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Sample records for dissolving delta-phase plutonium

  1. Metastability and Delta-Phase Retention in Plutonium Alloys Final Report of LDRD Project 01-ERD-029

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, J; Schwartz, A J; Blobaum, K M; Krenn, C R; Wall, M A; Wolfer, W G; Haslam, J J; Moore, K T

    2004-02-11

    The {delta} to {alpha}' phase transformation in Pu-Ga alloys is intriguing for both scientific and technological reasons. On cooling, the ductile fcc {delta}-phase transforms martensitically to the brittle monoclinic {alpha}'-phase at approximately -120 C (depending on composition). This exothermic transformation involves a 20% volume contraction and a significant increase in resistivity. The reversion of {alpha}' to {delta} involves a large temperature hysteresis beginning just above room temperature. In an attempt to better understand the underlying thermodynamics and kinetics responsible for these unusual features, we have investigated the {delta} {leftrightarrow} {alpha}' phase transformations in a Pu-0.6 wt% Ga alloy using a combination of experimental and modeling techniques.

  2. Delta phase plutonium and its alloys with III B elements: a microscopic study; Etude du plutonium en phase {delta} et de ses alliages avec les elements de la colonne IIIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchet, J

    2001-07-01

    The plutonium belongs to the actinides where it occupies a crucial place. In the actinide series the competition between the itinerant and local character of the f-electrons is responsible of its unique properties. The series can be divided into two sub-series: the light ({sub 90}Th-{sub 94}Pu) and the heavy ({sub 95}Am and beyond) actinides with very different characteristics. The volume behavior of the light actinides is very similar to the one found for the transitions metals with a parabolic decrease of the volume as a function of atomic number. This trend can be explained by the itinerant character of the 5 f electrons which participate to the chemical bonding, and thus the light actinides are considered to form a 5 f transition series. The density functional theory in the local-density approximation (LDA) gives a good description of the ground state of the light actinides in agreement with experiment and a simple Friedel model can explain the parabolic decrease of the volumes. As for heavy actinides, the pattern is reversed: 5 f electrons are localized. This picture places plutonium as the link between the two series, at the transition from delocalized to localized states. The density functional theory within the local density approximation is a very crude approximation for these systems where the on-site interaction between f electrons is strong enough to overcome the kinetic energy. Equilibrium properties for the {delta}-phase of Pu have been calculated. Taking into account strong electron correlations in the 5 f shell, we show how the equilibrium volume and the bulk modulus are improved in comparison to previous results using the local density approximation (LDA) or the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). In addition, an augmentation of the orbital moment is observed due to the respect of Hund's rules, reducing the total magnetic moment. The stability of the {delta}-phase is explored and for the first time a positive value for the tetragonal

  3. Simultaneous measurements of plutonium and uranium in spent-fuel dissolver solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kuno, T.; Kitagawa, O.; Sato, S.; Kurosawa, A.; Kuno, Y. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    The authors have studied the isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometry (IDGS) technique for simultaneous measurements of elemental concentrations and isotopic compositions for both plutonium and uranium in input spent-fuel dissolver solutions at a reprocessing plant. The technique under development includes both sample preparation and analysis methods. For simultaneous measurements of both plutonium and uranium, a critical issue is to develop a new method to keep both plutonium and uranium in the sample after they are separated from fission products. Furthermore, it is equally important to improve the analysis method so that the precision and accuracy of the plutonium analysis remain unaffected while uranium is retained in the sample. To keep both plutonium and uranium in the sample for simultaneous measurements, extraction chromatography is being studied and shows promise to achieve the goal of cosegregation of the plutonium and uranium. The technique uses U/TEVA{center_dot}Spec resin to separate fission products and recover both uranium and plutonium in the resin from dissolver solutions for subsequent measuring using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Owing to the fact that the U/Pu ratio is altered during the fission product separation phase, it is necessary to develop a method which could accurately correct for this effect. Such a method was developed using the unique decay properties of {sup 241}Pu to {sup 237}U and shows considerable promise in allowing for accurate determination of the {sup 235}U concentrations before the chemical extraction.

  4. Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miner, William N

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet discusses plutonium from discovery to its production, separation, properties, fabrication, handling, and uses, including use as a reactor fuel and use in isotope power generators and neutron sources.

  5. Plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David L.; Hecker, Siegfried S.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Neu, Mary P.

    The element plutonium occupies a unique place in the history of chemistry, physics, technology, and international relations. After the initial discovery based on submicrogram amounts, it is now generated by transmutation of uranium in nuclear reactors on a large scale, and has been separated in ton quantities in large industrial facilities. The intense interest in plutonium resulted fromthe dual-use scenario of domestic power production and nuclear weapons - drawing energy from an atomic nucleus that can produce a factor of millions in energy output relative to chemical energy sources. Indeed, within 5 years of its original synthesis, the primary use of plutonium was for the release of nuclear energy in weapons of unprecedented power, and it seemed that the new element might lead the human race to the brink of self-annihilation. Instead, it has forced the human race to govern itself without resorting to nuclear war over the past 60 years. Plutonium evokes the entire gamut of human emotions, from good to evil, from hope to despair, from the salvation of humanity to its utter destruction. There is no other element in the periodic table that has had such a profound impact on the consciousness of mankind.

  6. Plutonium dissolution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Michael A.; Fink, Samuel D.; Karraker, David G.; Moore, Edwin N.; Holcomb, H. Perry

    1996-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

  7. Stop plutonium; Stop plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This press document aims to inform the public on the hazards bound to the plutonium exploitation in France and especially the plutonium transport. The first part is a technical presentation of the plutonium and the MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuel). The second part presents the installation of the plutonium industry in France. The third part is devoted to the plutonium convoys safety. The highlight is done on the problem of the leak of ''secret'' of such transports. (A.L.B.)

  8. PLUTONIUM SEPARATION METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufait, L.J. Jr.; Stevenson, F.R.; Rollefson, G.K.

    1958-11-18

    The recovery of plutonium ions from neutron irradiated uranium can be accomplished by bufferlng an aqueous solutlon of the irradiated materials containing tetravalent plutonium to a pH of 4 to 7, adding sufficient acetate to the solution to complex the uranyl present, adding ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide, plutonlum, and associated fission products, removing and dissolving the colloid in aqueous nitric acid, oxldizlng the plutonium to the hexavalent state by adding permanganate or dichromate, treating the resultant solution with ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide and associated fission products, and separating the colloid from the plutonlum left in solution.

  9. Deformation characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.Y., E-mail: haiyanzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, S.H., E-mail: shzhang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Cheng, M. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Z.X. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautica1 Materials, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The hot working characteristics of {delta} phase in the delta-processed Inconel 718 alloy during isothermal compression deformation at temperature of 950 deg. C and strain rate of 0.005 s{sup -1}, were studied by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and quantitative X-ray diffraction technique. The results showed that the dissolution of plate-like {delta} phase and the precipitation of spherical {delta} phase particles coexisted during the deformation, and the content of {delta} phase decreased from 7.05 wt.% to 5.14 wt.%. As a result of deformation breakage and dissolution breakage, the plate-like {delta} phase was spheroidized and transferred to spherical {delta} phase particles. In the center with largest strain, the plate-like {delta} phase disappeared and spherical {delta} phase appeared in the interior of grains and grain boundaries.

  10. Detection and quantification of residual alpha-phase in delta-stabilized plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Daniel S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Jeremy N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pereyra, Ramiro A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The temperature range of the {delta}-phase field of plutonium can be expanded by alloying with Group IIIA elements. Ga is a particularly potent {delta}-stabilizer and effectively stabilizes the {delta}-phase to room temperature. Due to a strong propensity towards solute redistribution during cooling through the {var_epsilon} {yields} {delta} phase field, regions of the material often do not contain enough solute to stabilize the {delta}-phase even after extensive homogenization annealing in the {delta}-phase field . The result is a small but persistent, fraction of {alpha}-phase in the material. A technique using differential scanning calorimetry to measure the enthalpy of transformation of the plutonium {alpha} {yields} {beta} transformation is described which can detect and quantify {alpha}-phase in a {delta}-phase matrix at levels as low as {approx} 0.1 wt. %. A set of Pu-1.7 atomic % Ga alloys was examined using the technique and found to contain 0.32 {+-} 0.06 weight % {alpha}-phase. Complications arise due to interference from the pressure-induced {alpha}{prime}-phase, and a peak separation method was developed to accurately measure the heat signal from each phase. Due to the presence of Ga in the {alpha}-phase, the onset temperature of the {alpha} {yields} {beta} transformation in these specimens was found to be 140.2 C, significantly higher than that for the transformation in pure plutonium, 126.2 C.

  11. Plutonium controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  12. Chemical thermodynamics of nuclear materials. 8. The high-temperature heat capacity of unalloyed plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oetting, F.L.; Adams, R.O. (Rockwell International Corp., Golden, CO (USA). Energy Systems Group)

    1983-06-01

    The heat capacity of pure plutonium metal has been determined from 330 to 700 K by adiabatic calorimetry. This includes measurements on the ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..-, ..gamma..-, and delta-phases. A large contribution to the heat capacity, especially in the delta-phase, is due to the electronic heat capacity. A negative anharmonic heat capacity is found for the ..cap alpha..-phase. The enthalpies and temperatures of the transitions between these phases were also determined. With the use of thermodynamic quantities on the delta'-, epsilon-, and (1)-phases available from the literature, the thermal functions for pure plutonium metal were calculated to 1000 K.

  13. Method of separating thorium from plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, D.G.; Blum, T.W.

    A method of chemically separating plutonium from thorium is claimed. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

  14. Probing Phonons in Plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joe

    2004-03-01

    The phonon spectra of plutonium and its alloys have been sought after in the past few decades following the discovery of this actinide element in 1941, but with no success. This was due to a combination of the high neutron absorption cross section of 239Pu, the common isotope, and non-availability of large single crystals of any Pu-bearing materials. We have recent designed a high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering experiment using a bright synchrotron x-ray beam at the European Sychrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble and mapped the full phonon dispersion curves of an fcc delta-phase polycrystalline Pu-Ga alloy (1). Several unusual features including, a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus C', a Kohn-like anomaly in the T1[011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the [111] transverse modes are found. These features can be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the lattice structure and the 5f valence instabilities. Our results also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for d-plutonium.(2) This work was performed in collaboration with Dr. M. Krisch (ESRF)) and Prof. T.-C. Chiang (UIU), and under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. 1. Joe Wong et al. Science, vol.301, 1078 (2003) 2. X. Dai et al. Science, vol.300, 953 (2003)

  15. Sequential Determination of Free Acidity and Plutonium Concentration in the Dissolver Solution of Fast-Breeder Reactor Spent Fuels in a Single Aliquot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamodharan, K; Pius, Anitha

    2016-01-01

    A simple potentiometric method for determining the free acidity without complexation in the presence of hydrolysable metal ions and sequentially determining the plutonium concentration by a direct spectrophotometric method using a single aliquot was developed. Interference from the major fission products, which are susceptible to hydrolysis at lower acidities, had been investigated in the free acidity measurement. This method is applicable for determining the free acidity over a wide range of nitric acid concentrations as well as the plutonium concentration in the irradiated fuel solution prior to solvent extraction. Since no complexing agent is introduced during the measurement of the free acidity, the purification step is eliminated during the plutonium estimation, and the resultant analytical waste is free from corrosive chemicals and any complexing agent. Hence, uranium and plutonium can be easily recovered from analytical waste by the conventional solvent extraction method. The error involved in determining the free acidity and plutonium is within ±1% and thus this method is superior to the complexation method for routine analysis of plant samples and is also amenable for remote analysis.

  16. FY12 Final Report for PL10-Mod Separations-PD12: Electrochemically Modulated Separation of Plutonium from Dilute and Concentrated Dissolver Solutions for Analysis by Gamma Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Sandra H.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Duckworth, Douglas C.; Cloutier, Janet M.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2013-05-01

    Accurate and timely analysis of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel is critical in nuclear safeguards for detection of both protracted and rapid plutonium diversions. Gamma spectroscopy is a viable method for accurate and timely measurements of plutonium provided that the plutonium is well separated from the interfering fission and activation products present in spent nuclear fuel. Electrochemically modulated separation (EMS) is a method that has been used successfully to isolate picogram amounts of Pu from nitric acid matrices. With EMS, Pu adsorption may be turned “on” and “off” depending on the applied voltage, allowing for collection and stripping of Pu without the addition of chemical reagents. In this work, we have scaled up the EMS process to isolate microgram quantities of Pu from matrices encountered in spent nuclear fuel during reprocessing. Several challenges have been addressed including surface area limitations, radiolysis effects, electrochemical cell performance stability, and chemical interferences. After these challenges were resolved, 6 µg Pu was deposited in the electrochemical cell with approximately an 800-fold reduction of fission and activation product levels from a spent nuclear fuel sample. Modeling showed that these levels of Pu collection and interference reduction may not be sufficient for Pu detection by gamma spectroscopy. The main remaining challenges are to achieve a more complete Pu isolation and to deposit larger quantities of Pu for successful gamma analysis of Pu. If gamma analyses of Pu are successful, EMS will allow for accurate and timely on-site analysis for enhanced Pu safeguards.

  17. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Michael S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

  18. Study of the reaction of uranium and plutonium with bone char

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, G.L.; Koenst, J.W.

    1977-01-17

    A study of the reaction of plutonium with a commercial bone char indicates that this bone char has a high capacity for removing plutonium from aqueous wastes. The adsorption of plutonium by bone char is pH dependent, and for plutonium(IV) polymer appears to be maximized near pH 7.3 for plutonium concentrations typical of some waste streams. Adsorption is affected by dissolved salts, especially calcium and phosphate salts. Freundlich isotherms representing the adsorption of uranium and plutonium have been prepared. The low potential imposed upon aqueous solutions by commercial bone char is adequate for reduction of hexavalent plutonium to a lower plutonium oxidation state.

  19. Plutonium worker dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchall, Alan; Puncher, M; Harrison, J; Riddell, A; Bailey, M R; Khokryakov, V; Romanov, S

    2010-05-01

    Epidemiological studies of the relationship between risk and internal exposure to plutonium are clearly reliant on the dose estimates used. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently reviewing the latest scientific information available on biokinetic models and dosimetry, and it is likely that a number of changes to the existing models will be recommended. The effect of certain changes, particularly to the ICRP model of the respiratory tract, has been investigated for inhaled forms of (239)Pu and uncertainties have also been assessed. Notable effects of possible changes to respiratory tract model assumptions are (1) a reduction in the absorbed dose to target cells in the airways, if changes under consideration are made to the slow clearing fraction and (2) a doubling of absorbed dose to the alveolar region for insoluble forms, if evidence of longer retention times is taken into account. An important factor influencing doses for moderately soluble forms of (239)Pu is the extent of binding of dissolved plutonium to lung tissues and assumptions regarding the extent of binding in the airways. Uncertainty analyses have been performed with prior distributions chosen for application in epidemiological studies. The resulting distributions for dose per unit intake were lognormal with geometric standard deviations of 2.3 and 2.6 for nitrates and oxides, respectively. The wide ranges were due largely to consideration of results for a range of experimental data for the solubility of different forms of nitrate and oxides. The medians of these distributions were a factor of three times higher than calculated using current default ICRP parameter values. For nitrates, this was due to the assumption of a bound fraction, and for oxides due mainly to the assumption of slower alveolar clearance. This study highlights areas where more research is needed to reduce biokinetic uncertainties, including more accurate determination of particle transport rates

  20. Evaluation technology for burnup and generated amount of plutonium by measurement of xenon isotopic ratio in dissolver off-gas at reprocessing facility (Joint research)

    OpenAIRE

    岡野 正紀; 久野 剛彦; 高橋 一朗; 白水 秀知; Charlton, W. S.; Wells, C. A.; Hemberger, P. H.; 山田 敬二; 酒井 敏雄

    2006-01-01

    The amount of Pu in the spent fuel was evaluated from Xe isotopic ratio in off-gas in reprocessing facility, is related to burnup. Six batches of dissolver off-gas at spent fuel dissolution process were sampled from the main stack in Tokai Reprocessing Plant during BWR fuel reprocessing campaign. Xenon isotopic ratio was determined with GC/MS. Burnup and generated amount of Pu were evaluated with Noble Gas Environmental Monitoring Application code (NOVA), developed by Los Alamos National Labo...

  1. Plutonium Isotopes ((239-241)Pu) Dissolved in Pacific Ocean Waters Detected by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry: No Effects of the Fukushima Accident Observed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, Karin; Faestermann, Thomas; Fimiani, Leticia; Golser, Robin; Gómez-Guzmán, José Manuel; Korschinek, Gunther; Kortmann, Florian; Lierse von Gostomski, Christoph; Ludwig, Peter; Steier, Peter; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2017-02-21

    The concentration of plutonium (Pu) and the isotopic ratios of (240)Pu to (239)Pu and (241)Pu to (239)Pu were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in Pacific Ocean water samples (20 L each) collected in late 2012. The isotopic Pu ratios are important indicators of different contamination sources and were used to identify a possible release of Pu into the ocean by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. In particular, (241)Pu is a well-suited indicator for a recent entry of Pu because (241)Pu from fallout of nuclear weapon testings has already significantly decayed. A total of 10 ocean water samples were prepared at the Radiochemie München of the TUM and analyzed at the Vienna Environmental Research Laboratory (VERA). Several samples showed a slightly elevated (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratio of up to 0.22 ± 0.02 compared to global fallout ((240)Pu/(239)Pu = 0.180 ± 0.007), whereas all measured (241)Pu-to-(239)Pu ratios were consistent with nuclear weapon fallout ((241)Pu/(239)Pu < 2.4 × 10(-3)), which means that no impact from the Fukushima accident was detected. From the average (241)Pu-to-(239)Pu ratio of 8-2(+3) ×10(-4) at a sampling station located at a distance of 39.6 km to FDNPP, the 1-σ upper limit for the FDNPP contribution to the (239)Pu inventory in the water column was estimated to be 0.2%. Pu, with the signature of weapon-grade Pu was found in a single sample collected around 770 km off the west coast of the United States.

  2. Plutonium Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaborg, G. T.

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope /sup 238/Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope /sup 239/Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements.

  3. PLUTONIUM METALLOGRAPHY AT LOS ALAMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PEREYRA, RAMIRO A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LOVATO, DARRYL [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-08

    with metallographic polishing lubricants, solvents, or chemicals. And water being one of the most reactive solutions, is not used in the preparation. Figure 2 shows an example of a plutonium sample in which an oxide film has formed on the surface due to overexposure to solutions. it has been noted that nucleation of the hydride/oxide begins around inclusions and samples with a higher concentration of impurities seem to be more susceptible to this reaction. Figure 3 shows examples of small oxide rings, forming around inclusions. Lastly, during the cutting, grinding, or polishing process there is enough stress induced in the sample that the surface can transform from the soft face-centered-cubic delta phase (30 HV) to the strain-induced monoclinic alpha{prime} phase (300 HV). Figure 4 and 5 shows cross-sectional views of samples in which one was cut using a diamond saw and the other was processed through 600 grit. The white layers on the edges is the strain induced alpha{prime} phase. The 'V' shape indentation in Figure 5 was caused by a coarser abrasive which resulted in transformations to a depth of approximately 20 {micro}m. Another example of the transformation sensitivity of plutonium can be seen in Figure 6, in which the delta phase has partly transformed to alpha{prime} during micro hardness indentation.

  4. Seaborg's Plutonium ?

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Eric B; Telhami, Kristina E

    2014-01-01

    Passive x-ray and gamma-ray analysis was performed on UC Berkeley's EH&S Sample S338. The object was found to contain Pu-239 and no other radioactive isotopes. The mass of Pu-239 contained in this object was determined to be 2.0 +- 0.3 micrograms. These observations are consistent with the identification of this object being the 2.77-microgram plutonium oxide sample described by Glenn Seaborg and his collaborators as the first sample of Pu-239 that was large enough to be weighed.

  5. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, A.G.; Smith, F.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products by treating a nitrate solution of fission products, uranium, and hexavalent plutonium with a relatively water-insoluble fluoride to adsorb fission products on the fluoride, treating the residual solution with a reducing agent for plutonium to reduce its valence to four and less, treating the reduced plutonium solution with a relatively insoluble fluoride to adsorb the plutonium on the fluoride, removing the solution, and subsequently treating the fluoride with its adsorbed plutonium with a concentrated aqueous solution of at least one of a group consisting of aluminum nitrate, ferric nitrate, and manganous nitrate to remove the plutonium from the fluoride.

  6. Thermophysical properties of coexistent phases of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freibert, Franz J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Jeremy N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saleh, Tarik A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, Dan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Plutonium is the element with the greatest number of allotropic phases. Thermally induced transformations between these phases are typically characterized by thermal hysteresis and incomplete phase reversion. With Ga substitutal in the lattice, low symmetry phases are replaced by a higher symmetry phase. However, the low temperature Martensitic phase transformation ({delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime}) in Ga stabilized {delta}-phase Pu is characterized by a region of thermal hysteresis which can reach 200 C in extent. These regions of thermal hysteresis offer a unique opportunity to study thermodynamics in inhomogeneous systems of coexistent phases. The results of thermophysical properties measured for samples of inhomogeneous unalloyed and Ga alloyed Pu will be discussed and compared with similar measurements of their single phase constituents.

  7. Thermophysical properties of coexistent phases of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freibert, F J; Mitchell, J N; Saleh, T A; Schwartz, D S, E-mail: freibert@lanl.gov, E-mail: jeremy@lanl.gov, E-mail: tsaleh@lanl.gov, E-mail: dschwartz@lanl.gov [Nuclear Materials Science Group, Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Plutonium is the element with the greatest number of allotropic phases. Thermally induced transformations between these phases are typically characterized by thermal hysteresis and incomplete phase reversion. With Ga substitutional in the lattice, low symmetry phases are replaced by a higher symmetry phase. However, the low temperature martensitic phase transformation ({delta}{yields}{alpha}') in Ga stabilized {delta}-phase Pu is characterized by a region of thermal hysteresis which can reach 200 deg. C in extent. These regions of thermal hysteresis offer a unique opportunity to study thermodynamics in inhomogeneous systems of coexistent phases. The results of thermophysical properties measured for samples of inhomogeneous unalloyed and Ga alloyed Pu will be discussed and compared with similar measurements of their single phase constituents.

  8. Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Plutonium Finishing Plant, also known as PFP, represented the end of the line (the final procedure) associated with plutonium production at Hanford.PFP was also...

  9. Plutonium Training Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wolkov, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-26

    This report was created to examine the current state of plutonium training in the United States and to discover ways in which to ensure that the next generation of plutonium workers are fully qualified.

  10. PLUTONIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-15

    New plutonium-base binary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuel are described. The alloys consist of 50 to 98 at.% thorium with the remainder plutonium. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are easy fabrication, phase stability, and the accompanying advantuge of providing a means for converting Th/sup 232/ into U/sup 233/.

  11. PLUTONIUM CLEANING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-12-01

    A method is described for rapidly removing iron, nickel, and zinc coatings from plutonium objects while simultaneously rendering the plutonium object passive. The method consists of immersing the coated plutonium object in an aqueous acid solution containing a substantial concentration of nitrate ions, such as fuming nitric acid.

  12. Standard test method for plutonium assay by plutonium (III) diode array spectrophotometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the determination of total plutonium as plutonium(III) in nitrate and chloride solutions. The technique is applicable to solutions of plutonium dioxide powders and pellets (Test Methods C 697), nuclear grade mixed oxides (Test Methods C 698), plutonium metal (Test Methods C 758), and plutonium nitrate solutions (Test Methods C 759). Solid samples are dissolved using the appropriate dissolution techniques described in Practice C 1168. The use of this technique for other plutonium-bearing materials has been reported (1-5), but final determination of applicability must be made by the user. The applicable concentration range for plutonium sample solutions is 10–200 g Pu/L. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropria...

  13. Properties of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jin Su; Yoon, Hwan Ki; Min, Kyung Sik; Kim, Hyun Tae; Ahn, Jong Sung; Kwag, Eon Ho; Ryu, Keon Joong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    Plutonium has unique chemical and physical properties. Its uniqueness in use has led to rare publications, in Korea. This report covers physical aspects of phase change of metal plutonium, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, etc, chemical aspects of corrosion, oxidation, how to produce plutonium from spent fuels by describing various chemical treatment methods, which are currently used and were used in the past. It also contains characteristics of the purex reprocessing process which is the most widely used nowadays. And show processes to purify and metalize from recovered plutonium solution. Detection and analysis methods are introduced with key pints for handling, critical safety, toxicity, and effects on peoples. This report gives not only a general idea on what plutonium is, rather than deep technical description, but also basic knowledge on plutonium production and safeguards diversion from the view point of nonproliferation. 18 refs. (Author) .new.

  14. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  15. Standard practice for preparation and dissolution of plutonium materials for analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice is a compilation of dissolution techniques for plutonium materials that are applicable to the test methods used for characterizing these materials. Dissolution treatments for the major plutonium materials assayed for plutonium or analyzed for other components are listed. Aliquants of the dissolved samples are dispensed on a weight basis when one of the analyses must be highly reliable, such as plutonium assay; otherwise they are dispensed on a volume basis. 1.2 The treatments, in order of presentation, are as follows: Procedure Title Section Dissolution of Plutonium Metal with Hydrochloric Acid 9.1 Dissolution of Plutonium Metal with Sulfuric Acid 9.2 Dissolution of Plutonium Oxide and Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxide by the Sealed-Reflux Technique 9.3 Dissolution of Plutonium Oxide and Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxides by Sodium Bisulfate Fusion 9.4 Dissolution of Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxides and Low-Fired Plutonium Oxide in Beakers 9.5 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be re...

  16. Inter- and intragranular delta phase quantitative characterization in Inconel 718 by means of image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderesse, N; Anderson, M; Bridier, F; Bocher, P

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an image processing method for discriminating the inter- and intragranular delta phase precipitates in Inconel 718 (IN 718). The successive practical operations and the motivations of their choices are presented in detail. The method was applied to IN 718 specimens heat treated with different parameters to produce microstructures containing various amounts of both types of precipitates. They were characterized by electron microscopy in backscattered electron imaging. The main difficulty arose from the fact that the brightness distributions of inter- and intragranular precipitates partially overlap. Additional information on their morphology and their spatial distribution had to be exploited in order to differentiate them. The shape and the orientation of the precipitates were evaluated using the structure tensor, an operator that quantifies the directionality of the intensity distribution in an image. The distance between parallel precipitates was also used as an additional property to identify clusters of intragranular precipitates.

  17. ``Distribution and behaviour of plutonium in the waters of the channel and of the seine estuary``; ``Distribution et comportement du plutonium dans les eaux de la manche et de l`estuaire de la seine``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, K.

    1997-12-31

    Excess dissolved plutonium has been measured in the coastal waters of the Channel, from Granville to Boulogne, probably due to sorption-desorption processus. In the Seine estuary, in situ measurements and experimental studies showed that the plutonium desorbs himself from particles in low salinity waters. The desorbed plutonium originates in marine and/or fluvial dissolved Pu. Marine dissolved Pu(V), originating from La Hague plant discharges and from atlantic waters, is reduced and sorbed when the salinity decreases onto estuarial particles: Isotopic Activity Ration {sup 238}Pu/{sup 239}, Pu(IR) of marine dissolved Pu(V) is about 0.7. Fluvial dissolved plutonium originates from atmospheric fallout and from an internal river source: fallout plutonium (IR=0.05) is unreactive with salinity while 45% of river plutonium (IR>1.7) flocculates at 0.5 g l{sup -1}. Desorbed plutonium may have various origins, depending on the Seine liquid discharges and on the tidal coefficient. When the marine waters do not migrate upstream, the low salinity waters encounters particles marked essentially with marine plutonium and the IR of desorbed Pu is about 0.7. The activities of desorbed plutonium are too low to have any influence on the distribution of plutonium in the coastal waters on the Seine Bay. When the marine waters migrate upstream, the low salinity waters meet particles marked essentially with river plutonium (IR>1.7) and desorbed plutonium has a very high IR. These estuarine conditions are encountered five to seven month a year and implicate an increase of the IR of 0.1 of the plutonium present in the coastal waters of the Seine bay (1.2.-1.3.). (author).

  18. Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-10-22

    Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other

  19. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COBALT AND PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-NICKEL ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-08-25

    >New plutonium-base teroary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuels are described. The alloys consist of 10 to 20 atomic percent cobalt with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 88 atomic percent; or, of from 10 to 25 atomic percent nickel (or mixture of nickel and cobalt) with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 86 atomic percent. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are a lower melting point and a wide range of permissible plutonium dilution.

  20. Plutonium bioaccumulation in seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I; Skwarzec, Bogdan; Fabisiak, Jacek

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the paper was plutonium (²³⁸Pu and ²³⁹⁺²⁴⁰Pu) determination in seabirds, permanently or temporarily living in northern Poland at the Baltic Sea coast. Together 11 marine birds species were examined: 3 species permanently residing in the southern Baltic, 4 species of wintering birds and 3 species of migrating birds. The obtained results indicated plutonium is non-uniformly distributed in organs and tissues of analyzed seabirds. The highest plutonium content was found in the digestion organs and feathers, the smallest in skin and muscles. The plutonium concentration was lower in analyzed species which feed on fish and much higher in herbivorous species. The main source of plutonium in analyzed marine birds was global atmospheric fallout.

  1. Plutonium storage criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  2. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael I [Dublin, CA

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  3. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy`s response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department`s Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B.

  4. PLUTONIUM ELECTROREFINING CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, L.J. Jr.; Leary, J.A.; Bjorklund, C.W.; Maraman, W.J.

    1963-07-16

    Electrorefining cells for obtaining 99.98% plutonium are described. The cells consist of an impure liquid plutonium anode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-- alkali or alkaline earth metal chloanode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-alkali or alkaline earth metal chloride electrolyte, and a nonreactive cathode, all being contained in nonreactive ceramic containers which separate anode from cathode by a short distance and define a gap for the collection of the purified liquid plutonium deposited on the cathode. Important features of these cells are the addition of stirrer blades on the anode lead and a large cathode surface to insure a low current density. (AEC)

  5. Progress on plutonium stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, D. [Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has safety oversight responsibility for most of the facilities where unstable forms of plutonium are being processed and packaged for interim storage. The Board has issued recommendations on plutonium stabilization and has has a considerable influence on DOE`s stabilization schedules and priorities. The Board has not made any recommendations on long-term plutonium disposition, although it may get more involved in the future if DOE develops plans to use defense nuclear facilities for disposition activities.

  6. Recovery of plutonium from electrorefining anode heels at Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J H; Gray, L W; Karraker, D G

    1987-03-01

    In a joint effort, the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have developed two processes to recover plutonium from electrorefining anode heel residues. Aqueous dissolution of anode heel metal was demonstrated at SRL on a laboratory scale and on a larger pilot scale using either sulfamic acid or nitric acid-hydrazine-fluoride solutions. This direct anode heel metal dissolution requires the use of a geometrically favorable dissolver. The second process developed involves first diluting the plutonium in the anode heel residues by alloying with aluminum. The alloyed anode heel plutonium can then be dissolved using a nitric acid-fluoride-mercury(II) solution in large non-geometrically favorable equipment where nuclear safety is ensured by concentration control.

  7. Shock Sensitivity of LX-04 Containing Delta Phase HMX at Elevated Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urtiew, P A; Forbes, J W; Tarver, C M; Vandersall, K S; Garcia, F; Greenwood, D W; Hsu, P C; Maienschein, J L

    2003-07-11

    LX-04 is a widely used HMX-based plastic bonded explosive, which contains 85 weight % HMX and 15 weight % Viton binder. The sensitivity of LX-04 to a single stimulus such as heat, impact, and shock has been previously studied. However, hazard scenarios can involve multiple stimuli, such as heating to temperatures close to thermal explosion conditions followed by fragment impact, producing a shock in the hot explosive. The sensitivity of HMX at elevated temperatures is further complicated by the beta to delta solid-state phase transition, which occurs at approximately 165 C. This paper presents the results of shock initiation experiments conducted with LX-04 preheated to 190 C, as well as density measurements and small scale safety test results of the {delta} phase HMX at room temperature. This work shows that LX-04 at 190 C is more shock sensitive than LX-04 at 150 C or 170 C due to the volume increase during the {beta} to {delta} solid phase transition, which creates more hot spots, and the faster growth of reaction during shock compression.

  8. Sonochemical Digestion of High-Fired Plutonium Dioxide Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkov, Sergei I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2006-10-12

    This work was performed as part of a broader effort to automate analytical methods for determining plutonium and other radioisotopes in environmental samples. The work described here represented a screening study to evaluate the effect of applying ultrasonic irradiation to dissolve high-fired plutonium oxide. The major findings of this work can be summarized as follows: (1) High-fired plutonium oxide does not undergo measurable dissolution when sonicated in nitric acid solutions, even at a high concentration range of nitric acid where the calculated thermodynamic solubility of plutonium oxide exceeds the ?g/mL level. (2) Applying organic complexants (nitrilotriacetic acid) and reductants (hydroxyurea) in 1.5 M nitric acid does not significantly increase the dissolution compared with digestion in nitric acid alone. Nearly all (99.5%) of the plutonium oxide remains undissolved under these conditions. (3) The action of a strong inorganic reductant, titanium trichloride in 25 wt% HCl, results in 40% dissolution of the plutonium oxide when the titanium trichloride concentration is ?1 wt% under sonication. (4) Oxidative treatment of plutonium oxide by freshly dissolved AgO ({approx}20 mg/mL) in 1.5 M nitric acid with sonication resulted in 95% plutonium oxide dissolution. However, the same treatment of plutonium oxide mechanically mixed with 50 mg of Columbia River sediment (CRS) results in a significant decrease of dissolution yield of plutonium oxide (<20% dissolved at the same AgO loading) because of parasitic consumption of AG(II) by oxidizable components of the CRS. (5) Digesting plutonium oxide in HF resulted in dissolution yields slightly higher than 80% for HF concentration from 6 M to 14 M. Sonication did not result in any improvement in dissolution efficiency in HF. (6) Mixed nitric acid/HF solutions result in a higher dissolution yield of plutonium oxide compared with digestion in HF alone (at the same HF concentrations). Practically quantitative dissolution

  9. Plutonium in Southern Hemisphere ocean Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirose, K.; Aoyama, M.; Gastaud, J.

    2013-01-01

    Plutonium in seawater collected by the BEAGLE2003 cruise was determined using ICP- SF-MS and alpha spectrometry after Fe co-precipitation and radiochemical purification. Levels and distributions of dissolved plutonium activity concentrations in Southern Hemisphere ocean waters are summarized here......, including historical data. Pu-239 concentrations in surface water----of the central South Pacific (32.5 °S) in 2003 were around 1 mBq/m3. The 239Pu concentrations in the Indian Ocean surface waters (20°S) were similar to that in the South Pacific, whereas the 239Pu concentrations in the South Atlantic...... surface waters (30°S) were markedly lower than those in the South Pacific and Indian Oceans. The 239Pu vertical profile pattern was similar to that in the North Pacific subtropical gyre, although 239Pu concentrations in the deep South Pacific were significantly lower than those in the North Pacific. One...

  10. The structure of the blue luminescent delta-phase of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium(III) (Alq3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cölle, Michael; Dinnebier, Robert E; Brütting, Wolfgang

    2002-12-07

    The existence of the facial isomer in the delta-phase of Alq3 is proven by X-ray structural analysis, revealing that both the different molecular structure and the weaker overlap of the pi-orbitals of hydroxyquinoline ligands belonging to neighboring Alq3 molecules as compared to other phases (alpha, beta) are likely to be the origin of the significantly different optical properties of delta-Alq3.

  11. METHOD OF PRODUCING PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley, W.B.; Smith, R.C.

    1959-12-15

    A process is presented for preparing plutonium tetrafluoride from plutonium(IV) oxalate. The oxalate is dried and decomposed at about 300 deg C to the dioxide, mixed with ammonium bifluoride, and the mixture is heated to between 50 and 150 deg C whereby ammonium plutonium fluoride is formed. The ammonium plutonium fluoride is then heated to about 300 deg C for volatilization of ammonium fluoride. Both heating steps are preferably carried out in an inert atmosphere.

  12. Aqueous Solution Chemistry of Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, David L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Things I have learned working with plutonium: Chemistry of plutonium is complex; Redox equilibria make Pu solution chemistry particularly challenging in the absence of complexing ligands; Understanding this behavior is key to successful Pu chemistry experiments; There is no suitable chemical analog for plutonium.

  13. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nass, R. [Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  14. Manufacturing of Plutonium Tensile Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Cameron M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-01

    Details workflow conducted to manufacture high density alpha Plutonium tensile specimens to support Los Alamos National Laboratory's science campaigns. Introduces topics including the metallurgical challenge of Plutonium and the use of high performance super-computing to drive design. Addresses the utilization of Abaqus finite element analysis, programmable computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining, as well as glove box ergonomics and safety in order to design a process that will yield high quality Plutonium tensile specimens.

  15. Plutonium dissolution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, M.A.; Fink, S.D.; Karraker, D.G.; Moore, E.N.; Holcomb, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving Pu metal is disclosed in which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Pu metal is exposed to a first mixture of 1.0-1.67 M sulfamic acid and 0.0025-0.1 M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to 45-70 C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the Pu metal but leave a portion of the Pu in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alternatively, nitric acid between 0.05 and 0.067 M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution is diluted with nitrogen.

  16. Technical report for the generic site add-on facility for plutonium polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, E. D.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide environmental data and reference process information associated with incorporating plutonium polishing steps (dissolution, impurity removal, and conversion to oxide powder) into the genetic-site Mixed-Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MOXFF). The incorporation of the plutonium polishing steps will enable the removal of undesirable impurities, such as gallium and americium, known to be associated with the plutonium. Moreover, unanticipated impurities can be removed, including those that may be contained in (1) poorly characterized feed materials, (2) corrosion products added from processing equipment, and (3) miscellaneous materials contained in scrap recycle streams. These impurities will be removed to the extent necessary to meet plutonium product purity specifications for MOX fuels. Incorporation of the plutonium polishing steps will mean that the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) will need to produce a plutonium product that can b e dissolved at the MOXFF in nitric acid at a suitable rate (sufficient to meet overall production requirements) with the minimal usage of hydrofluoric acid, and its complexing agent, aluminum nitrate. This function will require that if the PDCF product is plutonium oxide powder, that powder must be produced, stored, and shipped without exceeding a temperature of 600 C.

  17. Dissolved oxygen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1981-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the waters of Botany Bay and Georges and Cooks Rivers vary mainly as a result of tidal water movements, algal and macrophytic growth and decay, and effects of storms...

  18. Learning more about plutonium; En savoir plus sur le plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This digest brochure explains what plutonium is, where it comes from, how it is used, its recycling into Mox fuel, its half life, historical discovery, its presence in the environment, toxicity and radioactivity. (J.S.)

  19. Magnetic state of f electrons in {delta}-phase of Pu-Ga alloys studied by Ga NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verkhovskii, S. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Kovalevskaya Str. 18, 620041 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Piskunov, Yu. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Kovalevskaya Str. 18, 620041 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)], E-mail: piskunov@imp.uran.ru; Mikhalev, K.; Buzlukov, A.; Arkhipov, V. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Kovalevskaya Str. 18, 620041 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Zouev, Yu. [RFNC-VNII Technical Physics named after acad. E.I. Zababakhin, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Korolev, A. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Kovalevskaya Str. 18, 620041 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Lekomtsev, S.; Svyatov, I. [RFNC-VNII Technical Physics named after acad. E.I. Zababakhin, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Pogudin, A.; Ogloblichev, V. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Kovalevskaya Str. 18, 620041 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-11

    {sup 69}Ga nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) line shift ({sup 69}K) and nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate ({sup 69}T{sub 1}{sup -1}) are measured for Pu{sub 0.95}Ga{sub 0.05} alloy, stabilized in {delta}-phase, in the temperature range 10 and 650 K at magnetic field of 9.4 T. The shift and {sup 69}T{sub 1}{sup -1} are determined correspondingly by the static and fluctuating-in-time parts of the local magnetic fields arisen at Ga due to transferred hyperfine coupling with the nearest f electron environment of more magnetic Pu. At T > 200 K, the temperature dependent part of the shift {sup 69}K(T) scales macroscopic magnetic susceptibility {chi}(T), following the Curie-Weiss law, and the product ({sup 69}T{sub 1}T) increases with temperature proportionally (T + 255){sup 1.5(1)}. Both of the NMR observations are typical of the incoherent spin fluctuation regime of f electrons in nonmagnetic 3D Kondo lattice. An estimate of the effective magnetic moment {mu}{sub eff,5f}(g{sub e} = 2) = 0.15(5){mu}{sub B} per Pu atom points out a strong suppression of the spin magnetism in the alloy.

  20. Development of Remote Plutonium Valence State Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In the Purex process of spent fuel reprocessing, the separation of uranium and plutonium depends on the capability extracting state plutonium ions with various valence by TBP. The separate degree of

  1. Recovery studies for plutonium machining oil coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navratil, J. D.; Baldwin, C. E.

    1977-04-27

    Lathe coolant oil, contaminated with plutonium and having a carbon tetrachloride diluent, is generated in plutonium machining areas at Rocky Flats. A research program was initiated to determine the nature of plutonium in this mixture of oil and carbon tetrachloride. Appropriate methods then could be developed to remove the plutonium and to recycle the oil and carbon tetrachloride. Studies showed that the mixtures of spent oil and carbon tetrachloride contained particulate plutonium and plutonium species that are soluble in water or in oil and carbon tetrachloride. The particulate plutonium was removed by filtration; the nonfilterable plutonium was removed by adsorption on various materials. Laboratory-scale tests indicated the lathe-coolant oil mixture could be separated by distilling the carbon tetrachloride to yield recyclable products.

  2. BIOLOGICALLY-MEDIATED REMOVAL AND RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerger, Douglas E., Ph.D.,; Alperin, Edward S., QEP,; Holmes, Robert G., Ph.D.

    2003-02-27

    An innovative biological treatment technology successfully reduced plutonium concentration in soil from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) by over 80%. The final volume of plutonium-contaminated material that required disposal was reduced by over 90%. These results, achieved by an independent testing laboratory, confirm the results reported previously using NTS soil. In the previous test a 2530-gram sample of soil (350 to 400 pCi/g Pu) resulted in production of 131 grams of sludge (6,320 pCi/ g Pu) and a treated soil containing 72 pCi/g of Pu. The technology is based on the biological acidification of the soil and subsequent removal of the plutonium and other dissolved metals by a low volume, low energy water leaching process. The leachate is treated in a sulfate-reducing bioreactor to precipitate the metals as metal sulfides. Water may be recycled as process water or disposed since the treatment process removes over 99% of the dissolved metals including plutonium from the water. The plutonium is contained as a stable sludge that can be containerized for final disposal. Full-scale process costs have been developed which employ widely used treatment technologies such as aerated soil piles (biopiles) and bioreactors. The process costs were less than $10 per cubic foot, which were 40 to 50% lower than the baseline costs for the treatment of the NTS soil. The equipment and materials for water and sludge treatment and soil handling are commercially available.

  3. Plutonium focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  4. Plutonium Proliferation: The Achilles Heel of Disarmament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leventhal, Paul (President, Nuclear Control Institute, Washington D.C.)

    2001-02-07

    Plutonium is a byproduct of nuclear fission, and it is produced at the rate of about 70 metric tons a year in the world's nuclear power reactors. Concerns about civilian plutonium ran high in the 1970s and prompted enactment of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 to give the United States a veto over separating plutonium from U.S.-supplied uranium fuel. Over the years, however, so-called reactor-grade plutonium has become the orphan issue of nuclear non-proliferation, largely as a consequence of pressures from plutonium-separating countries. The demise of the fast breeder reactor and the reluctance of utilities to introduce plutonium fuel in light-water reactors have resulted in large surpluses of civilian, weapons-usable plutonium, which now approach in size the 250 tons of military plutonium in the world. Yet reprocessing of spent fuel for recovery and use of plutonium proceeds apace outside the United States and threatens to overwhelm safeguards and security measures for keeping this material out of the hands of nations and terrorists for weapons. A number of historical and current developments are reviewed to demonstrate that plutonium commerce is undercutting efforts both to stop the spread of nuclear weapons and to work toward eliminating existing nuclear arsenals. These developments include the breakdown of U.S. anti-plutonium policy, the production of nuclear weapons by India with Atoms-for-Peace plutonium, the U.S.-Russian plan to introduce excess military plutonium as fuel in civilian power reactors, the failure to include civilian plutonium and bomb-grade uranium in the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty, and the perception of emerging proliferation threats as the rationale for development of a ballistic missile defense system. Finally, immobilization of separated plutonium in high-level waste is explored as a proliferation-resistant and disarmament-friendly solution for eliminating excess stocks of civilian and military plutonium.

  5. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  6. A mechanism for plutonium pyrophoricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Joseph C.; Haschke, John M.; Stakebake, Jerry L.

    1994-06-01

    A proposed mechanism for plutonium pyrophoricity quantitatively predicts the ignition temperature of plutonium as a function of surface : mass ratio and particle size. Plutonium must exceed 475°C before self-ignition occurs. External heating of massive samples is necessary to achieve this condition, while finely divided materials can reach the ignition point by an alternative, two-step mechanism. First, the thin layer of surface PuO 2 on the metal undergoes kinetically controlled reduction to Pu 2O 3 near 150°C. Second, the trivalent Pu 2O 3 reacts with gas-phase oxygen to reform PuO 2. Heat generated from the second reaction is sufficient to raise the temperature of small particles or thin foils above the 475°C ignition point. Details of this mechanism are given, including a discussion of plutonium oxidation and a calculation of adiabatic temperature increase due to oxidation of the Pu 2O 3 surface layer. Plutonium pyrophoricity data are summarized and compared to model results.

  7. Selecting a plutonium vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouan, A. [Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    1996-05-01

    Vitrification of plutonium is one means of mitigating its potential danger. This option is technically feasible, even if it is not the solution advocated in France. Two situations are possible, depending on whether or not the glass matrix also contains fission products; concentrations of up to 15% should be achievable for plutonium alone, whereas the upper limit is 3% in the presence of fission products. The French continuous vitrification process appears to be particularly suitable for plutonium vitrification: its capacity is compatible with the required throughout, and the compact dimensions of the process equipment prevent a criticality hazard. Preprocessing of plutonium metal, to convert it to PuO{sub 2} or to a nitric acid solution, may prove advantageous or even necessary depending on whether a dry or wet process is adopted. The process may involve a single step (vitrification of Pu or PuO{sub 2} mixed with glass frit) or may include a prior calcination step - notably if the plutonium is to be incorporated into a fission product glass. It is important to weigh the advantages and drawbacks of all the possible options in terms of feasibility, safety and cost-effectiveness.

  8. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  9. Tabulated Neutron Emission Rates for Plutonium Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shores, Erik Frederick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-24

    This work tabulates neutron emission rates for 80 plutonium oxide samples as reported in the literature. Plutonium-­238 and plutonium-­239 oxides are included and such emission rates are useful for scaling tallies from Monte Carlo simulations and estimating dose rates for health physics applications.

  10. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each package... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section...

  11. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  12. Plutonium inventory characterization technical evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittman, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-10

    This is a technical report on the data, gathered to date, under WHC- SD-CP-TP-086, Rev. 1, on the integrity of the food pack cans currently being used to store plutonium or plutonium compounds at the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Workplan PFP-96-VO-009, `Inspection of Special Nuclear Material Using X-ray`, was used to gather data on material and containment conditions using real time radiography. Some of those images are included herein. A matrix found in the `Plutonium Inventory Characterization Implementation Plan` was used to categorize different plutonium items based upon the type of material being stored and the life expectancy of the containers.

  13. Plutonium inventories for stabilization and stabilized materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.K.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of the breakout session was to identify characteristics of materials containing plutonium, the need to stabilize these materials for storage, and plans to accomplish the stabilization activities. All current stabilization activities are driven by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1 (May 26, 1994) and by the recently completed Plutonium ES&H Vulnerability Assessment (DOE-EH-0415). The Implementation Plan for accomplishing stabilization of plutonium-bearing residues in response to the Recommendation and the Assessment was published by DOE on February 28, 1995. This Implementation Plan (IP) commits to stabilizing problem materials within 3 years, and stabilizing all other materials within 8 years. The IP identifies approximately 20 metric tons of plutonium requiring stabilization and/or repackaging. A further breakdown shows this material to consist of 8.5 metric tons of plutonium metal and alloys, 5.5 metric tons of plutonium as oxide, and 6 metric tons of plutonium as residues. Stabilization of the metal and oxide categories containing greater than 50 weight percent plutonium is covered by DOE Standard {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides{close_quotes} December, 1994 (DOE-STD-3013-94). This standard establishes criteria for safe storage of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides for up to 50 years. Each of the DOE sites and contractors with large plutonium inventories has either started or is preparing to start stabilization activities to meet these criteria.

  14. The first weighing of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-09-10

    The following text, transcribed from the remarks of those scientists who gathered at the University of Chicago on September 10, 1967, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the first weighing of plutonium, tells an important part of the story of this fascinating new element that is destined to play an increasingly significant role in the future of man.

  15. Reduction of uranium and plutonium oxides by aluminum. Application to the recycling of plutonium; Reduction des oxydes d'uranium et de plutonium par l'aluminium application au recyclage du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallay, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Valduc (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-07-01

    A process for treating plutonium oxide calcined at high temperatures (1000 to 2000 deg. C) with a view to recovering the metal consists in the reduction of this oxide dissolved in a mixture of aluminium, sodium and calcium fluorides by aluminium at about 1180 deg. C. The first part of the report presents the results of reduction tests carried out on the uranium oxides UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}; these are in agreement with the thermodynamic calculations of the exchange reaction at equilibrium. The second part describes the application of this method to plutonium oxides. The Pu-Al alloy obtained (60 per cent Pu) is then recycled in an aqueous medium. (author) [French] Un procede de traitement de l'oxyde de plutonium calcine a haute temperature (1000 deg. C a 2000 deg. C), en vue de la recuperation du metal, consiste a reduire cet oxyde dissous dans un melange de fluorures d'aluminium, de sodium et de calcium, par l'aluminium vers 1180 deg. C. Une premiere partie du rapport presente les resultats des essais de reduction des oxydes d'uranium UO{sub 2} et U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, en accord avec les resultats du calcul thermodynamique de la reaction d'echange a l'equilibre. Une seconde partie rend compte de l'application de cette methode a l'oxyde de plutonium. L'alliage Pu-Al obtenu (60 pour cent Pu) est ensuite recycle par voie aqueuse. (auteur)

  16. Standard practice for The separation of americium from plutonium by ion exchange

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the use of an ion exchange technique to separate plutonium from solutions containing low concentrations of americium prior to measurement of the 241Am by gamma counting. 1.2 This practice covers the removal of plutonium, but not all the other radioactive isotopes that may interfere in the determination of 241Am. 1.3 This practice can be used when 241Am is to be determined in samples in which the plutonium is in the form of metal, oxide, or other solid provided that the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved (See Test Methods C758, C759, and C1168). 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. CONTAMINATED PROCESS EQUIPMENT REMOVAL FOR THE D&D OF THE 232-Z CONTAMINATED WASTE RECOVERY PROCESS FACILITY AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; MINETTE, M.J.; KLOS, D.B.

    2007-01-25

    This paper describes the unique challenges encountered and subsequent resolutions to accomplish the deactivation and decontamination of a plutonium ash contaminated building. The 232-Z Contaminated Waste Recovery Process Facility at the Plutonium Finishing Plant was used to recover plutonium from process wastes such as rags, gloves, containers and other items by incinerating the items and dissolving the resulting ash. The incineration process resulted in a light-weight plutonium ash residue that was highly mobile in air. This light-weight ash coated the incinerator's process equipment, which included gloveboxes, blowers, filters, furnaces, ducts, and filter boxes. Significant airborne contamination (over 1 million derived air concentration hours [DAC]) was found in the scrubber cell of the facility. Over 1300 grams of plutonium held up in the process equipment and attached to the walls had to be removed, packaged and disposed. This ash had to be removed before demolition of the building could take place.

  18. Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for Determining Uranium and Plutonium Solubility in Actual Tank Waste Supernates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, William D.

    2005-06-28

    Savannah River Site tank waste supernates contain small quantities of dissolved uranium and plutonium. Due to the large volume of supernates, significant quantities of dissolved uranium and plutonium are managed as part of waste transfers, evaporation and pretreatment at the Savannah River Site in tank farm operations, the Actinide Removal Project (ARP), and the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Previous SRNL studies have investigated the effect of temperature and major supernate components on the solubility of uranium and plutonium. Based on these studies, equations were developed for the prediction of U and Pu solubility in tank waste supernates. The majority of the previous tests were conducted with simulated waste solutions. The current testing is intended to determine solubility in actual tank waste samples (as-received, diluted, and combinations of tank samples) as a function of composition and temperature. Results will be used to validate and build on the existing solubility equations.

  19. The plutonium: a fascinating material; Le plutonium: un materiau fascinant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boivineau, M. [CEA Valduc, Dept. Recherche sur les Materiaux Nucleaires, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2007-12-15

    The actinide family is characterized by the progressive filling of the 5f electron shell. The outstanding properties of the plutonium is due to its position at the center of this family that divides the actinides into 2 sub-families with very different properties. The main properties of the plutonium are the following: -) 8 types of allotropic crystal structures (the highest number in the whole periodic table); -) a very dense ({rho} = 19.86) alpha monoclinic phase; -) a negative dilatation coefficient for the volumes of phases {delta} and {delta}' and a volume contraction for the phase transformation: {delta} - {delta}' and {delta}' - {epsilon}; -) the lowest fusion point (T{sub f} = 640 C degrees) of the actinides; -) a volume contraction at the fusion; and -) a low value for the latent heat of fusion. (A.C.)

  20. Bibliography on plutonium and its compounds; Bibliographie sur le plutonium et ses composes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirian, J.; Choquet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Collection of bibliographical references on plutonium and its principal compounds from 1942 to end of 1957. (author) [French] Compilation de references bibliographiques sur le plutonium et ses principaux composes de 1942 a fin 1957. (auteur)

  1. Surprising coordination for plutonium in the first plutonium(III) borate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2011-03-21

    The first plutonium(III) borate, Pu(2)[B(12)O(18)(OH)(4)Br(2)(H(2)O)(3)]·0.5H(2)O, has been prepared by reacting plutonium(III) with molten boric acid under strictly anaerobic conditions. This compound contains a three-dimensional polyborate network with triangular holes that house the plutonium(III) sites. The plutonium sites in this compound are 9- and 10-coordinate and display atypical geometries.

  2. Biokinetics of Plutonium in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Deepesh; Guilmette, Raymond A; Gesell, Thomas F; Harris, Jason T; Brey, Richard R

    2016-10-01

    A major source of data on metabolism, excretion and retention of plutonium comes from experimental animal studies. Although old world monkeys are one of the closest living relatives to humans, certain physiological differences do exist between these nonhuman primates and humans. The objective of this paper was to describe the metabolism of plutonium in nonhuman primates using the bioassay and retention data obtained from macaque monkeys injected with plutonium citrate. A biokinetic model for nonhuman primates was developed by adapting the basic model structure and adapting the transfer rates described for metabolism of plutonium in adult humans. Significant changes to the parameters were necessary to explain the shorter retention of plutonium in liver and skeleton of the nonhuman primates, differences in liver to bone partitioning ratio, and significantly higher excretion of plutonium in feces compared to that in humans.

  3. Hydrolysis of trivalent plutonium and solubility of Pu(OH)3 (am) under electrolytic reducing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hye-Ryun; Youn, Young-Sang; Jung, Euo Chang; Cha, Wansik

    2016-12-06

    The aim of this work is to determine the solubility product of plutonium hydroxide under reducing conditions and to ascertain the stability of Pu(OH)3 (am) in water. Hydrolysis of Pu(iii) and solubility of Pu(OH)3 (am) were investigated at a constant ionic strength of 0.1 M NaClO4. Coulometric titration was adopted to adjust the pH of plutonium solutions, during which the electrolytic reducing conditions maintained the oxidation state of Pu(iii). Chemical speciation for dissolved plutonium was investigated using sensitive spectrophotometry coupled with a liquid waveguide capillary cell. The spectroscopic investigations indicated that dissolved Pu(iv), Pu(v), and Pu(vi) species were ignorable under these experimental conditions. The absorbance of Pu(3+) ions decreased due to hydrolysis of Pu(iii) but the absorbance of Pu(iii) hydrolysis species was not distinguishable. The formation constant for the first hydrolysis species (log (*)β'1) determined in the present study is -6.62 ± 0.25. The non-crystalline structure of the plutonium precipitate was observed through X-ray diffraction. The solubility product of Pu(OH)3 (am), log (*)K's,0 is determined to be 15.23 ± 0.50. These results indicate a stronger tendency for the hydrolysis of Pu(iii) and higher stability (lower solubility) of Pu(OH)3 (am) compared to Am(iii).

  4. PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estochen, E.

    2013-03-20

    Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

  5. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  6. METHOD OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM WITH FERROUS IONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, J.L.; Koshland, D.E.; Thompson, S.G.; Willard, J.E.

    1959-10-01

    A process is presented for separating hexavalent plutonium from fission product values. To a nitric acid solution containing the values, ferrous ions are added and the solution is heated and held at elevated temperature to convert the plutonium to the tetravalent state via the trivalent state and the plutonium is then selectively precipitated on a BiPO/sub 4/ or LaF/sub 3/ carrier. The tetravalent plutonium formed is optionally complexed with fluoride, oxalate, or phosphate anion prior to carrier precipitation.

  7. Oxidation-state distribution of plutonium in surface and subsurface waters at Thule, northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMahon, C.A.; Vintró, L.L.; Mitchell, P.I.

    2000-01-01

    chemical form) is present as fully dissolved species. Most of this plutonium would seem to be of weapons fallout origin, as the mean Pu-238/Pu-239,Pu-240 activity ratio in the water column (dissolved phase) at Thule (0.06 +/- 0.02; n = 10) is similar to the global fallout ratio at this latitude......The speciation of plutonium in Arctic waters sampled on the northwest Greenland shelf in August 1997 is discussed in this paper. Specifically, we report the results of analyses carried out on seawater sampled (a) close to the Thule air base where, in 1968, a US military aircraft carrying four......(V, VI) (mean, 68 +/- 6%; n = 6), with little if any distinction apparent between surface and bottom waters. Further, the oxidation state distribution at stations close to the accident site is similar to that measured at Upernavik, remote from this site. It is also similar to the distribution observed...

  8. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2004-11-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  9. Remediation of plutonium-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amos, S.; Coudace, I.; Voss, J

    2005-07-15

    The effectiveness of paramagnetic separation to remove plutonium from soils from the Aldermaston (UK) site has been investigated and reported to the commissioners of the project, AWE plc, and also subsequently at the WM'05 Conference (Tucson, AZ). The results showed that plutonium can be effectively concentrated in soils using magnetic separation and size fractionation. The work also investigated other methods to enhance the separation process. These approaches were: the use of sodium hexametaphosphate (ca. 1% by weight soil) to disperse the clay minerals; roasting to remove organic matter and to oxidise any organically-compIexed plutonium; ultrasonic vibration to break physical bonds between any plutonium oxide and soil particles; leaching of the <75mm fractions with selected reagents to extract plutonium. As a result of this work, engineering concepts are being developed which will enable more than 95% of some of the AWE contaminated soils to be rated for free release. (author)

  10. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Kerry A. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Bellamy, J. Steve [Savannah River National Laboratory; Chandler, Greg T. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Iyer, Natraj C. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Hackney, B. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Leduc, Dan R. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  11. Hazards review for electrolytic dissolver installation, Hood 3, 236-Z Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.D.; Barney, G.S.; Helbling, T.J.; Kofoed, R.J.

    1973-03-13

    A comparison of the hazards involved in the existing process and the electrolytic process for dissolving plutonium metal shows that, in the opinion of the review team, no net increase in hazards will occur by operating the electrolytic dissolvers. This new process eliminates several hazardous operations such as metal burning and PuO/sub 2/ powder handling, and reduces operator time and, therefore, exposure. The new facility can be operated safely provided that the recommendations given previously are implemented.

  12. Colloid Facilitated Transport of Plutonium in Fractured Volcanic Tuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, A. B.; Zhao, P.; Walensky, J. R.; Roberts, S. K.; Johnson, M. R.; Zavarin, M.; Ramon, E. C.

    2004-12-01

    The transport of low-solubility radionuclides in a colloidal- or colloidal bound state is frequently suspected or observed. Groundwater contaminated with radionuclides associated with underground nuclear tests was collected from several different well locations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). In each case, the low-levels of plutonium detected in the groundwater were overwhelmingly (>95percent) associated with the colloidal and not the dissolved fraction of the groundwater. The colloidal fractions consisted of secondary minerals such as clays and zeolites. To better understand the mechanisms controlling the potential colloidal transport of plutonium, colloid-facilitated fracture flow laboratory experiments are being conducted. Pseudocolloids consisting of Pu(IV) sorbed to clinoptilolite were combined with a radionuclide solution cocktail consisting of Np, U, Cs, Sr, Sm and 3H and Re (analog to Tc) tracers in NTS-type synthetic groundwater (4.5mM NaHCO3-). The cocktail was injected into a smooth fracture in a volcanic tuff rock core from the NTS and the effluent analyzed. Autoradiography and secondary ion mass spectrometry will be used to understand the mineral -colloid-radionuclide interactions in the fracture volcanic tuff.

  13. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA {open_quotes}...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...{close_quotes} In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or {open_quotes}white papers.{close_quotes} In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE.

  14. Ceramification: A plutonium immobilization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rask, W.C. [Dept. of Energy, Golden, CO (United States); Phillips, A.G. [Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a low temperature technique for stabilizing and immobilizing actinide compounds using a combination process/storage vessel of stainless steel, in which measured amounts of actinide nitrate solutions and actinide oxides (and/or residues) are systematically treated to yield a solid article. The chemical ceramic process is based on a coating technology that produces rare earth oxide coatings for defense applications involving plutonium. The final product of this application is a solid, coherent actinide oxide with process-generated encapsulation that has long-term environmental stability. Actinide compounds can be stabilized as pure materials for ease of re-use or as intimate mixtures with additives such as rare earth oxides to increase their degree of proliferation resistance. Starting materials for the process can include nitrate solutions, powders, aggregates, sludges, incinerator ashes, and others. Agents such as cerium oxide or zirconium oxide may be added as powders or precursors to enhance the properties of the resulting solid product. Additives may be included to produce a final product suitable for use in nuclear fuel pellet production. The process is simple and reduces the time and expense for stabilizing plutonium compounds. It requires a very low equipment expenditure and can be readily implemented into existing gloveboxes. The process is easily conducted with less associated risk than proposed alternative technologies.

  15. 10 CFR 140.107 - Appendix G-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees processing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... processing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing insurance... § 140.107 Appendix G—Form of indemnity agreement with licensees processing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing insurance policies as proof of...

  16. 10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of... Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.108 Appendix H—Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of...

  17. Plutonium speciation affected by environmental bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neu, M.P.; Icopini, G.A.; Boukhalfa, H. [Chemistry Div., C-SIC, Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Plutonium has no known biological utility, yet it has the potential to interact with bacterial cellular and extracellular structures that contain metal-binding groups, to interfere with the uptake and utilization of essential elements, and to alter cell metabolism. These interactions can transform plutonium from its most common forms, solid, mineral-adsorbed, or colloidal Pu(IV), to a variety of biogeochemical species that have much different physico-chemical properties. Organic acids that are extruded products of cell metabolism can solubilize plutonium and then enhance its environmental mobility, or in some cases facilitate plutonium transfer into cells. Phosphate- and carboxylate-rich polymers associated with cell walls can bind plutonium to form mobile biocolloids or Pu-laden biofilm/mineral solids. Bacterial membranes, proteins or redox agents can produce strongly reducing electrochemical zones and generate molecular Pu(III/IV) species or oxide particles. Alternatively, they can oxidize plutonium to form soluble Pu(V) or Pu(VI) complexes. This paper reviews research on plutonium-bacteria interactions and closely related studies on the biotransformation of uranium and other metals. (orig.)

  18. Determination of thorium in plutonium-thorium oxides and carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, L.F.; Temer, D.J.

    1979-10-01

    Thorium is determined in (PuTh)C and (PuTh)O/sub 2/ by complexometric titration with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) following separation on anion-exchange resin. Carbides are first oxidized by ignition in air at about 800/sup 0/C. Oxide or oxidized carbide samples are dissolved in acids by the sealed-reflux technique or by heating in beakers. The plutonium is selectively sorbed from the 12M hydrochloric acid solution of the fuel on a Bio-Rad AG1-X2 anion-exchange resin column, and the eluted thorium is titrated with EDTA using xylenol orange as the indicator. The average recovery of thorium in 20 samples is 99.98% with a relative standard deviation of 0.07%.

  19. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-04-15

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R&D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R&D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the excellent

  20. Ultra-Small Plutonium Oxide Nanocrystals: An Innovative Material in Plutonium Science

    OpenAIRE

    HUDRY DAMIEN; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Apostolidis, Christos; WALTER OLAF; Janssen, Arne; Manara, Dario; Colineau, Eric; VITOVA T.; Wang, Di; KUEBEL Christian; MEYER D.j.m.

    2013-01-01

    Apart from its sensitive technological importance, plutonium (Pu) is also one of the most intriguing elements because of its non-conventional physical properties and fascinating chemistry. Those fundamental aspects are particularly interesting when dealing with the challenging study of plutonium-based nanomaterials. Here we show that ultra-small (3.2  0.9 nm) and highly crystalline plutonium oxide (PuO2) nanocrystals (NCs) can be synthesized by the thermal decomposition of plutonyl nitrate (...

  1. What is plutonium stabilization, and what is safe storage of plutonium?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1995-06-29

    The end of the cold war has resulted in the shutdown of nuclear weapons production and the start of dismantlement of significant numbers of nuclear weapons. This, in turn, is creating an inventory of plutonium requiring interim and long-term storage. A key question is, ``What is required for safe, multidecade, plutonium storage?`` The requirements for storage, in turn, define what is needed to stabilize the plutonium from its current condition into a form acceptable for interim and long-term storage. Storage requirements determine if research is required to (1) define required technical conditions for interim and long-term storage and (2) develop or improve current stabilization technologies. Storage requirements depend upon technical, policy, and economic factors. The technical issues are complicated by several factors. Plutonium in aerosol form is highly hazardous. Plutonium in water is hazardous. The plutonium inventory is in multiple chemical forms--some of which are chemically reactive. Also, some of the existing storage forms are clearly unsuitable for storage periods over a few years. Gas generation by plutonium compounds complicates storage: (1) all plutonium slowly decays creating gaseous helium and (2) the radiation from plutonium decay can initiate many chemical reactions-some of which generate significant quantities of gases. Gas generation can pressurize sealed storage packages. Last nuclear criticality must be avoided.

  2. Interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunwoody, John T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Richard E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freibert, Franz J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Willson, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veirs, Douglas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Worl, Laura A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Archuleta, Alonso [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conger, Donald J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Long-term storage of excess plutonium is of great concern in the U.S. as well as abroad. The current accepted configuration involves intimate contact between the stored material and an iron-bearing container such as stainless steel. While many safety scenario studies have been conducted and used in the acceptance of stainless steel containers, little information is available on the physical interaction at elevated temperatures between certain forms of stored material and the container itself. The bulk of the safety studies has focused on the ability of a package to keep the primary stainless steel containment below the plutonium-iron eutectic temperature of approximately 410 C. However, the interactions of plutonium metal with stainless steel have been of continuing interest. This paper reports on a scoping study investigating the interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal in a pseudo diffusion couple at temperatures above the eutectic melt-point.

  3. Laboratory Building for Accurate Determination of Plutonium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The accurate determination of plutonium is one of the most important assay techniques of nuclear fuel, also the key of the chemical measurement transfer and the base of the nuclear material balance. An

  4. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  5. Incinerator ash dissolution model for the system: Plutonium, nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E V

    1988-06-01

    This research accomplished two goals. The first was to develop a computer program to simulate a cascade dissolver system. This program would be used to predict the bulk rate of dissolution in incinerator ash. The other goal was to verify the model in a single-stage dissolver system using Dy/sub 2/O/sub 3/. PuO/sub 2/ (and all of the species in the incinerator ash) was assumed to exist as spherical particles. A model was used to calculate the bulk rate of plutonium oxide dissolution using fluoride as a catalyst. Once the bulk rate of PuO/sub 2/ dissolution and the dissolution rate of all soluble species were calculated, mass and energy balances were written. A computer program simulating the cascade dissolver system was then developed. Tests were conducted on a single-stage dissolver. A simulated incinerator ash mixture was made and added to the dissolver. CaF/sub 2/ was added to the mixture as a catalyst. A 9M HNO/sub 3/ solution was pumped into the dissolver system. Samples of the dissolver effluent were analyzed for dissolved and F concentrations. The computer program proved satisfactory in predicting the F concentrations in the dissolver effluent. The experimental sparge air flow rate was predicted to within 5.5%. The experimental percentage of solids dissolved (51.34%) compared favorably to the percentage of incinerator ash dissolved (47%) in previous work. No general conclusions on model verification could be reached. 56 refs., 11 figs., 24 tabs.

  6. Plutonium: The first 50 years. United States plutonium production, acquisition, and utilization from 1944 through 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-02-01

    The report contains important newly declassified information regarding the US production, acquisition, and removals of plutonium. This new information, when combined with previously declassified data, has allowed the DOE to issue, for the first time, a truly comprehensive report on the total DOE plutonium inventory. At the December 7, 1993, Openness Press Conference, the DOE declassified the plutonium inventories at eight locations totaling 33.5 metric tons (MT). This report declassifies the remainder of the DOE plutonium inventory. Newly declassified in this report is the quantity of plutonium at the Pantex Site, near Amarillo, Texas, and in the US nuclear weapons stockpile of 66.1 MT, which, when added to the previously released inventory of 33.5 MT, yields a total plutonium inventory of 99.5 MT. This report will document the sources which built up the plutonium inventory as well as the transactions which have removed plutonium from that inventory. This report identifies four sources that add plutonium to the DOE/DoD inventory, and seven types of transactions which remove plutonium from the DOE/DoD inventory. This report also discusses the nuclear material control and accountability system which records all nuclear material transactions, compares records with inventory and calculates material balances, and analyzes differences to verify that nuclear materials are in quantities as reported. The DOE believes that this report will aid in discussions in plutonium storage, safety, and security with stakeholders as well as encourage other nations to declassify and release similar data. These data will also be available for formulating policies with respect to disposition of excess nuclear materials. The information in this report is based on the evaluation of available records. The information contained in this report may be updated or revised in the future should additional or more detailed data become available.

  7. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE`s independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91.

  8. A vision for environmentally conscious plutonium processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avens, L.R.; Eller, P.G.; Christensen, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Nuclear Materials Technology Div.; Miller, W.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering Sciences

    1998-12-31

    Regardless of individual technical and political opinions about the uses of plutonium, it is virtually certain that plutonium processing will continue on a significant global scale for many decades for the purposes of national defense, nuclear power and remediation. An unavoidable aspect of plutonium processing is that radioactive contaminated gas, liquid, and solid streams are generated. These streams need to be handled in a manner that is not only in full compliance with today`s laws,but also will be considered environmentally and economically responsible now and in the future. In this regard, it is indeed ironic that the multibillion dollar and multidecade radioactive cleanup mortgage that the US Department of Energy (and its Russian counterpart) now owns resulted from waste management practices that were at the time in full legal compliance. The theme of this paper is that recent dramatic advances in actinide science and technology now make it possible to drastically minimize or even eliminate the problematic waste streams of traditional plutonium processing operations. Advanced technology thereby provides the means to avoid passing on to our children and grandchildren significant environmental and economic legacies that traditional processing inevitably produces. This paper will describe such a vision for plutonium processing that could be implemented fully within five years at a facility such as the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA55). As a significant bonus, even on this short time scale, the initial technology investment is handsomely returned in avoided waste management costs.

  9. A DGT technique for plutonium bioavailability measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusnir, Ruslan; Steinmann, Philipp; Bochud, François; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2014-09-16

    The toxicity of heavy metals in natural waters is strongly dependent on the local chemical environment. Assessing the bioavailability of radionuclides predicts the toxic effects to aquatic biota. The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) is largely exploited for bioavailability measurements of trace metals in waters. However, it has not been applied for plutonium speciation measurements yet. This study investigates the use of DGT technique for plutonium bioavailability measurements in chemically different environments. We used a diffusion cell to determine the diffusion coefficients (D) of plutonium in polyacrylamide (PAM) gel and found D in the range of 2.06-2.29 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1). It ranged between 1.10 and 2.03 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) in the presence of fulvic acid and in natural waters with low DOM. In the presence of 20 ppm of humic acid of an organic-rich soil, plutonium diffusion was hindered by a factor of 5, with a diffusion coefficient of 0.50 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1). We also tested commercially available DGT devices with Chelex resin for plutonium bioavailability measurements in laboratory conditions and the diffusion coefficients agreed with those from the diffusion cell experiments. These findings show that the DGT methodology can be used to investigate the bioaccumulation of the labile plutonium fraction in aquatic biota.

  10. Flowsheet modifications for dissolution of sand, slag, and crucible residues in the F-canyon dissolvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T.S.; Karraker, D.G.; Graham, F.R.

    1997-12-01

    An initial flowsheet for the dissolution of sand, slag, and crucible (SS{ampersand}C) was developed for the F- Canyon dissolvers as an alternative to dissolution in FB-Line. In that flowsheet, the sand fines were separated from the slag chunks and crucible fragments. Those two SS{ampersand}C streams were packaged separately in mild-steel cans for dissolution in the 6.4D dissolver. Nuclear safety constraints limited the dissolver charge to approximately 350 grams of plutonium in two of the three wells of the dissolver insert and required 0.23M (molar) boron as a soluble neutron poison in the 9.3M nitric acid/0.013M fluoride dissolver solution. During the first dissolution of SS{ampersand}C fines, it became apparent that a significant amount of the plutonium charged to the 6.4D dissolver did not dissolve in the time predicted by previous laboratory experiments. The extended dissolution time was attributed to fluoride complexation by boron. An extensive research and development (R{ampersand}D) program was initiated to investigate the dissolution chemistry and the physical configuration of the dissolver insert to understand what flowsheet modifications were needed to achieve a viable dissolution process.

  11. Standard test method for quantitative determination of americium 241 in plutonium by Gamma-Ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of americium 241 by gamma-ray spectrometry in plutonium nitrate solution samples that do not contain significant amounts of radioactive fission products or other high specific activity gamma-ray emitters. 1.2 This test method can be used to determine the americium 241 in samples of plutonium metal, oxide and other solid forms, when the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Plutonium behavior during the early diagenesis of marine sediments: applications to two marine environments labelled by radionuclides released from reprocessing plants; Etude du comportement du plutonium au cours de la diagenese precoce des sediments marins: applications a deux environnements marins marques par les rejets issus d'usines de retraitement de combustibles uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouzy, A

    2004-12-15

    The plutonium released into the English Channel and the Irish Sea by nuclear fuel reprocessing plants is mainly associated to sediments. Nevertheless, this association is partially reversible. This work combines a field study, carried out on the Cumbrian mud patch and the Esk estuary (Eastern Irish Sea), and laboratory experiments performed on carbonaceous coarse-grained sediments collected in the Central Channel. It presents new data on the plutonium solid partition in sediments and suggests realistic scenarios for describing its release from sediments to the water column. The role of reactive sulphides acting as temporary sink phases is shown in anoxic sediments; those sulphides are liable to release dissolved plutonium upon their oxidation. The plutonium is also bound to carbonates within the carbonaceous matrix and as carbonate surface complexes. Conceptual schemes of the behaviour of the plutonium in marine sediments are proposed; they highlight the strong remobilization potential of plutonium from marine sediments to the interstitial water. Its plutonium content can be injected into the overlying water column. (author)

  13. Nonreversible immobilization of water-borne plutonium onto self-assembled adlayers of silanized humic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbina, Natalia S; Kalmykov, Stepan S; Karpiouk, Leonid A; Ponomarenko, Sergey A; Hatfield, Kirk; Haire, Richard; Perminova, Irina V

    2014-02-18

    The objective was to study plutonium partitioning between immobile and mobile humic materials at the water-solid interfaces. Immobilization of the humic materials on solid supports was performed in situ using self-adhesive silanized humic derivatives. The presence of the humic adlayers on solid supports was shown to significantly enhance Pu sorption and its retention under both steady state and dynamic conditions. While plutonium may exist in multiple oxidations states plus colloidal forms, the major thrust in this work was to study the behavior of most mobile--the PuO2(+) form in dilute solutions. The values of the plutonium partition coefficients (Kd) between water and humics-coated silica gels after 10 days exposure reached 1.6 × 10(4) L · kg(-1) at pH 7.5 under anaerobic conditions with a total plutonium concentration of 1.2 × 10(-8) M exceeding those for the uncoated SiO2 (6.3 × 10(2) L · kg(-1)). Column tests showed substantial sequestration of water-borne plutonium (up to 73%) on the humics-coated silica gels. Remobilization experiments conducted under batch conditions at different pH values (3.5, 4.5, 7.5) showed that no more than 3% of the sequestered Pu was remobilized from the humics-coated silica gels by treatment with dissolved humic materials at environmentally relevant pH of 7.5. Consequently, silanized humic materialas can be seen as both molecular probes and as potent candidate materials for scavenging mobile Pu from an aqueous phase.

  14. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or

  15. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL USING NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS CONTAINING POTASSIUM FLUORIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T.; Crowder, M.; Bronikowski, M.

    2007-10-15

    The deinventory and deactivation of the Savannah River Site's (SRS's) FB-Line facility required the disposition of approximately 2000 items from the facility's vaults. Plutonium (Pu) scraps and residues which do not meet criteria for conversion to a mixed oxide fuel will be dissolved and the solution stored for subsequent disposition. Some of the items scheduled for dissolution are composite materials containing Pu and tantalum (Ta) metals. The preferred approach for handling this material is to dissolve the Pu metal, rinse the Ta metal with water to remove residual acid, and burn the Ta metal. The use of a 4 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solution containing 0.2 M potassium fluoride (KF) was initially recommended for the dissolution of approximately 500 g of Pu metal. However, prior to the use of the flowsheet in the SRS facility, a new processing plan was proposed in which the feed to the dissolver could contain up to 1250 g of Pu metal. To evaluate the use of a larger batch size and subsequent issues associated with the precipitation of plutonium-containing solids from the dissolving solution, scaled experiments were performed using Pu metal and samples of the composite material. In the initial experiment, incomplete dissolution of a Pu metal sample demonstrated that a 1250 g batch size was not feasible in the HB-Line dissolver. Approximately 45% of the Pu was solubilized in 4 h. The remaining Pu metal was converted to plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Based on this work, the dissolution of 500 g of Pu metal using a 4-6 h cycle time was recommended for the HB-Line facility. Three dissolution experiments were subsequently performed using samples of the Pu/Ta composite material to demonstrate conditions which reduced the risk of precipitating a double fluoride salt containing Pu and K from the dissolving solution. In these experiments, the KF concentration was reduced from 0.2 M to either 0.15 or 0.175 M. With the use of 4 M HNO{sub 3} and a reduction in

  16. Effect of compositional variation in plutonium on process shielding design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.H.

    1997-11-01

    Radiation dose rate from plutonium with high {sup 239}Pu content varies with initial nuclidic content, radioactive decay time, and impurity elemental content. The two idealized states of old plutonium and clean plutonium, whose initial compositions are given, provide approximate upper and lower bounds on dose rate variation. Whole-body dose rates were calculated for the two composition states, using unshielded and shielded plutonium spheres of varying density. The dose rates from these variable density spheres are similar to those from expanded plutonium configurations encountered during processing. The dose location of 40 cm from the sphere center is representative of operator standoff for direct handling of plutonium inside a glove box. The results have shielding implications for glove boxes with only structurally inherent shielding, especially for processing of old plutonium in an expanded configuration. Further reduction in total dose rate by using lead to reduce photon dose rate is shown for two density cases representing compact and expanded plutonium configurations.

  17. Evidence of plutonium bioavailability in pristine freshwaters of a karst system of the Swiss Jura Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusnir, Ruslan; Christl, Marcus; Steinmann, Philipp; Bochud, François; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2017-06-01

    The interaction of trace environmental plutonium with dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) plays an important role on its mobility and bioavailability in freshwater environments. Here we explore the speciation and biogeochemical behavior of Pu in freshwaters of the karst system in the Swiss Jura Mountains. Chemical extraction and ultrafiltration methods were complemented by diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) to measure the dissolved and bioavailable Pu fraction in water. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was used to accurately determine Pu in this pristine environment. Selective adsorption of Pu (III, IV) on silica gel showed that 88% of Pu in the mineral water is found in +V oxidation state, possibly in a highly soluble [PuO2+(CO3)n]m- form. Ultrafiltration experiments at 10 kDa yielded a similar fraction of colloid-bound Pu in the organic-rich and in mineral water (18-25%). We also found that the concentrations of Pu measured by DGT in mineral water are similar to the bulk concentration, suggesting that dissolved Pu is readily available for biouptake. Sequential elution (SE) of Pu from aquatic plants revealed important co-precipitation of potentially labile Pu (60-75%) with calcite fraction within outer compartment of the plants. Hence, we suggest that plutonium is fully available for biological uptake in both mineral and organic-rich karstic freshwaters.

  18. Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALena Paulenova; George F. Vandegrift, III; Kenneth R. Czerwinski

    2009-10-01

    The project "Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes” is led by Dr. Alena Paulenova of Oregon State University under collaboration with Dr. George Vandegrift of ANL and Dr. Ken Czerwinski of the University of Nevada at Las Vegas. The objective of the project is to examine the chemical speciation of plutonium in UREX+ (uranium/tributylphosphate) extraction processes for advanced fuel technology. Researchers will analyze the change in speciation using existing thermodynamics and kinetic computer codes to examine the speciation of plutonium in aqueous and organic phases. They will examine the different oxidation states of plutonium to find the relative distribution between the aqueous and organic phases under various conditions such as different concentrations of nitric acid, total nitrates, or actinide ions. They will also utilize techniques such as X-ray absorbance spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering for determining plutonium and uranium speciation in all separation stages. The project started in April 2005 and is scheduled for completion in March 2008.

  19. Fused salt processing of impure plutonium dioxide to high-purity plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.; Babcock, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    A process for converting impure plutonium dioxide (approx. 96% pure) to high-purity plutonium metal (>99.9%) was developed. The process consists of reducing the oxide to an impure plutonium metal intermediate with calcium metal in molten calcium chloride. The impure intermediate metal is cast into an anode and electrorefined to produce high-purity plutonium metal. The oxide reduction step is being done now on a 0.6-kg scale with the resulting yield being >99.5%. The electrorefining is being done on a 4.0-kg scale with the resulting yield being 80 to 85%. The purity of the product, which averages 99.98%, is essentially insensitive to the purity of the feed metal. The yield, however, is directly dependent on the chemical composition of the feed. To date, approximately 250 kg of impure oxide has been converted to pure metal by this processing sequence. The availability of impure plutonium dioxide, together with the need for pure plutonium metal, makes this sequence a valuable plutonium processing tool.

  20. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  1. Preparation of a glovebox for casting enriched plutonium.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronquillo, R. D. (Richard D.); Trujillo, C. M. (Chris M.); Trujillo, C. C. (Claudette C.)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Prepare existing glovebox for casting, heat treating and storing enriched plutonium, Upgrade seismic systems to reduce dispersion hazard, Upgrade atmospheric systems to reduce oxidation of plutonium, Upgrade vacuum system to prevent oxidation, InstalI/upgrade induction heating systems to melt plutonium and heat mold

  2. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  3. The United States Plutonium Balance, 1944 - 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-06-01

    This report updates the report -Plutonium: The first 50 years- which was released by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) in 1996. The topic of both reports is plutonium, sometimes referred to as Pu-239, which is capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction and is used in nuclear weapons and for nuclear power production. This report updates 1994 data through 2009. The four most significant changes since 1994 include: (a) the completion of cleanup activities at the Rocky Flats Plant in 2005; (b) material consolidation and disposition activities, especially shipments from Hanford to the Savannah River Site; (c) the 2007 declaration of an additional 9.0 MT of weapons grade plutonium to be surplus to defense needs in the coming decades; and (d) the opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico in 1999.

  4. Excess plutonium disposition using ALWR technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, A. (ed.); Buckner, M.R.; Radder, J.A.; Angelos, J.G.; Inhaber, H.

    1993-02-01

    The Office of Nuclear Energy of the Department of Energy chartered the Plutonium Disposition Task Force in August 1992. The Task Force was created to assess the range of practicable means of disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. Within the Task Force, working groups were formed to consider: (1) storage, (2) disposal,and(3) fission options for this disposition,and a separate group to evaluate nonproliferation concerns of each of the alternatives. As a member of the Fission Working Group, the Savannah River Technology Center acted as a sponsor for light water reactor (LWR) technology. The information contained in this report details the submittal that was made to the Fission Working Group of the technical assessment of LWR technology for plutonium disposition. The following aspects were considered: (1) proliferation issues, (2) technical feasibility, (3) technical availability, (4) economics, (5) regulatory issues, and (6) political acceptance.

  5. Use of plutonium in PWR-type reactors; Utilisation du plutonium dans les REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthet, A. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Direction de l' Equipement

    1999-04-01

    The plutonium is used, as fuel, in the pressurized water reactors. It does not exist in nature; butit is fabricated in the reactor by neutrons capture. The MOX (Mixed Oxides) is its usual name. A part is consumed by the fission, the remainder is found in the used fuel released from the reactor. The paper deals with the plutonium specificities, the research and development programs about this fuel. The technical specifications of the PWR recycling the plutonium are also included (radiation protection, reactor fueling). (A.L.B.)

  6. Alternating layers of plutonium and lead or indium as surrogate for plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, Sven P, E-mail: srudin@lanl.gov [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Elemental plutonium (Pu) assumes more crystal structures than other elements, plausibly due to bonding f electrons becoming non-bonding. Complex geometries hamper understanding of the transition in Pu, but calculations predict this transition in a system with simpler geometry: alternating layers either of plutonium and lead or of plutonium and indium. Here the transition occurs via a pairing-up of atoms within Pu layers. Calculations stepping through this pairing-up reveal valuable details of the transition, for example that the transition from bonding to non-bonding proceeds smoothly.

  7. Alternating layers of plutonium and lead or indium as surrogate for plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, Sven Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Elemental plutonium (Pu) assumes more crystal structures than other elements, plausibly due to bonding f electrons becoming non-bonding. Complex geometries hamper understanding of the transition in Pu, but calculations predict this transition in a system with simpler geometry: alternating layers either of plutonium and lead or of plutonium and indium. Here the transition occurs via a pairing-up of atoms within Pu layers. Calculations stepping through this pairing-up reveal valuable details of the transition, for example that the transition from bonding to non-bonding proceeds smoothly.

  8. REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P.

    2009-11-12

    A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles (<15 {micro}m), moderately sized particles (15 < x < 250 {micro}m) and large particles (> 250 {micro}m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for

  9. Plutonium transport in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Annie B

    2013-04-01

    The recent estimated global stockpile of separated plutonium (Pu) worldwide is about 500 t, with equal contributions from nuclear weapons and civilian nuclear energy. Independent of the United States' future nuclear energy policy, the current large and increasing stockpile of Pu needs to be safely isolated from the biosphere and stored for thousands of years. Recent laboratory and field studies have demonstrated the ability of colloids (1-1000 nm particles) to facilitate the migration of strongly sorbing contaminants such as Pu. In understanding the dominant processes that may facilitate the transport of Pu, the initial source chemistry and groundwater chemistry are important factors, as no one process can explain all the different field observations of Pu transport. Very little is known about the molecular-scale geochemical and biochemical mechanisms controlling Pu transport, leaving our conceptual model incomplete. Equally uncertain are the conditions that inhibit the cycling and mobility of Pu in the subsurface. Without a better mechanistic understanding for Pu at the molecular level, we cannot advance our ability to model its transport behavior and achieve confidence in predicting long-term transport. Without a conceptual model that can successfully predict long-term Pu behavior and ultimately isolation from the biosphere, the public will remain skeptical that nuclear energy is a viable and an attractive alternative to counter global warming effects of carbon-based energy alternatives. This review summarizes our current understanding of the relevant conditions and processes controlling the behavior of Pu in the environment, gaps in our scientific knowledge, and future research needs.

  10. Waste measurements at a plutonium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Solid plutonium contaminated wastes are often highly heterogeneous, span a wide range of chemical compositions and matrix types, and are packaged in a variety of container sizes. NDA analysis of this waste depends on operator knowledge of these parameters so that proper segregation, instrument selection, quality assurance, and uncertainty estimation can take place. This report describes current waste measurement practices and uncertainty estimates at a US plutonium scrap recovery facility and presents a program for determining reproducibility and bias in NDA measurements. Following this, an operator's perspective on desirable NDA upgrades is offered.

  11. Diffusion in the uranium - plutonium system and self-diffusion of plutonium in epsilon phase; Diffusion dans le systeme uranium-plutonium et autodiffusion du plutonium epsilon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuy, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    A survey of uranium-plutonium phase diagram leads to confirm anglo-saxon results about the plutonium solubility in {alpha} uranium (15 per cent at 565 C) and the uranium one in {zeta} phase (74 per cent at 565 C). Interdiffusion coefficients, for concentration lower than 15 per cent had been determined in a temperature range from 410 C to 640 C. They vary between 0.2 and 6 10{sup 12} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, and the activation energy between 13 and 20 kcal/mole. Grain boundary, diffusion of plutonium in a uranium had been pointed out by micrography, X-ray microanalysis and {alpha} autoradiography. Self-diffusion of plutonium in {epsilon} phase (bcc) obeys Arrhenius law: D = 2. 10{sup -2} exp -(18500)/RT. But this activation energy does not follow empirical laws generally accepted for other metals. It has analogies with 'anomalous' bcc metals ({beta}Zr, {beta}Ti, {beta}Hf, U{sub {gamma}}). (author) [French] Une etude du diagramme d'equilibre uranium-plutonium conduit a confirmer les resultats anglo-saxons relatifs a la solubilite du plutonium dans l'uranium {alpha} (15 pour cent a 565 C) et de l'uranium dans la phase {zeta} (74 pour cent a 565 C). Les coefficients de diffusion chimique, pour des concentrations inferieures a 15 pour cent ont ete determines a des temperatures comprises entre 410 et 640 C. Ils se situent entre 0.2 et 6. 10{sup 12} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. L'energie d'activation varie entre 13 et 20 kcal/mole. La diffusion intergranulaire du plutonium dans l'uranium a a ete mise en evidence par micrographie, microanalyse X et autoradiographie {alpha}. L' autodiffusion du plutonium {beta} cubique centree obeit a la loi d'Arrhenius D = 2. 10{sup -2} exp - (18500)/RT. Son energie d'activation n'obeit pas aux lois empiriques generalement admises pour les autres metaux. Elle possede des analogies avec les cubiques centres ''anormaux'' (Zr{beta}, Ti{beta}, Hf{beta}, U{gamma}). (auteur)

  12. Measurement of Plutonium Isotopic Composition - MGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Duc Ta [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-21

    In this module, we will use the Canberra InSpector-2000 Multichannel Analyzer with a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) and the MGA isotopic anlysis software to assay a variety of plutonium samples. The module provides an understanding of the MGA method, its attributes and limitations. You will assess the system performance by measuring a range of materials similar to those you may assay in your work. During the final verification exercise, the results from MGA will be combined with the 240Pueff results from neutron coincidence or multiplicity counters so that measurements of the plutonium mass can be compared with the operator-declared (certified) values.

  13. Using magnetization measurements to detect small amounts of plutonium hydride formation in plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Wook [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Mielke, Charles H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zapf, Vivien [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baiardo, Joseph P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Richmond, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mun, Eun D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Alice Iulia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-20

    We report the formation of plutonium hydride in 2 at % Ga-stabilized δ-Pu, with 1 atomic % H charging. We show that magnetization measurements are a sensitive, quantitative measure of ferromagnetic plutonium hydride against the nonmagnetic background of plutonium. It was previously shown that at low hydrogen concentrations, hydrogen forms super-abundant vacancy complexes with plutonium, resulting in a bulk lattice contraction. Here we use magnetization, X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements to show that in addition to forming vacancy complexes, at least 30% of the H atoms bond with Pu to precipitate PuHx, largely on the surface of the sample with x ~ 1.9. We observe magnetic hysteresis loops below 40 K with magnetic remanence, consistent with precipitates of ferromagnetic PuH1.9.

  14. Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition: Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L J; Borisov, G B

    2004-07-21

    A fifth annual Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition meeting organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was held February 16-18, 2004, at the State Education Center (SEC), 4 Aerodromnya Drive, St. Petersburg, Russia. The meeting discussed Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition topics for which LLNL has the US Technical Lead Organization responsibilities. The technical areas discussed included Radioactive Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal, Plutonium Oxide and Plutonium Metal Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation. The meeting was conducted with a conference format using technical presentations of papers with simultaneous translation into English and Russian. There were 46 Russian attendees from 14 different Russian organizations and six non-Russian attendees, four from the US and two from France. Forty technical presentations were made. The meeting agenda is given in Appendix B and the attendance list is in Appendix C.

  15. A Distributed Activation Energy Model of Thermodynamically Inhibited Nucleation and Growth Reactions and its Application to the beta-delta Phase Transition of HMX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A K; Weese, R K; Weeks, B L

    2004-06-18

    Detailed and global models are presented for thermodynamically inhibited nucleation-growth reactions and applied to the {beta}-{delta} Phase Transition of HMX (nitramine octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine). The detailed model contains separate kinetic parameters for the nucleation process, including an activation energy distribution resulting from a distribution of defect energies, and for movement of the resulting reaction interface within a single particle. A thermodynamic inhibition term is added to both processes so that the rates go to zero at the transition temperature. The global model adds the thermodynamic inhibition term to the extended Prout-Tompkins nucleation-growth formalism for single particles or powders. Model parameters are calibrated from differential scanning calorimetry data. The activation energy for nucleation (333 kJ/mol) is substantially higher than that for growth (29.3 kJ/mol). Use of a small activation energy distribution ({approx}400 J/mol) for the defects improves the fit to a powered sample for both the early and late stages of the transition. The effective overall activation energy for the global model (208.8 kJ/mol) is in between that of nucleation and growth. Comparison of the two models with experiment indicates the thermodynamic inhibition term is more important than the energy distribution feature for this transition. Based on the applicability of the Prout-Tompkins kinetics approach to a wide range of organic and inorganic materials, both models should have equally broad applicability for thermodynamically constrained reactions.

  16. The interaction of Desulfovibrio aespoeensis DSM 10631{sup T} with plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moll, H.; Merroun, M.L.; Hennig, C.; Rossberg, A.; Selenska-Pobell, S.; Bernhard, G. [Inst. fuer Radiochemie, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Microbes are widely distributed in nature and they can strongly influence the migration of actinides in the environment. This investigation describes the interaction of plutonium in mixed oxidation states (Pu(VI) and Pu(IV)-polymers) with cells of the sulfate-reducing bacterial (SRB) strain Desulfovibrio aespoeensis DSM 10631{sup T}, which frequently occurs in the deep granitic rock aquifers at the AespoeHard Rock Laboratory (AespoeHRL), Sweden. In this study, accumulation experiments were performed in order to obtain information about the amount of Pu bound by the bacteria in dependence on the contact time and the initial plutonium concentration. We used solvent extractions, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy to determine the speciation of Pu oxidation states. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was used to study the coordination of the Pu bound by the bacteria. In the first step, the Pu(VI) and Pu(IV)-polymers are bound to the biomass. Solvent extractions showed that 97% of the initially present Pu(VI) is reduced to Pu(V) due to the activity of the cells within the first 24 h of contact time. Most of the formed Pu(V) dissolves from the cell envelope back to the aqueous solution due to the weak complexing properties of this plutonium oxidation state. Indications were found for a penetration of Pu species inside the bacterial cells. (orig.)

  17. Standard test method for radiochemical determination of plutonium in Soil by alpha spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of plutonium in soils at levels of detection dependent on count time, sample size, detector, background, and tracer yield. This test method describes one acceptable approach to the determination of plutonium in soil. 1.2 This test method is designed for 10 g of soil, previously collected and treated as described in Practices C998 and C999, but sample sizes up to 50 g may be analyzed by this test method. This test method may not be able to completely dissolve all forms of plutonium in the soil matrix. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazard statements are given in Section 9.

  18. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S. [and others

    1993-06-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This report was prepared for the NAS to document the gathered information and results from the requested option evaluations. Evaluations were performed for 12 plutonium disposition options involving five reactor and one accelerator-based systems. Each option was evaluated in four technical areas: (1) fuel status, (2) reactor or accelerator-based system status, (3) waste-processing status, and (4) waste disposal status. Based on these evaluations, each concept was rated on its operational capability and time to deployment. A third rating category of option costs could not be performed because of the unavailability of adequate information from the concept sponsors. The four options achieving the highest rating, in alphabetical order, are the Advanced Light Water Reactor with plutonium-based ternary fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with plutonium-based fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with uranium-plutonium-based fuel, and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor with plutonium-based fuel. Of these four options, the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor do not propose reprocessing of their irradiated fuel. Time constraints and lack of detailed information did not allow for any further ratings among these four options. The INEL recommends these four options be investigated further to determine the optimum reactor design for plutonium disposition.

  19. Design-Only Conceptual Design Report: Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A.; Loftus, D.

    1999-01-01

    This design-only conceptual design report was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition for engineering and design of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will be used to immobilize up to 50 tonnes of surplus plutonium. The siting for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant will be determined pursuant to the site-specific Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement in a Plutonium Deposition Record of Decision in early 1999. This document reflects a new facility using the preferred technology (ceramic immobilization using the can-in-canister approach) and the preferred site (at Savannah River). The Plutonium Immobilization Plant accepts plutonium from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into mineral-like forms that are subsequently encapsulated within a large canister of high-level waste glass. The final immobilized product must make the plutonium as inherently unattractive and inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors and must be suitable for geologic disposal. Plutonium immobilization at the Savannah River Site uses: (1) A new building, the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will convert non-pit surplus plutonium to an oxide form suitable for the immobilization process, immobilize plutonium in a titanate-based ceramic form, place cans of the plutonium-ceramic forms into magazines, and load the magazines into a canister; (2) The existing Defense Waste Processing Facility for the pouring of high-level waste glass into the canisters; and (3) The Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility to receive and store feed materials. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant uses existing Savannah River Site infra-structure for analytical laboratory services, waste handling, fire protection, training, and other support utilities and services. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant

  20. Plutonium isotope ratio variations in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; La Mont, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eisele, William F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fresquez, Philip R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Naughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-14

    Historically, approximately 12,000 TBq of plutonium was distributed throughout the global biosphere by thermo nuclear weapons testing. The resultant global plutonium fallout is a complex mixture whose {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio is a function of the design and yield of the devices tested. The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in global fallout is 0.176 + 014. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio at any location may differ significantly from 0.176. Plutonium has also been released by discharges and accidents associated with the commercial and weapons related nuclear industries. At many locations contributions from this plutonium significantly alters the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios from those observed in global fallout. We have measured the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in environmental samples collected from many locations in North America. This presentation will summarize the analytical results from these measurements. Special emphasis will be placed on interpretation of the significance of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios measured in environmental samples collected in the Arctic and in the western portions of the United States.

  1. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  2. Electrochemically Modulated Separation for Plutonium Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Sandra H.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2013-12-31

    Accurate and timely analysis of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel is critical in nuclear safeguards for detection of both protracted and rapid plutonium diversions. Gamma spectroscopy is a viable method for accurate and timely measurements of plutonium provided that the plutonium is well separated from the interfering fission and activation products present in spent nuclear fuel. Electrochemically modulated separation (EMS) is a method that has been used successfully to isolate picogram amounts of Pu from nitric acid matrices. With EMS, Pu adsorption may be turned "on" and "off" depending on the applied voltage, allowing for collection and stripping of Pu without the addition of chemical reagents. In this work, we have scaled up the EMS process to isolate microgram quantities of Pu from matrices encountered in spent nuclear fuel during reprocessing. Several challenges have been addressed including surface area limitations, radiolysis effects, electrochemical cell performance stability, and chemical interferences. After these challenges were resolved, 6 µg Pu was deposited in the electrochemical cell with approximately an 800-fold reduction of fission and activation product levels from a spent nuclear fuel sample. Modeling showed that these levels of Pu collection and interference reduction may not be sufficient for Pu detection by gamma spectroscopy. The main remaining challenges are to achieve a more complete Pu isolation and to deposit larger quantities of Pu for successful gamma analysis of Pu. If gamma analyses of Pu are successful, EMS will allow for accurate and timely on-site analysis for enhanced Pu safeguards.

  3. Overview of surplus weapons plutonium disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy, G.

    1996-05-01

    The safe disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium is a very important and urgent task. While the functions of long term storage and disposition directly relate to the Department`s weapons program and the environmental management program, the focus of this effort is particularly national security and nonproliferation.

  4. Electrochemical studies on plutonium in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourges, G. [CEA-Centre d' etudes de Valduc, 21 120 Is sur Tille (France)], E-mail: gilles.bourges@cea.fr; Lambertin, D.; Rochefort, S. [CEA-Centre d' etudes de Valduc, 21 120 Is sur Tille (France); Delpech, S.; Picard, G. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Chimie Analytique (UMR7575, CNRS), ENSCP, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris (France)

    2007-10-11

    Electrochemical studies on plutonium have been supporting the development of pyrochemical processes involving plutonium at CEA. The electrochemical properties of plutonium have been studied in molten salts - ternary eutectic mixture NaCl-KCl-BaCl{sub 2}, equimolar mixture NaCl-KCl and pure CaCl{sub 2} - and in liquid gallium at 1073 K. The formal, or apparent, standard potential of Pu(III)/Pu redox couple in eutectic mixture of NaCl-KCl-BaCl{sub 2} at 1073 K determined by potentiometry is equal to -2.56 V (versus Cl{sub 2}, 1 atm/Cl{sup -} reference electrode). In NaCl-KCl eutectic mixture and in pure CaCl{sub 2} the formal standard potentials deduced from cyclic voltammetry are respectively -2.54 V and -2.51 V. These potentials led to the calculation of the activity coefficients of Pu(III) in the molten salts. Chronoamperometry on plutonium in liquid gallium using molten chlorides - CaCl{sub 2} and equimolar NaCl/KCl - led to the determination of the activity coefficient of Pu in liquid Ga, log {gamma} = -7.3. This new data is a key parameter to assess the thermodynamic feasibility of a process using gallium as solvent metal. By comparing gallium with other solvent metals - cadmium, bismuth, aluminum - gallium appears to be, with aluminum, more favorable for the selectivity of the separation at 1073 K of plutonium from cerium. In fact, compared with a solid tungsten electrode, none of these solvent liquid metals is a real asset for the selectivity of the separation. The role of a solvent liquid metal is mainly to trap the elements.

  5. EVOLUTION OF CHEMICAL CONDITIONS AND ESTIMATED PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN THE RESIDUAL WASTE LAYER DURING POST-CLOSURE AGING OF TANK 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M.

    2012-02-29

    evolution. In Denham (2007, Rev. 1), the solubilities in the oxidized regions were estimated at Eh values in equilibrium with dissolved oxygen. Here, these are considered to be maximum possible solubilities because Eh values are unlikely to be in equilibrium with dissolved oxygen. More realistic Eh values are estimated here and plutonium solubilities calculated at these are considered more realistic. Apparent solubilities of plutonium that coprecipitated with iron phases are estimated from Pu:Fe ratios in Tank 18 residual waste and the solubilities of the host iron phases. The estimated plutonium solubilities are shown. Uncertainties in the grout simulations and plutonium solubility estimates are discussed. The primary uncertainty in the grout simulations is that little is known about the physical state of the grout as it ages. The simulations done here are pertinent to a porous medium, which may or may not be applicable to fractured grout, depending on the degree and nature of the fractures. Other uncertainties that are considered are the assumptions about the reducing capacity imparted by blast furnace slag, the effects of varying dissolved carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations, and the treatment of silica in the simulations. The primary uncertainty in the estimates of plutonium solubility is that little is known about the exact form of plutonium in the residual waste. Other uncertainties include those inherent in the thermodynamic data, pH variations from those estimated in the grout simulations, the effects of the treatment of silica in the grout simulations, and the effect of varying total dissolved carbonate concentrations. The objective of this document is to update the model for solubility controls on release of plutonium from residual waste in closed F-Area waste tanks. The update is based on new information including a new proposed grout formulation, chemical analysis of Tank 18 samples and more current thermodynamic data for plutonium and grout minerals. In

  6. Analytic determination of plutonium in the environment; Determination analytique du plutonium dans l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballada, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The work described in this report was undertaken with a view to determining the plutonium content in the fall-out from nuclear explosions. In the first part are described in turn the importance of the problems due to the plutonium, the physico-chemical properties of the radioelement and the biological dangers which it presents. A detailed and critical analysis is made of the radio-toxicological determination of the plutonium as reported in the literature prior to this report. The second part consists in the presentation of a judicious choice of techniques making it possible to determine plutonium in air, rain-water, soils and ash. After a detailed description of the measurement equipment and the operational techniques which have been developed, a justification of these techniques is given with particular reference to their sensitivity and specificity. After a brief conclusion concerning the preceding chapters, the results are presented. These are then discussed in the ease of each element in which the plutonium has been determined. This discussion is concluded by a consideration of the importance of the occurrence of fall-out plutonium on problems relating to public health. From a consideration of 200 analyses carried out, it is concluded that the contribution of plutonium to the exposure of populations is still very small compared to that of natural radiation and that due to such fission products as strontium 90. The report includes 63 literature references, 26 figures and 11 tables. (author) [French] Les travaux decrits dans ce memoire ont ete entrepris et eflectues dans le but de mettre en evidence le plutonium des retombees radioactives consecutives aux explosions nucleaires. Dans la premiere partie nous etudions successivement l'importance des problemes poses par le plutonium puis les proprietes physicochimiques du radioelement et les dangers qu'il presente du point de vue biologique. Nous effectuons une analyse detaillee et critique des techniques

  7. Plutonium, Mineralogy and Radiation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. C.

    2006-05-01

    During the past fifty years, more than 1,800 metric tonnes of Pu and substantial quantities of other "minor" actinides, such as Np, Am and Cm, have been generated in nuclear reactors. Some of these transuranic elements can be a source of energy in fission reactions (e.g., 239Pu), a source of fissile material for nuclear weapons (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np), or are of environmental concern because of their long half- lives and radiotoxicity (e.g., 239Pu, t1/2 = 24,100 years, and 237Np, t1/2 = 2.1 million years). There are two basic strategies for the disposition of these elements: 1.) to "burn" or transmute the actinides using nuclear reactors or accelerators; 2.) to "sequester" the actinides in chemically durable, radiation-resistant materials that are suitable for geologic disposal. There has been substantial interest in the use of actinide-bearing minerals, such as zircon or isometric pyrochlore, A2B2O7 (A = rare earths; B = Ti, Zr, Sn, Hf; Fd3m; Z=8), for the immobilization of actinides, particularly plutonium. One of the principal concerns has been the accumulation of structural damage caused by alpha-decay events, particularly from the recoil nucleus. Systematic ion beam irradiation studies of rare-earth pyrochlores have led to the discovery that certain compositions (B = Zr, Hf) are stable to very high fluences of alpha-decay event damage. Some compositions, Gd2Ti2O7, are amorphized at relatively low doses (0.2 displacements per atom, dpa, at room temperature), while other compositions, Gd2Zr2O7, do not amorphize (even at doses of > 40 dpa at 25K), but instead disorder to a defect fluorite structure. By changing the composition of the A-site (e.g., substitution of different rare earth elements), the temperature above which the pyrochlore composition can no longer be amorphized, Tc, varies by >600 K (e.g., Lu2Ti2O7: Tc = 480 K; Gd2Ti2O7: Tc = 1120 K). The variation in response to irradiation as a function of composition can be used to model the long

  8. Estimated discard limits for plutonium-238 recovery processing in the plutonium processing building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luthy, D.F.; Bond, W.H.

    1975-03-26

    This manual is intended as a basis for plutonium-238 recovery costs and as a guide for removal of plutonium-bearing wastes from the gloveboxes to be safely and economically discarded. Waste materials contaminated with plutonium-238 are generated from in-house production, analytical, process development, recovery and receipts from off-site. The contaminated materials include paper, rags, alpha-box gloves, piping, valves, filters, etc. General categories for all types of plutonium waste have been established by the ERDA and are reflected in this manual. There are numerous processes used in plutonium recovery, such as dissolution, ultrasonic cleaning, ion exchange, etc. One or more of these processes are needed to extract the plutonium-238 from waste materials, purify it and convert it to an oxide acceptable for reuse. This manual is presented in two parts: Part I gives a breakdown and brief explanation of the direct costs for plutonium-238 I recovery, derived from budget data. Direct costs include direct labor (operating personnel), operational materials and supplies, health physics direct labor, calorimetry labor, analytical labor, and engineering direct labor (total costs for Method I). Budgeted costs for labor and material were used in the derivation of discard limits. The data presented is then used to calculate the cost per hour for recovery, as it applies to the three different methods of calculating discard limits referred to, in this manual, as Method I (calculation stated above), Method II and Method III. The cost for Method II is derived by adding to the cost of Method I, payroll related expenses. Method III is then calculated by adding over-head expenses to the total cost of Method II.

  9. Determination of Trace Plutonium in Uranium Product by ID-ICP-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Plutonium is strictly limited in the uranium product of spent fuel reprocessing. The analysis of plutonium in uranium product is the key point of product quality control. Plutonium concentration is limited below

  10. Anthropogenic plutonium-244 in the environment: Insights into plutonium's longest-lived isotope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Christopher R; Brant, Heather A; Nuessle, Patterson R; Hall, Gregory; Cadieux, James R

    2016-02-22

    Owing to the rich history of heavy element production in the unique high flux reactors that operated at the Savannah River Site, USA (SRS) decades ago, trace quantities of plutonium with highly unique isotopic characteristics still persist today in the SRS terrestrial environment. Development of an effective sampling, processing, and analysis strategy enables detailed monitoring of the SRS environment, revealing plutonium isotopic compositions, e.g., (244)Pu, that reflect the unique legacy of plutonium production at SRS. This work describes the first long-term investigation of anthropogenic (244)Pu occurrence in the environment. Environmental samples, consisting of collected foot borne debris, were taken at SRS over an eleven year period, from 2003 to 2014. Separation and purification of trace plutonium was carried out followed by three stage thermal ionization mass spectrometry (3STIMS) measurements for plutonium isotopic content and isotopic ratios. Significant (244)Pu was measured in all of the years sampled with the highest amount observed in 2003. The (244)Pu content, in femtograms (fg = 10(-15) g) per gram, ranged from 0.31 fg/g to 44 fg/g in years 2006 and 2003 respectively. In all years, the (244)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were significantly higher than global fallout, ranging from 0.003 to 0.698 in years 2014 and 2003 respectively.

  11. Assessment of PWR plutonium burners for nuclear energy centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankel, A J; Shapiro, N L

    1976-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the performance and safety characteristics of PWR plutonium burners, to identify modifications to current PWR designs to enhance plutonium utilization, to study the problems of deploying plutonium burners at Nuclear Energy Centers, and to assess current industrial capability of the design and licensing of such reactors. A plutonium burner is defined to be a reactor which utilizes plutonium as the sole fissile addition to the natural or depleted uranium which comprises the greater part of the fuel mass. The results of the study and the design analyses performed during the development of C-E's System 80 plant indicate that the use of suitably designed plutonium burners at Nuclear Energy Centers is technically feasible.

  12. Pyrochemical investigations into recovering plutonium from americium extraction salt residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fife, K.W.; West, M.H.

    1987-05-01

    Progress into developing a pyrochemical technique for separating and recovering plutonium from spent americium extraction waste salts has concentrated on selective chemical reduction with lanthanum metal and calcium metal and on the solvent extraction of americium with calcium metal. Both techniques are effective for recovering plutonium from the waste salt, although neither appears suitable as a separation technique for recycling a plutonium stream back to mainline purification processes. 17 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Spectrophotometers for plutonium monitoring in HB-line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascola, R. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); O' Rourke, P. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Kyser, E. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Immel, D. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Plummer, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Evans, E. V. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-02-12

    This report describes the equipment, control software, calibrations for total plutonium and plutonium oxidation state, and qualification studies for the instrument. It also provides a detailed description of the uncertainty analysis, which includes source terms associated with plutonium calibration standards, instrument drift, and inter-instrument variability. Also included are work instructions for instrument, flow cell, and optical fiber setup, work instructions for routine maintenance, and drawings and schematic diagrams.

  14. Plutonium stabilization and handling (PuSH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, E.V.

    1997-01-23

    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) addresses construction of a Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) to oxidize and package for long term storage remaining plutonium-bearing special nuclear materials currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), and modification of vault equipment to allow storage of resulting packages of stabilized SNM for up to fifty years. The major sections of the project are: site preparation; SPS Procurement, Installation, and Testing; storage vault modification; and characterization equipment additions. The SPS will be procured as part of a Department of Energy nationwide common procurement. Specific design crit1460eria for the SPS have been extracted from that contract and are contained in an appendix to this document.

  15. CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WITTEKIND WD

    2007-10-03

    This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

  16. Concentration and purification of plutonium or thorium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, John A.; Plock, Carl E.

    1976-01-01

    In this invention a first solution obtained from such as a plutonium/thorium purification process or the like, containing plutonium (Pu) and/or thorium (Th) in such as a low nitric acid (HNO.sub.3) concentration may have the Pu and/or Th separated and concentrated by passing an electrical current from a first solution having disposed therein an anode to a second solution having disposed therein a cathode and separated from the first solution by a cation permeable membrane, the Pu or Th cation permeating the cation membrane and forming an anionic complex within the second solution, and electrical current passage affecting the complex formed to permeate an anion membrane separating the second solution from an adjoining third solution containing disposed therein an anode, thereby effecting separation and concentration of the Pu and/or Th in the third solution.

  17. Dresden 1 plutonium recycle program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresnick, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    This is the final report on the Dresden 1 Plutonium Recycle Demonstration Program. It covers the work performed from July 1, 1978 to completion, which includes in-pool inspection of two fuel assemblies, removal of two fuel rods, and post-irradiation examination (PIE) of six fuel rods. Appendix A describes the inspection and rod removal operations, and Appendix B describes the PIE work.

  18. Geomorphology of plutonium in the Northern Rio Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, W.L. [Arizona Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept., of Geography

    1993-03-01

    Nearly all of the plutonium in the natural environment of the Northern Rio Grande is associated with soils and sediment, and river processes account for most of the mobility of these materials. A composite regional budget for plutonium based on multi-decadal averages for sediment and plutonium movement shows that 90 percent of the plutonium moving into the system is from atmospheric fallout. The remaining 10 percent is from releases at Los Alamos. Annual variation in plutonium flux and storage exceeds 100 percent. The contribution to the plutonium budget from Los Alamos is associated with relatively coarse sediment which often behaves as bedload in the Rio Grande. Infusion of these materials into the main stream were largest in 1951, 1952, 1957, and 1968. Because of the schedule of delivery of plutonium to Los Alamos for experimentation and weapons manufacturing, the latter two years are probably the most important. Although the Los Alamos contribution to the entire plutonium budget was relatively small, in these four critical years it constituted 71--86 percent of the plutonium in bedload immediately downstream from Otowi.

  19. Determination of plutonium temperature using the special trans functions theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perović Slavica M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of estimating plutonium temperature by an iterative procedure based on the special trans functions theory has been studied in some detail. In theory, the differential linear plutonium temperature equation can be effectively reduced to a non-linear functional transcendental equation solvable by special trans functions theory. This approach is practically invariant under the starting plutonium temperature value. This is significant, because the said iterative special trans functions theory does not depend on the password data of the plutonium cargo. Obtained numerical results and graphical simulations confirm the applicability of such approach.

  20. A Plutonium-Contaminated Wound, 1985, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran M. Christensen, DO, REAC/TS Associate Director and Staff Physician Eugene H. Carbaugh, CHP, Staff Scientist, Internal Dosimetry Manager, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2012-02-02

    A hand injury occurred at a U.S. facility in 1985 involving a pointed shaft (similar to a meat thermometer) that a worker was using to remove scrap solid plutonium from a plastic bottle. The worker punctured his right index finger on the palm side at the metacarpal-phalangeal joint. The wound was not through-and- through, although it was deep. The puncture wound resulted in deposition of ~48 kBq of alpha activity from the weapons-grade plutonium mixture with a nominal 12 to 1 Pu-alpha to {sup 241}Am-alpha ratio. This case clearly showed that DTPA was very effective for decorporation of plutonium and americium. The case is a model for management of wounds contaminated with transuranics: (1) a team approach for dealing with all of the issues surrounding the incident, including the psychological, (2) early surgical intervention for foreign-body removal, (3) wound irrigation with DTPA solution, and (4) early and prolonged DTPA administration based upon bioassay and in vivo dosimetry.

  1. Guide to good practices at plutonium facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, L.G.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Carter, L.A.; Endres, G.W.R.; Glenn, R.D.; Jech, J.J.; Selby, J.M.; Smith, R.C.; Waite, D.A.; Walsh, W.P.

    1977-09-01

    This manual establishes guidelines and principles for use in setting up a sound radiation protection program for work with plutonium. The guidance presented is based on the experiences of Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) contractors and those portions of private industry concerned with the operation of plutonium facilities, specifically with the fabrication of mixed oxide reactor fuel. The manual is directed primarily to those facilities which have as their sole purpose the handling of large quantities of plutonium for military or industrial uses. It is not intended for use by facilities engaged in reactor or chemical separation operations nor for partial or occasional use by analytical laboratories; while these facilities would find the manual beneficial, it would be incomplete for their needs. The manual addresses good practices that should be observed by management, staff and designers, since the benefits of a good radiation protection program are the result of their joint efforts. Methods for the diagnostic evaluation of internally deposited Pu are included.

  2. PLUTONIUM METALLIC FUELS FOR FAST REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAN, MARIUS [Los Alamos National Laboratory; HECKER, SIEGFRIED S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-02-07

    Early interest in metallic plutonium fuels for fast reactors led to much research on plutonium alloy systems including binary solid solutions with the addition of aluminum, gallium, or zirconium and low-melting eutectic alloys with iron and nickel or cobalt. There was also interest in ternaries of these elements with plutonium and cerium. The solid solution and eutectic alloys have most unusual properties, including negative thermal expansion in some solid-solution alloys and the highest viscosity known for liquid metals in the Pu-Fe system. Although metallic fuels have many potential advantages over ceramic fuels, the early attempts were unsuccessful because these fuels suffered from high swelling rates during burn up and high smearing densities. The liquid metal fuels experienced excessive corrosion. Subsequent work on higher-melting U-PuZr metallic fuels was much more promising. In light of the recent rebirth of interest in fast reactors, we review some of the key properties of the early fuels and discuss the challenges presented by the ternary alloys.

  3. Plutonium immobilization in glass and ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, D.A. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies, Idaho Falls (United States); Murphy, W.M. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Materials Research Society Nineteenth Annual Symposium on the Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management was held in Boston on November 27 to December 1, 1995. Over 150 papers were presented at the Symposium dealing with all aspects of nuclear waste management and disposal. Fourteen oral sessions and on poster session included a Plenary session on surplus plutonium dispositioning and waste forms. The proceedings, to be published in April, 1996, will provide a highly respected, referred compilation of the state of scientific development in the field of nuclear waste management. This paper provides a brief overview of the selected Symposium papers that are applicable to plutonium immobilization and plutonium waste form performance. Waste forms that were described at the Symposium cover most of the candidate Pu immobilization options under consideration, including borosilicate glass with a melting temperature of 1150 {degrees}C, a higher temperature (1450 {degrees}C) lanthanide glass, single phase ceramics, multi-phase ceramics, and multi-phase crystal-glass composites (glass-ceramics or slags). These Symposium papers selected for this overview provide the current status of the technology in these areas and give references to the relevant literature.

  4. Real-time monitoring of plutonium content in uranium-plutonium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shelly Xiaowei; Westphal, Brian Robert; Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2015-09-01

    A method and device for the real-time, in-situ monitoring of Plutonium content in U--Pu Alloys comprising providing a crucible. The crucible has an interior non-reactive to a metallic U--Pu alloy within said interior of said crucible. The U--Pu alloy comprises metallic uranium and plutonium. The U--Pu alloy is heated to a liquid in an inert or reducing atmosphere. The heated U--Pu alloy is then cooled to a solid in an inert or reducing atmosphere. As the U--Pu alloy is cooled, the temperature of the U--Pu alloy is monitored. A solidification temperature signature is determined from the monitored temperature of the U--Pu alloy during the step of cooling. The amount of Uranium and the amount of Plutonium in the U--Pu alloy is then determined from the determined solidification temperature signature.

  5. Spectrographic analysis of plutonium (1960); L'analyse spectrographique du plutonium (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaud, J.; Chaput, M.; Robichet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Various possibilities for the spectrographic determination of impurities in plutonium are considered. The application of the 'copper spark' method, of sparking on graphite and of fractional distillation in the arc are described and discussed in some detail (apparatus, accessories, results obtained). (author) [French] On examine diverses possibilites pour le dosage spectrographique des impuretes dans le plutonium. On decrit et discute plus particulierement de l'application des methodes 'copper spark', de l'etincelage sur graphite et de la distillation fractionnee dans l'arc (montages, accessoires, resultats obtenus). (auteur)

  6. Treatment process of ion exchange resin contaminated by plutonium. Procede de traitement de resines echangeuses d'ions contaminees par du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woignier, S.

    1994-04-08

    Ion exchange resins are put in suspension in a nitric solution and oxidised by Ag[sup 2+] regenerated continuously by electrolysis during enough time to destroy the resins and dissolve the plutonium. The reaction takes place at temperature from 40 to 80 deg C in an electrolytic cell divided in an anodic part and a cathodic part by a porous wall. Resins are introduced in the anodic part with silver, while nitric acid from 8 to 12 N is introduced continuously in the cathodic part. Acidity excess in the anodic part is neutralized by continuous addition of weak base. An air intake in the cathodic part may there produce the regeneration of nitric acid by reaction with nitrous acid produced by electrolysis. 5 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  7. Chemical Disposition of Plutonium in Hanford Site Tank Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-07

    This report examines the chemical disposition of plutonium (Pu) in Hanford Site tank wastes, by itself and in its observed and potential interactions with the neutron absorbers aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and sodium (Na). Consideration also is given to the interactions of plutonium with uranium (U). No consideration of the disposition of uranium itself as an element with fissile isotopes is considered except tangentially with respect to its interaction as an absorber for plutonium. The report begins with a brief review of Hanford Site plutonium processes, examining the various means used to recover plutonium from irradiated fuel and from scrap, and also examines the intermediate processing of plutonium to prepare useful chemical forms. The paper provides an overview of Hanford tank defined-waste–type compositions and some calculations of the ratios of plutonium to absorber elements in these waste types and in individual waste analyses. These assessments are based on Hanford tank waste inventory data derived from separately published, expert assessments of tank disposal records, process flowsheets, and chemical/radiochemical analyses. This work also investigates the distribution and expected speciation of plutonium in tank waste solution and solid phases. For the solid phases, both pure plutonium compounds and plutonium interactions with absorber elements are considered. These assessments of plutonium chemistry are based largely on analyses of idealized or simulated tank waste or strongly alkaline systems. The very limited information available on plutonium behavior, disposition, and speciation in genuine tank waste also is discussed. The assessments show that plutonium coprecipitates strongly with chromium, iron, manganese and uranium absorbers. Plutonium’s chemical interactions with aluminum, nickel, and sodium are minimal to non-existent. Credit for neutronic interaction of plutonium with these absorbers

  8. Speciation of Dissolved Cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter Engelund; Andersen, Sjur; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    Equilibrium dialysis and ion exchange methods, as well as computer calculations (GEOCHEM), were applied for speciation of dissolved cadmium (Cd) in test solutions and leachate samples. The leachate samples originated from soil, compost, landfill waste and industrial waste. The ion exchange (IE...

  9. Ultra-small plutonium oxide nanocrystals: an innovative material in plutonium science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudry, Damien; Apostolidis, Christos; Walter, Olaf; Janssen, Arne; Manara, Dario; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Colineau, Eric; Vitova, Tonya; Prüssmann, Tim; Wang, Di; Kübel, Christian; Meyer, Daniel

    2014-08-11

    Apart from its technological importance, plutonium (Pu) is also one of the most intriguing elements because of its non-conventional physical properties and fascinating chemistry. Those fundamental aspects are particularly interesting when dealing with the challenging study of plutonium-based nanomaterials. Here we show that ultra-small (3.2±0.9 nm) and highly crystalline plutonium oxide (PuO2 ) nanocrystals (NCs) can be synthesized by the thermal decomposition of plutonyl nitrate ([PuO2 (NO3 )2 ]⋅3 H2 O) in a highly coordinating organic medium. This is the first example reporting on the preparation of significant quantities (several tens of milligrams) of PuO2 NCs, in a controllable and reproducible manner. The structure and magnetic properties of PuO2 NCs have been characterized by a wide variety of techniques (powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), TEM, IR, Raman, UV/Vis spectroscopies, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry). The current PuO2 NCs constitute an innovative material for the study of challenging problems as diverse as the transport behavior of plutonium in the environment or size and shape effects on the physics of transuranium elements.

  10. Fifty years of plutonium exposure to the Mahattan Project plutonium workers: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelz, G.L.; Lawrence, J.N.P.; Johnson, E.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Twenty-six white male workers who did the original plutonium research and development work at Los Alamos have been examined periodically over the past 50 y to identify possible health effects from internal plutonium depositions. Their effective doses range from 0.1 to 7.2 Sv with a median value of 1.25 Sv. As of the end of 1994, 7 individuals have died compared with an expected 16 deaths based on mortality rates of U.S. white males in the general population. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) is 0.43. When compared with 876 unexposed Los Alamos workers of the same period, the plutonium worker`s mortality rate was also not elevated (SMR = 0.77). The 19 living persons have diseases and physical changes characteristic of a male population with a median age of 72 y (range = 69 to 86 y). Eight of the twenty-six workers have been diagnosed as having one or more cancers, which is within the expected range. The underlying cause of death in three of the seven deceased persons was from cancer, namely cancer of prostate, lung, and bone. Mortality from all cancers was not statistically elevated. The effective doses from plutonium to these individuals are compared with current radiation protection guidelines. 28 refs., 5 tabs.

  11. Recommended plutonium release fractions from postulated fires. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogan, V.; Schumacher, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report was written at the request of EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. in support of joint emergency planning for the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) by EG&G and the State of Colorado. The intent of the report is to provide the State of Colorado with an independent assessment of any respirable plutonium releases that might occur in the event of a severe fire at the plant. Fire releases of plutonium are of interest because they have been used by EG&G to determine the RFP emergency planning zones. These zones are based on the maximum credible accident (MCA) described in the RFP Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) of 1980, that MCA is assumed to be a large airplane crashing into a RFP plutonium building.The objective of this report was first, to perform a worldwide literature review of relevant release experiments from 1960 to the present and to summarize those findings, and second, to provide recommendations for application of the experimental data to fire release analyses at Rocky Flats. The latter step requires translation between experimental and expected RFP accident parameters, or ``scaling.`` The parameters of particular concern are: quantities of material, environmental parameters such as the intensity of a fire, and the physico-chemical forms of the plutonium. The latter include plutonium metal, bulk plutonium oxide powder, combustible and noncombustible wastes contaminated with plutonium oxide powder, and residues from plutonium extraction processes.

  12. Plutonium in the Arctic Marine Environment — A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindis Skipperud

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic plutonium has been introduced into the environment over the past 50 years as the result of the detonation of nuclear weapons and operational releases from the nuclear industry. In the Arctic environment, the main source of plutonium is from atmospheric weapons testing, which has resulted in a relatively uniform, underlying global distribution of plutonium. Previous studies of plutonium in the Kara Sea have shown that, at certain sites, other releases have given rise to enhanced local concentrations. Since different plutonium sources are characterised by distinctive plutonium-isotope ratios, evidence of a localised influence can be supported by clear perturbations in the plutonium-isotope ratio fingerprints as compared to the known ratio in global fallout. In Kara Sea sites, such perturbations have been observed as a result of underwater weapons tests at Chernaya Bay, dumped radioactive waste in Novaya Zemlya, and terrestrial runoff from the Ob and Yenisey Rivers. Measurement of the plutonium-isotope ratios offers both a means of identifying the origin of radionuclide contamination and the influence of the various nuclear installations on inputs to the Arctic, as well as a potential method for following the movement of water and sediment loads in the rivers.

  13. Plutonium finishing plant safety systems and equipment list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergquist, G.G.

    1995-01-06

    The Safety Equipment List (SEL) supports Analysis Report (FSAR), WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021 and the Plutonium Finishing Plant Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010. The SEL is a breakdown and classification of all Safety Class 1, 2, and 3 equipment, components, or system at the Plutonium Finishing Plant complex.

  14. Density of Plutonium Turnings Generated from Machining Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, John Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vigil, Duane M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jachimowski, Thomas A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Archuleta, Alonso [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Arellano, Gerald Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Melton, Vince Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-20

    The purpose of this project was to determine the density of plutonium (Pu) turnings generated from the range of machining activities, using both surrogate material and machined Pu turnings. Verify that 500 grams (g) of plutonium will fit in a one quart container using a surrogate equivalent volume and that 100 grams of Pu will fit in a one quart Savy container.

  15. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any form... carrier, require compliance with 49 CFR 175.704, U.S. Department of Transportation regulations applicable... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88...

  16. Development of advanced mixed oxide fuels for plutonium management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, S.; Beard, C.; Buksa, J.; Butt, D.; Chidester, K.; Havrilla, G.; Ramsey, K.

    1997-06-01

    A number of advanced Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel forms are currently being investigated at Los Alamos National Laboratory that have the potential to be effective plutonium management tools. Evolutionary Mixed Oxide (EMOX) fuel is a slight perturbation on standard MOX fuel, but achieves greater plutonium destruction rates by employing a fractional nonfertile component. A pure nonfertile fuel is also being studied. Initial calculations show that the fuel can be utilized in existing light water reactors and tailored to address different plutonium management goals (i.e., stabilization or reduction of plutonium inventories residing in spent nuclear fuel). In parallel, experiments are being performed to determine the feasibility of fabrication of such fuels. Initial EMOX pellets have successfully been fabricated using weapons-grade plutonium.

  17. Pyrochemical recovery of plutonium from calcium fluoride reduction slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, D.C.

    A pyrochemical method of recovering finely dispersed plutonium metal from calcium fluoride reduction slag is claimed. The plutonium-bearing slag is crushed and melted in the presence of at least an equimolar amount of calcium chloride and a few percent metallic calcium. The calcium chloride reduces the melting point and thereby decreases the viscosity of the molten mixture. The calcium reduces any oxidized plutonium in the mixture and also causes the dispersed plutonium metal to coalesce and settle out as a separate metallic phase at the bottom of the reaction vessel. Upon cooling the mixture to room temperature, the solid plutonium can be cleanly separated from the overlying solid slag, with an average recovery yield on the order of 96 percent.

  18. Uncertainties on lung doses from inhaled plutonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncher, Matthew; Birchall, Alan; Bull, Richard K

    2011-10-01

    In a recent epidemiological study, Bayesian uncertainties on lung doses have been calculated to determine lung cancer risk from occupational exposures to plutonium. These calculations used a revised version of the Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) published by the ICRP. In addition to the Bayesian analyses, which give probability distributions of doses, point estimates of doses (single estimates without uncertainty) were also provided for that study using the existing HRTM as it is described in ICRP Publication 66; these are to be used in a preliminary analysis of risk. To infer the differences between the point estimates and Bayesian uncertainty analyses, this paper applies the methodology to former workers of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), who constituted a subset of the study cohort. The resulting probability distributions of lung doses are compared with the point estimates obtained for each worker. It is shown that mean posterior lung doses are around two- to fourfold higher than point estimates and that uncertainties on doses vary over a wide range, greater than two orders of magnitude for some lung tissues. In addition, we demonstrate that uncertainties on the parameter values, rather than the model structure, are largely responsible for these effects. Of these it appears to be the parameters describing absorption from the lungs to blood that have the greatest impact on estimates of lung doses from urine bioassay. Therefore, accurate determination of the chemical form of inhaled plutonium and the absorption parameter values for these materials is important for obtaining reliable estimates of lung doses and hence risk from occupational exposures to plutonium.

  19. Thermal Stability Studies of Candidate Decontamination Agents for Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant Plutonium-Contaminated Gloveboxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, Randall D.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Jones, Susan A.; Ewalt, John R.; Compton, James A.; Trent, Donald S.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.

    2005-09-29

    This report provides the results of PNNL's and Fluor's studies of the thermal stabilities of potential wastes arising from decontamination of Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant's plutonium contaminated gloveboxes. The candidate wastes arising from the decontamination technologies ceric nitrate/nitric acid, RadPro, Glygel, and Aspigel.

  20. Solvent extraction system for plutonium colloids and other oxide nano-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderholm, Lynda; Wilson, Richard E; Chiarizia, Renato; Skanthakumar, Suntharalingam

    2014-06-03

    The invention provides a method for extracting plutonium from spent nuclear fuel, the method comprising supplying plutonium in a first aqueous phase; contacting the plutonium aqueous phase with a mixture of a dielectric and a moiety having a first acidity so as to allow the plutonium to substantially extract into the mixture; and contacting the extracted plutonium with second a aqueous phase, wherein the second aqueous phase has a second acidity higher than the first acidity, so as to allow the extracted plutonium to extract into the second aqueous phase. The invented method facilitates isolation of plutonium polymer without the formation of crud or unwanted emulsions.

  1. Speciation of Dissolved Cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter Engelund; Andersen, Sjur; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    Equilibrium dialysis and ion exchange methods, as well as computer calculations (GEOCHEM), were applied for speciation of dissolved cadmium (Cd) in test solutions and leachate samples. The leachate samples originated from soil, compost, landfill waste and industrial waste. The ion exchange (IE...... leachates showed different Cd speciation patterns as expected. Some leachates were dominated by free divalent Cd (1-70%), some by inorganic complexes (1-87%), and some by organic complexes (7-98%)....

  2. Effect of oxygen and nitrogen impurities on the thermodynamic properties of uranium-plutonium mixed carbide fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibaba, M.; Varamban, S. Vana; Mathews, C. K.

    1987-01-01

    The mixed carbide fuel being developed as an alternative to the mixed oxide to fuel fast breeder reactors consists of uranium-plutonium monocarbide with an admixture of 10-20 vol% of the sesqui-carbide. The monocarbide phase contains oxygen and nitrogen as dissolved impurities. These impurities as well as the sesquicarbide phase affect the performance of the fuel. The quantities of interest in assessing the performance of the fuel are its carbon potential and the partial pressures of carbon monoxide and plutonium. Both carbon potential and CO pressures are important in clad carburisation, the latter being involved in a gas phase carburisation mechanism. In the present study the partial pressures of CO, Pu and N 2 as well as the carbon potential of the fuel have been calculated as a function of plutonium fraction, impurity (O, N) concentration, sesquicarbide content and temperature. Two different caculational methods were used — one based on a set of equilibrium relations between the co-existing phases and the other based on free energy minimisation employing the computer programme SOLGASMIX-PV. The results are presented graphically and trends in the values are discussed.

  3. Separation Of Uranium And Plutonium Isotopes For Measurement By Multi Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinelli, R E; Hamilton, T F; Williams, R W; Kehl, S R

    2009-03-29

    Uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) isotopes in coral soils, contaminated by nuclear weapons testing in the northern Marshall Islands, were isolated by ion-exchange chromatography and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The soil samples were spiked with {sup 233}U and {sup 242}Pu tracers, dissolved in minerals acids, and U and Pu isotopes isolated and purified on commercially available ion-exchange columns. The ion-exchange technique employed a TEVA{reg_sign} column coupled to a UTEVA{reg_sign} column. U and Pu isotope fractions were then further isolated using separate elution schemes, and the purified fractions containing U and Pu isotopes analyzed sequentially using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MCICP-MS). High precision measurements of {sup 234}U/{sup 235}U, {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U, {sup 236}U/{sup 235}U, and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu in soil samples were attained using the described methodology and instrumentation, and provide a basis for conducting more detailed assessments of the behavior and transfer of uranium and plutonium in the environment.

  4. AMS of the Minor Plutonium Isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steier, P; Hrnecek, E; Priller, A; Quinto, F; Srncik, M; Wallner, A; Wallner, G; Winkler, S

    2013-01-01

    VERA, the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, is especially equipped for the measurement of actinides, and performs a growing number of measurements on environmental samples. While AMS is not the optimum method for each particular plutonium isotope, the possibility to measure (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu, (242)Pu and (244)Pu on the same AMS sputter target is a great simplification. We have obtained a first result on the global fallout value of (244)Pu/(239)Pu = (5.7 ± 1.0) × 10(-5) based on soil samples from Salzburg prefecture, Austria. Furthermore, we suggest using the (242)Pu/(240)Pu ratio as an estimate of the initial (241)Pu/(239)Pu ratio, which allows dating of the time of irradiation based solely on Pu isotopes. We have checked the validity of this estimate using literature data, simulations, and environmental samples from soil from the Salzburg prefecture (Austria), from the shut down Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant (Sessa Aurunca, Italy) and from the Irish Sea near the Sellafield nuclear facility. The maximum deviation of the estimated dates from the expected ages is 6 years, while relative dating of material from the same source seems to be possible with a precision of less than 2 years. Additional information carried by the minor plutonium isotopes may allow further improvements of the precision of the method.

  5. Expected radiation effects in plutonium immobilization ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A., LLNL

    1997-09-01

    The current formulation of the candidate ceramic for plutonium immobilization consists primarily of pyrochlore, with smaller amounts of hafnium-zirconolite, rutile, and brannerite or perovskite. At a plutonium loading of 10.5 weight %, this ceramic would be made metamict (amorphous) by radiation damage resulting from alpha decay in a time much less than 10,000 years, the actual time depending on the repository temperature as a function of time. Based on previous experimental radiation damage work by others, it seems clear that this process would also result in a bulk volume increase (swelling) of about 6% for ceramic that was mechanically unconfined. For the candidate ceramic, which is made by cold pressing and sintering and has porosity amounting to somewhat more than this amount, it seems likely that this swelling would be accommodated by filling in the porosity, if the material were tightly confined mechanically by the waste package. Some ceramics have been observed to undergo microcracking as a result of radiation-induced anisotropic or differential swelling. It is unlikely that the candidate ceramic will microcrack extensively, for three reasons: (1) its phase composition is dominated by a single matrix mineral phase, pyrochlore, which has a cubic crystal structure and is thus not subject to anisotropic swelling; (2) the proportion of minor phases is small, minimizing potential cracking due to differential swelling; and (3) there is some flexibility in sintering process parameters that will allow limitation of the grain size, which can further limit stresses resulting from either cause.

  6. Management of disused plutonium sealed sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitworth, Julia Rose [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pearson, Michael W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abeyta, Cristy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) has been recovering excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources since 1999, including more than 2,400 Plutonium (Pu)-238 sealed sources and 653 Pu-239-bearing sources that represent more than 10% of the total sources recovered by GTRI/OSRP to date. These sources have been recovered from hundreds of sites within the United States (US) and around the world. OSRP grew out of early efforts at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover and disposition excess Plutonium-239 (Pu-239) sealed sources that were distributed in the 1960s and 1970s under the Atoms for Peace Program, a loan-lease program that serviced 31 countries, as well as domestic users. In the conduct of these recovery operations, GTRI/OSRP has been required to solve problems related to knowledge-of-inventory, packaging and transportation of fissile and heat-source materials, transfer of ownership, storage of special nuclear material (SNM) both at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and commercially, and disposal. Unique issues associated with repatriation from foreign countries, including end user agreements required by some European countries and denials of shipment, will also be discussed.

  7. Determination of plutonium oxidation states in dilute nitric acid by complementary tristimulus colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, G L

    1967-06-01

    The preparation of reference standards for use in complementary tristimulus colorimetry for plutonium is described. Plutonium(III) and (VI) are prepared by hydrazine reduction and silver(II) oxidation, respectively, of plutonium(IV). Plutonium(V) is prepared by reduction of plutonium(VI) with ascorbic or sulphurous acid. A method for computerizing tristimulus colorimetry is presented, and the technique is extended to three dimensions ("quadristimulus colorimetry").

  8. Plutonium immobilization plant using glass in existing facilities at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a glass immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors.

  9. Colloid-Facilitated Plutonium Transport in Fractured Tuffaceous Rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberg, Andrew; Dai, Zhenxue; Zhu, Lin; Reimus, Paul; Xiao, Ting; Ware, Doug

    2017-05-16

    Colloids have the potential to enhance the mobility of strongly sorbing radionuclide contaminants in groundwater at underground nuclear test sites. This study presents an experimental and numerical investigation of colloid-facilitated plutonium transport in fractured porous media to identify plutonium reactive transport processes. The transport parameters for dispersion, diffusion, sorption, and filtration are estimated with inverse modeling by minimizing the least-squares objective function of multicomponent concentration data from multiple transport experiments with the shuffled complex evolution metropolis algorithm. Capitalizing on an unplanned experimental artifact that led to colloid formation, we adopt a stepwise strategy to first interpret the data from each experiment separately and then to incorporate multiple experiments simultaneously to identify a suite of plutonium-colloid transport processes. Nonequilibrium or kinetic attachment and detachment of plutonium-colloid in fractures were clearly demonstrated and captured in the inverted modeling parameters along with estimates of the source plutonium fraction that formed plutonium-colloids. The results from this study provide valuable insights for understanding the transport mechanisms and environmental impacts of plutonium in groundwater aquifers.

  10. Theory of Antineutrino Monitoring of Burning MOX Plutonium Fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C; Nieto, Michael Martin; WIlson, W B

    2011-01-01

    This letter presents the physics and feasibility of reactor antineutrino monitoring to verify the burnup of plutonium loaded in the reactor as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. It examines the magnitude and temporal variation in the antineutrino signals expected for different MOX fuels, for the purposes of nuclear accountability and safeguards. The antineutrino signals from reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX are shown to be distinct from those from burning low enriched uranium. Thus, antineutrino monitoring could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium in reactors, though verifying the grade of the plutonium being burned is found to be more challenging.

  11. Strategies for denaturing the weapons-grade plutonium stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckner, M.R.; Parks, P.B.

    1992-10-01

    In the next few years, approximately 50 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium and 150 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be removed from nuclear weapons in the US and declared excess. These materials represent a significant energy resource that could substantially contribute to our national energy requirements. HEU can be used as fuel in naval reactors, or diluted with depleted uranium for use as fuel in commercial reactors. This paper proposes to use the weapons-grade plutonium as fuel in light water reactors. The first such reactor would demonstrate the dual objectives of producing electrical power and denaturing the plutonium to prevent use in nuclear weapons.

  12. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium 1999 plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-30

    The purpose of the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium is to serve the Texas Panhandle, the State of Texas and the US Department of Energy by: conducting scientific and technical research; advising decision makers; and providing information on nuclear weapons materials and related environment, safety, health, and nonproliferation issues while building academic excellence in science and technology. This paper describes the electronic resource library which provides the national archives of technical, policy, historical, and educational information on plutonium. Research projects related to the following topics are described: Environmental restoration and protection; Safety and health; Waste management; Education; Training; Instrumentation development; Materials science; Plutonium processing and handling; and Storage.

  13. The disposition of civil plutonium in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadnicki, M.J. [Independent Operational Research Consultant (United Kingdom); Barker, F. [Independent Nuclear Policy Analyst, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    This paper quantifies the likely future stockpile of UK separated plutonium, and reviews current UK policy. The current strategy of storing plutonium oxide powder is shown to be inconsistent with passivity and disposability objectives. Analysis also shows that there is little potential for use on a commercial basis of Mixed-Oxide (MOX) fuel to reduce the stockpile. Four plutonium immobilisation options are defined, with particular reference to non-proliferation goals. The resource costs of implementing these options are quantified, together with the resource costs of a programme of Government-subsidized MOX use. Immobilisation may offer a more cost-effective solution than a MOX fuel route. (author)

  14. Decision model for evaluating reactor disposition of excess plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmunds, T.

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering a range of technologies for disposition of excess weapon plutonium. Use of plutonium fuel in fission reactors to generate spent fuel is one class of technology options. This report describes the inputs and results of decision analyses conducted to evaluate four evolutionary/advanced and three existing fission reactor designs for plutonium disposition. The evaluation incorporates multiple objectives or decision criteria, and accounts for uncertainty. The purpose of the study is to identify important and discriminating decision criteria, and to identify combinations of value judgments and assumptions that tend to favor one reactor design over another.

  15. Development of first ever scanning probe microscopy capabilities for plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaux, Miles F.; Cordoba, Miguel Santiago; Zocco, Adam T.; Vodnik, Douglas R.; Ramos, Michael; Richmond, Scott; Moore, David P.; Venhaus, Thomas J.; Joyce, Stephen A.; Usov, Igor O.

    2017-04-01

    Scanning probe microscopy capabilities have been developed for plutonium and its derivative compounds. Specifically, a scanning tunneling microscope and an atomic force microscope housed in an ultra-high vacuum system and an inert atmosphere glove box, respectively, were prepared for the introduction of small non-dispersible δ-Pu coupons. Experimental details, procedures, and preliminary imaging of δ-Pu coupons are presented to demonstrate the functionality of these new capabilities. These first of a kind capabilities for plutonium represent a significant step forward in the ability to characterize and understand plutonium surfaces with high spatial resolution.

  16. Fluorine and chlorine determination in mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel and plutonium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinson, S.V.; Zemlyanukhina, N.A.; Pavlova, I.V.; Filatkina, V.P.; Tsvetkova, V.T.

    1981-01-01

    A technique of fluorine and chlorine determination in the mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel and plutonium dioxide, based on their simultaneous separation by means of pyrohydrolysis, is developed. Subsequently, fluorine is determined by photometry with alizarincomplexonate of lanthanum or according to the weakening of zirconium colouring with zylenol orange. Chlorine is determined using the photonephelometric method according to the reaction of chloride-ion interaction with silver nitrate or by spectrophotometric method according to the reaction with mercury rhodanide. The lower limit of fluorine determination is -6x10/sup -5/ %, of chlorine- 1x10/sup -4/% in the sample of 1g. The relative mean quadratic deviation of the determination result (Ssub(r)), depends on the character of the material analyzed and at the content of nx10/sup -4/ - nx10/sup -3/ mass % is equal to from 0.05 to 0.32 for fluorine and from 0.11 to 0.35 for chlorine.

  17. Imitators of plutonium and americium in a mixed uranium- plutonium nitride fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, S. N.; Shornikov, D. P.; Tarasov, B. A.; Baranov, V. G.; Burlakova, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Uranium nitride and mix uranium nitride (U-Pu)N is most popular nuclear fuel for Russian Fast Breeder Reactor. The works in hot cells associated with the radiation exposure of personnel and methodological difficulties. To know the main physical-chemical properties of uranium-plutonium nitride it necessary research to hot cells. In this paper, based on an assessment of physicochemical and thermodynamic properties of selected simulators Pu and Am. Analogues of Pu is are Ce and Y, and analogues Am - Dy. The technique of obtaining a model nitride fuel based on lanthanides nitrides and UN. Hydrogenation-dehydrogenation- nitration method of derived powders nitrides uranium, cerium, yttrium and dysprosium, held their mixing, pressing and sintering, the samples obtained model nitride fuel with plutonium and americium imitation. According to the results of structural studies have shown that all the samples are solid solution nitrides rare earth (REE) elements in UN.

  18. {sup 69}Ga NMR and magnetic susceptibility in {delta}-phase of Pu{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x} (x = 0.05, x = 0.08) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskunov, Yu. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Kovalevskaya Str. 18, 620041 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)], E-mail: piskunov@imp.uran.ru; Mikhalev, K.; Buzlukov, A.; Gerashenko, A.; Verkhovskii, S.; Ogloblichev, V.; Arkhipov, V.; Korolev, A. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Kovalevskaya Str. 18, 620041 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Zouev, Yu.; Svyatov, I. [RFNC - VNII Technical Physics named after Acad. E.I. Zababakhin, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-03-15

    {sup 69}Ga nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, line shifts ({sup 69}K) and nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate {sup 69}T{sub 1}{sup -1} have been measured in the 20 years aged Pu{sub 0.95}Ga{sub 0.05} and in fresh prepared Pu{sub 0.92}Ga{sub 0.08} alloys, stabilized {delta}-phase, at magnetic field of 9.4 T in the temperature range (10-500) K. The line shift and {sup 69}T{sub 1}{sup -1} are determined correspondingly by the static and fluctuating-in-time parts of the local magnetic field that originates in transferred hyperfine coupling the Ga nuclear spin with the nearest f-electron environment of more magnetic Pu. Temperature behavior of the resonance properties is found the same in fresh Pu{sub 0.92}Ga{sub 0.08} and aged Pu{sub 0.95}Ga{sub 0.05} alloy. The NMR results are in favor that {delta}-phase of Pu{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x} alloys represents at T > 200 K the Kondo lattice, in which the localized electronic spins fluctuate independently from each other without any macroscopic coherence. The coherent state like in heavy-fermion liquids emerges in Pu{sub 0.95}Ga{sub 0.05} below T* = 200 K. A little bit higher estimate of crossover temperature T* = 250 K was founded for Pu{sub 0.92}Ga{sub 0.08}.

  19. Understanding Your Watershed Fact Sheet: Dissolved Oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Mesner, Nancy; Geiger, John

    2010-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen describes oxygen molecules which have actually dissolved in water. Sometimes people confuse bubbles in water with dissolved oxygen, but in reality the dissolved form of oxygen cannot be seen.

  20. Critical mass studies of plutonium solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruesi, F.E.; Erkman, J.O.; Lanning, D.D.

    1952-05-19

    The chain reacting conditions for plutonium nitrate in water solution have been examined experimentally for a variety of sizes of spheres and cylinders. The effects on the critical mass of the displacement of hydrogen and the addition of poisons to the fuel were measured in water tamped and bare reactors. In this report the data obtained in the investigation is presented graphically and in tables. Some preliminary analysis has been made yielding the results: (i) the absorption cross-section of Pu{sup 240} is 925 {plus_minus} 200 barns and (ii) the minimum critical mass of Pu{sup 239} in water is 510 grams at concentration of about 33 grams per liter.

  1. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in plutonium analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    The paper summarizes the results of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratio studies in atmospheric fallout samples collected in 1986 over Gdynia (Poland) as well as three Baltic fish species collected in 1997 using the accelerator mass spectrometry. A new generation of AMS has been developed during last years and this method is an efficient and good technique to measure long-lived radioisotopes in the environment and provides the most accurate determination of the atomic ratios between (240)Pu and (239)Pu. The nuclide compositions of plutonium in filter samples correspond to their means of production. AMS measurements of atmospheric fallout collected in April showed sufficient increase of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratio from 0.28 from March to 0.47. Also such high increase of (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratio, close to reactor core (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratio, was observed in September and equaled 0.47.

  2. Measurement and interpretation of plutonium spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaise, J.; Fred, M.S.; Carnall, W.T.; Crosswhite, H.M.; Crosswhite, H.

    1982-01-01

    The atomic spectroscopic data available for plutonium are among the rickest of any in the periodic system. They include high-resolution grating and Fourier-transform spectra as well as extensive Zeeman and isotope-shift studies. We summarize the present status of the term analysis and cite the configurations that have been identified. A least-squares adjustment of a parametric Hamiltonian for configurations of both Pu I and Pu II has shown that almost all of the expected low levels are now known. The use of a model Hamiltonian applicable to both lanthanide and actinide atomic species has been applied to the low configurations of Pu I and Pu II making use of trends predicted by ab initio calculations. This same model has been used to describe the energy levels of Pu/sup 3 +/ in LaCl/sub 3/, and an extension has permitted preliminary calculations of the spectra of other valence states.

  3. CORROSION MONITORING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE AND SNF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, D.G.; Haas, C.M.; Smith, C.M.; Ohl, P.C.

    2003-02-27

    While developing a method to measure pressure in totally sealed stainless steel containers holding spent nuclear fuel at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site, Vista Engineering Technologies, LLC (Vista Engineering) personnel adapted the central concept to corrosion monitoring techniques for the same containers. The ability to monitor corrosion within vessels containing spent nuclear fuel, plutonium and other hazardous materials is imperative for safe storage. Vista Engineering personnel have devised a way to monitor corrosion in a totally sealed stainless steel container using a Magnetically Coupled Corrosion Gauge (MCCG) Patent Pending. The MCCG can be used to detect corrosion as well as measure corrosion rate and does not require any penetration of the containment vessel, which minimizes pressure boundary surface area and sensitive weld materials in the vessels.

  4. Peculiar dynamical properties of plutonium hydrides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, the structure and spectra of PuH and PuH2 are defined by B3LYP/SDD method, from which the analytic potential energy function of PuH2 is derived. The analysis of quasi-classical molecular reaction dynamics is performed to study the state-state process of pu(7Fg) + H2(X1∑+g ). It is found that the reaction pu(7Fg) + H2(X1∑+g )→PuH2(X7B1) has no threshold. The simultaneous hydrogenation process of plutonium with the main product of PuH2 is theoretically proved for the first time.

  5. Development of the Direct Fabrication Process for Plutonium Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Congdon, J.W.

    2001-07-10

    The current baseline process for fabricating pucks for the Plutonium Immobilization Program includes granulation of the milled feed prior to compaction. A direct fabrication process was demonstrated that eliminates the need for granulation.

  6. Detecting low concentrations of plutonium hydride with magnetization measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Wook; Mun, E. D.; Baiardo, J. P.; Zapf, V. S.; Mielke, C. H. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, MPA-CMMS, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Smith, A. I.; Richmond, S.; Mitchell, J.; Schwartz, D. [Nuclear Material Science Group, MST-16, LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2015-02-07

    We report the formation of plutonium hydride in 2 at. % Ga-stabilized δ-Pu, with 1 at. % H charging. We show that magnetization measurements are a sensitive, quantitative measure of ferromagnetic plutonium hydride against the nonmagnetic background of plutonium. It was previously shown that at low hydrogen concentrations, hydrogen forms super-abundant vacancy complexes with plutonium, resulting in a bulk lattice contraction. Here, we use magnetization, X-ray, and neutron diffraction measurements to show that in addition to forming vacancy complexes, at least 30% of the H atoms bond with Pu to precipitate PuH{sub x} on the surface of the sample with x ∼ 1.9. We observe magnetic hysteresis loops below 40 K with magnetic remanence, consistent with ferromagnetic PuH{sub 1.9}.

  7. Crystalline ceramics: Waste forms for the disposal of weapons plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C.; Lutze, W. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    At present, there are three seriously considered options for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium: (i) incorporation, partial burn-up and direct disposal of MOX-fuel; (ii) vitrification with defense waste and disposal as glass ``logs``; (iii) deep borehole disposal (National Academy of Sciences Report, 1994). The first two options provide a safeguard due to the high activity of fission products in the irradiated fuel and the defense waste. The latter option has only been examined in a preliminary manner, and the exact form of the plutonium has not been identified. In this paper, we review the potential for the immobilization of plutonium in highly durable crystalline ceramics apatite, pyrochlore, monazite and zircon. Based on available data, we propose zircon as the preferred crystalline ceramic for the permanent disposition of excess weapons plutonium.

  8. Standard specification for sintered (Uranium-Plutonium) dioxide pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers finished sintered and ground (uranium-plutonium) dioxide pellets for use in thermal reactors. It applies to uranium-plutonium dioxide pellets containing plutonium additions up to 15 % weight. This specification may not completely cover the requirements for pellets fabricated from weapons-derived plutonium. 1.2 This specification does not include (1) provisions for preventing criticality accidents or (2) requirements for health and safety. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aware of and conform to all applicable international, federal, state, and local regulations pertaining to possessing, processing, shipping, or using source or special nuclear material. Examples of U.S. government documents are Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 50Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities; Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 71Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material; and Code of Federal Regulations Tit...

  9. High-Temperature Oxidation of Plutonium Surrogate Metals and Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, Joshua C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Krantz, Kelsie E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Christian, Jonathan H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-27

    The Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement (PMDA) is a nuclear non-proliferation agreement designed to remove 34 tons of weapons-grade plutonium from Russia and the United States. While several removal options have been proposed since the agreement was first signed in 2000, processing the weapons-grade plutonium to mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel has remained the leading candidate for achieving the goals of the PMDA. However, the MOX program has received its share of criticisms, which causes its future to be uncertain. One alternative pathway for plutonium disposition would involve oxidizing the metal followed by impurity down blending and burial in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. This pathway was investigated by use of a hybrid microwave and a muffle furnace with Fe and Al as surrogate materials. Oxidation occurred similarly in the microwave and muffle furnace; however, the microwave process time was significantly faster.

  10. The metabolic properties of plutonium and allied materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.G.

    1949-11-16

    This report summarizes radioautographic, tracer, decontamination, and bone metabolism studies done in 1949 on rats using plutonium and allied materials: Iodine 131; zirconium 95; niobium 95; cerium 144; samarium 153; selenium 75; rhodium 105. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Dangerous Waste Training Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ENTROP, G.E.

    1999-12-03

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the plutonium finishing plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas.

  12. PRESSURIZATION OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS FROM PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    Transportation and storage of plutonium oxide is typically done using a convenience container to hold the oxide powder which is then placed inside a containment vessel. Intermediate containers which act as uncredited confinement barriers may also be used. The containment vessel is subject to an internal pressure due to several sources including; (1) plutonium oxide provides a heat source which raises the temperature of the gas space, (2) helium generation due to alpha decay of the plutonium, (3) hydrogen generation due to radiolysis of the water which has been adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide, and (4) degradation of plastic bags which may be used to bag out the convenience can from a glove box. The contributions of these sources are evaluated in a reasonably conservative manner.

  13. Plutonium and Americium Geochemistry at Hanford: A Site Wide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-08-23

    This report was produced to provide a systematic review of the state-of-knowledge of plutonium and americium geochemistry at the Hanford Site. The report integrates existing knowledge of the subsurface migration behavior of plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site with available information in the scientific literature regarding the geochemistry of plutonium and americium in systems that are environmentally relevant to the Hanford Site. As a part of the report, key research needs are identified and prioritized, with the ultimate goal of developing a science-based capability to quantitatively assess risk at sites contaminated with plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site and the impact of remediation technologies and closure strategies.

  14. Ultra-sensitive detection of plutonium by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R.; Ditada, M. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics; Day, J.P.; Clacher, A. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Priest, N.D. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    On the bases of the measurements performed to date, a sensitivity of 10{sup 6} atoms is achievable with accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) for each of the plutonium isotopes. Not only does this open the way to the sort of study outlined, but it also makes possible other novel applications, of which two examples are given: (i)the ration of {sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu as a sensitive indicator of the source of the plutonium; (ii) the biochemistry of plutonium in humans. The ultra-sensitive atom counting capability of AMS will make it possible to use the very long-lived {sup 244}Pu (8x10{sup 7}a) in human volunteer studies without any significant increase in radiation body burden. This paper will describe the AMS technique as applied to plutonium using the ANU`s 14UD accelerator, will present the results obtained to date, and will discuss the prospects for the future.

  15. ARRAYS OF BOTTLES OF PLUTONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaret A. Marshall

    2012-09-01

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approaches-to-critical were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas® reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were sponsored by Rockwell Hanford Operations because of the lack of experimental data on the criticality of arrays of bottles of Pu solution such as might be found in storage and handling at the Purex Facility at Hanford. The results of these experiments were used “to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in criticality safety assessments of [the] plant configurations” (Ref. 1). Data for this evaluation were collected from the published report (Ref. 1), the approach to critical logbook, the experimenter’s logbook, and communication with the primary experimenter, B. Michael Durst. Of the 13 experiments preformed 10 were evaluated. One of the experiments was not evaluated because it had been thrown out by the experimenter, one was not evaluated because it was a repeat of another experiment and the third was not evaluated because it reported the critical number of bottles as being greater than 25. Seven of the thirteen evaluated experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments. A similar experiment using uranyl nitrate was benchmarked as U233-SOL-THERM-014.

  16. Low temperature dissolution flowsheet for plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Almond, P. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Rudisill, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-01

    The H-Canyon flowsheet used to dissolve Pu metal for PuO2 production utilizes boiling HNO3. SRNL was requested to develop a complementary dissolution flowsheet at two reduced temperature ranges. The dissolution and H2 generation rates of Pu metal were investigated using a dissolving solution at ambient temperature (20-30 °C) and for an intermediate temperature of 50-60 °C. Additionally, the testing included an investigation of the dissolution rates and characterization of the off-gas generated from the ambient temperature dissolution of carbon steel cans and the nylon bags that contain the Pu metal when charged to the dissolver.

  17. Occurrence of plutonium in the terrestrial environment at Thule, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Per; Jernström, Jussi; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2011-01-01

    to several hundred kBq per m2 of Pu. Although concentrations in surface soil can be very high the concentration in analysed air filter samples and passive aerosol collectors are very low. Exposure to plutonium due to inhalation of airborne plutonium particles in the area is of little importance according...... to this study. To further assess the risk of inhaling resuspended material particles isolated from the different hot areas have been subject to investigation on stability and leaching behaviour....

  18. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  19. Preparation of Plutonium Counting Source Using Solid Phase Extraction Disk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Hong-qing; YANG; Su-liang; DING; You-qian; YANG; Jin-ling; MAO; Guo-shu

    2013-01-01

    For the determination of trace amount of plutonium,Pu(Ⅳ)may be extracted from dilute nitric acid by TTA-xylene,and stripped by concentrated nitric acid.But the small volume of strip solution used in traditional counting source preparation by direct evaporation could lead to a rather high detection limit.Plutonium in strip solution may all be absorbed on the surface of an anion exchange resin disk.And

  20. Wastes from plutonium conversion and scrap recovery operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, D.C.; Bowersox, D.F.; McKerley, B.J.; Nance, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    This report deals with the handling of defense-related wastes associated with plutonium processing. It first defines the different waste categories along with the techniques used to assess waste content. It then discusses the various treatment approaches used in recovering plutonium from scrap. Next, it addresses the various waste management approaches necessary to handle all wastes. Finally, there is a discussion of some future areas for processing with emphasis on waste reduction. 91 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Plutonium Immobilization Project System Design Description for Can Loading System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    2001-02-15

    The purpose of this System Design Description (SDD) is to specify the system and component functions and requirements for the Can Loading System and provide a complete description of the system (design features, boundaries, and interfaces), principles of operation (including upsets and recovery), and the system maintenance approach. The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) will immobilize up to 13 metric tons (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons usable plutonium materials.

  2. Wastes from plutonium conversion and scrap recovery operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, D.C.; Bowersox, D.F.; McKerley, B.J.; Nance, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    This report deals with the handling of defense-related wastes associated with plutonium processing. It first defines the different waste categories along with the techniques used to assess waste content. It then discusses the various treatment approaches used in recovering plutonium from scrap. Next, it addresses the various waste management approaches necessary to handle all wastes. Finally, there is a discussion of some future areas for processing with emphasis on waste reduction. 91 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Environmental Behaviour of Plutonium Accidentally Released at Thule, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker

    1977-01-01

    The environmental contamination resulting from the B-52 accident in 1968 at Thule was studied by scientific expeditions in 1968, 1970 and 1974. The contamination was mainly confined to the marine environment, where plutonium was preferentially located in the sediments and the benthic fauna...... such as fish, seabirds and marine mammals have shown no tendency to increasing plutonium levels since the accident. (C)1977Health Physics Society...

  4. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plutonium and Americium from Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J.

    2002-05-23

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plutonium and americium from soil was successfully demonstrated using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solvent augmented with organophosphorus and beta-diketone complexants. Spiked Idaho soils were chemically and radiologically characterized, then extracted with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide at 2,900 psi and 65 C containing varying concentrations of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). A single 45 minute SFE with 2.7 mol% TBP and 3.2 mol% TTA provided as much as 88% {+-} 6.0 extraction of americium and 69% {+-} 5.0 extraction of plutonium. Use of 5.3 mol% TBP with 6.8 mol% of the more acidic beta-diketone hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFA) provided 95% {+-} 3.0 extraction of americium and 83% {+-} 5.0 extraction of plutonium in a single 45 minute SFE at 3,750 psi and 95 C. Sequential chemical extraction techniques were used to chemically characterize soil partitioning of plutonium and americium in pre-SFE soil samples. Sequential chemical extraction techniques demonstrated that spiked plutonium resides primarily (76.6%) in the sesquioxide fraction with minor amounts being absorbed by the oxidizable fraction (10.6%) and residual fractions (12.8%). Post-SFE soils subjected to sequential chemical extraction characterization demonstrated that 97% of the oxidizable, 78% of the sesquioxide and 80% of the residual plutonium could be removed using SFE. These preliminary results show that SFE may be an effective solvent extraction technique for removal of actinide contaminants from soil.

  5. The relative physiological and toxicological properties of americium and plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.E.; Busch, E.; Johnson, O. [and others

    1951-11-15

    The relative physiological and toxicological properties of americium and plutonium have been studied following their intravenous administration to rats. The urinary and fecal excretion of americium was similar to that of plutonium administered as Pu(N0{sub 3}){sub 4}. The deposition of americium the tissues and organs of the rat was also similar to that observed for plutonium. The liver and the skeleton were the major sites of deposition. Zirconium citrate administered 15 minutes after injection of americium increased the urinary excretion of americium and decreased the amount found in the liver and the skeleton at 4 and 16 days. LD{sub 30}{sup 50} studies showed americium was slightly less toxic when given in the acute toxic range than was plutonium. The difference was, however, too slight to be important in establishing a larger tolerance does for americium. Survival studies, hematological observations, bone marrow observations, comparison of tumor incidence and the incidence of skeletal abnormalities indicated that americium and plutonium have essentially the same chronic toxicity when given on an equal {mu}c. basis. These studies support the conclusion that the tolerance values for americium should be essentially the same as those for Plutonium.

  6. Survey of glass plutonium contents and poison selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Ellison, A.J.G.; Shaw, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    If plutonium and other actinides are to be immobilized in glass, then achieving high concentrations in the glass is desirable. This will lead to reduced costs and more rapid immobilization. However, glasses with high actinide concentrations also bring with them undersirable characteristics, especially a greater concern about nuclear criticality, particularly in a geologic repository. The key to achieving a high concentration of actinide elements in a glass is to formulate the glass so that the solubility of actinides is high. At the same time, the glass must be formulated so that the glass also contains neutron poisons, which will prevent criticality during processing and in a geologic repository. In this paper, the solubility of actinides, particularly plutonium, in three types of glasses are discussed. Plutonium solubilities are in the 2-4 wt% range for borosilicate high-level waste (HLW) glasses of the type which will be produced in the US. This type of glass is generally melted at relatively low temperatures, ca. 1150{degrees}C. For this melting temperature, the glass can be reformulated to achieve plutonium solubilities of at least 7 wt%. This low melting temperature is desirable if one must retain volatile cesium-137 in the glass. If one is not concerned about cesium volatility, then glasses can be formulated which can contain much larger amounts of plutonium and other actinides. Plutonium concentrations of at least 15 wt% have been achieved. Thus, there is confidence that high ({ge}5 wt%) concentrations of actinides can be achieved under a variety of conditions.

  7. Absorption Behavior of Anion Exchange Resin to Minimal Plutonium in 3 to 4 mol/L Nitric Acid Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The acidity of liquor in the process of plutonium purification using extraction method is 3 to 4 mol/L and liquor contains minimal plutonium of certain concentration, the reclamation of plutonium is usually

  8. Examination of the effect of alpha radiolysis on plutonium(V) sorption to quartz using multiple plutonium isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixon, Amy E; Arai, Yuji; Powell, Brian A

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this research was to determine if radiolysis at the mineral surface was a plausible mechanism for surface-mediated reduction of plutonium. Batch sorption experiments were used to monitor the amount of plutonium sorbed to high-purity quartz as a function of time, pH, and total alpha radioactivity. Three systems were prepared using both (238)Pu and (242)Pu in order to increase the total alpha radioactivity of the mineral suspensions while maintaining a constant plutonium concentration. The fraction of sorbed plutonium increased with increasing time and pH regardless of the total alpha radioactivity of the system. Increasing the total alpha radioactivity of the solution had a negligible effect on the sorption rate. This indicated that surface-mediated reduction of Pu(V) in these systems was not due to radiolysis. Additionally, literature values for the Pu(V) disproportionation rate constant did not describe the experimental results. Therefore, Pu(V) disproportionation was also not a main driver for surface-mediated reduction of plutonium. Batch desorption experiments and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy were used to show that Pu(IV) was the dominant oxidation state of sorbed plutonium. Thus, it appears that the observed surface-mediated reduction of Pu(V) in the presence of high-purity quartz was based on the thermodynamic favorability of a Pu(IV) surface complex.

  9. Plutonium isotopes in the ocean off Japan after Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buesseler, K.; Black, E.; Pike, S. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (United States); Kenna, T. [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (United States); Masque, P. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants (NPPs) are known to be an unprecedented accidental source of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs and other volatile radionuclides to the ocean. Much less is known however about the extent of input of refractory radionuclides such as plutonium to the environment. Limited available data from land soils and vegetation, suggest at least some atmospheric delivery of particulate Pu but at very low levels relative to pre-existing fallout sources. To resolve Fukushima derived Pu from weapons testing derived Pu, information regarding the Pu isotopic composition is needed. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio determined by mass spectrometric techniques, and the {sup 238}Pu/{sup 239,240}Pu activity ratio as measured by alpha counting are diagnostic with respect to Pu source. We review and present new data on the Pu isotopic ratios and concentrations in the oceans, combining several data sets on dissolved (from bottle sampling), suspended particulates (from filtration), sinking particles (from sediment traps) and seafloor sediments (from cores) to look for the Fukushima Pu signal. In most samples, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios are in the range of 0.20-0.23, characteristic of Pu ocean signal which is a combination of global fallout with a characteristic ratio of 0.18 and local fallout from the Pacific Proving Grounds with ratios higher than 0.24, and known from prior studies to influence the ocean off Japan. In 2011, in surface ocean waters, we found ratios {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu >0.3, which implies a component of Fukushima Pu had been delivered to the ocean, given NPP derived end-member ratios of 0.35-0.45. Fukushima derived Pu was not found deeper in the water column or even at all stations, consistent with its rapid removal from the ocean and the high background of pre-existing Pu in the waters and sediments, masking the new Fukushima sources. With this data a mass balance will be made between Pu from global fallout, local fallout and

  10. Plutonium contamination in soils and sediments at Mayak PA, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipperud, Lindis; Salbu, Brit; Oughton, Deborah H; Drozcho, Eugeny; Mokrov, Yuri; Strand, Per

    2005-09-01

    The Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA) was established in the late 1940's to produce plutonium for the Soviet Nuclear Weapons Programme. In total, seven reactors and two reprocessing plants have been in operation. Today, the area comprises both military and civilian reactors as well as reprocessing and metallurgical plants. Authorized and accidental releases of radioactive waste have caused severe contamination to the surrounding areas. In the present study, [alpha]-spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) have been used to determine plutonium activities and isotope ratios in soil and sediment samples collected from reservoirs of the Techa River at the Mayak area and downstream Techa River. The objective of the study was to determine the total inventory of plutonium in the reservoirs and to identify the different sources contributing to the plutonium contamination. Results based on [alpha]-spectrometry and ICP-MS measurements show the presence of different sources and confirmed recent reports of civilian reprocessing at Mayak. Determination of activity levels and isotope ratios in soil and sediment samples from the Techa River support the hypothesis that most of the plutonium, like other radionuclides in the Techa River, originated from the very early waste discharges to the Techa River between 1949 and 1951. Analysis of reservoir sediment samples suggest that about 75% of the plutonium isotopes could have been released to Reservoir 10 during the early weapons production operation of the plant, and that the majority of plutonium in Reservoir 10 originates from discharges from power production or reprocessing. Enhanced 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in river sediment upper layers (0-2 cm) between 50 and 250 km downstream from the plant indicate a contribution from other, non-fallout sources.

  11. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, February 1, 1998--April 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Activities from the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium are described. Areas of work include materials science of nuclear and explosive materials, plutonium processing and handling, robotics, and storage.

  12. Determination of Uranium and Plutonium Concentration in 1AF by Isotopic Dilution Mass Spectrometry Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>It is important data to measure uranium and plutonium concentration for the reprocessing plant control analysis. The determination of uranium and plutonium concentration in 1AF by isotopic dilution mass

  13. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, May 1, 1997--July 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Progress summaries are provided from the Amarillo National Center for Plutonium. Programs include the plutonium information resource center, environment, public health, and safety, education and training, nuclear and other material studies.

  14. PLUTONIUM LOADING CAPACITY OF REILLEX HPQ ANION EXCHANGE COLUMN - AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FLOWSHEET FOR MOX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, E.; King, W.; O' Rourke, P.

    2012-07-26

    Radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the dependence of column loading performance on the feed composition in the H-Canyon dissolution process for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). These loading experiments show that a representative feed solution containing {approx}5 g Pu/L can be loaded onto Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin from solutions containing 8 M total nitrate and 0.1 M KF provided that the F is complexed with Al to an [Al]/[F] molar ratio range of 1.5-2.0. Lower concentrations of total nitrate and [Al]/[F] molar ratios may still have acceptable performance but were not tested in this study. Loading and washing Pu losses should be relatively low (<1%) for resin loading of up to 60 g Pu/L. Loading above 60 g Pu/L resin is possible, but Pu wash losses will increase such that 10-20% of the additional Pu fed may not be retained by the resin as the resin loading approaches 80 g Pu/L resin.

  15. Study of allotropic transformations in plutonium; Etude des transformations allotropiques du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spriet, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    The allotropic transformations in plutonium have been studied by different methods: metallography, dilatometry, thermal analysis, resistivity measurements, examination with a hot stage microscope. In order to study the importance of the purity, purification process such as zone-melting or electro-diffusion have been developed. The characteristics of the {alpha} {r_reversible} {beta} transformation can be explained in terms of the influence of internal stresses on the transition temperature and on the transformation kinetics. Some particular characteristics of {delta} {yields} {gamma}, {gamma} {yields} {alpha}, {delta} {r_reversible} {epsilon}, {beta} {r_reversible} {gamma} and {delta} {yields} {alpha} transformations are also given. (author) [French] Les transformations, allotropiques du plutonium ont ete etudiees a l'aide de differentes methodes: metallographie, dilatometrie, analyse thermique, mesure de resistivite, examen au microscope a platine chauffante. Pour preciser l'influence de la purete, des procedes de purification comme la fusion de zone ou l'electrodiffusion ont ete mis au point. Les caracteres de la transformation {alpha} {r_reversible} {beta} s'expliquent par le role des contraintes internes sur la temperature de transition et la cinetique de transformation. Quelques particularites des transformations {delta} {yields} {gamma}, {gamma} {yields} {alpha}, {delta} {r_reversible} {epsilon}, {beta} {r_reversible} {gamma} et {delta} {yields} {alpha} sont egalement presentees. (auteur)

  16. Neutron monitoring of plutonium at the ZPPR storage vault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, J.T.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Bieri, J.M.; France, S.W.; Goin, R.W.; Hastings, R.D.; Pratt, J.C.; Shunk, E.R.

    1981-12-01

    We investigated a method for monitoring a typical large storage vault for unauthorized removal of plutonium. The method is based on the assumption that the neutron field in a vault produced by a particular geometric configuration of bulk plutonium remains constant in time and space as long as the configuration is undisturbed. To observe such a neutron field, we installed an array of 25 neutron detectors in the ceiling of a plutonium storage vault at Argonne National Laboratory West. Each neutron detector provided an independent spatial measurement of the vault neutron field. Data collected by each detector were processed to determine whether statistically significant changes had occurred in the neutron field. Continuous observation experiments measured the long-term stability of the system. Removal experiments were performed in which known quantities of plutonium were removed from the vault. Both types of experiments demonstrated that the neutron monitoring system can detect removal or addition of bulk plutonium (11% /sup 240/Pu) whose mass is as small as 0.04% of the total inventory.

  17. Plutonium-DTPA Model Application with USTUR Case 0269.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard; Miller, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A plutonium-DTPA (Pu-DTPA) biokinetic model was introduced that had originated from the study of a plutonium-contaminated wound. This work evaluated the extension of the Pu-DTPA model to United States Transuranium and Uranium Registry (USTUR) Case 0269 involving an acute inhalation of a plutonium nitrate aerosol. Chelation was administered intermittently for the first 7 mo as Ca-EDTA, mostly through intravenous injection, with Ca-DTPA treatments administered approximately 2.5 y post intake. Urine and fecal bioassays were collected following intake for several years. Tissues were collected and analyzed for plutonium content approximately 38 y post intake. This work employed the Pu-DTPA model for predicting the urine and fecal bioassay and final tissue quantity at autopsy. The Pu-DTPA model was integrated with two separate plutonium systemic models (i.e., ICRP Publication 67 and its proposed modification). This work illustrated that the Pu-DTPA model was useful for predicting urine and fecal bioassay, including final tissue quantity, 38 y post intake.

  18. Technical progress report on the metabolic studies of plutonium for month of August 1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.G.

    1945-12-31

    This monthly report briefly describes ongoing studies including urinary and fecal excretion of Plutonium 238 by human subjects and by rats, exploring way to facilitate the removal of Plutonium 238 from rat bone, the absorption of Plutonium 238 by barley plants, and use of inert iodine to block absorption of Iodine-131 in the rat.

  19. Plutonium in the marine environment at Thule, NW-Greenland after a nuclear weapons accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, H.; Eriksson, M.; Ilus, E.

    2001-01-01

    than in sediments. Some biota groups show a somewhat higher uptake of americium than of plutonium. Sediment samples with weapons plutonium from the accident show a significant variation in Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios in the range 0.027-0.057. This supports the hypothesis that the Thule plutonium...

  20. 10 CFR 71.64 - Special requirements for plutonium air shipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. 71.64... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.64 Special requirements for plutonium air shipments. (a) A package for the shipment of plutonium by air subject to § 71.88(a)(4), in addition to satisfying...

  1. Separation Method of Uranium and Plutonium From Large Amount of Neptunium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Yu-lan; JIN; Hua; YING; Zhe-cong; ZHAO; Sheng-yang

    2013-01-01

    Uranium and plutonium are limited strictly in the neptunium product.To eliminate the influence of neptunium matrix on determination of uranium and plutonium,a new separation method of uranium and plutonium from large amount of neptunium by TEVA column has been developed,which is illustrated in Fig.1.

  2. 10 CFR 71.23 - General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material... RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL General Licenses § 71.23 General license: Plutonium-beryllium special form material. (a... form of plutonium-beryllium (Pu-Be) special form sealed sources, or to deliver Pu-Be sealed sources...

  3. Analysis on the status of Plutonium utilization in various countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-01

    Generally, spent fuel reprocessing/MOX fuel fabricating capacity goes on expanding, and so does the plutonium recycling accordingly. With priority given to LWRs as pivotal reactor type for it. Such countries as France, the U.K., Japan, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland and Russia are taking very positive attitudes towards plutonium recycling, whilst Canada, China, India and the Ukraine are also seeking the possibilities. In order to promote plutonium utilization, necessity of which is recognized in various aspects, it is prerequisite for worldwide nuclear industry to create international-political environment for it. As for Korea, efforts are necessary to secure maximum choice alternatives corresponding to national benefit, by exercising initiative in the new development of surrounding situation these days. 24 refs., 4 tabs. (Author) (Author) .new.

  4. Preliminary safety evaluation for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapley, J.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-14

    This Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) describes and analyzes the installation and operation of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The SPS is a combination of components required to expedite the safe and timely storage of Plutonium (Pu) oxide. The SPS program will receive site Pu packages, process the Pu for storage, package the Pu into metallic containers, and safely store the containers in a specially modified storage vault. The location of the SPS will be in the 2736- ZB building and the storage vaults will be in the 2736-Z building of the PFP, as shown in Figure 1-1. The SPS will produce storage canisters that are larger than those currently used for Pu storage at the PFP. Therefore, the existing storage areas within the PFP secure vaults will require modification. Other modifications will be performed on the 2736-ZB building complex to facilitate the installation and operation of the SPS.

  5. Plutonium Speciation in Support of Oxidative-Leaching Demonstration Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.

    2007-10-31

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) is evaluating the plutonium speciation in caustic solutions that reasonably represent the process streams from the oxidative-leaching demonstration test. Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD) was contracted to develop a spectrophotometric method to measure plutonium speciation at submicromolar (< 10-6 M) concentrations in alkaline solutions in the presence of chromate and carbonate. Data obtained from the testing will be used to identify the oxidation state of Pu(IV), Pu(V), and Pu(VI) species, which potentially could exist in caustic leachates. Work was initially conducted under contract number 24590-101-TSA-W000-00004 satisfying the needs defined in Appendix C of the Research and Technology Plan TSS A-219 to evaluate the speciation of chromium, plutonium, and manganese before and after oxidative leaching. In February 2007, the contract mechanism was switched to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Operating Contract MOA: 24590-QL-HC9-WA49-00001.

  6. Plutonium, (137)Cs and uranium isotopes in Mongolian surface soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, K; Kikawada, Y; Igarashi, Y; Fujiwara, H; Jugder, D; Matsumoto, Y; Oi, T; Nomura, M

    2017-01-01

    Plutonium ((238)Pu and (239,240)Pu), (137)Cs and plutonium activity ratios ((238)Pu/(239,240)Pu) as did uranium isotope ratio ((235)U/(238)U) were measured in surface soil samples collected in southeast Mongolia. The (239,240)Pu and (137)Cs concentrations in Mongolian surface soils (surface soils (0.013-0.06) coincided with that of global fallout. The (235)U/(238)U atom ratios in the surface soil show the natural one. There was a good correlation between the (239,240)Pu and (137)Cs concentrations in the surface soils. We introduce the migration depth to have better understanding of migration behaviors of anthropogenic radionuclides in surface soil. We found a difference of the migration behavior between (239,240)Pu and (137)Cs from (137)Cs/(239,240)Pu - (137)Cs plots for the Mongolian and Tsukuba surface soils; plutonium in surface soil is migrated easier than (137)Cs.

  7. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF PLUTONIUM AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS MOBILITY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRANCIS, A.J.

    2000-09-30

    The current state of knowledge of the effect of plutonium on microorganisms and microbial activity is reviewed, and also the microbial processes affecting its mobilization and immobilization. The dissolution of plutonium is predominantly due to their production of extracellular metabolic products, organic acids, such as citric acid, and sequestering agents, such as siderophores. Plutonium may be immobilized by the indirect actions of microorganisms resulting in changes in Eh and its reduction from a higher to lower oxidation state, with the precipitation of Pu, its bioaccumulation by biomass, and bioprecipitation reactions. In addition, the abundance of microorganisms in Pu-contaminated soils, wastes, natural analog sites, and backfill materials that will be used for isolating the waste and role of microbes as biocolloids in the transport of Pu is discussed.

  8. Safeguardability of the vitrification option for disposal of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, K.K.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Safeguardability of the vitrification option for plutonium disposition is rather complex and there is no experience base in either domestic or international safeguards for this approach. In the present treaty regime between the US and the states of the former Soviet Union, bilaterial verifications are considered more likely with potential for a third-party verification of safeguards. There are serious technological limitations to applying conventional bulk handling facility safeguards techniques to achieve independent verification of plutonium in borosilicate glass. If vitrification is the final disposition option chosen, maintaining continuity of knowledge of plutonium in glass matrices, especially those containing boron and those spike with high-level wastes or {sup 137}Cs, is beyond the capability of present-day safeguards technologies and nondestructive assay techniques. The alternative to quantitative measurement of fissile content is to maintain continuity of knowledge through a combination of containment and surveillance, which is not the international norm for bulk handling facilities.

  9. The role of troublesome components in plutonium vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong; Vienna, J.D.; Peeler, D.K.; Hrma, P.; Schweiger, M.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    One option for immobilizing surplus plutonium is vitrification in a borosilicate glass. Two advantages of the glass form are (1) high tolerance to feed variability and, (2) high solubility of some impurity components. The types of plutonium-containing materials in the United States inventory include: pits, metals, oxides, residues, scrap, compounds, and fuel. Many of them also contain high concentrations of carbon, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate, and chromium oxide. To vitrify plutonium-containing scrap and residues, it is critical to understand the impact of each component on glass processing and chemical durability of the final product. This paper addresses glass processing issues associated with these troublesome components. It covers solubility limits of chlorine, fluorine, phosphate, sulfate, and chromium oxide in several borosilicate based glasses, and the effect of each component on vitrification (volatility, phase segregation, crystallization, and melt viscosity). Techniques (formulation, pretreatment, removal, and/or dilution) to mitigate the effect of these troublesome components are suggested.

  10. Measurement and Modeling of Resistivity as a Microscale Tool to Quantify the Volume Fraction of Lenticular (alpha)' Particles in a Partially Transformed (delta)-phase Pu-Ga Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haslam, J J; Wall, M A; Johnson, D L; Mayhall, D J; Schwartz, A J

    2005-07-13

    We have measured and modeled the change in electrical resistivity due to partial transformation to the martensitic {alpha}{prime}-phase in a {delta}-phase Pu-Ga matrix. The primary objective is to relate the change in resistance, measured with a 4-probe technique during the transformation, to the volume fraction of the {alpha}{prime} phase created in the microstructure. Analysis by finite element methods suggests that considerable differences in the resistivity may be anticipated depending on the orientational and morphological configurations of the {alpha}{prime} particles. Finite element analysis of the computed resistance of an assembly of lenticular shaped particles indicates that series resistor or parallel resistor approximations are inaccurate and can lead to an underestimation of the predicted amount of {alpha}{prime} in the sample by 15% or more. Comparison of the resistivity of a simulated network of partially transformed grains or portions of grains suggests that a correction to the measured resistivity allows quantification of the amount of {alpha}{prime} phase in the microstructure with minimal consideration of how the {alpha}{prime} morphology may evolve. It is found that the average of the series and parallel resistor approximations provide the most accurate relationship between the measured resistivity and the amount of {alpha}{prime} phase. The methods described here are applicable to any evolving two-phase microstructure in which the resistance difference between the two phases is measurable.

  11. Separation of Plutonium from Irradiated Fuels and Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Leonard W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Holliday, Kiel S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Murray, Alice [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Thompson, Major [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Thorp, Donald T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yarbro, Stephen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Venetz, Theodore J. [Hanford Site, Benton County, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Spent nuclear fuel from power production reactors contains moderate amounts of transuranium (TRU) actinides and fission products in addition to the still slightly enriched uranium. Originally, nuclear technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuel for military purposes. Military plutonium separations had essentially ceased by the mid-1990s. Reprocessing, however, can serve multiple purposes, and the relative importance has changed over time. In the 1960’s the vision of the introduction of plutonium-fueled fast-neutron breeder reactors drove the civilian separation of plutonium. More recently, reprocessing has been regarded as a means to facilitate the disposal of high-level nuclear waste, and thus requires development of radically different technical approaches. In the last decade or so, the principal reason for reprocessing has shifted to spent power reactor fuel being reprocessed (1) so that unused uranium and plutonium being recycled reduce the volume, gaining some 25% to 30% more energy from the original uranium in the process and thus contributing to energy security and (2) to reduce the volume and radioactivity of the waste by recovering all long-lived actinides and fission products followed by recycling them in fast reactors where they are transmuted to short-lived fission products; this reduces the volume to about 20%, reduces the long-term radioactivity level in the high-level waste, and complicates the possibility of the plutonium being diverted from civil use – thereby increasing the proliferation resistance of the fuel cycle. In general, reprocessing schemes can be divided into two large categories: aqueous/hydrometallurgical systems, and pyrochemical/pyrometallurgical systems. Worldwide processing schemes are dominated by the aqueous (hydrometallurgical) systems. This document provides a historical review of both categories of reprocessing.

  12. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plutonium and Americium from Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Robert Vincent; Mincher, Bruce Jay

    2002-08-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plutonium and americium from soil was successfully demonstrated using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solvent augmented with organophosphorus and beta-diketone complexants. Spiked Idaho soils were chemically and radiologically characterized, then extracted with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide at 2,900 psi and 65°C containing varying concentrations of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). A single 45 minute SFE with 2.7 mol% TBP and 3.2 mol% TTA provided as much as 88% ± 6.0 extraction of americium and 69% ± 5.0 extraction of plutonium. Use of 5.3 mol% TBP with 6.8 mol% of the more acidic beta-diketone hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFA) provided 95% ± 3.0 extraction of americium and 83% ± 5.0 extraction of plutonium in a single 45 minute SFE at 3,750 psi and 95°C. Sequential chemical extraction techniques were used to chemically characterize soil partitioning of plutonium and americium in pre-SFE soil samples. Sequential chemical extraction techniques demonstrated that spiked plutonium resides primarily (76.6%) in the sesquioxide fraction with minor amounts being absorbed by the oxidizable fraction (10.6%) and residual fractions (12.8%). Post-SFE soils subjected to sequential chemical extraction characterization demonstrated that 97% of the oxidizable, 78% of the sesquioxide and 80% of the residual plutonium could be removed using SFE. These preliminary results show that SFE may be an effective solvent extraction technique for removal of actinide contaminants from soil.

  13. Biokinetics of plutonium-238 injected in non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelidze, Nino

    Seventeen intravenously injected monkey data were analyzed using PowerBasic and SAAM II softwares. The study was divided into three parts. In the first part SAAM II predictions were compared with those calculated by Birchall algorithm based on the ICRP 67 systemic model for plutonium. In the second part SAAM II simulations were performed and compared for two representations of systemic model for plutonium: the ICRP 67 model and the Leggett model. In the third part, optimization of transfer rates suggested by ICRP 67 and Leggett models were attempted by solving each monkey case independently. The Birchall algorithm and SAAM II predicted values coincide with each other for all data presented: blood, urine and feces. Unfortunately, these predictions do not coincide with the measurement values. Plutonium activity in liver is about 50% of the injected activity. The uptake of plutonium in liver in primates seems to be close to the assumption of equal distribution of 45% plutonium in liver and skeleton in humans. For longer sacrificed monkeys we have prolonged liver retention compared to plutonium liver retention in humans. Pu retention in urine and blood has been simulated based on the ICRP 67 and Leggett models respectively and plotted against the measured data points to acquire the understanding of the models with respect to reality. Pu activity was also evaluated in liver and skeleton at the time of the sacrifice for both models and compared with the autopsy measurements for individual cases. Optimization of transfer rates suggested in the ICRP 67 and Leggett models was attempted. Default transfer rates were varied to improve the fits to the data and predict activities in the liver and skeleton at the time of death has been carried out in SAAM II. Good fits for the individual cases were obtained successfully, however, consistency among parameters from case to case was not observed.

  14. Plutonium sorption and desorption behavior on bentonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, James D; Zavarin, Mavrik; Tumey, Scott J; Kersting, Annie B

    2015-03-01

    Understanding plutonium (Pu) sorption to, and desorption from, mineral phases is key to understanding its subsurface transport. In this work we study Pu(IV) sorption to industrial grade FEBEX bentonite over the concentration range 10(-7)-10(-16) M to determine if sorption at typical environmental concentrations (≤10(-12) M) is the same as sorption at Pu concentrations used in most laboratory experiments (10(-7)-10(-11) M). Pu(IV) sorption was broadly linear over the 10(-7)-10(-16) M concentration range during the 120 d experimental period; however, it took up to 100 d to reach sorption equilibrium. At concentrations ≥10(-8) M, sorption was likely affected by additional Pu(IV) precipitation/polymerization reactions. The extent of sorption was similar to that previously reported for Pu(IV) sorption to SWy-1 Na-montmorillonite over a narrower range of Pu concentrations (10(-11)-10(-7) M). Sorption experiments with FEBEX bentonite and Pu(V) were also performed across a concentration range of 10(-11)-10(-7) M and over a 10 month period which allowed us to estimate the slow apparent rates of Pu(V) reduction on a smectite-rich clay. Finally, a flow cell experiment with Pu(IV) loaded on FEBEX bentonite demonstrated continued desorption of Pu over a 12 day flow period. Comparison with a desorption experiment performed with SWy-1 montmorillonite showed a strong similarity and suggested the importance of montorillonite phases in controlling Pu sorption/desorption reactions on FEBEX bentonite.

  15. High-temperature vacuum distillation separation of plutonium waste salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In this task, high-temperature vacuum distillation separation is being developed for residue sodium chloride-potassium chloride salts resulting from past pyrochemical processing of plutonium. This process has the potential of providing clean separation of the salt and the actinides with minimal amounts of secondary waste generation. The process could produce chloride salt that could be discarded as low-level waste (LLW) or low actinide content transuranic (TRU) waste, and a concentrated actinide oxide powder that would meet long-term storage standards (DOE-DTD-3013-94) until a final disposition option for all surplus plutonium is chosen.

  16. Geochemical association of plutonium in marine sediments from Palomares (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, M.P. [Dept. de Geoquimica e Impacto Ambiental, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Gasco, C. [Dept. de Geoquimica e Impacto Ambiental, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A. [Dept. de Fisica, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Pujol, L. [Dept. de Fisica, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    1994-12-31

    The geochemical association of plutonium in sediments from the marine ecosystem of Palomares has been studied. A sequential leaching technique using selective extractants has been employed to determine the percentages of Pu in the following forms: (a) readily available, (b) exchangeable and adsorbed to specific sites, (c) associated with organic matter, (d) sesquioxides, (e) residual. Plutonium was found to be associated mainly with phases (c), (d) and (e), and therefore, appears to be relatively immobile and not readily available to bottom feeding biota. The effect of different source terms on Pu distribution is also discussed. (orig.)

  17. HB-Line Plutonium Oxide Data Collection Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, R. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Varble, J. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Jordan, J. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions

    2015-05-26

    HB-Line and H-Canyon will handle and process plutonium material to produce plutonium oxide for feed to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). However, the plutonium oxide product will not be transferred to the MFFF directly from HB-Line until it is packaged into a qualified DOE-STD-3013-2012 container. In the interim, HB-Line will load plutonium oxide into an inner, filtered can. The inner can will be placed in a filtered bag, which will be loaded into a filtered outer can. The outer can will be loaded into a certified 9975 with getter assembly in compliance with onsite transportation requirement, for subsequent storage and transfer to the K-Area Complex (KAC). After DOE-STD-3013-2012 container packaging capabilities are established, the product will be returned to HB-Line to be packaged into a qualified DOE-STD-3013-2012 container. To support the transfer of plutonium oxide to KAC and then eventually to MFFF, various material and packaging data will have to be collected and retained. In addition, data from initial HB-Line processing operations will be needed to support future DOE-STD-3013-2012 qualification as amended by the HB-Line DOE Standard equivalency. As production increases, the volume of data to collect will increase. The HB-Line data collected will be in the form of paper copies and electronic media. Paper copy data will, at a minimum, consist of facility procedures, nonconformance reports (NCRs), and DCS print outs. Electronic data will be in the form of Adobe portable document formats (PDFs). Collecting all the required data for each plutonium oxide can will be no small effort for HB-Line, and will become more challenging once the maximum annual oxide production throughput is achieved due to the sheer volume of data to be collected. The majority of the data collected will be in the form of facility procedures, DCS print outs, and laboratory results. To facilitate complete collection of this data, a traveler form will be developed which

  18. The Measurement of Dissolved Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistlethwayte, D.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experiment in environmental chemistry which serves to determine the dissolved oxygen concentration in both fresh and saline water. Applications of the method at the undergraduate and secondary school levels are recommended. (CC)

  19. Plutonium immobilization plant using glass in new facilities at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a glass immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors.

  20. A study on determination of potentially hazardous plutonium isotopes in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    2013-01-01

    Due to the lack of stable plutonium isotopes, and the high mobility as well as long half-life, plutonium is considered one of the most important radioelement in safety assessment of environmental radioactivity and nuclear waste management. A number of analytical methods have been developed over the past decades for determination of plutonium in environmental samples. The article discusses different analytical techniques and presents the results of plutonium isotopes determination by alpha spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry in environmental samples. The concentrations of plutonium isotopes in analyzed samples indicates its measurement is of great importance for environmental and safety assessment, especially in contaminated areas.

  1. MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLET: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni S. D.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mouth dissolving Tablets disintegrate and/or dissolve rapidly in the saliva without the need for water. Some tablets are designed to dissolve in saliva extremely fast, within a few seconds, and are true fast-dissolving tablets. Others contain agents to enhance the rate of tablet disintegration in the oral cavity, and are more appropriately termed fast-disintegrating tablets, as they may take up to a minute to completely disintegrate. Mouth or Fast dissolving tablets have been formulated for pediatric, geriatric and bedridden patients and in the many elderly persons will have difficulties in taking conventional oral dosage forms because of hand tremors and dysphagia. The technologies used for manufacturing fast-dissolving tablets are freeze-drying, spray-drying, molding, sublimation, sugar-based excipients, compression, and disintegration addition. As a result of increased life expectancy, the elderly constitute a large portion of the worldwide population today. These people eventually will experience deterioration of their physiological and physical abilities.

  2. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL IN 8-10 M NITRIC ACID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T.; Pierce, R.

    2012-02-21

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, the development of a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet which utilizes concentrated (8-10 M) nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solutions containing potassium fluoride (KF) is required. Dissolution of Pu metal in concentrated HNO{sub 3} is desired to eliminate the need to adjust the solution acidity prior to purification by anion exchange. The preferred flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.015-0.07 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd to dissolve the Pu up to 6.75 g/L. An alternate flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.1-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B to dissolve the Pu. The targeted average Pu metal dissolution rate is 20 mg/min-cm{sup 2}, which is sufficient to dissolve a 'standard' 2250-g Pu metal button in 24 h. Plutonium metal dissolution rate measurements showed that if Gd is used as the nuclear poison, the optimum dissolution conditions occur in 10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.04-0.05 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd at 112 to 116 C (boiling). These conditions will result in an estimated Pu metal dissolution rate of {approx}11-15 mg/min-cm{sup 2} and will result in dissolution times of 36-48 h for standard buttons. The recommended minimum and maximum KF concentrations are 0.03 M and 0.07 M, respectively. The maximum KF concentration is dictated by a potential room-temperature Pu-Gd-F precipitation issue at low Pu concentrations. The purpose of the experimental work described in this report was two-fold. Initially a series of screening experiments was performed to measure the dissolution rate of Pu metal as functions of the HNO{sub 3}, KF, and Gd or B concentrations. The objective of the screening tests was to propose optimized conditions for subsequent flowsheet demonstration tests. Based on the rate measurements, this study found that optimal dissolution conditions in solutions containing 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd

  3. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL IN 8-10 M NITRIC ACID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T.; Pierce, R.

    2012-02-21

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, the development of a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet which utilizes concentrated (8-10 M) nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solutions containing potassium fluoride (KF) is required. Dissolution of Pu metal in concentrated HNO{sub 3} is desired to eliminate the need to adjust the solution acidity prior to purification by anion exchange. The preferred flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.015-0.07 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd to dissolve the Pu up to 6.75 g/L. An alternate flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.1-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B to dissolve the Pu. The targeted average Pu metal dissolution rate is 20 mg/min-cm{sup 2}, which is sufficient to dissolve a 'standard' 2250-g Pu metal button in 24 h. Plutonium metal dissolution rate measurements showed that if Gd is used as the nuclear poison, the optimum dissolution conditions occur in 10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.04-0.05 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd at 112 to 116 C (boiling). These conditions will result in an estimated Pu metal dissolution rate of {approx}11-15 mg/min-cm{sup 2} and will result in dissolution times of 36-48 h for standard buttons. The recommended minimum and maximum KF concentrations are 0.03 M and 0.07 M, respectively. The maximum KF concentration is dictated by a potential room-temperature Pu-Gd-F precipitation issue at low Pu concentrations. The purpose of the experimental work described in this report was two-fold. Initially a series of screening experiments was performed to measure the dissolution rate of Pu metal as functions of the HNO{sub 3}, KF, and Gd or B concentrations. The objective of the screening tests was to propose optimized conditions for subsequent flowsheet demonstration tests. Based on the rate measurements, this study found that optimal dissolution conditions in solutions containing 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd

  4. Reactions of plutonium dioxide with water and oxygen-hydrogen mixtures: Mechanisms for corrosion of uranium and plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haschke, John M.; Allen, Thomas H.; Morales, Luis A.

    1999-06-18

    Investigation of the interactions of plutonium dioxide with water vapor and with an oxygen-hydrogen mixture show that the oxide is both chemically reactive and catalytically active. Correspondence of the chemical behavior with that for oxidation of uranium in moist air suggests that similar catalytic processes participate in the mechanism of moisture-enhanced corrosion of uranium and plutonium. Evaluation of chemical and kinetic data for corrosion of the metals leads to a comprehensive mechanism for corrosion in dry air, water vapor, and moist air. Results are applied in confirming that the corrosion rate of Pu in water vapor decreases sharply between 100 and 200 degrees C.

  5. Standard test method for plutonium by Iron (II)/Chromium (VI) amperometric titration

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of plutonium in unirradiated nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide, uranium-plutonium mixed oxides with uranium (U)/plutonium (Pu) ratios up to 21, plutonium metal, and plutonium nitrate solutions. Optimum quantities of plutonium to measure are 7 to 15 mg. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. Nature of nano-sized plutonium particles in soils at the Hanford site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Edgar C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States). Energy and Environment Directorate,; Moore, Dean A.; Felmy, Andrew R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States). Fundamental Science Directorate; Czerwinski, Kenneth R. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry-Reid Center for Environmental Studies; Conradson, Steven D.; Batuk, Olga N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The occurrence of plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) either from direct deposition or from the precipitation of plutonium-bearing solutions in contaminated soils and sediments is well described, particularly for the Hanford site in Washington State. However, past research has suggested that plutonium at the Hanford site may exist in chemical forms in addition to PuO{sub 2}. Although the majority of the plutonium is present as oxide, we present evidence for the formation of nano-sized mixed plutonium- iron phosphate hydroxide structurally related to the rhabdophane group minerals in 216-Z9 crib sediments from Hanford using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The iron-plutonium phosphate formation may depend on the local microenvironment in the sediments, availability of phosphate, and hence the distribution of these minerals may control long-term migration of plutonium in the soil.

  7. Plutonium emission from the Fukushima accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P., E-mail: pbossew@bfs.de [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    A strong earthquake and subsequent tsunami on 11{sup th} March 2011 initiated a severe accident in units 1 to 4 of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, resulting in substantial releases of radionuclides. While much has since been published 00 environmental contamination and exposure to radio--iodine and radio-caesium, little is known about releases of plutonium and other non-volatile elements. Although the total activities of released {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs are of the same order of magnitude as of the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the contribution of little volatile elements, including Pu, is much smaller in Fukushima fallout. The reason is the different physical nature of the accident sequence which led to a release of some 10{sup -}5% of the core inventories only (to be compared with 3.5% from Chernobyl). In this contribution the available data on Pu in Fukushima fallout will be reviewed. Data sources are mainly reports and press releases by Japanese authorities and a few scientific articles. The mean ratio {sup 239+240}Pu: {sup 137}Cs in the near field around the NPP (mainly part of Fukushima prefecture and districts of adjacent prefectures) can be assumed about 3 x 10{sup -}7{sup ,} to be compared to nearly 0.01 in the vicinity of Chernobyl, down to about 3 x 10 {sup -6} in Central Europe. Isotopic ratios {sup 238}Pu: {sup 239+240} Pu are about 2.2 (0.46 and 0.035 in Chemobyl and global fallout, respectively). Activity concentrations of Fukushima- {sup 239+240} Pu in surface soil were found up to above 0.1 Bq/kg d.m. in the immediate vicinity of the Fukushima NPP and about one order of magnitude less in Fukushima city, about 60 km away. The {sup 239+240} Pu activity released into the atmosphere is roughly estimated some 10{sup 9} Bq (Chemobyl : almost 10{sup 14} Bq). (author)

  8. Plutonium Consumption Program, CANDU Reactor Project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-31

    DOE is investigating methods for long term dispositioning of weapons grade plutonium. One such method would be to utilize the plutonium in Mixed OXide (MOX) fuel assemblies in existing CANDU reactors. CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium) reactors are designed, licensed, built, and supported by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), and currently use natural uranium oxide as fuel. The MOX spent fuel assemblies removed from the reactor would be similar to the spent fuel currently produced using natural uranium fuel, thus rendering the plutonium as unattractive as that in the stockpiles of commercial spent fuel. This report presents the results of a study sponsored by the DOE for dispositioning the plutonium using CANDU technology. Ontario Hydro`s Bruce A was used as reference. The fuel design study defined the optimum parameters to disposition 50 tons of Pu in 25 years (or 100 tons). Two alternate fuel designs were studied. Safeguards, security, environment, safety, health, economics, etc. were considered. Options for complete destruction of the Pu were also studied briefly; CANDU has a superior ability for this. Alternative deployment options were explored and the potential impact on Pu dispositioning in the former Soviet Union was studied. An integrated system can be ready to begin Pu consumption in 4 years, with no changes required to the reactors other than for safe, secure storage of new fuel.

  9. Review of reports by J. W. Gofman on inhaled plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, W.J.

    1975-10-10

    Two recent widely circulated reports on the subject of inhaled plutonium have provoked concern among the press and in Congress. These reports, The Cancer Hazard from Inhaled Plutonium, CNR Report 1975-1R, May 14, 1975, and Estimated Production of Human Lung Cancers by Plutonium from Worldwide Fallout, CNR Report 1975-2, July 10, 1975, were written by John W. Gofman and issued by the Committee for Nuclear Responsibility, P. O. Box 2329, Dublin, California 94566. Gofman's reports do not present an objective analysis of the hazard of inhaled plutonium; his arguments, in fact, contradict many conclusions drawn in the scientific literature and supported by experimental data. Because the reports are skillfully written, however, they could easily mislead readers who are not well versed in this area. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to examine Gofman's reports in the light of recent research studies and to identify errors of fact and logic in his arguments.

  10. Plutonium immobilization can loading FY99 component test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    2000-06-01

    This report summarizes FY99 Can Loading work completed for the Plutonium Immobilization Project and it includes details about the Helium hood, cold pour cans, Can Loading robot, vision system, magnetically coupled ray cart and lifts, system integration, Can Loading glovebox layout, and an FY99 cost table.

  11. Occurrence of plutonium in the terrestrial environment at Thule, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Per; Jernström, Jussi; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2011-01-01

    Samples of air, resuspended particles, water, soil and precipitation were collected in an area 10 km south of the Thule 1968 impact point and analysed for their content of 241Am and plutonium. The results from the soil sampling show a very inhomogeneous distribution with hot spots ranging up to s...

  12. Further Studies of Plutonium and Americium at Thule, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker; Dahlgaard, Henning; Nilsson, Karen Kristina

    1984-01-01

    Eleven years after the accidental loss of nuclear weapons in 1968, the fourth scientific expedition to Thule occurred. The estimated inventory of 1 TBq 239,240Pu in the marine sediments was unchanged when compared with the estimate based on the 1974 data. Plutonium from the accident had moved fur...

  13. Kr-85 signatures for various plutonium production schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanoszek, Paul [Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker-Centre for Science and Peace Research (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Kr-85 is considered to be the best atmospheric indicator of unreported weapon-grade material production. This fact is based on the half-life of 10.76 years of Kr-85 and its chemical inactivity, which makes it even detectable after extended periods of cooling time. Kr-85 is produced as fission product during nuclear reactor operation and remains in the fuel until reprocessing starts. In order to determine the detectability of plutonium production the Kr-85 source term has to be assessed. The important issue of this presentation is the question on the minimum signal that an inspector can expect under the assumption that a proliferator minimizes his Kr-85 generation in order to circumvent a Kr-85 detection. A further assumption is that for nuclear weapon production a burn-up of typically around 2 MWd/kg is used. In addition, if clandestine plutonium production takes place, the source term might be used to estimate the amount of separated plutonium. The methodology of this study is based on a linkage between MCNPX and MATLAB. All results for actinide concentrations and Kr-85 are evaluated for different enrichments of U-235 and compared to known literature data. The Kr-85 source term per kilogram plutonium depends on the enrichments. As a result the lowest Kr-85 source term is found for depleted uranium.

  14. Utilization of plutonium in reduced-moderation water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamura, Takamichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    Japan's nuclear policy decides not to have excess plutonium. Upon assuming the future situation of the delay of FBR introduction, the JAERI performs the feasibility study of several types of the reduced-moderation water reactors (RMWRs). As the RMWRs have higher conversion ratio than LWRs, they are expected to enable multi-cycle utilization of plutonium, high burnup and long cycle operation, and enhancement of uranium resource utilization. While the full MOX LWRs are being developed, from viewpoint of suppressing the accumulation of plutonium, the RMWRs are thought to be more suitable. As plutonium inventory is larger in the RMWRs than in the full MOX LWRs, also from viewpoint of non-proliferation of nuclear materials, the RMWRs are thought to be more suitable. The current feasibility study will be performed until 2010 to confirm the position, to construct the reactor concept, and to demonstrate the feasibility on reactor physics and on thermal hydraulics. The present candidate reactor types of the study are three BWR types, heavy water cooled PWR type and light water cooled PWR type. Hereafter comprehensive evaluation from viewpoint of problems on fuel cycle, economy, continuity with conventional LWR technologies will be performed to extract the most suitable concept to satisfy the social needs and to construct the fundamental reactor concept to concentrate R and D effort. (K. Tsuchihashi)

  15. System specification for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document describes functional design requirements for the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS), as required by DOE contract DE-AC03-96SF20948 through contract modification 9 for equipment in Building 707 at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS).

  16. Separation Method of Neptunium From Large Amount of Plutonium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN; Hua; SU; Yu-lan; YING; Zhe-cong; ZHAO; Sheng-yang

    2013-01-01

    A new separation method of neptunium from large amount of plutonium by TEVA column has been developed.A series of influence factors are studied such as resin’s types,valence adjusting of Np and Pu,extraction and elution behavior of Np on TEVA resin.According to above works,a separation procedure is recommended as follows:1)Adjusting the

  17. A Graphical Examination of Uranium and Plutonium Fissility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2008-01-01

    The issue of why only particular isotopes of uranium and plutonium are suitable for use in nuclear weapons is analyzed with the aid of graphs and semiquantitative discussions of parameters such as excitation energies, fission barriers, reaction cross-sections, and the role of processes such as [alpha]-decay and spontaneous fission. The goal is to…

  18. I. The metabolic properties of plutonium and allied materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.G.

    1948-05-24

    This report on the metabolic properties of plutonium and related radioactive materials presents experimental information in the following areas: radioautographic studies; tracer studies (with tables of accumulation in tissues) of actinium, radio-zirconium, technetium, radio-rubidium, radio-germanium, beryllium, and cadmium; decontamination and bone metabolism studies; and radio-chemical isolation.

  19. A perspective on the proliferation risks of plutonium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyman, E.S. [Nuclear Control Institute, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The program of geologic disposal of spent fuel and other plutonium-containing materials is increasingly becoming the target of criticism by individuals who argue that in the future, repositories may become low-cost sources of fissile material for nuclear weapons. This paper attempts to outline a consistent framework for analyzing the proliferation risks of these so-called {open_quotes}plutonium mines{close_quotes} and putting them into perspective. First, it is emphasized that the attractiveness of plutonium in a repository as a source of weapons material depends on its accessibility relative to other sources of fissile material. Then, the notion of a {open_quotes}material production standard{close_quotes} (MPS) is proposed: namely, that the proliferation risks posed by geologic disposal will be acceptable if one can demonstrate, under a number of reasonable scenarios, that the recovery of plutonium from a repository is likely to be as difficult as new production of fissile material. A preliminary analysis suggests that the range of circumstances under which current mined repository concepts would fail to meet this standard is fairly narrow. Nevertheless, a broad application of the MPS may impose severe restrictions on repository design. In this context, the relationship of repository design parameters to easy of recovery is discussed.

  20. Crystalline matrices for the immobilization of plutonium and actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, E.B.; Burakov, E.E.; Galkin, Ya.B.; Starchenko, V.A.; Vasiliev, V.G. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1996-05-01

    The management of weapon plutonium, disengaged as a result of conversion, is considered together with the problem of the actinide fraction of long-lived high level radioactive wastes. It is proposed to use polymineral ceramics based on crystalline host-phases: zircon ZrSiO{sub 4} and zirconium dioxide ZrO{sub 2}, for various variants of the management of plutonium and actinides (including the purposes of long-term safe storage or final disposal from the human activity sphere). It is shown that plutonium and actinides are able to form with these phases on ZrSiO{sub 4} and ZrO{sub 2} was done on laboratory level by the hot pressing method, using the plasmochemical calcination technology. To incorporate simulators of plutonium into the structure of ZrSiO{sub 4} and ZrO{sub 2} in the course of synthesis, an original method developed by the authors as a result of studying the high-uranium zircon (Zr,U) SiO{sub 4} form Chernobyl {open_quotes}lavas{close_quotes} was used.

  1. Online dissolved methane and total dissolved sulfide measurement in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R; Fluggen, Markus; O'Halloran, Kelly; Murthy, Sudhir; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies using short-term manual sampling of sewage followed by off-line laboratory gas chromatography (GC) measurement have shown that a substantial amount of dissolved methane is produced in sewer systems. However, only limited data has been acquired to date due to the low frequency and short span of this method, which cannot capture the dynamic variations of in-sewer dissolved methane concentrations. In this study, a newly developed online measuring device was used to monitor dissolved methane concentrations at the end of a rising main sewer network, over two periods of three weeks each, in summer and early winter, respectively. This device uses an online gas-phase methane sensor to measure methane under equilibrium conditions after being stripped from the sewage. The data are then converted to liquid-phase methane concentrations according to Henry's Law. The detection limit and range are suitable for sewer application and can be adjusted by varying the ratio of liquid-to-gas phase volume settings. The measurement presented good linearity (R² > 0.95) during field application, when compared to off-line measurements. The overall data set showed a wide variation in dissolved methane concentration of 5-15 mg/L in summer and 3.5-12 mg/L in winter, resulting in a significant average daily production of 24.6 and 19.0 kg-CH₄/d, respectively, from the network with a daily average sewage flow of 2840 m³/day. The dissolved methane concentration demonstrated a clear diurnal pattern coinciding with flow and sulfide fluctuation, implying a relationship with the wastewater hydraulic retention time (HRT). The total dissolved sulfide (TDS) concentration in sewers can be determined simultaneously with the same principle.

  2. Electrolysis cell for reprocessing plutonium reactor fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William E.; Steindler, Martin J.; Burris, Leslie

    1986-01-01

    An electrolytic cell for refining a mixture of metals including spent fuel containing U and Pu contaminated with other metals, the cell including a metallic pot containing a metallic pool as one anode at a lower level, a fused salt as the electrolyte at an intermediate level and a cathode and an anode basket in spaced-apart positions in the electrolyte with the cathode and anode being retractable to positions above the electrolyte during which spent fuel may be added to the anode basket and the anode basket being extendable into the lower pool to dissolve at least some metallic contaminants, the anode basket containing the spent fuel acting as a second anode when in the electrolyte.

  3. Standard test method for the determination of impurities in plutonium metal: acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This Test Method covers the determination of 58 trace elements in plutonium (Pu) metal. The Pu sample is dissolved in acid, and the concentration of the trace impurities are determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). 1.2 This Test Method is specific for the determination of trace impurities in Pu metal. It may be applied to other types of Pu materials, such as Pu oxides, if the samples are dissolved and oxidized to the Pu(IV) state. However, it is the responsibility of the user to evaluate the performance of other matrices. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this method to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use of this standard.

  4. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  5. SMALL-SCALE TESTING OF PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.; Scogin, J.; Daniel, G.; King, W.

    2012-06-25

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, SRNL conducted a series of experiments to produce calcined plutonium (Pu) oxide and measure the physical properties and water adsorption of that material. This data will help define the process operating conditions and material handling steps for HB-Line. An anion exchange column experiment produced 1.4 L of a purified 52.6 g/L Pu solution. Over the next nine weeks, seven Pu(IV) oxalate precipitations were performed using the same stock Pu solution, with precipitator feed acidities ranging from 0.77 M to 3.0 M nitric acid and digestion times ranging from 5 to 30 minutes. Analysis of precipitator filtrate solutions showed Pu losses below 1% for all precipitations. The four larger precipitation batches matched the target oxalic acid addition time of 44 minutes within 4 minutes. The three smaller precipitation batches focused on evaluation of digestion time and the oxalic acid addition step ranged from 25-34 minutes because of pump limitations in the low flow range. Following the precipitations, 22 calcinations were performed in the range of 610-690 C, with the largest number of samples calcined at either 650 or 635 C. Characterization of the resulting PuO{sub 2} batches showed specific surface areas in the range of 5-14 m{sup 2}/g, with 16 of the 22 samples in the range of 5-10 m2/g. For samples analyzed with typical handling (exposed to ambient air for 15-45 minutes with relative humidities of 20-55%), the moisture content as measured by Mass Spectrometry ranged from 0.15 to 0.45 wt % and the total mass loss at 1000 C, as measured by TGA, ranged from 0.21 to 0.58 wt %. For the samples calcined between 635 and 650 C, the moisture content without extended exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.38 wt %, and the TGA mass loss ranged from 0.26 to 0.46 wt %. Of these latter samples, the samples

  6. SMALL-SCALE TESTING OF PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.; Scogin, J.; Daniel, G.; King, W.

    2012-06-25

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, SRNL conducted a series of experiments to produce calcined plutonium (Pu) oxide and measure the physical properties and water adsorption of that material. This data will help define the process operating conditions and material handling steps for HB-Line. An anion exchange column experiment produced 1.4 L of a purified 52.6 g/L Pu solution. Over the next nine weeks, seven Pu(IV) oxalate precipitations were performed using the same stock Pu solution, with precipitator feed acidities ranging from 0.77 M to 3.0 M nitric acid and digestion times ranging from 5 to 30 minutes. Analysis of precipitator filtrate solutions showed Pu losses below 1% for all precipitations. The four larger precipitation batches matched the target oxalic acid addition time of 44 minutes within 4 minutes. The three smaller precipitation batches focused on evaluation of digestion time and the oxalic acid addition step ranged from 25-34 minutes because of pump limitations in the low flow range. Following the precipitations, 22 calcinations were performed in the range of 610-690 C, with the largest number of samples calcined at either 650 or 635 C. Characterization of the resulting PuO{sub 2} batches showed specific surface areas in the range of 5-14 m{sup 2}/g, with 16 of the 22 samples in the range of 5-10 m2/g. For samples analyzed with typical handling (exposed to ambient air for 15-45 minutes with relative humidities of 20-55%), the moisture content as measured by Mass Spectrometry ranged from 0.15 to 0.45 wt % and the total mass loss at 1000 C, as measured by TGA, ranged from 0.21 to 0.58 wt %. For the samples calcined between 635 and 650 C, the moisture content without extended exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.38 wt %, and the TGA mass loss ranged from 0.26 to 0.46 wt %. Of these latter samples, the samples

  7. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL IN 8-10 M NITRIC ACID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T. S.; Pierce, R. A.

    2012-07-02

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, the development of a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet which utilizes concentrated (8-10 M) nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solutions containing potassium fluoride (KF) is required. Dissolution of Pu metal in concentrated HNO{sub 3} is desired to eliminate the need to adjust the solution acidity prior to purification by anion exchange. The preferred flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.015-0.07 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd to dissolve the Pu up to 6.75 g/L. An alternate flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.05-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B to dissolve the Pu. The targeted average Pu metal dissolution rate is 20 mg/min-cm{sup 2}, which is sufficient to dissolve a “standard” 2250-g Pu metal button in 24 h. Plutonium metal dissolution rate measurements showed that if Gd is used as the nuclear poison, the optimum dissolution conditions occur in 10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.04-0.05 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd at 112 to 116 °C (boiling). These conditions will result in an estimated Pu metal dissolution rate of ~11-15 mg/min-cm{sup 2} and will result in dissolution times of 36-48 h for standard buttons. The recommended minimum and maximum KF concentrations are 0.03 M and 0.07 M, respectively. The data also indicate that lower KF concentrations would yield dissolution rates for B comparable to those observed with Gd at the same HNO{sub 3} concentration and dissolution temperature. To confirm that the optimal conditions identified by the dissolution rate measurements can be used to dissolve Pu metal up to 6.75 g/L in the presence of representative concentrations of Fe and Gd or B, a series of experiments was performed to demonstrate the flowsheets. In three of the five experiments, the offgas generation rate during the dissolution was measured and samples were analyzed for hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}). The use of

  8. Proceedings of the Plutonium Futures ? The Science 2006 Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluss, M; Hobart, D; Allan, P; Jarvinen, G

    2007-07-12

    Plutonium Futures--The Science 2006 provided opportunities to examine present knowledge of the chemical and physical properties of plutonium and other actinides in complex media and materials; to discuss the current and emerging science (chemistry, physics, materials science, nuclear science, and environmental effects) of plutonium and actinides relevant to enhancing global nuclear security; and to exchange ideas. This international conference also provided a forum for illustrating and enhancing capabilities and interests, and assessing issues in these areas. U.S. and international scientists, engineers, faculty, and students from universities, national laboratories, and DOE's nuclear complex were encouraged to participate and make technical contributions. The Conference ran from Sunday, July 9th through Thursday, July 13th. A popular aspect of the conference was the opening tutorial session on Sunday afternoon intended for students and scientists new to the area of plutonium research. The tutorial was well attended by novices and veterans alike, and featured such diverse topics as; plutonium metallurgy, plutonium in the environment, and international arms control and nonproliferation. Two plenary lectures began each morning and each afternoon session and highlighted the breakout sessions on coordination/organometallic chemistry, solid-state physics, environmental chemistry, materials science, separations and reprocessing, advanced fuels and waste forms, phase transformations, solution and gas-phase chemistry, compounds and complexes, electronic structure and physical properties, and more. Chemistry Highlights--Among the many chemistry highlights presented in this proceedings are the overview of concepts and philosophies on inert nuclear fuel matrices and concerns about the ever-increasing amounts of minor actinides and plutonium generated in the fuel cycle. The various ideas involve multiple reduction schemes for these materials, suggesting fuels for &apos

  9. In Vitro Dissolution Tests of Plutonium and Americium Containing Contamination Originating From ZPPR Fuel Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William F. Bauer; Brian K. Schuetz; Gary M. Huestis; Thomas B. Lints; Brian K. Harris; R. Duane Ball; Gracy Elias

    2012-09-01

    Assessing the extent of internal dose is of concern whenever workers are exposed to airborne radionuclides or other contaminants. Internal dose determinations depend upon a reasonable estimate of the expected biological half-life of the contaminants in the respiratory tract. One issue with refractory elements is determining the dissolution rate of the element. Actinides such as plutonium (Pu) and Americium (Am) tend to be very refractory and can have biological half-lives of tens of years. In the event of an exposure, the dissolution rates of the radionuclides of interest needs to be assessed in order to assign the proper internal dose estimates. During the November 2011 incident at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) involving a ZPPR fuel plate, air filters in a constant air monitor (CAM) and a giraffe filter apparatus captured airborne particulate matter. These filters were used in dissolution rate experiments to determine the apparent dissolution half-life of Pu and Am in simulated biological fluids. This report describes these experiments and the results. The dissolution rates were found to follow a three term exponential decay equation. Differences were noted depending upon the nature of the biological fluid simulant. Overall, greater than 95% of the Pu and 93% of the Am were in a very slow dissolving component with dissolution half-lives of over 10 years.

  10. Long-term behavior of refractory thorium-plutonium dioxide solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claparede, Laurent; Guigue, Mireille; Jouan, Gauthier; Nadah, Nassima; Dacheux, Nicolas; Moisy, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The long-term behavior of Th0.87Pu0.13O2 was examined in nitric acid concentrations. The normalized dissolution rates after 3380 days, range from (1.4 ± 0.2) × 10-6 g m-2 d-1 in 5 M HNO3 down to (3.2 ± 0.4) × 10-8 g m-2 d-1 in 10-3 M HNO3, which confirms the high chemical durability of this solid solution. The amounts of plutonium measured in solution lead to 0.9% and 2.1% of dissolved solid in 1 M and 5 M HNO3, respectively. In such conditions, the time required to reach the full dissolution of the material varies from 430 years (5 M HNO3) to 18,000 years (10-3 M HNO3). Moreover, the partial order related to the proton activity (n = 0.45 ± 0.03) suggests that the dissolution is mainly driven by surface reactions occurring at the solid/liquid interface. The characterization of the leached samples by SEM shows small microstructural modifications (i.e. detachment of crystallites) and the absence of neoformed phase while from PXRD, the unit cell parameter and crystallite size are not significantly affected.

  11. Solution speciation of plutonium and Americium at an Australian legacy radioactive waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi; Harrison, Jennifer J; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry; Wong, Henri K Y; Johansen, Mathew P; Waite, T David; Payne, Timothy E

    2014-09-01

    During the 1960s, radioactive waste containing small amounts of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) was disposed in shallow trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), located near the southern suburbs of Sydney, Australia. Because of periodic saturation and overflowing of the former disposal trenches, Pu and Am have been transferred from the buried wastes into the surrounding surface soils. The presence of readily detected amounts of Pu and Am in the trench waters provides a unique opportunity to study their aqueous speciation under environmentally relevant conditions. This study aims to comprehensively investigate the chemical speciation of Pu and Am in the trench water by combining fluoride coprecipitation, solvent extraction, particle size fractionation, and thermochemical modeling. The predominant oxidation states of dissolved Pu and Am species were found to be Pu(IV) and Am(III), and large proportions of both actinides (Pu, 97.7%; Am, 86.8%) were associated with mobile colloids in the submicron size range. On the basis of this information, possible management options are assessed.

  12. Utilization of plutonium in a high temperature gas-cooled reactor with spherical fuel elements; Nutzung von Plutonium im Kugelhaufen-Hochtemperaturreaktor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorochev, M.

    1998-09-01

    This thesis deals with the use of reactor and weapon grade plutonium in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTR) with spherical fuel elements. As an example, a 350 MW{sub th} MODUL type reactor is investigated in detail. The purpose of the study was to find the possibilities and limits of using plutonium effectively in a Pebble Bed HTR. Fuel cycles were optimized with respect to different goals under the condition that safety requirements must be strictly fulfilled. A compromise between opposite optimization criteria (e.g., higher destruction rate or smaller residual amount of plutonium in the spent fuel) was achieved. Calculational studies of plutonium cycles in a Pebble Red Reactor were performed using the VSOP Code. The results show that a Pebble Red Reactor potentially provides for extremely high burnup of plutonium. The high burnup was achieved by separate loading of the plutonium in feed and of uranium in breed type fuel elements. Both fuel element types undergo different numbers of passes through the reactor until the intended burnup is achieved. Two reference cases are derived from a parametric study, one for the use of reactor grade plutonium with uranium, and another one for weapon grade plutonium with thorium as the breed material. Both reference cycles prove that the HTR-350 Module reactor offers a good concept for the destruction of both plutonium grades. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird der Einsatz von Waffen- und Reaktorplutonium in Hochtemperaturreaktoren mit kugelfoermigen Brennelementen behandelt. Als Anwendungsbeispiel wird eine modulare Anlage mit einer Leistung von 350 MW{sub th} im Detail untersucht. Das Ziel der Arbeit bestand darin, die Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen fuer einen effektiven Abbrand von Plutonium in Kugelhaufenreaktoren kennenzulernen. Unter Wahrung hoher Sicherheitsansprueche wurden Brennstoffkreislaeufe identifiziert, welche fuer unterschiedliche Zielvorgaben optimiert wurden. Schliesslich wurde ein Kompromiss

  13. Explosives Dissolved from Unexploded Ordnance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    moisture content) also result in higher corrosion rates especially if the moisture has high dissolved oxygen content ( Manahan 1994). Corrosion of metal is...R. 1993. Handbook of hydrology. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc. Manahan , S. 1994. Environmental Chemistry. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers. McCormick

  14. Dissolving pulp from jute stick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Mhafuza; Rahaman, M Mostafizur; Nayeem, Jannatun; Sarkar, Mamon; Jahan, M Sarwar

    2015-01-22

    Jute stick is woody portion of jute plant, which remain as leftover after extracting bast fibre. Presently, it is being used for fencing in the rural area. In this investigation, biorefinery concept was initiated in producing dissolving pulp from jute stick by pre-hydrolysis kraft process. At 170°C for 1h of pre-hydrolysis, 70% of hemicelluloses was dissolved with negligible loss of α-cellulose. At this condition, 75% of dissolved sugars in the pre-hydrolysis liquor were in the oligomeric form. The pre-hydrolysed jute stick was subsequently pulped by kraft process with the variation of active alkali. The pulp yield was 36.2% with kappa number 18.5 at the conditions of 16% active alkali for 2h of cooking at 170°C. Final pulp was produced with 92% α-cellulose and 89% brightness after D0EpD1EpD1 bleaching. The produced dissolving pulp can be used in rayon production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Release of dissolved carbohydrates by

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oostende, N.; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Vyverman, W.; Sabbe, K.

    2013-01-01

    The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi plays a pivotal role in the marine carbon cycle. However, we have only limited understanding of how its life cycle and bacterial interactions affect the production and composition of dissolved extracellular organic carbon and its transfer to the particu

  16. Integrated development and testing plan for the plutonium immobilization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, T.

    1998-07-01

    This integrated plan for the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) describes the technology development and major project activities necessary to support the deployment of the immobilization approach for disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium. The plan describes details of the development and testing (D&T) tasks needed to provide technical data for design and operation of a plutonium immobilization plant based on the ceramic can-in-canister technology (''Immobilization Fissile Material Disposition Program Final Immobilization Form Assessment and Recommendation'', UCRL-ID-128705, October 3, 1997). The plan also presents tasks for characterization and performance testing of the immobilization form to support a repository licensing application and to develop the basis for repository acceptance of the plutonium form. Essential elements of the plant project (design, construction, facility activation, etc.) are described, but not developed in detail, to indicate how the D&T results tie into the overall plant project. Given the importance of repository acceptance, specific activities to be conducted by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) to incorporate the plutonium form in the repository licensing application are provided in this document, together with a summary of how immobilization D&T activities provide input to the license activity. The ultimate goal of the Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize from about 18 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons usable plutonium materials in a manner that meets the ''spent fuel'' standard (Fissile Materials Storage and Disposition Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, ''Storage and Disposition Final PEIS'', issued January 14, 1997, 62 Federal Register 3014) and is acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. In the can-in-canister technology

  17. Erosion patterns on dissolving blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courrech du Pont, Sylvain; Cohen, Caroline; Derr, Julien; Berhanu, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Patterns in nature are shaped under water flows and wind action, and the understanding of their morphodynamics goes through the identification of the physical mechanisms at play. When a dissoluble body is exposed to a water flow, typical patterns with scallop-like shapes may appear [1,2]. These shapes are observed on the walls of underground rivers or icebergs. We experimentally study the erosion of dissolving bodies made of salt, caramel or ice into water solutions without external flow. The dissolving mixture, which is created at the solid/liquid interface, undergoes a buoyancy-driven instability comparable to a Rayleigh-Bénard instability so that the dissolving front destabilizes into filaments. This mechanism yields to spatial variations of solute concentration and to differential dissolution of the dissolving block. We first observe longitudinal stripes with a well defined wavelength, which evolve towards chevrons and scallops that interact and move again the dissolving current. Thanks to a careful analysis of the competing physical mechanisms, we propose scaling laws, which account for the characteristic lengths and times of the early regime in experiments. The long-term evolution of patterns is understood qualitatively. A close related mechanism has been proposed to explain structures observed on the basal boundary of ice cover on brakish lakes [3] and we suggest that our experiments are analogous and explain the scallop-like patterns on iceberg walls. [1] P. Meakin and B. Jamtveit, Geological pattern formation by growth and dissolution in aqueous systems, Proc. R. Soc. A 466, 659-694 (2010). [2] P.N. Blumberg and R.L. Curl, Experimental and theoretical studies of dissolution roughness, J. Fluid Mech. 65, 735-751 (1974). [3] L. Solari and G. Parker, Morphodynamic modelling of the basal boundary of ice cover on brakish lakes, J.G.R. 118, 1432-1442 (2013).

  18. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  19. Thermal and Physical Properties of Plutonium Dioxide Produced from the Oxidation of Metal: a Data Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne, David M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-13

    The ARIES Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory removes plutonium metal from decommissioned nuclear weapons, and converts it to plutonium dioxide in a specially-designed Direct Metal Oxidation furnace. The plutonium dioxide is analyzed for specific surface area, particle size distribution, and moisture content. The purpose of these analyses is to certify that the plutonium dioxide powder meets or exceeds the specifications of the end-user, and the specifications for the packaging and transport of nuclear materials. Analytical results from plutonium dioxide from ARIES development activities, from ARIES production activities, from muffle furnace oxidation of metal, and from metal that was oxidized over a lengthy time interval in air at room temperature, are presented. The processes studied produce plutonium dioxide powder with distinct differences in measured properties, indicating the significant influence of oxidation conditions on physical properties.

  20. Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in existing facilities at the Savannah River site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources, and through a ceramic immobilization process converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans.

  1. Controllability of plutonium concentration for FBR fuel at a solvent extraction process in the PUREX process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enokida, Youichi; Kitano, Motoki; Sawada, Kayo [Nagoya University, 1 Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4630052 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Typical Purex solvent extraction systems for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel have a feed material containing dilute, 1% in weight, plutonium, along with uranium and fission products. Current reprocessing proposals call for no separation of the pure plutonium. The work described in this paper studied, by computer simulation, the fundamental feasibility of preparing a 20% concentrated plutonium product solution from the 1% feed by adjusting only the feed rates and acid concentrations of the incoming streams and without the addition of redox reagents for the plutonium. A set of process design flowsheets has been developed to realize a concentrated plutonium solution of a 20% stream from the dilute plutonium feed without using redox reagents. (authors)

  2. An MS-DOS-based program for analyzing plutonium gamma-ray spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhter, W.D.; Buckley, W.M.

    1989-09-07

    A plutonium gamma-ray analysis system that operates on MS-DOS-based computers has been developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to perform in-field analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra for plutonium isotopics. The program titled IAEAPU consists of three separate applications: a data-transfer application for transferring spectral data from a CICERO multichannel analyzer to a binary data file, a data-analysis application to analyze plutonium gamma-ray spectra, for plutonium isotopic ratios and weight percents of total plutonium, and a data-quality assurance application to check spectral data for proper data-acquisition setup and performance. Volume 3 contains the software listings for these applications.

  3. Stabilization and immobilization of military plutonium: A non-proliferation perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leventhal, P. [Nuclear Control Institute, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Nuclear Control Institute welcomes this DOE-sponsored technical workshop on stabilization and immobilization of weapons plutonium (W Pu) because of the significant contribution it can make toward the ultimate non-proliferation objective of eliminating weapons-usable nuclear material, plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU), from world commerce. The risk of theft or diversion of these materials warrants concern, as only a few kilograms in the hands of terrorists or threshold states would give them the capability to build nuclear weapons. Military plutonium disposition questions cannot be addressed in isolation from civilian plutonium issues. The National Academy of Sciences has urged that {open_quotes}further steps should be taken to reduce the proliferation risks posed by all of the world`s plutonium stocks, military and civilian, separated and unseparated...{close_quotes}. This report discusses vitrification and a mixed oxide fuels option, and the effects of disposition choices on civilian plutonium fuel cycles.

  4. MCNP Parametric Studies of Plutonium Metal and Various Interstitial Moderating Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glazener, Natasha [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kamm, Ryan James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) has performed calculations evaluating the effect of different interstitial materials on 5.0-kg of plutonium metal. As with all non-fissionable interstitials, the results here illustrate that it requires significant quantities of oil to be intimately mixed with plutonium, reflected by a thick layer of full-density water, to achieve the same reactivity as that of solid plutonium metal.

  5. Anticipated Radiological Dose to Worker for Plutonium Stabilization and Handling at PFP - Project W-460

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, E V

    2000-01-01

    This report provides estimates of the expected whole body and extremity radiological dose, expressed as dose equivalent (DE), to workers conducting planned plutonium (Pu) stabilization processes at the Hanford Site Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The report is based on a time and motion dose study commissioned for Project W-460, Plutonium Stabilization and Handling, to provide personnel exposure estimates for construction work in the PFP storage vault area plus operation of stabilization and packaging equipment at PFP.

  6. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) [SEC 1 THRU 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ULLAH, M K

    2001-02-26

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south central Washington State. The DOE Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) is with Fluor Hanford Inc. (FH). Westinghouse Safety Management Systems (WSMS) provides management support to the PFP facility. Since 1991, the mission of the PFP has changed from plutonium material processing to preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). The PFP is in transition between its previous mission and the proposed D and D mission. The objective of the transition is to place the facility into a stable state for long-term storage of plutonium materials before final disposition of the facility. Accordingly, this update of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) reflects the current status of the buildings, equipment, and operations during this transition. The primary product of the PFP was plutonium metal in the form of 2.2-kg, cylindrical ingots called buttoms. Plutonium nitrate was one of several chemical compounds containing plutonium that were produced as an intermediate processing product. Plutonium recovery was performed at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) and plutonium conversion (from a nitrate form to a metal form) was performed at the Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line as the primary processes. Plutonium oxide was also produced at the Remote Mechanical A (RMA) Line. Plutonium processed at the PFP contained both weapons-grade and fuels-grade plutonium materials. The capability existed to process both weapons-grade and fuels-grade material through the PRF and only weapons-grade material through the RMC Line although fuels-grade material was processed through the line before 1984. Amounts of these materials exist in storage throughout the facility in various residual forms left from previous years of operations.

  7. Preparation of fused chloride salts for use in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

    1986-07-01

    The Plutonium Metal Technology Group at Los Alamos routinely uses pyrochemical processes to produce and purify plutonium from impure sources. The basic processes (metal production, metal purification, and residue treatment) involve controlling oxidation and reduction reactions between plutonium and its compounds in molten salts. Current production methods are described, as well as traditional approaches and recent developments in the preparation of solvent salts for electrorefining, molten salt extraction, lean metal (pyroredox) purification, and direct oxide reduction.

  8. Compatibility of selected elastomers with plutonium glovebox environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, R.

    1994-06-01

    This illustrative test was undertaken as a result of on-going failure of elastomer components in plutonium gloveboxes. These failures represent one of the major sources of required maintenance to keep gloveboxes operational. In particular, it was observed that the introduction of high specific activity Pu-238 into a glovebox, otherwise contaminated with Pu-239, resulted in an inordinate failure of elastomer components. Desiring to keep replacement of elastomer components to a minimum, a decision to explore a few possible alternative elastomer candidates was undertaken and reported upon herewith. Sample specimens of Neoprene, Urethane, Viton, and Hypalon elastomeric formulations were obtained from the Bacter Rubber Company. Strips of the elastomer specimens were placed in a plutonium glovebox and outside of a glovebox, and were observed for a period of three years. Of the four types of elastomers, only Hypalon remained completely viable.

  9. Studies on health risks to persons exposed to plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H. Jr.; Healy, J.W.; Hempelmann, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Two studies on Los Alamos workers exposed to plutonium have shown no increase in cancers of the lung, bone, and liver, three principal cancers of interest following plutonium deposition. A clinical study of 26 workers exposed 32 years ago shows no cases of cancer other than two skin cancers that were excised successfully. A mortality study of 224 workers, all persons with estimated deposition of 10 nCi or moe in 1974, showed no excess of mortality due to any cause. No bone or liver cancers were present, while one death due to lung cancer was observed as compared to an expected three cases. These negative findings on such small groups are not able to prove or disprove the validity of commonly used risk estimates as recommended in the 1972 BEIR and 1977 UNSCEAR reports, but the data do indicate that much higher risk estimates are not warranted.

  10. Literature review for oxalate oxidation processes and plutonium oxalate solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign.

  11. Raman spectrum of plutonium dioxide: Vibrational and crystal field modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, M.; Magnani, N.; Bonales, L. J.; Mastromarino, S.; Colle, J.-Y.; Cobos, J.; Manara, D.

    2017-03-01

    The Raman spectrum of plutonium dioxide is studied both experimentally and theoretically. Particular attention has been devoted to the identification of high-energy modes at 2110 and 2620 c m-1 , whose attribution has so far been controversial. The temperature dependence of both modes suggests an electronic origin for them. Original crystal field (CF) calculations reported in this work show that these two modes can be respectively assigned to the Γ1→Γ5 and Γ1→Γ3 CF transitions within the I54 manifold. These two modes, together with the only vibrational line foreseen by the group theory for the F m -3 m Pu O2 symmetry—the T2 gPu -O stretching mode observed at 478 c m-1 —can thus be used as a Raman fingerprint of fcc plutonium dioxide.

  12. Interaction of Plutonium with Bacteria in the Repository Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillow, J. B.; Francis, A. J.; Lucero, D. A.; Papenguth, H. W.

    2000-07-01

    Microorganisms in the nuclear waste repository environment may interact with plutonium through (1) sorption, (2) intracellular accumulation, and (3) transformation speciation. These interactions may retard or enhance the mobility of Pu by precipitation reactions, biocolloid formation, or production of more soluble species. Current and planned radioactive waste repository environments, such as deep subsurface halite and granite formations, are considered extreme relative to life processes in the near-surface terrestrial environment. There is a paucity of information on the biotransformation of radionuclides by microorganisms present in such extreme environments. In order to gain a better understanding of the interaction of plutonium with microorganisms present in the waste repository sites we investigated a pure culture (Halomonas sp.) and a mixed culture of bacteria (Haloarcula sinaiiensis, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Altermonas sp., and a {gamma}-proteobacterium) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and an Acetobacterium sp. from alkaline groundwater at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland.

  13. Complexation of Plutonium (IV) With Sulfate At Variable Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Xia; J.I. Friese; D.A> Moore; P.P. Bachelor; L. Rao

    2006-10-05

    The complexation of plutonium(IV) with sulfate at variable temperatures has been investigated by solvent extraction method. A NaBrO{sub 3} solution was used as holding oxidant to maintain the plutonium(IV) oxidation state throughout the experiments. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of sulfate were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Pu(IV)-HSO{sub 4}{sup -} complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase, were calculated from the effect of [HSO{sub 4}{sup -}] on the distribution ratio. The enthalpy and entropy of complexation were calculated from the stability constants at different temperatures using the Van't Hoff equation.

  14. Internal dosimetry of plutonium using the late urinary excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R C; Abani, M C

    2000-10-01

    An attempt has been made to standardize the methodology of internal dose computation from the late urinary excretion data. The methodology was selected keeping in mind the most recent ICRP publications and the results of internal dosimetry intercomparison studies reported in literature. The key element of this methodology is the PC-based computational software LUDEP 2.05, which implements the new model of the human respiratory tract. Late urinary excretion data of three male subjects involved in accidental intakes of plutonium aerosols more than 25 years ago were interpreted in terms of intakes and internal doses with the aid of the standardized methodology. An important implication of this work is that late urinary excretion data of the occupational workers of any plutonium handling facility could be used to show the compliance with the life-time dose limit.

  15. STAINLESS STEEL INTERACTIONS WITH SALT CONTAINING PLUTONIUM OXIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Z.; Chandler, G.; Dunn, K.; Stefek, T.; Summer, M.

    2010-02-01

    Salt containing plutonium oxide materials are treated, packaged and stored within nested, stainless steel containers based on requirements established in the DOE 3013 Standard. The moisture limit for the stored materials is less than 0.5 weight %. Surveillance activities which are conducted to assess the condition of the containers and assure continuing 3013 container integrity include the destructive examination of a select number of containers to determine whether corrosion attack has occurred as a result of stainless steel interactions with salt containing plutonium oxides. To date, some corrosion has been observed on the innermost containers, however, no corrosion has been noted on the outer containers and the integrity of the 3013 container systems is not expected to be compromised over a 50 year storage lifetime.

  16. Fissile materials disposition program plutonium immobilization project baseline formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B B; Armantrout, G A; Gray, L; Herman, C C; Shaw, H F; Van Konynenburg, R A

    2000-09-01

    Since 1994 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), with the help of several other laboratories and university groups, has been the lead laboratory for the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). This involves, among other tasks, the development of a formulation and a fabrication process for a ceramic to be used in the immobilization of excess weapons-usable plutonium. This report reviews the history of the project as it relates to the development of the ceramic form. It describes the sample test plan for the pyrochlore-rich ceramic formulation that was selected, and it specifies the baseline formulation that has been adopted. It also presents compositional specifications (e.g. precursor compositions and mixing recipes) and other form and process specifications that are linked or potentially linked to the baseline formulation.

  17. Characteriztion of particulate plutonium released in fuel cycle operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seefeldt, W.B.; Mecham, W.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1976-05-01

    An estimate of the plutonium source terms is made for the fuel cycles of three reactor types on the basis of currently applied, currently available, and estimated future technology. The three reactors are LWR-U, LWR-Pu, and LMFBR. The source terms are characterized as to quantity, form, and particle size distribution. Historical operating data for existing plants and the state of the art of the technology of air cleaning are reviewed.

  18. Alternative Evaluation for the REDOX (202-S) Plutonium Loadout Hood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. R. Kerr

    1999-09-20

    Located in the 200 Areas is the inactive 202-S Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) Facility, which is managed by the Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Surveillance/Maintenance and Transition project. This facility is contaminated from nuclear material processes related to nuclear material separation from Hanford Site facility operations. This alternative evaluation report describes the alternatives and selection criteria based on the necessary protective requirements to maintain the REDOX Plutonium Loadout Hood in a safe and stable condition awaiting a final waste response action.

  19. Sea shipment of Japanese plutonium under international law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyke, J.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The Japanese government`s shipment of plutonium from France to Japan raises a number of significant questions under international law. The first shipment, which began in November 1992 on the Akatsuki Maru, violated international law in several respects. This article analyzes the international law that governs these shipments, focusing on the rules that govern navigation on the high seas and exclusive economic zones, territorial seas, and international straits, and also addresses the question of liability for damage. 281 refs.

  20. SEPARATION OF NEPTUNIUM FROM PLUTONIUM BY CHLORINATION AND SUBLIMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, S.M.

    1958-11-18

    A process is described for separating neptunium from plutonium. The method consists in chlorinating a mixture of the oxides of Np and Pu by contacting the mixture with carbon tetrachloride at about 500 icient laborato C. ln this manner the Np is converted to the tetrachlorlde and the Pu converted to the trichloride. Since NpCl/sub 4/ is more latile than PuCl/sub 3/, the separation ls effected by vaporing sad subsequently condenslng the NpCl/sub 4/.

  1. System design document for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-08

    The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements for DOE standards for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This document describes the highest level design information and user characteristics from an operational perspective. It provides guidance for developing procurement and installation specifications, interface requirements, and test plans.

  2. Chemical thermodynamics of nuclear materials. 6. (Plutonium + hydrogen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.M.; Hodges, A.E. III; Haschke, J.M.; Oetting, F.L. (Rockwell International Corp., Golden, CO (USA). Rocky Flats Plant)

    1982-02-01

    The standard enthalpies of formation of cubic PuHsub(x)(c), where x = 1.99, 2.21, and 2.62, were determined by solution calorimetry and the results are reported. The results are in reasonable agreement with the enthalpies obtained by Gibbs-Duhem integration of the equilibrium hydrogen pressure for (plutonium + hydrogen) over the composition range PuHsub(1.9) to PuHsub(3.0).

  3. Coordination chemistry of two heavy metals: I, Ligand preferences in lead(II) complexation, toward the development of therapeutic agents for lead poisoning: II, Plutonium solubility and speciation relevant to the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neu, Mary Patricia [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The coordination chemistry and solution behavior of the toxic ions lead(II) and plutonium(IV, V, VI) have been investigated. The ligand pKas and ligand-lead(II) stability constants of one hydroxamic acid and four thiohydroaxamic acids were determined. Solution thermodynamic results indicate that thiohydroxamic acids are more acidic and slightly better lead chelators than hydroxamates, e.g., N-methylthioaceto-hydroxamic acid, pKa = 5.94, logβ120 = 10.92; acetohydroxamic acid, pKa = 9.34, logβ120 = 9.52. The syntheses of lead complexes of two bulky hydroxamate ligands are presented. The X-ray crystal structures show the lead hydroxamates are di-bridged dimers with irregular five-coordinate geometry about the metal atom and a stereochemically active lone pair of electrons. Molecular orbital calculations of a lead hydroxamate and a highly symmetric pseudo octahedral lead complex were performed. The thermodynamic stability of plutonium(IV) complexes of the siderophore, desferrioxamine B (DFO), and two octadentate derivatives of DFO were investigated using competition spectrophotometric titrations. The stability constant measured for the plutonium(IV) complex of DFO-methylterephthalamide is logβ120 = 41.7. The solubility limited speciation of 242Pu as a function of time in near neutral carbonate solution was measured. Individual solutions of plutonium in a single oxidation state were added to individual solutions at pH = 6.0, T = 30.0, 1.93 mM dissolved carbonate, and sampled over intervals up to 150 days. Plutonium solubility was measured, and speciation was investigated using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemical methods.

  4. Coordination chemistry of two heavy metals: I, Ligand preferences in lead(II) complexation, toward the development of therapeutic agents for lead poisoning: II, Plutonium solubility and speciation relevant to the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neu, M.P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The coordination chemistry and solution behavior of the toxic ions lead(II) and plutonium(IV, V, VI) have been investigated. The ligand pK{sub a}s and ligand-lead(II) stability constants of one hydroxamic acid and four thiohydroaxamic acids were determined. Solution thermodynamic results indicate that thiohydroxamic acids are more acidic and slightly better lead chelators than hydroxamates, e.g., N-methylthioaceto-hydroxamic acid, pK{sub a} = 5.94, log{beta}{sub 120} = 10.92; acetohydroxamic acid, pK{sub a} = 9.34, log{beta}{sub l20} = 9.52. The syntheses of lead complexes of two bulky hydroxamate ligands are presented. The X-ray crystal structures show the lead hydroxamates are di-bridged dimers with irregular five-coordinate geometry about the metal atom and a stereochemically active lone pair of electrons. Molecular orbital calculations of a lead hydroxamate and a highly symmetric pseudo octahedral lead complex were performed. The thermodynamic stability of plutonium(IV) complexes of the siderophore, desferrioxamine B (DFO), and two octadentate derivatives of DFO were investigated using competition spectrophotometric titrations. The stability constant measured for the plutonium(IV) complex of DFO-methylterephthalamide is log{beta}{sub 110} = 41.7. The solubility limited speciation of {sup 242}Pu as a function of time in near neutral carbonate solution was measured. Individual solutions of plutonium in a single oxidation state were added to individual solutions at pH = 6.0, T = 30.0, 1.93 mM dissolved carbonate, and sampled over intervals up to 150 days. Plutonium solubility was measured, and speciation was investigated using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemical methods.

  5. Chemical form of plutonium in foodstuffs - its influence on gastro-intestinal uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.R. (National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell (UK))

    1984-01-01

    A brief review is given of some studies of the chemical form of plutonium in food eaten by man and how this may influence gastrointestinal uptake. Phytate ligands, present in many foods, bind strongly to plutonium. High levels of enzyme phytase in rat intestines enhance the gastrointestinal uptake of plutonium phytate in rats compared to rabbits. Taking into account 1) the low levels of phytase in human intestine and 2) the possibility of competing precipitation reactions, it would seem unlikely that the phytate-mediated elevation of plutonium uptake seen in rats will apply to humans.

  6. Lung cancer risks from plutonium: an updated analysis of data from the Mayak worker cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, E S; Sokolnikov, M E; Preston, D L; Schonfeld, S J; Schadilov, A E; Vasilenko, E K; Koshurnikova, N A

    2013-03-01

    Workers at the Mayak nuclear facility in the Russian Federation offer a unique opportunity to evaluate health risks from exposure to inhaled plutonium. Risks of mortality from lung cancer, the most serious carcinogenic effect of plutonium, were evaluated in 14,621 Mayak workers who were hired in the period from 1948-1982, followed for at least 5 years, and either monitored for plutonium or never worked with plutonium. Over the follow-up period from 1953-2008, there were 486 deaths from lung cancer, 446 of them in men. In analyses that were adjusted for external radiation dose and smoking, the plutonium excess relative risk (ERR) per Gy declined with attained age and was higher for females than for males. The ERR per Gy for males at age 60 was 7.4 (95% CI: 5.0-11) while that for females was 24 (95% CI: 11-56). When analyses were restricted to plutonium doses plutonium exposure and 29 (6%) to external exposure. Analyses of the 12,708 workers with information on smoking indicated that the relationship of plutonium exposure and smoking was likely sub-multiplicative (P = 0.011) and strongly indicated that it was super-additive (P plutonium dose estimates in this cohort, they are nevertheless subject to large uncertainties. Large bioassay measurement errors alone are likely to have resulted in serious underestimation of risks, whereas other sources of uncertainty may have biased results in ways that are difficult to predict.

  7. Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-08-05

    This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

  8. Plutonium in a grassland ecosystem. [Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, C.A.

    1976-08-01

    A study was made of plutonium contamination of grassland at the Rocky Flats plant northwest of Denver, Colorado. Of interest were: the definition of major plutonium-containing ecosystem compartments; the relative amounts in those compartments; how those values related to studies done in other geographical areas; whether or not the predominant isotopes, /sup 238/Pu and /sup 239/Pu, behaved differently; and what mechanisms might have allowed for the observed patterns of contamination. Samples of soil, litter, vegetation, arthropods, and small mammals were collected for Pu analysis and mass determination from each of two macroplots. Small aliquots (5 g or less) were analyzed by a rapid liquid scintillation technique and by alpha spectrometry. Of the compartments sampled, greater than 99 percent of the total plutonium was contained in the soil and the concentrations were significantly inversely correlated with distance from the contamination source, depth of the sample, and particle size of the sieved soil samples. The soil data suggested that the distribution of contamination largely resulted from physical transport processes.

  9. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU 366) FY2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Campbell, Scott [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Desert Research Institute (DRI) is conducting a field assessment of the potential for contaminated soil transport from the Plutonium Valley Contamination Area (CA) as a result of wind transport and storm runoff in support of National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) efforts to complete regulatory closure of the contamination areas. The DRI work is intended to confirm the likely mechanism(s) of transport and determine the meteorological conditions that might cause movement of contaminated soils. The emphasis of the work is on collecting sediment transported by channelized storm runoff at the Plutonium Valley investigation sites. These data will inform closure plans that are being developed, which will facilitate the appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring. In 2011, DRI installed two meteorological monitoring stations south (station #1) and north (station #2) of the Plutonium Valley CA and a runoff sediment sampling station within the CA. Temperature, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, precipitation, solar radiation, barometric pressure, soil temperature, and airborne particulate concentration are collected at both meteorological stations. The maximum, minimum, and average or total (as appropriate) for each of these parameters are recorded for each 10-minute interval. The sediment sampling station includes an automatically activated ISCO sampling pump with collection bottles for suspended sediment, which is activated when sufficient flow is present in the channel, and passive traps for bedload material that is transported down the channel during runoff events. This report presents data collected from these stations during fiscal year (FY) 2015.

  10. Assessment of the basis for modeling releases from plutonium oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, L.A.; Mishima, J.

    1990-08-01

    Ideally, a model of the release of plutonium aerosols from plutonium during oxidation or combustion should begin from a description of the plutonium material and its surroundings and proceed unequivocally to a situation-dependent estimate of the amount of oxide released and its size distribution. Such a model would need to provide a description of the heat- and mass-transfer processes involved and link them directly to the rate of aerosol production. The first step, the description of heat and mass transfer, is more easily achieved from current information than the second, the aerosol release. The sections of this report titled Physical Fundamentals'' and Available Theoretical Information'' describe the approach that would be required for theoretical modeling. The Experimental Results'' section describes the information on aerosol releases, size distributions, peak temperatures, oxidation rates, and experimental conditions that we have gleaned from the existing experimental literature. The data is summarized and the bibliography lists the relevant literature that has and has not been reviewed. 42 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Dismantlement and decontamination of a plutonium-238 facility at SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.H. Jr.; Hootman, H.E.

    1994-01-01

    There has been very little, documented decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) experience on which to project cleanup costs and schedules for plutonium facilities at SRS and other DOE sites. A portion of the HB-Line, a plutonium-238 processing facility at SRS, has been undergoing D&D intermittently since 1984. Although this cleanup effort was not originally intended to quantify results, some key data have been project has demonstrated effective methods of accumulated, and the performing D&D work, and has demonstrated cleanup equipment and techniques under conditions of high contamination. Plutonium facilities where D&D is already underway provide an opportunity for` timely field testing of characterization, size reduction, and decontamination techniques. Some data are presented here; however, more specific tests and data may be obtained during the remainder of this project. This project has been recommended as a candidate test facility for a DOE planned ``Integrated D&D Demonstration`` managed by EM-50 to develop and demonstrate technology for D&D and surplus facilities deactivation. Both the remainder of this project and the Integrated D&D Demonstration Program can benefit from a joint effort, and the, overall costs should be reduced.

  12. Weapons plutonium for electricity: a win-win-win solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, P. [Synatom, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    Incorporating recovered weapons-grade plutonium into mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel to produce electricity in currently operating reactors is presented as the best option for its disposition from a European utilities perspective. It would be a win-win-win solution. Firstly, it would be a win for the US government as the only technology readily available on an industrial scale and therefore the fastest way to convert the surplus plutonium to a highly proliferation resistant spent fuel form, as well as being the most cost-effective option. It would also have the political advantages of proving to the world that the US is dedicated to the elimination of its surplus plutonium without delay, receiving support from the Western allies of the US, and encouraging the Russians to take the same route. Secondly, it would be a win for the US utilities both in economic terms and in improving their public image through their contribution to world disarmament. Finally, it would be a win for the world as the fastest route to making disarmament irreversible and as the only solution that conserves natural resources. (8 figures; 14 references) (UK).

  13. Status of plutonium ceramic immobilization processes and immobilization forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Van Konynenburg, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Vance, E.R.; Jostsons, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Menai (Australia)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Immobilization in a ceramic followed by permanent emplacement in a repository or borehole is one of the alternatives currently being considered by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program for the ultimate disposal of excess weapons-grade plutonium. To make Pu recovery more difficult, radioactive cesium may also be incorporated into the immobilization form. Valuable data are already available for ceramics form R&D efforts to immobilize high-level and mixed wastes. Ceramics have a high capacity for actinides, cesium, and some neutron absorbers. A unique characteristic of ceramics is the existence of mineral analogues found in nature that have demonstrated actinide immobilization over geologic time periods. The ceramic form currently being considered for plutonium disposition is a synthetic rock (SYNROC) material composed primarily of zirconolite (CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}), the desired actinide host phase, with lesser amounts of hollandite (BaAl{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 16}) and rutile (TiO{sub 2}). Alternative actinide host phases are also being considered. These include pyrochlore (Gd{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}), zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}), and monazite (CePO{sub 4}), to name a few of the most promising. R&D activities to address important technical issues are discussed. Primarily these include moderate scale hot press fabrications with plutonium, direct loading of PuO{sub 2} powder, cold press and sinter fabrication methods, and immobilization form formulation issues.

  14. Self-radiation damage in plutonium and uranium mixed dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Masato, E-mail: kato.masato@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33 Muramatu, Tokai-Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Komeno, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33 Muramatu, Tokai-Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Uno, Hiroki; Sugata, Hiromasa [Inspection Development Company, 4-33 Muramatu, Tokai-Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Nakae, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33 Muramatu, Tokai-Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, TOKYU REIT Toranomon Bldg, 3-17-1, Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan); Konashi, Kenji [Tohoku University, 2145-2, Narita, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Kashimura, Motoaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33 Muramatu, Tokai-Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    In plutonium compounds, the lattice parameter increases due to self-radiation damage by alpha-decay of plutonium isotopes. The lattice parameter change and its thermal recovery in plutonium and uranium mixed dioxide (MOX) were studied. The lattice parameter for samples of MOX powders and pellets that had been left in the air for up to 32 years was measured. The lattice parameter increased and was saturated at about 0.29%. The change in lattice parameter was formulated as a function of self-radiation dose. Three stages in the thermal recovery of the damage were observed in temperature ranges of below 673 K, 673-1073 K and above 1073 K. The activation energies in each recovery stage were estimated to be 0.12, 0.73 and 1.2 eV, respectively, and the corresponding mechanism for each stage was considered to be the recovery of the anion Frenkel defect, the cation Frenkel defect and a defect connected with helium, respectively.

  15. First flush of dissolved compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, P.; Holzer, P.; Huisman, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    In a crude conceptual approach it is commonly assumed that in a combined sewer system the concentration of dissolved compounds is diluted by an increasing flow rate due to rainwater inflow. However, theory of hydraulics suggests that these compounds are influenced by hydrodynamic effects....... It is known that since the wave celerity is higher than the flow velocity of the water, the increase of flow rate induced through rain runoff is recognised earlier at a certain downstream section of the combined sewer than the concentration increase of typical rain-water compounds originating from surface...... wash-off. This description implies that the wave front is formed from the fluid that was present in the sewer before the Bow rare increased, that is the sewage! By means of measurements and numerical simulations, it is shown that this effect may cause a significant impact of dissolved compounds...

  16. USING 3-D MODELING TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY FOR REMOVING PLUTONIUM PROCESSING EQUIMENT FROM GLOVEBOXES AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHANG PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROW SH; KYLE RN; MINETTE MJ

    2008-07-15

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State began operations in 1949 to process plutonium and plutonium products. Its primary mission was to produce plutonium metal, fabricate weapons parts, and stabilize reactive materials. These operations, and subsequent activities, were performed in production lines, consisting primarily of hundreds of gloveboxes. Over the years, these gloveboxes and attendant processes have been continuously modified. The plant is currently inactive and Fluor Hanford has been tasked with cleaning out contaminated equipment and gloveboxes from the facility so it can be demolished in the near future. Approximately 100 gloveboxes at PFP have been cleaned out in the past four years and about 90 gloveboxes remain to be cleaned out. Because specific commitment dates for this work have been established with the State of Washington and other entities, it is important to adopt work practices that increase the safety and speed of this effort. The most recent work practice to be adopted by Fluor Hanford D and D workers is the use of 3-D models to make the process of cleaning out the radioactive gloveboxes more efficient. The use of 3-D models has significantly improved the work-planning process by giving workers a clear image of glovebox construction and composition, which in turn is used to determine cleanout methods and work sequences. The 3-D visual products also enhance safety by enabling workers to more easily identify hazards and implement controls. Further, the ability to identify and target the removal of radiological material early in the D and D process provides substantial dose reduction for the workers.

  17. Update on the Department of Energy's 1994 plutonium vulnerability assessment for the plutonium finishing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERZOG, K.R.

    1999-09-01

    A review of the environmental, safety, and health vulnerabilities associated with the continued storage of PFP's inventory of plutonium bearing materials and other SNM. This report re-evaluates the five vulnerabilities identified in 1994 at the PFP that are associated with SNM storage. This new evaluation took a more detailed look and applied a risk ranking process to help focus remediation efforts.

  18. Preparation of plutonium hexafluoride. Recovery of plutonium from waste dross (1962); Preparation de l'hexafluorure de plutonium. Recuperation du plutonium des scories d'elaboration (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gendre, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The object of this work is to study the influence of various physical factors on the rate of fluorination of solid plutonium tetrafluoride by fluorine. In a horizontal oven with a circulation for pure fluorine at atmospheric pressure and 520 deg. C, at a fluorine rate of 9 litres/hour, it is possible to transform 3 g of tetrafluoride to hexafluoride with about 100 per cent transformation and a recovery yield of over 90 per cent, in 4 to 5 hours. The fluorination rate is a function of the temperature, of the fluorine flow-rate, of the crucible surface, of the depth of the tetrafluoride layer and of the reaction time. It does not depend on the diffusion of the fluorine into the solid but is determined by the reaction at the gas-solid interface and obeys the kinetic law (1 - T{sub T}){sup 1/3} = kt + 1. The existence of intermediate fluorides, in particular Pu{sub 4} F{sub 17}, is confirmed by a break in the Arrhenius plot at about 370 deg. C, by differences in the fluorination rates inside the tetrafluoride layer, and by reversible colour changes. The transformation to hexafluoride occurs with a purification with respect of the foreign elements present in the initial plutonium. Recovery of plutonium from waste dross: The study is based on the transformation of occluded plutonium particles to gaseous hexafluoride which is then decomposed thermally to the tetrafluoride which can be reintroduced directly in the production circuit. Under the conditions considered this process is not applicable industrially. After milling, it is possible to separate the dross into enriched (75 per cent Pu in 2.6 per cent by weight of dross) and depleted portions. By prolonged fluorination (16 hours) of the various fractions it is possible to recover about 80 per cent of the plutonium. A treatment plant using fluidization, as described at the end of this study, should make it possible to substantially improve the yield. (author) [French] L'objet de l'etude est l

  19. The transports in the French Plutonium Industry. A high risk activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This study throws light on the scale of transport of plutonium in France nuclear industry, an activity involving quantities of high risk materials often unknown to the public. The study is a significantly extended update of the one carried out by WISE-Paris in 1995 for the Plutonium Forum. It was motivated by important developments in the French plutonium industry and the publication of numerous data concerning transport activities since 1995. The 2003 study presents, in particular, all of the flows of plutonium crossing France every year, as well as analysis of the risks associated with this particular transport activity. Putting these data into perspective in terms of a rapidly and permanently changing political and industrial context, and a description of the regulatory framework within which shipments of plutonium take place, serve as a guide and source of reference to help readers better understand the issues. The importance of transport in the plutonium ''chain'', i.e. the stages corresponding to various industrial processes, is often under-estimated, even by the nuclear industry itself. Transport is, in fact, the activity which involves the greatest quantities of plutonium in the entire nuclear chain. Plutonium, produced during the fission reactions in the cores of nuclear reactors, is transported, contained in the irradiated fuel, to the facilities at La Hague where reprocessing separates it from the other radioactive components of the spent fuel. Part of the plutonium, now isolated in powder form, is then shipped to one of the three plants able to produce the fuel known as MOX. These are located at Cadarache and Marcoule, in France, and at Dessel in Belgium. Once in the MOX form, this plutonium has to be re-transported to reactor sites to be used. Once irradiated, the spent MOX will return to the La Hague installations to be stored for an unknown period; the plutonium contained in the spent MOX is not, at present, destined to be re

  20. Trend in Plutonium Content of MOX in Thermal Reactor Use and Irradiation Behavior of MOX with High Plutonium Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakae, N.; Baba, T.; Kamimura, K. [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization - JNES, TOKYU REIT Toranomon Bldg., 3-17-1, Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-0001 (Japan); Verwerft, M.; Jutier, F. [SCK-CEN (Belgium)

    2009-06-15

    The uranium enrichment of UO{sub 2} fuel for the current power reactors, both PWR and BWR, tends to increase because of increasing burn-up target. The plutonium content of MOX fuel used in thermal reactors shall be determined in order to have reactivity worth equivalent to enriched UO{sub 2} fuel based on physical accounting method for adjusting fissile enrichment, thus the plutonium content tends to increase according to the increment of the uranium enrichment of UO{sub 2} fuel and this trend shall further be accentuated due to the fact that Pu recovered from reprocessing of the spent high burnup UO{sub 2} fuel contains less fissile isotopes. The plutonium content is calculated by use of the physical accounting method with the plutonium having several kinds of isotope ratios and the calculation results indicate that the plutonium content in MOX will evolve to ratios in excess of 10%. It shall be, therefore, important to know the irradiation behavior of MOX with high plutonium content of more than 10 wt%. MOX fuel rods having a plutonium content of about 14 wt% and fabricated by use of MIMAS process have been irradiated under PWR conditions in the Belgian test reactors BR-3 and BR-2. The peak fuel rod burn-up of the fuel rods studied in this paper ranges from 31 to 37 GWd/t-HM, and their average burnup is about 22-26 GWd/t-HM with the rod averaged linear heat generation rate of about 15-21 kW/m. The MOX rods are investigated by destructive and non-destructive post irradiation examinations and some of them are now continued to be irradiated in BR-2. Mixed Oxide (U,Pu)O{sub 2} fuel produced by the MIMAS process results in a fine dispersion of Pu enriched particles in a UO{sub 2} matrix and effectively gives three enrichment classes: low, medium and high enriched. The high enriched particles (often called 'Pu spots'), have an enrichment of around 25 wt% Pu, the low enriched phase is the UO{sub 2} matrix and contains only trace amounts of Pu. An

  1. Dual nature of the 5f electrons in plutonium materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, J.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)]. E-mail: jjoyce@lanl.gov; Wills, J.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Durakiewicz, T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Butterfield, M.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Guziewicz, E. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa (Poland); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Moore, D.P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Sarrao, J.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Morales, L.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Arko, A.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Eriksson, O. [Department of Physics, Uppsala University, Box 530 (Sweden); Delin, A. [Materialvetenskap, KTH, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Graham, K.S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2006-05-01

    The electronic structure of select Pu materials is examined by means of photoemission (PES) and model calculations. We present the first photoemission results and electronic structure calculations for the material PuIn{sub 3}. Results for Pu materials, including the cubic delta-phase metal and the superconductor PuCoGa{sub 5}, give indication of the 5f electrons exhibiting both localized and itinerant character. These new results for PuIn{sub 3} place this compounds also in the 5f dual nature category. The dual nature of the Pu 5f electrons demarks the boundary between localized and itinerant 5f character in the actinides.The photoemission data for {delta}-Pu, PuIn{sub 3} and PuCoGa{sub 5} are compared against model calculations. The calculations are a mixed level model (MLM) which is a multi-electron extension of the generalized gradient approximation. Using the MLM, one obtains good agreement for the volume and total energy minimum with 4 of 5 Pu 5f electrons localized. The calculations also agree well with the PES spectra. Other computational schemes and interpretations are also reviewed.

  2. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of financial protection required for plutonium... of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants. (a) Each holder of a license issued pursuant to part 70 of this chapter to possess and use plutonium at...

  3. 77 FR 44222 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... an oxide form of plutonium suitable for disposition, and the use of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabricated... the decision to fabricate 34 metric tons (MT) (37.5 tons) of surplus plutonium into MOX fuel in the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) (65 FR 1608, January 11, 2000 and 68 FR 20134, April 24,...

  4. Health physics manual of good practices for plutonium facilities. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Heid, K.R.; Herrington, W.N.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Munson, L.F.; Munson, L.H.; Selby, J.M.; Soldat, K.L.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Traub, R.J.

    1988-05-01

    This manual consists of six sections: Properties of Plutonium, Siting of Plutonium Facilities, Facility Design, Radiation Protection, Emergency Preparedness, and Decontamination and Decommissioning. While not the final authority, the manual is an assemblage of information, rules of thumb, regulations, and good practices to assist those who are intimately involved in plutonium operations. An in-depth understanding of the nuclear, physical, chemical, and biological properties of plutonium is important in establishing a viable radiation protection and control program at a plutonium facility. These properties of plutonium provide the basis and perspective necessary for appreciating the quality of control needed in handling and processing the material. Guidance in selecting the location of a new plutonium facility may not be directly useful to most readers. However, it provides a perspective for the development and implementation of the environmental surveillance program and the in-plant controls required to ensure that the facility is and remains a good neighbor. The criteria, guidance, and good practices for the design of a plutonium facility are also applicable to the operation and modification of existing facilities. The design activity provides many opportunities for implementation of features to promote more effective protection and control. The application of ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) principles and optimization analyses are generally most cost-effective during the design phase. 335 refs., 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  5. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium quarterly technical progress report, August 1, 1997--October 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report summarizes activities of the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium during the quarter. The report describes the Electronic Resource Library; DOE support activities; current and future environmental health and safety programs; pollution prevention and pollution avoidance; communication, education, training, and community involvement programs; and nuclear and other material studies, including plutonium storage and disposition studies.

  6. Criteria for Preparing and Packaging Plutonium Metals and Oxides for Long-Term Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This Standard provides criteria for packaging of plutonium metals and stabilized oxides for storage periods of at least 50 years. To meet the criteria, plutonium-bearing materials must be in stable forms and be packaged in containers designed to maintain their integrity both under normal storage conditions and during anticipated handling accidents.

  7. History and stabilization of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) complex, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-18

    The 231-Z Isolation Building or Plutonium Metallurgy Building is located in the Hanford Site`s 200 West Area, approximately 300 yards north of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) (234-5 Building). When the Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) built it in 1944 to contain the final step for processing plutonium, it was called the Isolation Building. At that time, HEW used a bismuth phosphate radiochemical separations process to make `AT solution,` which was then dried and shipped to Los Alamos, New Mexico. (AT solution is a code name used during World War II for the final HEW product.) The process was carried out first in T Plant and the 224-T Bulk Reduction Building and B Plant and the 224-B Bulk Reduction Building. The 224-T and -B processes produced a concentrated plutonium nitrate stream, which then was sent in 8-gallon batches to the 231-Z Building for final purification. In the 231-Z Building, the plutonium nitrate solution underwent peroxide `strikes` (additions of hydrogen peroxide to further separate the plutonium from its carrier solutions), to form the AT solution. The AT solution was dried and shipped to the Los Alamos Site, where it was made into metallic plutonium and then into weapons hemispheres.` The 231-Z Building began `hot` operations (operations using radioactive materials) with regular runs of plutonium nitrate on January 16, 1945.

  8. The generation of denatured reactor plutonium by different options of the fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeders, C.H.M.; Kessler, G. [Inst. for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Research Center Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    Denatured (proliferation resistant) reactor plutonium can be generated in a number of different fuel cycle options. First denatured reactor plutonium can be obtained if, instead of low enriched U-235 PWR fuel, re-enriched U-235/U-236 from reprocessed uranium is used (fuel type A). Also the envisaged existing 2,500 t of reactor plutonium (being generated world wide up to the year 2010), mostly stored in intermediate fuel storage facilities at present, could be converted during a transition phase into denatured reactor plutonium by the options fuel type B and D. Denatured reactor plutonium could have the same safeguards standard as present low enriched (<20% U-235) LWR fuel. It could be incinerated by recycling once or twice in PWRs and subsequently by multi-recycling in FRs (CAPRA type or IFRs). Once denatured, such reactor plutonium could remain denatured during multiple recycling. In a PWR, e.g., denatured reactor plutonium could be destroyed at a rate of about 250 kg/GWey. While denatured reactor plutonium could be recycled and incinerated under relieved IAEA safeguards, neptunium would still have to be monitored by the IAEA in future for all cases in which considerable amounts of neptunium are produced. (orig.)

  9. Study Progress of On-line Monitoring Device for Uranium and Plutonium by XRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    An X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was designed and set up, which was used to determine uranium and plutonium on-line in reprocessing process stream. Uranium in aqueous and organic phase, plutonium in aqueous were measured by using the device,

  10. Functional Design Criteria plutonium stabilization and handling (PUSH) project W-460

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSON, D.W.

    1999-09-02

    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) contains information to guide the design of the Stabilization and Packaging Equipment necessary to oxidize and package the remaining plutonium-bearing Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) currently in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) inventory. The FDC also guides the design of vault modifications to allow storage of 3013 packages of stabilized SNM for up to 50 years.

  11. Quantitative plutonium microdistribution in bone tissue of vertebra from a Mayak worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyovkina, Yekaterina V; Miller, Scott C; Romanov, Sergey A; Krahenbuhl, Melinda P; Belosokhov, Maxim V

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain quantitative data on plutonium microdistribution in different structural elements of human bone tissue for local dose assessment and dosimetric models validation. A sample of the thoracic vertebra was obtained from a former Mayak worker with a rather high plutonium burden. Additional information was obtained on occupational and exposure history, medical history, and measured plutonium content in organs. Plutonium was detected in bone sections from its fission tracks in polycarbonate film using neutron-induced autoradiography. Quantitative analysis of randomly selected microscopic fields on one of the autoradiographs was performed. Data included fission fragment tracks in different bone tissue and surface areas. Quantitative information on plutonium microdistribution in human bone tissue was obtained for the first time. From these data, the quantitative relationships of plutonium decays in bone volume to decays on bone surface in cortical and trabecular fractions were defined as 2.0 and 0.4, correspondingly. The measured quantitative relationship of decays in bone volume to decays on bone surface does not coincide with recommended models for the cortical bone fraction by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Biokinetic model parameters of extrapulmonary compartments might need to be adjusted after expansion of the data set on quantitative plutonium microdistribution in other bone types in humans as well as other cases with different exposure patterns and types of plutonium.

  12. The structure of plutonium(IV) oxide as hydrolysed clusters in aqueous suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Christian; Larsson, Kristian; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Ödegaard-Jensen, Arvid; Persson, Ingmar

    2013-02-14

    The behavior of plutonium still puzzles scientists 70 years after its discovery. There are several factors making the chemistry of plutonium interesting including its ability to keep several oxidation states. Another unique property is that the oxidation states +III, +IV, +V and +VI may exist simultaneously in solution. Another property plutonium shares with some other tetravalent metal ions is the ability to form stable polynuclear complexes or colloids. The structures of freshly prepared and five-year old plutonium(IV) colloids are compared with crystalline plutonium(IV) oxide using Pu L(3)-edge EXAFS. It was shown that as the plutonium colloids age they do in fact shrink in size, contrary to previous expectations. The aged colloidal particles are indeed very small with only 3-4 plutonium atoms, and with a structure very similar to solid plutonium(IV) oxide, but with somewhat shorter mean Pu-O bond and Pu···Pu distances indicating a partial oxidation. The very small size of the colloidal particles is further supported by the fact that they do not sediment on heavy ultra-centrifugation.

  13. PROCESS OF DISSOLVING ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, R.S.; Vogler, S.

    1958-01-21

    A process is described for dissolving binary zirconium-uranium alloys where the uranium content is about 2%. In prior dissolution procedures for these alloys, an oxidizing agent was added to prevent the precipitation of uranium tetrafluoride. In the present method complete dissolution is accomplished without the use of the oxidizing agent by using only the stoichiometric amount or slight excess of HF required by the zirconium. The concentration of the acid may range from 2M to 10M and the dissolution is advatageously carried out at a temperature of 80 deg C.

  14. A HOST PHASE FOR THE DISPOSAL OF WEAPONS PLUTONIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WERNER LUTZE; K. B. HELEAN; W. L. GONG - UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO RODNEY C. EWING - UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

    1999-01-01

    Research was conducted into the possible use of zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) as a host phase for storage or disposal of excess weapons plutonium. Zircon is one of the most chemically durable minerals. Its structure can accommodate a variety of elements, including plutonium and uranium. Natural zircon contains uranium and thorium together in different quantities, usually in the range of less than one weight percent up to several weight percent. Zircon occurs in nature as a crystalline or a partially to fully metamict mineral, depending on age and actinide element concentration, i.e., on radiation damage. These zircon samples have been studied extensively and the results are documented in the literature in terms of radiation damage to the crystal structure and related property changes, e.g., density, hardness, loss of uranium and lead, etc. Thus, a unique suite of natural analogues are available to describe the effect of decay of {sup 239}Pu on zircon's structure and how zircon's physical and chemical properties will be affected over very long periods of time. Actually, the oldest zircon samples known are over 3 billion years old. This period covers the time for decay of {sup 239}Pu (half-life 24,300 yr.) and most of its daughter {sup 235}U (half-life 700 million yr.). Because of its chemical durability, even under extreme geological conditions, zircon is the most widely used mineral for geochronological dating (7,000 publications). It is the oldest dated mineral on earth and in the universe. Zircon has already been doped with about 10 weight percent of plutonium. Pure PuSiO{sub 4} has also been synthesized and has the same crystal structure as zircon. However, use of zircon as a storage medium or waste form for plutonium requires further materials characterization. Experiments can either be conducted in laboratories where plutonium can be handled or plutonium can be simulated by other elements, and experiments can be done under less restricted conditions. The

  15. Exotic new oxides of plutonium found by using gas thermochromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanov, V.P.; Buklanov, G.V.; Lobanov, Yu.V [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Dubna, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2002-11-01

    The volatility of compounds formed during heating of trace quantities of {sup 238}Pu or {sup 239}Pu in a stream of helium and oxygen mixture was studied by gas thermochromatography. Under certain conditions plutonium forms four adsorption zones with the centers at 450{+-}25degC, 250{+-}25degC, 130{+-}50degC and -105{+-}25degC in quartz thermochromatographic(TC) columns. For the interpretation of the results, model experiments with carrier-free radioisotopes of Os, Re, Ru and Tc were performed. It was found that in the stream of He with a small amounts of O{sub 2}, products were adsorbed at 450-500degC and at 250-300degC in the form of dioxides and trioxides. The results of the TC isolation of volatile oxygen-containing compounds of U and {sup 249}Cf are also presented. Based on the data obtained with Pu, we assume that the first adsorption zone (450{+-}25degC) is due to PuO{sub 2} formation, the second one is due to PuO{sub 3} formation and the third may be due to formation of a plutonium acid H{sub 2}PuO{sub 4} (proposed formula). Comparison of the adsorption zone of OsO{sub 4} with the fourth deposition zone for Pu indicates their similarity. We conclude that at -105{+-}25degC, octovalent plutonium deposits in the form of tetraoxide. (author)

  16. Uncertainty analysis of doses from ingestion of plutonium and americium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncher, M; Harrison, J D

    2012-02-01

    Uncertainty analyses have been performed on the biokinetic model for americium currently used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and the model for plutonium recently derived by Leggett, considering acute intakes by ingestion by adult members of the public. The analyses calculated distributions of doses per unit intake. Those parameters having the greatest impact on prospective doses were identified by sensitivity analysis; the most important were the fraction absorbed from the alimentary tract, f(1), and rates of uptake from blood to bone surfaces. Probability distributions were selected based on the observed distribution of plutonium and americium in human subjects where possible; the distributions for f(1) reflected uncertainty on the average value of this parameter for non-specified plutonium and americium compounds ingested by adult members of the public. The calculated distributions of effective doses for ingested (239)Pu and (241)Am were well described by log-normal distributions, with doses varying by around a factor of 3 above and below the central values; the distributions contain the current ICRP Publication 67 dose coefficients for ingestion of (239)Pu and (241)Am by adult members of the public. Uncertainty on f(1) values had the greatest impact on doses, particularly effective dose. It is concluded that: (1) more precise data on f(1) values would have a greater effect in reducing uncertainties on doses from ingested (239)Pu and (241)Am, than reducing uncertainty on other model parameter values and (2) the results support the dose coefficients (Sv Bq(-1) intake) derived by ICRP for ingestion of (239)Pu and (241)Am by adult members of the public.

  17. Plutonium Isotopes Concentration in Seawater along the Algerian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benkrid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Atomic Energy Agency has organised in the framework of the regional project RAF/7/004, in collaboration with “Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique” (COMENA and “Institut des Sciences de la Mer et de l'Aménagement du Littoral” (ISMAL, during August 2001, a scientific campaign along the Algerian coast, on board of the research vessel M.S. Benyahia of ISMAL is. Three stations, at the centre, east and west, were selected to collect five seawater samples for each water column reaching a maximum depth of 2000 m, using a stainless-steel water sampler of a volume of 250 litres. After recording the marine environment parameters (temperature and conductivity, seawater samples were conditioned and preconcentrated to precipitate plutonium isotopes using MnCl2 in the form of MnO2 in order to proceed to plutonium extraction by radiochemical separation and prepare the source by coprecipitation using neodymium fluoride (NdF3 by vacuum filtration and an evaluation of the activity by alpha spectrometry. Concentration results in units of μBq/l of plutonium isotopes were obtained in the range of 6.7±1.00 to 25.5±3.70 for P239+240u and 0.21±0.04 to 0.77±0.15 for P238u. Distribution of Pu through the plot of its profile was studied and the concentration was estimated. The obtained results were compared toC137s and those found by other authors in the same Mediterranean area.

  18. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of {sigma} plutonium alloys. Contribution to the study of the 5f electrons localization in the plutonium; Mesure de la susceptibilite magnetique d`alliages de plutonium en phase delta. Contribution a l`etude de la localisation des electrons 5f dans le plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot-Reymond, S

    1996-12-31

    Physical properties of actinide metals are essentially ruled by the 5f electrons localization. From a theoretically point of view, this localization is more important in the {delta}-phase than in the {alpha}-one. To compare their magnetic behaviour, low temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements have been performed and previous-resistivity data have been analysed. Experimental results and theoretical data can be conciliate by the existence of a Kondo effect in the {delta}-Pu phase. (author) 63 refs.

  19. Disposition of plutonium-239 via production of fission molybdenum-99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, A

    2011-04-01

    A heritage of physical consequences of the U.S.-Soviet arms race has accumulated, the weapons-grade plutonium (WPu), which will become excess as a result of the dismantlement of the nuclear weapons under the arms reduction agreements. Disposition of Pu has been proposed by mixing WPu with high-level radioactive waste with subsequent vitrification into large, highly radioactive glass logs or fabrication into mixed oxide fuel with subsequent irradiation in existing light water reactors. A potential option may be the production of medical isotope molybdenum-99 by using Pu-239 targets.

  20. On weapons plutonium in the arctic environment (Thule, Greenland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, M

    2002-04-01

    This thesis concerns a nuclear accident that occurred in the Thule (Pituffik) area, NW Greenland in 1968, called the Thule accident.Results are based on different analytical techniques, i.e. gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry, ICP-MS, SEM with EDX and different sediment models, i.e. (CRS, CIC). The scope of the thesis is the study of hot particles. Studies on these have shown several interesting features, e.g. that they carry most of the activity dispersed from the accident, moreover, they have been very useful in the determination of the source term for the Thule accident debris. Paper I, is an overview of the results from the Thule-97 expedition. This paper concerns the marine environment, i.e. water, sediment and benthic animals in the Bylot Sound. The main conclusions are; that plutonium is not transported from the contaminated sediments into the surface water in this shelf sea, the debris has been efficiently buried in the sediment to great depth as a result of biological activity and transfer of plutonium to benthic biota is low. Paper II, concludes that the resuspension of accident debris on land has been limited and indications were, that americium has a faster transport mechanism from the catchment area to lakes than plutonium and radio lead. Paper III, is a method description of inventory calculation techniques in sediment with heterogeneous activity concentration, i.e. hot particles are present in the samples. It is concluded that earlier inventory estimates have been under estimated and that the new inventory is about 3.8 kg (10 TBq) of {sup 239,240}Pu. Paper IV, describes hot particle separation/identification techniques using real-time digital image systems. These techniques are much faster than conventionally used autoradiography and give the results in real time. Paper V, is a study of single isolated hot particles. The most interesting result is that the fission material in the weapons involved in the accident mostly consisted of {sup 235}U

  1. Magnetism, superconductivity and Fermi surfaces of plutonium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, Y. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)]. E-mail: haga.yoshinori@jaea.go.jp; Aoki, D. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Yamagami, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Matsuda, T.D. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakajima, K. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Arai, Y. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Homma, Y. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Shiokawa, Y. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yamamoto, E. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakamura, A. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Onuki, Y. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    Single crystals of plutonium compounds PuRhGa{sub 5} and PuIn{sub 3} are successfully grown. For PuRhGa{sub 5}, anisotropy of the superconducting upper critical field was found and analyzed by the anisotropic mass model, consistent with quasi-two-dimensional electronic states predicted by band calculations. On the other hand, the de Haas-van Alphen oscillation was observed in PuIn{sub 3}. By comparing with the band calculations, it is concluded that 5f electrons are itinerant in PuIn{sub 3}.

  2. Examination of the pathways from soil to man for plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, J.W.

    1977-04-01

    The data available on resuspension and ingestion as pathways of plutonium from soil to man were reviewed and a recommended limit based upon a conservative interpretation of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) recommendations for limiting values was derived. Wind resuspension appeared to be the least limiting value with mechanical resuspension and pica in children among the more important. Ingestion of foodstuffs could also be an important pathway if it is assumed that all food is produced in the contaminated area.

  3. Transmission Electron Microscopy Characterization of Helium Bubbles in Aged Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, A J; Wall, M A; Zocco, T G; Blobaum, K M

    2004-11-02

    The self-irradiation damage generated by alpha decay of plutonium results in the formation of lattice defects, helium, and uranium atoms. Over time, microstructural evolution resulting from the self-irradiation may influence the physical and mechanical properties of the material. In order to assess microstructural changes, we have developed and applied procedures for the specimen preparation, handling, and transmission electron microscopy characterization of Pu alloys. These transmission electron microscopy investigations of Pu-Ga alloys ranging in age up to 42-years old reveal the presence of nanometer-sized helium bubbles. The number density of bubbles and the average size have been determined for eight different aged materials.

  4. Plutonium microstructures. Part 2. Binary and ternary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, E.M.; Bergin, J.B.

    1983-12-01

    This report is the second of three parts that exhibit illustrations of inclusions in plutonium metal from inherent and tramp impurities, of intermetallic and nonmetallic constituents from alloy additions, and of the effects of thermal and mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of the microstructures in binary cast alloys and a few selected ternary alloys that result from measured additions of diluent elements, and of the microconstituents that are characteristic of phase fields in extended alloy systems. Microhardness data are given and the etchant used in the preparation of each sample is described.

  5. Photon attenuation properties of some thorium, uranium and plutonium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, V. P.; Badiger, N. M. [Karnatak University, Department of Physics, Dharwad-580003, Karnataka (India); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: kudphyvps@rediffmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers, effective electron densities for nuclear materials; thorium, uranium and plutonium compounds have been studied. The photon attenuation properties for the compounds have been investigated for partial photon interaction processes by photoelectric effect, Compton scattering and pair production. The values of these parameters have been found to change with photon energy and interaction process. The variations of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic number and electron density with energy are shown graphically. Moreover, results have shown that these compounds are better shielding and suggesting smaller dimensions. The study would be useful for applications of these materials for gamma ray shielding requirement. (Author)

  6. Plutonium in monazite and brabantite: Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yingjie [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)], E-mail: yzx@ansto.gov.au; Vance, Eric R. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2008-04-30

    The valence states of plutonium (Pu) in monazite and brabantite have been studied by using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. In the absence of charge compensators, Pu exists mainly as trivalent ions in air-fired monazites and only trivalent ions in argon-fired monazites. However, with added Ca{sup 2+}/Pb{sup 2+} as charge compensators Pu can exist as tetravalent ions. Published data on absorption spectra of both trivalent and tetravalent Pu ions in the monazite structure have been extended to the mid near infrared region (4000 cm{sup -1})

  7. Plutonium ion emission from carburized rhenium mass spectrometer filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, J.M.; Robertson, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Physicochemical processes important to the application of thermal emission mass spectrometry were identified and clarified. Effects of filament carbon concentration and temperature on plutonium ion emissions from a carburized rhenium filament were determined. Filament carbon concentration profoundly affected the appearance and duration of an ion signal. A useful ion signal was produced only when the carbon saturation temperature of the filament was exceeded, at which point first-order kinetics were either achieved or closely approached. This paper explains observed ion emission behavior in terms of pausible carbothermic reduction reactions and carbon diffusion processes that direct the course of those reactions. 31 references, 5 figures.

  8. Preliminary Materials Transport Plan for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilkison, J.M.; Dyches, G.M.; Randall, W.J.; Steed, J.H.

    2000-01-26

    This Materials Transport Plan defines the methodology for moving process and non-process materials within the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) operations. The scope of the plan includes the movement of materials between plant operational units (gloveboxes or operational areas/rooms within the plant). The movements of materials within the various plant operational units are described in the System Design Description prepared for the individual units. The plan provides a design concept for transporting each type of material including the containerization used during the movements. Further, the plan identifies the high-level functions and requirements for movements of the materials.

  9. Equilibrium composition for the reaction of plutonium hydride with air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    There are six independent constituents with 4 chemical elements, i.e. PuH2.7(s), PuN(s), Pu2O3(s), N2, O2 and H2, therefore , the system described involves of 2 independent reactions ,both those of the experimental, which indicates that the chemical equilibrium is nearly completely approached. Therefore, it is believed that the reaction rate of plutonium hydride with air is extremely rapid. The present paper has briefly discussed the simultaneous reactions and its thermodynamic coupling effect.

  10. Uranium and plutonium in anoxic marine sediments of the Santiago River mouth (Eastern Pacific, Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán-Torres, María Guadalupe; Ordóñez-Regil, Eduardo; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina

    2016-11-01

    The uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) content with depth in a sediment core collected in the continental shelf off the mouth of the Santiago River in the Mexican Pacific was studied to evaluate the contamination effects of the effluent of the Santiago-Lerma River as it moves into the sea. The large mass of terrestrial detritus delivered by the river influences the physicochemical and geochemical processes in the seafloor. Abnormal concentrations of U and Pu in sediments were examined as indicative of the effects of anoxic conditions. One of the indicators of pollution of seawater is the bacterial activity of the shallow seabed layer; and among the prevailing bacteria, the magnetotactic ones induce the formation of euhedral and framboidal shapes (pyrite). These pyrite entities are by-products of anoxic environments loaded with decomposing detrital material and are very abundant in the surface layers of the sediment core analyzed. The pyrite formation is the result of a biochemical reaction between iron and organic sulphur reduced by bacteria, and the pyrite entities precipitate to the seafloor. In the same upper zone of the profile, (238)U is readily immobilized, while (234)U is oxidized and dissolved in seawater by the effect of hot atom chemistry. This may cause the activity ratio (AR) (234)U/(238)U disequilibrium (near 0.41). Furthermore, in the shallow layer of the sediment core, an abnormally high concentration of (239+240)Pu was detected. In this upper layer, the activity concentrations found were 3.19 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, 1.32 kg(-1) for (234)U and 2.78 Bq kg(-1) for (239+240)Pu. In the lower fractions of the sediment core, normal values of AR (234)U/(238)U (≈1) were found, with traces of (239+240)Pu.

  11. THE DEACTIVATION DECONTAMINATION & DECOMMISSIONING OF THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) A FORMER PLUTONIUM PROCESSING FACILITY AT DOE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARBONEAU, S.L.

    2006-02-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) was constructed as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. The Manhattan Project was developed to usher in the use of nuclear weapons to end the war. The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material (SNM) for fabrication of nuclear devices for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race and later the processing of fuel grade mixed plutonium-uranium oxide to support DOE's breeder reactor program. In October 1990, at the close of the production mission for PFP, a shutdown order was prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in Washington, DC and issued to the Richland DOE field office. Subsequent to the shutdown order, a team from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) analyzed the hazards at PFP associated with the continued storage of certain forms of plutonium solutions and solids. The assessment identified many discrete actions that were required to stabilize the different plutonium forms into stable form and repackage the material in high integrity containers. These actions were technically complicated and completed as part of the PFP nuclear material stabilization project between 1995 and early 2005. The completion of the stabilization project was a necessary first step in deactivating PFP. During stabilization, DOE entered into negotiations with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Washington and established milestones for the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) of the PFP. The DOE and its contractor, Fluor Hanford (Fluor), have made great progress in deactivating, decontaminating and decommissioning the PFP at the Hanford Site as detailed in this paper. Background information covering the PFP D&D effort includes descriptions of negotiations with the State of Washington concerning consent

  12. MA Doping Analysis on Breeding Capability and Protected Plutonium Production of Large FBR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Yusuke

    2010-06-01

    Spent fuel from LWR can be seen as long-live waste if it is not recycled or as a "new fuel" resource if it is recycled into the reactors. Uranium and plutonium have been used for "new fuel" resources from LWR spent fuel as MOX fuel type which is loaded into thermal reactor or fast reactor types. Other actinides from the spent fuel such as neptunium, americium and curium as minor actinide (MA) are considered to be loaded into the reactors for specific purposes, recently. Those purposes such as for increasing protected plutonium production and breeding capability for protected plutonium as well as in the same time those amount of MA can be reduced to a small quantity as a burner or transmutation purpose. Some investigations and scientific approaches are performed in order to increase a material "barrier" in plutonium isotope composition by increasing the even mass number of plutonium isotope such as Pu-238, Pu-240 and Pu-242 as plutonium protected composition. Higher material barrier which related to intrinsic properties of plutonium isotopes with even mass number (Pu-238, Pu-240 and Pu-242), are recognized because of their intense decay heat (DH) and high spontaneous fission neutron (SFN) rates. Those even number mass of plutonium isotope contribute to some criteria of plutonium characterization which will be adopted for present study such as IAEA, Pellaud and Kessler criteria (IAEA, 1972; Pellaud, 2002; and Kessler, 2007). The present paper intends to evaluate the breeding capability as a fuel sustainability index of the reactors and to analyze the composition of protected plutonium production of large power reactor based on the FaCT FBR as reference (Ohki, et al., 2008). Three dimensional FBR core configuration has been adopted which is based on the core optimization calculation of SRAC-CITATION code as reactor core analysis and JENDL-3.3 is adopted for nuclear data library. Some MA doping materials are loaded into the blanket regions which can be considered as

  13. Nature`s uncommon elements: Plutonium and technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, D.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Dixon, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Div.; Cramer, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada). Whiteshell Lab.

    1998-01-06

    The authors have taken advantage of the extremely sensitive method of thermal ionization mass spectrometry to measure technetium and plutonium concentrations in sample masses that are smaller by as much as three orders of magnitude than those used in the early research efforts. The work reported in this paper extends the understanding of the geochemistry of plutonium and technetium by developing detailed descriptions of their associations in well characterized geologic samples, and by using modern neutron-transport modeling tools to better interpret the meaning of the results. Analyses were conducted on samples from three uranium ore deposits selected for their contrasting geochemical environments. The Cigar Lake deposit is an unweathered, unaltered primary ore in a reducing environment which is expected to closely approximate a system that is closed with respect to uranium and its products. The Koongarra deposit is a shallow system, both altered and weathered, subject to active ground water flow. Finally, a sample from the Beaverlodge deposit is included because it is a commercially-available uranium ore standard that allows demonstration of the precision of the analytical results.

  14. Experimental critical parameters of plutonium metal cylinders flooded with water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Forty-nine critical configurations are reported for experiments involving arrays of 3 kg plutonium metal cylinders moderated and reflected by water. Thirty-four of these describe systems assembled in the laboratory, while 15 others are derived critical parameters inferred from 46 subcritical cases. The arrays included 2x2xN, N = 2, 3, 4, and 5, in one program and 3x3x3 configurations in a later study. All were three-dimensional, nearly square arrays with equal horizontal lattice spacings but a different vertical lattice spacing. Horizontal spacings ranged from units in contact to 180 mm center-to-center; and vertical spacings ranged from about 80 mm to almost 400 mm center-to-center. Several nearly-equilateral 3x3x3 arrays exhibit an extremely sensitive dependence upon horizontal separation for identical vertical spacings. A line array of unreflected and essentially unmoderated canned plutonium metal units appeared to be well subcritical based on measurements made to assure safety during the manual assembly operations. All experiments were performed at two widely separated times in the mid-1970s and early 1980s under two programs at the Rocky Flats Plant`s Critical Mass Laboratory.

  15. Optimization of Routine Monitoring of Workers Exposed to Plutonium Aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davesne, Estelle; Quesne, Benoit; De Vita, Antoine; Chojnacki, Eric; Blanchardon, Eric; Franck, Didier

    2016-10-01

    In case of incidental confinement failure, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel preparation may expose workers to plutonium aerosols. Due to its potential toxicity, occupational exposure to plutonium compounds should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. To ensure the absence of significant intake of radionuclides, workers at risk of internal contamination are monitored by periodic bioassay planned in a routine monitoring programme. From bioassay results, internal dose may be estimated. However, accurate dose calculation relies on known exposure conditions, which are rarely available when the exposure is demonstrated by routine monitoring only. Therefore, internal dose calculation is subject to uncertainty from unknown exposure conditions and from activity measurement variability. The present study calculates the minimum detectable dose (MDD) for a routine monitoring programme by considering all plausible conditions of exposure and measurement uncertainty. The MDD evaluates the monitoring quality and can be used for optimization. Here, MDDs were calculated for the monitoring of workers preparing MOX fuel. Uncertain parameters were modelled by probability distributions defined according to information provided by experts of routine monitoring, of workplace radiological protection and of bioassay analysis. Results show that the current monitoring is well adapted to potential exposure. A sensitivity study of MDD highlights high dependence on exposure condition modelling. Integrating all expert knowledge is therefore crucial to obtain reliable MDD estimates, stressing the value of a holistic approach to worker monitoring.

  16. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heslop, M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (United States). Indian Head Div.; Wernly, K. [Molten Salt Oxidation Corp. (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  17. MOISTURE AND SURFACE AREA MEASUREMENTS OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING OXIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowder, M.; Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Scogin, J.; Kessinger, G.; Almond, P.

    2009-09-28

    To ensure safe storage, plutonium-bearing oxides are stabilized at 950 C for at least two hours in an oxidizing atmosphere. Stabilization conditions are expected to decompose organic impurities, convert metals to oxides, and result in moisture content below 0.5 wt%. During stabilization, the specific surface area is reduced, which minimizes readsorption of water onto the oxide surface. Plutonium oxides stabilized according to these criteria were sampled and analyzed to determine moisture content and surface area. In addition, samples were leached in water to identify water-soluble chloride impurity content. Results of these analyses for seven samples showed that the stabilization process produced low moisture materials (< 0.2 wt %) with low surface area ({le} 1 m{sup 2}/g). For relatively pure materials, the amount of water per unit surface area corresponded to 1.5 to 3.5 molecular layers of water. For materials with chloride content > 360 ppm, the calculated amount of water per unit surface area increased with chloride content, indicating hydration of hygroscopic salts present in the impure PuO{sub 2}-containing materials. The low moisture, low surface area materials in this study did not generate detectable hydrogen during storage of four or more years.

  18. Experimental critical parameters of plutonium metal cylinders flooded with water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Forty-nine critical configurations are reported for experiments involving arrays of 3 kg plutonium metal cylinders moderated and reflected by water. Thirty-four of these describe systems assembled in the laboratory, while 15 others are derived critical parameters inferred from 46 subcritical cases. The arrays included 2x2xN, N = 2, 3, 4, and 5, in one program and 3x3x3 configurations in a later study. All were three-dimensional, nearly square arrays with equal horizontal lattice spacings but a different vertical lattice spacing. Horizontal spacings ranged from units in contact to 180 mm center-to-center; and vertical spacings ranged from about 80 mm to almost 400 mm center-to-center. Several nearly-equilateral 3x3x3 arrays exhibit an extremely sensitive dependence upon horizontal separation for identical vertical spacings. A line array of unreflected and essentially unmoderated canned plutonium metal units appeared to be well subcritical based on measurements made to assure safety during the manual assembly operations. All experiments were performed at two widely separated times in the mid-1970s and early 1980s under two programs at the Rocky Flats Plant`s Critical Mass Laboratory.

  19. Self-radiation damage in plutonium and uranium mixed dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Masato; Endo, Hideo [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Sugata, Hiromasa [Inspection Development Company Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    In plutonium compounds, self-radiation induces expansion of the lattice parameter as a function of time. The expansion of the lattice parameter and thermal recovery of radiation damage in plutonium and uranium mixed dioxide (MOX) were studied in this paper. The MOX powder had been kept in an ambient atmosphere for about two years. The lattice parameter of the powder saturated after an increase of about 0.23%. The change in the lattice parameter was formulated as a function of the self-radiation amount. Three thermal recovery stages of radiation damage were observed in temperature ranges below 400degC, 400-800degC and above 800degC. The recovery rate of the three stages in total lattice expansion was about 25%, 55% and 20%, respectively, and activation energy in each recovery was estimated to be 0.14 eV, 0.54 eV and 1.1 eV. (author)

  20. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide powders and pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium Sample Handling 8 to 10 Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Ceric Sulfate Titration Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Nitrogen by Distillation Spectrophotometry Using Nessler Reagent 11 to 18 Carbon (Total) by Direct Combustion–Thermal Conductivity 19 to 30 Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis 31 to 38 Sulfur by Distillation Spectrophotometry 39 to 47 Plutonium Isotopic Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Rare Earth Elements by Spectroscopy 48 to 55 Trace Elements by Carrier–Distillation Spectroscopy 56 to 63 Impurities by ICP-AES Impurity Elements by Spark-Source Mass Spectrography 64 to 70 Moisture by the Coulomet...

  1. Dissolved Organic Matter in Freshwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, E. M.; Ritchie, J. D.

    2003-12-01

    Organic matter in freshwaters exists as dissolved molecules, colloids, and particles. It is appropriate to regard these distinctions as dynamic, however, because organic matter can be interconverted readily between these forms by dissolution and precipitation, sorption and desorption, aggregation and disaggregation, etc. Dissolved organic matter (DOM), the subject of this chapter, is defined operationally as the fraction of organic matter in a water sample that passes through a 0.45 μm filter. In the authors' opinion, the scientific literature on organic matter in freshwaters will be better reflected in this review, if data are considered without regard to the manner in which water samples may have been filtered. This more general approach is warranted because: * many submicron colloids and some microorganisms can pass through 0.45 μm filters; * the effective pore size of a 0.45 μm filter is usually unknown, because it is decreased by partial clogging during the filtration of a water sample; * some important studies have been conducted on unfiltered samples or on samples that were filtered through other types of filters; and * some important studies have been conducted on samples that were concentrated with ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), or reverse osmosis (RO) membranes.As methods for fractionation and isolation of organic matter in freshwaters have evolved, and as the intensity of research has waxed and waned in various academic disciplines, a rich and potentially confusing nomenclature has evolved for organic matter in freshwaters. Some of the more commonly encountered descriptors and their associated acronyms, if any, are yellow organic acids (YOAs), aquatic humus, DOM, and natural organic matter (NOM). Regardless of the terminology used in the original literature, the organic matter in freshwaters is referred to as DOM in this review, except when it is necessary to be more specific.

  2. Reducing neutron multiplicity counting bias for plutonium warhead authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettsche, Malte

    2015-06-05

    Confidence in future nuclear arms control agreements could be enhanced by direct verification of warheads. It would include warhead authentication. This is the assessment based on measurements whether a declaration that a specific item is a nuclear warhead is true. An information barrier can be used to protect sensitive information during measurements. It could for example show whether attributes such as a fissile mass exceeding a threshold are met without indicating detailed measurement results. Neutron multiplicity measurements would be able to assess a plutonium fissile mass attribute if it were possible to show that their bias is low. Plutonium measurements have been conducted with the He-3 based Passive Scrap Multiplicity Counter. The measurement data has been used as a reference to test the capacity of the Monte Carlo code MCNPX-PoliMi to simulate neutron multiplicity measurements. The simulation results with their uncertainties are in agreement with the experimental results. It is essential to use cross-sections which include neutron scattering with the detector's polyethylene molecular structure. Further MCNPX-PoliMi simulations have been conducted in order to study bias that occurs when measuring samples with large plutonium masses such as warheads. Simulation results of solid and hollow metal spheres up to 6000 g show that the masses are underpredicted by as much as 20%. The main source of this bias has been identified in the false assumption that the neutron multiplication does not depend on the position where a spontaneous fission event occurred. The multiplication refers to the total number of neutrons leaking a sample after a primary spontaneous fission event, taking induced fission into consideration. The correction of the analysis has been derived and implemented in a MATLAB code. It depends on four geometry-dependent correction coefficients. When the sample configuration is fully known, these can be exactly determined and remove this type of

  3. Low-Level Plutonium Bioassay Measurements at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T; Brown, T; Hickman, D; Marchetti, A; Williams, R; Kehl, S

    2007-06-18

    Plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) and plutonium-240 ({sup 240}Pu) are important alpha emitting radionuclides contained in radioactive debris from nuclear weapons testing. {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu are long-lived radionuclides with half-lives of 24,400 years and 6580 years, respectively. Concerns over human exposure to plutonium stem from knowledge about the persistence of plutonium isotopes in the environment and the high relative effectiveness of alpha-radiation to cause potential harm to cells once incorporated into the human body. In vitro bioassay tests have been developed to assess uptakes of plutonium based on measured urinary excretion patterns and modeled metabolic behaviors of the absorbed radionuclides. Systemic plutonium absorbed by the deep lung or from the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion is either excreted or distributed to other organs, primarily to the liver and skeleton, where it is retained for biological half-times of around 20 and 50 years, respectively. Dose assessment and atoll rehabilitation programs in the Marshall Islands have historically given special consideration to residual concentrations of plutonium in the environment even though the predicted dose from inhalation and/or ingestion of plutonium accounts for less than 5% of the annual effective dose from exposure to fallout contamination. Scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have developed a state-of-the-art bioassay test to assess urinary excretion rates of plutonium from Marshallese populations. This new heavy-isotope measurement system is based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The AMS system at LLNL far exceeds the standard measurement requirements established under the latest United States Department of Energy (DOE) regulation, 10CFR 835, for occupational monitoring of plutonium, and offers several advantages over classical as well as competing new technologies for low-level detection and measurement of plutonium isotopes. The United States

  4. Study of plutonium disposition using existing GE advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The end of the cold war and the resulting dismantlement of nuclear weapons has resulted in the need for the US to dispose of 50 to 100 metric tons of excess of plutonium in a safe and proliferation resistant manner. A number of studies, including the recently released National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study, have recommended conversion of plutonium into spent nuclear fuel with its high radiation barrier as the best means of providing permanent conversion and long-term diversion resistance to this material. The NAS study ``Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium identified Light Water Reactor spent fuel as the most readily achievable and proven form for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. The study also stressed the need for a US disposition program which would enhance the prospects for a timely reciprocal program agreement with Russia. This summary provides the key findings of a GE study where plutonium is converted into Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel and a typical 1155 MWe GE Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) is utilized to convert the plutonium to spent fuel. A companion study of the Advanced BWR has recently been submitted. The MOX core design work that was conducted for the ABWR enabled GE to apply comparable fuel design concepts and consequently achieve full MOX core loading which optimize plutonium throughput for existing BWRs.

  5. Long term plutonium solubility and speciation studies in a synthetic brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, Heino; Roberts, K.; Xi, Ruihua [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1993-12-31

    The rate at which elements can be transported in groundwater systems is governed in part by the solubility of the element in the groundwater. This report documents plutonium solubility experiments in a brine simulant relevant to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Approximately 1 to 2.5 mL of five stock solutions containing single oxidation states of plutonium (Pu(IV)-polymer, Pu{sup 3+}, Pu{sup 4+}, PuO{sub 2}{sup +}, and PuO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) were added to {approximately}75 mL of synthetic H-17 Brine in five reaction vessels. Initial plutonium concentrations ranged from 1.3 {times} l0{sup {minus}4} to 5.l {times} l0{sup {minus}4} M (moles per liter) total plutonium. Because these initial concentrations were far above the plutonium solubility limit in H-17 Brine, plutonium-containing solids precipitated. Aqueous plutonium concentrations were measured over time until steady-state was reached, requiring over 300 days in H-17 Brine.

  6. LLNL Site plan for a MOX fuel lead assembly mission in support of surplus plutonium disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, M.C.

    1997-10-01

    The principal facilities that LLNL would use to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission are Building 332 and Building 334. Both of these buildings are within the security boundary known as the LLNL Superblock. Building 332 is the LLNL Plutonium Facility. As an operational plutonium facility, it has all the infrastructure and support services required for plutonium operations. The LLNL Plutonium Facility routinely handles kilogram quantities of plutonium and uranium. Currently, the building is limited to a plutonium inventory of 700 kilograms and a uranium inventory of 300 kilograms. Process rooms (excluding the vaults) are limited to an inventory of 20 kilograms per room. Ongoing operations include: receiving SSTS, material receipt, storage, metal machining and casting, welding, metal-to-oxide conversion, purification, molten salt operations, chlorination, oxide calcination, cold pressing and sintering, vitrification, encapsulation, chemical analysis, metallography and microprobe analysis, waste material processing, material accountability measurements, packaging, and material shipping. Building 334 is the Hardened Engineering Test Building. This building supports environmental and radiation measurements on encapsulated plutonium and uranium components. Other existing facilities that would be used to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission include Building 335 for hardware receiving and storage and TRU and LLW waste storage and shipping facilities, and Building 331 or Building 241 for storage of depleted uranium.

  7. From separations to reconstitution - a short history of Plutonium in the U.S. and Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, L W

    1999-04-15

    During the cold war plutonium was produced in reactors in both the US and Russia. It was then separated from the residual uranium and fission products by a variety of precipitation processes, such as Bismuth Phosphate, Redox, Butex, Purex, etc. in the US and uranium acetate and Purex in Russia. After a period of time in the field, plutonium weapons were recycled and the plutonium re-purified and returned to weapons. purification was accomplished by a variety of aqueous and molten salt processes, such as nitric-hydrofluoric acid dissolution followed by anion exchange, Purex modifications, molten salt extraction, electrorefining, etc. in the US and nitric acid dissolution or sodium hydroxide fusion followed by anion exchange in Russia. At the end of the Cold War, plutonium production of weapons-grade plutonium was cut off in the US and is expected to be cut off in Russia shortly after the turn of the century. Now both countries are looking at methods to reconstitute plutonium with fission products to render it no longer useful for nuclear weapons. These methods include immobilization in a ceramic matrix and then encasement in fission product laden glass, irradiation of MOX fuel, and disposal as waste in WIPP in the US and irradiation of MOX fuel in Russia. This paper details the contrast between the treatment of plutonium during the cold war and after the cold war was over.

  8. Sludge stabilization at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Environmental Assessment evaluates the proposed action to operate two laboratory-size muffle furnaces in glovebox HC-21C, located in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The muffle furnaces would be used to stabilize chemically reactive sludges that contain approximately 25 kilograms (55 pounds) of plutonium by heating to approximately 500 to 1000{degrees}C (900 to 1800{degrees}F). The resulting stable powder, mostly plutonium oxide with impurities, would be stored in the PFP vaults. The presence of chemically reactive plutonium-bearing sludges in the process gloveboxes poses a risk to workers from radiation exposure and limits the availability of storage space for future plant cleanup. Therefore, there is a need to stabilize the material into a form suitable for long-term storage. This proposed action would be an interim action, which would take place prior to completion of an Environmental Impact Statement for the PFP which would evaluate stabilization of all plutonium-bearing materials and cleanout of the facility. However, only 10 percent of the total quantity of plutonium in reactive materials is in the sludges, so this action will not limit the choice of reasonable alternatives or prejudice the Record of Decision of the Plutonium Finishing Plant Environmental Impact Statement.

  9. Isotope ratio analysis of individual sub-micrometer plutonium particles with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Lee, Chi-Gyu; Kimura, Takaumi

    2010-12-15

    Information on plutonium isotope ratios in individual particles is of great importance for nuclear safeguards, nuclear forensics and so on. Although secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is successfully utilized for the analysis of individual uranium particles, the isobaric interference of americium-241 to plutonium-241 makes difficult to obtain accurate isotope ratios in individual plutonium particles. In the present work, an analytical technique by a combination of chemical separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is developed and applied to isotope ratio analysis of individual sub-micrometer plutonium particles. The ICP-MS results for individual plutonium particles prepared from a standard reference material (NBL SRM-947) indicate that the use of a desolvation system for sample introduction improves the precision of isotope ratios. In addition, the accuracy of the (241)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratio is much improved, owing to the chemical separation of plutonium and americium. In conclusion, the performance of the proposed ICP-MS technique is sufficient for the analysis of individual plutonium particles.

  10. Survey of plutonium and uranium atom ratios and activity levels in Mortandad Canyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallaher, B.M.; Benjamin, T.M.; Rokop, D.J.; Stoker, A.K.

    1997-09-22

    For more than three decades Mortandad Canyon has been the primary release area of treated liquid radioactive waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory). In this survey, six water samples and seven stream sediment samples collected in Mortandad Canyon were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) to determine the plutonium and uranium activity levels and atom ratios. Be measuring the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, the Laboratory plutonium component was evaluated relative to that from global fallout. Measurements of the relative abundance of {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U were also used to identify non-natural components. The survey results indicate the Laboratory plutonium and uranium concentrations in waters and sediments decrease relatively rapidly with distance downstream from the major industrial sources. Plutonium concentrations in shallow alluvial groundwater decrease by approximately 1000 fold along a 3000 ft distance. At the Laboratory downstream boundary, total plutonium and uranium concentrations were generally within regional background ranges previously reported. Laboratory derived plutonium is readily distinguished from global fallout in on-site waters and sediments. The isotopic ratio data indicates off-site migration of trace levels of Laboratory plutonium in stream sediments to distances approximately two miles downstream of the Laboratory boundary.

  11. Optimisation of deep burn incineration of reactor waste plutonium in a PBMR DPP-400 core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serfontein, Dawid E., E-mail: Dawid.Serfontein@nwu.ac.za [School for Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North West University, PUK-Campus, Private Bag X6001, Internal Post Box 360, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Mulder, Eben J. [School for Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North West University (South Africa); Reitsma, Frederik [Calvera Consultants (South Africa)

    2014-05-01

    In this article an original set of coupled neutronics and thermo-hydraulic simulation results for the VSOP 99/05 diffusion code are presented for advanced fuel cycles for the incineration of weapons-grade plutonium, reactor-grade plutonium and reactor-grade plutonium with its associated Minor Actinides in the 400 MW{sub th} Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Demonstration Power Plant. These results are also compared to those of the standard 9.6 wt% enriched 9 g/fuel sphere U/Pu fuel cycle. The weapons-grade and reactor-grade plutonium fuel cycles produced good burn-ups. However, the addition of the Minor Actinides to the reactor-grade plutonium caused a large decrease in the burn-up and thus an unacceptable increase in the heavy metal (HM) content in the spent fuel, which was intended for direct disposal in a deep geological repository, without chemical reprocessing. All the plutonium fuel cycles failed the adopted safety limits used in the PBMR400 in that either the maximum fuel temperature of 1130 °C during normal operation, or the maximum power density of 4.5 kW/sphere was exceeded. All the plutonium fuel cycles also produced positive uniform temperature reactivity coefficients, i.e. the reactivity coefficient where the temperatures of the fuel and the graphite moderator in the fuel spheres were varied together. These unacceptable positive coefficients were experienced at low temperatures, typically below 700 °C. This was due to the influence of the thermal fission cross-section resonances of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu. Weapons-grade plutonium produced the worst safety performance. The safety performance of the reactor-grade plutonium also deteriorated when the HM loading was reduced from 3 g/sphere to 2 g or 1 g.

  12. Criticality experiments with annular cylinders containing plutonium solutions; Experiences de criticite sur des cylindres annulaires contenant des solutions de plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molbert, M.; Sauve, A.; Houelle, M.; Deilgat, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The criticality station of Dijon involves three cells, shielded by concrete walls of 1.46 meter thickness. Those cells are designed to contain the criticality experiment apparatus. The engineering building is also involving: one chemical laboratory where plutonium solutions are prepared, one analysis laboratory, several activated solutions storages, several control rooms, One cell contains the B system, which is designed to study: annular cylindrical geometries, slab of 10 cm thickness, interaction between annular cylinders. This report includes the first results given by experiments on annular cylinders defined by their own geometry (outer and inner diameter of ring containing plutonium solutions). Those results have been plotted in curves, for several concentrations and for different reflection conditions (outer or inner light water reflector, cadmium screen), H{sub c} and M{sub c} = f (c) (where H{sub c} is the critical height of solution, M{sub c} is the critical mass, c is the plutonium concentration: 42,3 g/lplutonium and give H{sub c} and M{sub c} versus the distance between the two solutions. - an insulated annular cylinder 500 x 200: incomplete results are published the experiments on this cylinder being unfinished to the date of this present report publication. On this miscellaneous results, we have following informations know: - Screen effect of light water in central hole. Strengthened effect by cadmium foil on the inside wall. - Normalized interaction curves ( {alpha}*H{sub c}/H{sub c{infinity}} ) versus the distance between the two vessels, where H{sub c{infinity}} critical height of an insulated cylinder, shows that: 1) In light water, two cylinders set aside from 15 cm, can be considers like separated. 2) For some configurations, {alpha} vary

  13. Plutonium in the environment - bibliographic study and quantification; Impacts environnemental et sanitaire des isotopes du plutonium, etude bibliographique et quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetat, Ph.; Monfort, M.; Ansoborlo, E. [CEA Marcoule, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 30 (France); Bion, L.; Moulin, V.; Reiller, P.; Vercouter, Th. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Boucher, L.; Jourdain, F.; Van Dorpe, F. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Comte, A.; Flury Heard, A.; Fritsch, P.; Menetrier, F. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dir. des Sciences du Vivant, 92 (France)

    2008-07-01

    This document deals with the different isotopes of plutonium. It intends to summarize the main features of plutonium behaviour from sources inside installation to the environment and man, and is expected to report the current knowledge about the different parameters used in the models for environmental and radiological impact assessment. The objective is to gather scientific information useful for deciders in case of accident or for regulation purposes. It gives main information on radiological and chemical characteristics which are necessary to understand transfers between compartments. Then it reports information on normal and accidental historical sources and present releases. The next part deals with transfer parameters in the installations and in environment. Parameters that influence its behaviour are examined, inside installations (physico-chemical forms and events that lead to releases), and outside in the environment for deposition to soils and transfer to plants, and animal products. A full chapter is dedicated to presentation of typical assessments, for each isotope and for mixture, and correspondence between activity, mass and dose reference levels are presented and discussed. Transfer and behaviour in man and effects on health are finally presented. (author)

  14. Criticality experiments with annular cylinders containing plutonium solutions; Experiences de criticite sur des cylindres annulaires contenant des solutions de plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molbert, M.; Sauve, A.; Houelle, M.; Deilgat, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The criticality station of Dijon involves three cells, shielded by concrete walls of 1.46 meter thickness. Those cells are designed to contain the criticality experiment apparatus. The engineering building is also involving: one chemical laboratory where plutonium solutions are prepared, one analysis laboratory, several activated solutions storages, several control rooms, One cell contains the B system, which is designed to study: annular cylindrical geometries, slab of 10 cm thickness, interaction between annular cylinders. This report includes the first results given by experiments on annular cylinders defined by their own geometry (outer and inner diameter of ring containing plutonium solutions). Those results have been plotted in curves, for several concentrations and for different reflection conditions (outer or inner light water reflector, cadmium screen), H{sub c} and M{sub c} = f (c) (where H{sub c} is the critical height of solution, M{sub c} is the critical mass, c is the plutonium concentration: 42,3 g/lplutonium and give H{sub c} and M{sub c} versus the distance between the two solutions. - an insulated annular cylinder 500 x 200: incomplete results are published the experiments on this cylinder being unfinished to the date of this present report publication. On this miscellaneous results, we have following informations know: - Screen effect of light water in central hole. Strengthened effect by cadmium foil on the inside wall. - Normalized interaction curves ( {alpha}*H{sub c}/H{sub c{infinity}} ) versus the distance between the two vessels, where H{sub c{infinity}} critical height of an insulated cylinder, shows that: 1) In light water, two cylinders set aside from 15 cm, can be considers like separated. 2) For some configurations, {alpha} vary

  15. Long-term criticality concerns associated with disposition of weapons plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents a very brief description of criticality concerns resulting from dismantlement of nuclear weapons. Two plutonium disposal options, and associated criticality considerations, are described: (1) irradiating it into reactor-grade spent fuel, and (2) immobilization and burial, either in a geologic repository or in deep, sealed boreholes. Mixed oxide spent fuel could contain 3 to 4 wt% of reactor-grade plutonium. For the immobilization and the deep borehole options to be economically viable, a plutonium content of 3 to 7 wt% would be required. A study is proposed to evaluate the long-term criticality safety concerns for disposition of fissionable material in a geologic setting. 2 refs.

  16. Fractionation of plutonium in environmental and bio-shielding concrete samples using dynamic sequential extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin

    2010-01-01

    Fractionation of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239,240Pu) in environmental samples (i.e. soil and sediment) and bio-shielding concrete from decommissioning of nuclear reactor were carried out by dynamic sequential extraction using an on-line sequential injection (SI) system combined with a specially...... designed extraction column. Plutonium in the fractions from the sequential extraction was separated by ion exchange chromatography and measured using alpha spectrometry. The analytical results show a higher mobility of plutonium in bio-shielding concrete, which means attention should be paid...

  17. Conceptual design report, plutonium stabilization and handling,project W-460

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, E.V.

    1997-03-06

    Project W-460, Plutonium Stabilization and Handling, encompasses procurement and installation of a Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) to oxidize and package for long term storage remaining plutonium-bearing special nuclear materials currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), and modification of vault equipment to allow storage of resulting packages of stabilized SNM for up to fifty years. This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) provides conceptual design details for the vault modification, site preparation and site interface with the purchased SPS. Two concepts are described for vault configuration; acceleration of this phase of the project did not allow completion of analysis which would clearly identify a preferred approach.

  18. DOE plutonium disposition study: Pu consumption in ALWRs. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) to provide information on the capability of ABB-CE`s System 80 + Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) to transform, through reactor burnup, 100 metric tonnes (MT) of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) into a form which is not readily useable in weapons. This information is being developed as part of DOE`s Plutonium Disposition Study, initiated by DOE in response to Congressional action. This document Volume 2, provides a discussion of: Plutonium Fuel Cycle; Technology Needs; Regulatory Considerations; Cost and Schedule Estimates; and Deployment Strategy.

  19. Plutonium production story at the Hanford site: processes and facilities history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-20

    This document tells the history of the actual plutonium production process at the Hanford Site. It contains five major sections: Fuel Fabrication Processes, Irradiation of Nuclear Fuel, Spent Fuel Handling, Radiochemical Reprocessing of Irradiated Fuel, and Plutonium Finishing Operations. Within each section the story of the earliest operations is told, along with changes over time until the end of operations. Chemical and physical processes are described, along with the facilities where these processes were carried out. This document is a processes and facilities history. It does not deal with the waste products of plutonium production.

  20. Long-term logistic analysis of FBR introduction strategy: avoiding both uranium and plutonium shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for International Studies

    1995-12-31

    Despite comfortable predictions on short to mid-term uranium resources, there is still a concern about long-term availability of competitive uranium resources. In order to achieve substantial uranium saving, early introduction of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) is desirable. But it is also known that rapid introduction of FBR could result in plutonium storage. Will there be enough plutonium on a global scale to sustain fast FBR growth? is there any other way to save uranium resource? This paper concludes that multi-option strategies to achieve flexible long-term strategy to avoid both uranium and plutonium storage are desirable. (authors) 3 refs.

  1. Chemical thermodynamics of nuclear materials. Pt. 7. The high-temperature enthalpy of plutonium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oetting, F.L. (Rockwell International Corp., Golden, CO (USA). Energy Systems Group)

    1982-02-01

    The high-temperature enthalpy of plutonium dioxide has been determined with a drop calorimeter of the isoperibol type over the temperature range of 298-1610 K. The calculation of the temperature rise of the copper-block receiver takes the added heat evolution from the radioactive decay of the plutonium sample into account when making the enthalpy calculation. These enthalpy results, combined with the heat capacity and entropy of the oxide at 298 K and other high-temperature enthalpy data available from the literature, have made it possible to generate a table of thermodynamic functions for plutonium dioxide from 298 to 2400 K.

  2. Water Solubility of Plutonium and Uranium Compounds and Residues at TA-55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Sean Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Jarvinen, Gordon D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Prochnow, David Adrian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Schulte, Louis D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; DeBurgomaster, Paul Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Fife, Keith William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Rubin, Jim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Worl, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States

    2016-06-13

    Understanding the water solubility of plutonium and uranium compounds and residues at TA-55 is necessary to provide a technical basis for appropriate criticality safety, safety basis and accountability controls. Individual compound solubility was determined using published solubility data and solution thermodynamic modeling. Residue solubility was estimated using a combination of published technical reports and process knowledge of constituent compounds. The scope of materials considered includes all compounds and residues at TA-55 as of March 2016 that contain Pu-239 or U-235 where any single item in the facility has more than 500 g of nuclear material. This analysis indicates that the following materials are not appreciably soluble in water: plutonium dioxide (IDC=C21), plutonium phosphate (IDC=C66), plutonium tetrafluoride (IDC=C80), plutonium filter residue (IDC=R26), plutonium hydroxide precipitate (IDC=R41), plutonium DOR salt (IDC=R42), plutonium incinerator ash (IDC=R47), uranium carbide (IDC=C13), uranium dioxide (IDC=C21), U3O8 (IDC=C88), and uranium filter residue (IDC=R26). This analysis also indicates that the following materials are soluble in water: plutonium chloride (IDC=C19) and uranium nitrate (IDC=C52). Equilibrium calculations suggest that PuOCl is water soluble under certain conditions, but some plutonium processing reports indicate that it is insoluble when present in electrorefining residues (R65). Plutonium molten salt extraction residues (IDC=R83) contain significant quantities of PuCl3, and are expected to be soluble in water. The solubility of the following plutonium residues is indeterminate due to conflicting reports, insufficient process knowledge or process-dependent composition: calcium salt (IDC=R09), electrorefining salt (IDC=R65), salt (IDC=R71), silica (IDC=R73) and sweepings/screenings (IDC=R78). Solution thermodynamic modeling also indicates that fire suppression water buffered with a

  3. MOUTH DISSOLVING FILM AND THEIR PATENT: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Now days the researchers are focusing on the fast dissolving dosage form (FDDF’s).The fast dissolving dosage forms includes the mouth dissolving tablets, mouth dissolving thin films .The alternative words used for these dosage forms are fast disintegrating, orodispersible, fast dissolving. The oral thin film technology (OTF’s) is a dissolvable film technology have evolved from a purely confectionery novelty from a drug delivery platform. The OTH dosage form dissolves in the moth without nee...

  4. Dissolved carbohydrate in the central Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhople, V.M.; Bhosle, N.B.

    Seawater samples (161), collected from 8 depths (0 to 1000 m) at 21 stations were analysed for total dissolved carbohydrate. Dissolved carbohydrate concentrations varied from 0.072 to 1.15 mg.l-1. Carbohydrate concentrations did not decrease...

  5. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU366) FY2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; McCurdy, Greg; Campbell, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events. Field measurements at the T-4 Atmospheric Test Site (CAU 370) suggest that radionuclide-contaminated soils may have migrated along a shallow ephemeral drainage that traverses the site (NNSA/NSO, 2009). (It is not entirely clear how contaminated soils got into their present location at the T-4 Site, but flow to the channel has been redirected and the contamination does not appear to be migrating at present.) Aerial surveys in selected portions of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) also suggest that radionuclide-contaminated soils may be migrating along ephemeral channels in Areas 3, 8, 11, 18, and 25 (Colton, 1999). In Area 11, several low-level airborne surveys of the Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites (CAU 366) show plumes of Americium 241 (Am-241) extending along ephemeral channels (Figure 1, marker numbers 5 and 6) below Corrective Action Site (CAS) 11-23-03 (marker number 3) and CAS 11 23-04 (marker number 4) (Colton, 1999). Plutonium Valley in Area 11 of the NNSS was selected for the study because of the aerial survey evidence suggesting downstream transport of radionuclide-contaminated soil. The aerial survey (Figure 1) shows a well defined finger of elevated radioactivity (marker number 5) extending to the southwest from the southernmost detonation site (marker number 4). This finger of contamination overlies a drainage channel mapped on the topographic base map used for presentation of the survey data suggesting surface runoff as a likely cause of the contaminated area. Additionally, instrumenting sites strongly suspected of conveying

  6. Transuranic (Tru) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cournoyer, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nixon, Archie E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dodge, Robert L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fife, Keith W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Arnold M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Vincent E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA 55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actin ide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter-long glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glove box as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste generation by almost 2% times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos

  7. PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE ALKALI BOROSILICATE GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J.; Crawford, C.; Fox, K.; Bibler, N.

    2011-01-04

    The solubility of plutonium in a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) reference glass and the effect of incorporation of Pu in the glass on specific glass properties were evaluated. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass was studied. Prior to actual plutonium glass testing, surrogate testing (using Hf as a surrogate for Pu) was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of significant quantities of Hf (Pu) in the glass, determine the most appropriate methods to evaluate homogeneity for Pu glass testing, and to evaluate the impact of Hf loading in the glass on select glass properties. Surrogate testing was conducted using Hf to represent between 0 and 1 wt % Pu in glass on an equivalent molar basis. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass translated to {approx}18 kg Pu per Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister, or about 10X the current allowed limit per the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (2500 g/m{sup 3} of glass or about 1700 g/canister) and about 30X the current allowable concentration based on the fissile material concentration limit referenced in the Yucca Mountain Project License Application (897 g/m{sup 3}3 of glass or about 600 g Pu/canister). Based on historical process throughput data, this level was considered to represent a reasonable upper bound for Pu loading based on the ability to provide Pu containing feed to the DWPF. The task elements included evaluating the distribution of Pu in the glass (e.g. homogeneity), evaluating crystallization within the glass, evaluating select glass properties (with surrogates), and evaluating durability using the Product Consistency Test -- Method A (PCT-A). The behavior of Pu in the melter was evaluated using paper studies and corresponding analyses of DWPF melter pour samples.The results of the testing indicated that at 1 wt % Pu in the glass, the Pu was homogeneously distributed and did not result in any formation of plutonium-containing crystalline phases as long as the glass was prepared under 'well-mixed' conditions

  8. Investigation of environmental samples from Fukushima with respect to uranium and plutonium by AMS; Untersuchung von Umweltproben aus Fukushima in Bezug auf Plutonium und Uran mittels AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Stephanie

    2017-02-01

    In March 2011, the nuclear power plant Fukushima Dai-ichi was seriously damaged by a tsunami caused by an earthquake. During the accident large quantities of radionuclides, mainly of the volatile elements cesium and iodine, were released to the environment. In small amounts refractory elements such as plutonium and uranium have also been released. Plutonium and the uraniumisotope {sup 236}U have primarily been delivered by human activities in the environment. Large amounts were released during the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Additional sources are accidents in nuclear facilities, like Chernobyl. Every source has its own characteristic isotopic composition. It is therefore possible to determine the origin of the contamination by measuring the isotopic ratios of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu and {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U. These ratios can be determined by using accelerator mass spectrometry. Due to its high sensitivity, it is possible to measure even small amounts of plutonium and especially of {sup 236}U. These measurements were performed using the compact 500 kV facility ''TANDY'' of ETH Zurich. In 2013 and 2015 vegetation, litter and soil drill core samples were taken in the contaminated area in Fukushima prefecture. In 2015 samples were taken as close to the sampling locations of the 2013 campaign as possible. After isolation of plutonium and uranium by chemical extraction, separate targets were prepared for the measurement. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios indicate global fallout as the plutonium source for most samples. The plutonium of the reactors of Fukushima Dai-ichi is located in the upper layers like in vegetation or litter. From the uranium ratios alone the reactors could not unambigously be identified as the source of {sup 236}U. However, this is plausible in the cases were reactor plutonium was detected. None of the samples contained higher plutonium activity concentrations than in the rest of Japan, caused by global fallout. This

  9. Dissolved air flotation and me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edzwald, James K

    2010-04-01

    This paper is mainly a critical review of the literature and an assessment of what we know about dissolved air flotation (DAF). A few remarks are made at the outset about the author's personal journey in DAF research, his start and its progression. DAF has been used for several decades in drinking water treatment as an alternative clarification method to sedimentation. DAF is particularly effective in treating reservoir water supplies; those supplies containing algae, natural color or natural organic matter; and those with low mineral turbidity. It is more efficient than sedimentation in removing turbidity and particles for these type supplies. Furthermore, it is more efficient in removing Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. In the last 20 years, fundamental models were developed that provide a basis for understanding the process, optimizing it, and integrating it into water treatment plants. The theories were tested through laboratory and pilot-plant studies. Consequently, there have been trends in which DAF pretreatment has been optimized resulting in better coagulation and a decrease in the size of flocculation tanks. In addition, the hydraulic loading rates have increased reducing the size of DAF processes. While DAF has been used mainly in conventional type water plants, there is now interest in the technology as a pretreatment step in ultrafiltration membrane plants and in desalination reverse osmosis plants. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plutonium and americium contamination in Rocky Flats soil, 1973

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krey, P.; Hardy, E.; Volchok, H.; Toonkel, L.; Knuth, R.; Coppes, M.; Tamura, T.

    1976-03-01

    The plutonium mass isotopic analysis and the Am-241 analysis of soil samples from Rocky Flats identify the contamination as Pu which was processed in 1958. The Am-241 activity in the soil will reach its maximum in 2033 and represent 18 percent of the Pu-239-240 activity. Nuclide ratios indicate that current operations at Rocky Flats contribute little to the airborne Pu concentrations which are due to resuspension of the contaminated soil. Root uptake of Pu or Am by vegetation is slight or shows no discrimination among the isotopes and nuclides studied. The relationship between Pu deposition contour and the area enclosed by that contour has been verified for contour values extending over 7 orders of magnitude. This gives confidence to our calculations of the quantities of Pu released on and off the Rocky Flats plant site. (auth)

  11. Enzymatic degradation of plutonium-contaminated cellulose products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, C.E.; Rainwater, K.A.; Swift, L.M. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Barnes, D.L. [Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, TX (United States); Worl, L.; Avens, L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Enzyme solutions produced for commercial purposes unrelated to waste management have the potential for reducing the volume of wastes in streams containing cellulose, lipid and protein materials. For example, the authors have shown that cellulases used in denim production and in detergent formulations are able to digest cellulose-containing sorbents and other cellulose-based wastes contaminated either with crude oil or with radionuclides. This presentation describes the use of one such enzyme preparation (Rapidase{trademark}) for the degradation of cotton sorbents intentionally contaminated with low levels of plutonium. This is part of a feasibility study to determine if such treatments have a role in reducing the volume of low level and transuranic wastes to minimize the amount of radionuclide-contaminated waste that must be disposed of in secured storage areas.

  12. Enzymatic degradation of plutonium-contaminated cellulose products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, C.E.; Rainwater, K.A.; Swift, L.M. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Barnes, D.L. [Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, TX (United States); Worl, L.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Enzyme solutions produced for commercial purposes unrelated to waste management have the potential for reducing the volume of wastes in streams containing cellulose, lipid and protein materials. For example, the authors have shown previously that cellulases used in denim production and in detergent formulations are able to digest cellulose-containing sorbents and other cellulose-based wastes contaminated either with crude oil or with uranium. This presentation describes the use of one such enzyme preparation (Rapidase{trademark}, manufactured by Genencor, Rochester, NY) for the degradation of cotton sorbents intentionally contaminated with low levels of plutonium. This is part of a feasibility study to determine if such treatments have a role in reducing the volume of low level and transuranic wastes to minimize the amount of radionuclide-contaminated waste destined for costly disposal options.

  13. Effect of microorganisms on the plutonium oxidation states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksiene, Benedikta, E-mail: bena@ar.fi.lt [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Druteikiene, Ruta [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Peciulyte, Dalia [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos street 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Baltrunas, Dalis; Remeikis, Vidmantas [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Paskevicius, Algimantas [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos street 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2012-03-15

    Particular microbes from substrates at the low-level radioactive waste repository in the Ignalina NPP territory were exposed to {sup 239}Pu (IV) at low pH under aerobic conditions. Pu(III) and Pu(IV) were separated and quantitatively evaluated using the modified anion exchange method and alpha spectrometry. Tested bacteria Bacillus mycoides and Serratia marcescens were more effective in Pu reduction than Rhodococcus fascians. Fungi Paecillomyces lilacinus and Absidia spinosa var. spinosa as well as bacterium Rhodococcus fascians did not alter the plutonium oxidation state. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particular microbes from low-level radioactive waste repository were exposed to Pu (IV). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some tested bacteria induced slight Pu (IV) reduction at low pH under aerobic conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tested fungi did not show peculiarities to alter Pu oxidation state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modified radiochemical method was applied to differentiate Pu oxidation states.

  14. Development of the Plutonium-DTPA Biokinetic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Estimating radionuclide intakes from bioassays following chelation treatment presents a challenge to the dosimetrist due to the observed excretion enhancement of the particular radionuclide of concern where no standard biokinetic model exists. This document provides a Pu-DTPA biokinetic model that may be used for making such determination for plutonium intakes. The Pu-DTPA biokinetic model is intended to supplement the standard recommended biokinetic models. The model was used to evaluate several chelation strategies that resulted in providing recommendations for effective treatment. These recommendations supported early treatment for soluble particle inhalations and an initial 3-day series of DTPA treatments for wounds. Several late chelation strategies were also compared where reduced treatment frequencies proved to be as effective as multiple treatments. The Pu-DTPA biokinetic model can be used to assist in estimating initial intakes of transuranic radionuclides and for studying the effects of different treatment strategies.

  15. Enzymatic degradation of plutonium-contaminated cellulose products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, C.E.; Rainwater, K.A.; Swift, L.M. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Barnes, D.L. [Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, TX (United States); Worl, L.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Enzyme solutions produced for commercial purposes unrelated to waste management have the potential for reducing the volume of wastes in streams containing cellulose, lipid and protein materials. For example, the authors have shown previously that cellulases used in denim production and in detergent formulations are able to digest cellulose-containing sorbents and other cellulose-based wastes contaminated either with crude oil or with uranium. This presentation describes the use of one such enzyme preparation (Rapidase{trademark}, manufactured by Genencor, Rochester, NY) for the degradation of cotton sorbents intentionally contaminated with low levels of plutonium. This is part of a feasibility study to determine if such treatments have a role in reducing the volume of low level and transuranic wastes to minimize the amount of radionuclide-contaminated waste destined for costly disposal options.

  16. Optimization of air-sparged plutonium oxalate/hydroxide precipitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanderHeyden, W.B.; Yarbro, S.L.; Fife, K.W.

    1997-04-01

    The high cost of waste management and experimental work makes numerical modeling an inexpensive and attractive tool for optimizing and understanding complex chemical processes. Multiphase {open_quotes}bubble{close_quotes} columns are used extensively at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility for a variety of different applications. No moving parts and efficient mixing characteristics allow them to be used in glovebox operations. Initially, a bubble column for oxalate precipitations is being modeled to identify the effect of various design parameters such as, draft tube location, air sparge rate and vessel geometry. Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric models have been completed and successfully compared to literature data. Also, a preliminary three-dimensional model has been completed. These results are discussed in this report along with future work.

  17. Plutonium Reclamation Facility incident response project progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, B.A.

    1997-11-25

    This report provides status of Hanford activities in response to process deficiencies highlighted during and in response to the May 14, 1997, explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility. This report provides specific response to the August 4, 1997, memorandum from the Secretary which requested a progress report, in 120 days, on activities associated with reassessing the known and evaluating new vulnerabilities (chemical and radiological) at facilities that have been shut down, are in standby, are being deactivated or have otherwise changed their conventional mode of operation in the last several years. In addition, this report is intended to provide status on emergency response corrective activities as requested in the memorandum from the Secretary on August 28, 1997. Status is also included for actions requested in the second August 28, 1997, memorandum from the Secretary, regarding timely notification of emergencies.

  18. Admixtures in Spent Plutonium Sources and Gamma-Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Pelanytė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The isotopic composition of several spent smoke detectors containing plutonium has been investigated. The article also presents the calculated results of 241Am and 241Pu activities in smoke detectors. The received values vary from (0.934±0.028 MBq to (91.2±4.6 MBq. The eguivalent dose rate of the established gamma radiation vary from 220 nSv/h to 500 nSv/h. A dose caused by artificial radionuclides in spent smoke detectors was evaluated and compared in the article. It has been found out that due to smoke detectors, an annual dose varies from 0.06 mSv to 0.31 mSv. Article in Lithuanian

  19. Plutonium-244 fission xenon in the most primitive meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, P.K.; Myers, W.A. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States))

    1994-01-01

    The plutonium-244/xenon-136 ages of the Murchison, Murray and Orgueil meteorites have been calculated from the existing xenon isotope data and the uranium contents. The CI carbonaceous chondrite Orgueil, which is considered to be among the most primitive - in the sense of the least altered - sample of the solar system known to man, appears to have started to retain its xenon more than 5,000 million years ago, when the ratio of [sup 244]Pu to [sup 238]U in the solar system was as high as (0.5 [+-] 0.1) (atom/atom) and the CM carbonaceous chondrites Murchison and Murray started to retain their xenon about 4,940 million years ago, when the [sup 244]Pu to [sup 238]U ratio was about 0.17 (atom/atom). (orig.)

  20. Separation Techniques for Uranium and Plutonium at Trace Levels for the Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometric Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, M. Y.; Han, S. H.; Kim, J. G.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H

    2005-12-15

    This report describes the state of the art and the progress of the chemical separation and purification techniques required for the thermal ionization mass spectrometric determination of uranium and plutonium in environmental samples at trace or ultratrace levels. Various techniques, such as precipitation, solvent extraction, extraction chromatography, and ion exchange chromatography, for separation of uranium and plutonium were evaluated. Sample preparation methods and dissolution techniques for environmental samples were also discussed. Especially, both extraction chromatographic and anion exchange chromatographic procedures for uranium and plutonium in environmental samples, such as soil, sediment, plant, seawater, urine, and bone ash were reviewed in detail in order to propose some suitable methods for the separation and purification of uranium and plutonium from the safeguards environmental or swipe samples. A survey of the IAEA strengthened safeguards system, the clean room facility of IAEA's NWAL(Network of Analytical Laboratories), and the analytical techniques for safeguards environmental samples was also discussed here.

  1. The solubility of hydrogen and deuterium in alloyed, unalloyed and impure plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bridgewater, Jon S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ward, John W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allen, Thomas A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Pressure-Composition-Temperature (PCT) data are presented for the plutonium-hydrogen (Pu-H) and plutonium-deuterium (Pu-D) systems in the solubility region up to terminal solubility (precipitation of PuH{sub 2}). The heats of solution for PuH{sub s} and PuD{sub s} are determined from PCT data in the ranges 350-625 C for gallium alloyed Pu and 400-575 C for unalloyed Pu. The solubility of high purity plutonium alloyed with 2 at.% gallium is compared to high purity unalloyed plutonium. Significant differences are found in hydrogen solubility for unalloyed Pu versus gallium alloyed Pu. Differences in hydrogen solubility due to an apparent phase change are observable in the alloyed and unalloyed solubilities. The effect of iron impurities on Pu-Ga alloyed Pu is shown via hydrogen solubility data as preventing complete homogenization.

  2. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium quarterly technical progress report, August 1--October 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes activities of the Center under the following topical sections: Electronic resource library; Environmental restoration and protection; Health and safety; Waste management; Communication program; Education program; Training; Analytical development; Materials science; Plutonium processing and handling; and Storage.

  3. Determination of trace elements in plutonium by solvent extraction and ICP-atomic emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, A. B.; Joshi, M. V.; Kulkarni, V. T.; Radhakrishnan; Sumathi, S.; Jacob, Mary

    This report describes the studies carried out for the determination of trace metallic impurities in plutonium solutions. Plutonium is separated from the impurity elements by the selective extraction of plutonium in tri-butyl-phosphate. The aqueous phase containing the impurities is fed to the high temperature source of excitation such as inductively coupled argon plasma and the analysis is carried out employing computer controlled multichannel direct reading spectrometer. Based on the above studies a method has been standardized for the analysis of sixteen elements in plutonium oxide/nitrate samples. The relative standard deviation of the method for various elements is in the range of +/- 1 to 5%. The method offers distinct advantages over the conventional carrier distillation technique in terms of precision, range, and sensitivity.

  4. Efficient powder blending in support of plutonium conversion for mixed oxide fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennison, D.K.; Brucker, J.P.; Martinez, H.E.

    1999-06-07

    This paper describes a unique system that is used to mix and blend multiple batches of plutonium oxide powder of various consistencies into an equivalent number of identical and homogeneously mixed batches. This system is being designed and built to support the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) at the Los Alamos TA-55 Plutonium Facility. The ARIES program demonstrates dismantlement of nuclear pits, retrieval of the plutonium components, and conversion of the plutonium into an oxide for eventual use in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for nuclear reactors. The purpose of this powder blending work is to assure that ARIES oxide is converted into an unclassified homogeneous mixture and that consistent feed material is available for MOX fuel assembly. This blending system is being assembled in a selected glovebox a TA-55 using an LANL designed split/combine apparatus, a commercial Turbula blending unit, and several additional supporting hardware components.

  5. The underwater coincidence counter (UWCC) for plutonium measurements in mixed oxide fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccleston, G.W.; Menlove, H.O.; Abhold, M.; Baker, M.; Pecos, J.

    1998-12-31

    The use of fresh uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in light-water reactors (LWR) is increasing in Europe and Japan and it is necessary to verify the plutonium content in the fuel for international safeguards purposes. The UWCC is a new instrument that has been designed to operate underwater and nondestructively measure the plutonium in unirradiated MOX fuel assemblies. The UWCC can be quickly configured to measure either boiling-water reactor (BWR) or pressurized-water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. The plutonium loading per unit length is measured using the UWCC to precisions of less than 1% in a measurement time of 2 to 3 minutes. Initial calibrations of the UWCC were completed on measurements of MOX fuel in Mol, Belgium. The MCNP-REN Monte Carlo simulation code is being benchmarked to the calibration measurements to allow accurate simulations for extended calibrations of the UWCC.

  6. Preparation of reference material for uranium and plutonium measurements using cellulose compound as a stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surugaya, Naoki; Sato, Soichi; Hina, Tetsuro; Hiyama, Toshiaki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry, considered the most reliable analytical technique for input accountancy measurements of uranium and plutonium in spent fuel reprocessing plants, requires a well-characterized uranium/plutonium spike. Solid spikes containing {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu have been successfully utilized in safeguards inspections and in accountability analysis. They contain relatively large amounts of uranium and plutonium isotopically different to the uranium and plutonium of the sample, and are usually in the dried nitrate form. However, it is difficult to maintain and guarantee the integrity of the spike over long periods as they are in the dried nitrate form that can flake off the glass ampoule surface. Organic coatings were investigated using cellulose acetate butyrate as a stabilizer. The cellulose acetate butyrate had good characteristics, maintaining a thin film for a long time. (author)

  7. Age Determination of Trace Plutonium by Using ID-MC-ICP-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In the analysis of the origin of plutonium, the isotopic composition and the age of the material are very important. The age is the first parameter necessary to be determined when deducing the history of the

  8. Electrolytic partitioning of uranium and plutonium based on a new type of electrolytic mixer-settler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Z.; Yan, T.; Zheng, W. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)] [and others

    2013-11-01

    The design of a new type of electroreduction mixer-settler for the partitioning of uranium and plutonium during the Purex process, which is featured with E-shaped cathodes and U-shaped anodes in settling chamber, is described and the operational results achieved using this equipment are presented. The results show that this new type of mixer-settler has excellent separation performances. The flow rate of organic feed solution is 3 mL/min and the flow ratio of feed solution (1BF) to aqueous back extraction stream (1BX) and to organic wash stream (1BS) is 4/1/1. For an organic feed of 84 g/L uranium and 1.40 {proportional_to} 2.64 g/L plutonium, both the separation factor of plutonium from uranium and that of uranium from plutonium are apparently higher than 10{sup 4}. (orig.)

  9. DOE Plutonium Disposition Study: Pu consumption in ALWRs. Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) to provide information on the capability of ABB-CE`s System 80 + Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) to transform, through reactor burnup, 100 metric tonnes (MT) of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) into a form which is not readily useable in weapons. This information is being developed as part of DOE`s Plutonium Disposition Study, initiated by DOE in response to Congressional action. This document, Volume 1, presents a technical description of the various elements of the System 80 + Standard Plant Design upon which the Plutonium Disposition Study was based. The System 80 + Standard Design is fully developed and directly suited to meeting the mission objectives for plutonium disposal. The bass U0{sub 2} plant design is discussed here.

  10. Long-term retrievability and safeguards for immobilized weapons plutonium in geologic storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, P.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    If plutonium is not ultimately used as an energy source, the quantity of excess weapons plutonium (w-Pu) that would go into a US repository will be small compared to the quantity of plutonium contained in the commercial spent fuel in the repository, and the US repository(ies) will likely be only one (or two) locations out of many around the world where commercial spent fuel will be stored. Therefore excess weapons plutonium creates a small perturbation to the long-term (over 200,000 yr) global safeguard requirements for spent fuel. There are details in the differences between spent fuel and immobilized w-Pu waste forms (i.e. chemical separation methods, utility for weapons, nuclear testing requirements), but these are sufficiently small to be unlikely to play a significant role in any US political decision to rebuild weapons inventories, or to change the long-term risks of theft by subnational groups.

  11. Using an induction melter with a cold crucible for the immobilization of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushnikov, V.V.; Matiunin, Yu.I.; Smelova, T.V. [A.A. Bochvara All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Non-Organic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-05-01

    This report evaluates the possibilities for immobilizing weapons-grade plutonium in glass-type materials that satisfy requirements for eventual burial in deep geologic repositories and correspond to the standards set for spent fuel.

  12. New Gas Gun Helping Scientists Better Understand Plutonium Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2005-09-20

    One of the most daunting scientific and engineering challenges today is ensuring the safety and reliability of the nation's nuclear arsenal. To effectively meet that challenge, scientists need better data showing how plutonium, a key component of nuclear warheads, behaves under extreme pressures and temperatures. On July 8, 2003, Lawrence Livermore researchers performed the inaugural experiment of a 30-meter-long, two-stage gas gun designed to obtain those data. The results from a continuing stream of successful experiments on the gas gun are strengthening scientists' ability to ensure that the nation's nuclear stockpile is safe and reliable. The JASPER (Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research) Facility at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Nevada Test Site (NTS) is home to the two-stage gas gun. In the gun's first test, an unqualified success, Livermore scientists fired a projectile weighing 28.6 grams and traveling about 5.21 kilometers per second when it impacted an extremely small (about 30-gram) plutonium target. This experiment marked the culmination of years of effort in facility construction, gun installation, system integration, design reviews, and federal authorizations required to bring the experimental facility online. Ongoing experiments have drawn enthusiastic praise from throughout DOE, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and the scientific community. NNSA Administrator Linton Brooks said, ''Our national laboratories now have at their disposal a valuable asset that enhances our due diligence to certify the nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear weapons testing.''

  13. VALIDATION OF HANFORD PERSONNEL AND EXTREMITY DOSIMETERS IN PLUTONIUM ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherpelz, Robert I.; Fix, John J.; Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2000-02-10

    A study was performed in the Plutonium Finishing Plant to assess the performance of Hanford personnel neutron dosimetry. The study was assessed whole body dosimetry and extremity dosimetry performance. For both parts of the study, the TEPC was used as the principle instrument for characterizing workplace neutron fields. In the whole body study, 12.7-cm-diameter TEPCs were used in ten different locations in the facility. TLD and TED personnel dosimeters were exposed on a water-filled phantom to enable a comparison of TEPC and dosimeter response. In the extremity study, 1.27-cm-diameter TEPCs were exposed inside the fingers of a gloveboxe glove. Extremity dosimeters were wrapped around the TEPCs. The glove was then exposed to six different cans of plutonium, simulating the exposure that a worker's fingers would receive in a glovebox. The comparison of TEPC-measured neutron dose equivalent to TLD-measured gamma dose equivalent provided neutron-to-gamma ratios that can be used to estimate the neutron dose equivalent received by a worker's finger based on the gamma readings of an extremity dosimeter. The study also utilized a Snoopy and detectors based on bubble technology for assessing neutron exposures, providing a comparison of the effectiveness of these instruments for workplace monitoring. The study concludes that the TLD component of the HCND performs adequately overall, with a positive bias of 30%, but exhibits excessive variability in individual results due to instabilities in the algorithm. The TED response was less variable but only 20% of the TEPC reference dose on average because of the low neutron energies involved. The neutron response of the HSD was more variable than the TLD component of the HCND and biased high by a factor of 8 overall due to its calibration to unmoderated 252Cf. The study recommends further work to correct instabilities in the HCND algorithm and to explore the potential shown by the bubble-based dosimeters.

  14. Interaction of aerobic soil bacteria with plutonium(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panak, P.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.; Nitsche, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-07-01

    We studied the interaction of Pu(VI) with Pseudomonas stutzeri ATCC 17588 and Bacillus sphaericus ATCC 14577, representatives of the main aerobic groups of soil bacteria present in the upper soil layers. The biosorption studies have shown that these soil bacteria accumulate high amounts of Pu(VI). The relative sorption efficiency toward Pu(VI) related to the amount of biomass used decreased with increasing biomass concentration due to increased agglomeration of the bacteria resulting in a decrease of the number of available complexing groups. Spores of Bacillus sphaericus showed a higher biosorption than the vegetative cells at low biomass concentration which decreased significantly with increasing biomass concentration. At higher biomass concentrations (> 0.7 g/L), the vegetative cells of both strains and the spores of B. sphaericus showed comparable sorption efficiencies. Investigations on the pH dependency of the biosorption and extraction studies with 0.01 M EDTA solution have shown that the biosorption of plutonium is a reversible process and the plutonium is bound by surface complexation. Optical absorption spectroscopy showed that one third of the initially present Pu(VI) was reduced to Pu(V) after 24 hours. Kinetic studies and solvent extraction to separate different oxidation states of Pu after contact with the biomass provided further information on the yield and the kinetics of the bacteria-mediated reduction. Long-term studies showed that also 16% of Pu(IV) was formed after one month. The slow kinetics of this process indicate that under our experimental conditions the Pu(IV) was not a produced by microbial reduction but seemed to be rather the result of the disproportionation of the formed Pu(V) or autoreduction of Pu(VI). (orig.)

  15. Plutonium Immobilization Project Binder Burnout and Sintering Studies (Milestone 6.6a)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, G.

    1999-10-28

    The Plutonium Immobilization Team has developed an integrated test program to understand and optimize the controlling variables for the sintering step of the plutonium immobilization process. Sintering is the key process step that controls the product minerology. It is expected that the sintering will be the limiting process step that controls the throughput of the production line. The goal of the current sintering test program is to better understand factors that affect the sintering process.

  16. Assessment of plutonium in the Savannah River Site environment. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-12-31

    Plutonium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fifth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. These are living documents, each to be revised and updated on a two-year schedule. This document describes the sources of plutonium in the environment, its release from SRS, environmental transport and ecological concentration of plutonium, and the radiological impact of SRS releases to the environment. Plutonium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite SNAP 9-A, plane crashes involving nuclear weapons, and small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants. Plutonium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors and released in small quantities during the processing of fuel and targets in chemical separations facilities. Approximately 0.6 Ci of plutonium was released into streams and about 12 Ci was released to seepage basins, where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A smaller quantity, about 3.8 Ci, was released to the atmosphere. Virtually all releases have occurred in F- and H-Area separation facilities. Plutonium concentration and transport mechanisms for the atmosphere, surface water, and ground water releases have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases to the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by a total dose of 15 mrem (atmospheric) and 0.18 mrem (liquid), compared with the dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time (1954--1989). Plutonium releases from SRS facilities have resulted in a negligible impact to the environment and the population it supports.

  17. Critical experiments on single-unit spherical plutonium geometries reflected and moderated by oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1997-05-01

    Experimental critical configurations are reported for several dozen spherical and hemispherical single-unit assemblies of plutonium metal. Most were solid but many were hollow-centered, thick, shell-like geometries. All were constructed of nested plutonium (mostly {sup 2139}Pu) metal hemispherical shells. Three kinds of critical configurations are reported. Two required interpolation and/or extrapolation of data to obtain the critical mass because reflector conditions were essentially infinite. The first finds the plutonium essentially fully reflected by a hydrogen-rich oil; the second is essentially unreflected. The third kind reports the critical oil reflector height above a large plutonium metal assembly of accurately known mass (no interpolation required) when that mass was too great to permit full oil reflection. Some configurations had thicknesses of mild steel just outside the plutonium metal, separating it from the oil. These experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory in the late 1960s. They have not been published in a form suitable for benchmark-quality comparisons against state-of-the-art computational techniques until this paper. The age of the data and other factors lead to some difficulty in reconstructing aspects of the program and may, in turn, decrease confidence in certain details. Whenever this is true, the point is acknowledged. The plutonium metal was alpha-phase {sup 239}Pu containing 5.9 wt-% {sup 240}Pu. All assemblies were formed by nesting 1.667-mm-thick (nominal) bare plutonium metal hemispherical shells, also called hemishells, until the desired configuration was achieved. Very small tolerance gaps machined into radial dimensions reduced the effective density a small amount in all cases. Steel components were also nested hemispherical shells; but these were nominally 3.333-mm thick. Oil was used as the reflector because of its chemical compatibility with plutonium metal.

  18. Assessment of the risk of transporting plutonium dioxide by cargo aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSweeney, T.I.; Johnson, J.F.

    1977-06-01

    To enable easy comparison, all the plutonium shipping evaluations have used the same bases. In each, the results have been related to a future time--the early 1980s--when plutonium shipments are expected to be more frequent. The characteristics of the nuclear economy used in this analysis are: A total of 18 metric tons (MT) of plutonium is shipped annually, via the mode being evaluated. 100 kg of plutonium are transported per shipment. For air shipment, a truck and air segment are considered. The average shipping distance per shipment is 1,422 miles with 14 percent of the distance being by truck. Shipping systems and regulations are the same as in 1974. PuO/sub 2/ is shipped in 6M containers. The use of other shipping conditions could result in different risks than reported here. For the purposes of this study, plutonium dioxide was assumed to be carried exclusively in the 15-gal version of the 6M container. Unless otherwise noted, all references to 6M containers in the report refer to this particular size. Based on the shipping assumptions, the likelihood that an aircraft carrying a shipment will be involved in an accident is estimated to be about once in 450 years. For the projected shipping rate in the early 1980s, the likelihood of a release of plutonium as a result of shipment by air is one in 900 years for dioxide powder in the 6M container. The comparison of the truck and air transport modes for the same material showed truck transport to have less risk. At the same time, the air transport of plutonium dioxide was demonstrated to have a lower risk than other commonly accepted societal risks. The major contributor to the overall risk spectra for air transport was a cargo airplane, carrying plutonium dioxide, crashing at high speed into hard rock.

  19. Preconceptual design for separation of plutonium and gallium by ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMuth, S.F.

    1997-09-30

    The disposition of plutonium from decommissioned nuclear weapons, by incorporation into commercial UO{sub 2}-based nuclear reactor fuel, is a viable means to reduce the potential for theft of excess plutonium. This fuel, which would be a combination of plutonium oxide and uranium oxide, is referred to as a mixed oxide (MOX). Following power generation in commercial reactors with this fuel, the remaining plutonium would become mixed with highly radioactive fission products in a spent fuel assembly. The radioactivity, complex chemical composition, and large size of this spent fuel assembly, would make theft difficult with elaborate chemical processing required for plutonium recovery. In fabricating the MOX fuel, it is important to maintain current commercial fuel purity specifications. While impurities from the weapons plutonium may or may not have a detrimental affect on the fuel fabrication or fuel/cladding performance, certifying the effect as insignificant could be more costly than purification. Two primary concerns have been raised with regard to the gallium impurity: (1) gallium vaporization during fuel sintering may adversely affect the MOX fuel fabrication process, and (2) gallium vaporization during reactor operation may adversely affect the fuel cladding performance. Consequently, processes for the separation of plutonium from gallium are currently being developed and/or designed. In particular, two separation processes are being considered: (1) a developmental, potentially lower cost and lower waste, thermal vaporization process following PuO{sub 2} powder preparation, and (2) an off-the-shelf, potentially higher cost and higher waste, aqueous-based ion exchange (IX) process. While it is planned to use the thermal vaporization process should its development prove successful, IX has been recommended as a backup process. This report presents a preconceptual design with material balances for separation of plutonium from gallium by IX.

  20. Options for converting excess plutonium to feed for the MOX fuel fabrication facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, Joe A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Paul H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Psaras, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costa, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Joyce, Jr., Edward L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The storage and safekeeping of excess plutonium in the United States represents a multibillion-dollar lifecycle cost to the taxpayers and poses challenges to National Security and Nuclear Non-Proliferation. Los Alamos National Laboratory is considering options for converting some portion of the 13 metric tons of excess plutonium that was previously destined for long-term waste disposition into feed for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). This approach could reduce storage costs and security ri sks, and produce fuel for nuclear energy at the same time. Over the course of 30 years of weapons related plutonium production, Los Alamos has developed a number of flow sheets aimed at separation and purification of plutonium. Flow sheets for converting metal to oxide and for removing chloride and fluoride from plutonium residues have been developed and withstood the test oftime. This presentation will address some potential options for utilizing processes and infrastructure developed by Defense Programs to transform a large variety of highly impure plutonium into feedstock for the MFFF.

  1. Rapid and automated determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, J.

    2011-03-15

    This thesis presents improved analytical methods for rapid and automated determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples using sequential injection (SI) based chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The progress of methodology development in this work consists of 5 subjects stated as follows: 1) Development and optimization of an SI-anion exchange chromatographic method for rapid determination of plutonium in environmental samples in combination of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection (Paper II); (2) Methodology development and optimization for rapid determination of plutonium in environmental samples using SI-extraction chromatography prior to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Paper III); (3) Development of an SI-chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples (Paper IV); (4) Investigation of the suitability and applicability of 242Pu as a tracer for rapid neptunium determination using anion exchange chromatography in an SI-network coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Paper V); (5) Exploration of macro-porous anion exchange chromatography for rapid and simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium within an SI system (Paper VI). The results demonstrate that the developed methods in this study are reliable and efficient for accurate assays of trace levels of plutonium and neptunium as demanded in different situations including environmental risk monitoring and assessment, emergency preparedness and surveillance of contaminated areas. (Author)

  2. Particulate distribution of plutonium and americium in surface waters from the Spanish Mediterranean coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molero, J.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Merino, J.; Vidal-Quadras, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Vives Batlle, J.; Mitchell, P.I. [University Coll., Dublin (Ireland)

    1995-12-31

    Measurements of the particulate distribution of plutonium and americium in Spanish Mediterranean coastal waters have been carried out. Plutonium-239,340 and {sup 241}Am concentrations have been measured in suspended particulate matter by filtering (< 0.22 {mu}m) large volume (200-300 litres) sea water samples. Results indicate that particulate plutonium constitutes on average 11 {+-} 4% of the total concentration in sea water. In the case of americium this percentage rises to 45 {+-} 14%. From the {sup 241}Am/{sup 239,240}Pu activity ratios it is clear that suspended particulate matter is enriched in {sup 241}Am relative to {sup 239,240}Pu by a factor 8 {+-} 4. Plutonium and americium in surface Mediterranean coastal waters appear to be fractionated as they present a different transfer rate to the particles. Our measurements allowed us to estimate sediment-water distribution coefficients (K{sub d}), which are a key parameter to interpret differences between the behaviour of plutonium and americium in sea water. Distribution coefficients K{sub d} have been estimated to be (1.4 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 5} litres kg{sup -1} for plutonium and (0.9 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 6} litres kg{sup -1} for americium in surface Mediterranean coastal waters. (author).

  3. Developing a physiologically based approach for modeling plutonium decorporation therapy with DTPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastl, Manuel; Giussani, Augusto; Blanchardon, Eric; Breustedt, Bastian; Fritsch, Paul; Hoeschen, Christoph; Lopez, Maria Antonia

    2014-11-01

    To develop a physiologically based compartmental approach for modeling plutonium decorporation therapy with the chelating agent Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Ca-DTPA/Zn-DTPA). Model calculations were performed using the software package SAAM II (©The Epsilon Group, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA). The Luciani/Polig compartmental model with age-dependent description of the bone recycling processes was used for the biokinetics of plutonium. The Luciani/Polig model was slightly modified in order to account for the speciation of plutonium in blood and for the different affinities for DTPA of the present chemical species. The introduction of two separate blood compartments, describing low-molecular-weight complexes of plutonium (Pu-LW) and transferrin-bound plutonium (Pu-Tf), respectively, and one additional compartment describing plutonium in the interstitial fluids was performed successfully. The next step of the work is the modeling of the chelation process, coupling the physiologically modified structure with the biokinetic model for DTPA. RESULTS of animal studies performed under controlled conditions will enable to better understand the principles of the involved mechanisms.

  4. SUPPORTING SAFE STORAGE OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING MATERIALS THROUGH SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND SURVEILLANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.; Chandler, G.; Gardner, C.; Louthan, M.; Mcclard, J.

    2009-11-10

    Reductions in the size of the U. S. nuclear weapons arsenal resulted in the need to store large quantities of plutonium-bearing metals and oxides for prolonged periods of time. To assure that the excess plutonium from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites was stored in a safe and environmentally friendly manner the plutonium-bearing materials are stabilized and packaged according to well developed criteria published as a DOE Standard. The packaged materials are stored in secure facilities and regular surveillance activities are conducted to assure continuing package integrity. The stabilization, packaging, storage and surveillance requirements were developed through extensive science and engineering activities including those related to: plutonium-environment interactions and container pressurization, corrosion and stress corrosion cracking, plutonium-container material interactions, loss of sealing capability and changes in heat transfer characteristics. This paper summarizes some of those activities and outlines ongoing science and engineering programs that assure continued safe and secure storage of the plutonium-bearing metals and oxides.

  5. Determination of plutonium resent in highly radioactive irradiated fuel solution by spectrophotometric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhamodharam, Krishnan [Reprocessing Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Pius, Anitha [The Gandhigram Rural Institute - Deemed University, Gandhigram (India)

    2016-06-15

    A simple and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed to enable the determination of plutonium concentration in an irradiated fuel solution in the presence of all fission products. An excess of ceric ammonium nitrate solution was employed to oxidize all the valence states of plutonium to +6 oxidation state. Interference due to the presence of fission products such as ruthenium and zirconium, and corrosion products such as iron in the envisaged concentration range, as in the irradiated fuel solution, was studied in the determination of plutonium concentration by the direct spectrophotometric method. The stability of plutonium in +6 oxidation state was monitored under experimental conditions as a function of time. Results obtained are reproducible, and this method is applicable to radioactive samples resulting before the solvent extraction process during the reprocessing of fast reactor spent fuel. An analysis of the concentration of plutonium shows a relative standard deviation of <1.2% in standard as well as in simulated conditions. This reflects the fast reactor fuel composition with respect to uranium, plutonium, fission products such as ruthenium and zirconium, and corrosion products such as iron.

  6. A proteomic approach to identification of plutonium-binding proteins in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Baikuntha P; Paunesku, Tatjana; Woloschak, Gayle E; He, Chuan; Jensen, Mark P

    2012-02-16

    Plutonium can enter the body through different routes and remains there for decades; however its specific biochemical interactions are poorly defined. We, for the first time, have studied plutonium-binding proteins using a metalloproteomic approach with rat PC12 cells. A combination of immobilized metal ion chromatography, 2D gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry was employed to analyze potential plutonium-binding proteins. Our results show that several proteins from PC12 cells show affinity towards Pu(4+)-NTA (plutonium bound to nitrilotriacetic acid). Proteins from seven different spots in the 2D gel were identified. In contrast to the previously known plutonium-binding proteins transferrin and ferritin, which bind ferric ions, most identified proteins in our experiment are known to bind calcium, magnesium, or divalent transition metal ions. The identified plutonium interacting proteins also have functional roles in downregulation of apoptosis and other pro-proliferative processes. MetaCore™ analysis based on this group of proteins produced a pathway with a statistically significant association with development of neoplastic diseases.

  7. Purging dissolved oxygen by nitrogen bubble aeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tatsuya; Ando, Keita

    2016-11-01

    We apply aeration with nitrogen microbubbles to water in order to see whether oxygen gas originally dissolved in the water at one atmosphere is purged by the aeration. The concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) is detected by a commercial DO meter. To detect the dissolved nitrogen (DN) level, we observe the growth of millimetre-sized bubbles nucleated at glass surfaces in contact with the aerated water and compare it with the Epstein-Plesset theory that accounts for DO/DN diffusions and the presence of the glass surfaces. Comparisons between the experiment and the theory suggest that the DO in the water are effectively purged by the aeration.

  8. Plutonium metal vs. oxide determination with the pulse-shape-discrimination-capable plastic scintillator EJ-299-33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, S.A., E-mail: pozzisa@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bourne, M.M.; Dolan, J.L.; Polack, K.; Lawrence, C.; Flaska, M.; Clarke, S.D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Tomanin, A.; Peerani, P. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen Via Enrico Fermi, 2749 21027 Ispra VA (Italy)

    2014-12-11

    Neutron measurements can be used to distinguish plutonium in metal or oxide form, a capability that is of great interest in nuclear nonproliferation, treaty verification, and other applications. This paper describes measurements performed on well-characterized samples of plutonium oxide and plutonium metal using the pulse-shape-discrimination-capable plastic scintillator EJ-299-33. Results are compared to those obtained with a same-sized detector cell using the liquid scintillator EJ-309. The same optimized, digital pulse shape discrimination technique is applied to both detectors and the neutron pulse height distributions are compared. Results show that the EJ-299-33 plastics can be successfully used for plutonium measurements, where the gamma ray to neutron detection ratio is much higher than for typical radioactive sources. Results also show that EJ-299-33 detectors can be used to characterize plutonium samples, specifically to discriminate between plutonium metal and oxide.

  9. EIS Data Call Report: Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in new facilities at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans.

  10. Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Analysis of Actinides in Dissolved Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, David [Parallax Research, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2015-10-15

    There is an urgent need for an instrument that can quickly measure the concentration of Plutonium and other Actinides mixed with Uranium in liquids containing dissolved spent fuel rods. Parallax Research, Inc. proposes to develop an x-ray spectrometer capable of measuring U, Np and Pu in dissolved nuclear fuel rod material to less than 10 ppm levels to aid in material process control for these nuclear materials. Due to system noise produced by high radioactivity, previous x-ray spectrometers were not capable of low level measurements but the system Parallax proposed has no direct path for undesired radiation to get to the detector and the detector in the proposed device is well shielded from scatter and has very low dark current. In addition, the proposed spectrometer could measure these three elements simultaneously, also measuring background positions with an energy resolution of roughly 100 eV making it possible to see a small amount of Pu that would be hidden under the tail of the U peak in energy dispersive spectrometers. Another nearly identical spectrometer could be used to target Am and Cm if necessary. The proposed spectrometer needs only a tiny sample of roughly 1 micro-liter (1 mm3) and the measurement can be done with the liquid flowing in a radiation and chemical immune quartz capillary protected by a stainless steel rod making it possible to continuously monitor the liquid or to use a capillary manifold to measure other liquid streams. Unlike other methods such as mass spectroscopy where the sample must be taken to a remote facility and might take days for turn-around, the proposed measurement should take less than an hour. This spectrometer could enable near real-time measurement of U, Pu and Np in dilute dissolved spent nuclear fuel rod streams.

  11. FORM AND AGING OF PLUTONIUM IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE TANK 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.

    2012-02-24

    This report provides a summary of the effects of aging on and the expected forms of plutonium in Tank 18 waste residues. The findings are based on available information on the operational history of Tank 18, reported analytical results for samples taken from Tank 18, and the available scientific literature for plutonium under alkaline conditions. These findings should apply in general to residues in other waste tanks. However, the operational history of other waste tanks should be evaluated for specific conditions and unique operations (e.g., acid cleaning with oxalic acid) that could alter the form of plutonium in heel residues. Based on the operational history of other tanks, characterization of samples from the heel residues in those tanks would be appropriate to confirm the form of plutonium. During the operational period and continuing with the residual heel removal periods, Pu(IV) is the dominant oxidation state of the plutonium. Small fractions of Pu(V) and Pu(VI) could be present as the result of the presence of water and the result of reactions with oxygen in air and products from the radiolysis of water. However, the presence of Pu(V) would be transitory as it is not stable at the dilute alkaline conditions that currently exists in Tank 18. Most of the plutonium that enters Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste (HLW) tanks is freshly precipitated as amorphous plutonium hydroxide, Pu(OH){sub 4(am)} or hydrous plutonium oxide, PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} and coprecipitated within a mixture of hydrous metal oxide phases containing metals such as iron, aluminum, manganese and uranium. The coprecipitated plutonium would include Pu{sup 4+} that has been substituted for other metal ions in crystal lattice sites, Pu{sup 4+} occluded within hydrous metal oxide particles and Pu{sup 4+} adsorbed onto the surface of hydrous metal oxide particles. The adsorbed plutonium could include both inner sphere coordination and outer sphere coordination of the plutonium. PuO{sub 2

  12. Dissolved Trace Metals in the Tay Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, R. E.; Balls, P. W.

    1997-04-01

    Dissolved trace metals have been studied over an annual cycle in the relatively pristine Tay estuary (Scotland). The absence of a major anthropogenic signal has enabled some of the more subtle natural processes controlling trace metal distributions to be identified. Concentration ranges of dissolved metals in the Tay are similar to, or lower than, those observed in more industrialized estuaries. All metals behave non-conservatively in the Tay. Interactions with biogenic and detrital particulate phases are important in controlling dissolved trace metal concentrations. The degradation of organic matter appears to be particularly important for Cu. Removal of dissolved metals was observed in the turbidity maximum zone; a simple model was used to demonstrate that this could be accounted for by adsorption onto suspended particulate matter. At high salinity, coincident peaks of all six metals with ammonia and phosphate are attributed to sewage inputs from Dundee at the mouth of the estuary.

  13. Plutonium uptake by the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus (Turp) Kutz, as a function of isotope and oxidation state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkacik, M.F.

    1977-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of plutonium chemical valence state on the availability of small concentrations of /sup 238/Pu and /sup 239/Pu to algae. The uptake experiments involved the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus, grown in batch cultures. Plutonium concentrations accumulated by this alga were linearly related to plutonium concentrations. There was no significant difference (rho = 0.05) in algal plutonium accumulations, on a mass basis, of either /sup 238/Pu or /sup 239/Pu in either Pu/sup +4/ or Pu/sup +6/ oxidation state at the concentrations studied.

  14. FORM AND AGING OF PLUTONIUM IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE TANK 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.

    2012-02-24

    This report provides a summary of the effects of aging on and the expected forms of plutonium in Tank 18 waste residues. The findings are based on available information on the operational history of Tank 18, reported analytical results for samples taken from Tank 18, and the available scientific literature for plutonium under alkaline conditions. These findings should apply in general to residues in other waste tanks. However, the operational history of other waste tanks should be evaluated for specific conditions and unique operations (e.g., acid cleaning with oxalic acid) that could alter the form of plutonium in heel residues. Based on the operational history of other tanks, characterization of samples from the heel residues in those tanks would be appropriate to confirm the form of plutonium. During the operational period and continuing with the residual heel removal periods, Pu(IV) is the dominant oxidation state of the plutonium. Small fractions of Pu(V) and Pu(VI) could be present as the result of the presence of water and the result of reactions with oxygen in air and products from the radiolysis of water. However, the presence of Pu(V) would be transitory as it is not stable at the dilute alkaline conditions that currently exists in Tank 18. Most of the plutonium that enters Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste (HLW) tanks is freshly precipitated as amorphous plutonium hydroxide, Pu(OH){sub 4(am)} or hydrous plutonium oxide, PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} and coprecipitated within a mixture of hydrous metal oxide phases containing metals such as iron, aluminum, manganese and uranium. The coprecipitated plutonium would include Pu{sup 4+} that has been substituted for other metal ions in crystal lattice sites, Pu{sup 4+} occluded within hydrous metal oxide particles and Pu{sup 4+} adsorbed onto the surface of hydrous metal oxide particles. The adsorbed plutonium could include both inner sphere coordination and outer sphere coordination of the plutonium. PuO{sub 2

  15. Uranium in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Creation of Plutonium (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. C.

    2009-12-01

    One of the important properties of uranium is that it can be used to “breed” higher actinides, particularly plutonium. During the past sixty years, more than 1,800 metric tonnes of Pu, and substantial quantities of the “minor” actinides, such as Np, Am and Cm, have been generated in nuclear reactors - a permanent record of nuclear power. Some of these transuranium elements can be a source of energy in fission reactions (e.g., 239Pu), a source of fissile material for nuclear weapons (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np), and of environmental concern because of their long-half lives and radiotoxicity (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np). In fact, the new strategies of the Advance Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) are, in part, motivated by an effort to mitigate some of the challenges of the disposal of these long-lived actinides. There are two basic strategies for the disposition of these heavy elements: 1.) to “burn” or transmute the actinides using nuclear reactors or accelerators; 2.) to “sequester” the actinides in chemically durable, radiation-resistant materials that are suitable for geologic disposal. There has been substantial interest in the use of actinide-bearing minerals, such as zircon or isometric pyrochlore, A2B2O7 (A= rare earths; B = Ti, Zr, Sn, Hf), for the immobilization of actinides, particularly plutonium, both as inert matrix fuels and nuclear waste forms. Systematic studies of rare-earth pyrochlores have led to the discovery that certain compositions (B = Zr, Hf) are stable to very high doses of alpha-decay event damage1. The radiation stability of these compositions is closely related to the structural distortions that can be accommodated for specific pyrochlore compositions and the electronic structure of the B-site cation. Recent developments in the understanding of the properties of heavy element solids have opened up new possibilities for the design of advanced nuclear fuels and waste forms.

  16. Reduction of Tetravalent Plutonium in the Presence of Acetohydroxamic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkac, Peter [Radiation Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Precek, Martin [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Paulenova, Alena [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) has been proposed as a salt-free stripping reagent in the modified PUREX process for the spent nuclear fuel re-processing. AHA is a capable reductant of Np(VI) and Pu(VI) and a strong complexant for tetravalent neptunium and plutonium; hence, its behavior must be studied in detail. For better characterization of the all relevant chemical processes and successful design of the future separation flowsheets it is important to predict the speciation and partitioning of Pu between the organic and aqueous phases in the proposed extraction systems containing acetohydroxamic acid. The hydrolytic instability of hydroxamic group under acidic conditions causes a slow degradation of AHA followed by formation of acetic acid and hydroxylamine which also acts as a reductant of Pu(IV). The complexes of Pu(IV) with AHA are very strong; however, under acidic conditions, the chelate ring prevents the acidic hydrolysis only temporarily. The decomposition of Pu-aceto-hydroxamate complex and reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) observed for these systems was investigated in the present paper. Reduction of Pu(IV) in the presence of AHA was monitored by Vis-NIR spectroscopy in the range of 400-700 nm. All complexes between Pu(IV) and AHA have a very intense absorption in this region; therefore, for a better resolution of spectra, all experiments were performed under low AHA:Pu ratios, where only two species, non-complexed Pu(IV) and Pu(IV)-mono-aceto-hydroxamate complex, are initially present in relevant concentrations. To characterize the rate and the reaction mechanism, spectra were collected as a function of time for different initial concentrations of reactants and analyzed at several wavelengths using the data on extinction coefficients for all absorbing species. The extinction coefficient for Pu(IV)-AHA complex was resolved by fitting the absorption spectra with the chemical equilibrium modeling software FITEQL 4.0. The analysis of the experimental data obtained

  17. Supplement to the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-05-14

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the ''Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS)''. ''The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement'' (SPD Draft EIS) (DOWEIS-0283-D) was prepared in accordance with NEPA and issued in July 1998. It identified the potential environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives for the proposed siting, construction, and operation of three facilities for plutonium disposition. These three facilities would accomplish pit disassembly and conversion, immobilization, and MOX fuel fabrication. For the alternatives that included MOX fuel fabrication, the draft also described the potential environmental impacts of using from three to eight commercial nuclear reactors to irradiate MOX fuel. The potential impacts were based on a generic reactor analysis that used actual reactor data and a range of potential site conditions. In May 1998, DCE initiated a procurement process to obtain MOX fuel fabrication and reactor irradiation services. The request for proposals defined limited activities that may be performed prior to issuance of the SPD EIS Record of Decision (ROD) including non-site-specific work associated with the development of the initial design for the MOX fuel fabrication facility, and plans (paper studies) for outreach, long lead-time procurements, regulatory management, facility quality assurance, safeguards, security, fuel qualification, and deactivation. No construction on the proposed MOX facility would begin before an SPD EIS ROD is issued. In March 1999, DOE awarded a contract to Duke Engineering & Services; COGEMA, Inc.; and Stone & Webster (known as DCS) to provide the requested

  18. Study of plutonium disposition using the GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-30

    The end of the cold war and the resulting dismantlement of nuclear weapons has resulted in the need for the U.S. to disposition 50 to 100 metric tons of excess of plutonium in parallel with a similar program in Russia. A number of studies, including the recently released National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study, have recommended conversion of plutonium into spent nuclear fuel with its high radiation barrier as the best means of providing long-term diversion resistance to this material. The NAS study {open_quotes}Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium{close_quotes} identified light water reactor spent fuel as the most readily achievable and proven form for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. The study also stressed the need for a U.S. disposition program which would enhance the prospects for a timely reciprocal program agreement with Russia. This summary provides the key findings of a GE study where plutonium is converted into Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel and a 1350 MWe GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) is utilized to convert the plutonium to spent fuel. The ABWR represents the integration of over 30 years of experience gained worldwide in the design, construction and operation of BWRs. It incorporates advanced features to enhance reliability and safety, minimize waste and reduce worker exposure. For example, the core is never uncovered nor is any operator action required for 72 hours after any design basis accident. Phase 1 of this study was documented in a GE report dated May 13, 1993. DOE`s Phase 1 evaluations cited the ABWR as a proven technical approach for the disposition of plutonium. This Phase 2 study addresses specific areas which the DOE authorized as appropriate for more in-depth evaluations. A separate report addresses the findings relative to the use of existing BWRs to achieve the same goal.

  19. Transfer of plutonium to rat embryos in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Sentaro; Sato, Hiroshi; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Inaba, Jiro (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    The [sup 239]Pu distribution in the 12.5-day-old rat conceptus was compared between in vivo and in vitro experimental systems to establish a possible mechanism of cross-palcental transfer of this radionuclide. In the in vivo study, plutonium citrate solution was injected intravenously to pregnant Wistar rats. In the in vitro study, either plutonium citrate or plutonium hydroxide colloid was administered, as a solution of Eagle MEM and FCS containing [sup 239]Pu at the concentration used in the maternal serum in the in vivo experiments, to rat conceptuses maintained by the whole-embryo culture method. The concentration of [sup 239]Pu in the yolk sac ([sup 239]Pu activity per gram wet weight) were much higher than in the embryo in both the in vivo and in vitro experiments, suggesting that the yolk sac may be an effective barrier against the transfer of plutonium to the embryos. The ratios of the [sup 239]Pu concentration in the yolk sac to that in the embryo were relatively constant with time after administration in the in vitro system; 18-27 for plutonium citrate and 67-84 for plutonium hydroxide. In the in vivo experiment, these ratios changed with time after injection; 15 at 5 min and 62 and 60 min after injection. This suggests that in the in vivo system, the chemical form of [sup 239]Pu changed with time after injection, probably to a macromolecular form such as the hydroxide colloid or plutonium-protein complex although [sup 239]Pu was injected to the maternal blood as citrate. (author).

  20. Nature of Nano-Sized Plutonium Particles in Soils at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Edgar C.; Moore, Dean A.; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.; Conradson, Steven D.; Batuk, Olga; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2014-08-06

    The occurrence of plutonium dioxide (PuO2) either from direct deposition or from the precipitation of plutonium-bearing solutions in contaminated soils and sediments has been well described, particularly for the Hanford site in Washington State. However, past research has suggested that plutonium may exist in environmental samples at the Hanford site in chemical forms in addition to large size PuO2 particles and that these previously unidentified nano-sized particles maybe more reactive and thus more likely to influence the environmental mobility of Pu. Here we present evidence for the formation of nano-sized plutonium iron phosphate hydroxide structurally related to the rhabdophane group nanoparticles in 216-Z9 crib sediments from Hanford using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The distribution and nature of these nanoparticles varied depending on the adjacent phases present. Fine electron probes were used to obtain electron diffraction and electron energy-loss spectra from specific phase regions of the 216-Z9 cribs specimens from fine-grained plutonium oxide and phosphate phases. Energy-loss spectra were used to evaluate the plutonium N4,5 (4d → 5f ) and iron L2,3 absorption edges. The iron plutonium phosphate formation may depend on the local micro-environment in the sediments, availability of phosphate, and hence the distribution of these minerals may control long-term migration of Pu in the soil. This study also points to the utility of using electron beam methods for determining the identity of actinide phases and their association with other sediment phases.

  1. Spent fuel, plutonium and nuclear waste: long-term management; Le combustible use et le plutonium en tant que dechets nucleaires: gestion a long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, G

    1998-11-01

    Different options for the management of nuclear waste arising from the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. Special emphasis is on reprocessing followed by geological disposal, geological disposal of reprocessing waste, direct geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel, long term storage. Particular emphasis is on the management of plutonium including recycling, immobilisation and disposal, partitioning and transmutation.

  2. Plutonium: resuspension of aerosols in nuclear installations: bibliographic survey; Le plutonium: mise en suspension d'aerosols dans les installations nucleaires: synthese bibliographique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetat, Ph.; Monfort, M.; Armand, P. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept. Analyse Surveillance Environnement, Service Radioanalyse Chimie Environnement, 91 (France); Alloul-Marmor, L. [Societe APTUS, 78 - Versailles (France)

    2006-07-01

    This document presents an analysis and a bibliographical synthesis of the studies on resuspension factors for plutonium. It aims at helping the engineers of safety to specify the scenarios of accidents which relate to their activities and to bring elements justified for the definition of their term-source 'installation' in the safety reports of the installations. (authors)

  3. A review of plutonium oxalate decomposition reactions and effects of decomposition temperature on the surface area of the plutonium dioxide product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, R. M.; Sims, H. E.; Taylor, R. J.

    2015-10-01

    Plutonium (IV) and (III) ions in nitric acid solution readily form insoluble precipitates with oxalic acid. The plutonium oxalates are then easily thermally decomposed to form plutonium dioxide powder. This simple process forms the basis of current industrial conversion or 'finishing' processes that are used in commercial scale reprocessing plants. It is also widely used in analytical or laboratory scale operations and for waste residues treatment. However, the mechanisms of the thermal decompositions in both air and inert atmospheres have been the subject of various studies over several decades. The nature of intermediate phases is of fundamental interest whilst understanding the evolution of gases at different temperatures is relevant to process control. The thermal decomposition is also used to control a number of powder properties of the PuO2 product that are important to either long term storage or mixed oxide fuel manufacturing. These properties are the surface area, residual carbon impurities and adsorbed volatile species whereas the morphology and particle size distribution are functions of the precipitation process. Available data and experience regarding the thermal and radiation-induced decompositions of plutonium oxalate to oxide are reviewed. The mechanisms of the thermal decompositions are considered with a particular focus on the likely redox chemistry involved. Also, whilst it is well known that the surface area is dependent on calcination temperature, there is a wide variation in the published data and so new correlations have been derived. Better understanding of plutonium (III) and (IV) oxalate decompositions will assist the development of more proliferation resistant actinide co-conversion processes that are needed for advanced reprocessing in future closed nuclear fuel cycles.

  4. Thermodynamic properties of the cubic plutonium hydride solid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haschke, J M

    1981-12-01

    Pressure, temperature, and composition data for the cubic solid solution plutonium hydride phase, PuH/sub x/, have been measured by microbalance methods. Integral enthalpies and entropies of formation have been evaluated for the composition range 1.90 less than or equal to X less than or equal to 3.00. At 550/sup 0/K, ..delta..H/sup 0/ /sub f/(PuH/sub x/(s)) varies linearly from approximately (-38 +- 1) kcal mol/sup -1/ at PuH/sub 190/ to (-50 +- 1 kcal mol/sup -1/) at PuH/sub 3/ /sub 00/. Thermochemical values obtained by reevaluating tensimetric data from the literature are in excellent agreement with these results. Isotopic effects have been quantified by comparing the results for hydride and deuteride, and equations are presented for predicting ..delta..H/sup 0/ /sub f/ and ..delta..S/sup 0/ /sub f/ values for PuH/sub x/(s) and PuD/sub x/(s).

  5. Radiolysis of TBP in the presence of plutonium and uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulikov, I.A.; Kermanova, N.V.; Vladimirova, M.V.

    The yields of the decomposition products of TBP as the result of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-radiolysis in the two-phase system 30% TBP in n-paraffin-3.0 moles/liter HNO/sub 3/ in the presence of Pu (sup/IV/) (10/sup -3/-10/sup -1/ mole/liter) and U(sup/VI/) (0.01-0.3 mole/liter) are determined by the methods of potentiometry, spectrophotometry, and chromatography. The yields of the formation of complexes of Pu (sup/IV/) with dibutylphosphoric acid (DBPA) and monobutylphosphoric acid (MBPA) are determined in the two-phase system studied. It is shown that with an increase of (Me) from 0.01 to 0.3 mole/liter, G, DBPA is increased from 1.9 to 3.0, and G, MBPA from 0.3 to 0.45 molecules /100 eV. The radiation gas, the composition, and the yields of gaseous radiolysis products of the organic phase are studied. The kinetics of the formation of DBPA in the presence of plutonium are considered. The velocity constants of the formation and decomposition of DBPA are determined. Based on the experimental data, the maximum decomposition yield of TBP is calculated, equal to approx.6.0 molecules/100 eV.

  6. Maintenance implementation plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meldrom, C.A.

    1996-03-01

    This document outlines the Maintenance Implementation Plan (MIP) for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located at the Hanford site at Richland, Washington. This MIP describes the PFP maintenance program relative to DOE order 4330.4B. The MIP defines the key actions needed to meet the guidelines of the Order to produce a cost-effective and efficient maintenance program. A previous report identified the presence of significant quantities of Pu-bearing materials within PFP that pose risks to workers. PFP`s current mission is to develop, install and operate processes which will mitigate these risks. The PFP Maintenance strategy is to equip the facility with systems and equipment able to sustain scheduled PFP operations. The current operating run is scheduled to last seven years. Activities following the stabilization operation will involve an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to determine future plant activities. This strategy includes long-term maintenance of the facility for safe occupancy and material storage. The PFP maintenance staff used the graded approach to dictate the priorities of the improvement and upgrade actions identified in Chapter 2 of this document. The MIP documents PFP compliance to the DOE 4330.4B Order. Chapter 2 of the MIP follows the format of the Order in addressing the eighteen elements. As this revision is a total rewrite, no sidebars are included to highlight changes.

  7. Density-functional study of plutonium monoxide monohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ruizhi; Lu, Haiyan; Ao, Bingyun; Tang, Tao; Chen, Piheng

    2017-03-01

    The structural, electronic, mechanical, optical, thermodynamic properties of plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH) are studied by density-functional calculations within the framework of LDA/GGA and LDA/GGA+U. From the total energy calculation, the lowest-energy crystal structure of PuOH is predicted to have space group F 4 bar 3 m (No. 216). Within the LDA+U framework, the calculated lattice parameter of F 4 bar 3 m -PuOH is in good agreement with the experimental value and the corresponding ground state is predicted to be an antiferromagnetic charge-transfer insulator. Furthermore, we investigate the bonding character of PuOH by analyzing the electron structure and find that there are a stronger Pu-O bond and a weaker Pu-H bond. The mechanical properties including the elastic constants, elastic moduli and Debye's temperature, and the optical properties including the reflectivity and absorption coefficient are also calculated. We then compute the phonon spectrum which verified the dynamical stability of F 4 bar 3 m -PuOH. Some thermodynamic quantities such as the specific heat are evaluated. Finally we calculate the formation energy of PuOH, and the reaction energies for the oxidation of PuOH and PuOH-coated Pu, which are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values.

  8. Hydrogen yields from water on the surface of plutonium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, Howard E., E-mail: howard.e.sims@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Harwell Science Park, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QT (United Kingdom); Webb, Kevin J.; Brown, Jamie [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Morris, Darrell [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, Herdus House, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3HU (United Kingdom); Taylor, Robin J., E-mail: robin.j.taylor@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Hydrogen evolution due to water radiolysis on samples of Sellafield PuO{sub 2}. ► Sharp increase in hydrogen evolution above 75% relative humidity. ► Hydrogen evolution due to radiolytic rather than thermal reaction. ► Analysis of trends from literature data. -- Abstract: The long term storage of separated plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) in sealed canisters requires an understanding of the processes occurring within the cans. This includes potential mechanisms that lead to can pressurisation, including the radiolysis of adsorbed water forming hydrogen. New measurements of H{sub 2} production rates from three sources of PuO{sub 2} show low rates at low water monolayer coverage but a sharp increase between 75% and 95% relative humidity. This behaviour being quite different to that reported for CeO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}, which, therefore, cannot be considered as suitable analogues for PuO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O radiation chemistry. It is concluded that surface recombination reactions are likely to be important in the radiation chemistry and that the H{sub 2} production arises from a radiolytic process and not a thermal reaction, at least in these experiments.

  9. Standard guide for design criteria for plutonium gloveboxes

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide defines criteria for the design of glovebox systems to be used for the handling of plutonium in any chemical or physical form or isotopic composition or when mixed with other elements or compounds. Not included in the criteria are systems auxiliary to the glovebox systems such as utilities, ventilation, alarm, and waste disposal. Also not addressed are hot cells or open-face hoods. The scope of this guide excludes specific license requirements relating to provisions for criticality prevention, hazards control, safeguards, packaging, and material handling. Observance of this guide does not relieve the user of the obligation to conform to all federal, state, and local regulations for design and construction of glovebox systems. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user...

  10. Fire hazard analysis for Plutonium Finishing Plant complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCKINNIS, D.L.

    1999-02-23

    A fire hazards analysis (FHA) was performed for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Complex at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The scope of the FHA focuses on the nuclear facilities/structures in the Complex. The analysis was conducted in accordance with RLID 5480.7, [DOE Directive RLID 5480.7, 1/17/94] and DOE Order 5480.7A, ''Fire Protection'' [DOE Order 5480.7A, 2/17/93] and addresses each of the sixteen principle elements outlined in paragraph 9.a(3) of the Order. The elements are addressed in terms of the fire protection objectives stated in paragraph 4 of DOE 5480.7A. In addition, the FHA also complies with WHC-CM-4-41, Fire Protection Program Manual, Section 3.4 [1994] and WHC-SD-GN-FHA-30001, Rev. 0 [WHC, 1994]. Objectives of the FHA are to determine: (1) the fire hazards that expose the PFP facilities, or that are inherent in the building operations, (2) the adequacy of the fire safety features currently located in the PFP Complex, and (3) the degree of compliance of the facility with specific fire safety provisions in DOE orders, related engineering codes, and standards.

  11. Plutonium measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAninch, J E; Hamilton, T F; Broan, T A; Jokela, T A; Knezovich, T J; Ognibene, T J; Proctor, I D; Roberts, M L; Southon, J R; Vogel, J S; Sideras-Haddad, E

    1999-10-26

    Mass spectrometric methods provide sensitive, routine, and cost-effective analyses of long-lived radionuclides. Here the authors report on the status of work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a capability for actinide measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to take advantage of the high potential of AMS for rejection of interferences. This work demonstrates that the LLNL AMS spectrometer is well-suited for providing high sensitivity, robust, high throughput measurements of plutonium concentrations and isotope ratios. Present backgrounds are {approximately}2 x 10{sup 7}atoms per sample for environmental samples prepared using standard alpha spectrometry protocols. Recent measurements of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Pu activities and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu isotope ratios in IAEA reference materials agree well with IAEA reference values and with alpha spectrometry and recently published ICP-MS results. Ongoing upgrades of the AMS spectrometer are expected to reduce backgrounds below 1 x 10{sup 6} atoms per sample while allowing simplifications of the sample preparation chemistry. These simplifications will lead to lower per-sample costs, higher throughput, faster turn around and, ultimately, to larger and more robust data sets.

  12. Rupture of plutonium oxide storage container, March 13, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-29

    On March 13, 1979, a plutonium oxide storage can ruptured in the 303-C storage facility, which is in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, Washington. The facility is operated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL); three PNL staff members were performing the storage operation. No injuries to these staff members resulted from the occurrence. A Class C Investigation Committee was appointed on March 14, 1979, by the Director, PNL. Subsequently, when the loss estimates became available, the Manager, Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), appointed a Class B Investigation Committee in accordance with DOE Manual Chapter 0502. As requested by DOE-RL, the Committee investigated technical elements of the causal sequence and management systems that should have or could have prevented the occurrence. The investigation included: review of the use of the 303-C facilities and the transfer containers; interviews with the involved personnel and their managers; analysis of technical studies related to involved materials and procedures; review of safe operating procedures, radiation work procedures, and transfer requirements applicable to the occurrence; and use of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) and the Events and Causal Factors Charting methods. 15 figs.

  13. Ternary Phase Diagrams that Relate to the Plutonium Immobilization Ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B b; Krikorian, O H; Vance, E R; Stewart, M W

    2001-01-01

    The plutonium immobilization ceramic consists primarily of a pyrochlore titanate phase of the approximate composition Ca{sub 0.97}Hf{sub 0.17}Pu{sub 0.22}U{sub 0.39}Gd{sub 0.24} Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. In this study, a series of ternary phase diagrams was constructed to evaluate the relationship of various titanate phases (e.g., brannerite, zirconolite-2M, zirconolite-4M, and perovskite) to pyrochlore titanates, usually in the presence of excess TiO{sub 2} (rutile), and at temperatures in the vicinity of 1350 C. To facilitate the studies, U, Th, and Ce were used as surrogates for Pu in a number of the phase diagrams in addition to the use of Pu itself. The effects of impurity oxides, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO, were also studied on pyrochlore (Gd{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}) and zirconolite (CaHfTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}) mixtures. Either electron microprobe (at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) or quantitative SEM-EDS (at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization) were used to evaluate the compositions of the phases.

  14. Study of accurate volume measurement system for plutonium nitrate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoma, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-12-01

    It is important for effective safeguarding of nuclear materials to establish a technique for accurate volume measurement of plutonium nitrate solution in accountancy tank. The volume of the solution can be estimated by two differential pressures between three dip-tubes, in which the air is purged by an compressor. One of the differential pressure corresponds to the density of the solution, and another corresponds to the surface level of the solution in the tank. The measurement of the differential pressure contains many uncertain errors, such as precision of pressure transducer, fluctuation of back-pressure, generation of bubbles at the front of the dip-tubes, non-uniformity of temperature and density of the solution, pressure drop in the dip-tube, and so on. The various excess pressures at the volume measurement are discussed and corrected by a reasonable method. High precision-differential pressure measurement system is developed with a quartz oscillation type transducer which converts a differential pressure to a digital signal. The developed system is used for inspection by the government and IAEA. (M. Suetake)

  15. Effectiveness of sheltering in buildings and vehicles for plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, R.J.

    1990-07-30

    The purpose of this paper is to collect and present current knowledge relevant to the protection offered by sheltering against exposure to plutonium particles released to the atmosphere during accidents. For those many contaminants for which effects are linear with the airborne concentration, it is convenient to define a Dose Reduction Factor (DRF). In the past, the DRF has been defined as the ratio of the radiological dose that may be incurred within the shelter to that in the outdoors. As such, it includes the dose through shine from plumes aloft and from material deposited on the surface. For this paper, which is concerned only with the inhalation pathway, the DRF is the ratio of the time-integrated concentration inside the shelter to that outdoors. It is important to note that the range over which effects are linear with concentration may be limited for many contaminants. Examples are when concentrations produce effects that are irreversible, or when concentrations are below effects threshold levels. 71 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. LAB-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION BY ANION EXCHANGE, PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION, AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.

    2012-08-22

    H-Canyon and HB-Line are tasked with the production of PuO{sub 2} from a feed of plutonium metal. The PuO{sub 2} will provide feed material for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility. After dissolution of the Pu metal in H-Canyon, the solution will be transferred to HB-Line for purification by anion exchange. Subsequent unit operations include Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation, filtration and calcination to form PuO{sub 2}. This report details the results from SRNL anion exchange, precipitation, filtration, calcination, and characterization tests, as requested by HB-Line1 and described in the task plan. This study involved an 80-g batch of Pu and employed test conditions prototypical of HB-Line conditions, wherever feasible. In addition, this study integrated lessons learned from earlier anion exchange and precipitation and calcination studies. H-Area Engineering selected direct strike Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation to produce a more dense PuO{sub 2} product than expected from Pu(III) oxalate precipitation. One benefit of the Pu(IV) approach is that it eliminates the need for reduction by ascorbic acid. The proposed HB-Line precipitation process involves a digestion time of 5 minutes after the time (44 min) required for oxalic acid addition. These were the conditions during HB-line production of neptunium oxide (NpO{sub 2}). In addition, a series of small Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation tests with different digestion times were conducted to better understand the effect of digestion time on particle size, filtration efficiency and other factors. To test the recommended process conditions, researchers performed two nearly-identical larger-scale precipitation and calcination tests. The calcined batches of PuO{sub 2} were characterized for density, specific surface area (SSA), particle size, moisture content, and impurities. Because the 3013 Standard requires that the calcination (or stabilization) process eliminate organics, characterization of PuO{sub 2} batches monitored the

  17. Effect of Al content on delta phase microstructure evolution in Inconel 718 alloys%Al含量对Inconel 718合金中δ相组织演变的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周喜顺; 何亚斌; 刘建辉; 辛士进; 王东; 崔艳芳; 李鹏; 董莹

    2012-01-01

    The dissolution mechanism and morphology feature of 8 phase in standard as-heated 718 alloys with three different Al contents for different holding times were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Thermo-Calc software. The fraction of 8 phase was counted using the Photoshop software. The results indicate that the dissolution of 8 phase in 718 alloy with lower Al content is mainly characterized as the dissolution from long needle shape to short rod or granule, and the 8 phase in the grains of 718 alloys with higher Al content dissolves firstly while the dissolution of 8 phase at grain boundaries is slower. So the migration of grain boundary is inhibited, the grain size of 718 alloys can be controlled effectively to some extent. The fraction of 8 phase decreases gradually with the increase of temperature. The dissolution temperature of 8 phase can be increased with the increase of Al content in 718 alloys but the dissolution velocity decreases with it.%采用扫描电子显微镜和Thermo-Calc热力学计算等方法,研究3种不同Al含量的Inconel 718合金在标准热处理和不同保温时间下δ相的形貌特征、溶解行为及3种合金中δ相含量的变化.结果表明:A1含量低的合金中δ相溶解特征主要表现为沿针状δ相的长度方向断开,在短时间内溶解为短棒状及颗粒状;Al含量高的合金中δ相溶解优先从晶内开始,其晶界上的δ相溶解缓慢,对抑制晶界迁移,控制奥氏体晶粒长大有重要作用;Inconel 718合金中δ相含量随溶解温度的提高而降低,Al含量提高使合金中δ相的溶解速度减慢,溶解温度提高.

  18. A solvent proceed for the extraction of the irradiate uranium and plutonium in the reactor core; Un procede par solvant pour l'extraction du plutonium de l'uranium irradie dans les piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, B.; Regnaut, P.; Prevot, I. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Description of the conditions of plutonium, fission products and of uranium separation by selective extraction of the nitrates by organic solvent, containing a simultaneous extraction of plutonium and uranium, followed by a plutonium re-extraction after reduction, and an uranium re-extraction. The rates of decontamination being insufficient in this first stage, we also describes the processes of decontamination permitting separately to get the rates wanted for uranium and plutonium. Finally, we describes the beginning of the operation that consists in a nitric dissolution of the active uranium while capturing the products of gaseous fission, as well as the final concentration of the products of fission in a concentrated solution. (authors) [French] Description des conditions de separation du plutonium, des produits de fission et de l'uranium au moyen d'une extraction selective des nitrates par solvant organique, comprenant une extraction simultanee du plutonium et de l'uranium, suivie d'une reextraction du plutonium apres reduction, et d'une reextraction de l'uranium. Les taux de decontamination etant insuffisants dans ce premier stade, on decrit egalement les processus de decontamination permettant separement d'obtenir les taux desires pour l'uranium et le plutonium. Enfin, on decrit aussi le debut de l'operation qui consiste en une dissolution nitrique de l'uranium actif en captant les produits de fission gazeux, ainsi que la concentration finale des produits de fission sous forme de solution concentree. (auteurs)

  19. Three-component U-Pu-Th fuel for plutonium irradiation in heavy water reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peel Ross

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses concepts for three-component fuel bundles containing plutonium, uranium and thorium for use in pressurised heavy water reactors, and cases for and against implementation of such a nuclear energy system in the United Kingdom. Heavy water reactors are used extensively in Canada, and are deploying within India and China, whilst the UK is considering the use of heavy water reactors to manage its plutonium inventory of 140 tonnes. The UK heavy water reactor proposal uses a mixed oxide (MOX fuel of plutonium in depleted uranium, within the enhanced CANDU-6 (EC-6 reactor. This work proposes an alternative heterogeneous fuel concept based on the same reactor and CANFLEX fuel bundle, with eight large-diameter fuel elements loaded with natural thorium oxide and 35 small-diameter fuel elements loaded with a MOX of plutonium and reprocessed uranium stocks from UK MAGNOX and AGR reactors. Indicative neutronic calculations suggest that such a fuel would be neutronically feasible. A similar MOX may alternatively be fabricated from reprocessed <5% enriched light water reactor fuel, such as the fuel of the AREVA EPR reactor, to consume newly produced plutonium from reprocessing, similar to the DUPIC (direct use of PWR fuel in CANDU process.

  20. Calculation of Doses Due to Accidentally Released Plutonium From An LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, B.R.

    2001-08-07

    Experimental data and analytical models that should be considered in assessing the transport properties of plutonium aerosols following a hypothetical reactor accident have been examined. Behaviors of released airborne materials within the reactor containment systems, as well as in the atmosphere near the reactor site boundaries, have been semiquantitatively predicted from experimental data and analytical models. The fundamental chemistry of plutonium as it may be applied in biological systems has been used to prepare models related to the intake and metabolism of plutonium dioxide, the fuel material of interest. Attempts have been made to calculate the possible doses from plutonium aerosols for a typical analyzed release in order to evaluate the magnitude of the internal exposure hazards that might exist in the vicinity of the reactor after a hypothetical LMFBR (Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor) accident. Intake of plutonium (using data for {sup 239}Pu as an example) and its distribution in the body were treated parametrically without regard to the details of transport pathways in the environment. To the extent possible, dose-response data and models have been reviewed, and an assessment of their adequacy has been made so that recommended or preferred practices could be developed.

  1. Characterization of plutonium-bearing wastes by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, R.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Bates, J.K.; Van Deventer, E.; Chaiko, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterization studies of plutonium-bearing wastes produced at the US Department of Energy weapons production facilities. Several different solid wastes were characterized, including incinerator ash and ash heels from Rocky Flats Plant and Los Alamos National Laboratory; sand, stag, and crucible waste from Hanford; and LECO crucibles from the Savannah River Site. These materials were characterized by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy. The results showed the presence of discrete PuO{sub 2}PuO{sub 2{minus}x}, and Pu{sub 4}O{sub 7} phases, of about 1{mu}m or less in size, in all of the samples examined. In addition, a number of amorphous phases were present that contained plutonium. In all the ash and ash heel samples examined, plutonium phases were found that were completely surrounded by silicate matrices. Consequently, to achieve optimum plutonium recovery in any chemical extraction process, extraction would have to be coupled with ultrafine grinding to average particle sizes of less than 1 {mu}m to liberate the plutonium from the surrounding inert matrix.

  2. An iron-dependent and transferrin-mediated cellular uptake pathway for plutonium.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M. P.; Gorman-Lewis, D.; Aryal, B. P.; Paunesku, T.; Vogt, S.; Rickert, P. G.; Seifert, S.; Lai, B.; Woloschak, G. E.; Soderholm, L. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); ( XSD); (Univ. of Chicago); (Northwestern Univ.)

    2011-08-01

    Plutonium is a toxic synthetic element with no natural biological function, but it is strongly retained by humans when ingested. Using small-angle X-ray scattering, receptor binding assays and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy, we find that rat adrenal gland (PC12) cells can acquire plutonium in vitro through the major iron acquisition pathway -- receptor-mediated endocytosis of the iron transport protein serum transferrin; however, only one form of the plutonium-transferrin complex is active. Low-resolution solution models of plutonium-loaded transferrins derived from small-angle scattering show that only transferrin with plutonium bound in the protein's C-terminal lobe (C-lobe) and iron bound in the N-terminal lobe (N-lobe) (Pu{sub c}Fe{sub N}Tf) adopts the proper conformation for recognition by the transferrin receptor protein. Although the metal-binding site in each lobe contains the same donors in the same configuration and both lobes are similar, the differences between transferrin's two lobes act to restrict, but not eliminate, cellular Pu uptake.

  3. Plutonium release from Fukushima Daiichi fosters the need for more detailed investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephanie; Walther, Clemens; Bister, Stefan; Schauer, Viktoria; Christl, Marcus; Synal, Hans-Arno; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Steinhauser, Georg

    2013-10-18

    The contamination of Japan after the Fukushima accident has been investigated mainly for volatile fission products, but only sparsely for actinides such as plutonium. Only small releases of actinides were estimated in Fukushima. Plutonium is still omnipresent in the environment from previous atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. We investigated soil and plants sampled at different hot spots in Japan, searching for reactor-borne plutonium using its isotopic ratio ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu. By using accelerator mass spectrometry, we clearly demonstrated the release of Pu from the Fukushima Daiichi power plant: While most samples contained only the radionuclide signature of fallout plutonium, there is at least one vegetation sample whose isotope ratio (0.381 ± 0.046) evidences that the Pu originates from a nuclear reactor (²³⁹⁺²⁴⁰Pu activity concentration 0.49 Bq/kg). Plutonium content and isotope ratios differ considerably even for very close sampling locations, e.g. the soil and the plants growing on it. This strong localization indicates a particulate Pu release, which is of high radiological risk if incorporated.

  4. 238Pu: accumulation, tissue distribution, and excretion in Mayak workers after exposure to plutonium aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslova, Klara G; Sokolova, Alexandra B; Khokhryakov, Viktor V; Miller, Scott C

    2012-03-01

    The alpha spectrometry measurements of specific activity of 238Pu and 239Pu in urine from bioassay examinations of 1,013 workers employed at the radiochemical and plutonium production facilities of the Mayak Production Association and in autopsy specimens of lung, liver, and skeleton from 85 former nuclear workers who died between 1974-2009, are summarized.The accumulation fraction of 238Pu in the body and excreta has not changed with time in workers involved in production of weapons-grade plutonium production (e.g., the plutonium production facility and the former radiochemical facility). The accumulation fraction of 238Pu in individuals exposed to plutonium isotopes at the newer Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant ranged from 0.13% up to 27.5% based on the autopsy data. No statistically significant differences between 238Pu and 239Pu in distribution by the main organs of plutonium deposition were found in the Mayak workers. Based on the bioassay data,the fraction of 238Pu activity in urine is on average 38-69% of the total activity of 238Pu and 239Pu, which correlates with the isotopic composition in workplace air sampled at the Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant. In view of the higher specific activity of 238Pu, the contribution of 238Pu to the total internal dose, particularly in the skeleton and liver, might be expected to continue to increase, and continued surveillance is recommended.

  5. Anthropogenic plutonium-244 in the environment: Insights into plutonium’s longest-lived isotope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Christopher R.; Brant, Heather A.; Nuessle, Patterson R.; Hall, Gregory; Cadieux, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the rich history of heavy element production in the unique high flux reactors that operated at the Savannah River Site, USA (SRS) decades ago, trace quantities of plutonium with highly unique isotopic characteristics still persist today in the SRS terrestrial environment. Development of an effective sampling, processing, and analysis strategy enables detailed monitoring of the SRS environment, revealing plutonium isotopic compositions, e.g., 244Pu, that reflect the unique legacy of plutonium production at SRS. This work describes the first long-term investigation of anthropogenic 244Pu occurrence in the environment. Environmental samples, consisting of collected foot borne debris, were taken at SRS over an eleven year period, from 2003 to 2014. Separation and purification of trace plutonium was carried out followed by three stage thermal ionization mass spectrometry (3STIMS) measurements for plutonium isotopic content and isotopic ratios. Significant 244Pu was measured in all of the years sampled with the highest amount observed in 2003. The 244Pu content, in femtograms (fg = 10−15 g) per gram, ranged from 0.31 fg/g to 44 fg/g in years 2006 and 2003 respectively. In all years, the 244Pu/239Pu atom ratios were significantly higher than global fallout, ranging from 0.003 to 0.698 in years 2014 and 2003 respectively. PMID:26898531

  6. An iron-dependent and transferrin-mediated cellular uptake pathway for plutonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Aryal, Baikuntha; Paunesku, Tatjana; Vogt, Stefan; Rickert, Paul G; Seifert, Soenke; Lai, Barry; Woloschak, Gayle E; Soderholm, L

    2011-06-26

    Plutonium is a toxic synthetic element with no natural biological function, but it is strongly retained by humans when ingested. Using small-angle X-ray scattering, receptor binding assays and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy, we find that rat adrenal gland (PC12) cells can acquire plutonium in vitro through the major iron acquisition pathway--receptor-mediated endocytosis of the iron transport protein serum transferrin; however, only one form of the plutonium-transferrin complex is active. Low-resolution solution models of plutonium-loaded transferrins derived from small-angle scattering show that only transferrin with plutonium bound in the protein's C-terminal lobe (C-lobe) and iron bound in the N-terminal lobe (N-lobe) (Pu(C)Fe(N)Tf) adopts the proper conformation for recognition by the transferrin receptor protein. Although the metal-binding site in each lobe contains the same donors in the same configuration and both lobes are similar, the differences between transferrin's two lobes act to restrict, but not eliminate, cellular Pu uptake.

  7. Survey of Worldwide Light Water Reactor Experience with Mixed Uranium-Plutonium Oxide Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowell, B.S.; Fisher, S.E.

    1999-02-01

    The US and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) have recently declared quantities of weapons materials, including weapons-grade (WG) plutonium, excess to strategic requirements. One of the leading candidates for the disposition of excess WG plutonium is irradiation in light water reactors (LWRs) as mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel. A description of the MOX fuel fabrication techniques in worldwide use is presented. A comprehensive examination of the domestic MOX experience in US reactors obtained during the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s is also presented. This experience is described by manufacturer and is also categorized by the reactor facility that irradiated the MOX fuel. A limited summary of the international experience with MOX fuels is also presented. A review of MOX fuel and its performance is conducted in view of the special considerations associated with the disposition of WG plutonium. Based on the available information, it appears that adoption of foreign commercial MOX technology from one of the successful MOX fuel vendors will minimize the technical risks to the overall mission. The conclusion is made that the existing MOX fuel experience base suggests that disposition of excess weapons plutonium through irradiation in LWRs is a technically attractive option.

  8. Cost-benefit analysis of unfired PuO/sub 2/ pellets as an alternative plutonium shipping form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Libby, R.A.; Soldat, K.L.; White, G.D.

    1983-10-01

    A limited cost-benefit evaluation was performed concerning use of unfired plutonium dioxide pellets as a shipping form. Two specific processing operations are required for this use, one to form the pellet (pelletizing) and a second to reconstitute an acceptable powder upon receipt (reconstitution). The direct costs for the pelletizing operation are approximately $208,000 for equipment and its installation and $122 per kg of plutonium processed (based upon a 20-kg plutonium/day facility). The direct costs for reconstitution are approximately $90,000 for equipment and its installation and $81 per kg of plutonium processed. The indirect cost considered was personnel exposure from these operations. Whole body exposures ranged from 0.04 man-rem per 100 kg of low-exposure plutonium reconstituted to 0.9 man-rem per 100 kg of average-exposure plutonium pelletized. Hand exposures were much higher - 17 man-rem power 100 kg of low-exposure plutonium reconstituted to 67 man-rem per 100 kg of average plutonium pelletized. The principal benefit is a potential twentyfold reduction of airborne release in the event of an accident. An experimental plan is outlined to fill the data gaps uncovered during this study in the areas of pelletizing and reconstitution process parameters and pellet response behavior to accident-generated stresses. A study to enhance the containment potential of the inner packaging used during shipment is also outlined.

  9. MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLETS: A FUTURE COMPACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Saurabh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An orally disintegrating tablet or mouth dissolving tablet (MDT is a drug dosage form available for a limited amount of over-the-counter (OTC and prescription medications. MDTs differ from traditional tablets in that they are designed to be dissolved on the tongue rather than swallowed whole. A variety of pharmaceutical research has been conducted to develop new dosage forms. Among the dosage forms developed to facilitate ease of medication, the mouth dissolving tablet (MDT is one of the most widely employed commercial products. As our society is becoming increasingly aged, the development of mouth dissolving tablets have been formulated for pediatric, geriatric, and bedridden patients and for active patients who are busy and travelling and may not have access to water. Such formulations provide an opportunity for product line extension in the many elderly persons will have difficulties in taking conventional oral dosage forms (viz., solutions, suspensions, tablets, and capsules because of hand tremors and dysphagia. Oral delivery is currently the gold standard in the pharmaceutical industry where it is regarded as the safest, most convenient and most economical method of drug delivery having the highest patient compliance. Recent development in fast disintegrating technology mainly works to improve the disintegration quality of these delicate dosage forms without affecting their integrity. This article focuses on the patented technologies available and the advances made so far in the field of fabrication of mouth dissolving tablets. Apart from the conventional methods of fabrication, this review also provides the detailed concept of some unique technologies like freeze drying, direct compression, spray drying, tablet molding, sublimation, fast dissolving films cotton candy process, along with their advantages and limitations.

  10. APPLICATION OF COLUMN EXTRACTION METHOD FOR IMPURITIES ANALYSIS ON HB-LINE PLUTONIUM OXIDE IN SUPPORT OF MOX FEED PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.; Diprete, D.; Wiedenman, B.

    2012-03-20

    The current mission at H-Canyon involves the dissolution of an Alternate Feedstocks 2 (AFS-2) inventory that contains plutonium metal. Once dissolved, HB-Line is tasked with purifying the plutonium solution via anion exchange, precipitating the Pu as oxalate, and calcining to form plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). The PuO{sub 2} will provide feed product for the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility, and the anion exchange raffinate will be transferred to H-Canyon. The results presented in this report document the potential success of the RE resin column extraction application on highly concentrated Pu samples to meet MOX feed product specifications. The original 'Hearts Cut' sample required a 10000x dilution to limit instrument drift on the ICP-MS method. The instrument dilution factors improved to 125x and 250x for the sample raffinate and sample eluent, respectively. As noted in the introduction, the significantly lower dilutions help to drop the total MRL for the analyte. Although the spike recoveries were half of expected in the eluent for several key elements, they were between 94-98% after Nd tracer correction. It is seen that the lower ICD limit requirements for the rare earths are attainable because of less dilution. Especially important is the extremely low Ga limit at 0.12 {mu}g/g Pu; an ICP-MS method is now available to accomplish this task on the sample raffinate. While B and V meet the column A limits, further development is needed to meet the column B limits. Even though V remained on the RE resin column, an analysis method is ready for investigation on the ICP-MS, but it does not mean that V cannot be measured on the ICP-ES at a low dilution to meet the column B limits. Furthermore, this column method can be applicable for ICP-ES as shown in Table 3-2, in that it trims the sample of Pu, decreasing and sometimes eliminating Pu spectral interferences.

  11. Peer reviewed: Characterizing aquatic dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenheer, Jerry A.; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Whether it causes aesthetic concerns such as color, taste, and odor; leads to the binding and transport of organic and inorganic contaminants; produces undesirable disinfection byproducts; provides sources and sinks for carbon; or mediates photochemical processes, the nature and properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in water are topics of significant environmental interest. DOM is also a major reactant in and product of biogeochemical processes in which the material serves as a carbon and energy source for biota and controls levels of dissolved oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, numerous trace metals, and acidity.

  12. Guide of good practices for occupational radiological protection in plutonium facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This Technical Standard (TS) does not contain any new requirements. Its purpose is to provide guides to good practice, update existing reference material, and discuss practical lessons learned relevant to the safe handling of plutonium. the technical rationale is given to allow US Department of Energy (DOE) health physicists to adapt the recommendations to similar situations throughout the DOE complex. Generally, DOE contractor health physicists will be responsible to implement radiation protection activities at DOE facilities and DOE health physicists will be responsible for oversight of those activities. This guidance is meant to be useful for both efforts. This TS replaces PNL-6534, Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Plutonium Facilities, by providing more complete and current information and by emphasizing the situations that are typical of DOE`s current plutonium operations; safe storage, decontamination, and decommissioning (environmental restoration); and weapons disassembly.

  13. Glutarimidedioxime. A complexing and reducing reagent for plutonium recovery from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xian, Liang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China). Radiochemistry Dept.; Tian, Guoxin [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China). Radiochemistry Dept.; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.; Beavers, Christine M.; Teat, Simon J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Shuh, David K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.

    2016-04-04

    Efficient separation processes for recovering uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel are essential to the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles. The performance characteristics of a new salt-free complexing and reducing reagent, glutarimidedioxime (H{sub 2}A), are reported for recovering plutonium in a PUREX process. With a phase ratio of organic to aqueous of up to 10:1, plutonium can be effectively stripped from 30 % tributyl phosphate (TBP) in kerosene into 1M HNO{sub 3} with H{sub 2}A. The complexation-reduction mechanism is illustrated with the combination of UV/Vis absorption spectra and the crystal structure of a Pu{sup IV} complex with the reagent. The fast stripping rate and the high efficiency for stripping Pu{sup IV}, through the complexation-reduction mechanism, is suitable for use in centrifugal contactors with very short contact/resident times, thereby offering significant advantages over conventional processes.

  14. Evolving Density and Static Mechanical Properties in Plutonium from Self-Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, B W; Thompson, S R; Lema, K E; Hiromoto, D S; Ebbinghaus, B B

    2008-07-31

    Plutonium, because of its self-irradiation by alpha decay, ages by means of lattice damage and helium in-growth. These integrated aging effects result in microstructural and physical property changes. Because these effects would normally require decades to measure, studies are underway to assess the effects of extended aging on the physical properties of plutonium alloys by incorporating roughly 7.5 weight % of highly specific activity isotope {sup 238}Pu into the {sup 239}Pu metal to accelerate the aging process. This paper presents updated results of self-irradiation effects on {sup 238}Pu-enriched alloys measured by immersion density, dilatometry, and tensile tests. After nearly 90 equivalent years of aging, both the immersion density and dilatometry show that the enriched alloys continue to decreased in density by {approx}0.002% per year, without void swelling. Quasi-static tensile measurements show that the aging process increases the strength of plutonium alloys.

  15. Plutonium in the marine environment at Thule, NW-Greenland after a nuclear weapons accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, H.; Eriksson, M.; Ilus, E.

    2001-01-01

    In January 1968, a B52 plane carrying 4 nuclear weapon!: crashed on the sea ice similar to 12 km from the Thule Air Base, in northwest Greenland. The benthic marine environment in the 180-230 m deep Bylot Sound was then contaminated with similar to1.4 TBq Pu-239,Pu-240 (similar to0.5 kg). The site...... than in sediments. Some biota groups show a somewhat higher uptake of americium than of plutonium. Sediment samples with weapons plutonium from the accident show a significant variation in Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios in the range 0.027-0.057. This supports the hypothesis that the Thule plutonium...

  16. Rapid and Automated Determination of Plutonium and Neptunium in Environmental Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin

    and optimization for rapid determination of plutonium in environmental samples using SIextraction chromatography prior to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Paper III); (3) Development of an SI-chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples...... (Paper IV); (4) Investigation of the suitability and applicability of 242Pu as a tracer for rapid neptunium determination using anion exchange chromatography in an SI-network coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Paper V); (5) Exploration of macro-porous anion exchange chromatography......This thesis presents improved analytical methods for rapid and automated determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples using sequential injection (SI) based chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The progress of methodology development...

  17. Recovery of uranium and plutonium from Redox off-standard aqueous waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, C.H.; Matheson, A.R.

    1949-12-31

    In the operation of countercurrent extraction columns as in the Redox process, it is possible, and probable, that from unexpected behaviour of a column, operator error, colloid formation, etc., there will result from time to time excessive losses of uranium and plutonium in the overall process. These losses will naturally accumulate in the waste streams, particularly in the aqueous waste streams. If the loss is excessively high, and such lost material can be recovered by some additional method, then if economical and within reason, the recovered materials ran be returned to a ISF column for further processing. The objective of this work has been to develop such a method to recover uranium and plutonium from such off-standard waste streams in a form whereby the uranium send plutonium can be returned to the process line and subsequently purified and separated.

  18. Radiation damage in gallium-stabilized δ-plutonium with helium bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, FengChao; Wang, Pei; Liu, XiaoYi; Wu, HengAn

    2017-02-01

    To understand the role of helium on self-irradiation effects in δ-plutonium, microstructure evolutions due to α-decay events near pre-existing helium bubbles in gallium-stabilized δ-plutonium are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Bubble promoting effect plays a dominating role in point defects production, resulting in increasing number of point defects. When lightweight helium atoms act as media, energy transfer discrepancy and altered spatial morphology of point defects induced by mass effect are revealed. The evolution of stacking faults surrounding the disordered core is studied and their binding effect on the propagation of point defects are presented. The cascade-induced bubble coalescence, resolution and re-nucleation driven by internal pressure are obtained in the investigation on helium behaviors. The intrinsic tendency in our simulated self-irradiation with helium bubbles is significant for understanding the underlying mechanism of aging in plutonium and its alloys.

  19. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of plutonium complexes with bacillus sphaericus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panak, P.J.; Booth, C.H.; Caulder, D.L.; Bucher, J.J.; Shuh, D.K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Chemical Sciences Div., The Glenn T. Seaborg Center, Berkeley, CA (United States); Nitsche, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Chemical Sciences Div., The Glenn T. Seaborg Center, Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California at Berkeley, Dept. of Chemistry, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Knowledge of the plutonium complexes formed with bacterial cells is critical for predicting the influence of microbial interactions on the migration behavior of actinides in the environment. This investigation describes the interaction of plutonium(VI) with cells of the aerobic soil bacteria, Bacillus sphaericus. The studies include the quantification of carboxylate and phosphate functional groups on the cell walls by potentiometric titration and the determination of the plutonium speciation by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). Extended-XAFS (EXAFS) was used to determine the identity of the Pu(VI) interfacial complex with the bacteria, and the Pu(VI) was found primarily bound to phosphate groups on the cell surface. No carboxylate complexation was detected. (orig.)

  20. Disposition of PUREX facility tanks D5 and E6 uranium and plutonium solutions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, D.P.

    1993-12-01

    Approximately 9 kilograms of plutonium and 5 metric tons of uranium in a 1 molar nitric acid solution are being stored in two PUREX facility vessels, tanks D5 and E6. The plutonium was accumulated during cleanup activities of the plutonium product area of the PUREX facility. Personnel at PUREX recently completed a formal presentation to the Surplus Materials Peer Panel (SMPP) regarding disposition of the material currently in these tanks. The peer panel is a group of complex-wide experts who have been chartered by EM-64 (Office of Site and Facility Transfer) to provide a third party independent review of disposition decisions. The information presented to the peer panel is provided in the first section of this report. The panel was generally receptive to the information provided at that time and the recommendations which were identified.