  5. Development on the cryogenic hydrogen isotopes distillation process technology for tritium removal (Final report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ki Woung; Kim, Yong Ik; Na, Jeong Won; Ku, Jae Hyu; Kim, Kwang Rak; Jeong, Yong Won; Lee, Han Soo; Cho, Young Hyun; Ahn, Do Hee; Baek, Seung Woo; Kang, Hee Seok; Kim, You Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    While tritium exposure to the site-workers in Wolsung NPP is up to about 40% of the total personnel exposure, Ministry of Science and Technology has asked tritium removal facility for requirement of post heavy-water reactor construction. For the purpose of essential removal of tritium from the Wolsung heavy-water reactor system, a preliminary study on the cryogenic Ar-N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} distillation process for development of liquid-phase catalytic exchange cryogenic hydrogen distillation process technology. The Ar-N{sub 2} distillation column showed good performance with approximately 97% of final Ar concentration, and a computer simulation code was modified using these data. A simulation code developed for cryogenic hydrogen isotopes (H{sub 2}, HD, D{sub 2}, HT, DT, T{sub 2}) distillation column showed good performance after comparison with the result of a JAERI code, and a H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} distillation column was made. Gas chromatography for hydrogen isotopes analysis was established using a vacuum sampling loop, and a schematic diagram of H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} distillation process was suggested. A feasibility on modification of H{sub 2}-D{sub 2} distillation process control system using Laser Raman Spectroscopy was studied, and the consideration points for tritium storage system for Wolsung tritium removal facility was suggested. 31 tabs., 79 figs., 68 refs. (Author).

  6. Mass and heat transfer on B7 ordered packing in hydrogen isotope separation by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitoru, Cornelia; Pop, Floarea; Titescu, Gheorghe; Stefanescu, Ioan; Trancota, Dan; Peculea, Marius

    2002-01-01

    This work presents theoretical and experimental data referring to mass and heat transfer on B7 ordered packing in deuterium isotope separation by distillation. The first part is devoted to the study of mass transfer in hydrogen isotopic distillation while the second one treats the mass and heat transfer in water isotopic distillation. A stationary mathematical model for the mass and heat transfer was developed based on multitubular column model with wet wall. This model allowed the calculation starting from theoretical data of the ordered packing efficiency, expressed by the transfer unit height, TUH. Also, from theoretical data the mass and heat transfer coefficients were determined. A test of the mathematical model was performed with the experimental data obtained from two laboratory installations for hydrogen isotope separation by distillation. From the first installation, experimental data concerning the B7 ordered packing efficiency were obtained for the deuterium separation by cryogenic distillation at the - 250 deg C level. With the second one data referring to the mass and heat transfer on the same packing were obtained for the deuterium separation by water distillation under vacuum at the 60 deg C level. The values of TUH, mass and heat transfer coefficients as theoretically evaluate and experimentally checked are in agreement with the respective values obtained in separation processes in chemical industry. This is the fact which endorses utilization of the model of multitubular column with wet wall for describing the transfer processes in distillation columns equipped with B7 ordered packing

  7. Development on the cryogenic hydrogen isotopes distillation process technology for tritium removal (Final report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Ki Woung; Kim, Yong Ik; Na, Jeong Won; Ku, Jae Hyu; Kim, Kwang Rak; Jeong, Yong Won; Lee, Han Soo; Cho, Young Hyun; Ahn, Do Hee; Baek, Seung Woo; Kang, Hee Seok; Kim, You Sun

    1995-12-01

    While tritium exposure to the site-workers in Wolsung NPP is up to about 40% of the total personnel exposure, Ministry of Science and Technology has asked tritium removal facility for requirement of post heavy-water reactor construction. For the purpose of essential removal of tritium from the Wolsung heavy-water reactor system, a preliminary study on the cryogenic Ar-N 2 and H 2 -D 2 distillation process for development of liquid-phase catalytic exchange cryogenic hydrogen distillation process technology. The Ar-N 2 distillation column showed good performance with approximately 97% of final Ar concentration, and a computer simulation code was modified using these data. A simulation code developed for cryogenic hydrogen isotopes (H 2 , HD, D 2 , HT, DT, T 2 ) distillation column showed good performance after comparison with the result of a JAERI code, and a H 2 -D 2 distillation column was made. Gas chromatography for hydrogen isotopes analysis was established using a vacuum sampling loop, and a schematic diagram of H 2 -D 2 distillation process was suggested. A feasibility on modification of H 2 -D 2 distillation process control system using Laser Raman Spectroscopy was studied, and the consideration points for tritium storage system for Wolsung tritium removal facility was suggested. 31 tabs., 79 figs., 68 refs. (Author)

  8. A Review of Evidence for Corrosion of Copper by water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apted, Michael J. (Monitor Scientific LLC (United Kingdom)); Bennett, David G. (TerraSalus Limited (United Kingdom)); Saario, Timo (VTT Materials and Building (Finland))

    2009-09-15

    The planned spent nuclear fuel repository in Sweden relies on a copper cast iron canister as the primary engineered barrier. The corrosion behaviour of copper in the expected environment needs to be thoroughly understood as a basis for the post-closure safety analysis. It has been shown that corrosion may indeed be the primary canister degradation process during the utilised assessment period of 1 million years (this period is the longest time for which risk calculations will be needed according guidelines issued by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority). Previous analysis work has been based on that copper is corroded during the initial oxic environment as well as by sulphide in groundwater once reducing conditions have been restored. The quantitative analyses of these processes consider upper-bound amounts of atmospheric oxidation as well as representative sulphide concentrations coupled with the transport limitation of the bentonite buffer and of the surrounding bedrock. A group of researchers at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden suggest, based on published experimental results, that disposed canisters will also be corroded by water itself under hydrogen evolution. The purpose of the project is to evaluate the findings of the KTH research group based on an assessment of their experimental methods and chemical analysis work, thermodynamic models, and a discussion of reaction mechanisms as well as comparison with the analogue behaviour of native copper. As a background, the authors also provide a brief overview of other corrosion processes and safety assessment significance. The authors conclude that the KTH researchers have not convincingly demonstrated that copper will indeed be corroded by pure water and that it is in any case very unlikely that this process will be dominant under the reducing chemical conditions that are expected in the repository environment. How-ever, the authors do not completely rule out that copper may corrode

  9. Recycling of acetone by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, D.L.; Campbell, B.A.; Phelan, J.E.; Harper, M.

    1992-09-01

    The Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) identifies spent acetone solvent as a listed hazardous waste. At Fernald, acetone has been spent that has been contaminated with radionuclides and therefore is identified as a mixed hazardous waste. At the time of this publication there is no available approved method of recycling or disposal of radioactively contaminated spent acetone solvent. The Consent Decree with the Ohio EPA and the Consent Agreement with the United States EPA was agreed upon for the long-term compliant storage of hazardous waste materials. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility for safely decontaminating spent acetone to background levels of radioactivity for reuse. It was postulated that through heat distillation, radionuclides could be isolated from the spent acetone

  10. Retort for distilling coal oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbon, J

    1865-12-20

    The construction of a retort for extracting or distilling coal oil or other products from cannel coal, shale, or schist, and more particularly of small coal or dust technically called slack, consists in applying self-acting feed and discharge apparatus to a revolving cylindrical wrought or cast iron retort, and constructing the inner surface of the cylindrical retort with a projecting ridge which encircles the interior of the retort in a spiral manner, the same as the interior of a female screw, and the ridge may be either cast upon or riveted on the internal surface, and is so arranged to cause the material to be operated upon to advance from one end of the retort to the other, as the retort revolves by following the course of the spiral screw or worm formed by the projecting ridge.

  11. Distillation of solid carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burney, C D

    1918-08-31

    A method of distilling carbonaceous material at low or moderate temperatures is described in which the main supply of gases for heating the material under treatment is generated in a combustion chamber located externally of the retort chamber from which combustion chamber the gases are withdrawn and passed under control through hollow elements located within the retort chamber in such manner as to insure the production of the desired temperature gradient along the length of the retort, the said elements being so constructed that they serve to bring the heating gases into indirect contact with the material undergoing treatment while also moving the material progressively through the retort in the opposite direction to that in which the heating gases flow.

  12. Method of distillation of sulfurous bituminous shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallback, A J.S.; Bergh, S V

    1918-04-22

    A method of distillation of sulfur-containing bituminous shales is characterized by passing the hot sulfur-containing and oil-containing gases and vapors formed during the distillation through burned shale containing iron oxide, so that when these gases and vapors are thereafter cooled they will be, as far as possible, free from sulfur compounds. The patent contains six more claims.

  13. Process of distillation of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxton, A L

    1968-08-16

    In an oil-shale distillation apparatus with a single retort, in which separate zones of preheating, distillation, combustion, and cooling are maintained, the operation is conducted at a presssure higher than the atmospheric pressure, preferably at a gage pressure between about 0.35 and 7.0 bars. This permits increasing the capacity of the installation.

  14. Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.

    2011-01-01

    Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message…

  15. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Starter distillate. 58.331 Section 58.331 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related...

  16. Willingness to pay for safe drinking water: Evidence from Parral, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, William F; Mozumder, Pallab; Hernández-Arce, Jesús; Berrens, Robert P

    2009-08-01

    A referendum-format contingent valuation (CV) survey is used to elicit household willingness to pay responses for safe and reliable drinking water in Parral, Mexico. Households currently adopt a variety of averting and private investment choices (e.g., bottled water consumption, home-based water treatment, and installation of water storage facilities) to adapt to the existing water supply system. These revealed behaviors indicate the latent demand for safer and more reliable water services, which is corroborated by the CV survey evidence. Validity findings include significant scope sensitivity in WTP for water services. Further, results indicate that households are willing to pay from 1.8% to 7.55% of reported household income above their current water bill for safe and reliable drinking water services, depending upon the assumptions about response uncertainty.

  17. Method of distillation of alum shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultman, G H

    1920-02-03

    A method is given of distilling alum shale by means of preheated gases obtained from the process of distillation in which the gases are circulating within a system consisting of the retort, the condensation apparatus, and generator, each separate. It is characterized by leading the gases produced during the distillation through a condensation apparatus for separation of the condensable products, such as oil, benzene, ammonia, and sulfur, and the noncondensable gases are conveyed through one or more heated generators that have been charged with residue from the process of distillation (any superfluous amount of gas formed during the process being released). The heated gases are thereupon passed to the retort for completion of the distillation process.

  18. Operation and Design of Diabatic Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas

    Diabatic operation of a distillation column implies that heat is exchanged in one or more stages in the column. The most common way of realising diabatic operation is by internal heat integration resulting in a heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). When operating the rectifying section...... at a higher pressure, a driving forcefor transferring heat from the rectifying section to the stripping section is achieved. As a result, the condenser and reboiler duties can be significantly reduced. For two-product distillation, the HIDiC is a favourable alternative to the conventional distillation column....... Energy savings up to 83% are reported for the HIDiC compared to the CDiC, while the reported economical savings are as high as 40%. However, a simpler heat-integrated distillation column configuration exists, which employs compression in order to obtain a direct heat integration between the top vapour...

  19. The Distribution of Crystalline Hematite on Mars from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer: Evidence for Liquid Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P. R.; Malin, M.; Morris, D.; Bandfield, J.; Lane, M.; Edgett, K.

    2000-01-01

    Crystalline hematite on Mars has been mapped using the MGS TES. Two major, and several minor areas of significant accumulation are identified. We favor precipitation models involving Fe-rich water, providing direct mineralogic evidence for large-scale water interactions.

  20. Determination of Methanol Content in Herbal Distillates Produced in Urmia Using Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Delirrad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herbal distillates have been used for many centuries as drinks, flavors, and herbal medicine in Iran, especially in the city of Urmia. Recently, some studies claimed the presence of methanol in different types of herbal distillates. Methanol is a highly toxic compound which can cause acute or chronic toxicity in humans. Acute poisoning with methanol can cause different complications and even death while chronic methanol exposure has a wide range of nonspecific and misleading findings. The main purpose of this study was to determine methanol content in the commonly-used industrial herbal distillates produced in Urmia. Methods: Five samples of six types of most commonly used herbal distillates (peppermint, musk willow, lemon balm, pennyroyal, dill, and rose water were purchased from five active herbal distillates manufacturers in Urmia. All samples were transferred to the laboratory and methanol content of each sample was measured two times according to the standard method of analysis using spectrophotometer. Results: The lowest and highest concentration of methanol were found in rose water (mean=72.4±32.1 ppm and musk willow (mean=278.3±106 ppm samples, respectively. One-way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences among methanol concentrations in the studied herbal distillates (F=60.9, P <0.001. Discussion: Different amounts of methanol were found in herbal distillates and it seems that there are statistically significant differences in methanol concentrations of various types of herbal distillates. Therefore, considering the harmful effects of methanol on human health, further studies are required for determining permitted levels of methanol in herbal distillates.

  1. A Comprehensive Review of the Evidence of the Impact of Surface Water Quality on Property Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Nicholls

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The desirability of living on or close to water is reflected in sometimes substantial property price premiums. Water quality has an important influence on property prices, since it impacts a water body’s appearance, capacity to support wildlife, and recreational potential. As water quality continues to be altered by human use and activity, and in light of new threats posed by projected climate and associated environmental change, understanding the impact of changing quality on property prices, and the associated property tax base, is paramount. This paper reviews the body of evidence on this topic to date. Of the 43 distinct studies represented in the 48 publications reviewed, the expected, statistically significant relationship between water quality and property price was demonstrated in at least one of the models developed in all but two studies. As a whole, they provide convincing evidence that clean water has a positive effect on property values.

  2. Heterogeneous batch distillation processes for waste solvent recovery in pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Gerbaud, Vincent; Arias-Barreto, Alien; Joulia, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    A summary about our experiences in the introduction of heterogeneous entrainers in azeotropic and extractive batch distillation is presented in this work. Essential advantages of the application of heterogeneous entrainers are showed by rigorous simulation and experimental verification in a bench batch distillation column for separating several azeotropic mixtures such as acetonitrile – water, n hexane – ethyl acetate and chloroform – methanol, commonly found in pharmaceutical industry.

  3. Experience in the development and mastering of large distillation desalting plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernozubov, V.B.; Tokmantsev, N.K.; Putilin, Ju.V.

    1997-01-01

    At present there are more than 30 desalination plants, including the first nuclear desalination plant in Aktau, developed by SverdNIIchimmash are in operation. This report gives a short description of the experience in the investigation, development and mastering of the Russian water distillation technique and the future investigations. Based on the past 40 years experience and scientific investigations, the multistage distillation desalting plants with horizontal tube film evaporators is recommended for the floating nuclear desalination complexes. (author)

  4. Development and pilot testing of full-scale membrane distillation modules for deployment of waste heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.E.; Assink, J.W.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Medevoort, J. van; Sonsbeek, E. van

    2013-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an attractive technology for extracting fresh water from seawater. Newly developed modules have been used in pilot tests and bench scale tests to demonstrate the potential of producing excellent product water quality in a single step, little need for water pretreatment and a

  5. Structural Decoupling and Disturbance Rejection in a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahar, Mehrdad; Jantzen, Jan; Commault, C.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references.......Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references....

  6. Method of distillation of bituminous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, E G.T.

    1919-11-12

    A method is described of dry distillation of bituminous materials by leading warm combustible gases, mixed or not mixed with steam, through the distillation chamber in direct contact with the materials, during which process the distillation chamber may be heated by other means. It is characterized by the mixture of distillation products (formed by the vapors produced by heating the raw materials) and the gas (circulating gas) used for heating in the process, being led through coolers or similar contrivances, in order to separate through condensation the greater part of the content of the products or materials condensable at ordinary temperatures, and also to recover as much as possible of the highly volatile oils in the gas. Thereafter the gas is split, one part is, without further cleaning, and led through the distillation chamber, after this gas has been reheated in suitable apparatus. The other part (surplus gas), which in volume corresponds approximately to the new-formed distillation gases, is treated according to known methods for the extraction of the remaining products of the distillation, such as volatile oils, ammonia, methyl alcohol, sulfuretted hydrogen, and others. The patent contains three other claims.

  7. Secondary Aroma Compounds in Fresh Grape Marc Distillates as a Result of Variety and Corresponding Production Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav Miličević

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the composition of secondary aroma compounds of fresh grape marc distillates as a result of variety and production technology, 30 samples (6 varieties×5 samples were analysed. White grape marc samples from Malvazija istarska, Chardonnay and Muscat Blanc were obtained as by-products in standard white wine production, while red grape marc samples from Teran and Cabernet Sauvignon were obtained after standard red wine production procedures. Marc from red grape variety Muškat ruža porečki was obtained during the production of rosé wines. All fermented marc samples were distilled using a traditional copper alembic. The obtained distillates were subjected to GC/MS and GC/FID analyses. Malvazija istarska distillates exhibited exceptionally high methanol content. Distillates from white grape varieties were found to be characterized by higher C6 alcohol and 1-propanol concentrations, while red grape distillates contained higher amounts of the majority of alcohols, acids, and esters. In Muškat ruža distillates intermediate concentrations of many important aroma compounds were found. It was concluded that differences in the production technology parameters, depending on the variety, resulted in differences in secondary aroma profiles, most evident between distillates from white and red varieties. These findings were confirmed applying stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA, which resulted in 100 % correct classification of distillates according to the variety and corresponding production technology.

  8. Production of high quality distillate to meet a fit-for-purpose boiler feedwater specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnich, K. [Veolia Water Solutions Oil and Gas, Calgary, AB (Canada); Neu, D. [Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies/HPD, Pewaukee, WI (United States); Drone, J.L. [Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies/HPD, Plainfield, IL (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies has significant experience managing boiler water chemistry and is the world's largest manufacturer of evaporation systems. The company has conducted extensive testing and analysis for produced water evaporation distillate from multiple facilities. In order to produce boiler feed water, evaporation of produced water is used at several steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) facilities. There are no official guidelines for the required quality of evaporator distillate to feed a once through steam generator (OTSG) or high pressure industrial watertube boiler (IWT) that will produce injection steam. This paper presented a basis for a fit-for-purpose specification for IWT boilers as well as data on the performance of a Vapor Washer, which produces high quality distilled water that meets fit-for-purpose specifications even during normal variations in feed conditions. Specifically, the paper discussed boiler water requirements for steam injection IWTs; the quality of distillate from a produced water evaporator; the benefits of vapour washing to maintain distillate quality; and suggested boiler chemistry limits for a fit-for-purpose specification. Oxygen, iron, and copper were discussed as being implicated with corrosion and reaction in boilers. Hardness contaminants such as calcium and magnesium were also presented. Suggested limits for boiler water in the fit-for-purpose specification were also presented for silica, total alkalinity, free OH alkalinity, and total dissolved solids in steam. It was concluded that foaming episodes can occur in produced water evaporators due to normal variations, and the distillate can fail to meet the fit-for-purpose specification during foam upsets. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Energy consumption maps for quaternary distillation sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Castro, F.I.; Ramírez-Vallejo, N.E.; Segovia-Hernandez, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Thermally coupled distillation columns represent a very interesting option for the intensification of distillation systems in order to reduce the energy consumption, and, as a consequence, the environmental impact of the separation process. Several thermally coupled distillation schemes can......, for a given mixture, depends on the nature of the mixture, usually quantified for ternary mixtures through the ease of separation index (ESI), and also on the feed composition. As can be noticed, the size of the design and optimization problem increases when these variables are considered in the generation...

  10. Vacuum distillation of plutonium pyrochemical salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourges, Gilles; Faure, S.; Fiers, B.; Saintignon, S.; Lemoine, O.; Cardona-Barrau, D.; Devillard, D.

    2012-01-01

    A pyrochemical process is developed to upgrade the safety of plutonium spent salts interim storage. The feed material, consisting of alkali or alkali-earth chlorides containing various Pu and Am species, is first oxidized to convert the actinides into oxides. Then the chlorides are removed by vacuum distillation which requires temperature from 750 degrees C to 1100 degrees C. After a comprehensive R and D program, full-scale equipment was built to test the distillation of active salts. Tests with NaCl/KCl oxidized spent salt give decontamination factor of chlorides higher than 20000. The distilled salt meets the radiologic requirements to be discarded as low level waste. (authors)

  11. A categorization of water system breakdowns: Evidence from Liberia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Tori; Cronk, Ryan; Shields, Katherine F; Bartram, Jamie

    2018-04-01

    In rural sub-Saharan Africa, one in three handpumps are non-functional at any time. While there is some evidence describing factors associated with non-functional water systems, there is little evidence describing the categories of water system breakdowns that commonly occur. Insufficient water availability from broken down systems can force people to use unimproved water sources, which undermines the health benefits of an improved water source. We categorized common water system breakdowns using quantitative and qualitative monitoring data from Liberia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda (each N>3600 water systems) and examined how breakdown category varies by water system type and management characteristics. Specific broken parts were mentioned more frequently than all other reasons for breakdown; hardware parts frequently found at fault for breakdown were aprons (Liberia), pipes (Tanzania and Uganda), taps/spouts (Tanzania and Uganda), and lift mechanisms (Nigeria). Statistically significant differences in breakdown category were identified based on system type, age, management type, and fee collection type. Categorization can help to identify common reasons for water system breakdown. The analysis of these data can be used to develop improved monitoring instruments to inform actors of different breakdown types and provide reasons for system non-functionality. Improved monitoring instruments would enable actors to target appropriate resources to address specific breakdowns likely to arise based on system type and management characteristics in order to inform improved implementation of and post-construction support for water systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Data gaps in evidence-based research on small water enterprises in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opryszko, Melissa C; Huang, Haiou; Soderlund, Kurt; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2009-12-01

    Small water enterprises (SWEs) are water delivery operations that predominantly provide water at the community level. SWEs operate beyond the reach of piped water systems, selling water to households throughout the world. Their ubiquity in the developing world and access to vulnerable populations suggests that these small-scale water vendors may prove valuable in improving potable water availability. This paper assesses the current literature on SWEs to evaluate previous studies and determine gaps in the evidence base. Piped systems and point-of-use products were not included in this assessment. Results indicate that SWES are active in urban, peri-urban and rural areas of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Benefits of SWEs include: no upfront connection fees; demand-driven and flexible to local conditions; and service to large populations without high costs of utility infrastructure. Disadvantages of SWEs include: higher charges for water per unit of volume compared with infrastructure-based utilities; lack of regulation; operation often outside legal structures; no water quality monitoring; increased potential for conflict with local utilities; and potential for extortion by local officials. No rigorous, evidence-based, peer-reviewed scientific studies that control for confounders examining the effectiveness of SWEs in providing potable water were identified.

  13. Heavy water. A production alternative for Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of heavy water production methods is made. Main facts about isotopic and distillation methods, reforming and coupling to a Hydrogen distillation plant are presented. A feasibility study on heavy water production in Venezuela is suggested

  14. Association of Down's syndrome and water fluoride level: a systematic review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonagh Marian

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A review of the safety and efficacy of drinking water fluoridation was commissioned by the UK Department of Health to investigate whether the evidence supported a beneficial effect of water fluoridation and whether there was any evidence of adverse effects. Down's syndrome was one of the adverse effects reported. The aim of this review is to examine the evidence for an association between water fluoride level and Down's syndrome. Methods A systematic review of research. Studies were identified through a comprehensive literature search, scanning citations and online requests for papers. Studies in all languages which investigated the incidence of Down's syndrome in areas with different levels of fluoride in their water supplies were included. Study inclusion and quality was assessed independently by 2 reviewers. A qualitative analysis was conducted. Results Six studies were included. All were ecological in design and scored poorly on the validity assessment. The estimates of the crude relative risk ranged from 0.84 to 3.0. Four studies showed no significant associations between the incidence of Down's syndrome and water fluoride level and two studies by the same author found a significant (p Conclusions The evidence of an association between water fluoride level and Down's syndrome incidence is inconclusive.

  15. Community Response to Impaired Drinking Water Quality: Evidence from Bottled Water Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, M.; Zheng, S.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    Drinking water contaminants pose a harm to public health. When confronted with elevated contaminate levels, individuals can take averting actions to reduce exposure, such as bottled water purchases. This study addresses a problem of national interest given that 9 to 45 million people have been affected by drinking water quality violations in each of the past 34 years. Moreover, few studies address averting behavior and avoidance costs due to water quality violations. This study assesses how responses might differ across baseline risk of impaired water quality and demographics of service area. We match a panel of weekly supermarket sales data with geocoded violations data for 67 counties in the Southeast from 2006-2015. We estimate the change in bottled water sales due to drinking water violations using a fixed effects model. Observing market behavior also allows us to calculate the cost of these averting actions. Critical findings from this study contribute to understanding how communities respond to water quality violations. We find that violations have considerable effects on bottled water consumption. Sales increase 8.1 percent due to violations related to microorganisms and 31.2 percent due to Tier 1 violations, which pose an immediate health risk. In addition, we calculate a national cost of averting actions of $26 million for microorganism violations from 2006-2015, which represents a lower-bound estimate. Averting costs vary considerably across the U.S. and some counties bear a particularly large burden, such as in California and Texas. Overall, this study provides insight into how averting behavior differs across contaminant type, water utility characteristics, and community demographics. Such knowledge can aid public health agencies, water systems, and environmental regulators to direct assistance to communities most in need.

  16. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  17. Multivariable model predictive control design of reactive distillation column for Dimethyl Ether production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, A.; Putra, I. G. E. P.

    2018-03-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) as an alternative clean energy has attracted a growing attention in the recent years. DME production via reactive distillation has potential for capital cost and energy requirement savings. However, combination of reaction and distillation on a single column makes reactive distillation process a very complex multivariable system with high non-linearity of process and strong interaction between process variables. This study investigates a multivariable model predictive control (MPC) based on two-point temperature control strategy for the DME reactive distillation column to maintain the purities of both product streams. The process model is estimated by a first order plus dead time model. The DME and water purity is maintained by controlling a stage temperature in rectifying and stripping section, respectively. The result shows that the model predictive controller performed faster responses compared to conventional PI controller that are showed by the smaller ISE values. In addition, the MPC controller is able to handle the loop interactions well.

  18. Validation of Agent Based Distillation Movement Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gill, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Agent based distillations (ABD) are low-resolution abstract models, which can be used to explore questions associated with land combat operations in a short period of time Movement of agents within the EINSTein and MANA ABDs...

  19. Distillation modeling for a uranium refining process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westphal, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, containing a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a simple batch operation and is termed {open_quotes}cathode processing{close_quotes}. The incremental distillation of electrolyte salt will be modeled by an equilibrium expression and on a molecular basis since the operation is conducted under moderate vacuum conditions. As processing continues, the two models will be compared and analyzed for correlation with actual operating results. Possible factors that may contribute to aberrations from the models include impurities at the vapor-liquid boundary, distillate reflux, anomalous pressure gradients, and mass transport phenomena at the evaporating surface. Ultimately, the purpose of either process model is to enable the parametric optimization of the process.

  20. Distillation modeling for a uranium refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, containing a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a simple batch operation and is termed open-quotes cathode processingclose quotes. The incremental distillation of electrolyte salt will be modeled by an equilibrium expression and on a molecular basis since the operation is conducted under moderate vacuum conditions. As processing continues, the two models will be compared and analyzed for correlation with actual operating results. Possible factors that may contribute to aberrations from the models include impurities at the vapor-liquid boundary, distillate reflux, anomalous pressure gradients, and mass transport phenomena at the evaporating surface. Ultimately, the purpose of either process model is to enable the parametric optimization of the process

  1. Rotary drum for distilling bituminous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-11-02

    A rotary drum with insert tubes for distilling bituminous materials, like mineral coal, brown coal, wood, peat, and oil-shale, is characterized in that the insert tube is heated also by superheated steam introduced into the drum.

  2. Continuous distillation of bituminous shale. [hot gas in chamber and chamber heated externally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-04-27

    A process of continuous distillation of bituminous shale is given in which the heat necessary is produced not only on the exterior but also in the interior of the distillation apparatus in the form of hot gas directly bathing the shale. The residual carbon in the shale after distillation, or maybe with other fuel added to it, can be utilized; the fuel may be utilized not only for the heat it furnishes but also for the gas it gives and which adds itself to the incondensable gas from the distillation. The temperature of the zone of distillation of the shale is regulated by the quantity of gas, the temperature of this gas (which can be lowered voluntarily by injecting into the air a certain quantity of water vapor), the length of the zone comprised between the zone of gasification and distillation; the injection of water vapor permits the recovery of part of the nitrogen of the shale in the form of ammonia; the materials are withdrawn continuously in a mechanical way.

  3. Construction and commissioning of a hydrogen cryogenic distillation system for tritium recovery at ICIT Rm. Valcea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana, George, E-mail: george.ana@icsi.ro [Institute for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, Rm. Valcea (Romania); Cristescu, Ion [Karlsruhe Istitute for Technologies, Tritium Laboratory, Eggenstein-Leopoldshaffen (Germany); Draghia, Mirela [ISTECH, Timisoara (Romania); Bucur, Ciprian; Balteanu, Ovidiu; Vijulie, Mihai; Popescu, Gheorghe; Costeanu, Claudiu; Sofilca, Nicolae; Stefan, Iulia; Daramus, Robert; Niculescu, Alina; Oubraham, Anisoara; Spiridon, Ionut; Vasut, Felicia; Moraru, Carmen; Brad, Sebastian [Institute for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, Rm. Valcea (Romania); Pasca, Gheorghe [ISTECH, Timisoara (Romania)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Cryogenic distillation (CD) process is being employed for tritium separation from tritiated hydrogen mixtures. • Process control and safety phylosophy with the detritiation plant from Rm. Vâlcea. • Tests undertaken prior to commissioning of the CD system from Rm. Vâlcea. • Preliminary experiments with the CD system (non-radiological). - Abstract: Cryogenic distillation (CD) of hydrogen in combination with Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange (LPCE) or Combined Electrolytic Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process is used for tritium removal/recovery from tritiated water. Tritiated water is being obtained after long time operation of CANDU reactors, or in case of ITER mainly by the Detritiation System (DS). The cryogenic distillation system (CDS) used to remove/recover tritium from a hydrogen stream consists of a cascade of cryogenic distillation columns and a refrigeration unit which provides the cooling capacity for the condensers of CD columns. The columns, together with the condensers and the process heat-exchangers are accommodated in a vacuumed cold box. In the particularly case of the ICIT Plant, the cryogenic distillation cascade consists of four columns with diameters between 100–7 mm and it has been designed to process up to 10 mc/h of tritiated deuterium. This paper will present the steps undertaken for construction and commissioning of a pilot plant for tritium removal/recovery by cryogenic distillation of hydrogen. The paper will show besides preliminary data obtained during commissioning, also general characteristics of the plant and its equipments.

  4. Performance and availability of seawater distiller with heat pipe utilizing low grade waste heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Dae; Chung, Kyung Yul [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Tanaka, Hiroshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Exhaust gas from a small portable electric generator is simply exhausted to the surroundings because the capacity and quality of the waste heat of this gas is generally not sufficient to recover and utilize. We have proposed a seawater distiller utilizing the thermal energy of waste gas from an electric generator. The distiller recovers heat from the waste gas by means of a heat pipe and uses it effectively through a multiple effect diffusion type structure. We constructed an experimental apparatus with a vertical single effect still having a 4 stroke 50cc generator engine and found that the experimental results for distillate productivity show good agreement with the theoretical predictions. The results show that the distiller can recover 52W of waste heat from the gas at 171.deg.C, and {approx}85%, of the recovered heat can be utilized for distillation to produce 70g/h of fresh water. This is equivalent to a productivity of 500g/h in the case of a 10 effect still. Therefore, the proposed distiller should be useful in remote areas where electricity and water grids are inadequate.

  5. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel

    2009-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  6. Furnaces for the distillation of coal, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, F A; Deacon, M; Brady, N P.W.

    1918-08-14

    A tunnel or other furnace for the distillation of coal of the kind provided with inverted pockets in its roof to collect diverse distillates in the manner described, characterized by one or more of the pockets being provided with a sloping roof whose gradient from the higher end downwards is in the direction of the forward travel of the fuel beneath it for the purposes described.

  7. Pressure swing distillation of azeotropic mixture – A simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate a pressure-swing distillation column for the separation and purification of ethanol from the ethanol–water binary system. The choice for this system is due to the importance of the ethanol–water separation. A steady-state equilibrium-stage model based on normalised MESH equations is used to simulate pressure-swing distillation column applied for the production of ethanol. All the work has been carried out using Aspen Plus simulator, version 13.2. Among the activity coefficient models available, the WILSON-RK model with binary parameters predicted by the Aspen Plus simulator is shown to be the most accurate to correlate the experimental vapor-/liquid equilibrium (VLE data available for the ethanol–water system. The simulation has been satisfactorily carried out for a mixture of 20 mol% ethanol in water at 1 atm pressure and 90 °C with a molar flow rate of 100 kmol/h. The adjusting parameters include D/F ratio and reflux ratio of the two columns to get water purity of 99.5 mol% from the bottom of the Low Pressure Column (LPC and the ethanol purity of 99.7 mol% from the bottom of High Pressure Column (HPC.

  8. Conceptual analysis of single-feed heterogeneous distillation columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Martinez Riascos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Separation in heterogeneous distillation columns is attained by interaction of two liquid and one vapor phases, interaction of three phases involves complexities due to the determination of vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium and hence, in the design of separation units. Nevertheless, the liquid-liquid equilibrium allows developing separations that may be unfeasible by vapor-liquid equilibrium. In this way, heterogeneous azeotropic distillation is a useful operation for the separation of azeotropic and close-boiling mixtures. In this work, a new methodology for evaluating the feasibility of this process is developed. This methodology is an extension of that proposed by Castillo et al. (1998 for homogeneous systems. Operation leaves for heterogeneous systems are calculated using the concept of pinch point curves in order to establish the process feasibility. Heterogeneous columns with external decanter are considered as the only heterogeneous stage (OHED: only heterogeneous external decanter. The initialization process for the column calculation requires the selection of the distillate composition using thermodynamic criteria in order to guarantee homogeneous phases within the column. A system with industrial and academic relevance was considered as case study: water-acetic acid-amyl acetate. Results show that the developed shortcut method allows evaluating process feasibility and estimating design parameters, without the use of trial and error procedures implemented, with the aid of simulation tools.

  9. Hetero-azeotropic distillation: combining fungal dehydration and lipid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tough, A J; Isabella, B L; Beattie, J E; Herbert, R A

    2000-01-01

    A low-cost single-stage laboratory process combining fungal dehydration and lipid extraction was compared with a traditional two-stage method employing freeze-drying and subsequent mechanical disruption in the presence of solvent. The ability of a number of organic solvents to form hetero-azeotropes with water was exploited. Chloroform, cyclohexane and hexane were assessed in their abilities to both dry and extract lipid from the oleaginous phycomycete Mortierella alpina (ATCC 32222). Drying rate and lipid extraction were maximised under conditions that prevented fungal agglomeration. The total processing time was limited by the rate of dehydration rather than by the rate of lipid extraction. In all cases azeotropic distillation facilitated a greater rate of dehydration than was possible with freeze-drying. A consequent reduction in overall processing time was observed. Uniquely, both the solvent used and the mode of mixing employed controlled the morphology of the aggregates formed during distillation. In combination with mild mixing chloroform discouraged agglomeration whereas cyclohexane and hexane promoted aggregation. Successful lipid extraction was dependent on the use of dry biomass rather than on the application of heat to effect distillation. Neither the application of heat nor the solvent employed had any significant effect on the lipid composition of the extracted oil.

  10. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation from...

  11. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distillate diesel fuel. 1065.703... Standards § 1065.703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing must be clean and... distillate diesel fuels: (1) Cetane improver. (2) Metal deactivator. (3) Antioxidant, dehazer. (4) Rust...

  12. Three methods to distill multipartite entanglement over bipartite noisy channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soojoon; Park, Jungjoon

    2008-01-01

    We first assume that there are only bipartite noisy qubit channels in a given multipartite system, and present three methods to distill the general Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. By investigating the methods, we show that multipartite entanglement distillation by bipartite entanglement distillation has higher yield than ones in the previous multipartite entanglement distillations

  13. EPR Evidence of Liquid Water in Ice: An Intrinsic Property of Water or a Self-Confinement Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangswamy, Muthulakshmi; Maheshwari, Priya; Dutta, Dhanadeep; Rane, Vinayak; Pujari, Pradeep K

    2018-06-01

    Liquid water (LW) existence in pure ice below 273 K has been a controversial aspect primarily because of the lack of experimental evidence. Recently, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been used to study deeply supercooled water in a rapidly frozen polycrystalline ice. The same technique can also be used to probe the presence of LW in polycrystalline ice that has formed through a more conventional, slow cooling one. In this context, the present study aims to emphasize that in case of an external probe involving techniques such as EPR, the results are influenced by the binary phase (BP) diagram of the probe-water system, which also predicts the existence of LW domains in ice, up to the eutectic point. Here we report the results of our such EPR spin-probe studies on water, which demonstrate that smaller the concentration of the probe stronger is the EPR evidence of liquid domains in polycrystalline ice. We used computer simulations based on stochastic Liouville theory to analyze the lineshapes of the EPR spectra. We show that the presence of the spin probe modifies the BP diagram of water, at very low concentrations of the spin probe. The spin probe thus acts, not like a passive reporter of the behavior of the solvent and its environment, but as an active impurity to influence the solvent. We show that there exists a lower critical concentration, below which BP diagram needs to be modified, by incorporating the effect of confinement of the spin probe. With this approach, we demonstrate that the observed EPR evidence of LW domains in ice can be accounted for by the modified BP diagram of the probe-water system. The present work highlights the importance of taking cognizance of the possibility of spin probes affecting the host systems, when interpreting the EPR (or any other probe based spectroscopic) results of phase transitions of host, as its ignorance may lead to serious misinterpretations.

  14. Performance simulation of the JPL solar-powered distiller. Part 1: Quasi-steady-state conditions. [for cooling microwave equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, C. S.; Lansing, F. L.

    1983-01-01

    A 37.85 cu m (10,000 gallons) per year (nominal) passive solar powered water distillation system was installed and is operational in the Venus Deep Space Station. The system replaced an old, electrically powered water distiller. The distilled water produced with its high electrical resistivity is used to cool the sensitive microwave equipment. A detailed thermal model was developed to simulate the performance of the distiller and study its sensitivity under varying environment and load conditions. The quasi-steady state portion of the model is presented together with the formulas for heat and mass transfer coefficients used. Initial results indicated that a daily water evaporation efficiency of 30% can be achieved. A comparison made between a full day performance simulation and the actual field measurements gave good agreement between theory and experiment, which verified the model.

  15. Interaction of surface water and groundwater in the Nile River basin: isotopic and piezometric evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Seifu; Abdalla, Osman; Sefelnasr, Ahmed; Tindimugaya, Callist; Mustafa, Osman

    2017-05-01

    Past discussions around water-resources management and development in the River Nile basin disregard groundwater resources from the equation. There is an increasing interest around factoring the groundwater resources as an integral part of the Nile Basin water resources. This is hampered by knowledge gap regarding the groundwater resources dynamics (recharge, storage, flow, quality, surface-water/groundwater interaction) at basin scale. This report provides a comprehensive analysis of the state of surface-water/groundwater interaction from the headwater to the Nile Delta region. Piezometric and isotopic (δ18O, δ2H) evidence reveal that the Nile changes from a gaining stream in the headwater regions to mostly a loosing stream in the arid lowlands of Sudan and Egypt. Specific zones of Nile water leakage to the adjacent aquifers is mapped using the two sources of evidence. Up to 50% of the surface-water flow in the equatorial region of the Nile comes from groundwater as base flow. The evidence also shows that the natural direction and rate of surface-water/groundwater interaction is largely perturbed by human activities (diversion, dam construction) particularly downstream of the Aswan High Dam in Egypt. The decrease in discharge of the Nile River along its course is attributed to leakage to the aquifers as well as to evaporative water loss from the river channel. The surface-water/groundwater interaction occurring along the Nile River and its sensitivity to infrastructure development calls for management strategies that account groundwater as an integral part of the Nile Basin resources.

  16. Processing Maple Syrup with a Vapor Compression Distiller: An Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence D. Garrett

    1977-01-01

    A test of vapor compression distillers for processing maple syrup revealed that: (1) vapor compression equipment tested evaporated 1 pound of water with .047 pounds of steam equivalent (electrical energy); open-pan evaporators of similar capacity required 1.5 pounds of steam equivalent (oil energy) to produce 1 pound of water; (2) vapor compression evaporation produced...

  17. Evolution of the global water cycle on Mars: The geological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, V. R.; Gulick, V. C.

    1993-01-01

    The geological evidence for active water cycling early in the history of Mars (Noachian geological system or heavy bombardment) consists almost exclusively of fluvial valley networks in the heavily cratered uplands of the planet. It is commonly assumed that these landforms required explanation by atmospheric processes operating above the freezing point of water and at high pressure to allow rainfall and liquid surface runoff. However, it has also been documented that nearly all valley networks probably formed by subsurface outflow and sapping erosion involving groundwater outflow prior to surface-water flow. The prolonged ground-water flow also requires extensive water cycling to maintain hydraulic gradients, but is this done via rainfall recharge, as in terrestrial environments?

  18. Optimal design and control of solar driven air gap membrane distillation desalination systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yih-Hang; Li, Yu-Wei; Chang, Hsuan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Air gap membrane distillation unit was used in the desalination plants. ► Aspen Custom Molder was used to simulate each unit of desalination plants. ► Design parameters were investigated to obtain the minimum total annual cost. ► The control structure was proposed to operate desalination plants all day long. -- Abstract: A solar heated membrane distillation desalination system is constructed of solar collectors and membrane distillation devices for increasing pure water productivity. This technically and economically feasible system is designed to use indirect solar heat to drive membrane distillation processes to overcome the unstable supply of solar radiation from sunrise to sunset. The solar heated membrane distillation desalination system in the present study consisted of hot water storage devices, heat exchangers, air gap membrane distillation units, and solar collectors. Aspen Custom Molder (ACM) software was used to model and simulate each unit and establish the cost function of a desalination plant. From Design degree of freedom (DOF) analysis, ten design parameters were investigated to obtain the minimum total annual cost (TAC) with fixed pure water production rate. For a given solar energy density profile of typical summer weather, the minimal TAC per 1 m 3 pure water production can be found at 500 W/m 2 by varying the solar energy intensity. Therefore, we proposed two modes for controlling the optimal design condition of the desalination plant; day and night. In order to widen the operability range of the plant, the sensitivity analysis was used to retrofit the original design point to lower the effluent temperature from the solar collector by increasing the hot water recycled stream. The simulation results show that the pure water production can be maintained at a very stable level whether in sunny or cloudy weather.

  19. Pilot-Scale Removal Of Fluoride From Legacy Plutonium Materials Using Vacuum Salt Distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000°C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition

  20. Process for distilling shales, peats, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felizat, G

    1922-01-09

    The invention has for its object: a process for the distillation of shales, peats, and analogous products characterized by injecting across the substance a very rapid stream of superheated steam under pressure in order to effect a rapid removal of the products of distillation, to lower also the temperature at which it distills, to equalize the temperature throughout the mass, to hydrogenate the heavy hydrocarbons. An apparatus is put into operation characterized by the combination of a retort receiving the material to be distilled with a superheater for the steam, the combustion products which escape from the hearth of the superheater going to encircle the retort while the steam which comes off the superheater traverses this retort, the pressure of the steam being regulated by a convenient regulator; the products of the distillation result from the simultaneous action of the hot gases and steam on the contents of the retort being, on the other hand, separated at the outlet of this retort by means of cooling in a gas separator, a condenser, and part of the gas after being separated serving to heat the mentioned superheater.

  1. Modelling of solar distillation system with phase change material (PCM storage medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hamadani Ali A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation on a passive solar still with myristic acid as phase change material (PCM is carried out to examine the effect of both the mass of PCM and basin water on the daily distillate output and efficiency of the system under indoor simulated condition. Basic energy balance equations are written to predict the water and glass temperatures, daily distillate output and instantaneous efficiency of the single slope solar distillation system with PCM. It is found that the higher mass of PCM with lower mass of water in the solar still basin significantly increases the daily yield and efficiency, but when the amount of PCM exceeds 20 kg productivity reduces. Therefore, a novel and simple of solar stills with PCM is proposed to enhance the overall productivity of the distillation system. The new solar still has increased the distillate output by 35-40%. The use of inner glass cover temperature for productivity prediction has also been investigated, and the prediction shows relatively better agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Development of an Exploration-Class Cascade Distillation System: Flight Like Prototype Preliminary Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. One such technology is the Cascade Distillation System (CDS) a multi-stage vacuum rotary distiller system designed to recover water in a microgravity environment. Its rotating cascading distiller operates similarly to the state of the art (SOA) vapor compressor distiller (VCD), but its control scheme and ancillary components are judged to be straightforward and simpler to implement into a successful design. Through the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) Project, the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in collaboration with Honeywell International is developing a second generation flight forward prototype (CDS 2.0). The key objectives for the CDS 2.0 design task is to provide a flight forward ground prototype that demonstrates improvements over the SOA system in the areas of increased reliability and robustness, and reduced mass, power and volume. It will also incorporate exploration-class automation. The products of this task are a preliminary flight system design and a high fidelity prototype of an exploration class CDS. These products will inform the design and development of the third generation CDS which is targeted for on-orbit DTO. This paper details the preliminary design of the CDS 2.0.

  3. Evidence for a role of claudin 2 as a proximal tubular stress responsive paracellular water channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmes, Anja, E-mail: Anja.Wilmes@i-med.ac.at; Aschauer, Lydia; Limonciel, Alice; Pfaller, Walter; Jennings, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Claudins are the major proteins of the tight junctions and the composition of claudin subtypes is decisive for the selective permeability of the paracellular route and thus tissue specific function. Their regulation is complex and subject to interference by several factors, including oxidative stress. Here we show that exposure of cultured human proximal tubule cells (RPTEC/TERT1) to the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A (CsA) induces an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), a decrease in dome formation (on solid growth supports) and a decrease in water transport (on microporous growth supports). In addition, CsA induced a dramatic decrease in the mRNA for the pore forming claudins -2 and -10, and the main subunits of the Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase. Knock down of claudin 2 by shRNA had no discernable effect on TEER or dome formation but severely attenuated apical to basolateral water reabsorption when cultured on microporous filters. Generation of an osmotic gradient in the basolateral compartment rescued water transport in claudin 2 knock down cells. Inhibition of Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase with ouabain prevented dome formation in both cell types. Taken together these results provide strong evidence that dome formation is primarily due to transcellular water transport following a solute osmotic gradient. However, in RPTEC/TERT1 cells cultured on filters under iso-osmotic conditions, water transport is primarily paracellular, most likely due to local increases in osmolarity in the intercellular space. In conclusion, this study provides strong evidence that claudin 2 is involved in paracellular water transport and that claudin 2 expression is sensitive to compound induced cellular stress. - Highlights: • Cyclosporine A increased TEER and decreased water transport in RPTEC/TERT1 cells. • Claudins 2 and 10 were decreased in response to cyclosporine A. • Knock down of claudin 2 inhibited water transport in proximal tubular cells. • We

  4. Solvent distillations studies for a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginisty, C.; Guillaume, B.

    1989-01-01

    The substantial amounts of solvent used in large reprocessing plants are such that considerable care must be paid to solvent management to limit the production of organic wastes. The installation of intensive treatment by chemical regeneration serves to increase the service life of the solvent. General solvent management, combined with a distillation unit under reduced pressure also helps to recycle the two components of the solvent at a low activity level. Distillation also serves to remove the heavy degradation products that are generally responsible for poor hydraulic behavior and for the holdup of radioactive products such as plutonium, zirconium and ruthenium. From the safety standpoint, the flashpoint of the distilled diluent tends to rise. It can therefore be recycled without risk

  5. Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set Z D n associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of Z D n into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D. When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively

  6. Low temperature distillation of powdered materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-04-11

    In the low temperature distillation of powdered material such as coal, brown coal, or oil shale, dust carried by the gases and vapors is precipitated by supplying liquid hydrocarbons to the effluent gases, for example, to a dust remover through which the distillates pass. The material is supplied through a hopper and moved through a retort by a worm feed, and is discharged into a sump. Scavenging gases such as steam may be introduced through a pipe. Two conveyor worms moving in opposite directions are provided in an outlet conduit which may be surrounded by a cooling jacket. Heavy hydrocarbons condense on the walls of the conduit and on the conveyor worms and serve as dust catchers for the distillates, the lighted volatiles escaping through an outlet. The high boiling point oils flow back to and are cracked in the retort. Oils such as tar oils may be sprayed into the conduit or directly adjacent the entry of the material from feeding hopper.

  7. Superadditivity of distillable entanglement from quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roychowdhury, Vwani

    2005-12-01

    We show that the phenomenon of superadditivity of distillable entanglement observed in multipartite quantum systems results from the consideration of states created during the execution of the standard end-to-end quantum teleportation protocol [and a few additional local operations and classical communication (LOCC) steps] on a linear chain of singlets. Some of these intermediate states are tensor products of bound entangled (BE) states, and hence, by construction possess distillable entanglement, which can be unlocked by simply completing the rest of the LOCC operations required by the underlying teleportation protocol. We use this systematic approach to construct both new and known examples of superactivation of bound entanglement, and examples of activation of BE states using other BE states. A surprising outcome is the construction of noiseless quantum relay channels with no distillable entanglement between any two parties, except for that between the two end nodes.

  8. Superadditivity of distillable entanglement from quantum teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roychowdhury, Vwani

    2005-01-01

    We show that the phenomenon of superadditivity of distillable entanglement observed in multipartite quantum systems results from the consideration of states created during the execution of the standard end-to-end quantum teleportation protocol [and a few additional local operations and classical communication (LOCC) steps] on a linear chain of singlets. Some of these intermediate states are tensor products of bound entangled (BE) states, and hence, by construction possess distillable entanglement, which can be unlocked by simply completing the rest of the LOCC operations required by the underlying teleportation protocol. We use this systematic approach to construct both new and known examples of superactivation of bound entanglement, and examples of activation of BE states using other BE states. A surprising outcome is the construction of noiseless quantum relay channels with no distillable entanglement between any two parties, except for that between the two end nodes

  9. Comparative productivity of distillation and reverse osmosis desalination using energy from solar ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tleimat, B.W.; Howe, E.D.

    1982-11-01

    This paper presents comparative analyses of two methods for producing desalted water using the heat collected by a solar pond - the first by distillation, and the second by reverse osmosis. The distillation scheme uses a multiple-effect distiller supplied with steam generated in a flash boiler using heat from a solar pond. Solar pond water passes through a heat exchanger in the water system ahead of the flash boiler. The second scheme uses a similar arrangement to generate hydrocarbon vapor which drives a Rankine cycle engine. This engine produces mechanical/ electrical power for the RO plant. The analyses use two pond water temperatures -82.2/sup 0/C (180/sup 0/F) and 71.1/sup 0/C (160/sup 0/F) -- which seem to cover the range expected from salt-gradient ponds. In each case, the pond water temperature drops by 5.56/sup 0/C (10/sup 0/F) while passing through the vapor generator system. Results of these analyses show that, based on the assumptions made, desalted water could be produced by distillation at productivity rates much greater than those estimated for the RO plant.

  10. Comparative productivity of distillation and reverse osmosis desalination using energy from solar ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tleimat, B.W.; Howe, E.D.

    1982-11-01

    This paper presents comparative analyses of two methods for producing desalted water using the heat collected by a solar pond - the first by distillation, and the second by reverse osmosis. The distillation scheme uses a multiple-effect distiller supplied with steam generated in a flash boiler using heat from a solar pond. Solar pond water passes through a heat exchanger in the water system ahead of the flash boiler. The second scheme uses a similar arrangement to generate hydrocarbon vapor which drives a Rankine cycle engine. This engine produces mechanical/ electrical power for the RO plant. The analyses use two pond water temperatures 82.2/sup 0/C (180/sup 0/F) and 71.1/sup 0/C (160/sup 0/F) - which seem to cover the range expected from salt-gradient ponds. In each case, the pond water temperature drops by 5.56/sup 0/C (10/sup 0/F) while passing through the vapor generator system. Results of these analyses show that, based on the assumptions made, desalted water could be produced by distillation at productivity rates much greater than those estimated for the RO plant.

  11. Evidence of water vapor in excess of saturation in the atmosphere of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltagliati, L; Montmessin, F; Fedorova, A; Korablev, O; Forget, F; Bertaux, J-L

    2011-09-30

    The vertical distribution of water vapor is key to the study of Mars' hydrological cycle. To date, it has been explored mainly through global climate models because of a lack of direct measurements. However, these models assume the absence of supersaturation in the atmosphere of Mars. Here, we report observations made using the SPICAM (Spectroscopy for the Investigation of the Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars) instrument onboard Mars Express that provide evidence of the frequent presence of water vapor in excess of saturation, by an amount far surpassing that encountered in Earth's atmosphere. This result contradicts the widespread assumption that atmospheric water on Mars cannot exist in a supersaturated state, directly affecting our long-term representation of water transport, accumulation, escape, and chemistry on a global scale.

  12. Evidence for the abundance of water on Mars now and in the past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifford, S.M.; Greeley, R.; Haberle, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses evidence for the abundance of water on Mars early in its history, based on the analysis of the Viking 1 and 2 images and the Martian-atmosphere water measurements. It is argued that integrated networks of small valleys in the ancient cratered terrain of Mars may indicate that the planet once possessed a warmer climate. It is pointed out that most Martian outflow channels originate from the regions of collapsed and disrupted terrain, suggesting that they were formed by a catastrophic release of groundwater. The question of the fate of Martian water is discussed, and arguments are presented suggesting that the Martian crust may retain significant porosity to a depth of 10 km and may possess a total pore volume sufficient to store a global layer of water 0.5-1.5 km deep

  13. Process and apparatus for destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalin, D; Hedbaeck, T J

    1951-01-10

    A process of distilling wood, coal, shale, and like materials in an externally heated retort, consists of heating the retort by burning fuel in a combustion chamber completely or partly surrounding the retort and passing a heat-absorbing medium through ducts which are mounted in or adjacent the greater part of the length of the retort walls which are so arranged as to effect a greater degree of heat extraction at one part of the retort than at another part of the retort. The zones of different heat extraction being related to the heat developed in the combustion chamber maintains the most favourable distillation temperature in all parts of the retort.

  14. Experimental entanglement distillation of mesoscopic quantum states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Ruifang; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Heersink, Joel

    2008-01-01

    channel, the distribution of loss-intolerant entangled states is inevitably afflicted by decoherence, which causes a degradation of the transmitted entanglement. To combat the decoherence, entanglement distillation, a process of extracting a small set of highly entangled states from a large set of less...... entangled states, can be used(4-14). Here we report on the distillation of deterministically prepared light pulses entangled in continuous variables that have undergone non-Gaussian noise. The entangled light pulses(15-17) are sent through a lossy channel, where the transmission is varying in time similarly...

  15. Static multiplicities in heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Klavs; Andersen, Torben Ravn; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the results of a bifurcation analysis on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences are given. Two sequences suitable for ethanol dehydration are compared: The 'direct' and the 'indirect' sequence. It is shown, that the two sequences, despite their similarities, exhibit very...... different static behavior. The method of Petlyuk and Avet'yan (1971), Bekiaris et al. (1993), which assumes infinite reflux and infinite number of stages, is extended to and applied on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences. The predictions are substantiated through simulations. The static sequence...

  16. Refreshment topics II: Design of distillation columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Svetomir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For distillation column design it is necessary to define all the variable parameters such as component concentrations in different streams temperatures, pressures, mass and energy flow, which are used to represent the separation process of some specific system. They are related to each other according to specific laws, and if the number of such parameters exceeds the number of their relationships, in order to solve a problem some of them must be specified in advance or some constraints assumed for the mass balance, the balance of energy, phase equilibria or chemical equilibria. Knowledge of specific elements which are the constituents of a distillation unit must be known to define the number of design parameters as well as some additional apparati also necessary to realize the distilation. Each separate apparatus might be designed and constructed only if all the necessary and variable parameters for such a unit are defined. This is the right route to solve a distilation unit in many different cases. The construction of some distillation unit requires very good knowledge of mass, heat and momentum transfer phenomena. Moreover, the designer needs to know which kind of apparatus will be used in the distillation unit to realize a specific production process. The most complicated apparatus in a rectification unit is the distillation column. Depending on the complexity of the separation process one, two or more columns are often used. Additional equipment are heat exchangers (reboilers, condensers, cooling systems, heaters, separators, tanks for reflux distribution, tanks and pumps for feed transportation, etc. Such equipment is connected by pipes and valves, and for the normal operation of a distillation unit other instruments for measuring the flow rate, temperature and pressure are also required. Problems which might arise during the determination and selection of such apparati and their number requires knowledge of the specific systems which must

  17. Fractional treatment of spent scintillation cocktail with low level tritium by azeotropic distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Masabumi; Kotoh, Kenji; Koga, Keisuke; Katase, Akira

    1982-01-01

    Among various waste from RI laboratories, one of the most troublesome wastes is the spent liquid scintillation cocktail, because there are no good disposal way but to store in each laboratories. The fractionation of tritiated water, solvent and alkyl detergent from the spent scintillation cocktail by the azeotropic distillation method is examined in this study, and it has been concluded that this method is applicable, It is also found in this study that removal of tritiated water from distilled solvent can be conducted by using adsorption tower with Molecular sieve 3A. Treatment of the spent scintillation cocktail within 3 months after use is recomended because no isotope exchange reaction with solvent or detergent is observed within 3 months after use in this study. No isotope effects are observed in the zeotropic distillation process. (author)

  18. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chiu Ou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi and Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck (C. grandis were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06% and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%. In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities.

  19. Mass and heat transfer on B7 structured packing in the separation of hydrogen isotopes by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitoru, C.; Pop, F.; Titescu, Gh.; Culcer, M.; Iliescu, M.; Stefanescu, I.; Trancota, D.; Peculea, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents theoretical and experimental data concerning mass and heat transfer on B7 ordered packing, at deuterium separation by distillation. The first section of the paper is dedicated to the mass transfer study of hydrogen distillation, while the second section deals with mass and heat transfer in water distillation. A mathematical model was worked out and compared with experimental data, obtained from two laboratory distillation plants for deuterium separation. From the first plant experimental data concerning B7 ordered packing efficiency of hydrogen cryogenic distillation at 250 deg. C level were obtained. Data concerning mass and heat transfer on the same packing in deuterium separation by water vacuum distillation at 60 deg. C level were obtained in the second plant. HUT values, mass and heat transfer coefficients both theoretically evaluated and experimentally determined were found to be comparable with those obtained from chemical industry separation processes. The fact justifies the use of multi-tubular column model for description of transfer processes in distillation columns equipped with B7 structured packing. (authors)

  20. Fabrication of electrospun nanofibrous membranes for membrane distillation application

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2013-02-01

    Nanofibrous membranes of Matrimid have been successfully fabricated using an electrospinning technique under optimized conditions. Nanofibrous membranes are found to be highly hydrophobic with a high water contact angle of 130°. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and pore size distribution analysis revealed the big pore size structure of electrospun membranes to be greater than 2 μm and the pore size distribution is found to be narrow. Flat sheet Matrimid membranes were fabricated via casting followed by phase inversion. The morphology, pore size distribution, and water contact angle were measured and compared with the electrospun membranes. Both membranes fabricated by electrospinning and phase inversion techniques were tested in a direct contact membrane distillation process. Electrospun membranes showed high water vapor flux of 56 kg/m2-h, which is very high compared to the casted membrane as well as most of the fabricated and commercially available highly hydrophobic membranes. ©2013 Desalination Publications.

  1. Experimental evidence of a liquid-liquid transition in interfacial water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, J.-M.; Bellissent-Funel, M.-C.; Chen, S.-H.

    2005-07-01

    At ambient pressure, bulk liquid water shows an anomalous increase of thermodynamic quantities and apparent divergences of dynamic properties on approaching a temperature Ts of 228 K. At normal pressure, supercooled water spontaneously freezes below the homogeneous nucleation temperature, TH = 235 K. Upon heating, the two forms of Amorphous Solid Water (ASW), LDA (Low Density Amorphous Ice) and HDA (High Density Amorphous Ice), crystallise above TX = 150 K. As a consequence, up to now no experiment has been able to explore the properties of liquid water in this very interesting temperature range between 150 and 235 K. We present nanosecond-time-scale measurements of local rotational and translational dynamics of interfacial, non-crystalline, water from 77 to 280 K. These experimental dynamic results are combined with calorimetric and diffraction data to show that after exhibiting a glass transition at 165 K, interfacial water experiences a first-order liquid-liquid transition at 240 K from a low-density to a high-density liquid. This is the first direct evidence of the existence of a liquid-liquid transition involving water.

  2. Process of distilling bituminous shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayet, M

    1859-05-19

    This new process consists of placing at the end of a tube or the end of one or more retorts, an aspirating pump and compressor or a blower with two valves doing the same work or, better yet, a fan for sucking the vapor from the shale as it is formed in order to prevent its accumulating in the retorts and being decomposed. A second tube, pierced with little holes, placed in series with the pump, blower, or fan, acts as a vessel or receiver for the water. The vapors from the shale are compressed by the aspirator in the receiver for the water and condensed completely, without loss of gas and disinfect themselves for the most part.

  3. Experimental investigation on hydrogen cryogenic distillation equipped with package made by ICIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornea, A.; Zamfirache, M.; Stefan, L.; Stefanescu, I.; Preda, A.

    2015-01-01

    ICIT (Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies) has used its experience in cryogenic water distillation process to propose a similar process for hydrogen distillation that can be used in detritiation technologies. This process relies on the same packages but a stainless filling is tested instead of the phosphorous bronze filling used for water distillation. This paper presents two types of packages developed for hydrogen distillation, both have a stainless filling but it differs in terms of density, exchange surface and specific volume. Performance data have been obtained on laboratory scale. In order to determine the characteristics of the package, the installation was operated in the total reflux mode, for different flow rate for the liquid. There were made several experiments considering different operating conditions. Samples extracted at the top and bottom of cryogenic distillation column allowed mathematical processing to determine the separation performance. The experiments show a better efficiency for the package whose exchange surface was higher and there were no relevant differences between both packages as the operating pressure of the cryogenic column was increasing. For a complete characterization of the packages, future experiments will be considered to determine performance at various velocities in the column and their correlation with the pressure in the column. We plan further experiments to separate tritium from the mixture of isotopes DT, having in view that our goal is to apply this results to a detritiation plant

  4. Height determination at the transfer unit in isotopic distillation of hydrogen on type B7 ordered column packing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, F.; Croitoru, C.; Peculea, M.

    2001-01-01

    Owing to the low pressure drop implied by ordered column packings these are often utilized for vacuum distillations and separation of mixtures in which the important component occurs at a very low concentration, as for instance is the case of water, deuterium or oxygen isotopic distillation. The paper presents a model for determination of the height of transfer unit (HTU) in the hydrogen isotopic distillation installation, equipped with ordered column packing of B7 type. The computed values for HUT based on the analogy between heat, moment and mass transfer, were compared with the experimental data

  5. Further evidence of a liquid-liquid transition in interfacial water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotti, J-M; Bellissent-Funel, M C; Chen, S-H; Kolesnikov, A I

    2006-01-01

    In a previous paper we combined calorimetric, diffraction and high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering data to show that after exhibiting a glass transition at 165 K, interfacial water experiences a first order liquid-liquid transition at 240 K from a low-density to a high-density liquid. Here we present further evidence of these transitions obtained by high-energy inelastic neutron scattering

  6. Batch extractive distillation for high purity methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weijiang; Ma Sisi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the application in chemical industry and microelectronic industry, market status and the present situation of production of high purity methanol at home and abroad were introduced firstly. Purification of industrial methanol for high purity methanol is feasible in china. Batch extractive distillation is the best separation technique for purification of industrial methanol. Dimethyl sulfoxide was better as an extractant. (authors)

  7. Non-equilibrium modelling of distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, J.A

    This is a lecture on the way that we engineers model distillation. How we have done such modelling, how we would like to do it, and how far we have come at this moment. The ideas that I will be bringing forward are not my own. I owe them mostly to R. Krishna, R. Taylor, H. Kooijman and A. Gorak.

  8. Vertical retorts for distilling, carbonizing, roasting, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, H R.L.; Bates, W R

    1917-11-17

    In a continuously operated vertical retort for destructive distillation or roasting the combination of an annular internally and externally heated construction with an annular plunger adapted to compress and assist the travel of the charge and to aid in discharging material substantially is described.

  9. Obtaining shale distillate free from sulphur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyl, G E

    1917-09-14

    A process whereby, from sulfur-containing shale, products free from sulfur may be obtained, consisting of mixing with the finely ground shale a portion of iron salts containing sufficient metal to unite with all the sulfur in the shale and form sulfide therewith, grinding the mixture to a fine state of subdivision and subsequently subjecting it to destructive distillation.

  10. Holoprosencephaly: A mythologic and teratologic distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-02-15

    This review of holoprosencephaly provides a mythologic and teratologic distillate of the subject under the following headings: Babylonian tablets; Greek mythology; pictures from the 16th through the 20th Centuries; 19th Century teratology; history of more modern concepts and their terminologies; and ocean-going ships named "Cyclops." 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Designing reactive distillation processes with improved efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida-Rivera, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation a life-span inspired perspective is taken on the conceptual design of grassroots reactive distillation processes. Attention was paid to the economic performance of the process and to potential losses of valuable resources over the process life span. The research was cast in a

  12. Robust Geometric Control of a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kymmel, Mogens; Andersen, Henrik Weisberg

    1987-01-01

    A frequency domain method, which makes it possible to adjust multivariable controllers with respect to both nominal performance and robustness, is presented. The basic idea in the approach is that the designer assigns objectives such as steady-state tracking, maximum resonance peaks, bandwidth, m...... is used to examine and improve geometric control of a binary distillation column....

  13. Lubricity characteristics of marine distillate fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crutchley, Ian [Innospec Fuel Specialties, Ellesmere Port (United Kingdom); Green, Michael [Intertek Lintec ShipCare Services, Darlington (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    This article from Innospec Fuel Specialties, Ellesmere Port, UK, and Intertek Lintec ShipCare Services, Darlington, UK, examines the lubricity characteristics of marine distillate fuels available today in relation to the requirements and limits imposed in ISO8217:2010. It will estimate expected failure rates and also asses the perceived relationship between lubricity, sulphur content and viscosity. (orig.)

  14. Non-equilibrium modelling of distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, JA; Darton, R

    1997-01-01

    There are nasty conceptual problems in the classical way of describing distillation columns via equilibrium stages, and efficiencies or HETP's. We can nowadays avoid these problems by simulating the behaviour of a complete column in one go using a non-equilibrium model. Such a model has phase

  15. Evidence of local and regional freshening of Northeast Greenland coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejr, Mikael K.; Stedmon, Colin A; Bendtsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    The supply of freshwater to fjord systems in Greenland is increasing as a result of climate change-induced acceleration in ice sheet melt. However, insight into the marine implications of the melt water is impaired by lack of observations demonstrating the fate of freshwater along the Greenland...... coast and providing evaluation basis for ocean models. Here we present 13 years of summer measurements along a 120 km transect in Young Sound, Northeast Greenland and show that sub-surface coastal waters are decreasing in salinity with an average rate of 0.12 ± 0.05 per year. This is the first...... observational evidence of a significant freshening on decadal scale of the waters surrounding the ice sheet and comes from a region where ice sheet melt has been less significant. It implies that ice sheet dynamics in Northeast Greenland could be of key importance as freshwater is retained in southward flowing...

  16. Recovery of distillation, gasification, and if necessary redistilled products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stier, H

    1885-05-17

    Collection chambers are operated in pairs. In one of a pair of chambers there is alternately gasification (heating gas generation or complete combustion), in the other distillation, and continually the products from combustion carry on the distillation.

  17. Control of distributed heat transfer mechanisms in membrane distillation plants

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Eleiwi, Fadi; Karam, Ayman M.

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are provided that are related to boundary control in membrane distillation (MD) processes. In one example, a system includes a membrane distillation (MD) process comprising a feed side and a permeate side separated by a membrane

  18. The Design and Manufacturing of Essential oil Distillation Plant for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Design and Manufacturing of Essential oil Distillation Plant for rural poverty ... The adaptation of oil distillation technology for essential oil production is ... based on local resources and the first prototype has been manufactured and tested.

  19. Hydrodeoxygenation of oxidized distilled bio-oil for the production of gasoline fuel type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yan; Guda, Vamshi Krishna; Hassan, El Barbary; Steele, Philip H.; Mitchell, Brian; Yu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxidation had more influence on the yield of total hydrocarbons than distillation. • The highest total hydrocarbon yield was obtained from oxidized distilled bio-oil. • The 2nd-stage hydrocarbons were in the range of gasoline fuel boiling points. • The main products for upgrading of oxidized bio-oil were aliphatic hydrocarbons. • The main products for upgrading of non-oxidized bio-oil were aromatic hydrocarbons. - Abstract: Distilled and oxidized distilled bio-oils were subjected to 1st-stage mild hydrodeoxygenation and 2nd-stage full hydrodeoxygenation using nickel/silica–alumina catalyst as a means to enhance hydrocarbon yield. Raw bio-oil was treated for hydrodeoxygenation as a control to which to compare study treatments. Following two-stage hydrodeoxygenation, four types of hydrocarbons were mainly comprised of gasoline and had water contents, oxygen contents and total acid numbers of nearly zero and higher heating values of 44–45 MJ/kg. Total hydrocarbon yields for raw bio-oil, oxidized raw bio-oil, distilled bio-oil and oxidized distilled bio-oil were 11.6, 16.2, 12.9 and 20.5 wt.%, respectively. The results indicated that oxidation had the most influence on increasing the yield of gasoline fuel type followed by distillation. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry characterization showed that 66.0–76.6% of aliphatic hydrocarbons and 19.5–31.6% of aromatic hydrocarbons were the main products for oxidized bio-oils while 35.5–38.7% of aliphatic hydrocarbons and 58.2–63.1% of aromatic hydrocarbons were the main products for non-oxidized bio-oils. Both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons are important components for liquid transportation fuels and chemical products.

  20. Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) – A Key to the Fuel Ethanol Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has dramatically increased in recent years; so has the quantity of associated coproducts. Nonfermentable components are removed from the process as whole stillage, centrifuged to remove water – which is then evaporated to produce condensed distillers solubles (CDS), a...

  1. 27 CFR 24.306 - Distilling material or vinegar stock record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilling material or vinegar stock record. 24.306 Section 24.306 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... material or vinegar stock record. A proprietor who produces or receives wine containing excess water which...

  2. Identification of Distillation Process Dynamics Comparing Process Knowledge and Black Box Based Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud H; Nielsen, C. S.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1990-01-01

    A distillation plant equipped with a heat pump separates a mixture of isopropanol and methanol. The mixture contains some water as impurity. The model development aims at dual composition control design, where top and bottom compositions should follow the setpoints, and disturbances should...... obtained in closed loop operation of the distillation plant. In the present work, the two approaches are compared in terms of how well the model fits, and predicts the data, the conditioning of the model parameter estimation, and convenience of usage....

  3. A Modeling Framework for Conventional and Heat Integrated Distillation Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a generic, modular model framework for describing fluid separation by distillation is presented. At present, the framework is able to describe a conventional distillation column and a heat-integrated distillation column, but due to a modular structure the database can be further...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635... Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN P-96-897...

  5. 27 CFR 26.40 - Marking containers of distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits. The distiller, rectifier, or bottler shall serially number each case, barrel, cask, or similar... the container, the distiller, rectifier, or bottler shall plainly print, stamp, or stencil with... barrel, cask or similar container or on one side of each case, as follows: (a) The name of the distiller...

  6. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine...

  7. Polyazole hollow fiber membranes for direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Francis, Lijo; Livazovic, Sara; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Amy, Gary L.; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Porous hollow fiber membranes were fabricated from fluorinated polyoxadiazole and polytriazole by a dry-wet spinning method for application in desalination of Red Sea water by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). The data were compared with commercially available hollow fiber MD membranes prepared from poly(vinylidene fluoride). The membranes were characterized by electron microscopy, liquid entry pressure (LEP), and pore diameter measurements. Finally, the hollow fiber membranes were tested for DCMD. Salt selectivity as high as 99.95% and water fluxes as high as 35 and 41 L m -2 h-1 were demonstrated, respectively, for polyoxadiazole and polytriazole hollow fiber membranes, operating at 80 C feed temperature and 20 C permeate. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. Polyazole hollow fiber membranes for direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul

    2013-08-07

    Porous hollow fiber membranes were fabricated from fluorinated polyoxadiazole and polytriazole by a dry-wet spinning method for application in desalination of Red Sea water by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). The data were compared with commercially available hollow fiber MD membranes prepared from poly(vinylidene fluoride). The membranes were characterized by electron microscopy, liquid entry pressure (LEP), and pore diameter measurements. Finally, the hollow fiber membranes were tested for DCMD. Salt selectivity as high as 99.95% and water fluxes as high as 35 and 41 L m -2 h-1 were demonstrated, respectively, for polyoxadiazole and polytriazole hollow fiber membranes, operating at 80 C feed temperature and 20 C permeate. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  9. Physico-chemical characteristics of water sample from Aiba Stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of solar distillation in purification of water. The water sample collected from Aiba stream was subjected to double slope solar water distillation unit. The physico- chemical characteristics of the raw sample and the distillate were determined using standard methods. The.

  10. Functionalization of a Hydrophilic Commercial Membrane Using Inorganic-Organic Polymers Coatings for Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Eykens

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation is a thermal separation technique using a microporous hydrophobic membrane. One of the concerns with respect to the industrialization of the technique is the development of novel membranes. In this paper, a commercially available hydrophilic polyethersulfone membrane with a suitable structure for membrane distillation was modified using available hydrophobic coatings using ORMOCER® technology to obtain a hydrophobic membrane that can be applied in membrane distillation. The surface modification was performed using a selection of different components, concentrations, and application methods. The resulting membranes can have two hydrophobic surfaces or a hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface depending on the application method. An extensive characterization procedure confirmed the suitability of the coating technique and the obtained membranes for membrane distillation. The surface contact angle of water could be increased from 27° up to 110°, and fluxes comparable to membranes commonly used for membrane distillation were achieved under similar process conditions. A 100 h test demonstrated the stability of the coating and the importance of using sufficiently stable base membranes.

  11. Patchouli Oil Production for Fixative Aromatheraphy: A Case Study Design of Condenser for Steam Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egi Agustian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Patchouli oil is an important material for aromatherapy industries and made from patchouli leaves by steam distillation. The important parts of steam distillation is condenser. The problem is process of farmer's patchouli based on experience not used chemical process of steam distillation cause not effective and efficient. The study was designed of condensers on steam distillation for patchouli leaves. Specification of condenser type is shell and tube, stainless steel material and water as coolant. Tubing sized is ¼ inch with 500 mm of length and 24 pieces. Shell measuring 2.5 inch and 600 mm of length. The performance of condenser gave the efficiency at 94.51%. The process condition of ratio stems to leaves is 5:6 and 4.5 hours was considered ideal for steam distillation. The used of energy is lowest cause the efficiency condenser and yield will be higher. Patchouli oil yield of 2.39% and patchouli alcohol content is 35.65%.

  12. EASTERN DODDER (CUSCUTA MONOGYNA VAHL.) SEED GERMINATION AFFECTED BY SOME HERBACEOUS DISTILLATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassaghi, M; Hassannejad, S

    2015-01-01

    Eastern dodder (Cuscuta monogyna Vahl.) is one of the noxious parasitic weeds that infected many ornamental trees in green spaces and gardens. Our purpose is to find natural inhibitors for prevention of its seed germination. In order to reach this aim, laboratory studies were conducted by using of herbaceous distillates of Dracocephalum moldavica, Nasturtium officinalis, Malva neglecta, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Rosa damascene, Ziziphora tenuior, and Urtica dioica on seed germination of C. monogyna. Z. tenuior distillate stimulated C. monogyna seed germination, whereas others reduced this parasitic weed's seed germination. D. moldavica caused maximum inhibition on weed seed germination. Seedling growth of C. monogyna was more affected than its seed germination. All of these herbaceous distillates reduced C. monogyna seedling length so that the latter decreased from 28.2 mm in distilled water to 4.5, 3.97, 3.85, 3.67, 3.1, 2.87, 2.57, 1.9, and 1.17 in M. pulegium, M. piperita, F. officinalis, Z. tenuior, N. officinalis, M. neglecta, R. damascene, U. dioica and D. moldavica, respectively. By using these medicinal plants distillates instead of herbicides, the parasitic weed seedling length and host plant infection will reduce.

  13. Electrospun superhydrophobic membranes with unique structures for membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuan; Loh, Chun-Heng; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G

    2014-09-24

    With modest temperature demand, low operating pressure, and high solute rejection, membrane distillation (MD) is an attractive option for desalination, waste treatment, and food and pharmaceutical processing. However, large-scale practical applications of MD are still hindered by the absence of effective membranes with high hydrophobicity, high porosity, and adequate mechanical strength, which are important properties for MD permeation fluxes, stable long-term performance, and effective packing in modules without damage. This study describes novel design strategies for highly robust superhydrophobic dual-layer membranes for MD via electrospinning. One of the newly developed membranes comprises a durable and ultrathin 3-dimensional (3D) superhydrophobic skin and porous nanofibrous support whereas another was fabricated by electrospinning 3D superhydrophobic layers on a nonwoven support. These membranes exhibit superhydrophobicity toward distilled water, salty water, oil-in-water emulsion, and beverages, which enables them to be used not only for desalination but also for other processes. The superhydrophobic dual-layer membrane #3S-N with nanofibrous support has a competitive permeation flux of 24.6 ± 1.2 kg m(-2) h(-1) in MD (feed and permeate temperate were set as 333 and 293 K, respectively) due to the higher porosity of the nanofibrous scaffold. Meanwhile, the membranes with the nonwoven support exhibit greater mechanical strength due to this support combined with better long-term performance because of the thicker 3D superhydrophobic layers. The morphology, pore size, porosity, mechanical properties, and liquid enter pressure of water of these superhydrophobic composite membranes with two different structures are reported and compared with commercial polyvinylidene fluoride membranes.

  14. Physico-chemical and sensorial evaluation of sugarcane spirits produced using distillation residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Galvão Tavares Menezes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the use of vinasse from cachaça as an ingredient of the fermentation medium for the spirit production. The fermentations were conducted out in three successive batches using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolate. In the first batch, the sugarcane broth was only diluted with distilled water. In the second and third batches, the fermentations were carried out using the cane broth diluted with vinasse from the distillation of the sugarcane wines of the first and second batches, respectively at a concentration of 10% (v/v. The spirits were submitted to the physicochemical and sensorial analyses. The results showed that vinasse addition did not affect the fermentation, distillation and chemical-sensorial quality of the beverage. Therefore, the vinasse addition could be an alternative use for that residue.

  15. Augmentation of a solar still distillate yield via absorber plate coated with black nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Kabeel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of utilizing nanomaterial on the solar still productivity investigated experimentally. Cuprous oxides (CuO chosen as a nanoparticles material. The nanoparticles added to the black paint of the solar still walls to enhance the solar still performance. Experiments conducted with cuprous oxide nanoparticles weight concentrations ranged from 10% to 40%. It is found that adding nanoparticles to paint increase heat transfer rate and saline water temperature. Solar still productivity of the proposed system is higher than that for the conventional still. Results acquired that utilizing CuO nanoparticles boosted the distillate by 16% and 25% as compared to the conventional solar still (CSS at weight fraction concentration of 10% and 40%, respectively. Payback period of the distillation system for the modified still using CuO nanomaterials is about 96 days, at weight fraction 10%, which is considerable as compared by 89 days for CSS. Keywords: Nanomaterial, Solar still, Distillation, Nanoparticle

  16. Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode

  17. Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode.

  18. Transport phenomena and fouling in vacuum enhanced direct contact membrane distillation: Experimental and modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Naidu, Gayathri

    2016-08-27

    The application of vacuum to direct contact membrane distillation (vacuum enhanced direct contact membrane distillation, V-DCMD) removed condensable gasses and reduced partial pressure in the membrane pores, achieving 37.6% higher flux than DCMD at the same feed temperature. Transfer mechanism and temperature distribution profile in V-DCMD were studied. The empirical flux decline (EFD) model represented fouling profiles of V-DCMD. In a continuous V-DCMD operation with moderate temperature (55 degrees C) and permeate pressure (300 mbar) for treating wastewater ROC, a flux of 16.0 +/- 0.3 L/m(2) h and high quality distillate were achieved with water flushing, showing the suitability of V-DCMD for ROC treatment. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Transport phenomena and fouling in vacuum enhanced direct contact membrane distillation: Experimental and modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Naidu, Gayathri; Shim, Wang Geun; Jeong, Sanghyun; Choi, YoungKwon; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2016-01-01

    The application of vacuum to direct contact membrane distillation (vacuum enhanced direct contact membrane distillation, V-DCMD) removed condensable gasses and reduced partial pressure in the membrane pores, achieving 37.6% higher flux than DCMD at the same feed temperature. Transfer mechanism and temperature distribution profile in V-DCMD were studied. The empirical flux decline (EFD) model represented fouling profiles of V-DCMD. In a continuous V-DCMD operation with moderate temperature (55 degrees C) and permeate pressure (300 mbar) for treating wastewater ROC, a flux of 16.0 +/- 0.3 L/m(2) h and high quality distillate were achieved with water flushing, showing the suitability of V-DCMD for ROC treatment. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Software development for the simulation and design of the cryogenic distillation cascade used for hydrogen isotope separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draghia, Mirela Mihaela, E-mail: mirela.draghia@istech-ro.com; Pasca, Gheorghe; Porcariu, Florina

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Software for designing and simulation of a cryogenic distillation cascade. • The simulation provides the distribution of all the molecular species involved along each cryogenic distillation column and also the temperature profile along the columns. • Useful information that are relevant for ITER Isotope Separation System. - Abstract: The hydrogen isotope separation system (ISS) based on cryogenic distillation is one of the key systems of the fuel cycle of a fusion reactor. Similar with ITER ISS in a Water Detritiation Facility for a CANDU reactor, one of the main systems is cryogenic distillation. The developments on the CANDU water detritiation systems have shown that a cascade of four cryogenic distillation columns is required in order to achieve the required decontamination factor of the heavy water and a tritium enrichment up to 99.9%. This paper aims to present the results of the design and simulation activities in support to the development of the Cernavoda Tritium Removal Facility (CTRF). Beside the main features of software developed “in house”, an introduction to the main relevant issues of a CANDU tritium removal facility for the ITER ISS is provided as well. Based on the input data (e.g. the flow rates, the composition of the gas supplied into the cryogenic distillation cascade, pressure drop along the column, liquid inventory) the simulation provides the distribution of all the molecular species involved along each cryogenic distillation column and also the temperature profile along the columns. The approach for the static and dynamic simulation of a cryogenic distillation process is based on theoretical plates model and the calculations are performed incrementally plate by plate.