WorldWideScience

Sample records for dissolver explosion recovery

  1. ICPP custom dissolver explosion recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.; Hawk, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the recovery from the February 9, 1991 small scale explosion in a custom processing dissolver at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Custom processing is a small scale dissolution facility which processes nuclear material in an economical fashion. The material dissolved in this facility was uranium metal, uranium oxides, and uranium/fissium alloy in nitric acid. The paper explained the release of fission material, and the decontamination and recovery of the fuel material. The safety and protection procedures were also discussed. Also described was the chemical analysis which was used to speculate the most probable cause of the explosion. (MB)

  2. Photoluminescent Detection of Dissolved Underwater Trace Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tye Langston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A portable, rapid, and economical method for in situ trace explosive detection in aqueous solutions was demonstrated using photoluminescence. Using europium/thenoyltrifluoroacetone as the reagent, dissolved nitroglycerin was fluorescently tagged and detected in seawater solutions without sample preparation, drying, or preconcentration. The chemical method was developed in a laboratory setting and demonstrated in a flow-through configuration using lightweight, inexpensive, commercial components by directly injecting the reagents into a continually flowing seawater stream using a small amount of organic solvent (approximately 8% of the total solution. Europium's vulnerability to vibrational fluorescence quenching by water provided the mode of detection. Without nitroglycerin in the seawater solution, the reagent's fluorescence was quenched, but when dissolved nitroglycerin was present, it displaced the water molecules from the europium/thenoyltrifluoroacetone compound and restored fluorescence. This effort focused on developing a seawater sensor, but performance comparisons were made to freshwater. The method was found to perform better in freshwater and it was shown that certain seawater constituents (such as calcium have an adverse impact. However, the concentrations of these constituents are not expected to vary significantly from the natural seawater used herein.

  3. Heavy oil recovery using solvents and explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, L.J.; Johnson, F.S.; Miller, J.S.; Jones, R.A.; McMurtrie, W.D.

    1977-12-01

    Petroleum-recovery techniques are being developed for the many shallow, low-productivity, heavy-oil sand deposits in southeastern Kansas, southwestern Missouri, and northeastern Oklahoma. In 1971, laboratory flooding experiments were conducted to determine optimum field operating conditions for recovery of heavy oil. Concurrently the Research Center began a field experiment in Labette County, Kans., using a recovery method (SolFrac) that combines chemical-explosive fracturing, to create communication with solvent injection, to improve mobility. The general boundaries of heavy-oil deposits are reported, and the areal extent and general characteristics of the reservoir in Labette County are described. The fracturing, injection, and production techniques and the production results from the field experiment are described. About 14% of the solvent injected was not recovered and thus was lost to the formation. Roughly 27 percent of the oil-in-place within the five-spot interwell zone was recovered. Reinjection of the produced solvent-oil mixture was done on a limited basis. Not enough additional oil was picked up during recycling of the solvent to justify this procedure. 9 tables, 21 figures.

  4. Chemical recovery process using break up steam control to prevent smelt explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Arthur L.; Stewart, Albert E.

    1988-08-02

    An improvement in a chemical recovery process in which a hot liquid smelt is introduced into a dissolving tank containing a pool of green liquor. The improvement comprises preventing smelt explosions in the dissolving tank by maintaining a first selected superatmospheric pressure in the tank during normal operation of the furnace; sensing the pressure in the tank; and further impinging a high velocity stream of steam upon the stream of smelt whenever the pressure in the tank decreases below a second selected superatmospheric pressure which is lower than said first pressure.

  5. Surfactant-enhanced recovery of dissolved hydrocarbons at petroleum production facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.T.; Mayes, M. [Groundwater Solutions Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Wassmuth, F.; Taylor, K. [Petroleum Recovery Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada); Rae, W. [Chemex Labs. (Alberta) Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Kuipers, F. [Pembina Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The feasibility and cost effectiveness of surfactant-enhanced pumping to reduce source concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated soils was discussed. Light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL) hydrocarbons are present beneath many petroleum production processing facilities in western Canada. Complete removal of LNAPLs from geologic materials is difficult and expensive. Treatment technologies include costly ex-situ methods such as excavation and in-situ methods such as physical extraction by soil venting and pumping, bioremediation, and combination methods such as bioventing, bioslurping or air sparging. Surfactant-aided pumping can reduce source hydrocarbon concentrations when used in conjunction with traditional pump and treat, or deep well injection. This study involved the selection of an appropriate surfactant from a wide variety of commercially available products. A site contaminated by hydrocarbons in Turner Valley, Alberta, was used for field scale testing. One of the major problems was quantifying the increase in the dissolved hydrocarbon concentrations in the recovered water once a surfactant was added. From the 30 surfactants screened in a series of washing and oil solubilization tests, two surfactants, Brij 97 and Tween 80, were selected for further evaluation. Increased hydrocarbon recovery was observed within 10 days of the introduction of the first surfactant. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Methane bioattenuation and implications for explosion risk reduction along the groundwater to soil surface pathway above a plume of dissolved ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Rixey, William G; DeVaull, George E; Stafford, Brent P; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2012-06-05

    Fuel ethanol releases can stimulate methanogenesis in impacted aquifers, which could pose an explosion risk if methane migrates into enclosed spaces where ignitable conditions exist. To assess this potential risk, a flux chamber was emplaced on a pilot-scale aquifer exposed to continuous release (21 months) of an ethanol solution (10% v:v) that was introduced 22.5 cm below the water table. Despite methane concentrations within the ethanol plume reaching saturated levels (20-23 mg/L), the maximum methane concentration reaching the chamber (21 ppm(v)) was far below the lower explosion limit in air (50,000 ppm(v)). The low concentrations of methane observed in the chamber are attributed to methanotrophic activity, which was highest in the capillary fringe. This was indicated by methane degradation assays in microcosms prepared with soil samples from different depths, as well as by PCR measurements of pmoA, which is a widely used functional gene biomarker for methanotrophs. Simulations with the analytical vapor intrusion model "Biovapor" corroborated the low explosion risk associated with ethanol fuel releases under more generic conditions. Model simulations also indicated that depending on site-specific conditions, methane oxidation in the unsaturated zone could deplete the available oxygen and hinder aerobic benzene biodegradation, thus increasing benzene vapor intrusion potential. Overall, this study shows the importance of methanotrophic activity near the water table to attenuate methane generated from dissolved ethanol plumes and reduce its potential to migrate and accumulate at the surface.

  7. Dissolved air flotation and centrifugation as methods for oil recovery from ruptured microalgal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; Schenk, Peer M

    2016-10-01

    Solvent-free microalgal lipid recovery is highly desirable for safer, more sustainable and more economical microalgal oil production. Dispersed air flotation and centrifugation were evaluated for the ability to separate oil and debris from a slurry mixture of osmotically fractured Chaetoceros muelleri cells with and without utilizing collectors. Microalgal oil partially phase-separated as a top layer and partially formed an oil-in-water emulsion. Although collectors, such as sodium dodecyl sulphate enhanced selective flotation, by just adjusting the pH and cell concentration of the mixture, up to 78% of the lipids were recovered in the froth. Using centrifugation of fractured microalgal slurry resulted in removal of 60% cell debris and up to 68.5% of microalgal oil was present in the supernatant. Both methods, centrifugation and flotation provided options for separation of microalgal oil from C. muelleri slurry with similar fatty acid recoveries of 57% and 60%, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Responses and recovery assessment of continuously cultured Nitrosomonas europaea under chronic ZnO nanoparticle stress: Effects of dissolved oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junkang; Chang, Yan; Gao, Huan; Liang, Geyu; Yu, Ran; Ding, Zhen

    2018-03-01

    Although the antibacterial performances of emerging nanoparticles (NPs) have been extensively explored in the nitrifying systems, the impacts of dissolved oxygen (DO) levels on their bio-toxicities to the nitrifiers and the impaired cells' recovery potentials have seldom been addressed yet. In this study, the physiological and transcriptional responses of the typical ammonia oxidizers - Nitrosomonas europaea in a chemostat to the chronic ZnO NP exposure under different DO conditions were investigated. The results indicated that the cells in steady-growth state in the chemostat were more persevering than batch cultured ones to resist ZnO NP stress despite the dose-dependent NP inhibitory effects were observed. In addition, the occurred striking over-expressions of amoA and hao genes at the initial NP exposure stage suggested the cells' self-regulation potentials at the transcriptional level. The low DO (0.5 mg/L) cultured cells displayed higher sensitivity to NP stress than the high DO (2.0 mg/L) cultured ones, probably owning to the inefficient oxygen-dependent electron transfer from ammonia oxidation for energy conversion/production. The following 12-h NP-free batch recovery assays revealed that both high and low DO cultured cells possessed the physiological and metabolic activity recovery potentials, which were in negative correlation with the NP exposure time. The duration of NP stress and the resulting NP dissolution were critical for the cells' damage levels and their performance recoverability. The membrane preservation processes and the associated metabolism regulations were expected to actively participate in the cells' self-adaption to NP stress and thus be responsible for their metabolic activities recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Preadaptation in the Biotransformation of Trace Organic Chemicals during Aquifer Recharge and Recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Ouf, Mohamed

    2012-05-01

    Aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) is a low-cost and environmentally-friendly treatment technology which uses conventionally treated wastewater effluent for groundwater recharge and subsequent recovery for agricultural, industrial or drinking water uses. This study investigated the effect of different dissolved organic carbon (DOC) composition in wastewater effluent on the fate of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) during ARR. Four biologically active columns were setup receiving synthetic wastewater effluent with varying DOC compositions. The difference in DOC composition triggered variations in the microbial community’s diversity and hence its ability to degrade TOrCs. It was found that the presence of protein-like DOC enhances the removal of DOC in comparison with the presence of humic-like DOC. On the other hand, the presence of humic-like DOC, which is more difficult to degrade, improved the removal of several degradable TOrCs. Other column experiments were also carried out to investigate the role of previous and continuous exposure to TOrCs in their removal. The use of soil pre-exposed to low concentrations of TOrCs and DOC provided better removal of both DOC and TOrCs. The findings of this study suggest that the presence of more humic-like DOC in the effluent enhances the biotransformation of TOrCs during ARR. In addition, long exposure to both DOC and TOrCs increases the degree of their removal over time

  10. A combined process of activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange resin treatment and membrane concentration for recovery of dissolved organics in pre-hydrolysis liquor of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing; Kaur, Ishneet; Baktash, Mir Mojtaba; He, Zhibin; Ni, Yonghao

    2013-01-01

    To recover dissolved organics in pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process, a new combined process concept of sequential steps of activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange resin treatment, and membrane concentration, was proposed. The removal of lignin in the PHL was achieved in the activated carbon adsorption step, which also facilitates the subsequent operations, such as the membrane filtration and ion exchange resin treatment. The ion exchange resin treatment resulted in the removal/concentration of acetic acid, which opens the door for acetic acid recovery. The membrane filtration is to recover/concentrate the dissolved sugars. The combined process resulted in the production of PHL-based concentrate with relatively high concentration of hemicellulosic sugars, i.e., 22.13%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Recovery and biological oxidation of dissolved methane in effluent from UASB treatment of municipal sewage using a two-stage closed downflow hanging sponge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Norihisa; Hatamoto, Masashi; Sumino, Haruhiko; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

    2015-03-15

    A two-stage closed downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor was used as a post-treatment to prevent methane being emitted from upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluents containing unrecovered dissolved methane. The performance of the closed DHS reactor was evaluated using real municipal sewage at ambient temperatures (10-28 °C) for one year. The first stage of the closed DHS reactor was intended to recover dissolved methane from the UASB effluent and produce a burnable gas with a methane concentration greater than 30%, and its recovery efficiency was 57-88%, although the amount of dissolved methane in the UASB effluent fluctuated in the range of 46-68 % of methane production greatly depending on the temperature. The residual methane was oxidized and the remaining organic carbon was removed in the second closed DHS reactor, and this reactor performed very well, removing more than 99% of the dissolved methane during the experimental period. The rate at which air was supplied to the DHS reactor was found to be one of the most important operating parameters. Microbial community analysis revealed that seasonal changes in the methane-oxidizing bacteria were key to preventing methane emissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of a submerged macrophyte: Inhibition and recovery against dissolved lignin during semi-continuous operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Mitsuhiko; Watanabe, Keiko; Kurosawa, Norio; Ishikawa, Kanako; Ban, Syuhei; Toda, Tatsuki

    2017-08-01

    The long-term effect of alkaline pretreatment on semi-continuous anaerobic digestion (AD) of the lignin-rich submerged macrophyte Potamogeton maackianus was investigated using mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. In pretreated reactors, dissolved lignin accumulated to high levels. CH 4 production under the pretreated condition was higher than that of the untreated condition, but decreased from Days 22 (mesophilic) and 42 (thermophilic). However, CH 4 production subsequently recovered, although dissolved lignin accumulated. Further, the change in the microbial community was observed between conditions. These results suggest that dissolved lignin temporarily inhibited AD, although acclimatization to dissolved lignin occurred during long-term operation. During the steady state period, mesophilic conditions achieved a 42% increase in the CH 4 yield using pretreatment, while thermophilic conditions yielded an 8% increment. Because volatile fatty acids accumulated even after acclimatization during the thermophilic pretreated condition and was discharged with the effluent, improvement of the methanogenic step would enable enhanced CH 4 recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recovery of DNA and fingermarks following deployment of render-safe tools for vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (VBIED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, S; Houspian, A; Knott, F

    2011-07-15

    Improvised explosive devices (IED) are responsible for a significant proportion of combat and civilian deaths around the world. Given the ease with which IEDs can be made, the large quantity of explosive which can be contained within or on a vehicle, and the use of VBIED in the past (for example the 2002 Bali bombing) in terrorist activities, VBIED are an ongoing concern for Defence and law enforcement agencies. Fingermark and DNA analyses are routinely used by police and forensic analysts to identify suspects involved in illegal activities. There is limited information available on the feasibility of obtaining fingermarks, fibres, hair and DNA samples following an explosive incident, or a situation whereby an IED has been rendered safe following the utilisation of an appropriate defeat or render-safe tool. The main objective of this study was to determine if fingermarks and/or DNA (from saliva and hair samples) placed on the interior and exterior of road vehicles, and on inanimate objects (such as plastic or glass bottles), are able to be obtained and analysed following the use of a vehicle-borne IED (VBIED) render-safe tool on a vehicle containing simulated explosives. The identification of fingermarks on the exterior (67.2±8.5%) and interior (43.8±17.8%) of the vehicles was possible following the use of the render-safe tool, though this was more challenging in the latter than the former. Fingermarks were also able to be identified from both plastic and glass bottles placed inside the vehicles. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques yielded DNA profiles that were able to be identified from saliva and hair samples. These preliminary results suggest that both fingermarks and DNA profiles, obtained from vehicles that have been subjected to a VBIED render-safe tool, may be used to identify persons of interest. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The response and recovery of the dissolved organic carbon cycle in ephemeral streams to large flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, J.; Shutova, Y.; Hartland, A.; Andersen, M. S.; Baker, A.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    The supply, transport, and cycling of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within river systems is a critical component of the carbon cycle, determines freshwater ecosystem primary productivity, and is a key driver of water quality through associated redox transformations. Despite this importance, there is very little understanding of how both the concentration and quality of DOC are influenced by natural variations in hydrology, particularly extreme events such as floods, and within different climatic zones. In this study, we examined the evolution of DOC within an ephemeral catchment in semi-arid Australia during a 1:20 year flood event. Total DOC concentrations increased ~3 fold compared to pre-flood concentrations, with peak concentrations occurring in the rising limb of the hydrograph, similar to previous studies of event based DOC. Although we found the DOC to be dominated by Humic substances, the behaviour of the Humic fraction more closely followed the flood hydrograph, suggesting there is a contrast between the large pool of DOC that can be released quickly at the beginning of an event, and DOC which is transported and mixed within the actual flood wave. We also analysed the fluorescence characteristics of the dissolved organic matter, which provides insights into the ability of micro-organisms to process DOC within floods, and also how these systems respond during flow recession. In terms of the total DOC budget, this one event accounts for ~ 6 times the mean annual DOC export of this catchment, within 2% of the time. This work extends our knowledge of riverine DOC fluxes to ephemeral environments, and highlights the potential importance of extreme events to ecosystem carbon processing.

  15. A new degassing membrane coupled upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to achieve in-situ biogas upgrading and recovery of dissolved CH4 from the anaerobic effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Gang; Wang, Wen; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new UASB configuration was developed by coupling with degassing membrane. • In-situ biogas upgrading was achieved with high methane content (>90%). • Decrease of dissolved methane in the anaerobic effluent was achieved. - Abstract: A new technology for in-situ biogas upgrading and recovery of CH 4 from the effluent of biogas reactors was proposed and demonstrated in this study. A vacuum degassing membrane module was used to desorb CO 2 from the liquid phase of a biogas reactor. The degassing membrane was submerged into a degassing unit (DU). The results from batch experiments showed that mixing intensity, transmembrane pressure, pH and inorganic carbon concentration affected the CO 2 desorption rate in the DU. Then, the DU was directly connected to an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The results showed the CH 4 content was only 51.7% without desorption of CO 2 , while it increased when the liquid of UASB was recycled through the DU. The CH 4 content increased to 71.6%, 90%, and 94% with liquid recirculation rate through the DU of 0.21, 0.42 and 0.63 L/h, respectively. The loss of methane due to dissolution in the effluent was reduced by directly pumping the reactor effluent through the DU. In this way, the dissolved CH 4 concentration in the effluent decreased from higher than 0.94 mM to around 0.13 mM, and thus efficient recovery of CH 4 from the anaerobic effluent was achieved. In the whole operational period, the COD removal efficiency and CH 4 yield were not obviously affected by the gas desorption

  16. A new technology for separation and recovery of materials from waste printed circuit boards by dissolving bromine epoxy resins using ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, P.; Chen, Y.; Wang, L.Y.; Qian, G.Y.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► WPCBs were heated in [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] for recovering solider at 240 °C. ► The bromine epoxy resins in WPCBs were all dissolved in [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] at 260 °C. ► Used [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] is treated by water to obtain regeneration. - Abstract: Recovery of valuable materials from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) is quite difficult because WPCBs is a heterogeneous mixture of polymer materials, glass fibers, and metals. In this study, WPCBs was treated using ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimizadolium tetrafluoroborate [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ]). Experimental results showed that the separation of the solders went to completion, and electronic components (ECs) were removed in WPCBs when [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] solution containing WPCBs was heated to 240 °C. Meanwhile, metallographic observations verified that the WPCBs had an initial delamination. When the temperature increased to 260 °C, the separation of the WPCBs went to completion, and coppers and glass fibers were obtained. The used [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] was treated by water to generate a solid–liquid suspension, which was separated completely to obtain solid residues by filtration. Thermal analyses combined with infrared ray spectra (IR) observed that the solid residues were bromine epoxy resins. NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) showed that hydrogen bond played an important role for [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] dissolving bromine epoxy resins. This clean and non-polluting technology offers a new way to recycle valuable materials from WPCBs and prevent environmental pollution from WPCBs effectively.

  17. A new technology for separation and recovery of materials from waste printed circuit boards by dissolving bromine epoxy resins using ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P; Chen, Y; Wang, L Y; Qian, G Y; Zhou, M; Zhou, J

    2012-11-15

    Recovery of valuable materials from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) is quite difficult because WPCBs is a heterogeneous mixture of polymer materials, glass fibers, and metals. In this study, WPCBs was treated using ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimizadolium tetrafluoroborate [EMIM+][BF4-]). Experimental results showed that the separation of the solders went to completion, and electronic components (ECs) were removed in WPCBs when [EMIM+][BF4-] solution containing WPCBs was heated to 240 °C. Meanwhile, metallographic observations verified that the WPCBs had an initial delamination. When the temperature increased to 260 °C, the separation of the WPCBs went to completion, and coppers and glass fibers were obtained. The used [EMIM+][BF4-] was treated by water to generate a solid-liquid suspension, which was separated completely to obtain solid residues by filtration. Thermal analyses combined with infrared ray spectra (IR) observed that the solid residues were bromine epoxy resins. NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) showed that hydrogen bond played an important role for [EMIM+][BF4-] dissolving bromine epoxy resins. This clean and non-polluting technology offers a new way to recycle valuable materials from WPCBs and prevent environmental pollution from WPCBs effectively. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Underground Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-09

    Chile (1960, mb = 9.4), and Anchorage (1964, mb = 9.1). In the 21st century Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (mb = 9.3) occurred on December 26, 2004 caused a...explosion source mechanism is less complex than the earthquake source mechanism. Therefore, the waves produced by explosions have more impulsive first...Seismic waves generated by nuclear and chemical explosions are comparable with natural earthquakes in their intensity and (for industrial chemical

  19. Liquid explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    The book drawing on the author's nearly half a century of energetic materials research experience intends to systematically review the global researches on liquid explosives. The book focuses on the study of the conception, explosion mechanism, properties and preparation of liquid explosives. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical examples in a reader-friendly style. The book is likely to be interest of university researchers and graduate students in the fields of energetic materials, blasting engineering and mining.

  20. Capillary-driven microfluidic paper-based analytical devices for lab on a chip screening of explosive residues in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, Maiken; Blanes, Lucas; Taudte, Regina V; Stuart, Barbara H; Cole, Nerida; Willis, Peter; Roux, Claude; Doble, Philip

    2016-03-04

    A novel microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) was designed to filter, extract, and pre-concentrate explosives from soil for direct analysis by a lab on a chip (LOC) device. The explosives were extracted via immersion of wax-printed μPADs directly into methanol soil suspensions for 10min, whereby dissolved explosives travelled upwards into the μPAD circular sampling reservoir. A chad was punched from the sampling reservoir and inserted into a LOC well containing the separation buffer for direct analysis, avoiding any further extraction step. Eight target explosives were separated and identified by fluorescence quenching. The minimum detectable amounts for all eight explosives were between 1.4 and 5.6ng with recoveries ranging from 53-82% from the paper chad, and 12-40% from soil. This method provides a robust and simple extraction method for rapid identification of explosives in complex soil samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dissolved gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, T.H.E.

    1981-01-01

    The concentrations of gaseous nitrogen, argon, oxygen and helium dissolved in groundwater are often different from their concentrations in rain and surface waters. These differences reflect changes in the gas content occurring after rain or surface water, having infiltrated into the ground, become isolated from equilibrium contact with the atmosphere. A study of these changes can give insight into the origin and subsequent subsurface history of groundwater. Nitrogen and argon concentrations for many groundwaters in southern Africa indicate that excess air is added to water during infiltration. The amount of excess air is believed to reflect the physical structure of the unsaturated zone and the climate of the recharge area. Since nitrogen and argon are essentially conservative in many aquifer environments in South Africa, their concentrations can be used in distinguishing grondwaters of different recharge origins. In some areas the high helium content of the groundwater suggests that much of the helium is derived through migration from a source outside (e.g. below) the aquifer itself. Radiogenic helium concentrations nevertheless show, in two artesian aquifers, a close linear relationship to the radiocarbon age of the groundwater. This indicates a uniformity in the factors responsible for the accumulation of helium, and suggests that in these circumstances helium data can be used to give information on the age of very old groundwater. In some groundwater dissolved oxygen concentrations are found to decrease with increasing groundwater age. Whilst the rate of decrease may be very different for different aquifers, the field measurement of oxygen may be useful in preliminary surveys directed toward the location of recharge areas

  2. Explosive Pleuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasdeep K Sharma

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to describe the clinical and computed tomography features of 'explosive pleuritis', an entity first named by Braman and Donat in 1986, and to propose a case definition. A case report of a previously healthy, 45-year-old man admitted to hospital with acute onset pleuritic chest pain is presented. The patient arrived at the emergency room at 15:00 in mild respiratory distress; the initial chest x-ray revealed a small right lower lobe effusion. The subsequent clinical course in hospital was dramatic. Within 18 h of admission, he developed severe respiratory distress with oxygen desaturation to 83% on room air and dullness of the right lung field. A repeat chest x-ray, taken the morning after admission, revealed complete opacification of the right hemithorax. A computed tomography scan of the thorax demonstrated a massive pleural effusion with compression of pulmonary tissue and mediastinal shift. Pleural fluid biochemical analysis revealed the following concentrations: glucose 3.5 mmol/L, lactate dehydrogenase 1550 U/L, protein 56.98 g/L, amylase 68 U/L and white blood cell count 600 cells/mL. The pleural fluid cultures demonstrated light growth of coagulase-negative staphylococcus and viridans streptococcus, and very light growth of Candida albicans. Cytology was negative for malignant cells. Thoracotomy was performed, which demonstrated a loculated parapneumonic effusion that required decortication. The patient responded favourably to the empirical administration of intravenous levofloxacin and ceftriaxone, and conservative surgical methods in the management of the empyema. This report also discusses the patient's rapidly progressing pleural effusion and offers a potential case definition for explosive pleuritis. Explosive pleuritis is a medical emergency defined by the rapid development of a pleural effusion involving more than 90% of the hemithorax over 24 h, which causes compression of pulmonary tissue and

  3. The Key Role of Surface Tension in the Theory of Bubble-Assisted Explosion/Combustion Triggering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grinfeld, Michael

    2008-01-01

    ...; Cambridge University Press: New York, NY, 1952) explaining the initiation of explosion/combustion by means of adiabatic compression of the dissolved gaseous bubbles within condensed liquid substances...

  4. Explosive Formulation Pilot Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pilot Plant for Explosive Formulation supports the development of new explosives that are comprised of several components. This system is particularly beneficial...

  5. Supernova explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Branch, David

    2017-01-01

    Targeting advanced students of astronomy and physics, as well as astronomers and physicists contemplating research on supernovae or related fields, David Branch and J. Craig Wheeler offer a modern account of the nature, causes and consequences of supernovae, as well as of issues that remain to be resolved. Owing especially to (1) the appearance of supernova 1987A in the nearby Large Magellanic Cloud, (2) the spectacularly successful use of supernovae as distance indicators for cosmology, (3) the association of some supernovae with the enigmatic cosmic gamma-ray bursts, and (4) the discovery of a class of superluminous supernovae, the pace of supernova research has been increasing sharply. This monograph serves as a broad survey of modern supernova research and a guide to the current literature. The book’s emphasis is on the explosive phases of supernovae. Part 1 is devoted to a survey of the kinds of observations that inform us about supernovae, some basic interpreta tions of such data, and an overview of t...

  6. Chemical profiling of explosives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brust, G.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this thesis is to develop analytical methods for the chemical profiling of explosives. Current methodologies for the forensic analysis of explosives focus on identification of the explosive material. However, chemical profiling of explosives becomes increasingly important, as

  7. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  8. Development in the Detection and Identification of Explosive Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, A D

    1992-06-01

    In the past 2 decades, developments in the sensitivity and selectivity of instrument detectors have significantly improved the detection limits for explosives, particularly nitrated organic compounds. Significant improvements have also been made in clean up and recovery procedures for explosive residues. Methods which also have met the criterion of proven effectiveness in identifying explosive components in "real-world" residues from test explosions have been incorporated into systematic analysis protocols for explosive residues. This article first reviews developments in the application of both traditional and novel methods to analysis of unreacted explosives and explosive residues. Compounds used to formulate commercial, military, and "homemade" explosives are then cross-referenced to the analytical methods that have been specifically applied to them, both as pure chemicals and in explosive mixtures. The subsequent focus is on the combinations of methods used to systematically analyze and positively identify residues from improvised explosive devices, from handswabs derived from persons suspected of handling explosives, and from organic gunshot residue. Technology is available to positively identify virtually any unreacted explosive in residue, but no one method can detect all components of all explosives. Investigators and the courts are best served by well-equipped forensic science laboratories staffed with scientists who have gained experience by the successful analysis of post-blast residues from an explosives range and have comprehensive reference collections of physical material, analytical data, and literature. The greatest progress has been made with respect to nitrated organic compounds, but the new generation of commercial explosive slurries and emulsions which are primarily formulated with inorganic salts and non-nitrated organic compounds offer an ongoing challenge. Copyright © 1992 Central Police University.

  9. New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreevskikh, Leonid

    2011-06-01

    Suggested and tested were some mix explosives--powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)--for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30-70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 μm. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D ~ 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2 mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

  10. Phenol recovery with liquid ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilman

    1943-08-03

    This report covers the results of a phenol recovery plant at Ludwigshafen which had recently suffered a severe explosion. From a Gelsenberg hydrogenation middle oil with 18 percent phenol, an 86 to 96 percent phenol fraction was recovered. Because the occurring neutral oil was phenol-free and because with the process a phenol loss was impossible, it was assumed that the yield was quantitative. With regard to the working process, the middle oil was fed into the upper section of a column four feet high, in which liquid ammonia from below climbed upward. The ammonia thereby absorbed the phenol quantitatively, and the ammonium phenolate solution absorbed a certain amount of neutral oil. The loaded ammonia went over the top of the column while at the foot of the column the phenol-free neutral oil collected and was drawn off. The ammonium phenolate solution was then washed with light gasoline in a second column. For this, the ammonia was fed into the upper, the light gasoline into the lower part of the column. The light gasoline absorbed almost quantitatively the neutral oil which was molecularly or actually colloidally dissolved in the ammonium phenolate solution, and even a small amount of the phenol and ammonia. Thickening in concentration, the light gasoline was fed into a storage tank where it was freed of its dissolved components by atmospheric distillation and recycled into the process. The ammonium phenolate solution which before the gasoline wash left behind a vaporization residue with about 40 percent phenol afterwards produced a raw phenol of 86 to 96 percent pure phenol. Because of technical difficulties, the concentration of the washed ammonium phenolate solution could not be determined. It was gathered at the bottom of the second column and fed into a storage tank where the phenol was freed by pressure distillation. The ammonia was then recycled into the process.

  11. Interactions of dissolved CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Baar, H.J.W.; van Heuven, S.M.A.C.; Abouchami, W.; Xue, Z.; Galer, S.J.G.; Rehkämper, M.; Middag, R.; van Ooijen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Here we report the first ever observations of a strong correlation in ocean surface waters of the dissolved δ114Cdwith dissolved CO2. This is observed in the Southern Ocean along the 0°W meridian in both the AntarcticCircumpolar Current and the Weddell Gyre, as well as in the Weddell Sea proper,

  12. Free radical explosive composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a getter additive comprising a compound or mixture of compounds capable of capturing or deactivating free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive. Exemplary getter additives are isocyanates, olefins and iodine.

  13. Explosives tester with heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Eckels, Joel [Livermore, CA; Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA; Simpson, Randall L [Livermore, CA; Whipple, Richard E [Livermore, CA; Carter, J Chance [Livermore, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  14. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lut Tamam; Meliha Zengin Eroglu; Ozlem Paltaci

    2011-01-01

    Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etio...

  15. Chernobyl explosion bombshell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.; Arnott, D.

    1988-01-01

    It is suggested that the explosion at the Chernobyl-4 reactor in April 1986 was a nuclear explosion. The evidence for this is examined. The sequence of events at Chernobyl is looked at to see if the effects were like those from a nuclear explosion. The question of whether a United Kingdom reactor could go prompt critical is discussed. It is concluded that prompt criticality excursions are possible, but the specific Chernobyl sequence is impossible. (UK)

  16. Explosive Technology Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Explosive Technology Group (ETG) provides diverse technical expertise and an agile, integrated approach to solve complex challenges for all classes of energetic...

  17. Cell phone explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Pandey, Bhuwan Raj

    2016-03-01

    Cell phone explosions and resultant burn injuries are rarely reported in the scientific literature. We report a case of cell phone explosion that occurred when a young male was listening to music while the mobile was plugged in for charging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Steam explosion studies review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Kim, Hee Dong

    1999-03-01

    When a cold liquid is brought into contact with a molten material with a temperature significantly higher than the liquid boiling point, an explosive interaction due to sudden fragmentation of the melt and rapid evaporation of the liquid may take place. This phenomenon is referred to as a steam explosion or vapor explosion. Depending upon the amount of the melt and the liquid involved, the mechanical energy released during a vapor explosion can be large enough to cause serious destruction. In hypothetical severe accidents which involve fuel melt down, subsequent interactions between the molten fuel and coolant may cause steam explosion. This process has been studied by many investigators in an effort to assess the likelihood of containment failure which leads to large scale release of radioactive materials to the environment. In an effort to understand the phenomenology of steam explosion, extensive studies has been performed so far. The report presents both experimental and analytical studies on steam explosion. As for the experimental studies, both small scale tests which involve usually less than 20 g of high temperature melt and medium/large scale tests which more than 1 kg of melt is used are reviewed. For the modelling part of steam explosions, mechanistic modelling as well as thermodynamic modelling is reviewed. (author)

  19. Explosion metal welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popoff, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    Process parameters pertaining to welding similar and dissimilar metals using explosives are reviewed. The discussion centers on the interrelationship of physical parameters which play a part in achieving desirable metallurgical results. Present activities in explosion metal welding at LASL are presented and shown how they related to the interests of the ERDA community

  20. Explosions and static electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of electrostatic discharges as causes of ignition of vapor/gas and dust/gas mixtures. A series of examples of static-caused explosions will be discussed. The concepts of explosion limits, the incendiveness of various discharge types and safe voltages are explained...

  1. 75 FR 5545 - Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    .... OSHA-2007-0032 (formerly Docket Nos. OSHA-S031-2006-0665 and OSHA-S-031)] RIN 1218-AC09 Explosives AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA); Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule; termination. SUMMARY: In this notice, OSHA is terminating the rulemaking to amend its Explosives and Blasting Agents...

  2. Underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Gary H.

    1970-01-01

    In the Third Plowshare Symposium, held in 1964, data from a number of nuclear explosions were presented. At that time the basic elements of the nuclear explosion appeared to be well understood and relationships for predicting the gross nuclear effects were presented. Since that time, additional work has been done and many of the concepts have been extended. For example, nuclear explosions have been conducted at greater depths and with much greater yields. The physical and chemical properties of the material in which the explosions occur have been more accurately measured and related to explosion effects. Interpretation of the new information seems to indicate that the earlier relationships are valid over the ranges of energy and depths for which data is available but that effects relating to cavity and chimney sizes or fracturing had been overestimated at great depths of burst and higher yields. (author)

  3. Melt Cast High Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Cudziło

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. This paper reviews the current state and future developments of melt-cast high explosives. First the compositions, properties and methods of preparation of trinitrotoluene based (TNT conventional mixtures with aluminum, hexogen (RDX or octogen (HMX are described. In the newer, less sensitive explosive formulations, TNT is replaced with dinitroanisole (DNANDNANDNAN and nitrotriazolone (NTONTONTO, nitroguanidine (NG or ammonium perchlorate (AP are the replacement for RDRDX and HMX. Plasticized wax or polymer-based binder systems for melt castable explosives are also included. Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HPTB is the binder of choice, but polyethylene glycol, and polycaprolactone with energetic plasticizers are also used. The most advanced melt-cast explosives are compositions containing energetic thermoplastic elastomers and novel highly energetic compounds (including nitrogen rich molecules in whose particles are nanosized and practically defect-less.[b]Keywords[/b]: melt-cast explosives, detonation parameters

  4. Composting of Explosives-Contaminated Soil Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    dinitrotoluenes) and to evaluate the influence of temperature upon composting effectiveness. This study demonstrated that the bioconversion of explosives under...Eweson digester Bioconversion Buhler-Miag Aerated windrows California Rotating drum; aerated windrows 28 days in vessel, Co-Composting 4-6 mo. curing...with biogas recovery OTV Longitudinal silo with horizontal 10-15 days in silo shaft paddle wheel to move compost 60 days curing thru silo, and forced

  5. 78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... the law if it otherwise meets the statutory definitions in 18 U.S.C. 841. Explosives materials are... inorganic salts and hydrocarbons. Explosive mixtures containing oxygen-releasing inorganic salts and nitro... nitro compounds of aromatic hydrocarbons. Explosive organic nitrate mixtures. Explosive powders. F Flash...

  6. HB-Line Dissolver Dilution Flows and Dissolution Capability with Dissolver Charge Chute Cover Off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, D.F.

    2003-01-01

    A flow test was performed in Scrap Recovery of HB-Line to document the flow available for hydrogen dilution in the dissolvers when the charge chute covers are removed. Air flow through the dissolver charge chutes, with the covers off, was measured. A conservative estimate of experimental uncertainty was subtracted from the results. After subtraction, the test showed that there is 20 cubic feet per minute (cfm) air flow through the dissolvers during dissolution with a glovebox exhaust fan operating, even with the scrubber not operating. This test also showed there is 6.6 cfm air flow through the dissolvers, after subtraction of experimental uncertainty if the scrubber and the glovebox exhaust fans are not operating. Three H-Canyon exhaust fans provide sufficient motive force to give this 6.6 cfm flow. Material charged to the dissolver will be limited to chemical hydrogen generation rates that will be greater than or equal to 25 percent of the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) during normal operations. The H-Canyon fans will maintain hydrogen below LFL if electrical power is lost. No modifications are needed in HB-Line Scrap Recovery to ensure hydrogen is maintained less that LFL if the scrubber and glovebox exhaust fans are not operating

  7. Soviet experience with peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    The Soviet Union is pursuing an active program for developing peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE). They have reported 16 explosions, with applications ranging from putting out oil-well fires and stimulating oil recovery to creating instant dams and canals. The data reported generally agree with U.S. experience. Seismic data collected by western sources on explosions outside the known Soviet test sites indicate that the Soviet program is at least twice as large as they have reported. The accelerated pace of these events suggests that in some applications the Soviet PNE program is approaching routine industrial technology

  8. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... explosive disorder have an increased risk of: Impaired interpersonal relationships. They're often perceived by others as ... of control: Stick with your treatment. Attend your therapy sessions, practice your coping skills, and if your ...

  9. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Headache Intermittent explosive disorder Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  10. Shock waves & explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdev, PL

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the causes and effects of explosions is important to experts in a broad range of disciplines, including the military, industrial and environmental research, aeronautic engineering, and applied mathematics. Offering an introductory review of historic research, Shock Waves and Explosions brings analytic and computational methods to a wide audience in a clear and thorough way. Beginning with an overview of the research on combustion and gas dynamics in the 1970s and 1980s, the author brings you up to date by covering modeling techniques and asymptotic and perturbative methods and ending with a chapter on computational methods.Most of the book deals with the mathematical analysis of explosions, but computational results are also included wherever they are available. Historical perspectives are provided on the advent of nonlinear science, as well as on the mathematical study of the blast wave phenomenon, both when visualized as a point explosion and when simulated as the expansion of a high-pressure ...

  11. Assessment of explosion barriers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, JL

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available This report summarises the test work which has been completed on the comparison of different types of stoop flame propagation of coal dust explosions in a 200 m gallery. The research was conducted at kloppersbos research facility...

  12. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  13. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etiological studies displayed the role of both psychosocial factors like childhood traumas and biological factors like dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems and genetics. In differential diagnosis of the disorder, disorders involving agression as a symptom such as alcohol and drug intoxication, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, personality changes due to general medical conditions and behavioral disorder should be considered. A combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are suggested in the treatment of the disorder. This article briefly reviews the historical background, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of intermittent explosive disorder.

  14. Explosive Components Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  15. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  16. Aging of civil explosives (Poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam-La Haye, E.L.M.; Klerk, W.P.C. de; Hoen, C. 't; Krämer, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    For the Dutch MoD and police, TNO composed sets with different kinds of civil explosives to train their detection dogs. The manufacturer of these explosives guarantees several years of stability of these explosives. These sets of explosives are used under different conditions, like temperature and

  17. Thermodynamics of explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Neergaard, Gregers; Bondorf, Jakob P.; Mishustin, Igor N.

    2000-01-01

    We present our first attempts to formulate a thermodynamics-like description of explosions. The motivation is partly a fundamental interest in non-equilibrium statistical physics, partly the resemblance of an explosion to the late stages of a heavy-ion collision. We perform numerical simulations on a microscopic model of interacting billiard-ball like particles, and we analyse the results of such simulations trying to identify collective variables describing the degree of equilibrium during t...

  18. Overview of Explosive Initiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    crystals) spherical morphology. The SLA has higher explosive performance than dextrinated lead azide (DLA) or RD1333/special purpose lead azide (SPLA...electric bridgewires for commercial electric detonators. It is known to be extremely sensitive to ESD.  Dextrinated lead azide (DLA) (refs. 4 through...incorporation of dextrin (a short-chained, starch-based polysaccharide), which helps to desensitize the explosive by preventing the formation of large

  19. Nuclear explosive development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groseclose, B. Clark

    1970-01-01

    The nuclear explosive itself is the point about which the Plowshare program revolves. The energy potential of a thermal neutron fissionable material such as Pu 239 or U 235 of ∼17 kt/kg or of Li 6 D of ∼60 kt/kg is indeed impressive. Such large energy densities allow many applications for nuclear explosives that are unthinkable for conventional high explosives. This country has been involved in the design of nuclear explosives for almost thirty years. A question often asked is, 'Why do we still need design effort on nuclear explosives? Hasn't all the possible design work been done?' In a partial reply, let me give an analogy. Why work on nuclear reactors? They were successful even before the first explosive worked. Why should new accelerators be designed? They have worked for many decades. The obvious answer to these questions is that new data, new theories, new insights into the problems and thus new possibilities are found and new requirements are continually being formulated. The development of larger and faster computers has allowed an enormous increase in the design calculations for nuclear explosives. Approximations in the physics involved in the calculations must be made in order to obtain solutions in a finite time, but these approximations can be 'made more accurately as the computing capability increases. Additional calculational capability also allows the designer to examine his design under a variety of possible conditions and configurations. The net effect is a much more sophisticated design. New developments in the area of materials and material, properties open doors that have hitherto been closed. We have seen an increasing emphasis on the interaction of the explosive with its environment. Very specific applications require tailored features such as low fission yield, low fusion yield, low residual radioactivity in particular species, small diameter, low weight, low cost, etc. The Plowshare program in particular imposes stringent requirements on

  20. Modeling Explosion Induced Aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, K.; Ford, S. R.; Pitarka, A.; Walter, W. R.; Richards-Dinger, K. B.

    2017-12-01

    Many traditional earthquake-explosion discrimination tools are based on properties of the seismic waveform or their spectral components. Common discrimination methods include estimates of body wave amplitude ratios, surface wave magnitude scaling, moment tensor characteristics, and depth. Such methods are limited by station coverage and noise. Ford and Walter (2010) proposed an alternate discrimination method based on using properties of aftershock sequences as a means of earthquakeexplosion differentiation. Previous studies have shown that explosion sources produce fewer aftershocks that are generally smaller in magnitude compared to aftershocks of similarly sized earthquake sources (Jarpe et al., 1994, Ford and Walter, 2010). It has also been suggested that the explosion-induced aftershocks have smaller Gutenberg- Richter b-values (Ryall and Savage, 1969) and that their rates decay faster than a typical Omori-like sequence (Gross, 1996). To discern whether these observations are generally true of explosions or are related to specific site conditions (e.g. explosion proximity to active faults, tectonic setting, crustal stress magnitudes) would require a thorough global analysis. Such a study, however, is hindered both by lack of evenly distributed explosion-sources and the availability of global seismicity data. Here, we employ two methods to test the efficacy of explosions at triggering aftershocks under a variety of physical conditions. First, we use the earthquake rate equations from Dieterich (1994) to compute the rate of aftershocks related to an explosion source assuming a simple spring-slider model. We compare seismicity rates computed with these analytical solutions to those produced by the 3D, multi-cycle earthquake simulator, RSQSim. We explore the relationship between geological conditions and the characteristics of the resulting explosion-induced aftershock sequence. We also test hypothesis that aftershock generation is dependent upon the frequency

  1. Speciation of Dissolved Cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter Engelund; Andersen, Sjur; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    Equilibrium dialysis and ion exchange methods, as well as computer calculations (GEOCHEM), were applied for speciation of dissolved cadmium (Cd) in test solutions and leachate samples. The leachate samples originated from soil, compost, landfill waste and industrial waste. The ion exchange (IE...

  2. Accumulation of explosives in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Jimmie C; Smith, James L; Kirschenbaum, Louis J; Shinde, Kajal P; Marimganti, Suvarna

    2005-07-01

    The sorption of explosives (TNT, RDX, PETN, TATP, EGDN) to hair during exposure to their vapors is examined. Three colors of hair were simultaneously exposed to explosive vapor. Following exposure of hair, the sorbed explosive was removed by extraction with acetonitrile and quantified. Results show that sorption of explosives, via vapor diffusion, to black hair is significantly greater than to blond, brown or bleached hair. Furthermore, the rate of sorption is directly related to the vapor density of the explosive: EGDN > TATP >TNT > PETN > RDX. In some cases, the explosive-containing hair was subject to repeated washings with sodium dodecylsulfate or simply left out in an open area to determine the persistence of the explosive contamination. While explosive is removed from hair with time or washing, some persists. These results indicate that hair can be a useful indicator of explosive exposure/handling.

  3. Improved method for the detection of TATP after explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, D; Levy, A; Shelef, R; Abramovich-Bar, S; Sonenfeld, D; Tamiri, T

    2004-09-01

    TATP in post explosion exhibits was reported earlier to be best recovered from vapor phase. A typical procedure includes its adsorption on Amberlite XAD-7, elution with acetonitrile and analysis by GC/MS. In this work, improved recovery of TATP from the vapor phase was achieved by SPME using PDMS/DVB fiber and immediate sampling to GC/MS. The recovery of TATP by SPME was compared with headspace and with adsorption on Amberlite XAD-7 by spiking onto filter paper put in a 100 mL beaker. The limit of detection of TATP was 6.4 ng in these conditions, few orders magnitude more than in the other tested methods. Recovery of TATP in the presence of various solvents was also studied. Acetone, water, and mixtures of water:alcohols (1:1) were found to reduce the recovery of TATP. Using SPME, TATP has been identified in dozens of post-explosion cases.

  4. Novel high explosive compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, D.D.; Fein, M.M.; Schoenfelder, C.W.

    1968-04-16

    This is a technique of preparing explosive compositions by the in-situ reaction of polynitroaliphatic compounds with one or more carboranes or carborane derivatives. One or more polynitroaliphatic reactants are combined with one or more carborane reactants in a suitable container and mixed to a homogeneous reaction mixture using a stream of inert gas or conventional mixing means. Ordinarily the container is a fissure, crack, or crevice in which the explosive is to be implanted. The ratio of reactants will determine not only the stoichiometry of the system, but will effect the quality and quantity of combustion products, the explosive force obtained as well as the impact sensitivity. The test values can shift with even relatively slight changes or modifications in the reaction conditions. Eighteen illustrative examples accompany the disclosure. (46 claims)

  5. A real explosion: the requirement of steam explosion pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhengdao; Zhang, Bailiang; Yu, Fuqiang; Xu, Guizhuan; Song, Andong

    2012-10-01

    The severity factor is a common term used in steam explosion (SE) pretreatment that describes the combined effects of the temperature and duration of the pretreatment. However, it ignores the duration of the explosion process. This paper describes a new parameter, the explosion power density (EPD), which is independent of the severity factor. Furthermore, we present the adoption of a 5m(3) SE model for a catapult explosion mode, which completes the explosion within 0.0875 s. The explosion duration ratio of this model to a conventional model of the same volume is 1:123. The comparison between the two modes revealed a qualitative change by explosion speed, demonstrating that this real explosion satisfied the two requirements of consistency, and suggested a guiding mechanism for the design of SE devices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Explosion in rectum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstad, Bjørn

    2007-06-28

    The article describes a case of gas explosion during diathermy snare resection of a polyp in the rectum, after cleansing with a sorbitol enema. Proximity to anus prevented perforation or other complications. The patient was shown to be a methane producer by a hydrogen-methane breath test. Gas explosion is a rare complication during use of diathermy in lower endoscopy, and usually occurs in patients with sub-optimal bowel cleansing. CO2 insufflation will prevent this and should be the method of choice; first of all because it reduces patient discomfort in the period after colonoscopy.

  7. HTGR dissolver criticality scoping calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    A criticality scoping calculation was performed for a dissolver designed to dissolve HTGR fuels. The calculation shows the dissolver to go critical at an H/x (hydrogen-to-fuel ratio) of about 34 and peak with a k-effective of 1.18 at an H/x of about 180

  8. Explosive composition containing water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattermole, G.R.; Lyerly, W.M.; Cummings, A.M.

    1971-11-26

    This addition to Fr. 1,583,223, issued 31 May 1968, describes an explosive composition containing a water in oil emulsion. The composition contains an oxidizing mineral salt, a nitrate base salt as sensitizer, water, an organic fuel, a lipophilic emulsifier, and incorporates gas bubbles. The composition has a performance which is improved over and above the original patent.

  9. Incineration process fire and explosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    Two incinerators will be installed in the plutonium recovery facility under construction at the Rocky Flats Plant. The fire and explosion protection features designed into the incineration facility are discussed as well as the nuclear safety and radioactive material containment features. Even though the incinerator system will be tied into an emergency power generation system, a potential hazard is associated with a 60-second delay in obtaining emergency power from a gas turbine driven generator. This hazard is eliminated by the use of steam jet ejectors to provide normal gas flow through the incinerator system during the 60 s power interruption. (U.S.)

  10. dissolved oxygen characteristics of the gamtoos estuary, south africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fall and recovery of dissolved oxygen (DO) is documented throughout the Gamtoos Estuary, South Africa during dry conditions and following light and heavy rainfall over a 13-month period from November 1992 to November 1993. Hypoxic conditions generally occurred in the near-bottom waters of the upper estuary.

  11. Dissolved oxygen: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, David; Downing-Kunz, Maureen; Novick, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration serves as an important indicator of estuarine habitat condition, because all aquatic macro-organisms require some minimum DO level to survive and prosper. The instantaneous DO concentration, measured at a specific location in the water column, results from a balance between multiple processes that add or remove oxygen (Figure 6.1): primary production produces O2; aerobic respiration in the water column and sediments consumes O2; abiotic or microbially-mediated biogeochemical reactions utilize O2 as an oxidant (e.g., oxidation of ammonium, sulfide, and ferrous iron); O2 exchange occurs across the air:water interface in response to under- or oversaturated DO concentrations in the water column; and water currents and turbulent mixing transport DO into and out of zones in the water column. If the oxygen loss rate exceeds the oxygen production or input rate, DO concentration decreases. When DO losses exceed production or input over a prolonged enough period of time, hypoxia ((<2-3 mg/L) or anoxia can develop. Persistent hypoxia or anoxia causes stress or death in aquatic organism populations, or for organisms that can escape a hypoxic or anoxic area, the loss of habitat. In addition, sulfide, which is toxic to aquatic organisms and causes odor problems, escapes from sediments under low oxygen conditions. Low dissolved oxygen is a common aquatic ecosystem response to elevated organic

  12. Assessing a novel contact heater as a new method of recovering explosives traces from porous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Holly A; Lewis, Simon W; Beardah, Matthew S; NicDaeid, Niamh

    2016-02-01

    It can be very challenging to recover explosives traces from porous surfaces, such as clothing and car seats, compared to non-porous surfaces. The contact heater has been developed as a novel instrument designed to recover explosives traces from porous surfaces. Samples are taken by heating and drawing air across a surface, with the air flowing through a sampling cartridge containing adsorbent polymer beads, which act to trap any recovered explosive material. Any collected explosive can then be eluted from this cartridge using a solvent, prior to analysis. This paper outlines work performed to evaluate the usefulness of the contact heater with regards to the recovery of explosives traces from porous materials. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP) were chosen as two representative explosives for this study. Quantification was performed using GC-MS for EGDN and LC-MS/MS for TATP. Different sampling temperatures, sampling times and elution solvents were investigated. Recovery was trialled from leather, carpet and denim. Recoveries of up to 71% were obtained following optimisation. It was also possible to recover TATP from fabrics exposed to TATP vapour in a vapour-laden jar up to two hours after exposure. The contact heater therefore appears to be a very useful tool for the recovery of explosives traces from porous materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Explosive Leidenfrost droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Pierre; Moreau, Florian; Dorbolo, Stéphane

    2017-11-01

    We show that Leidenfrost droplets made of an aqueous solution of surfactant undergo a violent explosion in a wide range of initial volumes and concentrations. This unexpected behavior turns out to be triggered by the formation of a gel-like shell, followed by a sharp temperature increase. Comparing a simple model of the radial surfactant distribution inside a spherical droplet with experiments allows highlighting the existence of a critical surface concentration for the shell to form. The temperature rise (attributed to boiling point elevation with surface concentration) is a key feature leading to the explosion, instead of the implosion (buckling) scenario reported by other authors. Indeed, under some conditions, this temperature increase is shown to be sufficient to trigger nucleation and growth of vapor bubbles in the highly superheated liquid bulk, stretching the surrounding elastic shell up to its rupture limit. The successive timescales characterizing this explosion sequence are also discussed. Funding sources: F.R.S. - FNRS (ODILE and DITRASOL projects, RD and SRA positions of P. Colinet and S. Dorbolo), BELSPO (IAP 7/38 MicroMAST project).

  14. Gasdynamics of explosions today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brode, H. L.; Glass, I. I.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    1971-01-01

    A brief review is given of blast and detonation wave phenomena and some of their uses in war and peace. It is concluded that great strides have been made over the last three decades toward the physical understanding, the analytical-numerical solution, and the measurement of dynamic and thermodynamic quantities, also taking into consideration severe environments and extremely short durations. Questions of internal ballistics are discussed together with hypervelocity launchers and shock tubes, collapsing cylindrical drivers, spherical implosions, explosive weapons, dynamic response, and equation of state data.

  15. Simulation of gas explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn H. Hjertager

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Gas explosion hazard assessments in flammable gas handling operations both offshore and onshore are crucial in order to obtain an acceptable level of safety. In order to perform such assessments good predictive tools are needed, which take account of the relevant parameters, such as geometrical design variables and gas cloud type and distribution. A theoretical simulation model must therefore be tested against sufficient experimental evidence prior to becoming a useful tool. The experimental data should include both variations in geometry and gas cloud composition and the model should give reasonable predictions without use of geometry or case dependent constants.

  16. 76 FR 64974 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2011R-18T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... if it otherwise meets the statutory definitions in 18 U.S.C. 841. Explosive materials are listed... liquids. Explosive mixtures containing oxygen-releasing inorganic salts and hydrocarbons. Explosive... mixtures containing tetranitromethane (nitroform). Explosive nitro compounds of aromatic hydrocarbons...

  17. Laser machining of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  18. Aspects regarding explosion risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Părăian Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Explosive risk occurs in all activities involving flammable substances in the form of gases, vapors, mists or dusts which, in mixture with air, can generate an explosive atmosphere. As explosions can cause human losses and huge material damage, the assessment of the explosion risk and the establishment of appropriate measures to reduce it to acceptable levels according to the standards and standards in force is of particular importance for the safety and health of people and goods.There is no yet a recognized method of assessing the explosion risk, but regardless of the applied method, the likelihood of an explosive atmosphere occurrence has to be determined, together with the occurrence of an efficient ignition source and the magnitude of foreseeable consequences. In assessment processes, consequences analysis has a secondary importance since it’s likely that explosions would always involve considerable damage, starting from important material damages and up to human damages that could lead to death.The purpose of the work is to highlight the important principles and elements to be taken into account for a specific risk assessment. An essential element in assessing the risk of explosion in workplaces where explosive atmospheres may occur is technical installations and personal protective equipment (PPE that must be designed, manufactured, installed and maintained so that they cannot generate a source of ignition. Explosion prevention and protection requirements are governed by specific norms and standards, and a main part of the explosion risk assessment is related to the assessment of the compliance of the equipment / installation with these requirements.

  19. Numerical Model for Hydrovolcanic Explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Charles; Gittings, Michael

    2007-03-01

    A hydrovolcanic explosion is generated by the interaction of hot magma with ground water. It is called Surtseyan after the 1963 explosive eruption off Iceland. The water flashes to steam and expands explosively. Liquid water becomes water gas at constant volume and generates pressures of about 3GPa. The Krakatoa hydrovolcanic explosion was modeled using the full Navier-Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE [1] which includes the high pressure physics of explosions. The water in the hydrovolcanic explosion was described as liquid water heated by magma to 1100 K. The high temperature water is treated as an explosive with the hot liquid water going to water gas. The BKW [2] steady state detonation state has a peak pressure of 8.9 GPa, a propagation velocity of 5900 meters/sec and the water is compressed to 1.33 g/cc. [1] Numerical Modeling of Water Waves, Second Edition, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 2004. [2] Numerical Modeling of Explosions and Propellants, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 1998.

  20. Introduction to High Explosives Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, Cary Bradford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-17

    These are a set of slides for educational outreach to children on high explosives science. It gives an introduction to the elements involved in this science: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Combined, these form the molecule HMX. Many pictures are also included to illustrate explosions.

  1. Method of dissolving metal ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuno, Masao; Soda, Yasuhiko; Kuroda, Sadaomi; Koga, Tadaaki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To dissolve and clean metal ruthenium deposited to the inner surface of a dissolving vessel for spent fuel rods. Method: Metal ruthenium is dissolved in a solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to which potassium permanganate is added. As the alkali metal hydroxide used herein there can be mentioned potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide and lithium hydroxide can be mentioned, which is used as an aqueous solution from 5 to 20 % concentration in view of the solubility of metal ruthenium and economical merit. Further, potassium permanganate is used by adding to the solution of alkali metal hydroxide at a concentration of 1 to 5 %. (Yoshihara, H.)

  2. Optical detection of explosives: spectral signatures for the explosive bouquet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Tabetha; Kaimal, Sindhu; Causey, Jason; Burns, William; Reeve, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Research with canines suggests that sniffer dogs alert not on the odor from a pure explosive, but rather on a set of far more volatile species present in an explosive as impurities. Following the explosive trained canine example, we have begun examining the vapor signatures for many of these volatile impurities utilizing high resolution spectroscopic techniques in several molecular fingerprint regions. Here we will describe some of these high resolution measurements and discuss strategies for selecting useful spectral signature regions for individual molecular markers of interest.

  3. Development of Hazards Classification Data on Propellants and Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    fire if fuel is present - fluorine, halogen fluorides, LOX. Ill Container rupture or explosion -boranes, methane, ethylene oxide , LH_. IV...both fuel and oxidizer may be accom- plished using the procedures of TB700-2. This is impossible as either the tests in TB700-2 are not capable of...heat flux, firebrands, or fireball diameter. Fragment recovery and mapping is required; however, test procedures are nut specified. • No criteria

  4. METHOD OF DISSOLVING URANIUM METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotin, L.A.

    1958-02-18

    This patent relates to an economicai means of dissolving metallic uranium. It has been found that the addition of a small amount of perchloric acid to the concentrated nitric acid in which the uranium is being dissolved greatly shortens the time necessary for dissolution of the metal. Thus the use of about 1 or 2 percent of perchioric acid based on the weight of the nitric acid used, reduces the time of dissolution of uranium by a factor of about 100.

  5. Lignin recovery. A resource to value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimbardi, P.; Cardinale, G.; Demichele, M.; Nanna, F.; Viggiano, D.; Bonini, C.; D'Alessio, L.; D'Auria, M.; Teghil, R.; Tofani, D.

    1999-01-01

    In the present paper, the effects of the steam explosion (ES) pretreatment conditions on recovery and chemical structure of wheat straw lignin are reported. The experimental data of lignin recovery by caustic extraction, followed by acid precipitation, have been interpolated to obtain the dependence on the time and temperature of SE. The lignin has been characterised by using several methods. Preliminary results on the synthesis of copolymers lignin-styrene are also reported [it

  6. Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Evan Thomas

    Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and

  7. Peaceful applications of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, L.B.

    1975-12-01

    The intension of this report is to give a survey of the field of peaceful applications of nuclear explosions. As an introduction some examples of possibilities of application are given together with a simple description of nuclear explosions under ground. After a summary of what has been done and will be done in this field nationally and internationally, a short discussion of advantages and problems with peaceful application of nuclear explosions follows. The risks of spreading nuclear weapons due to this applications are also touched before the report is finished with an attempt to judge the future development in this field. (M.S.)

  8. Population explosion, social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethe, V P

    1983-01-26

    The issue of whether overpopulation is the cause of poverty or vice versa is a sham controversy. Both population explosion and poverty are symptoms of a deeper problem, i.e., the incapacity of the socioeconomic system and the international economic order to put into service modern science and technology for an optimal utilization of this planet's vast resources for economic development. There is no question that population growth cannot be allowed to go unabated for an indefinite period, yet there is no reason for alarm. History shows that human adjustments in social behavior have always restored equilibria in every crisis in the progress of humankind. Neo-Malthusians fail to see this point. Instead, they try to create a scare by making unrealistic projections. There is no need for the incorrect and dangerous neo-Malthusian theory as a way to plead for checking population growth. There are 3 simple reasons why population growth should slow down: populations in most less developed countries have a size sufficiently large to make them militarily and economically viable and will not face serious problems in economic and social management if their populations get stabilized at the current levels; there are several advantages in changing attitudes and behavior patterns in respect to matters such as marriage age, family limitation, and spacing of children, and these are desirable in their own right besides their effect on reducing fertility and population growth; and a need exists to intervene on the side of fertility in order to maintain the longrun equilibrium of population size. In the past, equilibrium between mortality and fertility was achieved through the operation of natural factors. Now, with the reduction in mortality as a result of human intervention, it has become necessary to bring about a decline in fertility through human intervention. Human intervention in the control of fertility is a difficult and complex process. The solution to the population

  9. Testing of Confining Pressure Impacton Explosion Energy of Explosive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewiecki, Jan; Myszkowski, Jacek; Pytlik, Andrzej; Pytlik, Mateusz

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the results of testing the explosion effects of two explosive charges placed in an environment with specified values of confining pressure. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of variable environmental conditions on the suitability of particular explosives for their use in the prevention of natural hazards in hard coal mining. The research results will contribute to improving the efficiency of currently adopted technologies of natural hazard prevention and aid in raising the level of occupational safety. To carry out the subject matter measurements, a special test stand was constructed which allows the value of the initial pressure inside the chamber, which constitutes its integral part, to be altered before the detonation of the charge being tested. The obtained characteristics of the pressure changes during the explosion of the analysed charge helped to identify the work (energy) which was produced during the process. The test results are a valuable source of information, opening up new possibilities for the use of explosives, the development of innovative solutions for the construction of explosive charges and their initiation.

  10. Explosive actuated valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, K.G.

    1983-01-01

    1. A device of the character described comprising the combination of a housing having an elongate bore and including a shoulder extending inwardly into said bore, a single elongate movable plunger disposed in said bore including an outwardly extending flange adjacent one end thereof overlying said shoulder, normally open conduit means having an inlet and an outlet perpendicularly piercing said housing intermediate said shoulder and said flange and including an intermediate portion intersecting and normally openly communicating with said bore at said shoulder, normally closed conduit means piercing said housing and intersecting said bore at a location spaced from said normally open conduit means, said elongate plunger including a shearing edge adjacent the other end thereof normally disposed intermediate both of said conduit means and overlying a portion of said normally closed conduit means, a deformable member carried by said plunger intermediate said flange and said shoulder and normally spaced from and overlying the intermediate portion of said normally open conduit means, and means on the housing communicating with the bore to retain an explosive actuator for moving said plunger to force the deformable member against the shoulder and extrude a portion of the deformable member out of said bore into portions of the normally open conduit means for plugging the same and to effect the opening of said normally closed conduit means by the plunger shearing edge substantially concomitantly with the plugging of the normally open conduit means

  11. Furball Explosive Breakout Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Joshua David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-05

    For more than 30 years the Onionskin test has been the primary way to study the surface breakout of a detonation wave. Currently the Onionskin test allows for only a small, one dimensional, slice of the explosive in question to be observed. Asymmetrical features are not observable with the Onionskin test and its one dimensional view. As a result, in 2011, preliminary designs for the Hairball and Furball were developed then tested. The Hairball used shorting pins connected to an oscilloscope to determine the arrival time at 24 discrete points. This limited number of data points, caused by the limited number of oscilloscope channels, ultimately led to the Hairball’s demise. Following this, the Furball was developed to increase the number of data points collected. Instead of shorting pins the Furball uses fiber optics imaged by a streak camera to determine the detonation wave arrival time for each point. The original design was able to capture the detonation wave’s arrival time at 205 discrete points with the ability to increase the number of data points if necessary.

  12. The Cambrian explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Derek E G

    2015-10-05

    The sudden appearance of fossils that marks the so-called 'Cambrian explosion' has intrigued and exercised biologists since Darwin's time. In On the Origin of Species, Darwin made it clear that he believed that ancestral forms 'lived long before' their first fossil representatives. While he considered such an invisible record necessary to explain the level of complexity already seen in the fossils of early trilobites, Darwin was at a loss to explain why there were no corresponding fossils of these earlier forms. In chapter 9 of the Origin, entitled 'On the imperfection of the geological record', he emphasized the 'poorness of our palaeontological collections' and stated categorically that 'no organism wholly soft can be preserved'. Fortunately much has been discovered in the last 150 years, not least multiple examples of Cambrian and Precambrian soft-bodied fossils. We now know that the sudden appearance of fossils in the Cambrian (541-485 million years ago) is real and not an artefact of an imperfect fossil record: rapid diversification of animals coincided with the evolution of biomineralized shells. And although fossils in earlier rocks are rare, they are not absent: their rarity reflects the low diversity of life at this time, as well as the low preservation potential of Precambrian organisms (see Primer by Butterfield, in this issue). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  14. Explosive Blast Neuropathology and Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krisztian eKovacs

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies.

  15. Explosives mimic for testing, training, and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, John G.; Durban, Matthew M.; Gash, Alexander E.; Grapes, Michael D.; Kelley, Ryan S.; Sullivan, Kyle T.

    2018-02-13

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is used to make mimics for explosives. The process uses mixtures of explosives and matrices commonly used in AM. The explosives are formulated into a mixture with the matrix and printed using AM techniques and equipment. The explosive concentrations are kept less than 10% by wt. of the mixture to conform to requirements of shipping and handling.

  16. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting agents shall be stored in magazines. (b) Detonators shall not be stored in the same magazine with explosives...

  17. 32 CFR 537.6 - Identification of recovery incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accidents, gas explosions, falls, civilian malpractice, and similar incidents) that do not involve... screened to identify potential cases. The RJA or recovery attorney will screen the MTF comptroller records database and division records as well as ambulance logs to identify potential medical care recovery cases...

  18. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  19. Lidar Detection of Explosives Traces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrovnikov Sergei M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of remote detection of traces of explosives using laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence (LF/LIF is studied. Experimental data on the remote visualization of traces of trinitrotoluene (TNT, hexogen (RDX, trotyl-hexogen (Comp B, octogen (HMX, and tetryl with a scanning lidar detector of traces of nitrogen-containing explosives at a distance of 5 m are presented.

  20. Gas explosion during diathermy gastrotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, F S; Rasmussen, T N

    1989-02-01

    The first report of rupture of the stomach due to diathermy-elicited gas explosion during gastrotomy in a patient with intestinal ischemia resulting in obstruction and jejunal and gastric dilatation is presented. In the obstructed stomach or small bowel, a proliferation of hydrogen- and methane-producing bacteria can occur, leading to the accumulation of these combustible gases in explosive concentrations. In cases of gastrointestinal tract obstruction, the diathermy knife should not be used in entering the gastrointestinal lumen.

  1. Intraperitoneal explosion following gastric perforation

    OpenAIRE

    K. Mansfield, Scott; Roderick Borrowdale, Roderick Borrowdale

    2017-01-01

    The object of this study is to report a rare case of explosion during laparotomy where diathermy ignited intraperitoneal gas from a spontaneous stomach perforation. Fortunately, the patient survived but the surgeon experienced a finger burn. A literature review demonstrates other examples of intraoperative explosion where gastrointestinal gases were the fuel source. Lessons learned from these cases provide recommendations to prevent this potentially lethal event from occurring.

  2. Intraperitoneal explosion following gastric perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Scott K; Borrowdale, Roderick

    2014-04-01

    The object of this study is to report a rare case of explosion during laparotomy where diathermy ignited intraperitoneal gas from a spontaneous stomach perforation. Fortunately, the patient survived but the surgeon experienced a finger burn. A literature review demonstrates other examples of intraoperative explosion where gastrointestinal gases were the fuel source. Lessons learned from these cases provide recommendations to prevent this potentially lethal event from occurring. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Intraperitoneal explosion following gastric perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott K. Mansfield

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study is to report a rare case of explosion during laparotomy where diathermy ignited intraperitoneal gas from a spontaneous stomach perforation. Fortunately, the patient survived but the surgeon experienced a finger burn. A literature review demonstrates other examples of intraoperative explosion where gastrointestinal gases were the fuel source. Lessons learned from these cases provide recommendations to prevent this potentially lethal event from occurring.

  4. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  5. Safety engineering experiments of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Noboru

    1987-07-24

    The outline of large scale experiments carried out every year since 1969 to obtain fundamental data and then establish the safety engineering standards concerning the manufacturing, storage and transportation, etc. of all explosives was described. Because it becomes recently difficult to ensure the safety distance in powder magazines and powder plants, the sandwich structure with sand is thought to be suitable as the neighboring barrier walls. The special vertical structure for embankments to provide against a emergency explosion is effective to absorb the blast. Explosion behaviors such as initiating sensitivity, detonation, sympathetic detonation, and shock occurence of the ANFO explosives in place of dynamite and the slurry explosives were studied. The safety engineering standards for the manufacturing and application of explosives were studied to establish because accidents by tabacco fire are not still distinguished. Much data concerning early stage fire fighting, a large quantity of flooding and shock occurence from a assumption of ignition during machining in the propellants manufacturing plant, could be obtained. Basic studies were made to prevent pollution in blasting sites. Collected data are utilized for the safety administration after sufficient discussion. (4 figs, 2 tabs, 3 photos, 17 refs)

  6. Explosive Characteristics of Carbonaceous Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkevich, Leonid; Fernback, Joseph; Dastidar, Ashok

    2013-03-01

    Explosion testing has been performed on 20 codes of carbonaceous particles. These include SWCNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes), MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes), CNFs (carbon nanofibers), graphene, diamond, fullerene, carbon blacks and graphites. Explosion screening was performed in a 20 L explosion chamber (ASTM E1226-10 protocol), at a (dilute) concentration of 500 g/m3, using a 5 kJ ignition source. Time traces of overpressure were recorded. Samples exhibited overpressures of 5-7 bar, and deflagration index KSt = V1/3 (dp/pt)max ~ 10 - 80 bar-m/s, which places these materials in European Dust Explosion Class St-1 (similar to cotton and wood dust). There was minimal variation between these different materials. The explosive characteristics of these carbonaceous powders are uncorrelated with particle size (BET specific surface area). Additional tests were performed on selected materials to identify minimum explosive concentration [MEC]. These materials exhibit MEC ~ 101 -102 g/m3 (lower than the MEC for coals). The concentration scans confirm that the earlier screening was performed under fuel-rich conditions (i.e. the maximum over-pressure and deflagration index exceed the screening values); e.g. the true fullerene KSt ~ 200 bar-m/s, placing it borderline St-1/St-2. Work supported through the NIOSH Nanotechnology Research Center (NTRC)

  7. Dissolving Polymers in Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, David; Harner, John

    2009-03-01

    Dissolution and phase behavior of polymers in ionic liquids have been assessed by solution characterization techniques such as intrinsic viscosity and light scattering (static and dynamic). Elevated viscosity proved the greatest obstacle. As yet, whether principles standard to conventional polymer solutions apply to ionic liquid solutions is uncertain, especially for polymers such as polyelectrolytes and hydrophilic block copolymers that may specifically interact with ionic liquid anions or cations. For flexible polyelectrolytes (polymers releasing counterions into high dielectric solvents), characterization in ionic liquids suggests behaviors more typical of neutral polymer. Coil sizes and conformations are approximately the same as in aqueous buffer. Further, several globular proteins dissolve in a hydrophilic ionic liquid with conformations analogous to those in buffer. General principles of solubility, however, remain unclear, making predictions of which polymer dissolves in which ionic liquid difficult; several otherwise intractable polymers (e.g., cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol) dissolve and can be efficiently functionalized in ionic liquids.

  8. A laboratory study of explosives malfunction in blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsabanis, P.D.; Ghorbani, A. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Explosives malfunction due to shock waves is a serious concern for successful blasting results. Malfunction includes sympathetic detonation and desensitization of explosive charges as well as the modification of firing times of conventional pyrotechnic detonators. Small diameter emulsions and detonators were tested in a laboratory environment to identify the parameters affecting malfunction. The experiments had a donor-acceptor configuration and the charges were detonated in the same sequence. Continuous velocity of detonation monitoring was used as an indicator of explosives performance and for studying the timing of the initiation of the acceptor charge and/or detonator, while distance and delay interval between the donor and acceptor were modified. Fumes from the detonating charges were analyzed in a number of experiments while a few experiments were conducted in rock confinement. It was found that both distance and delay interval are important as far as desensitization is concerned. At certain separation distances temporary desensitization, followed by temporary recovery was observed. Toxicity of the product gases was affected by desensitization although this effect ranged from negligible to pronounced and was not consistent. In many cases desensitized explosives reacted completely as evidenced by the concentration of the fumes in the blasting chamber. Conventional pyrotechnic delay detonators malfunctioned due to a shock produced by a 40mm diameter emulsion explosive at similar distances as the explosives (below 203 mm). Furthermore the experiments in granite showed that 40 mm diameter charges can malfunction at separation distances below 330 mm. This malfunction ranged from sympathetic detonation to shock desensitization; in most cases it was associated with severe loss of performance.

  9. Molecular Outflows: Explosive versus Protostellar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Loinard, Laurent [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Schmid-Burgk, Johannes [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-02-10

    With the recent recognition of a second, distinctive class of molecular outflows, namely the explosive ones not directly connected to the accretion–ejection process in star formation, a juxtaposition of the morphological and kinematic properties of both classes is warranted. By applying the same method used in Zapata et al., and using {sup 12}CO( J = 2-1) archival data from the Submillimeter Array, we contrast two well-known explosive objects, Orion KL and DR21, to HH 211 and DG Tau B, two flows representative of classical low-mass protostellar outflows. At the moment, there are only two well-established cases of explosive outflows, but with the full availability of ALMA we expect that more examples will be found in the near future. The main results are the largely different spatial distributions of the explosive flows, consisting of numerous narrow straight filament-like ejections with different orientations and in almost an isotropic configuration, the redshifted with respect to the blueshifted components of the flows (maximally separated in protostellar, largely overlapping in explosive outflows), the very-well-defined Hubble flow-like increase of velocity with distance from the origin in the explosive filaments versus the mostly non-organized CO velocity field in protostellar objects, and huge inequalities in mass, momentum, and energy of the two classes, at least for the case of low-mass flows. Finally, all the molecular filaments in the explosive outflows point back to approximately a central position (i.e., the place where its “exciting source” was located), contrary to the bulk of the molecular material within the protostellar outflows.

  10. Fuse Selection for the Two-Stage Explosive Type Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravlev, I. O.; Surkov, M. A.; Tarasov, E. V.; Uvarov, N. F.

    2017-04-01

    In the two-level explosive switch destruction of a delay happens in the form of electric explosion. Criteria of similarity of electric explosion in transformer oil are defined. The challenge of protecting the power electrical equipment from short circuit currents is still urgent, especially with the growth of unit capacity. Is required to reduce the tripping time as much as possible, and limit the amplitude of the fault current, that is very important for saving of working capacity of life-support systems. This is particularly important when operating in remote stand-alone power supply systems with a high share of renewable energy, working through the inverter transducers, as well as inverter-type diesel generators. The explosive breakers copes well with these requirements. High-speed flow of transformer oil and high pressure provides formation rate of a contact gap of 20 - 100 m/s. In these conditions there is as a rapid increase in voltage on the discontinuity, and recovery of electric strength (Ures) after current interruption.

  11. Release of dissolved carbohydrates by

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oostende, N.; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Vyverman, W.; Sabbe, K.

    2013-01-01

    The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi plays a pivotal role in the marine carbon cycle. However, we have only limited understanding of how its life cycle and bacterial interactions affect the production and composition of dissolved extracellular organic carbon and its transfer to the

  12. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derlich, S.; Supiot, F.

    1969-01-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [fr

  13. Optimal dynamic detection of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabitz, Herschel A [PRINCETON UNIV; Roslund, J [PRINCETON UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

  14. Seismic coupling of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    The new Giant Magnet Experimental Facility employing digital recording of explosion induced motion has been constructed and successfully tested. Particle velocity and piezoresistance gage responses can be measured simultaneously thus providing the capability for determining the multi-component stress-strain history in the test material. This capability provides the information necessary for validation of computer models used in simulation of nuclear underground testing, chemical explosion testing, dynamic structural response, earth penetration response, and etc. This report discusses fully coupled and cavity decoupled explosions of the same energy (0.622 kJ) were carried out as experiments to study wave propagation and attenuation in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). These experiments produced particle velocity time histories at strains from 2 x 10 -3 to as low as 5.8 x 10 -6 . Other experiments in PMMA, reported recently by Stout and Larson 8 provide additional particle velocity data to strains of 10 -1

  15. The vapor pressures of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 °C.

  16. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Jensen, Christian; Lando, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    of Ross (2015). Our characterization is simple and intuitive, linking recovery to the relation between the number of time periods on the number of states. When recovery is feasible, our model is easy to implement, allowing a closed-form linearized solution. We implement our model empirically, testing...... the predictive power of the recovered expected return, crash risk, and other recovered statistics....

  17. Backup & Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Preston, W

    2009-01-01

    Packed with practical, freely available backup and recovery solutions for Unix, Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X systems -- as well as various databases -- this new guide is a complete overhaul of Unix Backup & Recovery by the same author, now revised and expanded with over 75% new material.

  18. Pigeonholing pyroclasts: Insights from the 19 March 2008 explosive eruption of Kīlauea volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Bruce F.; Swanson, D.A.; Carey, R.J.; Rausch, J.; Sutton, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    We think, conventionally, of volcanic explosive eruptions as being triggered in one of two ways: by release and expansion of volatiles dissolved in the ejected magma (magmatic explosions) or by transfer of heat from magma into an external source of water (phreatic or phreatomagmatic explosions). We document here an event where neither magma nor an external water source was involved in explosive activity at K??lauea. Instead, the eruption was powered by the expansion of decoupled magmatic volatiles released from deeper magma, which was not ejected by the eruption, and the trigger was a collapse of near-surface wall rocks that then momentarily blocked that volatile flux. Mapping of the advected fall deposit a day after this eruption has highlighted the difficulty of constraining deposit edges from unobserved or prehistoric eruptions of all magnitudes. Our results suggest that the dispersal area of advected fall deposits could be miscalculated by up to 30% of the total, raising issues for accurate hazard zoning and assessment. Eruptions of this type challenge existing classification schemes for pyroclastic deposits and explosive eruptions and, in the past, have probably been interpreted as phreatic explosions, where the eruptive mechanism has been assumed to involve flashing of groundwater to steam. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  19. Biological consequences of atomic explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, O.

    1984-01-01

    After an introductory chapter of the development and properties of nuclear weapons and the events of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, this books shows the effects of atomic explosions for man: effects of the pressure wave, thermal radiation, initial nuclear radiation alone or in conjunction and possible medical help. In addition the less massive damage caused by induced radioactivity and fallout, their prevention resp. treatment and the malignant/nonmalignant late effects are discussed. A further chapter deals with the psychological and epidemiological effects of atomic explosions, the consequences for food and water supply, and the construction of shetters. The last chapter is concerned with the problem of organising medical help. (MG) [de

  20. U. S. S. Iowa Explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    In assessing the Navy's technical investigation of the April 1989 explosion aboard the U.S.S. Iowa, GAO enlisted the assistance of the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories. This report contains Sandia's final report, which concludes that it is unclear whether the turret explosion that killed 47 sailors was due to sabotage or an accident. In fact, Sandia suggests as a possible cause the excessive speed of ramming powder bags into the chamber of a 16-inch gun.

  1. System for detecting nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawls, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting underground nuclear explosions is described that is comprised of an antenna located in the dielectric substance of a deep waveguide in the earth and adapted to detect low frequency electromagnetic waves generated by a nuclear explosion, the deep waveguide comprising the high conductivity upper sedimentary layers of the earth, the dielectric basement rock, and a high conductivity layer of basement rock due to the increased temperature thereof at great depths, and means for receiving the electromagnetic waves detected by said antenna means

  2. Strategies for the disposition of high explosives resulting from dismantlement of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruneda, C.; Humphrey, J.

    1993-03-01

    Many thousands of pounds of high quality main-charge explosives will result as surplus from the dismantlement of returns from the US nuclear weapons stockpile. The method most often employed for dealing with this surplus explosive is destruction by open burning. However, open burning as a means of treating excess explosives is losing favor because of environmental concerns associated with such an uncontrolled thermal destruction process. Thus, alternative processes for treatment of excess explosives from weapon dismantlement is discussed. These alternatives include: reformulation, crystalline component recovery, chemical conversion of the crystalline component to higher value products which may have civilian or military applications and, when necessary, treatment as waste in an environmentally benign fashion.

  3. Strategies for the disposition of high explosives resulting from dismantlement of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruneda, C.; Humphrey, J.

    1993-03-01

    Many thousands of pounds of high quality main-charge explosives will result as surplus from the dismantlement of returns from the US nuclear weapons stockpile. The method most often employed for dealing with this surplus explosive is destruction by open burning. However, open burning as a means of treating excess explosives is losing favor because of environmental concerns associated with such an uncontrolled thermal destruction process. Thus, alternative processes for treatment of excess explosives from weapon dismantlement is discussed. These alternatives include: reformulation, crystalline component recovery, chemical conversion of the crystalline component to higher value products which may have civilian or military applications and, when necessary, treatment as waste in an environmentally benign fashion

  4. First flush of dissolved compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, P.; Holzer, P.; Huisman, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    In a crude conceptual approach it is commonly assumed that in a combined sewer system the concentration of dissolved compounds is diluted by an increasing flow rate due to rainwater inflow. However, theory of hydraulics suggests that these compounds are influenced by hydrodynamic effects. It is k......In a crude conceptual approach it is commonly assumed that in a combined sewer system the concentration of dissolved compounds is diluted by an increasing flow rate due to rainwater inflow. However, theory of hydraulics suggests that these compounds are influenced by hydrodynamic effects....... It is known that since the wave celerity is higher than the flow velocity of the water, the increase of flow rate induced through rain runoff is recognised earlier at a certain downstream section of the combined sewer than the concentration increase of typical rain-water compounds originating from surface...

  5. Wormhole formation in dissolving fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Szymczak, P.; Ladd, A. J. C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the dissolution of artificial fractures with three-dimensional, pore-scale numerical simulations. The fluid velocity in the fracture space was determined from a lattice-Boltzmann method, and a stochastic solver was used for the transport of dissolved species. Numerical simulations were used to study conditions under which long conduits (wormholes) form in an initially rough but spatially homogeneous fracture. The effects of flow rate, mineral dissolution rate and geometrical pr...

  6. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  7. Lead-free primary explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2010-06-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula (cat).sub.Y[M.sup.II(T).sub.X(H.sub.2O).sub.6-X].sub.Z, where T is 5-nitrotetrazolate, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  8. Explosion mitigation by water mist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, R. van der; Cargill, S.; Longbottom, A.; Rhijnsburger, M.P.M.; Erkel, A.G. van

    2010-01-01

    The internal explosion of an anti-ship missile or stored ammunition is a potentially catastrophic threat for a navy vessel. These events generally cause heavy blast loading and fragments to perforate the ship structure. As a solution to reduce the blast loading, the compartment can be filled with

  9. Experimental approach to explosive nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubono, S.

    1991-07-01

    Recent development of experimental studies on explosive nucleosynthesis, especially the rapid proton process and the primordial nucleosynthesis were discussed with a stress on unstable nuclei. New development in the experimental methods for the nuclear astrophysics is also discussed which use unstable nuclear beams. (author)

  10. Excavation research with chemical explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, William E.; Day, Walter C.

    1970-01-01

    The US Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group (NCG) is located at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory in Livermore, California. NCG was established in 1962 and assigned responsibility for technical program direction of the Corps of Engineers Nuclear Excavation Research Program. The major part of the experimental program has been the execution of chemical explosive excavation experiments. In the past these experiments were preliminary to planned nuclear excavation experiments. The experience gained and technology developed in accomplishing these experiments has led to an expansion of NCG's research mission. The overall research and development mission now includes the development of chemical explosive excavation technology to enable the Corps of Engineers to more economically accomplish Civil Works Construction projects of intermediate size. The current and future chemical explosive excavation experiments conducted by NCG will be planned so as to provide data that can be used in the development of both chemical and nuclear excavation technology. In addition, whenever possible, the experiments will be conducted at the specific sites of authorized Civil Works Construction Projects and will be designed to provide a useful portion of the engineering structures planned in that project. Currently, the emphasis in the chemical explosive excavation program is on the development of design techniques for producing specific crater geometries in a variety of media. Preliminary results of two such experiments are described in this paper; Project Pre-GONDOLA III, Phase III, Reservoir Connection Experiment; and a Safety Calibration Series for Project TUGBOAT, a small boat harbor excavation experiment

  11. Explosion-proof scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opitts, P.; Borkert, R.

    1979-01-01

    It is noted that measuring devices used in the research works conducted with the help of radioactive isotopes on the chemical industry installations dangerous from the point of view of explosions, especially on the installations of the petrochemistry industry, must not limit the exploitation safety of these installations. The said especially concerns with the Geiger-Mueller type counters and scintillation detectors, located immediately in the places of measurements on the installations and supplied by high voltage power supply. It has been shown that electronic circuits for the detector's signals processing and obtaining working voltages can be located out of the explosive dangerous premices, for example, in the car trailer. Description is given of the device, with the help of which explosion safety is provided for the serially produced scintillation counter with forced ventilation (counter of the VA-S-50 type). Due to this device application, the exploitation parameters of the counter do not go down and there is no need for any changes in its design. Description is given of the device for external power supply and control of the counter which can swich off the power supply in the case of an accident, dangerous from the point of view of violation of the explosion safety conditions. The device is described for providing service to 10 measuring chanels, mounted on the car trailer [ru

  12. Gas explosion during colonic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wilt, J H; Borel Rinkes, I H; Brouwer, K J

    1996-12-01

    Explosions of the colon as a result of the use of diathermy in the presence of gas mixtures of oxygen, hydrogen and/or methane have been previously described in the literature. This danger is present during colonoscopic polypectomy as well as during colonic surgery. The following case is presented to alert to the potential hazards of bowel gas during electrosurgery.

  13. 75 FR 1085 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2009R-18T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... if it otherwise meets the statutory definitions in 18 U.S.C. 841. Explosive materials are listed... inorganic salts and hydrocarbons. Explosive mixtures containing oxygen-releasing inorganic salts and nitro... nitro compounds of aromatic hydrocarbons. Explosive organic nitrate mixtures. Explosive powders. F Flash...

  14. 77 FR 58410 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2012R-10T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... coverage of the law if it otherwise meets the statutory definitions in 18 U.S.C. 841. Explosive materials... liquids. Explosive mixtures containing oxygen-releasing inorganic salts and hydrocarbons. Explosive... mixtures containing tetranitromethane (nitroform). Explosive nitro compounds of aromatic hydrocarbons...

  15. Behavior of explosion debris clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    In the normal course of events the behavior of debris clouds created by explosions will be of little concern to the atomic energy industry. However, two situations, one of them actual and one postulated, exist where the rise and spread of explosion clouds can affect site operations. The actual occurrence would be the detonation of nuclear weapons and the resultant release and transport of radioactive debris across the various atomic energy installations. Although the activity of the diffusing cloud is not of biological concern, it may still be sufficiently above background to play havoc with the normal readings of sensitive monitoring instruments. If it were not known that these anomalous readings resulted from explosion debris, considerable time and expense might be required for on-site testing and tracing. Fortunately it is usually possible, with the use of meteorological data and forecasts, to predict when individual sites are affected by nuclear weapon debris effects. The formation rise, and diffusion of weapon clouds will be discussed. The explosion of an atomic reactor is the postulated situation. It is common practice in reactor hazard analysis to assume a combination of circumstances which might result in a nuclear incident with a release of material to the atmosphere. It is not within the scope of this report to examine the manifold plausibilities that might lead to an explosion or the possible methods of release of gaseous and/or particulates from such an occurrence. However, if the information of a cloud is assumed and some idea of its energy content is obtainable, estimates of the cloud behavior in the atmosphere can be made

  16. Explosion Power and Pressure Desensitization Resisting Property of Emulsion Explosives Sensitized by MgH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yangfan; Ma, Honghao; Liu, Rong; Shen, Zhaowu

    2014-07-01

    Due to low detonation power and pressure desensitization problems that traditional emulsion explosives encounter in utilization, a hydrogen-based emulsion explosives was devised. This type of emulsion explosives is sensitized by hydrogen-containing material MgH2, and MgH2 plays a double role as a sensitizer and an energetic material in emulsion explosives. Underwater explosion experiments and shock wave desensitization experiments show that an MgH2 emulsion explosives has excellent detonation characteristics and is resistant to pressure desensitization. The pressure desensitization-resistant mechanism of MgH2 emulsion explosives was investigated using scanning electron microscopy.

  17. Gas explosion in domestic buildings. The vented gas explosion[sub][/sub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Chyży

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the basic information, related to the so-called vented gas explosion, has been presented. The vented explosion it is an explosion, during which the destruction of the weakest elements of the structure occurs. Through the resulting holes (decompressing surfaces can flow both combustion products and non-burned gas mixture. In consequence, reduction of the maximum explosion pressure[i] P[sub]red [/sub][/i] may be significant. Often, a gas explosion occurs inside residential buildings. In this case, natural vents are window and door openings.[b]Keywords[/b]: gas, explosion, combustion, explosion vents

  18. Optimizing dissolved air flotation design system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Féris

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved Air (Pressure Flotation-DAF, is a well-established separation process that employs micro-bubbles as a carrier phase. This work shows results concerning bubble generation at low working pressures in modified DAF-units to improve the collection of fragile coagula by bubbles. DAF of Fe (OH3 (as model was studied as a function of saturation pressure in the absence and presence of surfactants in the saturator. DAF was possible at 2 atm by lowering the air/water surface tension. This fact, which leads to substantial energy savings, was explained in terms of decreasing the "minimum" energy required for bubble nucleation and cavity in the nozzle. More, bubbles-fragile coagula attachment was improved by dividing the recycling water into two: 1 the inclined inlet to the cell (traditional and 2 inside the separation tank through a water flow inlet situated below the floating bed using a "mushroom" type diffuser. Because of the reduction observed in the degree of turbulence in the conventional collection zone, DAF performance improved yielding high precipitate recoveries.

  19. Gas explosion in domestic buildings. The vented gas explosion[sub][/sub

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeusz Chyży

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the basic information, related to the so-called vented gas explosion, has been presented. The vented explosion it is an explosion, during which the destruction of the weakest elements of the structure occurs. Through the resulting holes (decompressing surfaces) can flow both combustion products and non-burned gas mixture. In consequence, reduction of the maximum explosion pressure[i] P[sub]red [/sub][/i] may be significant. Often, a gas explosion occurs inside residential build...

  20. Wormhole formation in dissolving fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, P.; Ladd, A. J. C.

    2009-06-01

    We investigate the dissolution of artificial fractures with three-dimensional, pore-scale numerical simulations. The fluid velocity in the fracture space was determined from a lattice Boltzmann method, and a stochastic solver was used for the transport of dissolved species. Numerical simulations were used to study conditions under which long conduits (wormholes) form in an initially rough but spatially homogeneous fracture. The effects of flow rate, mineral dissolution rate, and geometrical properties of the fracture were investigated, and the optimal conditions for wormhole formation were determined.

  1. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyáš, Robert; Šelešovský, Jakub; Musil, Tomáš

    2012-04-30

    The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  3. Problems in the theory of point explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobeinikov, V. P.

    The book is concerned with the development of the theory of point explosions, which is relevant to the study of such phenomena as the initiation of detonation, high-power explosions, electric discharges, cosmic explosions, laser blasts, and hypersonic aerodynamics. The discussion covers the principal equations and the statement of problems; linearized non-self-similar one-dimensional problems; spherical, cylindrical, and plane explosions with allowance for counterpressure under conditions of constant initial density; explosions in a combustible mixture of gases; and point explosions in inhomogeneous media with nonsymmetric energy release. Attention is also given to point explosions in an electrically conducting gas with allowance for the effect of the magnetic field and to the propagation of perturbations from solar flares.

  4. Seismic verification of underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1985-06-01

    The first nuclear test agreement, the test moratorium, was made in 1958 and lasted until the Soviet Union unilaterally resumed testing in the atmosphere in 1961. It was followed by the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, which prohibited nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space, and underwater. In 1974 the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) was signed, limiting underground tests after March 1976 to a maximum yield of 250 kt. The TTBT was followed by a treaty limiting peaceful nuclear explosions and both the United States and the Soviet Union claim to be abiding by the 150-kt yield limit. A comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), prohibiting all testing of nuclear weapons, has also been discussed. However, a verifiable CTBT is a contradiction in terms. No monitoring technology can offer absolute assurance that very-low-yield illicit explosions have not occurred. The verification process, evasion opportunities, and cavity decoupling are discussed in this paper

  5. RANCHERO explosive pulsed power experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Goforth, J H; Armijo, E V; Atchison, W L; Bartos, Yu; Clark, D A; Day, R D; Deninger, W J; Faehl, R J; Fowler, C M; García, F P; García, O F; Herrera, D H; Herrera, T J; Keinigs, R K; King, J C; Lindemuth, I R; López, E; Martínez, E C; Martínez, D; McGuire, J A; Morgan, D; Oona, H; Oro, D M; Parker, J V; Randolph, R B; Reinovsky, R E; Rodríguez, G; Stokes, J L; Sena, F C; Tabaka, L J; Tasker, D G; Taylor, A J; Torres, D T; Anderson, H D; Broste, W B; Johnson, J B; Kirbie, H C

    1999-01-01

    The authors are developing the RANCHERO high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) system to power cylindrically imploding solid-density liners for hydrodynamics experiments. Their near-term goal is to conduct experiments in the regime pertinent to the Atlas capacitor bank. That is, they will attempt to implode liners of ~50 g mass at velocities approaching 15 km/sec. The basic building block of the HEPP system is a coaxial generator with a 304.8 mm diameter stator, and an initial armature diameter of 152 mm. The armature is expanded by a high explosive (HE) charge detonated simultaneously along its axis. The authors have reported a variety of experiments conducted with generator modules 43 cm long and have presented an initial design for hydrodynamic liner experiments. In this paper, they give a synopsis of their first system test, and a status report on the development of a generator module that is 1.4 m long. (6 refs).

  6. Recovery Spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kurtz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A. and other secular, spiritual, and religious frameworks of long-term addiction recovery. The present paper explores the varieties of spiritual experience within A.A., with particular reference to the growth of a wing of recovery spirituality promoted within A.A. It is suggested that the essence of secular spirituality is reflected in the experience of beyond (horizontal and vertical transcendence and between (connection and mutuality and in six facets of spirituality (Release, Gratitude, Humility, Tolerance, Forgiveness, and a Sense of Being-at-home shared across religious, spiritual, and secular pathways of addiction recovery. The growing varieties of A.A. spirituality (spanning the “Christianizers” and “Seculizers” reflect A.A.’s adaptation to the larger diversification of religious experience and the growing secularization of spirituality across the cultural contexts within which A.A. is nested.

  7. Nuclear Explosions 1945-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergkvist, Nils-Olov; Ferm, Ragnhild

    2000-07-01

    The main part of this report is a list of nuclear explosions conducted by the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France, China, India and Pakistan in 1945-98. The list includes all known nuclear test explosions and is compiled from a variety of sources including officially published information from the USA, Russia and France. The details given for each explosion (date, origin time, location, yield, type, etc.) are often compiled from more than one source because the individual sources do not give complete information. The report includes a short background to nuclear testing and provides brief information on the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and the verification regime now being established to verify compliance with the treaty. It also summarizes nuclear testing country by country. The list should be used with some caution because its compilation from a variety of sources means that some of the data could be incorrect. This report is the result of cooperation between the Defence Research Establishment (FOA) and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)

  8. RX-08-HD, a low-viscosity, injection-moldable explosive for filling tortuous paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.M.; Jessop, E.S.; Swansiger, R.W.

    1997-10-01

    Cast cure, extrusion cast, and paste extrudable explosives have not been designed for transferring through long tortuous paths or into fine three dimensional shapes. To allow the crystalline explosive to flow a lubricating fluid is required. The energetic liquid ethane trinitrate (TMETN) was used as the lubricant to maximize the explosive energy. TMETN is a liquid nitrate ester which requires stabilization with conventional free radical stabilizers such as 2- nitrodiphenylamine, methyl-nitroanaline, or ethyl centrylite. Since these injection moldable explosives are expected to cure in place, a polyesterurethane binder based on polymeric isocyanate of hexamethylene diisocyanate and polycaprolactone polyols is dissolved in TMETN. The solubility of the polymer precursors in TMETN also reduces the energetic liquids sensitivity. The latent cure catalyst Dabco T-131 was used to minimize shrinkage associated with thermal expansion, reduce cost associated with oven cures, to give 4-6 hour potlife and overnight cure to handling strength. The product RX-08-HD is a new, low-viscosity, injection moldable explosive that can be extruded into complex, void-free shapes. Combined with appropriate design and other aspects of weaponization, RX-08-HD has produced outstanding results.

  9. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Jensen, Christian; Lando, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. Our characterization makes no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model...... of Ross (2015). Our characterization is simple and intuitive, linking recovery to the relation between the number of time periods and the number of states. When recovery is feasible, our model is easy to implement, allowing a closed-form linearized solution. We implement our model empirically, testing...

  10. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. Our characterization makes no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model...... of Ross (2015). Our characterization is simple and intuitive, linking recovery to the relation between the number of time periods on the number of states. When recovery is feasible, our model is easy to implement, allowing a closed-form linearized solution. We implement our model empirically, testing...

  11. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. We make no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model of Ross (2015......). Recovery is feasible when the number of maturities with observable prices is higher than the number of states of the economy (or the number of parameters characterizing the pricing kernel). When recovery is feasible, our model is easy to implement, allowing a closed-form linearized solution. We implement...... our model empirically, testing the predictive power of the recovered expected return and other recovered statistics....

  12. Molybdenum recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.; Marquis, E.T.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for the preparation of propylene oxide and tertiary butyl alcohol. It comprises: propylene and tertiary butyl hydroperoxide are reacted in an epoxidation reaction zone in solution in tertiary butyl alcohol in the presence of a soluble molybdenum catalyst to provide an epoxidation reaction product comprising unreacted propylene, unreacted tertiary butyl hydroperoxide, propylene oxide, tertiary butyl alcohol, dissolved molybdenum catalyst and impurities, including lower aliphatic C 1 -C 4 carboxylic acids, and wherein the epoxidation reaction product is resolved into product fractions in a distillation zone including a distillate propylene fraction

  13. Particle size analysis of prepared solutions and fingerprint deposits of high explosive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, W.J.; Hembree, P.B.

    1998-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) managed and operated by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) was tasked via the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and US Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct various studies involving the detection and measurement of explosive materials and their associated residues. This report details the results of an investigation to determine the particle size characteristics of the explosive materials used in the design, development, and testing of trace explosives detection systems. These materials, in the form of water suspensions of plastic explosives, are used to provide a quantitative means of monitoring the performance characteristics of the detection systems. The purpose of this investigation is to provide data that allows a comparison between the particles deposited using the suspension standards and the particles deposited from fingerprints. This information may support the development of quality control aids, measurement methods, or performance criteria specifications for the use of trace explosives detection systems. For this report, particle size analyses were completed on explosives standard suspensions/solutions for composition C-4, Semtex-H, and Detasheet and fingerprints for C-4, Detasheet, and pentolite. Because of the difficulty in collecting microscopic images of the particles in the suspensions from test protocol surfaces, this paper discusses the characteristics of the particles as they are found on metal, glass, and paper. The results of the particle characterization analyses indicate that the water suspensions contain particulate composed of binder materials and dissolved portions of the explosive compounds. Upon drying of the water suspensions, significant particle nucleation and growth is observed. The nucleated particulate is comparable to the particulate deposited by fingerprints.

  14. Injection of gases into the stratosphere by explosive volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Textor, Christiane; Graf, Hans-F.; Herzog, Michael; Oberhuber, J. M.

    2003-10-01

    Explosive eruptions can inject large amounts of volcanic gases into the stratosphere. These gases may be scavenged by hydrometeors within the eruption column, and high uncertainties remain regarding the proportion of volcanic gases, which eventually reach the stratosphere. These are caused by the difficulties of directly sampling explosive volcanic eruption columns and by the lack of laboratory studies in the extreme parameter regime characterizing them. Using the nonhydrostatic nonsteady state plume model Active Tracer High Resolution Atmospheric Model (ATHAM), we simulated an explosive volcanic eruption. We examined the scavenging efficiency for the climatically relevant gases within the eruption column. The low concentration of water in the plume results in the formation of relatively dry aggregates. More than 99% of these are frozen because of their fast ascent to low-temperature regions. Consideration of the salinity effect increases the amount of liquid water by one order of magnitude, but the ice phase is still highly dominant. Consequently, the scavenging efficiency for HCl is very low, and only 1% is dissolved in liquid water. However, scavenging by ice particles via direct gas incorporation during diffusional growth is a significant process. The salinity effect increases the total scavenging efficiency for HCl from about 50% to about 90%. The sulfur-containing gases SO2 and H2S are only slightly soluble in liquid water; however, these gases are incorporated into ice particles with an efficiency of 10 to 30%. Despite scavenging, more than 25% of the HCl and 80% of the sulfur gases reach the stratosphere because most of the particles containing these species are lifted there. Sedimentation of the particles would remove the volcanic gases from the stratosphere. Hence the final quantity of volcanic gases injected in a particular eruption depends on the fate of the particles containing them, which is in turn dependent on the volcanic and environmental

  15. Thermal explosion in oscillating ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilov, Vasily

    2016-07-01

    Thermal explosion problem for a medium with oscillating ambient temperature at its boundaries is considered. This is a new problem in thermal explosion theory, not previously considered in a distributed system formulation, but important for combustion and fire science. It describes autoignition of wide range of fires (such as but not limited to piles of biosolids and other organic matter; storages of munitions, explosives, propellants) subjected to temperature variations, such as seasonal or day/night variation. The problem is considered in formulation adopted in classical studies of thermal explosion. Critical conditions are determined by frequency and amplitude of ambient temperature oscillations, as well as by a number of other parameters. Effects of all the parameters on critical conditions are quantified. Results are presented for the case of planar symmetry. Development of thermal explosion in time is also considered, and a new type of unsteady thermal explosion development is discovered where thermal runaway occurs after several periods of temperature oscillations within the medium.

  16. Health Consequences and Management of Explosive Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ostadtaghizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Because of the wide range and adverse impacts of explosions, healthcare authorities and staff should have a good grasp of preventive principles, as well as protection and management of explosion sites. Besides they have to be familiar with treating the injured. It is recommended that training courses and simulated explosive events be designed and run by the healthcare sector.

  17. Engineering effects of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Charles R.

    1970-01-01

    Useful effects of contained underground nuclear explosions are discussed in light of today's most promising potential applications. Relevant data obtained through exploration of explosion environments of nine U.S. tests in competent rock are summarized and presented as a practical basis for estimating magnitudes of effects. Effects discussed include chimney configuration, permeability, and volume as well as rubble particle size distributions and extents of permeability change in the chimney wall rock. Explosion mediums include shale, granite, dolomite, and salt. (author)

  18. Safety problems with abandoned explosive facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtright, W.C.

    1969-01-01

    Procedures were developed for the safe removal of explosive and radioactive contaminated materials structures and drains from abandoned sites, including explosives processing and service buildings with a goal to return the entire area to its natural state and to permit public access. The safety problems encountered in the cleanup and their solutions are applicable to modification and maintenance work in operating explosive facilities. (U.S.)

  19. Mathematical modelling of the decomposition of explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Lev P

    2010-01-01

    Studies on mathematical modelling of the molecular and supramolecular structures of explosives and the elementary steps and overall processes of their decomposition are analyzed. Investigations on the modelling of combustion and detonation taking into account the decomposition of explosives are also considered. It is shown that solution of problems related to the decomposition kinetics of explosives requires the use of a complex strategy based on the methods and concepts of chemical physics, solid state physics and theoretical chemistry instead of empirical approach.

  20. Explosions on a gas-vacuum interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, G.; Klein, L.; Ratcliffe, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    A finite-difference computer code is used to calculate the time development of an explosion on a gas-vacuum interface. An analytic theory of the shape of the shock wave produced in the explosion is compared with the results of the computer simulation. The assumptions used in obtaining this analytic solution are verified, and the degree to which the variables describing the explosion are self-similar is examined. Finally, certain consistency relations among the similarity exponents are tested

  1. Evaluation of surface storage facilities for explosives, blasting agents and other explosive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J.

    1983-06-01

    The histories of recent and past magazine explosions were reviewed; present explosive storage conditions and practices were observed; and existing Federal regulations on explosive storage were examined. A recent increase in magazine explosion frequency must be attributed to a large increase in deliberate explosions; fires of various origins account for the remaining explosions of the past decade. During 1884-1926 several lightning generated explosions occurred in nonmetal magazines. It appears that the contents of a well constructed metal magazine are immune to direct lightning strikes, regardless of whether the magazine is grounded or not. Grounding a metal magazine cannot be harmful, but it maywell be superfluous. Mine Safety and Health Administration and Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms standards on explosive storage appear to cover safety aspects adequately. Certain revisions are recommended to clarify some of the standards and to reduce inconsistencies in their enforcement.

  2. Explosion Welding for Hermetic Containerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgin, Benjamin; Sanok, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    A container designed for storing samples of hazardous material features a double wall, part of which is sacrificed during an explosion-welding process in which the container is sealed and transferred to a clean environment. The major advantage of this container sealing process is that once the samples have been sealed inside, the outer wall of what remains of the container is a clean surface that has not come into contact with the environment from which the samples were taken. Thus, there is no need to devise a decontamination process capable of mitigating all hazards that might be posed by unanticipated radioactive, chemical, and/or biological contamination of the outside of the container. The container sealing method was originally intended to be used to return samples from Mars to Earth, but it could also be used to store samples of hazardous materials, without the need to decontaminate its outer surface. The process stages are shown. In its initial double-wall form, the volume between the walls is isolated from the environment; in other words, the outer wall (which is later sacrificed) initially serves to protect the inner container from contamination. The sample is placed inside the container through an opening at one end, then the container is placed into a transfer dock/lid. The surfaces that will be welded together under the explosive have been coated with a soft metallic sacrificial layer. During the explosion, the sacrificial layer is ejected, and the container walls are welded together, creating a strong metallic seal. The inner container is released during the same event and enters the clean environment.

  3. Supernova Explosions Stay In Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    At a very early age, children learn how to classify objects according to their shape. Now, new research suggests studying the shape of the aftermath of supernovas may allow astronomers to do the same. A new study of images from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory on supernova remnants - the debris from exploded stars - shows that the symmetry of the remnants, or lack thereof, reveals how the star exploded. This is an important discovery because it shows that the remnants retain information about how the star exploded even though hundreds or thousands of years have passed. "It's almost like the supernova remnants have a 'memory' of the original explosion," said Laura Lopez of the University of California at Santa Cruz, who led the study. "This is the first time anyone has systematically compared the shape of these remnants in X-rays in this way." Astronomers sort supernovas into several categories, or "types", based on properties observed days after the explosion and which reflect very different physical mechanisms that cause stars to explode. But, since observed remnants of supernovas are leftover from explosions that occurred long ago, other methods are needed to accurately classify the original supernovas. Lopez and colleagues focused on the relatively young supernova remnants that exhibited strong X-ray emission from silicon ejected by the explosion so as to rule out the effects of interstellar matter surrounding the explosion. Their analysis showed that the X-ray images of the ejecta can be used to identify the way the star exploded. The team studied 17 supernova remnants both in the Milky Way galaxy and a neighboring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. For each of these remnants there is independent information about the type of supernova involved, based not on the shape of the remnant but, for example, on the elements observed in it. The researchers found that one type of supernova explosion - the so-called Type Ia - left behind relatively symmetric, circular

  4. Power of TATP based explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyás, Robert; Selesovský, Jakub

    2009-06-15

    The power of various explosive mixtures based on triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP), ammonimum nitrate (AN), urea nitrate (UrN) and water (W), namely TATP/AN, oil/AN, TATP/UrN, TATP/W and TATP/AN/W, was studied using the ballistic mortar test. The ternary mixtures of TATP/AN/W have relatively high power in case of the low water contents. Their power decrease significantly with increasing the water content in the mixture to more than 30%.

  5. The gas dynamics of explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee,\tJohn H S

    2016-01-01

    Explosions, and the non-steady shock propagation associated with them, continue to interest researchers working in different fields of physics and engineering (such as astrophysics and fusion). Based on the author's course in shock dynamics, this book describes the various analytical methods developed to determine non-steady shock propagation. These methods offer a simple alternative to the direct numerical integration of the Euler equations and offer a better insight into the physics of the problem. Professor Lee presents the subject systematically and in a style that is accessible to graduate students and researchers working in shock dynamics, combustion, high-speed aerodynamics, propulsion and related topics.

  6. The Safety Aspects of Handling Primary Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neha; Oyler, Karl; Cheng, Gartung

    2013-06-01

    Primary Explosives, unlike secondary explosives, show a very rapid transition from deflagration to detonation and are considerably sensitive to small stimuli, such as impact,friction, electrostatic discharge, and heat. Primary explosives generate either a large amount of heat or a shockwave which makes the transfer of the detonation to a less sensitive propellant or secondary explosive possible. Primary explosives are key components in detonators and primers, which are the initiating elements to many military items such as small, medium and large caliber munitions, mortars, artilleries, warheads, etc. The two most common military primary explosives are lead azide and lead styphnate. Lead based compounds such as these are well-established hazards to health and the environment. To overcome these concerns, we are seeking to replace lead azide in common U.S. Army detonators and primers with DBX-1. Further, in order to minimize the dangers to personnel and equipment associated with synthesizing and handling primary explosives, we have developed a dedicated, remote-operated facility for the synthesis and testing of primary explosives. This paper will present the characterization capabilities and testing methods of primary explosives safe, along with the automation process developed.

  7. High Explosives Research and Development (HERD) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to provide high explosive formulation, chemical analysis, safety and performance testing, processing, X-ray, quality control and loading support for...

  8. Risk of dust explosions of combustible nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobashi, Ritsu

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials have several valuable properties and are widely used for various practical applications. However, safety matters are suspected such as the influence on health and environment, and fire and explosion hazards. To minimize the risk of nanomaterials, appropriate understanding of these hazards is indispensable. Nanoparticles of combustible materials have potential hazard of dust explosion accidents. However, the explosion risk of nanomaterials has not yet been understood adequately because of the lack of data for nanomaterials. In this presentation, the risk of dust explosions of nanomaterials is discussed.

  9. Nomenclature and Cataloguing of Experimental Explosive Compositions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cliff, Matthew

    2000-01-01

    Australia is becoming increasingly involved with the development and assessment of new explosive compositions to meet the Australian Defense Force's Insensitive Munitions and performance requirements...

  10. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commerce in explosives. 70... Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 55 of title 27 CFR contains the regulations..., explosives, (b) Permits for users who buy or transport explosives in interstate or foreign commerce, (c...

  11. 75 FR 70291 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2010R-27T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... within the coverage of the law if it otherwise meets the statutory definitions in 18 U.S.C. 841... inorganic salts and hydrocarbons. Explosive mixtures containing oxygen-releasing inorganic salts and nitro... nitro compounds of aromatic hydrocarbons. Explosive organic nitrate mixtures. Explosive powders. F Flash...

  12. A structured approach to forensic study of explosions: The TNO Inverse Explosion Analysis tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Wees, R.M.M. van; Brouwer, S.D.; Jagt-Deutekom, M.J. van der; Verreault, J.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic analysis of explosions consists of determining the point of origin, the explosive substance involved, and the charge mass. Within the EU FP7 project Hyperion, TNO developed the Inverse Explosion Analysis (TNO-IEA) tool to estimate the charge mass and point of origin based on observed damage

  13. Geotechnical Aspects of Explosive Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Shakeran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Explosive Compaction (EC is the ground modification technique whereby the energy released from setting off explosives in subsoil inducing artificial earthquake effects, which compact the soil layers. The efficiency of EC predominantly depends on the soil profile, grain size distribution, initial status, and the intensity of energy applied to the soil. In this paper, in order to investigate the geotechnical aspects, which play an important role in performance of EC, a database has been compiled from thirteen-field tests or construction sites around the world, where EC has been successfully applied for modifying soil. This research focuses on evaluation of grain size distribution and initial stability status of deposits besides changes of soil penetration resistance due to EC. Results indicated suitable EC performance for unstable and liquefiable deposits having particle sizes ranging from gravel to silty sand with less than 40% silt content and less than 10% clay content. However, EC is most effective in fine-to-medium sands with a fine content less than 5% and hydraulically deposited with initial relative density ranging from 30% to 60%. Moreover, it has been observed that EC can be an effective method to improve the density, stability, and resistance of the target soils.

  14. Vapor Explosions with Subcooled Freon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.E.; Fauske, Hans K.; McUmber, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    Explosive vapor formation accompanied by destructive shock waves, can be produced when two liquids, at much different temperatures, are brought into intimate contact. A proposed analytical model states that the interface temperature upon contact between the two liquid systems, gust be greater than or equal to the spontaneous nucleation temperature of that liquid-liquid system and that the thermal boundary layer must be sufficiently developed to support a critical size cavity. For time scales greater than 10-12 sec, the interface temperature upon contact of two semi-infinite masses, with constant thermal properties, can be related to the initial liquid temperatures. The spontaneous nucleation behavior at the interface can either be heterogeneous or homogeneous in nature. In either case, the critical size cavities, which initiate the vaporization process, are produced by local density fluctuations within the cold liquid. For homogeneous conditions, the two liquids present a well-wetted system and the vapor embryos are produced entirely within the cold liquid. For heterogeneous conditions, which result from poor, or imperfect wetting, at the liquid-liquid interface, the critical sized cavities are created at the interface at somewhat lower temperatures. A sequence of experiments, using Freon-22 and water, Freon-22 and mineral oil, and Freon-12 and mineral oil have been performed to test this spontaneous nucleation premise. For Freon-22 at its normal boiling point, the interface temperature of the water must be at least 77 deg. C before the interface temperature equals or exceeds the minimum homogeneous nucleation value of 54 deg. C and 84 deg. C before the interface temperature equals 60 deg. C where the homogeneous nucleation rate becomes truly explosive. The Freon-water test demonstrated explosive interactions for water temperatures considerably lower than this value and this was attributed to the heterogeneous nucleation characteristics of that particular system

  15. Seismic verification of underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    The principal tools for monitoring compliance with a comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), prohibiting all testing of nuclear weapons, are seismic networks and surveillance satellites. On-site inspections might also be required to resolve ambiguous events. The critical element of the monitoring system is the network of seismic stations, and in particular the in-country station. Internal stations provide much more useful data than do stations outside the borders of testing nations. For large events that are not eliminated by depth or location, one of the most useful discriminants is based on the ratio of surface-wave to body-wave magnitudes (M /sub s/ :m /sub b/ ). If an explosion and an earthquake have the same body-wave magnitude, the surface-wave magnitude for the earthquake is generally larger. It has yet to be proven that M /sub s/ :m /sub b/ is useful at low magnitudes, expecially when explosions are set off in long tunnels or odd-shaped cavities. A number of other promising regional discriminants have been suggested. Evasion opportunities and cavity decoupling are discussed

  16. High temperature two component explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, James E.; Poole, Donald R.; Schmidt, Eckart W.; Wang, Charles

    1981-01-01

    A two component, high temperature, thermally stable explosive composition comprises a liquid or low melting oxidizer and a liquid or low melting organic fuel. The oxidizer and fuel in admixture are incapable of substantial spontaneous exothermic reaction at temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K. At temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K., the oxidizer and fuel in admixture have an activation energy of at least about 40 kcal/mol. As a result of the high activation energy, the preferred explosive compositions are nondetonable as solids at ambient temperature, and become detonable only when heated beyond the melting point. Preferable oxidizers are selected from alkali or alkaline earth metal nitrates, nitrites, perchlorates, and/or mixtures thereof. Preferred fuels are organic compounds having polar hydrophilic groups. The most preferred fuels are guanidinium nitrate, acetamide and mixtures of the two. Most preferred oxidizers are eutectic mixtures of lithium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate, of sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and of potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate.

  17. Hydrolysis kinetics of dissolved polymer substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.T.M.; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the relation between the hydrolysis rate of dissolved polymer substrates and sludge concentration was investigated in two ways, viz. by laboratory experiments and by computer simulations. In the simulations, the hydrolysis of dissolved polymer components was regarded as a general

  18. Dissolved carbohydrate in the central Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhople, V.M.; Bhosle, N.B.

    Seawater samples (161), collected from 8 depths (0 to 1000 m) at 21 stations were analysed for total dissolved carbohydrate. Dissolved carbohydrate concentrations varied from 0.072 to 1.15 mg.l-1. Carbohydrate concentrations did not decrease...

  19. Thin film sensor materials for detection of Nitro-Aromatic explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdasi, Dipali; Mudhalwadkar, Rohini

    2018-03-01

    Many countries have experienced terrorist activities and innocent people have suffered. Timely detection of explosives can avoid this situation. This paper targets the detection of Nitrobenzene and Nitrotoluene, which are nitroaromatic compounds possessing explosive properties. As direct sensors for detecting these compounds are not available, Polyaniline based thin film sensors doped with palladium are developed using the spin coating technique. The response of the developed sensors is observed for varying concentrations of explosives. It is observed that zinc oxide based sensor is more sensitive to Nitrotoluene exhibiting a relative change in resistance of 0.78. The tungsten oxide sensor is more sensitive to Nitrobenzene with a relative change in resistance of 0.48. The sensor performance is assessed by measuring the response and recovery time. The cross sensitivity of the sensors is evaluated for ethanol, acetone and methanol which was observed as very low.

  20. Dissolution of a new explosive formulation containing TNT and HMX: comparison with octol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteil-Rivera, Fanny; Deschamps, Stéphane; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Hawari, Jalal

    2010-02-15

    GIM (Greener Insensitive Material) is a new explosive formulation made of HMX (51.5%), TNT (40.7%), and a binder, ETPE (7.8%), which is currently investigated by the Canadian Department of National Defense for a wider use by the Army. In the present study, dissolution of GIM in water was measured and compared to the dissolution of octol (HMX/TNT: 70/30). Although the presence of ETPE did not prevent completely TNT and HMX from dissolving, GIM appeared to dissolve more slowly than octol. The ETPE was shown to prevent the formulation particles from collapsing and to retard the dissolution of both TNT and HMX by limiting their exposure to water. In both octol and GIM, the dissolution rate of the particles was governed by the compound(s) that are slower to dissolve, i.e. HMX in octol, and HMX and ETPE in GIM. A model based on Fick's diffusion law allowed fitting well the dissolution data of octol but was less appropriate to fit the data of GIM likely due to a physical rearrangement of the solid upon dissolution. The present findings demonstrate that ETPE in GIM decreases the risks of explosives leakage from particles of the new formulation and should facilitate the collecting of non-exploded GIM particles in training sites.

  1. Online recovery of radiocesium from soil, tissue paper and plant samples by supercritical fluid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanekar, A.S.; Pathak, P.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of recovery of radio-cesium from soil, tissue papers, and plant samples has been evaluated by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) route employing calix(4)arene-mono(crown-6) (CC) dissolved in acetonitrile. These studies showed that quantitative recovery of 137 Cs from soil samples was difficult under the conditions of these studies. However, experiments performed on tissue papers (cellulose matrix) showed quantitative recovery of 137 Cs. On the other hand, 137 Cs recovery from plant samples varied between ∼50 % (for stems) and ∼67.2 % (for leaves) employing 1x10 -3 M CC + 4 M HNO 3 dissolved in acetonitrile. (author)

  2. 77 FR 55108 - Explosive Siting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... following equation: Pounds of energetic liquid = gallons x density of energetic liquid (pounds per gallon... planning for the storage and handling of energetic liquids and explosives. DATES: Effective November 6... liquids, or other explosives are located to prepare launch vehicles and payloads for flight. These...

  3. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyáš, Robert; Šelešovský, Jakub; Musil, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The friction sensitivity of 14 samples of primary explosives was determined. ► The same apparatus (small scale BAM) and the same method (probit analysis) was used. ► The crystal shapes and sizes were documented with microscopy. ► Almost all samples are less sensitive than lead azide, which is commercially used. ► The organic peroxides (TATP, DADP, HMTD) are not as sensitive as often reported. - Abstract: The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature.

  4. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltch, M.S.

    1993-05-18

    A improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  5. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Robert, E-mail: robert.matyas@upce.cz [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Pardubice 532 10 (Czech Republic); Selesovsky, Jakub; Musil, Tomas [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Pardubice 532 10 (Czech Republic)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The friction sensitivity of 14 samples of primary explosives was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The same apparatus (small scale BAM) and the same method (probit analysis) was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal shapes and sizes were documented with microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost all samples are less sensitive than lead azide, which is commercially used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The organic peroxides (TATP, DADP, HMTD) are not as sensitive as often reported. - Abstract: The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature.

  6. Explosive instabilities of reaction-diffusion equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, H.

    1987-07-01

    Explicit solutions are obtained for evolution equations for explosively unstable situations. These solutions include the effects of diffusion with linear or quadratic density dependence of the diffusion coefficient. As a result of balance between the diffusion and nonlinear terms, explosive growth in time can occur with a preservation in shape of certain spatial distributions. The solutions are generalized to cases of two interacting populations.

  7. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10 12 calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 μm scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity

  8. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  9. High-explosive driven crowbar switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dike, R.S.; Kewish, R.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a compact explosive driven switch for use as a low resistance, low inductance crowbar switch. A high-explosive charge extrudes a deformable conductive metallic plate through a polyethylene insulating layer to achieve a hard current contact with a supportive annular conductor

  10. Explosion risks and consequences for tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheijm, J.; Berg, A.C. van den

    2014-01-01

    Tunnel accidents with transports of dangerous goods may lead to explosions. Risk assessment for these accidents is complicated because of the low probability and the unknown, but disastrous effects expected. Especially the lack of knowledge on the strength of the explosion and the consequences for

  11. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel carrying explosives, either Government or commercial, as defined in the Dangerous Cargo Act of the United States and in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code, Class 1, Divisions 1.1 to 1.5 inclusive...

  12. Refinement of parameters of weak nuclear explosions conducted at the Semipalatinsk test site on the basis of historical seismograms study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Inna

    2014-05-01

    Many researchers working in the field of monitoring and discriminating of nuclear tests encounter the problem of lacking in seismic catalogues the information about source parameters for weak nuclear explosions. As usual, the information about origin time, coordinates and magnitude is absent, there is information about date, approximate coordinates and information about explosion yield. Huge work conducted on recovery of parameters of small underground nuclear explosions conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site using records of analogue seismic stations of the USSR located at regional distances was conducted by V. Khalturin, T. Rayutian, P. Richards (Pure and Applied Geophysics, 2001). However, if underground nuclear explosions are studied and described in literature quite well, then air and contact explosions were small and were not recorded by standard permanent seismic stations. In 1961-1962 maximum number of air and contact explosions was conducted at Opytnoye polye site of the STS. We managed to find and analyze additional seismic data from some temporary and permanent stations. That time IPE AS USSR installed a network of high-sensitive stations along Pamir-Baykal profile to study earth crust structure and upper mantle, the profile length was 3500 km. Epicentral distance from some stations of the profile to Opytnoye polye was 300-400 km. In addition, a permanent seismic station Semipalatinsk (SEM) located 175 km away from the site started its operation. The seismograms from this station became available recently. The digitized historical seismograms allowed to recover and add parameters for more than 36 air and surface explosions. Origin time, coordinates, magnitudes mpv, MLV and energy class K were determined for explosions. A regional travel-time curve for Central Kazakhstan constructed using records of calibration chemical explosions conducted at the STS in 1997-2000 and ground-truth underground nuclear explosions was used to determine kinematic parameters

  13. Microbial battery for efficient energy recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xing; Ye, Meng; Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, Nian; Criddle, Craig S.; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    This work introduces a microbial battery for recovery of energy from reservoirs of organic matter, such as wastewater. Microorganisms at an anode oxidize dissolved organic substances, releasing electrons to an external circuit, where power can be extracted. The electrons then enter a solid-state electrode that remains solid as electrons accumulate within it. The solid-state electrode is periodically removed from the battery, oxidized, and reinstalled for sustained power production. Molecular ...

  14. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-01-01

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp's Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains

  15. Hydrodynamics of Explosion Experiments and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kedrinskii, Valery K

    2005-01-01

    Hydronamics of Explosion presents the research results for the problems of underwater explosions and contains a detailed analysis of the structure and the parameters of the wave fields generated by explosions of cord and spiral charges, a description of the formation mechanisms for a wide range of cumulative flows at underwater explosions near the free surface, and the relevant mathematical models. Shock-wave transformation in bubbly liquids, shock-wave amplification due to collision and focusing, and the formation of bubble detonation waves in reactive bubbly liquids are studied in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on the investigation of wave processes in cavitating liquids, which incorporates the concepts of the strength of real liquids containing natural microinhomogeneities, the relaxation of tensile stress, and the cavitation fracture of a liquid as the inversion of its two-phase state under impulsive (explosive) loading. The problems are classed among essentially nonlinear processes that occur unde...

  16. Dissolved gases in hydrothermal (phreatic) and geyser eruptions at Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Clor, Laura; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Hunt, Andrew G.; Evans, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Multiphase and multicomponent fluid flow in the shallow continental crust plays a significant role in a variety of processes over a broad range of temperatures and pressures. The presence of dissolved gases in aqueous fluids reduces the liquid stability field toward lower temperatures and enhances the explosivity potential with respect to pure water. Therefore, in areas where magma is actively degassing into a hydrothermal system, gas-rich aqueous fluids can exert a major control on geothermal energy production, can be propellants in hazardous hydrothermal (phreatic) eruptions, and can modulate the dynamics of geyser eruptions. We collected pressurized samples of thermal water that preserved dissolved gases in conjunction with precise temperature measurements with depth in research well Y-7 (maximum depth of 70.1 m; casing to 31 m) and five thermal pools (maximum depth of 11.3 m) in the Upper Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park, USA. Based on the dissolved gas concentrations, we demonstrate that CO2 mainly derived from magma and N2 from air-saturated meteoric water reduce the near-surface saturation temperature, consistent with some previous observations in geyser conduits. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the dissolved CO2 and N2 modulate the dynamics of geyser eruptions and are likely triggers of hydrothermal eruptions when recharged into shallow reservoirs at high concentrations. Therefore, monitoring changes in gas emission rate and composition in areas with neutral and alkaline chlorine thermal features could provide important information on the natural resources (geysers) and hazards (eruptions) in these areas.

  17. Explosives, Genomics, and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran C. O’Doherty

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available RDX is an explosive that is also a neurotoxin and implicated in adverse health outcomes. Because of its widespread use in military and civilian operations, there is growing concern about potential environmental and health implications. One promising method of bioremediation involves genomic studies of soil microbes. These health concerns and technological issues intersect with social and political dimensions raising questions about public responses to genomic technologies and the degree of environmental accounting expected from the military. In cases of novel technologies entering into contested social spaces, public engagement can be useful to inform broader policy debates. Building on previous work, in this article, we outline the rationale, methods, and results of a public deliberation on these issues. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind on the issues of RDX pollution and microbial genomics, and thus provides an important baseline on public sentiment on these issues.

  18. Rock strength under explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimer, N.; Proffer, W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation emphasizes the importance of a detailed description of the nonlinear deviatoric (strength) response of the surrounding rock in the numerical simulation of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology to the late times needed for test ban monitoring applications. We will show how numerical simulations which match ground motion measurements in volcanic tuffs and in granite use the strength values obtained from laboratory measurements on small core samples of these rocks but also require much lower strength values after the ground motion has interacted with the rock. The underlying physical mechanisms for the implied strength reduction are not yet well understood, and in fact may depend on the particular rock type. However, constitutive models for shock damage and/or effective stress have been used successfully at S-Cubed in both the Geophysics Program (primarily for DARPA) and the Containment Support Program (for DNA) to simulate late time ground motions measured at NTS in many different rock types

  19. Explosion safety in industrial electrostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S V; Kiss, I; Berta, I

    2011-01-01

    Complicated industrial systems are often endangered by electrostatic hazards, both from atmospheric (lightning phenomenon, primary and secondary lightning protection) and industrial (technological problems caused by static charging and fire and explosion hazards.) According to the classical approach protective methods have to be used in order to remove electrostatic charging and to avoid damages, however no attempt to compute the risk before and after applying the protective method is made, relying instead on well-educated and practiced expertise. The Budapest School of Electrostatics - in close cooperation with industrial partners - develops new suitable solutions for probability based decision support (Static Control Up-to-date Technology, SCOUT) using soft computing methods. This new approach can be used to assess and audit existing systems and - using the predictive power of the models - to design and plan activities in industrial electrostatics.

  20. Surface energy of explosive nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, Nicolas; Bidault, Xavier; Soulard, Laurent

    2017-06-01

    Recent experimental studies show that nanostructuration has a substantial impact on the detonation of high explosives: a nanostructured one leads to smaller nanodiamonds than a microstructured one. Whether it comes from a higher surface energy or from porosity, the origin of these different behaviors must be investigated. The surface energy of TATB nanoparticles with a radius from 2 nm upto 60 nm has been determined by means of ReaxFF-based simulations. Then, using the Rankine-Hugoniot relations and the equation of states of the bulk material, the contribution of this excess energy to the heating of a shock-compressed nanostructured (and porous) material is evaluated and compared to the thermal effect due to its porosity collapse. A maximum temperature increase of 50 K is found for 4-nm nanoparticles, which remains negligible when compared to the few hundred degrees induced by the compaction work.

  1. Nuclear explosives testing readiness evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valk, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    This readiness evaluation considers hole selection and characterization, verification, containment issues, nuclear explosive safety studies, test authorities, event operations planning, canister-rack preparation, site preparation, diagnostic equipment setup, device assembly facilities and processes, device delivery and insertion, emplacement, stemming, control room activities, readiness briefing, arming and firing, test execution, emergency response and reentry, and post event analysis to include device diagnostics, nuclear chemistry, and containment. This survey concludes that the LLNL program and its supporting contractors could execute an event within six months of notification, and a second event within the following six months, given the NET group`s evaluation and the following three restraints: (1) FY94 (and subsequent year) funding is essentially constant with FY93, (2) Preliminary work for the initial event is completed to the historical sic months status, (3) Critical personnel, currently working in dual use technologies, would be recallable as needed.

  2. Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Iraq: Effects and Countermeasures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Clay

    2006-01-01

    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Iraq: Effects and Countermeasures Clay Wilson Specialist in Technology and National Security Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division Improvised explosive devices (IEDs...

  3. EVENT, Explosive Transients in Flow Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrae, R.W.; Tang, P.K.; Bolstad, J.W.; Gregory, W.S.

    1985-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: A major concern of the chemical, nuclear, and mining industries is the occurrence of an explosion in one part of a facility and subsequent transmission of explosive effects through the ventilation system. An explosive event can cause performance degradation of the ventilation system or even structural failures. A more serious consequence is the release of hazardous materials to the environment if vital protective devices such as air filters, are damaged. EVENT was developed to investigate the effects of explosive transients through fluid-flow networks. Using the principles of fluid mechanics and thermodynamics, governing equations for the conservation of mass, energy, and momentum are formulated. These equations are applied to the complete network subdivided into two general components: nodes and branches. The nodes represent boundaries and internal junctions where the conservation of mass and energy applies. The branches can be ducts, valves, blowers, or filters. Since in EVENT the effect of the explosion, not the characteristics of the explosion itself, is of interest, the transient is simulated in the simplest possible way. A rapid addition of mass and energy to the system at certain locations is used. This representation is adequate for all of the network except the region where the explosion actually occurs. EVENT84 is a modification of EVENT which includes a new explosion chamber model subroutine based on the NOL BLAST program developed at the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, Silver Spring, Maryland. This subroutine calculates the confined explosion near-field parameters and supplies the time functions of energy and mass injection. Solid-phase or TNT-equivalent explosions (which simulate 'point source' explosions in nuclear facilities) as well as explosions in gas-air mixtures can be simulated. The four types of explosions EVENT84 simulates are TNT, hydrogen in air, acetylene in air, and tributyl phosphate (TBP or 'red oil

  4. [A review of the firefighting techniques used on the tanker 'Mega Borg' explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the events leading up to the explosion and fire of the Mega Borg, a Norwegian tanker which exploded in the Gulf of Mexico in June of 1990. It briefly discusses the fire fighting strategy used to cool the ship prior to foam application and the types of equipment used. It also briefly discusses the lightering operation and the cargo recovery and dewatering operations which took place after the fire was extinguished

  5. Explosions of Thorne-Żytkow objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Takashi J.

    2018-03-01

    We propose that massive Thorne-Żytkow objects can explode. A Thorne-Żytkow object is a theoretically predicted star that has a neutron core. When nuclear reactions supporting a massive Thorne-Żytkow object terminate, a strong accretion occurs towards the central neutron core. The accretion rate is large enough to sustain a super-Eddington accretion towards the neutron core. The neutron core may collapse to a black hole after a while. A strong large-scale outflow or a jet can be launched from the super-Eddington accretion disc and the collapsing Thorne-Żytkow object can be turned into an explosion. The ejecta have about 10 M⊙ but the explosion energy depends on when the accretion is suppressed. We presume that the explosion energy could be as low as ˜1047 erg and such a low-energy explosion could be observed like a failed supernova. The maximum possible explosion energy is ˜1052 erg and such a high-energy explosion could be observed as an energetic Type II supernova or a superluminous supernova. Explosions of Thorne-Żytkow objects may provide a new path to spread lithium and other heavy elements produced through the irp process such as molybdenum in the Universe.

  6. Dissolving microneedle patches for dermal vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Leone, M.; Monkare, J.T.; Bouwstra, J.A.; Kersten, G.F.A.

    2017-01-01

    The dermal route is an attractive route for vaccine delivery due to the easy skin accessibility and a dense network of immune cells in the skin. The development of microneedles is crucial to take advantage of the skin immunization and simultaneously to overcome problems related to vaccination by conventional needles (e.g. pain, needle-stick injuries or needle re-use). This review focuses on dissolving microneedles that after penetration into the skin dissolve releasing the encapsulated antige...

  7. Water waves generated by underwater explosion

    CERN Document Server

    Mehaute, Bernard Le

    1996-01-01

    This is the first book on explosion-generated water waves. It presents the theoretical foundations and experimental results of the generation and propagation of impulsively generated waves resulting from underwater explosions. Many of the theories and concepts presented herein are applicable to other types of water waves, in particular, tsunamis and waves generated by the fall of a meteorite. Linear and nonlinear theories, as well as experimental calibrations, are presented for cases of deep and shallow water explosions. Propagation of transient waves on dissipative, nonuniform bathymetries to

  8. Techniques of industrial radiology in military explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, L.E.G.

    1985-01-01

    The use of industrial radiology techniques id very important for military explosive fabrication. The cylindrical-ogive bodies made in forged metal have their interior fulfilled with high melted explosive and they must explode when they reach the target. The granades, as these bodies are called, are thrown by cannons and their interior are submitted to high pressures and accelerations which can cause a premature detonation, in most case, in interior of tube, in case of they have defects in explosive mass. The origins of defects, its localization and classification presenting the techniques used and disposable in Brazil are discussed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. Explosive Detection and Identification by PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

    2004-11-01

    The goal of this project was to determine the feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to detect and identify explosives in improvised nuclear devices (INDs). The studies were carried out using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The model results were tested experimentally using explosive simulants and the PINS PGNAA system developed at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The results of the MCNP calculations and PINS measurements are presented in this report. The calculations and measurements were in good agreement and indicate that most explosives are readily distinguishable from one another.

  10. Forensic Analysis of High Explosive Residues from Selected Cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Afiq Mohamed Huri; Umi Kalthom Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Increased terrorist activities around the Asian region have resulted in the need for improved analytical techniques in forensic analysis. High explosive residues from post-blast clothing are often encountered as physical evidence submitted to a forensic laboratory. Therefore, this study was initiated to detect high explosives residues of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) on selected cloth in this study. Cotton swabbing technique was employed as a simple and rapid method in recovering analytes from the sample matrix. Analytes were analyzed using Griess spot test, TLC and HPLC. TLC separation employed toluene-ethyl acetate (9:1) as a good solvent system. Reversed phase HPLC separation employed acetonitrile-water (65:35) as the mobile phase and analytes detected using a programmed wavelength. RDX was detected at 235 nm for the first 3.5 min and then switched to 215 nm for PETN. Limits of detection (LODs) of analytes were in the low ppm range (0.05 ppm for RDX and 0.25 ppm for PETN). Analyte recovery studies revealed that the type of cloth has a profound effect on the extraction efficiency. Analytes were recovered better for nylon as compared to cotton cloth. However, no analytes could be recovered from denim cloth. For post-blast samples, only RDX was detected in low concentration for both nylon and cotton cloth. (author)

  11. Forensic analysis of explosive residues from hand swabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umi Khairul Ahmad; Sumathy Rajendran; Syahidah Abu Hassan

    2008-01-01

    In the forensic examination of physical evidence for organic explosives, cotton swabs are often used to collect residue from surfaces, such as skin and post-blast debris. A preliminary study has been conducted to develop extraction method of a common energetic compound, pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) from hand swabs followed by direct analysis of the resulting extract solution using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detector. Analysis was performed on an octadecylsilane-based (C 18 ) column using acetonitrile-water mixture (55:45) as mobile phase. The mobile phase was pumped at 1.0 mL/ min and separation affected using an isocratic mode with the detection wavelength of 230 nm. The explosive residue was extracted from cotton swabs using acetone in an ultrasonic cold bath. The developed method was later applied to the real hand swabs samples, which were taken from three army personnel who handled PETN during a munition disposal operation at Asahan Camp Military Firing range. The acetone extract obtained using sonication method was found to be effective in recovering PETN from cotton swabs with relatively high recovery (89.5 %) and good sensitivity with detection limit as low as 2 ng. The content of PETN in the real hand swab samples were found to be in the range of 4.7-130 mg. (author)

  12. Numerical schemes for explosion hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, internal or external explosions can cause confinement breaches and radioactive materials release in the environment. Hence, modeling such phenomena is crucial for safety matters. Blast waves resulting from explosions are modeled by the system of Euler equations for compressible flows, whereas Navier-Stokes equations with reactive source terms and level set techniques are used to simulate the propagation of flame front during the deflagration phase. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the creation of efficient numerical schemes to solve these complex models. The work presented here focuses on two major aspects: first, the development of consistent schemes for the Euler equations, then the buildup of reliable schemes for the front propagation. In both cases, explicit in time schemes are used, but we also introduce a pressure correction scheme for the Euler equations. Staggered discretization is used in space. It is based on the internal energy formulation of the Euler system, which insures its positivity and avoids tedious discretization of the total energy over staggered grids. A discrete kinetic energy balance is derived from the scheme and a source term is added in the discrete internal energy balance equation to preserve the exact total energy balance at the limit. High order methods of MUSCL type are used in the discrete convective operators, based solely on material velocity. They lead to positivity of density and internal energy under CFL conditions. This ensures that the total energy cannot grow and we can furthermore derive a discrete entropy inequality. Under stability assumptions of the discrete L8 and BV norms of the scheme's solutions one can prove that a sequence of converging discrete solutions necessarily converges towards the weak solution of the Euler system. Besides it satisfies a weak entropy inequality at the limit. Concerning the front propagation, we transform the flame front evolution equation (the so

  13. Capabilities and modification plans for the Savannah River New Special Recovery facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Molen, G.F.; Lynn, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Savannah River New Special Recovery (NSR) facility is located in the 200-F Separations Area. This facility was designed and constructed to convert easily dissolvable plutonium oxides and metal from both onsite and offsite residues to plutonium nitrate-nitric acid solution. Capabilities were provided to purify a portion of the clarified dissolver solutions via anion exchange. The primary purification is provided by the 221-F canyon solvent extraction system. Minimal capacity was provided to handle slurries from poorly dissolving materials. The Actinide Technology Division of the Savannah River Laboratory is presently engaged in R and D to enhance both the solids throughput of the dissolvers and the feed clarification methods

  14. Isolator fragmentation and explosive initiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, Peter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rae, Philip John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Foley, Timothy J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Novak, Alan M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Armstrong, Christopher Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baca, Eva V. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gunderson, Jake Alfred [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-19

    Three tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of firing an isolator in proximity to a barrier or explosive charge. The tests with explosive were conducted without a barrier, on the basis that since any barrier will reduce the shock transmitted to the explosive, bare explosive represents the worst-case from an inadvertent initiation perspective. No reaction was observed. The shock caused by the impact of a representative plastic material on both bare and cased PBX 9501 is calculated in the worst-case, 1-D limit, and the known shock response of the HE is used to estimate minimum run-to-detonation lengths. The estimates demonstrate that even 1-D impacts would not be of concern and that, accordingly, the divergent shocks due to isolator fragment impact are of no concern as initiating stimuli.

  15. Glossary on peaceful nuclear explosions terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The report presents a glossary of terms in the area of peaceful nuclear explosions. The terms are in English, French, Russian and Spanish with cross-references for the corresponding terms of the other languages

  16. Current trends in explosive detection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caygill, J Sarah; Davis, Frank; Higson, Seamus P J

    2012-01-15

    The detection of explosives and explosive-related compounds has become a heightened priority in recent years for homeland security and counter-terrorism applications. There has been a huge increase in research within this area-through both the development of new, innovative detection approaches and the improvement of existing techniques. Developments for miniaturisation, portability, field-ruggedisation and improvements in stand-off distances, selectivity and sensitivity have been necessary to develop and improve techniques. This review provides a consolidation of information relating to recent advances in explosive detection techniques without being limited to one specific research area or explosive type. The focus of this review will be towards advances in the last 5 years, with the reader being referred to earlier reviews where appropriate. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Electronic cigarette explosions involving the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Rebecca; Hicklin, David

    2016-11-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is a rapidly growing trend throughout the United States. E-cigarettes have been linked to the risk of causing explosion and fire. Data are limited on the associated health hazards of e-cigarette use, particularly long-term effects, and available information often presents conflicting conclusions. In addition, an e-cigarette explosion and fire can pose a unique treatment challenge to the dental care provider because the oral cavity may be affected heavily. In this particular case, the patient's injuries included intraoral burns, luxation injuries, and alveolar fractures. This case report aims to help clinicians gain an increased knowledge about e-cigarette design, use, and risks; discuss the risk of spontaneous failure and explosion of e-cigarettes with patients; and understand the treatment challenges posed by an e-cigarette explosion. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Explosives Detection and Identification by PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. H. Seabury; A. J. Caffrey

    2006-04-01

    The feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to detect and identify explosives in improvised nuclear devices has been studied computationally, using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Monte Carlo results, in turn were tested experimentally using explosive simulants and the PINS PGNAA system developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The results of the MCNP calculations and PINS measurements have been previously reported. In this report we describe measurements performed on actual explosives and compare the results with calculations. The calculations and measurements were in good agreement and indicate that most explosives are readily distinguishable from one another by PGNAA

  19. 30 CFR 7.100 - Explosion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Power Packages Intended for Use in Areas of Underground Coal Mines Where Permissible Electric Equipment is Required § 7.100 Explosion tests. (a) Test...

  20. A New Paradigm of Injuries From Terrorist Explosions as a Function of Explosion Setting Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenfeld, Michael; Givon, Adi; Shenhar, Gili; Renert, Liran; Peleg, Kobi

    2016-06-01

    Examine the impact of setting on the magnitude and pattern of civilian injuries from terrorist explosions. This may help surgical staffs anticipate the resources required to treat victims of terrorist attacks. A retrospective study of 823 patients from 65 explosive events of the Second Intifada (2000-2005) in the National Trauma Registry. After verification all the events were divided into 5 categories: explosions inside buildings (CS), explosions near buildings (SO), explosions inside buses (IB), explosions near buses (AB), and explosions in an open space (OS). The categories were then compared in terms of sustained injuries, utilization of hospital resources and clinical outcomes. CS and IB scenarios were found to cause the most severe injuries, demanded the most hospital resources and had the worst outcomes, but had several important differences in injury profiles. AB setting proved to be a stand-alone scenario with the lowest severity, possibly due to protection provided to the passengers by the bus. The high volume of blast injuries in SO scenario supports the idea that the explosion wave could be reflected onto the people standing outside a building next to its wall. OS patients had the lowest proportion of blast trauma and burns. The existing taxonomy of terrorist bombings, which distinguishes explosions in open spaces from those occurring in closed environments, does not fully differentiate patterns of injury that follow blasts in intermediate environments. Expanding the framework from 2 categories to 5 appears to provide greater precision and may be clinically useful to health care providers.

  1. Managing traumatic brain injury secondary to explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess Paula

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Explosions and bombings are the most common deliberate cause of disasters with large numbers of casualties. Despite this fact, disaster medical response training has traditionally focused on the management of injuries following natural disasters and terrorist attacks with biological, chemical, and nuclear agents. The following article is a clinical primer for physicians regarding traumatic brain injury (TBI caused by explosions and bombings. The history, physics, and treatment of TBI are outlined.

  2. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piltch, M.S.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  3. Steam explosions in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The report deals with a postulated accident caused by molten fuel falling into the lower plenum of the containment of a reactor. The analysis which is presented in the report shows that the thermal energy released in the resulting steam explosion is not enough to destroy the pressure vessel or the containment. The report was prepared for the Swedish Governmental Committee on steam explosion in light water reactors. It includes statements issued by internationally well-known specialists. (G.B.)

  4. [Pulmonary contusion and hemothorax due to explosion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Herrera, Carlos; Sanjuán-Fabián, Héctor; Medellín-Sierra, Ulises Darío; Nájera-Garduño, Heladio; García-Cabello, Luis Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Folklore and "uses and customs" in countries such as Mexico, under certain circumstances, have direct influences on risks for traumatic injuries. Such is the case of gunpowder explosive objects used during celebration holidays. We present a 14-year-old male who suffered a pulmonary contusion as a consequence of an explosion of "huevo de codorniz." A pleurostomy tube was required to resolve symptomatic hemothorax. The patient was discharged 5 days after admission.

  5. Weapons Experiments Division Explosives Operations Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laintz, Kenneth E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-19

    Presentation covers WX Division programmatic operations with a focus on JOWOG-9 interests. A brief look at DARHT is followed by a high level overview of explosives research activities currently being conducted within in the experimental groups of WX-Division. Presentation covers more emphasis of activities and facilities at TA-9 as these efforts have been more traditionally aligned with ongoing collaborative explosive exchanges covered under JOWOG-9.

  6. Successive soliton explosions in an ultrafast fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Luo, Ai-Ping; Yan, Yu-Rong; Hu, Song; Liu, Yi-Chen; Cui, Hu; Luo, Zhi-Chao; Xu, Wen-Cheng

    2016-03-15

    Soliton explosions, as one of the most fascinating nonlinear phenomena in dissipative systems, have been investigated in different branches of physics, including the ultrafast laser community. Herein, we reported on the soliton dynamics of an ultrafast fiber laser from steady state to soliton explosions, and to huge explosions by simply adjusting the pump power level. In particular, the huge soliton explosions show that the exploding behavior could operate in a sustained, but periodic, mode from one explosion to another, which we term as "successive soliton explosions." The experimental results will prove to be fruitful to the various communities interested in soliton explosions.

  7. Non-enzymatic palladium recovery on microbial and synthetic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Jiang, Wei; Finster, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The use of microorganisms as support for reduction of dissolved Pd(II) to immobilized Pd(0) nanoparticles is an environmentally friendly approach for Pd recovery from waste. To better understand and engineer Pd(0) nanoparticle synthesis, one has to consider the mechanisms by which Pd(II) is reduced...

  8. Development of an extraction method for the determination of dissolved organic radiocarbon in seawater by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takayuki; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Togawa, Orihiko; Amano, Hikaru

    2009-01-01

    We developed an extraction method for accurately and reproducibly determining dissolved organic radiocarbon in seawater by ultraviolet oxidation of dissolved organic carbon and subsequent accelerator mass spectrometry. We determined the irradiation time required for oxidation of the dissolved organic carbon. By modifying the experimental apparatus, we decreased contamination by dead carbon, which came mainly from petrochemical products in the apparatus and from the incursion of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The modifications decreased the analytical blank level to less than 1% of sample size, a percentage that had not previously been achieved. The recovery efficiency was high, 95±1%. To confirm both the accuracy and reproducibility of the method, we tested it by analyzing an oxalic acid radiocarbon reference material and by determining the dissolved organic carbon in surface seawater samples. (author)

  9. What factors control superficial lava dome explosivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Georges; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Villemant, Benoît; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Dome-forming eruption is a frequent eruptive style and a major hazard on numerous volcanoes worldwide. Lava domes are built by slow extrusion of degassed, viscous magma and may be destroyed by gravitational collapse or explosion. The triggering of lava dome explosions is poorly understood: here we propose a new model of superficial lava-dome explosivity based upon a textural and geochemical study (vesicularity, microcrystallinity, cristobalite distribution, residual water contents, crystal transit times) of clasts produced by key eruptions. Superficial explosion of a growing lava dome may be promoted through porosity reduction caused by both vesicle flattening due to gas escape and syn-eruptive cristobalite precipitation. Both processes generate an impermeable and rigid carapace allowing overpressurisation of the inner parts of the lava dome by the rapid input of vesiculated magma batches. The relative thickness of the cristobalite-rich carapace is an inverse function of the external lava dome surface area. Explosive activity is thus more likely to occur at the onset of lava dome extrusion, in agreement with observations, as the likelihood of superficial lava dome explosions depends inversely on lava dome volume. This new result is of interest for the whole volcanological community and for risk management. PMID:26420069

  10. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  11. Statistical estimation of loads from gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeiset, Stian

    1998-12-31

    In the design of structures in the offshore and process industries, the possibility of a gas explosion must always be considered. The main uncertainties in computerized simulation of gas explosions are the assumptions of the gas cloud, the location of the ignition point and the properties of the simulator itself. This thesis quantifies the levels of these uncertainties by performing a large number of simulations on three offshore modules and one onshore plant. It is found that (1) there is an approximate linear relation between pressure and gas volume, (2) it may be possible to find a linear relation between pressure and impulse, (3) there is an inverse relation between pressure and duration, (4) the response of offshore structures exposed to gas explosions are rarely in the impulsive regime, (5) loading rates vary widely in magnitude, (6) an assumption of a triangular explosion pulse is often correct, (7) louvres increase pressure, impulse and duration of an explosion. The effect of ignition point location is studied in detail. It is possible to derive an ignition point uncertainty load factor that shows predictable behaviour by generalizing the non-parametric properties of the explosion pressure. A model for taking into account the uncertainties regarding gas volume, ignition point location and simulator imperfectness is proposed. The model is intended to produce a characteristic load for structural design. 68 refs., 51 figs., 36 tabs.

  12. Distribution of dissolved carbohydrates and uronic acids in a tropical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In order to understand their distribution, concentrations of total dissolved carbohydrate (TCHO), dissolved polysaccharide (PCHO), dissolved ... of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in seawater. (Romankevich 1984; Thurman 1985; Pakulski ... of metal ions (Decho 1990; Santschi et al 1998;. Quigley et al 2002), production of ...

  13. Dissolving Microneedle Patches for Dermal Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, M; Mönkäre, J; Bouwstra, J A; Kersten, G

    2017-11-01

    The dermal route is an attractive route for vaccine delivery due to the easy skin accessibility and a dense network of immune cells in the skin. The development of microneedles is crucial to take advantage of the skin immunization and simultaneously to overcome problems related to vaccination by conventional needles (e.g. pain, needle-stick injuries or needle re-use). This review focuses on dissolving microneedles that after penetration into the skin dissolve releasing the encapsulated antigen. The microneedle patch fabrication techniques and their challenges are discussed as well as the microneedle characterization methods and antigen stability aspects. The immunogenicity of antigens formulated in dissolving microneedles are addressed. Finally, the early clinical development is discussed.

  14. Mechanism of dissolved water in jet fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Zong, Zhimin; Hu, Jianqiang; Ma, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Dissolved water content is an important performance index of jet fuel quality. The excess water content in jet fuel directly affects the quality of fuel and the normal operation of the flight equipment, even severely endangering the flight safety. Many factors would affect the water content in jet fuel. In this paper, considering the effects of internal and external factors on the dissolved water content in No. 3 jet fuel, such as toluene content, environmental temperature, humidity, and anti-icing agent concentration, by Karl Fischer electrometric titration using a trace moisture analyzer. A model was developed to evaluate the dissolved water content under different conditions. The model provides an effective reference for the accurate and efficient determination of jet fuel moisture content.

  15. Modelling of vapour explosion in stratified geometrie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picchi, St.

    1999-01-01

    When a hot liquid comes into contact with a colder volatile liquid, one can obtain in some conditions an explosive vaporization, told vapour explosion, whose consequences can be important on neighbouring structures. This explosion needs the intimate mixing and the fine fragmentation between the two liquids. In a stratified vapour explosion, these two liquids are initially superposed and separated by a vapor film. A triggering of the explosion can induce a propagation of this along the film. A study of experimental results and existent models has allowed to retain the following main points: - the explosion propagation is due to a pressure wave propagating through the medium; - the mixing is due to the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities induced by the shear velocity between the two liquids behind the pressure wave. The presence of the vapour in the volatile liquid explains experimental propagation velocity and the velocity difference between the two fluids at the pressure wave crossing. A first model has been proposed by Brayer in 1994 in order to describe the fragmentation and the mixing of the two fluids. Results of the author do not show explosion propagation. We have therefore built a new mixing-fragmentation model based on the atomization phenomenon that develops itself during the pressure wave crossing. We have also taken into account the transient aspect of the heat transfer between fuel drops and the volatile liquid, and elaborated a model of transient heat transfer. These two models have been introduced in a multi-components, thermal, hydraulic code, MC3D. Results of calculation show a qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental results and confirm basic options of the model. (author)

  16. Dust explosion hazard in ITER: Explosion indices of fine graphite and tungsten dusts and their mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denkevits, A.; Dorofeev, S.

    2005-01-01

    Addressing the dust explosion hazard in ITER, a standard method with a 20-l-spherical combustion chamber was used to measure the explosion indices of fine graphite and tungsten dusts and their mixtures. The indices include maximum overpressure, maximum rate of pressure rise, and lower explosion concentration limit. The effect of dust particle size was studied on the explosion behaviour of graphite dusts in the range 4-45 μm. The explosion indices of 1 μm tungsten dust and its mixtures with 4 μm graphite dust were measured. The graphite dust particle size is shown to have a profound effect on the explosion characteristics. The finest dust features the highest maximum overpressure and rate of pressure rise, and the lowest explosible concentration. Four tungsten/graphite dust mixtures with molar ratios of W/C = 1/30, 1/4, 1/1, and 3/1 were tested at the concentrations at which the dust combustion consumed all the oxygen in air producing maximum overpressures and rates of pressure rise. The maximum overpressure decreases slightly with increasing tungsten content, while the maximum rate of pressure rise has a pronounced peak at W/C=1/1, i.e. this mixture burns faster than both pure graphite and pure tungsten dusts alone. All the tested dusts belong to the mildest explosion class

  17. Studies of the laser-induced fluorescence of explosives and explosive compositions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargis, Philip Joseph, Jr. (,; .); Thorne, Lawrence R.; Phifer, Carol Celeste; Parmeter, John Ethan; Schmitt, Randal L.

    2006-10-01

    Continuing use of explosives by terrorists throughout the world has led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially in technologies that have potential for standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken in order to investigate the possible detection of explosive particulates at safe standoff distances in an attempt to identify vehicles that might contain large vehicle bombs (LVBs). The explosives investigated have included the common homogeneous or molecular explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclonite or hexogen (RDX), octogen (HMX), and the heterogeneous explosive, ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO), and its components. We have investigated standard excited/dispersed fluorescence, laser-excited prompt and delayed dispersed fluorescence using excitation wavelengths of 266 and 355 nm, the effects of polarization of the laser excitation light, and fluorescence imaging microscopy using 365- and 470-nm excitation. The four nitro-based, homogeneous explosives (TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX) exhibit virtually no native fluorescence, but do exhibit quenching effects of varying magnitude when adsorbed on fluorescing surfaces. Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixtures fluoresce primarily due to the fuel oil, and, in some cases, due to the presence of hydrophobic coatings on ammonium nitrate prill or impurities in the ammonium nitrate itself. Pure ammonium nitrate shows no detectable fluorescence. These results are of scientific interest, but they provide little hope for the use of UV-excited fluorescence as a technique to perform safe standoff detection of adsorbed explosive particulates under real-world conditions with a useful degree of reliability.

  18. Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane bagasse using steam-explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Okumura, Ryosuke; Asakawa, Ai; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the production of D-lactic acid from unutilized sugarcane bagasse using steam explosion pretreatment. The optimal steam pressure for a steaming time of 5 min was determined. By enzymatic saccharification using Meicellase, the highest recovery of glucose from raw bagasse, 73.7%, was obtained at a steam pressure of 20 atm. For residue washed with water after steam explosion, the glucose recovery increased up to 94.9% at a steam pressure of 20 atm. These results showed that washing with water is effective in removing enzymatic reaction inhibitors. After steam pretreatment (steam pressure of 20 atm), D-lactic acid was produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NBRC 3534 from the enzymatic hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse and washed residue. The conversion rate of D-lactic acid obtained from the initial glucose concentration was 66.6% for the hydrolyzate derived from steam-exploded bagasse and 90.0% for that derived from the washed residue after steam explosion. These results also demonstrated that the hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse (without washing with water) contains fermentation inhibitors and washing with water can remove them.

  19. Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane bagasse using steam-explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Okumura, Ryosuke; Asakawa, Ai; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the production of D-lactic acid from unutilized sugarcane bagasse using steam explosion pretreatment. The optimal steam pressure for a steaming time of 5 min was determined. By enzymatic saccharification using Meicellase, the highest recovery of glucose from raw bagasse, 73.7%, was obtained at a steam pressure of 20 atm. For residue washed with water after steam explosion, the glucose recovery increased up to 94.9% at a steam pressure of 20 atm. These results showed that washing with water is effective in removing enzymatic reaction inhibitors. After steam pretreatment (steam pressure of 20 atm), D-lactic acid was produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NBRC 3534 from the enzymatic hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse and washed residue. The conversion rate of D-lactic acid obtained from the initial glucose concentration was 66.6% for the hydrolyzate derived from steam-exploded bagasse and 90.0% for that derived from the washed residue after steam explosion. These results also demonstrated that the hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse (without washing with water) contains fermentation inhibitors and washing with water can remove them.

  20. Canine detection odor signatures for explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Marc; Johnston, J. M.; Cicoria, Matt; Paletz, E.; Waggoner, L. Paul; Edge, Cindy C.; Hallowell, Susan F.

    1998-12-01

    Dogs are capable of detecting and discriminating a number of compounds constituting a complex odor. However, they use only a few of these to recognize a substance. The focus of this research is to determine the compounds dogs learn to use in recognizing explosives. This is accomplished by training dogs under behavioral laboratory conditions to respond differentially on separate levers to 1) blank air, 2) a target odor, such as an explosive, and 3) all other odors (non-target odors). Vapor samples are generated by a serial dilution vapor generator whose operation and output is characterized by GC/MS. Once dogs learn this three-lever discrimination, testing sessions are conducted containing a number of probe trials in which vapor from constituent compounds of the target is presented. Which lever the dogs respond to on these probe trials indicates whether they can smell the compound at all (blank lever) or whether it smells like toe target odor (e.g., the explosive) or like something else. This method was conducted using TNT, C-4, and commercial dynamite. The data show the dogs' reactions to each of the constituent compounds tested for each explosive. Analysis of these data reveal the canine detection odor signature for these explosives.

  1. FLUORESCENCE IN DISSOLVED FRACTIONS OF HUMAN ENAMEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HAFSTROMBJORKMAN, U; SUNDSTROM, F; TENBOSCH, JJ

    Fluorescence induced by laser light is useful in early detection of enamel caries. The present work studied the fluorescence emission pattern in dissolved human enamel and in different molecular weight fractions obtained after gel chromatography or dialysis followed by ultrafiltration. For

  2. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons in the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.; Fondekar, S.P.

    Mean dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons, measured using UV-spectrophotometry, at 0 and 10m were 51 plus or minus 1 and 55 plus or minus 1.2 mu g/litre respectively; range of variation being between 28 and 83 mu g/litre. Very little difference...

  3. Total dissolved carbohydrate in Mahi river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    Total dissolved carbohydrate varied from 4.37-15 mg l-1 and 3.71-15.95 mg l-1 in the surface and bottom samples respectively. Highest concentration of carbohydrate was observed at station 1 which decreased downward upto Station 6 which showed...

  4. Dissolved carbon dioxide in Dutch coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.C E; de Baar, H.J.W.; de Wilde, H.P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The role of shelf seas in global carbon cycling is poorly understood. The dissolved inorganic carbon system and air-sea exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) are described for the Dutch coastal zone in September 1993. The inorganic carbon chemistry was affected by tidal mixing, wind speed, wind

  5. Subcooled boiling effect on dissolved gases behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmitko, M.; Sinkule, J.; Linek, V.

    1999-01-01

    A model describing dissolved gasses (hydrogen, nitrogen) and ammonia behaviour in subcooled boiling conditions of WWERs was developed. Main objective of the study was to analyse conditions and mechanisms leading to formation of a zone with different concentration of dissolved gases, eg. a zone depleted in dissolved hydrogen in relation to the bulk of coolant. Both, an equilibrium and dynamic approaches were used to describe a depletion of the liquid surrounding a steam bubble in the gas components. The obtained results show that locally different water chemistry conditions can be met in the subcooled boiling conditions, especially, in the developed subcooled boiling regime. For example, a 70% hydrogen depletion in relation to the bulk of coolant takes about 1 ms and concerns a liquid layer of 1 μn surrounding the steam bubble. The locally different concentration of dissolved gases can influence physic-chemical and radiolytic processes in the reactor system, eg. Zr cladding corrosion, radioactivity transport and determination of the critical hydrogen concentration. (author)

  6. Modeling Fish Growth in Low Dissolved Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilan, Rachael Miller

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a computational project designed for undergraduate students as an introduction to mathematical modeling. Students use an ordinary differential equation to describe fish weight and assume the instantaneous growth rate depends on the concentration of dissolved oxygen. Published laboratory experiments suggest that continuous…

  7. Underwater sympathetic detonation of pellet explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Shiro; Saburi, Tei; Nagayama, Kunihito

    2017-06-01

    The underwater sympathetic detonation of pellet explosives was taken by high-speed photography. The diameter and the thickness of the pellet were 20 and 10 mm, respectively. The experimental system consists of the precise electric detonator, two grams of composition C4 booster and three pellets, and these were set in water tank. High-speed video camera, HPV-X made by Shimadzu was used with 10 Mfs. The underwater explosions of the precise electric detonator, the C4 booster and a pellet were also taken by high-speed photography to estimate the propagation processes of the underwater shock waves. Numerical simulation of the underwater sympathetic detonation of the pellet explosives was also carried out and compared with experiment.

  8. Differential thermal analysis microsystem for explosive detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jesper K.; Greve, Anders; Senesac, L.; Thundat, T.; Boisen, A.

    2011-06-01

    A micro differential thermal analysis (DTA) system is used for detection of trace explosive particles. The DTA system consists of two silicon micro chips with integrated heaters and temperature sensors. One chip is used for reference and one for the measurement sample. The sensor is constructed as a small silicon nitride membrane incorporating heater elements and a temperature measurement resistor. In this manuscript the DTA system is described and tested by measuring calorimetric response of 3 different kinds of explosives (TNT, RDX and PETN). This project is carried out under the framework of the Xsense project at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) which combines four independent sensing techniques, these micro DNT sensors will be included in handheld explosives detectors with applications in homeland security and landmine clearance.

  9. Securing Infrastructure from High Explosive Threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Reynolds, J; Kuhl, A; Morris, J

    2009-03-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is working with the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the Transportation Security Administration, and several infrastructure partners to characterize and help mitigate principal structural vulnerabilities to explosive threats. Given the importance of infrastructure to the nation's security and economy, there is a clear need for applied research and analyses (1) to improve understanding of the vulnerabilities of these systems to explosive threats and (2) to provide decision makers with time-critical technical assistance concerning countermeasure and mitigation options. Fully-coupled high performance calculations of structural response to ideal and non-ideal explosives help bound and quantify specific critical vulnerabilities, and help identify possible corrective schemes. Experimental validation of modeling approaches and methodologies builds confidence in the prediction, while advanced stochastic techniques allow for optimal use of scarce computational resources to efficiently provide infrastructure owners and decision makers with timely analyses.

  10. Thermal instability during an electrical wire explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreshkin, V. I.

    2008-01-01

    The development of thermal instabilities during an electrical wire explosion is analyzed in the present work based on the methods of small perturbation theory. For two cases, with and without allowance for motion, the dispersion equations are derived that describe a relationship between the instantaneous buildup increment and the axial wave vector component. It is demonstrated that the thermal instabilities are always formed during electrical explosion, irrespective of the explosion mode. There are three destabilizing factors leading to the development of the thermal instabilities: a temperature rise, an increase in the specific resistance with increasing temperature, and an increase in the specific resistance with decreasing density. The critical value of current density below which the sausage instabilities grow faster than the thermal ones and above which, on the contrary, the thermal instabilities are dominant can be found for each metal.

  11. Thermal instability during an electrical wire explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreshkin, V. I.

    2008-09-01

    The development of thermal instabilities during an electrical wire explosion is analyzed in the present work based on the methods of small perturbation theory. For two cases, with and without allowance for motion, the dispersion equations are derived that describe a relationship between the instantaneous buildup increment and the axial wave vector component. It is demonstrated that the thermal instabilities are always formed during electrical explosion, irrespective of the explosion mode. There are three destabilizing factors leading to the development of the thermal instabilities: a temperature rise, an increase in the specific resistance with increasing temperature, and an increase in the specific resistance with decreasing density. The critical value of current density below which the sausage instabilities grow faster than the thermal ones and above which, on the contrary, the thermal instabilities are dominant can be found for each metal.

  12. Seismic coupling of nuclear explosions. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D B [ed.; Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1989-12-31

    The new Giant Magnet Experimental Facility employing digital recording of explosion induced motion has been constructed and successfully tested. Particle velocity and piezoresistance gage responses can be measured simultaneously thus providing the capability for determining the multi-component stress-strain history in the test material. This capability provides the information necessary for validation of computer models used in simulation of nuclear underground testing, chemical explosion testing, dynamic structural response, earth penetration response, and etc. This report discusses fully coupled and cavity decoupled explosions of the same energy (0.622 kJ) were carried out as experiments to study wave propagation and attenuation in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). These experiments produced particle velocity time histories at strains from 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} to as low as 5.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}. Other experiments in PMMA, reported recently by Stout and Larson{sup 8} provide additional particle velocity data to strains of 10{sup {minus}1}.

  13. Magnetorotational Explosions of Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Core-collapse supernovae are accompanied by formation of neutron stars. The gravitation energy is transformed into the energy of the explosion, observed as SN II, SN Ib,c type supernovae. We present results of 2-D MHD simulations, where the source of energy is rotation, and magnetic eld serves as a "transition belt" for the transformation of the rotation energy into the energy of the explosion. The toroidal part of the magnetic energy initially grows linearly with time due to dierential rotation. When the twisted toroidal component strongly exceeds the poloidal eld, magneto-rotational instability develops, leading to a drastic acceleration in the growth of magnetic energy. Finally, a fast MHD shock is formed, producing a supernova explosion. Mildly collimated jet is produced for dipole-like type of the initial field. At very high initial magnetic field no MRI development was found.

  14. PINS Testing and Modification for Explosive Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

    2011-09-01

    The INL's Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS)1 non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. PINS is used routinely by the U.S. Army, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and foreign military units to determine the contents of munitions and other containers suspected to contain explosives, smoke-generating chemicals, and chemical warfare agents such as mustard and nerve gas. The objects assayed with PINS range from softball-sized M139 chemical bomblets to 200 gallon DOT 500X ton containers. INL had previously examined2 the feasibility of using a similar system for the identification of explosives, and based on this proof-of-principle test, the development of a dedicated system for the identification of explosives in an improvised nuclear device appears entirely feasible. INL has been tasked by NNSA NA-42 Render Safe Research and Development with the development of such a system.

  15. Letter: Laparoscopy explosion hazards with nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunda, S; Ghanima, K Y

    1976-05-08

    With reference to your correspondence (September 27, p. 764, and December 27, p. 760) regarding laparoscopy explosion hazards with nitrous oxide, in our experience this is not substantiated. In the last 18 months we have done some 123 laparoscopies in the Medical City Hospital, Baghdad. We have done 16 sterilizations by tubal diathermy and not fewer than 12 cases where biopsies were taken from ovaries in case of tuberculosis or for other reasons, where diathermy was used. In all our laparoscopy procedures we always used nitrous oxide gas because carbon dioxide cylinders are difficult to otain. We did not have any incident of explosion, and most of our patients stayed in hospital not more than 24 hours postoperatively, during which time no complications were reported. None of these cases was readmitted for any complications. It seems to us that the hazard of explosion with nitrous oxide is more theoretical than real.

  16. Explosion triggering by an accelerating flame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, Vitaly; Akkerman, V'yacheslav

    2006-06-01

    The analytical theory of explosion triggering by an accelerating flame is developed. The theory describes the structure of a one-dimensional isentropic compression wave pushed by the flame front. The condition of explosion in the gas mixture ahead of the flame front is derived; the instant of the explosion is determined provided that a mechanism of chemical kinetics is known. As an example, it is demonstrated how the problem is solved in the case of a single reaction of Arrhenius type, controlling combustion both inside the flame front and ahead of the flame. The model of an Arrhenius reaction with a cutoff temperature is also considered. The limitations of the theory due to the shock formation in the compression wave are found. Comparison of the theoretical results to the previous numerical simulations shows good agreement.

  17. [Explosion of intestinal gas during surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Y Y; Haberer, J P; Schutz, R; Simon, R; Vanwynsberghe, B; Mercier, R

    1983-01-01

    Two cases of colonic gas explosion during surgery are reported. The treatment of the lesions required a partial colectomy in one case and a total colectomy in the other case. The different factors involved in such accidents are discussed. Three factors are necessary to trigger off an explosion of intestinal gases: the presence of combustible gases (hydrogen, methane), the presence of combustive gases (oxygen, nitrous oxide) and an initiating heat source (endoscopic or surgical electrocautery). The mannitol used for bowel cleansing undergoes partial colonic bacterial fermentation increasing the intraluminal concentration of hydrogen. During anaesthesia the oxygen-nitrous oxide mixture increases the intestinal concentration of these two major combustive gases. Electrocautery provides the spark triggering the explosion. The use of mannitol for colonic preparation should be questioned; the use of electrocautery to open the colon is advised against.

  18. Nanopowder synthesis based on electric explosion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryzhevich, D. S.; Zolnikov, K. P.; Korchuganov, A. V.; Psakhie, S. G.

    2017-10-01

    A computer simulation of the bicomponent nanoparticle formation during the electric explosion of copper and nickel wires was carried out. The calculations were performed in the framework of the molecular dynamics method using many-body potentials of interatomic interaction. As a result of an electric explosion of dissimilar metal wires, bicomponent nanoparticles having different stoichiometry and a block structure can be formed. It is possible to control the process of destruction and the structure of the formed bicomponent nanoparticles by varying the distance between the wires and the loading parameters.

  19. Explosive Nucleosynthesis in Different Ye Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Umeda, Hideyuki; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl; Hix, W. Raphael

    2006-01-01

    The influence of a large variation of Ye on explosive yield is investigated. We calculate nucleosynthesis with the initial electron fraction Ye ranging from 0.48 to 0.58 in explosive Si burning region in Population III, 25 M· supernovae. We obtain the significant overproduction of odd elements, K and Sc. In the Ye < 0.5 cases light p-process nuclei are enhanced. We find that the abundance pattern taken from arbitrary mixture of each nucleosynthesis yield in various values of Ye can reasonably explain that in observed extremely metal-poor stars

  20. A 2-MJ staged explosive generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chare, E. C.; Kaye, R. J.; Cowan, M.

    A self contained, three stage explosive generator is described. The system has produced 2 MJ of magnetic energy in a 40 nH load with a peak VI product of 0.2 TW. Current in the load rises from zero to peak value in 50 (SIGMA)s, the later part of the rise is approximately exponential with 10 (SIGMA)s e-fold time. Support equipment (power supply, initial energy capacitor bank, detonator firing units, delay generators, and Freon gas supply) can be protected from destructive effects of the explosive generators and reused.

  1. Spherical Solutions of an Underwater Explosion Bubble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B. Wardlaw

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the 1D explosion bubble flow field out to the first bubble minimum is examined in detail using four different models. The most detailed is based on the Euler equations and accounts for the internal bubble fluid motion, while the simplest links a potential water solution to a stationary, Isentropic bubble model. Comparison of the different models with experimental data provides insight into the influence of compressibility and internal bubble dynamics on the behavior of the explosion bubble.

  2. Explosive detection using infrared laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, J.; Herbst, J.; Wöllenstein, J.; Lambrecht, A.

    2009-01-01

    Stand-off and extractive explosive detection methods for short distances are investigated using mid-infrared laser spectroscopy. A quantum cascade laser (QCL) system for TATP-detection by open path absorption spectroscopy in the gas phase was developed. In laboratory measurements a detection limit of 5 ppm*m was achieved. For explosives with lower vapor pressure an extractive hollow fiber based measurement system was investigated. By thermal desorption gaseous TATP or TNT is introduced into a heated fiber. The small sample volume and a fast gas exchange rate enable fast detection. TNT and TATP detection levels below 100 ng are feasible even in samples with a realistic contaminant background.

  3. Evaluation of ferrocyanide/nitrate explosive hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cady, H.H.

    1992-06-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory agreed to assist Pacific Northwest Laboratory in the Ferrocyanide Safety Evaluation Program by helping to evaluate the explosive hazard of several mixtures of simulated ferrocyanide waste-tank sludge containing sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This report is an evaluation of the small-scale safety tests used to assess the safety of these materials from an explosive point of view. These tests show that these materials are not initiated by mechanical insult, and they require an external heat source before any exothermic chemical reaction can be observed

  4. Explosive and accessories in rock blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingua, B.M.P.; Nabiullah, M.; Jagdish, S.; Mishra, G.D.; Singh, T.N. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    1999-02-01

    Chemical explosives are commonly used in the mining industry. Those used in India include nitroglycerine (NG) base, ammonium nitrate fuel oil mixture (ANFO), slurry emulsion and liquid oxygen (LOX). Examples of each type and their general properties are lighted. The electric and non-electric detonating systems used are described. Two Indian companies are producing non-electric in-hole delay system. Raydet (IDL-make) and Excel (ICI-make). Their firing characteristics are listed. Tables are given for burden for different density of rock and explosive strength. Causes of bad blast are itemised. 7 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. The Stimulation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs with Subsurface Nuclear Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LORENZ,JOHN C.

    2000-12-08

    Between 1965 and 1979 there were five documented and one or more inferred attempts to stimulate the production from hydrocarbon reservoirs by detonating nuclear devices in reservoir strata. Of the five documented tests, three were carried out by the US in low-permeability, natural-gas bearing, sandstone-shale formations, and two were done in the USSR within oil-bearing carbonates. The objectives of the US stimulation efforts were to increase porosity and permeability in a reservoir around a specific well by creating a chimney of rock rubble with fractures extending beyond it, and to connect superimposed reservoir layers. In the USSR, the intent was to extensively fracture an existing reservoir in the more general vicinity of producing wells, again increasing overall permeability and porosity. In both countries, the ultimate goals were to increase production rates and ultimate recovery from the reservoirs. Subsurface explosive devices ranging from 2.3 to about 100 kilotons were used at depths ranging from 1208 m (3963 ft) to 2568 m (8427 ft). Post-shot problems were encountered, including smaller-than-calculated fracture zones, formation damage, radioactivity of the product, and dilution of the BTU value of tie natural gas with inflammable gases created by the explosion. Reports also suggest that production-enhancement factors from these tests fell short of expectations. Ultimately, the enhanced-production benefits of the tests were insufficient to support continuation of the pro-grams within increasingly adversarial political, economic, and social climates, and attempts to stimulate hydrocarbon reservoirs with nuclear devices have been terminated in both countries.

  6. Dissolved nitrogen in liquid lithium - a problem in fusion reactor chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubberstey, P.

    1984-01-01

    When dissolved in liquid lithium, nitrogen adopts the role filled by oxygen in liquid sodium systems, reacting readily with stainless steel containment materials to form Li 9 CrN 5 as a surface product; extended reaction leads to pronounced corrosion and embrittlement problems. It also interacts with both carbon and silicon impurities forming Li 2 NCN and Li 5 SiN 3 , respectively; it is inert, however, to oxygen impurity. Although dissolved nitrogen reacts with neither the tritium generated in the breeding process nor the lead added to act as a neutron multiplier, its presence may seriously influence tritium recovery processes since it reacts with and hence may poison the majority of the transition metals (Y,Ti,Zr) presently being considered as tritium getter materials. Its reactivity with these metals forms the basis of the hot trapping technique used to remove dissolved nitrogen from liquid lithium systems; cold trapping is ineffective because of its large solubility even at temperatures just above the melting point of pure lithium (453.6K). Whenever possible, the chemistry of nitrogen dissolved in liquid lithium is rationalised using the thermodynamic concepts and its significance to fusion reactor technology stressed. (author)

  7. Differential thermal analysis microsystem for explosive detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper Kenneth; Greve, Anders; Senesac, L.

    2011-01-01

    as a small silicon nitride membrane incorporating heater elements and a temperature measurement resistor. In this manuscript the DTA system is described and tested by measuring calorimetric response of 3 different kinds of explosives (TNT, RDX and PETN). This project is carried out under the framework...

  8. Local and remote infrasound from explosive volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoza, R. S.; Fee, D.; LE Pichon, A.

    2014-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions can inject large volumes of ash into heavily travelled air corridors and thus pose a significant societal and economic hazard. In remote volcanic regions, satellite data are sometimes the only technology available to observe volcanic eruptions and constrain ash-release parameters for aviation safety. Infrasound (acoustic waves ~0.01-20 Hz) data fill this critical observational gap, providing ground-based data for remote volcanic eruptions. Explosive volcanic eruptions are among the most powerful sources of infrasound observed on earth, with recordings routinely made at ranges of hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Advances in infrasound technology and the efficient propagation of infrasound in the atmosphere therefore greatly enhance our ability to monitor volcanoes in remote regions such as the North Pacific Ocean. Infrasound data can be exploited to detect, locate, and provide detailed chronologies of the timing of explosive volcanic eruptions for use in ash transport and dispersal models. We highlight results from case studies of multiple eruptions recorded by the International Monitoring System and dedicated regional infrasound networks (2008 Kasatochi, Alaska, USA; 2008 Okmok, Alaska, USA; 2009 Sarychev Peak, Kuriles, Russian Federation; 2010 Eyjafjallajökull, Icleand) and show how infrasound is currently used in volcano monitoring. We also present progress towards characterizing and modeling the variability in source mechanisms of infrasound from explosive eruptions using dedicated local infrasound field deployments at volcanoes Karymsky, Russian Federation and Sakurajima, Japan.

  9. Explosives safety research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Weerheijm, J.; Wees, R.M.M. van; Dongen. P. van

    2013-01-01

    The handling of explosives and ammunition introduces a safety risk for personnel and third parties. Accidents related to storage, transport and transhipment may result in severe injury and material damage. TNO has developed a number of tools to quantify the consequences and risks of accidental

  10. Explosion hazards of aluminum finishing operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taveau, J.R.; Hochgreb, Simone; Lemkowitz, S.M.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.

    2018-01-01

    Metal dust deflagrations have become increasingly common in recent years. They are also more devastating than deflagrations involving organic materials, owing to metals' higher heat of combustion, rate of pressure rise, explosion pressure and flame temperature. Aluminum finishing operations offer

  11. Detection of Nuclear Explosions Using Infrasound Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    state-of-the- art wind-noise reduction systems, turbulent wind noise will prevent the detection of infrasonic signals from atmospheric explosions over...D.R., J.A. Vivas Veloso, P. Campus, M. Bell, T. Hoffmann, A. Langlois, P. Martysevich, E. Demirovic and J. Carvalho (2001). Detection of atmospheric

  12. Laser-Based Detection Methods for Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Photofragmentation-Fragment Detection (SPF-FD) Cabalo and Sausa introduced a technique for detection of explosives with low vapor pressure called SPF-FD (149...1999, 38, 6447. 149. Cabalo , J.; Sausa, R. Appl. Spectrosc. 2003, 57, 1196. 150. Claspy, P. C.; Pao, Y.-H.; Kwong, S.; Nodov, E. IEEE J. Quant

  13. Some properties of explosive mixtures containing peroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, Svatopluk; Trzcinski, Waldemar A.; Matyas, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study concerns mixtures of triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP) and ammonium nitrate (AN) with added water (W), as the case may be, and dry mixtures of TATP with urea nitrate (UN). Relative performances (RP) of the mixtures and their individual components, relative to TNT, were determined by means of ballistic mortar. The detonation energies, E 0 , and detonation velocities, D, were calculated for the mixtures studied by means of the thermodynamic code CHEETAH. Relationships have been found and are discussed between the RP and the E 0 values related to unit volume of gaseous products of detonation of these mixtures. These relationships together with those between RP and oxygen balance values of the mixtures studied indicate different types of participation of AN and UN in the explosive decomposition of the respective mixtures. Dry TATP/UN mixtures exhibit lower RP than analogous mixtures TATP/AN containing up to 25% of water. Depending on the water content, the TATP/AN mixtures possess higher detonability values than the ANFO explosives. A semi-logarithmic relationship between the D values and oxygen coefficients has been derived for all the mixtures studied at the charge density of 1000 kg m -3 . Among the mixtures studied, this relationship distinguishes several samples of the type of 'tertiary explosives' as well as samples that approach 'high explosives' in their performances and detonation velocities

  14. The double explosive layer cylindrical compaction method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuivinga, M.E.C.; Verbeek, H.J.; Carton, E.P.

    1999-01-01

    The standard cylindrical configuration for shock compaction is useful for the compaction of composite materials which have some plastic behavior. It can also be used to densify hard ceramics up to about 85% of the theoretical density (TMD), when low detonation velocity explosives (2-4 km s-1) are

  15. Steam explosion triggering and efficiency studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxton, L.D.; Nelson, L.S.; Benedick, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on the thermal interaction of simulated light water reactor (LWR) fuel melts and water are summarized. Their purpose was to investigate the possibility of steam explosions occurring for a range of hypothetical accident conditions. Pressure, temperature, hot liquid motion and cold liquid motion were monitored during the experiments

  16. Developments in vapour cloud explosion blast modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercx, W.P.M.; Berg, A.C. van den; Hayhurst, C.J.; Robertson, N.J.; Moran, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    TNT Equivalency methods are widely used for vapour cloud explosion blast modeling. Presently, however, other types of models are available which do not have the fundamental objections TNT Equivalency models have. TNO Multi-Energy method is increasingly accepted as a more reasonable alternative to be

  17. Explosives Classifications Tracking System User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genoni, R.P.

    1993-10-01

    The Explosives Classification Tracking System (ECTS) presents information and data for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) explosives classifications of interest to EM-561, Transportation Management Division, other DOE facilities, and contractors. It is intended to be useful to the scientist, engineer, and transportation professional, who needs to classify or transport explosives. This release of the ECTS reflects upgrading of the software which provides the user with an environment that makes comprehensive retrieval of explosives related information quick and easy. Quarterly updates will be provided to the ECTS throughout its development in FY 1993 and thereafter. The ECTS is a stand alone, single user system that contains unclassified, publicly available information, and administrative information (contractor names, product descriptions, transmittal dates, EX-Numbers, etc.) information from many sources for non-decisional engineering and shipping activities. The data is the most up-to-date and accurate available to the knowledge of the system developer. The system is designed to permit easy revision and updating as new information and data become available. These, additions and corrections are welcomed by the developer. This user manual is intended to help the user install, understand, and operate the system so that the desired information may be readily obtained, reviewed, and reported.

  18. Insensitive Munitions -- New Explosives on the Horizon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gray, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    ...) for 155mm projectiles used by the U.S. Army. The main issue with TNT as a filling for modern projectiles is that the explosive behaves violently if subjected to an accidental stimulus, such as being involved in a fire...

  19. Multiphase Instabilities in Explosive Dispersal of Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Bertrand; Ouellet, Frederick; Annamalai, Subramanian; Balachandar, S. ``Bala''

    2015-11-01

    Explosive dispersal of particles is a complex multiphase phenomenon that can be observed in volcanic eruptions or in engineering applications such as multiphase explosives. As the layer of particles moves outward at high speed, it undergoes complex interactions with the blast-wave structure following the reaction of the energetic material. Particularly in this work, we are interested in the multiphase flow instabilities related to Richmyer-Meshkov (RM) and Rayleigh-Taylor (RM) instabilities (in the gas phase and particulate phase), which take place as the particle layer disperses. These types of instabilities are known to depend on initial conditions for a relatively long time of their evolution. Using a Eulerian-Lagrangian approach, we study the growth of these instabilities and their dependence on initial conditions related to the particulate phase - namely, (i) particle size, (ii) initial distribution, and (iii) mass ratio (particles to explosive). Additional complexities associated with compaction of the layer of particles are avoided here by limiting the simulations to modest initial volume fraction of particles. A detailed analysis of the initial conditions and its effects on multiphase RM/RT-like instabilities in the context of an explosive dispersal of particles is presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  20. Construction of hydrogenation stalls for explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raichle, L.

    1943-05-03

    This report contained explanations for different questions that had been asked by the Association of Chemical Manufacturers. The first item discussed was the pressure occurring in hydrogenation stalls in hydrogen explosions. The pressures actually used were much smaller than the maximum design pressure due to burning gases being allowed to escape from the top and front of the stalls since these areas were open and it could not be assumed that the whole stall space was filled with a 32% hydrogen concentration at the beginning of an explosion. The second item discussed was specifications and rules for the building of hydrogenation stalls. These included the calculations for simple wind pressure according to the Building Code with the usual safety factors and the calculations for an inner pressure of 300 kg/m/sup 2/ with the usual safety factors. An explanation of a stall explosion in Poelitz and reinforced stall construction in Poelitz were two other items that were discussed. Appendix I of the report involved maximum pressures and temperature in hydrogen explosions. Diagram I was involved with this. Appendix II discussed the behavior of a hydrogen flame at high emerging velocities and Appendix III discussed stall construction at Poelitz.

  1. 30 CFR 7.306 - Explosion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and constructed to contain an explosive gas mixture to surround and fill the motor assembly being... surrounding the motor assembly. (2) A methane gas supply with at least 98 by volume per centum of combustible... millijoules of energy. (5) A pressure recording system that will indicate the pressure peaks resulting from...

  2. Java: An Explosion on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Tim; Hall, Hazel

    Summer 1995 saw the release, with considerable media attention, of draft versions of Sun Microsystems' Java computer programming language and the HotJava browser. Java has been heralded as the latest "killer" technology in the Internet explosion. Sun Microsystems and numerous companies including Microsoft, IBM, and Netscape have agreed…

  3. The Explosive Potential of Tollens' Reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breedlove, C. H.; Softy, John

    1983-01-01

    Reports on an explosion that occurred using Tollens' reagent, emphasizing that students should prepare the reagent immediately before use and discard it immediately after use by flushing it down the drain. States that under no conditions should Tollens' reagent be stored. (Author/JN)

  4. A Study of the behaviour of emulsion explosives

    OpenAIRE

    Allum, J

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the formulation and characterisation of emulsion explosives. This included the manufacture of more than 120kg of emulsion explosive of which around 105kg was used on the explosive ordnance range in over 350 individual firings. For each emulsion composition, an average of eight firings was undertaken with which to substantiate the explosive performance data. The formulation was varied to determine the effects of water content upon the physical characte...

  5. The fracture of concrete under explosive shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.J.; Sanderson, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Concrete fracture close to the point of application of high explosive shock pressures has been studied experimentally by placing an explosive charge on the edge of a concrete slab. The extent of the crushing and cracking produced by a semi cylindrical diverging plane compressive stress pulse has been measured and complementary experiments gave the pressure transmitted at an explosive to concrete interface and the stress-strain relation for concrete at explosive strain rates. (orig.) [de

  6. Evaluation of the Thermochemical Code - CHEETAH 2.0 for Modelling Explosives Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Jing

    2001-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CHEETAH 2.0 program has been used to analyse a number of conventional ideal explosive ingredients, ideal explosive compositions, non-ideal explosive compositions, and new and proposed explosives...

  7. Expediency of application of explosion-relief constructions to ensure explosion resistance of production buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapin Anton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a model of economic evaluation and selection of explosion-relief constructions (ERC, as well as determination of explosion protection efficiency of buildings and structures provided on a stage of construction. It has been shown that definition of economic efficiency of ERС is the evaluation of its application for buildings with remote or automatically controlled production. It has been determined that an important role in design of explosive industrial facilities is played by selection of the economically feasible and effective materials for ERC. When selecting materials it is necessary to consider probability and yield of explosions. Necessity to create the methods allow considering such probability has been revealed.

  8. Modeling cookoff of HMX based PBX explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Michael L.

    2017-03-01

    We have previously developed a PBX 9501 cookoff model for the plastic bonded explosive PBX 9501 consisting of 95 wt% octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazoncine (HMX), 2.5 wt% Estane® 5703 (a polyurethane thermoplastic), and 2.5 wt% of a nitroplasticizer (NP): BDNPA/F, a 50/50 wt% eutectic mixture bis(2,2-dinitropropyl)-acetal (BDNPA) and bis(2,2-dinitropropyl)-formal (BDNPF). This fivestep model includes desorption of water, decomposition of the NP to form NO2, reaction of the NO2 with Estane and HMX, and decomposition of HMX [1]. This model has been successfully validated with data from six laboratories with scales ranging from 2 g to more than 2.5 kg of explosive. We have determined, that the PBX 9501 model can be used to predict cookoff of other plastic bonded explosives containing HMX and an inert binder, such as LX-04 consisting of 85 wt% HMX and 15 wt% Viton A (vinylidine fluoride/hexafluoropropylene copolymer), LX-07 (90 wt% HMX and 10 wt% Viton A), LX- 10-0 (95 wt% HMX and 5 wt% Viton A), and LX-14 consisting of 95.5 wt % HMX and 4.5 wt% Estane® 5702-F1 (a polyurethane thermoplastic). Normally our cookoff models are verified using Sandia’s Instrumented Thermal Initiation (SITI) experiment. However, SITI data for LX-04, LX-07, LX-10-0, and LX-14 are not available at pressed density; although, some molding powder SITI data on LX-10-0 and LX-14 exists. Tarver and Tran [2] provide some one-dimensional time-to-explosion (ODTX) data for these explosives. The applicability of the PBX 9501 model to LX-04, LX-07, LX-10-0, AND LX-14 was made using this ODTX data [2]. The PBX 9501 model is applied to these other explosives by accounting for the correct amount of HMX in the explosive and limiting the NP reaction. We have found the PBX 9501 model to be useful for predicting the response of these PBXs to abnormal thermal environments such as fire.

  9. Phreatic and Hydrothermal Explosions: A Laboratory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    Phreatic eruptions are amongst the most common eruption types on earth. They might be precursory to another type of volcanic eruption but often they stand on their one. Despite being the most common eruption type, they also are one of the most diverse eruptions, in appearance as well as on eruption mechanism. Yet steam is the common fuel behind all phreatic eruptions. The steam-driven explosions occur when water beneath the ground or on the surface is heated by magma, lava, hot rocks, or fresh volcanic deposits (such as ignimbrites, tephra and pyroclastic-flow deposits) and result in crater, tuff rings and debris avalanches. The intense heat of such material may cause water to boil and flash to steam, thereby generating an explosion of steam, water, ash, blocks, and bombs. Another wide and important field affected by phreatic explosions are hydrothermal areas; here phreatic explosions occur every few months creating explosion craters and resemble a significant hazard to hydrothermal power plants. Despite of their hazard potential, phreatic explosions have so far been overlooked by the field of experimental volcanology. A part of their hazard potential in owned by the fact that phreatic explosions are hardly predictable in occurrence time and size as they have manifold triggers (variances in groundwater and heat systems, earthquakes, material fatigue, water level, etc..) A new set of experiments has been designed to focus on this phreatic type of steam explosion, whereas classical phreatomagmatic experiments use molten fuel-coolant interaction (e.g., Zimanowski, et al., 1991). The violent transition of the superheated water to vapour adds another degree of explosivity to the dry magmatic fragmentation, driven mostly by vesicle bursting due to internal gas overpressure. At low water fractions the fragmentation is strongly enforced by the mixture of these two effects and a large fraction of fine pyroclasts are produced, whereas at high water fraction in the sample the

  10. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2015-12-30

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region.

  11. Size-effect of explosive sensitivity under low velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Danzhu; Chen, Pengwan; Zhou, Qiang

    2013-06-01

    Low velocity impact may ignite the solid high explosives and cause undesired explosion incidents. The safety of high explosives under low velocity impact is one of the most important problems in handling, manufacture, storage, and transportation procedures. More and more evaluation tests have been developed for low velocity impact scenarios, including, but not limited to the drop hammer impact test, the Susan test, the Spigot test, and the Steven test, with a charge mass varying from tens of milligrams to several kilograms. The effects of specimen size on explosive sensitivity were found in our drop hammer impact test and Steven tests, including the threshold velocity/height and reaction violence. To further analyze the size effects on explosive sensitivity under low velocity impacts, we collected the impact sensitivity data of several PBX explosives in the drop hammer test, the Steven test, the Susan test and the Spigot test. The effective volume of explosive charge and the threshold specific mechanical energy were introduced to investigate the size-effect on the explosive ignition thresholds. The effective volumes of explosive charge in Steven test and Spigot test were obtained by numerical simulation, due to the localization of the impact. The threshold specific mechanical energy is closely related to the effective volume of explosive charge. The results show that, with the increase of effective volume, the specific mechanical energy needed for explosive ignition decreases and trends to reach a constant value. The mechanisms of size effects on explosive sensitivity are also discussed.

  12. Specimen size effect of explosive sensitivity under low velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Danzhu; Chen, Pengwan; Dai, Kaida; Zhou, Qiang

    2014-05-01

    Low velocity impact may ignite the solid high explosives and cause undesired explosion incidents. The safety of high explosives under low velocity impact is one of the most important issues in handling, manufacture, storage, and transportation procedures. Various evaluation tests have been developed for low velocity impact scenarios, including, but not limited to the drop hammer test, the Susan test, the Spigot test, and the Steven test, with a charge mass varying from tens of milligrams to several kilograms. The effects of specimen size on explosive sensitivity were found in some impact tests such as drop hammer test and Steven tests, including the threshold velocity/height and reaction violence. To analyse the specimen size effects on explosive sensitivity under low velocity impacts, we collected the impact sensitivity data of several PBX explosives in the drop hammer test, the Steven test, the Susan test and the Spigot test. The effective volume of explosive charge and the critical specific mechanical energy were introduced to investigate the size-effect on the explosive reaction thresholds. The effective volumes of explosive charge in Steven test and Spigot test were obtained by numerical simulation, due to the deformation localization of the impact loading. The critical specific mechanical energy is closely related to the effective volume of explosive charge. The results show that, with the increase of effective volume, the critical mechanical energy needed for explosive ignition decreases and tends to reach a constant value. The mechanisms of size effects on explosive sensitivity are also discussed.

  13. Increase of water resistance of ammonium nitrate explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkhair Mansurov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Developed a method of kapsulating of ammonium nitrate with liquid paraffin increase finding explosives in water for 60 minutes. Placing explosives in the plastic shell, the explosive was, as in standing or running water during the day. When conducting field tests failures were absent.

  14. Student’s explosive containment technique leads to patent

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    Former Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) Department of Defense Analysis student Navy Lt. Deward Cummings was awarded a patent for his “Explosive Storage System,” Jan. 12. His invention reveals a novel technique for building inexpensive explosive containment systems using local materials in hopes of mitigating the deadly effects of Explosive Remnants of War (ERW).

  15. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of High Explosive Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse J. Sabatini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the recent advances in the syntheses of high explosive energetic materials. Syntheses of some relevant modern primary explosives and secondary high explosives, and the sensitivities and properties of these molecules are provided. In addition to the synthesis of such materials, processing improvement and formulating aspects using these ingredients, where applicable, are discussed in detail.

  16. 27 CFR 555.63 - Explosives magazine changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Explosives magazine... § 555.63 Explosives magazine changes. (a) General. (1) The requirements of this section are applicable to magazines used for other than temporary (under 24 hours) storage of explosives. (2) A magazine is...

  17. Forensic analysis of explosions: Inverse calculation of the charge mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Wees, R.M.M. van; Brouwer, S.D.; Jagt-Deutekom, M.J. van der; Verreault, J.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic analysis of explosions consists of determining the point of origin, the explosive substance involved, and the charge mass. Within the EU fP7 project Hyperion, TNO developed the Inverse Explosion Analysis (TNO-IEA) tool to estïmate the charge mass and point of origin based on observed damage

  18. assessment of pollution assessment of pollution-induced dissolved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION-INDUCED DISSOLVED OXYGEN VARIATION. INDUCED DISSOLVED OXYGEN VARIATION. IN RIVER CHALLAWA. IN RIVER CHALLAWA. T. A. Adedokun. A. Adedokun1, * and J. C. Agunwamba. Agunwamba2. 1, * DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, BAYERO UNIVERSITY KANO, ...

  19. The Effect of Nano-Aluminumpowder on the Characteristic of RDX based Aluminized Explosives Underwater Close-Filed Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junting Yin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of nano-aluminum powder on the characteristic of RDX based aluminized explosives underwater closed-filed explosions, the scanning photographs along the radial of the charges were gained by a high speed scanning camera. The photographs of two different aluminized explosives underwater explosion have been analyzed, the shock wave curves and expand curves of detonation products were obtained, furthermore the change rules of shock waves propagation velocity, shock front pressure and expansion of detonation products of two aluminized explosives were investigated, and also the parameters of two aluminized explosives were contrasted. The results show that the aluminized explosive which with nano-aluminum whose initial shock waves pressure propagation velocity, shock front pressure are smaller than the aluminized explosive without nano-aluminum and has lower decrease rate attenuation of energy.

  20. Asymmetric explosion of core-collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazeroni, Remi

    2016-01-01

    A core-collapse supernova represents the ultimate stage of the evolution of massive stars.The iron core contraction may be followed by a gigantic explosion which gives birth to a neutron star.The multidimensional dynamics of the innermost region, during the first hundreds milliseconds, plays a decisive role on the explosion success because hydrodynamical instabilities are able to break the spherical symmetry of the collapse. Large scale transverse motions generated by two instabilities, the neutrino-driven convection and the Standing Accretion Shock Instability (SASI),increase the heating efficiency up to the point of launching an asymmetric explosion and influencing the birth properties of the neutron star. In this thesis, hydrodynamical instabilities are studied using numerical simulations of simplified models. These models enable a wide exploration of the parameter space and a better physical understanding of the instabilities, generally inaccessible to realistic models.The non-linear regime of SASI is analysed to characterize the conditions under which a spiral mode prevails and to assess its ability to redistribute angular momentum radially.The influence of rotation on the shock dynamics is also addressed. For fast enough rotation rates, a corotation instability overlaps with SASI and greatly impacts the dynamics. The simulations enable to better constrain the effect of non-axisymmetric modes on the angular momentum budget of the iron core collapsing into a neutron star. SASI may under specific conditions spin up or down the pulsar born during the explosion. Finally, an idealised model of the heating region is studied to characterize the non-linear onset of convection by perturbations such as those produced by SASI or pre-collapse combustion inhomogeneities. The dimensionality issue is examined to stress the beneficial consequences of the three-dimensional dynamics on the onset of the explosion. (author) [fr

  1. Dissolvable microneedle fabrication using piezoelectric dispensing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Evin A; O'Mahony, Conor; Cronin, Michael; O'Mahony, Thomas; Moore, Anne C; Crean, Abina M

    2016-03-16

    Dissolvable microneedle (DMN) patches are novel dosage forms for the percutaneous delivery of vaccines. DMN are routinely fabricated by dispensing liquid formulations into microneedle-shaped moulds. The liquid formulation within the mould is then dried to create dissolvable vaccine-loaded microneedles. The precision of the dispensing process is critical to the control of formulation volume loaded into each dissolvable microneedle structure. The dispensing process employed must maintain vaccine integrity. Wetting of mould surfaces by the dispensed formulation is also an important consideration for the fabrication of sharp-tipped DMN. Sharp-tipped DMN are essential for ease of percutaneous administration. In this paper, we demonstrate the ability of a piezoelectric dispensing system to dispense picolitre formulation volumes into PDMS moulds enabling the fabrication of bilayer DMN. The influence of formulation components (trehalose and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) content) and piezoelectric actuation parameters (voltage, frequency and back pressure) on drop formation is described. The biological integrity of a seasonal influenza vaccine following dispensing was investigated and maintained voltage settings of 30 V but undermined at higher settings, 50 and 80 V. The results demonstrate the capability of piezoelectric dispensing technology to precisely fabricate bilayer DMN. They also highlight the importance of identifying formulation and actuation parameters to ensure controlled droplet formulation and vaccine stabilisation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Action Replay of Powerful Stellar Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Astronomers have made the best ever determination of the power of a supernova explosion that was visible from Earth long ago. By observing the remnant of a supernova and a light echo from the initial outburst, they have established the validity of a powerful new method for studying supernovas. Using data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, ESA's XMM-Newton Observatory, and the Gemini Observatory, two teams of researchers studied the supernova remnant and the supernova light echo that are located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a small galaxy about 160,000 light years from Earth. They concluded that the supernova occurred about 400 years ago (in Earth’s time frame), and was unusually bright and energetic. X-ray Image of SNR 0509-67.5 X-ray Image of SNR 0509-67.5 This result is the first time two methods - X-ray observations of a supernova remnant and optical observations of the expanding light echoes from the explosion - have both been used to estimate the energy of a supernova explosion. Up until now, scientists had only made such an estimate using the light seen soon after a star exploded, or using remnants that are several hundred years old, but not from both. "People didn't have advanced telescopes to study supernovas when they went off hundreds of years ago," said Armin Rest of Harvard University, who led the light echo observations using Gemini. "But we've done the next best thing by looking around the site of the explosion and constructing an action replay of it." People Who Read This Also Read... Milky Way's Super-efficient Particle Accelerators Caught in The Act Oldest Known Objects Are Surprisingly Immature Discovery of Most Recent Supernova in Our Galaxy NASA Unveils Cosmic Images Book in Braille for Blind Readers In 2004, scientists used Chandra to determine that a supernova remnant, known as SNR 0509-67.5 in the LMC, was a so-called Type Ia supernova, caused by a white dwarf star in a binary system that reaches a critical mass and explodes. In

  3. Water Recovery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Water Recovery Project (WRP) is advancing environmental control and life support systems water recovery technologies to support human exploration beyond low...

  4. EPA Recovery Mapper

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Recovery Mapper is an Internet interactive mapping application that allows users to discover information about every American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

  5. The Effect of Nano-Aluminumpowder on the Characteristic of RDX based Aluminized Explosives Underwater Close-Filed Explosion

    OpenAIRE

    Junting Yin; Baohui Yuan; Tao Zhou; Gang Li; Xinlian Ren

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of nano-aluminum powder on the characteristic of RDX based aluminized explosives underwater closed-filed explosions, the scanning photographs along the radial of the charges were gained by a high speed scanning camera. The photographs of two different aluminized explosives underwater explosion have been analyzed, the shock wave curves and expand curves of detonation products were obtained, furthermore the change rules of shock waves propagation velocity, sho...

  6. Distribution of dissolved carbohydrates and uronic acids in a tropical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbohydrates including uronic acids are among the active components of dissolved organic carbon, and play an important role in biogeochemical cycling of organic carbon in marine environments. In order to understand their distribution, concentrations of total dissolved carbohydrate (TCHO), dissolved polysaccharide ...

  7. Mathematical modeling of dissolved oxygen in fish ponds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mathematical modeling of dissolved oxygen in fish ponds. WJS Mwegoha, ME Kaseva, SMM Sabai. Abstract. A mathematical model was developed to predict the effects of wind speed, light, pH, Temperature, dissolved carbon dioxide and chemical oxygen demand (COD) on Dissolved Oxygen (DO) in fish ponds. The effects ...

  8. Highly sensitive detection of explosive triacetone triperoxide by an In2O3 sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Wei-De; Chen, Lu-Ya

    2010-08-01

    Triacetone triperoxide (TATP) is one of the most sensitive known explosives and can be easily synthesized using the commonly available chemicals acetone and hydrogen peroxide, but is difficult to be detected. In this study, In2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by a glucose-assisted solvothermal method at 120 °C for 18 h. The gas sensor based on In2O3 nanoparticles exhibits a high response, fast response and recovery, a wide detecting range of 0.50-500 mg, good stability and excellent stability to TATP.

  9. Spatially Dispersed Employee Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders; Torfadóttir, Embla

    2014-01-01

    personnel achieve service recovery. Employee recovery within service research often focuses on front-line employees that work in a fixed location, however a contribution to the field is made by investigating the recovery of spatially dispersed personnel, such as operational personnel in the transport sector...

  10. Recovery from mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Friis, Vivi Soegaard; Haxholm, Birthe Lodahl

    2015-01-01

    Mental health services strive to implement a recovery-oriented approach to rehabilitation. Little is known about service users' perception of the recovery approach. The aim is to explore the service user's perspectives on facilitators and barriers associated with recovery. Twelve residents living...

  11. Alternative futures of dissolved inorganic nitrogen export from ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) export from the Mississippi River Basin contributes to seasonal hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). We explored monthly dissolved inorganic N (DIN) export to the GOM for a historical year (2002) and two future scenarios (year 2022) by linking macroeonomic energy, agriculture market, air quality, and agriculture land management models to a DIN export model. Future scenarios considered policies aimed at encouraging bioenergy crop production and reducing atmospheric N-emissions, as well as the effect of population growth and the states’ infrastructure plans on sewage fluxes. Model-derived DIN export decreased by about 9% (from 279 to 254 kg N km−2 year−1) between 2002 and 2022 due to a 28% increase in area planted with corn, 24% improvement in crop N-recovery efficiency (NRE, to 0.52), 22% reduction in atmospheric N deposition, and 23% increase in sewage inputs. Changes in atmospheric and sewage inputs had a relatively small effect on DIN export and the effect of bioenergy crop production depended on nutrient management practices. Without improved NRE, increased production of corn would have increased DIN export by about 14% (to 289 kg N km−2 year−1) between 2002 and 2022. Model results suggest that meeting future crop demand while reducing the areal extent of hypoxia could require aggressive actions, such improving basin-level crop NRE to 0.62 or upgrading N-removal capabilities in waste water treatment plants beyond current plans. Tile-dra

  12. Rapidly Dissolving Microneedle Patches for Transdermal Iron Replenishment Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Abhijeet; Nanjappa, Shivakumar H; Honnavar, Swati; Salwa, M; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2018-02-17

    The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is predominant in women and children especially in developing countries. The disorder affects cognitive functions and physical activity. Although oral iron supplementation and parenteral therapy remains the preferred choice of treatment, gastric side effects and risk of iron overload decreases adherence to therapy. Transdermal route is an established approach, which circumvents the side effects associated with conventional therapy. In this project, an attempt was made to investigate the use of rapidly dissolving microneedles loaded with ferric pyrophosphate (FPP) as a potential therapeutic approach for management of IDA. Microneedle array patches were made using the micromolding technique and tested in vitro using rat skin to check the duration required for dissolution/disappearance of needles. The ability of FPP-loaded microneedles to replenish iron was investigated in anemic rats. Rats were fed iron-deficient diet for 5 weeks to induce IDA following which microneedle treatment was initiated. Recovery of rats from anemic state was monitored by measuring hematological and biochemical parameters. Results from in vivo study displayed significant improvements in hemoglobin and serum iron levels after 2-week treatment with FPP-loaded microneedles. The study effectively demonstrated the potential of microneedle-mediated iron replenishment for treatment of IDA. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. DOE TMD transportation training module 14 transportation of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, R.L. Jr.

    1994-07-01

    The Department of Energy Transportation Management Division has developed training module 14, entitled {open_quotes}Transportation of Explosives{close_quotes} to compliment the basic {open_quotes}core ten{close_quotes} training modules of the Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program. The purpose of this training module is to increase awareness of the Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements concerning the packaging and transportation of explosives. Topics covered in module 14 include the classification of explosives, approval and registration of explosives, packaging requirements, hazard communication requirements, separation and segregation compatibility requirements, loading and unloading operations, as well as safety measures required in the event of a vehicle accident involving explosives.

  14. EXPLOSION OF ANNULAR CHARGE ON DUSTY SURFASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Levin Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This problem is related to the safety problem in the area of forest fires. It is well known that is possible to extinguish a fire, for example, by means of a powerful air stream. Such flow arises from the explosive shock wave. To enhance the im- pact of the blast wave can be used an explosive charge of annular shape. The shock wave, produced by the explosion, in- creased during moves to the center and can serve as a means of transportation dust in the seat of the fire. In addition, emerging after the collapse of a converging shock wave strong updraft can raise dust on a greater height and facilitate fire extinguishing, precipitating dust over a large area. This updraft can be dangerous for aircraft that are in the sky above the fire. To determine the width and height of the danger zone performed the numerical simulation of the ring of the explosion and the subsequent movement of dust and gas mixtures. The gas is considered ideal and perfect. The explosion is modeled as an instantaneous increase in the specific internal energy in an annular zone on the value of the specific heat of explosives. The flow is consid- ered as two-dimensional, and axisymmetric. The axis of symmetry perpendicular to the Earth surface. This surface is considered to be absolutely rigid and is considered as the boundary of the computational domain. On this surface is exhibited the condition of no motion. For the numerical method S. K. Godunov is used a movable grid. One system of lines of this grid is moved in accordance with movement of the shock wave. Others lines of this grid are stationary. The calculations were per- formed for different values of the radii of the annular field and for different sizes of rectangular cross-sectional of the annular field. Numerical results show that a very strong flow is occurring near the axis of symmetry and the particles rise high above the surface. These calculations allow us to estimate the sizes of the zone of danger in specific

  15. Inelastic processes in seismic wave generation by underground explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1980-08-01

    Theories, computer calculations, and measurements of spherical stress waves from explosions are described and compared, with emphasis on the transition from inelastic to almost-elastic relations between stress and strain. Two aspects of nonspherical explosion geometry are considered: tectonic strain release and surface spall. Tectonic strain release affects the generation of surface waves; spall closure may also. The reduced-displacement potential is a common solution (the equivalent elastic source) of the forward and inverse problems, assuming a spherical source. Measured reduced-displacement potentials are compared with potentials calculated as solutions of the direct and inverse problems; there are significant differences between the results of the two types of calculations and between calculations and measurements. The simple spherical model of an explosion is not sufficient to account for observations of explosions over wide ranges of depth and yield. The explosion environment can have a large effect on explosion detection and yield estimation. The best sets of seismic observations for use in developing discrimination techniques are for high-magnitude high-yield explosions; the identification problem is most difficult for low-magnitude low-yield explosions. Most of the presently available explosion data (time, medium, depth, yield, etc.) are for explosions in a few media at the Nevada Test Site; some key questions concerning magnitude vs yield and m/sub b/ vs M/sub s/ relations can be answered only by data for explosions in other media at other locations.

  16. Inelastic processes in seismic wave generation by underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    Theories, computer calculations, and measurements of spherical stress waves from explosions are described and compared, with emphasis on the transition from inelastic to almost-elastic relations between stress and strain. Two aspects of nonspherical explosion geometry are considered: tectonic strain release and surface spall. Tectonic strain release affects the generation of surface waves; spall closure may also. The reduced-displacement potential is a common solution (the equivalent elastic source) of the forward and inverse problems, assuming a spherical source. Measured reduced-displacement potentials are compared with potentials calculated as solutions of the direct and inverse problems; there are significant differences between the results of the two types of calculations and between calculations and measurements. The simple spherical model of an explosion is not sufficient to account for observations of explosions over wide ranges of depth and yield. The explosion environment can have a large effect on explosion detection and yield estimation. The best sets of seismic observations for use in developing discrimination techniques are for high-magnitude high-yield explosions; the identification problem is most difficult for low-magnitude low-yield explosions. Most of the presently available explosion data (time, medium, depth, yield, etc.) are for explosions in a few media at the Nevada Test Site; some key questions concerning magnitude vs yield and m/sub b/ vs M/sub s/ relations can be answered only by data for explosions in other media at other locations

  17. The effect of water chemistry and fibre-size distribution on dissolved air flotation efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Sjölander, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this diploma work was to investigate the problem of insufficient fibre recovery in the dissolved air flotation-cell at the new thermomechanical pulping-line at Braviken Paper Mill. An investigation of the effect of process parameters on the removal efficiency in the micro-flotation process was undertaken. The experiments were carried out for two setups at the Noss pilot plant with a small-scale flotation unit. Factorial design helped plan the experiments and four factors were c...

  18. Subsurface Monitor for Dissolved Inorganic Carbon at Geological Sequestration Site Phase 1 SBIR Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Wu

    2012-08-03

    Phase I research of this SBIR contract has yielded anticipated results and enable us to develop a practical new instrument to measure the Dissolved Inorganic Carbons (DIC) as well as Supercritical (SC) CO2 in underground brine water at higher sensitivity, lower cost, higher frequency and longer period of time for the Monitoring, Verification & Accounting (MVA) of CO2 sequestration as well as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). We show that reduced cost and improved performance are possible; both future and emerging market exist for the proposed new instrument.

  19. Seismic and source characteristics of large chemical explosions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adushkin, V.V.; Kostuchenko, V.N.; Pernik, L.M.; Sultanov, D.D.; Zcikanovsky, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    From the very beginning of its arrangement in 1947, the Institute for Dynamics of the Geospheres RAS (former Special Sector of the Institute for physics of the Earth, RAS) was providing scientific observations of effects of nuclear explosions, as well as large-scale detonations of HE, on environment. This report presents principal results of instrumental observations obtained from various large-scale chemical explosions conducted in the Former-Soviet Union in the period of time from 1957 to 1989. Considering principal aim of the work, tamped and equivalent chemical explosions have been selected with total weights from several hundreds to several thousands ton. In particular, the selected explosions were aimed to study scaling law from excavation explosions, seismic effect of tamped explosions, and for dam construction for hydropower stations and soil melioration. Instrumental data on surface explosions of total weight in the same range aimed to test military technics and special objects are not included.

  20. One-Dimensional Time to Explosion (Thermal Sensitivity) of ANPZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hust, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McClelland, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gresshoff, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-11-12

    Incidents caused by fire and combat operations can heat energetic materials that may lead to thermal explosion and result in structural damage and casualty. Some explosives may thermally explode at fairly low temperatures (< 100 C) and the violence from thermal explosion may cause a significant damage. Thus it is important to understand the response of energetic materials to thermal insults. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been used for decades to measure times to explosion, threshold thermal explosion temperature, and determine kinetic parameters of energetic materials. Samples of different configurations (pressed part, powder, paste, and liquid) can be tested in the system. The ODTX testing can also provide useful data for assessing the thermal explosion violence of energetic materials. This report summarizes the recent ODTX experimental data and modeling results for 2,6-diamino-3,5-dintropyrazine (ANPZ).

  1. Numerical simulation of explosive welding using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Feng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanism of explosive welding and the influences of explosive welding parameters on the welding quality, this paper presents numerical simulation of the explosive welding of Al-Mg plates using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method. The multi-physical phenomena of explosive welding, including acceleration of the flyer plate driven by explosive detonation, oblique collision of the flyer and base plates, jetting phenomenon and the formation of wavy interface can be reproduced in the simulation. The characteristics of explosive welding are analyzed based on the simulation results. The mechanism of wavy interface formation is mainly due to oscillation of the collision point on the bonding surfaces. In addition, the impact velocity and collision angle increase with the increase of the welding parameters, such as explosive thickness and standoff distance, resulting in enlargement of the interfacial waves.

  2. HSE assessment of explosion risk analysis in offshore safety cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brighton, P.W.M.; Fearnley, P.J.; Brearley, I.G. [Health and Safety Executive, Bootle (United Kingdom). Offshore Safety Div.

    1995-12-31

    In the past two years HSE has assessed around 250 Safety Cases for offshore oil and gas installations, building up a unique overview of the current state of the art on fire and explosion risk assessment. This paper reviews the explosion risk methods employed, focusing on the aspects causing most difficulty for assessment and acceptance of Safety Cases. Prediction of overpressures in offshore explosions has been intensively researched in recent years but the justification of the means of prevention, control and mitigation of explosions often depends on much additional analysis of the frequency and damage potential of explosions. This involves a number of factors, the five usually considered being: leak sizes; gas dispersion; ignition probabilities; the frequency distribution of explosion strength; and the prediction of explosion damage. Sources of major uncertainty in these factors and their implications for practical risk management decisions are discussed. (author)

  3. Insensitive detonator apparatus for initiating large failure diameter explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, III, William Leroy

    2015-07-28

    A munition according to a preferred embodiment can include a detonator system having a detonator that is selectively coupled to a microwave source that functions to selectively prime, activate, initiate, and/or sensitize an insensitive explosive material for detonation. The preferred detonator can include an explosive cavity having a barrier within which an insensitive explosive material is disposed and a waveguide coupled to the explosive cavity. The preferred system can further include a microwave source coupled to the waveguide such that microwaves enter the explosive cavity and impinge on the insensitive explosive material to sensitize the explosive material for detonation. In use the preferred embodiments permit the deployment and use of munitions that are maintained in an insensitive state until the actual time of use, thereby substantially preventing unauthorized or unintended detonation thereof.

  4. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, Daniel [USDOE Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  5. MC3D modelling of stratified explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picchi, S.; Berthoud, G.

    1999-01-01

    It is known that a steam explosion can occur in a stratified geometry and that the observed yields are lower than in the case of explosion in a premixture configuration. However, very few models are available to quantify the amount of melt which can be involved and the pressure peak that can be developed. In the stratified application of the MC3D code, mixing and fragmentation of the melt are explained by the growth of Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities due to the shear flow of the two phase coolant above the melt. Such a model is then used to recalculate the Frost-Ciccarelli tin-water experiment. Pressure peak, speed of propagation, bubble shape and erosion height are well reproduced as well as the influence of the inertial constraint (height of the water pool). (author)

  6. Liquid-liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.

    1978-08-01

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This phenomenon is called a vapor explosion. One method of producing intimate, liquid-liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. The report describes experiments in which cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials

  7. Explosive magnetorotational instability in Keplerian disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shtemler, Yu., E-mail: shtemler@bgu.ac.il; Liverts, E., E-mail: eliverts@bgu.ac.il; Mond, M., E-mail: mond@bgu.ac.il [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-06-15

    Differentially rotating disks under the effect of axial magnetic field are prone to a nonlinear explosive magnetorotational instability (EMRI). The dynamic equations that govern the temporal evolution of the amplitudes of three weakly detuned resonantly interacting modes are derived. As distinct from exponential growth in the strict resonance triads, EMRI occurs due to the resonant interactions of an MRI mode with stable Alfvén–Coriolis and magnetosonic modes. Numerical solutions of the dynamic equations for amplitudes of a triad indicate that two types of perturbations behavior can be excited for resonance conditions: (i) EMRI which leads to infinite values of the three amplitudes within a finite time, and (ii) bounded irregular oscillations of all three amplitudes. Asymptotic explicit solutions of the dynamic equations are obtained for EMRI regimes and are shown to match the numerical solutions near the explosion time.

  8. Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Yuen, W.W.; Angelini, S.; Freeman, K.; Chen, X.; Salmassi, T. [Center for Risk Studies and Safety, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Sienicki, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads in an AP600-like reactor design is considered. The assessment is the second part of an evaluation of the in-vessel retention idea as a severe accident management concept, the first part (DOE/ID-10460) dealing with thermal loads. The assessment is conducted in terms of the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM), and includes the comprehensive evaluation of all relevant severe accident scenarios, melt conditions and timing of release from the core region, fully 3D mixing and explosion wave dynamics, and lower head fragility under local, dynamic loading. All of these factors and brought together in a ROAAM Probabilistic Framework to evaluate failure likelihood. The conclusion is that failure is `physically unreasonable`. (author)

  9. Initiation and Propagation in Primary Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, P. M.; Field, J. E.

    1993-05-01

    The initiation and propagation of deflagration and detonation in mercury fulminate, lead azide, mercuric-5-nitrotetrazole and silver-5-nitrotetrazole have been studied using various techniques. Streak and framing high-speed photography were used to observe these events directly. The main aim has been to investigate the factors which affect deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) and the related phenomenon of dead-pressing, which may be regarded as a failure of the DDT process at high pressed densities. These factors include the variable properties of pressed density, void structure, confinement and charge dimension and geometry, and also fixed properties (for a given explosive) such as shock and thermal sensitivities, heat of explosion and the quantity and state of the reaction products. The nature and strength of the initiating stimulus also have a major effect on the subsequent reaction.

  10. Pipelines explosion, violates Humanitarian International Right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1997-01-01

    Recently and for first time, an organism of the orbit of the human rights put the finger in the wound of the problem that represents for Colombia the pipelines explosion and the social and environmental impact that those actions in this case the Defense of the People office, the institution that published a document related this denounces, in the one that sustains that the country it cannot continue of back with a serious and evident reality as the related with the explosions of pipelines. We are the only country of the world where happen these facts and enormous losses are not only causing to the Colombian economy, but rather our environmental wealth is affecting, the document, denounced the ignorance of the humanitarian international right on the part of those who apply to that class of attacks

  11. Facial trauma caused by electronic cigarette explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Brian; Spellman, Joseph; Shah, Anil; Stewart, Alexander; Mullin, David

    2017-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes are increasingly popular as a supposed safer alternative to tobacco cigarettes or a smoking cessation tool. Research and debate have focused primarily on possible adverse effects caused by the inhaled aerosol produced by electronic cigarettes and on smoking cessation efficacy. Few reports in the medical literature describe injuries secondary to device malfunction. We present a case of electronic cigarette explosion, with a projectile fracturing the patient's right naso-orbital-ethmoid complex and anterior and posterior frontal sinus tables, with frontal sinus outflow tract involvement. The patient underwent combined open and endoscopic repair, including open reduction internal fixation, with reconstitution and preservation of the frontal sinus and frontal sinus outflow tract. Additionally, we review the available data on electronic cigarette malfunction-including fires, explosions, associated injuries, and possible reasons for device malfunction-and discuss new 2016 U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations pertaining to electronic cigarettes.

  12. Investigation of the shallow depth explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamegai, M.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation of the nuclear explosions at shallow depth is made. A combination of an explosion code and an effects code proves to be an excellent tool for this study. A numerical simulation of ''Johnie Boy'' shows that the energy coupling to the air takes place in two stages; first by a rising mound, and then by a vented source. The thermal effects are examined for a 1 kt source at three depths of burial. The ''mushroom effect'' leaves a hot radiative plasma in the upper level and cold materials in the lower region of the debris. The temperature and the energy density of the debris can give an upper limit on the thermal output

  13. Explosions. Protection : lieux de travail et environnement

    OpenAIRE

    Janes, Agnès; Chaineaux, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Une explosion se définit comme la transformation rapide d'un système s'accompagnant d'une libération brutale d'énergie et se traduisant par une expansion de gaz. Différents phénomènes dangereux qualifiés d'explosions physique ou chimique, suivant la nature de la transformation du système, sont susceptibles de se produire dans les industries mettant en oeuvre des produits pulvérulents : l'éclatement d'une enceinte pressurisée, comme un réservoir de compresseur ; la décomposition de substances ...

  14. Method and system for detecting explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Edward L [Idaho Falls, ID; Jewell, James K [Idaho Falls, ID; Rohde, Kenneth W [Idaho Falls, ID; Seabury, Edward H [Idaho Falls, ID; Blackwood, Larry G [Idaho Falls, ID; Edwards, Andrew J [Idaho Falls, ID; Derr, Kurt W [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-03-10

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  15. The November 2009 paroxysmal explosions at Stromboli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronico, Daniele; Pistolesi, Marco

    2010-09-01

    Two paroxysmal explosions occurred at Stromboli volcano (Italy) on 8 and 24 November 2009. Analysis of recordings (from video-camera surveillance) indicates that each paroxysm consisted of multiple bursts from different vents. Field surveys, carried out within a few days after the two paroxysmal events, allowed us to gather crucial data on eruptive deposits and document morphological variations occurring at the source vents. Integration of video-analysis and field observations allowed making inferences on the eruptive dynamics of each explosive paroxysm. The 24 November event, in particular, erupted a larger volume and coarser products dispersed further from the summit area, resulting in a more hazardous event compared to the 8 November event that was largely confined to the upper part of the volcano.

  16. Neutron albedo effects of underground nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Ying Yangjun; Li Jinhong; Bai Yun

    2013-01-01

    The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device.The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device. (authors)

  17. Effects of frustration on explosive synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xia; Gao, Jian; Sun, Yu-Ting; Zheng, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Can

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we consider the emergence of explosive synchronization in scale-free networks by considering the Kuramoto model of coupled phase oscillators. The natural frequencies of oscillators are assumed to be correlated with their degrees and frustration is included in the system. This assumption can enhance or delay the explosive transition to synchronization. Interestingly, a de-synchronization phenomenon occurs and the type of phase transition is also changed. Furthermore, we provide an analytical treatment based on a star graph, which resembles that obtained in scale-free networks. Finally, a self-consistent approach is implemented to study the de-synchronization regime. Our findings have important implications for controlling synchronization in complex networks because frustration is a controllable parameter in experiments and a discontinuous abrupt phase transition is always dangerous in engineering in the real world.

  18. Ignitability and explosibility of gases and vapors

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Tingguang

    2015-01-01

    The book provides a systematic view on flammability and a collection of solved engineering problems in the fields of dilution and purge, mine gas safety, clean burning safety and gas suppression modeling. For the first time, fundamental principles of energy conservation are used to develop theoretical flammability diagrams and are then explored to understand various safety-related mixing problems. This provides the basis for a fully-analytical solution to any flammability problem. Instead of the traditional view that flammability is a fundamental material property, here flammability is discovered to be a result of the explosibility of air and the ignitability of fuel, or a process property. By exploring the more fundamental concepts of explosibility and ignitability, the safety targets of dilution and purge can be better defined and utilized for guiding safe operations in process safety. This book provides various engineering approaches to mixture flammability, benefiting not only the safety students, but al...

  19. Experimental evaluation of LPG tank explosion hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawczyk, Jan

    2003-01-31

    Liquefied-pressure gases (LPG) are transported and stored in the liquid phase in closed tanks under sufficiently high pressure. In the case of an accident, an abrupt tank unsealing may release enormous quantity of evaporating gas and energy that has a destructive effect on the tank and its surroundings. In this paper, experiments with explosions of small LPG tanks are described. The data acquisition equipment applied in the tests provided a chance to learn dynamics of the process and determine hazard factors. The tests enabled a determination of temperature and pressure at which tanks containing LPG disrupt. The results enable a reconstruction of consecutive phases of the explosion and identification of hazards resulting from damage of the tanks. An explanation of the tank unsealing process with fluid parameters above critical point is given.

  20. Explosion-combustion in exoplanetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, John Lee; Godolt, Mareike; Stracke, Barbara; Gebauer, Stefanie; Rauer, Heike

    2017-04-01

    Conditions leading to explosion or/and combustion in exoplanetary atmospheres are investigated for different atmospheric composition, temperature and pressure. Cases considered are Super-Earths orbiting in the habitable zone of M-dwarf stars with atmospheres consisting of abiotically-produced molecular oxygen together with molecular hydrogen accreted from the protoplanetary disk. Should these atmospheres undergo hydrogen-oxygen combustion triggered by e.g. lightning or cosmic rays, this would limit the build-up of abiotic oxygen, lower the hydrogen gas envelope and could lead to liquid oceans with masses tens to hundreds of times larger than on the Earth. We also consider other explosive-combustive gas mixtures which could lead to carbon monoxide or methane combustion in the atmospheres of some Mini Gas Planets or in (Early) Earth-like atmospheres.

  1. Feasibility of recovery boiler in paper and pulp industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, H.

    2010-01-01

    in this paper feasibility of recovery boiler in terms of economics and environmental impacts in studied. Recovery boilers are employed in the pulp and paper industry where the cooking agent is recovered by burning black liquor. Cooking agent is exhausted due to the absorption of lignin (a burnable component) in cooking agent in the process of straw cooking. The process of recovery boiler is to remove lignin by combustion from black liquor, and heat is produced during the combustion of lignin which is used to produce steam. Recovery boiler is economical as it is recovering valuable chemicals and steam is produced as a byproduct. Steam from recovery boiler is also used for concentrating weak black liquor to concentrated black liquor recovering 50% of the utility water being used at the plant. The regenerated water in the form of foul condensate is reused in the process. The recovery of hazardous chemicals also reduces load of environmental pollution. Which otherwise can pollute the water reservoirs, and regeneration of water makes it environmentally friendly plant. Construction and challenges in operation of recovery boiler such as smelt-water explosion are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  2. Proposed Equation to Estimate the Total Dissolved Salts in Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baqer A. Ali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of this paper is pediment a new equation which can be used to obtain the total dissolved salts in the sand. This equation enables us to obtain the total dissolved salts by finding density of the watery solution resulting from dissolve any sample in distilled water. This equation shows very good results, so in this paper a new method is proposed to find the total dissolved salts by applying this equation which derived in this research without the need to use usual methods in finding those total dissolved salts. In this study, the proposed method uses the density variation between distilled water and the watery solution which is taken from the sand sample dissolved with distilled water. This proposed method will make the test of total dissolved salts more easily and quickly applied. The proposed method is equal or exceed in its reliability on other testing methods.

  3. Dynamic Fracture Simulations of Explosively Loaded Cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Carly W. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Goto, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    This report documents the modeling results of high explosive experiments investigating dynamic fracture of steel (AerMet® 100 alloy) cylinders. The experiments were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during 2007 to 2008 [10]. A principal objective of this study was to gain an understanding of dynamic material failure through the analysis of hydrodynamic computer code simulations. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional computational cylinder models were analyzed using the ALE3D multi-physics computer code.

  4. DOD Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-29

    C5.4.4.3.6. Anticipated personnel limits for the new or modified facility, to include a breakdown by room or bay, when appropriate...operations include, but are not limited to: power screening equipment, power rakes, and shredders . C12.5.8.3.5.1. Nonessential Personnel...present an explosive hazard. C15.8.4.2. The use of remotely operated equipment (e.g., excavators, sifters, and shredders ) or other standoff

  5. Explosive Infrasonic Events: Sensor Comparison Experiment (SCE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnurr, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Garces, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rodgers, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    SCE (sensor comparison experiment) 1 through 4 consists of a series of four controlled above-ground explosions designed to provide new data for overpressure propagation. Infrasound data were collected by LLNL iPhones and other sensors. Origin times, locations HOB, and yields are not being released at this time and are therefore not included in this report. This preliminary report will be updated as access to additional data changes, or instrument responses are determined.

  6. The long-term nuclear explosives predicament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swahn, J.

    1992-01-01

    A scenario is described, where the production of new military fissile materials is halted and where civil nuclear power is phased out in a 'no-new orders' case. It is found that approximately 1100 tonnes of weapons-grade uranium, 233 tonnes of weapons-grade plutonium and 3795 tonnes of reactor-grade plutonium have to be finally disposed of as nuclear waste. This material could be used for the construction of over 1 million nuclear explosives. Reactor-grade plutonium is found to be easier to extract from spent nuclear fuel with time and some physical characteristics important for the construction of nuclear explosives are improved. Alternative methods for disposal of the fissile material that will avoid the long-term nuclear explosives predicament are examined. Among these methods are dilution, denaturing or transmutation of the fissile material and options for practicably irrecoverable disposal in deep boreholes, on the sea-bed, and in space. It is found that the deep boreholes method for disposal should be the primary alternative to be examined further. This method can be combined with an effort to 'forget' where the material was put. Included in the thesis is also an evaluation of the possibilities of controlling the limited civil nuclear activities in a post-nuclear world. Some surveillance technologies for a post-nuclear world are described, including satellite surveillance. In a review part of the thesis, methods for the production of fissile material for nuclear explosives are described, the technological basis for the construction of nuclear weapons is examined, including use of reactor-grade plutonium for such purposes; also plans for the disposal of spent fuel from civil nuclear power reactors and for the handling of the fissile material from dismantled warheads is described. The Swedish plan for the handling and disposal of spent nuclear fuel is described in detail. (490 refs., 66 figs., 27 tabs.)

  7. Chemical Explosions and the Discrimination Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-26

    et al. (1989). The events are near the eastern Kazakhstan nuclear test site and include two chemical explosions ( Chemex I and 2; see Given et al...0.75 times window length) between successive windows. Chemex I consisted of a linear array of 30 boreholes with about 10 m spacing between each hole...all subshots were contained underground. Thus, the event was a typical multiple-hole instantaneous shot. The spectrograms from Chemex 1 (Figure 2) are

  8. Remote detection of explosives using trained canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.C.

    1983-03-01

    Use of dogs is a search method which combines high probability of detection, speed of search, and low cost. It was concluded that the canine could be used for explosive screening of personnel, but that it was imperative that the dog be in a position remote from employees and employee traffic. A study was made of the design of booths and air flow for this purpose. Results of tests and conclusions are given and discussed

  9. Some properties of explosive mixtures containing peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeman, Svatopluk [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, CZ-532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic)], E-mail: svatopluk.zeman@upce.cz; Trzcinski, Waldemar A. [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, PL-00-908 Warsaw 49 (Poland); Matyas, Robert [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, CZ-532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic)

    2008-06-15

    This study concerns mixtures of triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP) and ammonium nitrate (AN) with added water (W), as the case may be, and dry mixtures of TATP with urea nitrate (UN). Relative performances (RP) of the mixtures and their individual components, relative to TNT, were determined by means of ballistic mortar. The detonation energies, E{sub 0}, and detonation velocities, D, were calculated for the mixtures studied by means of the thermodynamic code CHEETAH. Relationships have been found and are discussed between the RP and the E{sub 0} values related to unit volume of gaseous products of detonation of these mixtures. These relationships together with those between RP and oxygen balance values of the mixtures studied indicate different types of participation of AN and UN in the explosive decomposition of the respective mixtures. Dry TATP/UN mixtures exhibit lower RP than analogous mixtures TATP/AN containing up to 25% of water. Depending on the water content, the TATP/AN mixtures possess higher detonability values than the ANFO explosives. A semi-logarithmic relationship between the D values and oxygen coefficients has been derived for all the mixtures studied at the charge density of 1000 kg m{sup -3}. Among the mixtures studied, this relationship distinguishes several samples of the type of 'tertiary explosives' as well as samples that approach 'high explosives' in their performances and detonation velocities.

  10. A look at the primeval explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, John

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns the investigations of the Big-bang theory of the Universe, by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite. The theory and consequences of the Big-bang are explained, including the diffuse background radiation released by the primeval explosion. The instruments on COBE will measure and map the diffuse background of microwave and infrared radiation in the Universe. These observations should provide information about the nature of the early Universe. (U,K.)

  11. Boundary layer structure of an explosive cyclone

    OpenAIRE

    Steeley, Glen D.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited A detailed analysis of the horizontal boundary layer structure of the warm front of an open ocean explosive cyclone in Intensive Observation Period (IOP) 2 of the Experiment on Rapidly Intensifying Cyclones in the Atlantic (ERICA) is conducted. Data for this study consists of aircraft data averaged over one minute supplimented by satellite and drifting buoy observations. Analysis of surface winds and fluxes was done using the Brown-Liu...

  12. DOE explosives safety manual. Revision 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This manual prescribes the Department of Energy (DOE) safety rules used to implement the DOE safety policy for operations involving explosives. This manual is applicable to all DOE facilities engaged in operations of development, manufacturing, handling, storage, transportation, processing, or testing of explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants, or assemblies containing these materials. The standards of this manual deal with the operations involving explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants, and the safe management of such operations. The design of all new explosives facilities shall conform to the requirements established in this manual and implemented in DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria Manual.`` It is not intended that existing physical facilities be changed arbitrarily to comply with these provisions, except as required by law. Existing facilities that do not comply with these standards may continue to be used for the balance of their functional life, as long as the current operation presents no significantly greater risk than that assumed when the facility was originally designed and it can be demonstrated clearly that a modification to bring the facility into compliance is not feasible. However, in the case of a major renovation, the facility must be brought into compliance with current standards. The standards are presented as either mandatory or advisory. Mandatory standards, denoted by the words ``shall,`` ``must,`` or ``will,`` are requirements that must be followed unless written authority for deviation is granted as an exemption by the DOE. Advisory standards denoted by ``should`` or ``may`` are standards that may be deviated from with a waiver granted by facility management.

  13. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Matsunaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region.

  14. Dissolve energy obesity by energy diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Heum [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    Every organism takes needed materials or energy from outside and excretes unessential things to outside. This is called a metabolism or energy metabolism. Calculating the amount of energy consumed by human in the world by converting to the amount of metabolism of an animal to survive, the weight of a human being is corresponding to an animal with a weigh of 40 ton. Human beings can find a solution to dissolve energy obesity or can maintain a massive status by finding a new energy source in the universe.

  15. A hydrocode study of explosive shock ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, George; Horie, Yasuyuki

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the results of hydrocode simulations of shock-induced ignition of PBXN-109, Octol, and PETN, using the History Variable Reactive Burn model in the CTH hydrocode. The simulations began with small-scale sympathetic detonation experiments, from which normalized values of pressure and time were derived and used to define an upper bound for ignition. This upper bound corresponds to the well established Pop-plot data for supported detonation, i . e . detonations in which a constant shock pressure is applied to an explosive until full detonation is achieved. Subsequently, one-dimensional flyer-plate simulations were conducted where the response of constant-amplitude, limited-duration shock pulses into semi-infinite explosive samples was examined. These simulations confirmed not only the existence of an upper bound for ignition as expected, but also showed ignition by ``lower level'' shocks, in which full detonation is reached at a time longer than the input shock duration. These lower-level shocks can be used to define a distinct minimal ignition threshold, below which shock pulses do not result in detonation. Numerical experiments using these bounds offer a new framework for interpreting explosive initiation data.

  16. Overview of experimental studies on vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Yamano, Norihiro; Maruyama, Yu; Kudo, Tamotsu; Sugimoto, Jun

    1994-12-01

    Experimental studies of vapor explosions were overviewed and currently available knowledge was summarized with emphasis on the large scale experiments. Since 1970s, quite a few large scale experiments have been performed, which have included several types such as pin geometry experiments simulating the early stages of severe accidents in nuclear reactors, and melt-coolant interaction experiments with drop/jet geometry or stratified geometry simulating the phenomena expected to take place after a large scale core melt-down. According to previous experimental results, following facts are clarified ; spontaneous explosions are not likely with saturated coolant and/or with high pressures ; the energy conversion ratio in large scale systems is in the range 0.1∼several percents ; if the coolant is sodium generally benign interaction is expected compared with the case of water coolant ; etc. Recently, accompanied with the development of numerical simulation codes for vapor explosions, considerable efforts are devoted into premixing experiments and one dimensional geometry experiments oriented to provide data for the comparison with numerical simulations. (author) 87 refs

  17. Underground nuclear explosions at Astrakhan, USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, I.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The three underground nuclear explosions recorded in 1980 and 1981 by Hagfors Observatory in Sweden are in the vicinity of Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea. They are believed to be associated with the development of a gas condensate field discovered in 1973. The gas producing horizons are in limestones at 4000 m depth. They are overlain by bedded, Kungarian salts. Salt domes are recognized in the area. Plans to develop the field are contained in the 11th Five Year Plan (1981-82). The USSR has solicited bids from western contractors to build gas separation and gas processing plant with an annual capacity of 6 billion m 3 . Ultimate expansion plans call for three plants with the total capacity of 18 billion m 3 . By analogy with similar peaceful nuclear explosions described in 1975 by the Soviets at another gas condensate field, the underground cavities are probably designed for storage of unstable, sour condensate after initial separation from the gaseous phases in the field. Assuming that the medium surrounding the explosions is salt, the volume of each cavity is on the order of 50,000 m 3

  18. Noise-abatement method for explosives testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, H E; Odell, B N; Arganbright, V E

    1980-09-01

    When Lawrence Livermore Laboratory started detonating explosives at its Site 300 test location in the sparsely populated hills east of the Laboratory, residents in neighboring areas complained of sudden loud noises. A combined literature and research study, coupled with an experimental test program, indicated the combination of air temperatures and winds at various elevations was primarily responsible for blast or sound waves being returned to the surface. To solve the noise problem, the Laboratory devised a method for determining the maximum amount of explosives that could be detonated aboveground under various atmospheric conditions without creating excessive noise in populated areas. This method for predicting explosives weight limits using pressure-distance-weight nomograms and the slope of a sound-velocity curve is described in this paper. The sound-velocity curve is computed with temperature information from the U.S. Weather Bureau and wind data from a target-acquisition radar system. By following this method, the Laboratory has been able to detonate thousands of shots without creating excessive noise in nearby communities.

  19. Safety vessels for explosive fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineev, V.

    1994-01-01

    The failure of several types of geometrically similar cylindrical and spherical steel and glass fibers vessels filled with water or air was investigated when an explosive charge of TNT was detonated in the center. Vessels had radius 50-1000 mm, thickness of walls 2-20%. The detonation on TNT imitated energy release. The parameter: K = M/mf is a measure of the strength of the vessel where M is the mass of the vessel, and mf is the mass of TNT for which the vessel fails. This demanded 2-4 destroyed and nondestroyed shots. It may be showed that: K=A/σ f where σ f is the fracture stress of the material vessel, and A = const = F(energy TNT, characteristic of elasticity of vessel material). The chief results are the following: (1) A similar increase in the geometrical dimensions of steel vessels by a factor of 10 leads to the increase of parameter K in about 5 times and to decrease of failure deformation in 7 times (scale effect). (2) For glass fibers, scale effect is absent. (3) This problem is solved in terms of theory energetic scale effect. (4) The concept of TNT equivalent explosive makes it possible to use these investigations to evaluate the response of safety vessels for explosive fusion reactor

  20. Coulomb explosion of large penetrating molecular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, H.E.; Thieberger, P.

    1981-01-01

    The main purpose of these Coulomb explosion measurements is to determine what kind of structure these and other complex molecules may have and also to determine what other special phenomena may come into play as these complex molecules pass through matter. Although the first preliminary measurements involving the Coulomb explosion of these molecules was reported at this workshop last year, the results are briefly summarized before going on to the more recent measurements obtained with a completely new kind of detector system. This new image intensifier detector system, coupled with a microcomputer, has proven to be a valuable tool in the study of the Coulomb explosion of complex molecules that penetrate matter. In the future, with some additional improvements in the system, and much better statistics for most of the molecules studied to date, it is expected that much new information will be gained about the structure of many kinds of complex molecular ions including the special effects that may be encountered when these fast molecular ions penetrate matter

  1. Explosive Detection in Aviation Applications Using CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, H E; Crawford, C R

    2011-02-15

    CT scanners are deployed world-wide to detect explosives in checked and carry-on baggage. Though very similar to single- and dual-energy multi-slice CT scanners used today in medical imaging, some recently developed explosives detection scanners employ multiple sources and detector arrays to eliminate mechanical rotation of a gantry, photon counting detectors for spectral imaging, and limited number of views to reduce cost. For each bag scanned, the resulting reconstructed images are first processed by automated threat recognition algorithms to screen for explosives and other threats. Human operators review the images only when these automated algorithms report the presence of possible threats. The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has requirements for future scanners that include dealing with a larger number of threats, higher probability of detection, lower false alarm rates and lower operating costs. One tactic that DHS is pursuing to achieve these requirements is to augment the capabilities of the established security vendors with third-party algorithm developers. A third-party in this context refers to academics and companies other than the established vendors. DHS is particularly interested in exploring the model that has been used very successfully by the medical imaging industry, in which university researchers develop algorithms that are eventually deployed in commercial medical imaging equipment. The purpose of this paper is to discuss opportunities for third-parties to develop advanced reconstruction and threat detection algorithms.

  2. Multi-sensor explosive detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozani, T.; Shea, P.M.; Sawa, Z.P.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes an explosive detection system. It comprises a source of neutrons; a detector array comprising a plurality of gamma ray detectors, each of the gamma ray detectors providing a detection signal in the event a gamma ray is captured by the detector, and at least one neutron detector, the neutron detector providing a neutron detection signal in the event a neutron is captured by the neutron detector; means for irradiating an object being examined with neutrons from the neutron source and for positioning the detector array relative to the object so that gamma rays emitted from the elements within the object as a result of the neutron irradiation are detected by the gamma ray detectors of the detector array; and parallel distributed processing means responsive to the detection signals of the detector array for discriminating between objects carrying explosives and objects not carrying explosives, the parallel distributed processing means including an artificial neural system (ANS), the ANS having a parallel network of processors, each processor of the parallel network of processors, each processor of the parallel network of processors including means for receiving at least one input signal, and means for generating an output signal as a function of the at least one input signal

  3. A non-ideal model for predicting the effect of dissolved salt on the flash point of solvent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Horng-Jang; Wang, Tzu-Ai

    2007-03-06

    Flash point is one of the major quantities used to characterize the fire and explosion hazard of liquids. Herein, a liquid with dissolved salt is presented in a salt-distillation process for separating close-boiling or azeotropic systems. The addition of salts to a liquid may reduce fire and explosion hazard. In this study, we have modified a previously proposed model for predicting the flash point of miscible mixtures to extend its application to solvent/salt mixtures. This modified model was verified by comparison with the experimental data for organic solvent/salt and aqueous-organic solvent/salt mixtures to confirm its efficacy in terms of prediction of the flash points of these mixtures. The experimental results confirm marked increases in liquid flash point increment with addition of inorganic salts relative to supplementation with equivalent quantities of water. Based on this evidence, it appears reasonable to suggest potential application for the model in assessment of the fire and explosion hazard for solvent/salt mixtures and, further, that addition of inorganic salts may prove useful for hazard reduction in flammable liquids.

  4. Safe, in situ methodologies for the destruction of triacetone triperoxide and other explosive peroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, III, Christian (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Sigman, Michael (Inventor); Fidler, Rebecca (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and other explosives of the peroxide family are safely degraded in situ. Nano and micron size metal particles in an elemental state include pure iron and magnesium or iron and magnesium particles that are mechanically alloyed with palladium and nickel. The metal particles are used in both the elemental state and in emulsions that are made from water, a hydrophobic solvent, such as corn oil, and a food-grade nonionic surfactant. The neat metals and emulsified zero valent metals (EZVM) safely degrade TATP with the major degradation product being acetone. The EZVM system absorbs and dissolves the TATP into the emulsion droplets where TATP degradation occurs. EZVM systems are ideal for degrading dry TATP crystals that may be present on a carpet or door entrance. Both the neat metal system and the emulsion system (EZVM) degrade TATP in an aqueous slurry.

  5. Fate of recovery boiler smelt nitrogen in the recovery cycle; Soodakattilan sulan typpiyhdisteitten kaeyttaeytyminen talteenottoprosessissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Forssen, M.; Backman, R.; Ek, P.; Hulden, S.G.; Kilpinen, P.; Kymaelaeinen, M.; Malm, H. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to study the fate of the nitrogen bound in the inorganic smelt after it enters the dissolving tank. Of special interest is to find in what form this nitrogen can be found further down in the recovery process and especially in what form it can be removed from the process. The aim is to clarify if the nitrogen can be a potential problem in the process or if it can become a potential emission. The work is divided into choosing methods for the analysis of different nitrogen species, collection and analysis of mill samples, laboratory studies and theoretical studies on nitrogen chemistry in alkaline solutions and reporting

  6. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2004-11-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  7. Recovery of phosphorus and aluminium from sewage sludge ash by a new wet chemical elution process (SESAL-Phos-recovery process).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzet, S; Peplinski, B; Bodkhe, S Y; Cornel, P

    2011-01-01

    The potential of a new wet chemical process for phosphorus and aluminium recovery from sewage sludge ash by sequential elution with acidic and alkaline solutions has been investigated: SESAL-Phos (sequential elution of sewage sludge ash for aluminium and phosphorus recovery). Its most innovative aspect is an acidic pre-treatment step in which calcium is leached from the sewage sludge ash. Thus the percentage of alkaline soluble aluminium phosphates is increased from 20 to 67%. This aluminium phosphate is then dissolved in alkali. Subsequently, the dissolved phosphorus is precipitated as calcium phosphate with low heavy metal content and recovered from the alkaline solution. Dissolved aluminium is recovered and may be reused as a precipitant in wastewater treatment plants.

  8. Process and facility for recovery of uranium or other materials dissolved in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koske, H.P.; Ohlrogge, K.

    1984-01-01

    To increase the flow rate and raise the adsorption efficiency, the adsorber granulate is moved in a closed circuit in the same flow direction as the flowing seawater. After contacting, the depleted seawater is separated from the adsorber granulate and discharged into the sea. (orig./PW) [de

  9. Recovery Act: Molecular Simulation of Dissolved Inorganic Carbons for Underground Brine CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, William

    2012-11-30

    To further our understanding and develop the method for measuring the DICs under geological sequestration conditions, we studied the infrared spectra of DICs under high pressure and temperature conditions. First principles simulations of DICs in brine conditions were performed using a highly optimized ReaxFF-DIC forcefield. The thermodynamics stability of each species were determined using the 2PT method, and shown to be consistent with the Reax simulations. More importantly, we have presented the IR spectra of DIC in real brine conditions as a function of temperature and pressure. At near earth conditions, we find a breaking of the O-C-O bending modes into asymmetric and symmetric modes, separated by 100cm{sup -1} at 400K and 5 GPa. These results can now be used to calibrate FTIR laser measurements.

  10. Recovery and money management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L; Ablondi, Karen; Wilber, Charles; Rosen, Marc I

    2013-06-01

    Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Out of 49 total qualitative interviews, 25 transcripts with persons receiving Social Security insurance or Social Security disability insurance who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Money management interventions should incorporate peoples' recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one's finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client's recovery-related goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. MHD (Magnetohydrodynamics) recovery and regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlroy, R. A. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Probert, P. B. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Lahoda, E. J. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Swift, W. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jackson, D. M. [Univ. of Tennessee Space Inst. (UTSI), Tullahoma, TN (United States); Prasad, J. [Univ. of Tennessee Space Inst. (UTSI), Tullahoma, TN (United States); Martin, J. [Hudson Engineering (United States); Rogers, C. [Hudson Engineering (United States); Ho, K. K. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Senary, M. K. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Lee, S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States)

    1988-10-01

    A two-phase program investigating MHD seed regeneration is described. In Phase I, bench scale experiments were carried out to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a proposed Seed Regeneration Process. The Phase I data has been used for the preliminary design of a Proof-of-Concept (POC) plant which will be built and tested in Phase II. The Phase I data will also be used to estimate the costs of a 300 Mw(t) demonstration plant for comparison with other processes. The Seed Regeneration Process consists of two major subprocesses; a Westinghouse Dry Reduction process and a modified Tampella (sulfur) Recovery process. The Westinghouse process reduces the recovered spent seed (i.e., potassium sulfate) to potassium polysulfide in a rotary kiln. The reduction product is dissolved in water to form green liquor, clarified to remove residual coal ash, and sent to the Tampella sulfur release system. The sulfur is released using carbon dioxide from flue gas in a two stage reaction. The sulfur is converted to elemental sulfur as a marketable by product. The potassium is crystallized from the green liquor and dried to the anhydrous form for return to the MHD unit.

  12. Identification of Groundwater Nitrate Contamination from Explosives Used in Road Construction: Isotopic, Chemical, and Hydrologic Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, James R; Böhlke, J K; Pelham, Krystle; Langlais, David M; Walsh, Gregory J

    2016-01-19

    Explosives used in construction have been implicated as sources of NO3(-) contamination in groundwater, but direct forensic evidence is limited. Identification of blasting-related NO3(-) can be complicated by other NO3(-) sources, including agriculture and wastewater disposal, and by hydrogeologic factors affecting NO3(-) transport and stability. Here we describe a study that used hydrogeology, chemistry, stable isotopes, and mass balance calculations to evaluate groundwater NO3(-) sources and transport in areas surrounding a highway construction site with documented blasting in New Hampshire. Results indicate various groundwater responses to contamination: (1) rapid breakthrough and flushing of synthetic NO3(-) (low δ(15)N, high δ(18)O) from dissolution of unexploded NH4NO3 blasting agents in oxic groundwater; (2) delayed and reduced breakthrough of synthetic NO3(-) subjected to partial denitrification (high δ(15)N, high δ(18)O); (3) relatively persistent concentrations of blasting-related biogenic NO3(-) derived from nitrification of NH4(+) (low δ(15)N, low δ(18)O); and (4) stable but spatially variable biogenic NO3(-) concentrations, consistent with recharge from septic systems (high δ(15)N, low δ(18)O), variably affected by denitrification. Source characteristics of denitrified samples were reconstructed from dissolved-gas data (Ar, N2) and isotopic fractionation trends associated with denitrification (Δδ(15)N/Δδ(18)O ≈ 1.31). Methods and data from this study are expected to be applicable in studies of other aquifers affected by explosives used in construction.

  13. New source of evidence: explosive traces in hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Jimmie C.; Smith, James L.; Kirschenbaum, Louis; Shinde, Kajal P.; Marimganti, Suvarnakishore

    2004-09-01

    This study examines the sorption of explosives [TNT, RDX, PETN, TATP] to hair during exposure to their vapors. In each test, three colors of hair were simultaneously exposed to explosive vapor. Washing, extracting, and gas chromatographic quantification protocols were developed, and replication of quantitative data was confirmed. Results show that sorption of explosives, via vapor diffusion, to black hair is significantly greater than to blond, brown or bleached hair. Furthermore, the rate of sorption is directly related to the vapor density of the explosive: TATP >>> TNT >> PETN > RDX. Using TNT as the prototype, persistence of the explosive upon standing in air and upon repeated washing with sodium dodecyl sulfate was demonstrated. This study indicates that hair can be a useful indicator of explosive exposure/handling. Work is in progress to develop this technique into an effective forensic tool.

  14. Analysis of the external explosion action on the building barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Siwiński

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method for determination of the action of an external explosion on building barriers. We used different procedures, known in the literature, for analysis of action of an external explosion. These procedures were the basis of tabulated algorithm for determination of the characteristics of the explosion action on the building barriers. We considered the basic division of phases of explosion action onto overpressure phase and underpressure phase. We determined blast wave parameters considering the division of explosion zone onto the close zone and distant zone. For each zone, we presented the methods of determination of the initial pressure of the reflected wave, time durations of overpressure phase, and the load variation in time.[b]Keywords[/b]: civil engineering, structural mechanics, explosive actions, building structures

  15. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G; Daniels, J; Wegrecki, A

    2007-10-01

    This document contains the human health and ecological risk assessment for the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF). Volume 1 is the text of the risk assessment, and Volume 2 (provided on a compact disc) is the supporting modeling data. The EWTF is operated by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Site 300, which is located in the foothills between the cities of Livermore and Tracy, approximately 17 miles east of Livermore and 8 miles southwest of Tracy. Figure 1 is a map of the San Francisco Bay Area, showing the location of Site 300 and other points of reference. One of the principal activities of Site 300 is to test what are known as 'high explosives' for nuclear weapons. These are the highly energetic materials that provide the force to drive fissionable material to criticality. LLNL scientists develop and test the explosives and the integrated non-nuclear components in support of the United States nuclear stockpile stewardship program as well as in support of conventional weapons and the aircraft, mining, oil exploration, and construction industries. Many Site 300 facilities are used in support of high explosives research. Some facilities are used in the chemical formulation of explosives; others are locations where explosive charges are mechanically pressed; others are locations where the materials are inspected radiographically for such defects as cracks and voids. Finally, some facilities are locations where the machined charges are assembled before they are sent to the onsite test firing facilities, and additional facilities are locations where materials are stored. Wastes generated from high-explosives research are treated by open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD). OB and OD treatments are necessary because they are the safest methods for treating explosives wastes generated at these facilities, and they eliminate the requirement for further handling

  16. Air Blasts from Cased and Uncased Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, L. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-12

    The problem of a spherical blast in air is solved using the STUN code. For bare charges, the calculations are shown to be in excellent agreement with previous published results. It is demonstrated that, for an unconfined (uncased) chemical explosive, both range and time to effect scale inversely as the cube root of the yield and directly as the cube root of the ambient air density. It is shown that the peak overpressure decays to roughly 1/10 of ambient pressure in a scaled range of roughly 10 m/kg1/3 at sea level. At a height of 30 km, where the ambient density is a factor of 64 less, the range to the same decay increases to 40 m/kg1/3 . As a direct result of the scaling a single calculation suffices for all charge sizes and altitudes. Although the close-in results are sensitive to the nature of the explosive source and the equation of state of the air, this sensitivity is shown to virtually disappear at scaled ranges > 0.5 m/kg1/3 . For cased explosives the case thickness introduces an additional scale factor. Moreover, when the blast wave arrives at the inner case radius the case begins to expand. Fracture occurs when a critical value of the resulting hoop strain is reached, causing the case to shatter into fragments. A model is proposed to describe the size distribution of the fragments and their subsequent motion via drag interaction with the explosion products and ambient air. It is shown that a significant fraction of the charge energy is initially transmitted to the case fragments in the form of kinetic energy; for example, a 1 kg spherical charge with a 5 mm thick steel case has almost 29% of the total charge energy as initial kinetic energy of case fragments. This percentage increases with increasing case thickness and decreases with increasing charge size. The peak overpressure at a given range is 70-85% for cased explosives as compared with uncased and the peak impulse per unit area is 90-95%. The peak overpressure and

  17. Acoustic Methods for Evaluation of High Energy Explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Lobanovsky, Yury I.

    2013-01-01

    Two independent acoustic methods were used to verify the results of earlier explosion energy calculations of Chelyabinsk meteoroid. They are: estimations through a path length of infrasound wave and through maximum concentration of the wave energy. The energy of this explosion turned out the same as in earlier calculations, and it is close to 57 Mt of TNT. The first method, as well as evaluations through seismic signals and barograms, have confirmed the energy of Tunguska meteoroid explosion ...

  18. Three Dimensional Analysis of Induced Detonation of Cased Explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-16

    armour (RHA) steel were investigated through the LS-DYNA. The investigation focused on shock to detonation simulations of Composition B, with the...casing of the explosive leading to the so-called sympathetic detonation . At high impact velocity, initiation of the explosive was caused by the...analytical equations for a sphere and an indefinitely long cylinder. In general, the impact shock induced detonation behavior of an explosive is

  19. Mesoscale modeling of metal-loaded high explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bdzil, John Bohdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lieberthal, Brandon [UNIV OF ILLINOIS; Srewart, Donald S [UNIV OF ILLINOIS

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 3D approach to modeling multi-phase blast explosive, which is primarily condensed explosive by volume with inert embedded particles. These embedded particles are uniform in size and placed on the array of a regular lattice. The asymptotic theory of detonation shock dynamics governs the detonation shock propagation in the explosive. Mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations are used to show how the particles are compressed, deformed, and accelerated by the high-speed detonation products flow.

  20. Evaluation of the Oak Ridge MS/MS explosives detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, F.J.; Hannum, D.W.; Grant, B.C.; McLuckey, S.A.; McKown, H.S.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented for the evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) MS/MS as an explosives detector. This instrument is a beam instrument containing a quadrupole and a time-of-flight detector section (QTOF). The tests include a Limit of Detection for the instrument, an interferent study, a test of personnel sampling for explosives, a test involving mail sampling, and detection tests with bomb quantity explosives. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF EMPIRICAL MODELS FOR VENTED LEAN HYDROGEN EXPLOSIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Anubhav Sinha; Vendra C. Madhav Rao; Jennifer X. Wen

    2017-01-01

    Explosion venting is a method commonly used to prevent or minimize damage to an enclosure caused by an accidental explosion. An estimate of the maximum overpressure generated though explosion is an important parameter in the design of the vents. Various engineering models (Bauwens et al., 2012, Molkov and Bragin, 2015) and European (EN 14994 ) and USA standards (NFPA 68) are available to predict such overpressure. In this study, their performance is evaluated using a number of published exper...

  2. Ultraviolet Resonance Raman Enhancements in the Detection of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    necessary. 2 Currently, there are a variety of techniques used to detect explosives: sniffing explosive vapors (e.g., fluorescence quenching and...tagging agents, impurities, reaction byproducts, plasticizers or decomposition products or enhancers such as propane in explosive devices may be more...by scintillators [10]. In this method, and similar to other bulk detection methods, the neutron source must be within inches or at most a few

  3. Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-04

    1~7JJ!i 5a. DATE: 6a. DATE: 7a. DATE: 8. TITLE: Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 9. CONTRACT NUMBER: 10...00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...600 Raleigh, NC 27605 Contract Number: HDTRA2-11-D-0001 Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 4

  4. Formulation and evaluation of rapid dissolving films of Pravastatin sodium

    OpenAIRE

    V, Rajeshwar

    2015-01-01

              The concept of Fast dissolving drug delivery system offers a solution for those patients having difficulty in swallowing tablets/capsules etc. This work investigated the possibility of developing Pravastatin sodium rapid dissolving films allowing fast, reproducible drug dissolution in the oral cavity, decreases the hyperlipidemia effect in patients in less time and enhances the patient compliance The fast-dissolving oral films of Pravastatin Sodium prepared using different film-form...

  5. Dialysis Pretreatment for Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Analysis in Freshwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiang; Hua, Bin; Yang, John; Liu, Fengjing; Zhu, Guocheng; Deng, Baolin

    2015-01-01

    Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), including dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), plays an important role in numerous environmental processes, such as nutrient cycling and lake and estuary eutrophication. The impact of DIN on environmental processes has been extensively studied. However, the understanding on DON in the environment is largely unknown, as there is no direct method for DON measurement. In practice, DON was determined by subtracting DIN from TDN. ...

  6. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiliopoulos, S.

    1996-01-01

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called 'array beams'. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  7. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliopoulos, S. [Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Anzac Park, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Primary Industry

    1996-12-31

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called `array beams`. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  8. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  9. AND EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH OF YOUNG GYMNASTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dallas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of a single bout of whole body vibration (WBV on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young artistic gymnasts. Thirty-two young competitive gymnasts volunteered to participate in this study, and were allocated to either the vibration group or traditional body weight training according to the vibration protocol. The vibration intervention consisted of a single bout of eccentric and concentric squatting movements on a vibration platform that was turned on (vibration group: VG n=15, whereas the traditional body weight (no vibration group performed the same training protocol with the WBV device turned off (NVG: n= 17. Flexibility (sit and reach test and explosive strength tests [squat jump (SJ, counter movement jump (CMJ, and single leg squat (right leg (RL and left leg (LL] were performed initially (pre-test, immediately after the intervention (post-test 1, and 15 minutes after the end of the intervention programme (post-test 15. Four 2x3 ANOVAs were used to examine the interaction between group (VG vs NVG and time (pre, post 1, and post 15 with respect to examined variables. The results revealed that a significant interaction between group and time was found with respect to SJ (p 0.05. Further, the percentage improvement of the VG was significantly greater in all examined variables compared to the NVG. This study concluded that WBV training improves flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in young trained artistic gymnasts and maintains the initial level of performance for at least 15 minutes after the WBV intervention programme.

  10. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Bernot

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO 2 as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with 231 Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise

  11. Dissolved Concentration Limits of Radioactive Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Chen; E.R. Thomas; F.J. Pearson; P.L. Cloke; T.L. Steinborn; P.V. Brady

    2003-06-20

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of radioactive elements under possible repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, and measurements made in laboratory experiments and field work. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 radioactive elements (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium), which are important to calculated dose. Model outputs are mainly in the form of look-up tables plus one or more uncertainty terms. The rest are either in the form of distributions or single values. The results of this analysis are fundamental inputs for total system performance assessment to constrain the release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Solubilities of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, lead, and radium have been re-evaluated using the newly updated thermodynamic database (Data0.ymp.R2). For all of the actinides, identical modeling approaches and consistent environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models in this revision. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, activity coefficients, and selection of solubility controlling phase have been quantified or otherwise addressed. Moreover, a new blended plutonium solubility model has been developed in this revision, which gives a mean solubility that is three orders of magnitude lower than the plutonium solubility model used for the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation. Two alternative neptunium solubility models have also been

  12. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or

  13. A case of intermittent explosive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabh Saha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of impulse control disorder was observed and managed. In this case, the serving soldier of the Indian army presented with explosive outbursts of extreme violence and anger, which was not clearly directed. Following this act of aggression, he would experience a sense of gratification and relief. The episodes were recurrent and resulted in assaults or destruction of property. The aggression displayed was out of proportion to any perceived provocation and the individual felt increasing tension or arousal before committing the act. He did not have any feelings of regret, remorse or guilt about the behavior.

  14. Apparatus and method for detecting explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, B.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus is described for use in situations such as airports to detect explosives hidden in containers (for eg. suitcases). The method involves the evaluation of the quantities of oxygen and nitrogen within the container by neutron activation analysis and the determination of whether these quantities exceed predetermined limits. The equipment includes a small sub-critical lower powered reactor for thermal (0.01 to 0.10 eV) neutron production, a radium beryllium primary source, a deuterium-tritium reactor as a high energy (> 1.06 MeV) neutron source and Geiger counter detector arrays. (UK)

  15. Order Amidst Chaos of Star's Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Order Amidst Chaos of Star's Explosion This artist's animation shows the explosion of a massive star, the remains of which are named Cassiopeia A. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence that the star exploded with some degree of order, preserving chunks of its onion-like layers as it blasted apart. Cassiopeia A is what is known as a supernova remnant. The original star, about 15 to 20 times more massive than our sun, died in a cataclysmic 'supernova' explosion viewable from Earth about 340 years ago. The remnant is located 10,000 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia. The movie begins by showing the star before it died, when its layers of elements (shown in different colors) were stacked neatly, with the heaviest at the core and the lightest at the top. The star is then shown blasting to smithereens. Spitzer found evidence that the star's original layers were preserved, flinging outward in all directions, but not at the same speeds. In other words, some chunks of the star sped outward faster than others, as illustrated by the animation. The movie ends with an actual picture of Cassiopeia A taken by Spitzer. The colored layers containing different elements are seen next to each other because they traveled at different speeds. The infrared observatory was able to see the tossed-out layers because they light up upon ramming into a 'reverse' shock wave created in the aftermath of the explosion. When a massive star explodes, it creates two types of shock waves. The forward shock wave darts out quickest, and, in the case of Cassiopeia A, is now traveling at supersonic speeds up to 7,500 kilometers per second (4,600 miles/second). The reverse shock wave is produced when the forward shock wave slams into a shell of surrounding material expelled before the star died. It tags along behind the forward shock wave at slightly slower speeds. Chunks of the star that were thrown out

  16. Explosive bubbles in house prices? Evidence from the OECD countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hviid, Simon Juul; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    We conduct an econometric analysis of bubbles in housing markets in the OECD area, using quarterly OECD data for 18 countries from 1970 to 2013. We pay special attention to the explosive nature of bubbles and use econometric methods that explicitly allow for explosiveness. First, we apply...... the univariate right-tailed unit root test procedure of Phillips et al. (2012) on the individual countries price-rent ratio. Next, we use Engsted and Nielsen's (2012) co-explosive VAR framework to test for bubbles. We find evidence of explosiveness in many housing markets, thus supporting the bubble hypothesis...

  17. Experimental Studies of Explosively-Driven Magnetohydrodynamic Generators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agee, F

    1997-01-01

    .... Explosive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generators are electrical power sources, which convert the kinetic energy of moving plasma into useful electrical energy through the magnetic portion of the Lorentz force...

  18. Remote Machining and Evaluation of Explosively Filled Munitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is used for remote machining of explosively loaded ammunition. Munition sizes from small arms through 8-inch artillery can be accommodated. Sectioning,...

  19. Review of the Procyon explosive pulsed power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, J. H.; Oona, H.; Greene, A. E.

    1993-06-01

    #he Procyon explosive pulsed power system is designed for powering plasma z-pinch experiments. It begins with a helical explosive-driven magnetic flux compression generator (MCG) for amplifying seed current from a capacitor bank into a storage inductor. One conductor element of the storage inductor is an explosively formed fuse (EFF) opening switch tailored to divert current to a plasma flow switch (PFS) in less than 3 microseconds. The PFS, in turn, delivers current to a z-pinch load. Experiments to date have concentrated on the explosive pulsed power components and PFS. This paper focuses on the results of a recent full energy MCG/EFF/PFS test.

  20. Application of high explosion cratering data to planetary problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeck, V. R.

    1977-01-01

    The present paper deals with the conditions of explosion or nuclear cratering required to simulate impact crater formation. Some planetary problems associated with three different aspects of crater formation are discussed, and solutions based on high-explosion data are proposed. Structures of impact craters and some selected explosion craters formed in layered media are examined and are related to the structure of lunar basins. The mode of ejection of material from impact craters is identified using explosion analogs. The ejection mode is shown to have important implications for the origin of material in crater and basin deposits. Equally important are the populations of secondary craters on lunar and planetary surfaces.

  1. Determination of the Explosion Characteristics of Wheat Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuracina, Richard; Szabová, Zuzana; Pangrácová, Denisa; Balog, Karol

    2017-06-01

    The article deals with the measurement of explosion characteristics of wheat flour. The measurements were carried out according to STN EN 14034-1+A1:2011 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds. Part 1: Determination of the maximum explosion pressure pmax of dust clouds, the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise according to STN EN 14034-2+A1:2012 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds - Part 2: Determination of the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise (dp/dt)max of dust clouds and LEL according to STN EN 14034-3+A1:2011 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds: Determination of the lower explosion limit LEL of dust clouds. The testing of explosions of wheat flour dust clouds showed that the maximum value of the pressure was reached at the concentrations of 600 g/m3 and its value is 8.32 bar/s. The fastest increase of pressure was observed at the concentration of 750 g/m3 and its value was 54.2 bar/s.

  2. Hyperspectral requirements for detection of trace explosives agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schau, Harvey C.; Jennette, Bryan D.

    2006-05-01

    The ability to remotely detect explosive devices and explosive materials has generated considerable interest over the last several years. The study of remote sensing of explosives date back many decades but recent world events have forced the technology to respond to changing events and bring new technologies to the field in shorter development times than previously thought possible. Several applications have proven both desirable and illusive to date. Most notable is the desire to sense explosives within containers, sealed or otherwise. This requires a sensing device to penetrate the walls of the container, a difficult task when the container is steel or thick cement. Another is the desire to detect explosive vapors which escape from a container into the ambient air. This has been made difficult because explosives are generally formulated to have extremely low vapor pressure. (This has made many gas detection technique not strong candidates for explosive vapor detection due to the low vapor pressure of explosive materials [1].) Because of the many difficulties in a general explosive remote detection, we have attempted to bound the problem into a series of achievable steps with the first step a simple remote detection of TNT-bearing compounds. Prior to discussing our technology, we will first discuss our choice for attacking the problem in this manner.

  3. Response Surface Optimization of Lead Azide for Explosive Detonators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCulloh, Ian; Massie, Darrell; Cordaro, Emily

    2006-01-01

    The Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Picatinny (ARDEC) has been tasked with developing a new chemical process to produce lead azide, the key explosive ingredient in detonators...

  4. Bladder explosion during transurethral resection of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tonno, Fulvio; Fusaro, Valentino; Bertoldin, Roberto; Lavelli, Dino

    2003-01-01

    A case of bladder explosion with wide rupture during transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is reported. Immediate cystography was performed and the patient was promptly operated; the postoperative course was uneventful. Intravesical explosion is caused by explosive gas formation and the more dangerous combination is the mixture of air and hydrogen; therefore, the introduction of air during TURP is necessary in order to produce a bladder explosion. This unusual complication of a common urological procedure is rare but serious, and should it arise always requires immediate surgical correction. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Explosive gas formation during transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, M; Soljanik, I; Stanislaus, P; Sroka, R; Stief, C

    2008-08-18

    Intravesical explosion during transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is an extremely rare event. It might be associated with various degrees of bladder injury ranging from simple mucosal tear to rupture of the bladder. It is believed that intravesical explosion occurs due to formation of explosive gases in the bladder during TURP and its admixture with air. One case of intravesical explosion during TURP resulting in complete intra- and extraperitoneal bladder rupture at our institution is described. The management of this dreaded complication involves open surgery. Although rare, this complication is preventable by taking precautions.

  6. Comparative outcome of bomb explosion injuries versus high-powered gunshot injuries of the upper extremity in a civilian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Shai; Rivkin, Gurion; Avitzour, Malka; Liebergall, Meir; Mintz, Yoav; Mosheiff, Ram

    2013-03-01

    Explosion injuries to the upper extremity have specific clinical characteristics that differ from injuries due to other mechanisms. To evaluate the upper extremity injury pattern of attacks on civilian targets, comparing bomb explosion injuries to gunshot injuries and their functional recovery using standard outcome measures. Of 157 patients admitted to the hospital between 2000 and 2004, 72 (46%) sustained explosion injuries and 85 (54%) gunshot injuries. The trauma registry files were reviewed and the patients completed the DASH Questionnaire (Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand) and SF-12 (Short Form-12) after a minimum period of 1 year. Of the 157 patients, 72 (46%) had blast injuries and 85 (54%) had shooting injuries. The blast casualties had higher Injury Severity Scores (47% vs. 22% with a score of > 16, P = 0.02) and higher percent of patients treated in intensive care units (47% vs. 28%, P = 0.02). Although the Abbreviated Injury Scale score of the upper extremity injury was similar in the two groups, the blast casualties were found to have more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries and were treated surgically more often. No difference was found in the SF-12 or DASH scores between the groups at follow up. The casualties with upper extremity blast injuries were more severely injured and sustained more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries to the upper extremity. However, the rating of the local injury to the isolated limb is similar, as was the subjective functional recovery.

  7. Solid state gas sensors for detection of explosives and explosive precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yun

    The increased number of terrorist attacks using improvised explosive devices (IEDs) over the past few years has made the trace detection of explosives a priority for the Department of Homeland Security. Considerable advances in early detection of trace explosives employing spectroscopic detection systems and other sensing devices have been made and have demonstrated outstanding performance. However, modern IEDs are not easily detectable by conventional methods and terrorists have adapted to avoid using metallic or nitro groups in the manufacturing of IEDs. Instead, more powerful but smaller compounds, such as TATP are being more frequently used. In addition, conventional detection techniques usually require large capital investment, labor costs and energy input and are incapable of real-time identification, limiting their application. Thus, a low cost detection system which is capable of continuous online monitoring in a passive mode is needed for explosive detection. In this dissertation, a thermodynamic based thin film gas sensor which can reliably detect various explosive compounds was developed and demonstrated. The principle of the sensors is based on measuring the heat effect associated with the catalytic decomposition of explosive compounds present in the vapor phase. The decomposition mechanism is complicated and not well known, but it can be affected by many parameters including catalyst, reaction temperature and humidity. Explosives that have relatively high vapor pressure and readily sublime at room temperature, like TATP and 2, 6-DNT, are ideal candidate for vapor phase detection using the thermodynamic gas sensor. ZnO, W2O 3, V2O5 and SnO2 were employed as catalysts. This sensor exhibited promising sensitivity results for TATP, but poor selectivity among peroxide based compounds. In order to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the thermodynamic sensor, a Pd:SnO2 nanocomposite was fabricated and tested as part of this dissertation. A

  8. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  9. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  10. Method for enhancing stability of high explosives, for purposes of transport or storage, and the stabilized high explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    This papent describes a method for suppressing the tendency of a porous solid high explosive to ignite and detonate. It comprises: filling substantially all the press of the solid high explosive material with a predetermined pore radius of at least 10μm with a relatively inert, stable, pore filling material in liquid form, the pore filling being selected from gallium, rubidium-potassium eutectic, and Wood's metal; and solidifying the pore filling material in the pores of the explosive material

  11. Explosive mafic volcanism on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Williams, Stanley N.

    1993-01-01

    Deposits within Amazonia Planitia, Mars, have been interpreted as ignimbrite plains on the basis of their erosional characteristics. The western flank of Hecates Tholus appears to be mantled by an airfall deposit, which was produced through magma-water interactions or exsolution of magmatic volatiles. Morphologic studies, along with numerical and analytical modeling of Martian plinian columns and pyroclastic flows, suggest that shield materials of Tyrrhena and Hadriaca paterae are composed of welded pyroclastic flows. Terrestrial pyroclastic flows, ignimbrites, and airfall deposits are typically associated with silicic volcanism. Because it is unlikely that large volumes of silicic lavas have been produced on Mars, we seek terrestrial analogs of explosives, mafic volcanism. Plinian basaltic airfall deposits have been well-documented at Masaya, Nicaragua, and basaltic ignimbrite and surge deposits also have been recognized there. Ambrym and Yasour, both in Vanuatu, are mafic stratovolcanioes with large central calderas, and are composed of interbedded basaltic pyrocalstic deposits and lava flows. Zavaritzki, a mafic stratovolcano in the Kurile Islands, may have also produced pyroclastic deposits, although the exact nature of these deposits in unknown. Masaya, Ambrym and Yasour are known to be located above tensional zones. Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae may also be located above zones of tension, resulting from the formation and evolution of Hellas basin, and, thus, may be directly analogous to these terrestrial mafic, explosive volcanoes.

  12. Liquid--liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.

    1978-08-01

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This well-known phenomenon is called a ''vapor explosion.'' One method of producing intimate, liquid--liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. In this experiment cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials (mineral oil, silicone oil, water, mercury, molten Wood's metal or molten salt mixture). The main conclusion from the experimental study is that hydrodynamic effects may be very significant in any shock tube analyses, especially when multiple interactions are observed. A theoretical study was performed to check the possibility of vapor film squeezing (between a drop in film boiling and a surface) as a controlling mechanism for making liquid--liquid contact. Using experimental data, the film thickness was calculated and it was found to be too thick for any conceivable film rupture mechanism. It was suggested that the coalescence is a two-stage process, in which the controlling stage depends mainly on temperature and surface properties and can be described as the ability of cold liquid to spread on a hot surface

  13. Oxidizability and explosibility of pure graphite powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L Rahmani; D Roubineau; S Cornet

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: While graphite is widely considered a heat-resistant material, e.g. able to screen metallic shielding from thermal damage, and graphite powder is used as a fire extinguisher agent where water or carbon dioxide should not, it still can react with air and - being carbon - give forth a significant amount of heat. Whether this makes it a hazard in operations such as dismantling nuclear reactors that contain hundreds of tons of graphite, including a small percentage of powder, is a question that has to be answered, considering that dismantling implies the use of such potential fire initiators as thermal cutters and electrical equipment. For this reason EDF commissioned the Centre National de Prevention et Protection (CNPP) to carry out explosibility tests on unirradiated, nuclear grade (i.e. with about 100 ppm of impurities) graphite powder. CNPP tests were so designed as to simulate realistic conditions that might result from a severe mishap during a dismantling operation, such as the crash of heavy equipment on graphite blocks coupled with the bruise of a high power electrical cable. EDF-CNPP tests complement others, done either in Italy most notably on irradiated graphite dust contaminated with various pollutants, or in the UK where the ability of settled graphite dust to propagate an initial gas explosion into an adjacent volume was assessed. EDF-CNPP tests comprise two steps. Step one was intended to produce a qualitative understanding of how nuclear grade graphite behaves while heated in air. In a first series of experiments graphite samples were heated up to 900 C during two and a half hours and their mass loss measured: it was found that while fine powder is wholly oxidised, coarser powder and chunks retained about two thirds of their initial mass. Oxidation kinetics, as assessed by oven temperature shoot-up, begins at 580 C and is quite low, compared with that of iron powder. In a second series of experiments a graphite piece

  14. Oxidizability and explosibility of pure graphite powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, L.; Roubineau, D.; Cornet, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: While graphite is widely considered a heat-resistant material, e.g. able to screen metallic shielding from thermal damage, and graphite powder is used as a fire extinguisher agent where water or carbon dioxide should not, it still can react with air and - being carbon - give forth a significant amount of heat. Whether this makes it a hazard in operations such as dismantling nuclear reactors that contain hundreds of tons of graphite, including a small percentage of powder, is a question that has to be answered, considering that dismantling implies the use of such potential fire initiators as thermal cutters and electrical equipment. For this reason EDF commissioned the Centre National de Prevention et Protection (CNPP) to carry out explosibility tests on unirradiated, nuclear grade (i.e. with about 100 ppm of impurities) graphite powder. CNPP tests were so designed as to simulate realistic conditions that might result from a severe mishap during a dismantling operation, such as the crash of heavy equipment on graphite blocks coupled with the bruise of a high power electrical cable. EDF-CNPP tests complement others, done either in Italy most notably on irradiated graphite dust contaminated with various pollutants, or in the UK where the ability of settled graphite dust to propagate an initial gas explosion into an adjacent volume was assessed. EDF-CNPP tests comprise two steps. Step one was intended to produce a qualitative understanding of how nuclear grade graphite behaves while heated in air. In a first series of experiments graphite samples were heated up to 900 C during two and a half hours and their mass loss measured: it was found that while fine powder is wholly oxidised, coarser powder and chunks retained about two thirds of their initial mass. Oxidation kinetics, as assessed by oven temperature shoot-up, begins at 580 C and is quite low, compared with that of iron powder. In a second series of experiments a graphite piece

  15. Jetting formation of the explosively loaded powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kun; Yu, Qiqi

    2017-10-01

    The formation of jet-like structures is widely reported in the explosive dispersal of powders surrounding high explosive charges. The jetting of powder beds initiates upon the shock wave reaches the outer edge of the charge. Opposed to the interface instability theory, a hollow sphere based bulk fragmentation model is established to account for the jetting of powders. A two-phase process, namely the nucleation and free expansion of hollow spheres, corresponds to the unloading process of the powder compact caused by the rarefaction waves which governs the fragmentation of the powders. The separation between adjacent hollow spheres dictates the size of the particle clusters, which would evolve into particle jets in later times. The predicted breakup time and the size of particle jets agree well with the experimental results. The increased moisture content in powders results in an increased number of particle jets. This moisture effect can be understood in light of the varied energy distribution due to the incompressibility of the interstitial liquids trapped inside the inter-grain pores. The portion of shock energy which is not consumed in the shock compaction of the wet powders would be dissipated through the viscous shear flows during the unloading of the wet powder compact. The excessive viscous energy requires to activate more localized shear flows, accordingly leading to an increased number of particle jets.

  16. Robustness Assessment of Building Structures under Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Waggoner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, much research has focused on the behaviour of structures following the failure of a key structural component. Particular attention has been given to sudden column loss, though questions remain as to whether this event-independent scenario is relevant to actual extreme events such as explosion. Few studies have been conducted to assess the performance of floor slabs above a failed column, and the computational tools used have not been validated against experimental results. The research program presented in this paper investigates the adequacy of sudden column loss as an idealisation of local damage caused by realistic explosion events, and extends prior work by combining the development of accurate computational models with large-scale testing of a typical floor system in a prototypical steel-framed structure. The floor system consists of corrugated decking topped by a lightly reinforced concrete slab that is connected to the floor beams through shear studs. The design is consistent with typical building practices in the US. The first test has been completed, and subsequent tests are currently being planned. This paper addresses the importance of robustness design for localized damage and includes a detailed description regarding how the research program advances the current state of knowledge for assessing robustness of compositely constructed steel-framed buildings.

  17. Hydrogen-poor superluminous stellar explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, R M; Kulkarni, S R; Kasliwal, M M; Gal-Yam, A; Arcavi, I; Sullivan, M; Nugent, P; Thomas, R; Howell, D A; Nakar, E; Bildsten, L; Theissen, C; Law, N M; Dekany, R; Rahmer, G; Hale, D; Smith, R; Ofek, E O; Zolkower, J; Velur, V; Walters, R; Henning, J; Bui, K; McKenna, D; Poznanski, D; Cenko, S B; Levitan, D

    2011-06-08

    Supernovae are stellar explosions driven by gravitational or thermonuclear energy that is observed as electromagnetic radiation emitted over weeks or more. In all known supernovae, this radiation comes from internal energy deposited in the outflowing ejecta by one or more of the following processes: radioactive decay of freshly synthesized elements (typically (56)Ni), the explosion shock in the envelope of a supergiant star, and interaction between the debris and slowly moving, hydrogen-rich circumstellar material. Here we report observations of a class of luminous supernovae whose properties cannot be explained by any of these processes. The class includes four new supernovae that we have discovered and two previously unexplained events (SN 2005ap and SCP 06F6) that we can now identify as members of the same class. These supernovae are all about ten times brighter than most type Ia supernova, do not show any trace of hydrogen, emit significant ultraviolet flux for extended periods of time and have late-time decay rates that are inconsistent with radioactivity. Our data require that the observed radiation be emitted by hydrogen-free material distributed over a large radius (∼10(15) centimetres) and expanding at high speeds (>10(4) kilometres per second). These long-lived, ultraviolet-luminous events can be observed out to redshifts z > 4.

  18. Analysis of Explosives by GC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrasko, Jan; Lagesson-Andrasko, Ludmila; Dahlén, Johan; Jonsson, Bengt-Harald

    2017-07-01

    A mixture of explosives was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) linked to ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry that enabled detection in the range of 178-330 nm. The gas-phase UV spectra of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN), glycerine trinitrate (NG, nitroglycerine), triacetone triperoxide (TATP), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) were successfully recorded. The most interesting aspect of the current application is that it enabled simultaneous detection of both the target analyte and its decomposition products. At suitable elevated temperatures of the transfer line between the GC instrument and the UV detector, a partial decomposition was accomplished. Detection was made in real time and resulted in overlaid spectra of the mother compound and its decomposition product. Hence, the presented approach added another level to the qualitative identification of the explosives in comparison with traditional methods that relies only on the detection of the target analyte. As expected, the decomposition product of EGDN, NG, and PETN was NO, while TATP degraded to acetone. DNT and TNT did not exhibit any decomposition at the temperatures used. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Nuclear explosives in water-resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, Arthur M.

    1970-01-01

    Nuclear explosives afford diverse tools for managing our water resources. These include principally: the rubble column of a fully contained underground detonation, the similar rubble column of a retarc, the crater by subsidence, the throwout crater of maximum volume (the latter either singly or in-line), and the ejecta of a valley-slope crater. By these tools, one can create space in which to store water, either underground or on the land surface - in the latter instance, to a considerable degree independently of the topography. Underground, one can accelerate movement of water by breaching a confining bed, a partition of a compartmented aquifer, or some other obstruction in the natural 'plumbing system'. Finally, on the land surface, one can modify the natural pattern of water flow, by canals excavated with in-line detonation. In all these applications, the potential advantage of a nuclear explosive rests chiefly in undertakings of large scale, under a consequent small cost per unit of mechanical work accomplished

  20. Emergent explosive synchronization in adaptive complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos-Gaytán, Vanesa; Almendral, Juan A.; Leyva, I.; Battiston, F.; Nicosia, V.; Latora, V.; Boccaletti, S.

    2018-04-01

    Adaptation plays a fundamental role in shaping the structure of a complex network and improving its functional fitting. Even when increasing the level of synchronization in a biological system is considered as the main driving force for adaptation, there is evidence of negative effects induced by excessive synchronization. This indicates that coherence alone cannot be enough to explain all the structural features observed in many real-world networks. In this work, we propose an adaptive network model where the dynamical evolution of the node states toward synchronization is coupled with an evolution of the link weights based on an anti-Hebbian adaptive rule, which accounts for the presence of inhibitory effects in the system. We found that the emergent networks spontaneously develop the structural conditions to sustain explosive synchronization. Our results can enlighten the shaping mechanisms at the heart of the structural and dynamical organization of some relevant biological systems, namely, brain networks, for which the emergence of explosive synchronization has been observed.

  1. High Explosive Detonation–Confiner Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Mark; Quirk, James J.

    2018-01-01

    The primary purpose of a detonation in a high explosive (HE) is to provide the energy to drive a surrounding confiner, typically for mining or munitions applications. The details of the interaction between an HE detonation and its confinement are essential to achieving the objectives of the explosive device. For the high pressures induced by detonation loading, both the solid HE and confiner materials will flow. The structure and speed of a propagating detonation, and ultimately the pressures generated in the reaction zone to drive the confiner, depend on the induced flow both within the confiner and along the HE–confiner material interface. The detonation–confiner interactions are heavily influenced by the material properties and, in some cases, the thickness of the confiner. This review discusses the use of oblique shock polar analysis as a means of characterizing the possible range of detonation–confiner interactions. Computations that reveal the fluid mechanics of HE detonation–confiner interactions for finite reaction-zone length detonations are discussed and compared with the polar analysis. This includes cases of supersonic confiner flow; subsonic, shock-driven confiner flow; subsonic, but shockless confiner flow; and sonic flow at the intersection of the detonation shock and confiner material interface. We also summarize recent developments, including the effects of geometry and porous material confinement, on detonation–confiner interactions.

  2. Coulomb explosion imaging of H+3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreckel, H.

    2000-01-01

    The present work deals with the determination of the spatial structure of the H 3 + molecular ion. The structure of this molecule was investigated at the TSR storage ring of the Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik using the Coulomb Explosion Imaging (CEI) technique, which provides a relatively direct approach to the measurement of molecular configurations. The method of foil induced Coulomb Explosion Imaging and the experimental setup at the TSR are described. The classification of the vibrational levels of the H 3 + ion is described and the underlying group theoretical methods are developed. The results of the measurement are analyzed with regard to anisotropies and possible influences of the target foil and the detector are discussed. Then the subset of the data where these influences are small is selected and is compared to two different theoretical calculations. Finally the vibrational relaxation of the H 3 + ion in the storage ring is analysed and the lifetime of the metastable breathing mode A 1 (1, 0 0 ) is determined. (orig.) [de

  3. Longer electromechanical delay impairs hamstrings explosive force versus quadriceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Ricci; Minshull, Claire; Smith, Stephanie L; Folland, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    Explosive neuromuscular performance refers to the ability to rapidly increase force in response to neuromuscular activation. The lower explosive force production of the hamstrings relative to the quadriceps could compromise knee joint stability and increase the risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. However, the time course of the rise in explosive force of the hamstrings and quadriceps from their initial activation, and thus the explosive hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H/Q) force ratio, has not been documented. The neuromuscular performance of 20 untrained males was assessed during a series of isometric knee flexion and extension contractions, with force and surface EMG of the hamstrings and quadriceps recorded during explosive and maximum voluntary contractions. Hamstrings force was expressed relative to quadriceps force to produce hamstring-to-quadriceps ratios of explosive H/Q force and H/Q maximum voluntary force. For the explosive contractions, agonist electromechanical delay (EMD), agonist and antagonist neural activation were assessed. The quadriceps was 79% stronger than the hamstrings, but quadriceps explosive force was up to 480% greater than the hamstrings from 25 to 50 ms after first activation. Consequently, the explosive H/Q force ratio was very low at 25 and 50 ms (0%-17%) and significantly different from H/Q maximum voluntary force ratio (56%). Hamstrings EMD was 95% greater than quadriceps EMD (44.0 vs 22.6 ms), resulting in a 21-ms later onset of force in the hamstrings that appeared to explain the low explosive H/Q force ratio in the early phase of activation. Prolonged hamstrings EMD appears to impair early phase (0-50 ms) explosive force production relative to the quadriceps and may render the knee unstable and prone to anterior cruciate ligament injury during this period.

  4. Development of an on-board H2 storage and recovery system based on lithium borohydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-28

    Alkali metal borohydrides based on sodium and lithium, NaBH4 and LiBH4, have been evaluated as a potential hydrogen storage and recovery system for on-board vehicle use. The borohydride salts could be dissolved in water, followed by a hydrolytic reac...

  5. Recovery of methane from anaerobic process effluent using poly-di-methyl-siloxane membrane contactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookney, J; Cartmell, E; Jefferson, B; McAdam, E J

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the potential for recovering dissolved methane from low temperature anaerobic processes treating domestic wastewater. In the absence of methane recovery, ca. 45% of the produced methane is released as a fugitive emission which results in a net carbon footprint of -0.47 kg CO(2e) m(-3). A poly-di-methyl-siloxane (PDMS) membrane contactor was applied to support sweep gas desorption of dissolved methane using nitrogen. The dense membrane structure controlled gaseous mass transfer thus recovery was maximised at low liquid velocities. At the lowest liquid velocity, V(L), of 0.0025 m s(-1), 72% of the dissolved methane was recovered. A vacuum was also trialled as an alternative to sweep-gas operation. At vacuum pressures below 30 mbar, reasonable methane recovery was observed at an intermediate V(L) of 0.0056 m s(-1). Results from this study demonstrate that dissolved methane recovery could increase net electrical production from low temperature anaerobic processes by ca. +0.043 kWh(e) m(-3) and reduce the net carbon footprint to +0.01 kg CO(2e) m(-3). However, further experimental work to optimise the gas-side hydrodynamics is required as well as validation of the long-term impacts of biofouling on process performance.

  6. Esterification Reaction Utilizing Sense of Smell and Eyesight for Conversion and Catalyst Recovery Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Nikki; Wee, Lik H.; Martens, Johan A.

    2014-01-01

    The esterification reaction of salicylic acid with ethanol is performed in presence of dissolved 12-tungstophosphoric Brønsted-Lowry acid catalyst, a Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM). The monitoring of the reaction with smell and the recovery of the catalyst with sight is presented. Formation of the sweet-scented ester is apparent from the smell.…

  7. Mathematical modeling of dissolved oxygen in fish ponds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    dissolved carbon dioxide and chemical oxygen demand (COD) on Dissolved Oxygen (DO) in fish ponds. The effects of organic feeds, aeration ... with elevated levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and unionized ammonia (NH3), both of ... in salt water, while 2 mg/L is the threshold concentration below which aquatic organisms ...

  8. Fast Dissolving Tablets of Aloe Vera Gel | Madan | Tropical Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The objective of this work was to prepare and evaluate fast dissolving tablets of the nutraceutical, freeze dried Aloe vera gel. Methods: Fast dissolving tablets of the nutraceutical, freeze-dried Aloe vera gel, were prepared by dry granulation method. The tablets were evaluated for crushing strength, disintegration ...

  9. The dependence on temperature and salinity of dissolved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Dorothee C.E.; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Jong, Edwin de

    1999-01-01

    Recurring latitudinal patterns of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) content and the fugacity of CO2 (fCO2) were observed in East Atlantic surface waters with strong gradients at hydrographic fronts. The dissolved inorganic carbon chemistry clearly displayed the effects of oceanic circulation and

  10. Radiation-chemical sanitation of dissolved pollutants and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrukhin, N.V.; Putilov, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-chemical sanitation of dissolved toxic pollutants resulted from the production processes of different substances and modern equipment operation is considered. The processes of fundamental industrial sewage processing and, as a result, features of practically total disposal of dissolved toxic agents are considered for the first time

  11. Formulation of Fast-Dissolving Tablets of Promethazine Theoclate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize and formulate promethazine theoclate fast-dissolving tablets that offer a suitable approach to the treatment of nausea and vomiting. Method: The solubility of promethazine theoclate was increased by formulating it as a fast-dissolving tablet containing β-cyclodextrin, crospovidone, and camphor, using ...

  12. Daytime variations in temperature, dissolved oxygen and ph in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daytime variations in temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration and pH were investigated at 3-hourly intervals from 6a.m. to 6 p.m. January had the lowest temperature values, while at noon; September and January had the lowest air and pond water temperature values respectively.Dissolved oxygen increase from 6a.m.

  13. Explorations of soil microbial processes driven by dissolved organic carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straathof, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Explorations of soil microbial processes driven by dissolved organic carbon Angela L. Straathof June 17, 2015, Wageningen UR ISBN 978-94-6257-327-7 Abstract Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a complex, heterogeneous mixture of C compounds which, as

  14. Solvent recycle/recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffhausen, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Ugaki, S.N.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes Phase I of the Solvent Recycle/Recovery Task of the DOE Chlorinated Solvent Substitution Program for the US Air Force by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., through the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The purpose of the task is to identify and test recovery and recycling technologies for proposed substitution solvents identified by the Biodegradable Solvent Substitution Program and the Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping Program with the overall objective of minimizing hazardous wastes. A literature search to identify recycle/recovery technologies and initial distillation studies has been conducted. 4 refs.

  15. Evaluating of NASA-Langley Research Center explosion seam welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, H. E.; Wittman, R.

    1977-01-01

    An explosion bonding technique to meet current fabrication requirements was demonstrated. A test program was conducted on explosion bonded joints, compared to fusion joints in 6061-T6 aluminum. The comparison was made in required fixtures, non-destructive testing, static strength and fatigue strength.

  16. Explosion of a collapsing Bose-Einstein condensate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duine, R.A.; Stoof, H.T.C.

    2001-01-01

    We show that elastic collisions between atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate with attractive interactions can lead to an explosion that ejects a large fraction of the collapsing condensate. We study variationally the dynamics of this explosion and find excellent agreement with recent experiments on

  17. Explosion of a Collapsing Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duine, R.A.; Stoof, H.T.C.

    2000-01-01

    we show that elastic collisions between atoms in an Bose-Einstein condensate with attractive interactions lead to an explosion that ejects a large fraction of the collapsing condensate. We study variationally the dynamics of thes explosion and find excellent agreement with recent experiments on

  18. An Experimental Investigation into the Explosive Forming of Square ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The explosive forming of steel blanks into a perforated square die of side 200 mm and depth 40 mm has been investigated. The results show that blanks can be successfully formed with perforated dies and that the smaller the percentage of perforation and vent size, the greater the quantity of explosive needed for successful ...

  19. Explosive solutions of elliptic equations with absorption and non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 112; Issue 3. Explosive Solutions of Elliptic Equations with Absorption and Non-Linear Gradient Term. Marius Ghergu Constantin Niculescu Vicenţiu Rădulescu ... Keywords. Explosive solution; semilinear elliptic problem; entire solution; maximum principle.

  20. Explosibility boundaries for fly ash/pulverized fuel mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastidar, A G; Amyotte, P R

    2002-05-27

    Incomplete combustion and subsequent fuel contamination of a waste stream can pose a serious explosion hazard. An example of this type of incident is the contamination of fly ash with unburned pulverized coal. The coal, if present in sufficient quantities in the mixture, can act as a fuel source for a potential explosion. Experiments were conducted in a 20l Siwek explosibility test chamber to determine the minimum fuel contamination of fly ash required to form an explosible mixture. A sample of fly ash from Ontario Power Generation (OPG) (Ont., Canada) was artificially contaminated with Pittsburgh pulverized coal dust (the surrogate used to represent unburned fuel dust). Additionally, the influence of fly ash particle size on the amount of fuel contaminant required to form an explosible mixture was examined. Fine and coarse size fractions of fly ash were obtained by screening the original sample of OPG fly ash. The results show that at least 21% Pittsburgh pulverized coal (or 10% volatile matter) was required to form an explosible mixture of the original fly ash sample and coal dust. The results also illustrate that fly ash particle size is important when examining the explosibility of the mixture. The fine size fraction of fly ash required a minimum of 25% coal dust (12% volatile matter) in the mixture for explosibility, whereas the coarse fly ash required only 10% coal dust (7% volatile matter). Thus, the larger the particle size of the inert fly ash component in the mixture, the greater the hazard.

  1. Effective protection of rabbits' explosive brain injury through blocking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The gap junction plays an important role in spreading of apoptotic and necrotic signals from injured and stressed cells to the neighboring viable cells. The present study was performed to investigate the important role of gap junction communication on rabbits' explosive brain injury. Methods: Explosion of paper ...

  2. Regional moment: Magnitude relations for earthquakes and explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, H.J.; Walter, W.R. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1993-02-19

    The authors present M[sub o]:m[sub b] relations using m[sub b](P[sub n]) and m[sub b](L[sub g]) for earthquakes and explosions occurring in tectonic and stable areas. The observations for m[sub b](P[sub n]) range from about 3 to 6 and show excellent separation between earthquakes and explosions on M[sub o]:m[sub b] plots, independent of the magnitude. The scatter in M[sub o]:M[sub b] observations for NTS explosions is small compared to the earthquake data. The M[sub o]:m[sub b](L[sub g]) data for Soviet explosions overlay the observations for US explosions. These results, and the small scatter for NTS explosions, suggest weak dependence of M[sub o]:m[sub b] relations on emplacement media. A simple theoretical model is developed which matches all these observations. The model uses scaling similarity and conservation of energy to provide a physical link between seismic moment and a broadband seismic magnitude. Three factors, radiation pattern, material property, and apparent stress, contribute to the separation between earthquakes and explosions. This theoretical separation is independent of broadband magnitude. For US explosions in different media, the material property and apparent stress contributions are shown to compensate for one another, supporting the observations that M[sub o]:M[sub b] is nearly independent of source geology. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Maritime improvised explosive devices, modelling and large scale trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, W. van den; Trouwborst, W.; Vader, J.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Maritime Improvised Explosive Devices (MIEDs) such as small boats filled with explosives are likely to be a threat in future combat scenarios. For example the suicide attack against the USS Cole in Yemen (October 2000) has shown how disastrous MIEDs can be. With relatively simple means a complete

  4. A review of United Nations tests for explosivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, A.K.; Mak, W.A.; Whitmore, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    In attempting to develop a closed pressure vessel test for assessing explosivity, arising from propagation of detonation, deflagration or thermal explosion, some difficulties were encountered in relation to United Nations test methods. This led to a review of these methods and comparisons of their

  5. A cause of severe thigh injury: Battery explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahsin Görgülü

    2016-02-01

    Discussion: Battery explosion causing lower extremity tissue defect is a type of injury that is rarely seen in the literature. Regardless of battery size and energy level, they should be considered as potential explosive material and protector masks, clothing should be worn during contact with this type of material.

  6. Validity and Reliability of a Medicine Ball Explosive Power Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockbrugger, Barry A.; Haennel, Robert G.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated the validity and reliability of a medicine ball throw test to evaluate explosive power. Data on competitive sand volleyball players who performed a medicine ball throw and a standard countermovement jump indicated that the medicine ball throw test was a valid and reliable way to assess explosive power for an analogous total-body movement…

  7. Explosively-Driven Blast Waves in Small-Diameter Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M. A.; Marinis, R. T.; Oliver, M. S.

    Studies on blast waves are motivated by the need to understand dynamic pressure loadings in accident scenarios associated with rapid energy release in confined geometries. Explosions from fuel-air mixtures, explosives and industrial accidents often occur within a range of length scales associated with ducts, pipes, corridors, and tunnels [1, 2].

  8. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for use so long as the present approval is maintained. (e) Electric detonators shall be compatible... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310...

  9. Common Chemicals as Precursors of Improvised Explosive Devices: The Challenges of Controlling Domestic Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rostberg, James I

    2005-01-01

    ...). Explosives in the hands of terrorists continue to pose a significant threat. Lessons learned indicate that when traditional explosives become difficult to obtain, bomb makers turn to common chemicals as precursors to manufacture explosives...

  10. The effect of pre-treatments to the nickel limonite leaching using dissolved gaseous SO2-air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, W.; Soerawidjaja, T. H.; Alifiani, D.; Rangga, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    Nickel limonite leaching has been subjected to a number of studies, one of the method is by using dissolved gaseous SO2-air. The selectivity of nickel over iron extracted from leaching using dissolved gaseous SO2-air is advantageous, however the nickel that can be recovered is limited. This paper studies pre-treatments that is applied to the nickel ore prior leaching in order to increase the recovery of dissolved nickel from nickel limonite ore. There two pre-treatments that were carried out in this research, roasting and alkali-roasting using Na2CO3. The extraction was carried out for 180 min with pH 2, 3, 4, and 5 and temperature 30, 55, and 80 °C. It is found that the highest yield is achieved at pH 2 and 80 °C with nickel recovery of 61.39%. At pH 2, for alkali-roasting pre-treatment, the nickel yield raised from 28.17% to 100% and for roasting pre-treatment the nickel yield increased from 20.42% to 61.39%. However, at pH 2, the nickel to iron selectivity decreased from 96272 to 534 for roasting pre-treatment and from 1.8 to 1 for alkali-roasting pre-treatment.

  11. Methanex, Hoechst Celanese dissolve methanol partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.D.L.

    1993-01-01

    One of the many joint venture alliances recently announced in the petrochemical sector is ending in divorce. Hoechst Celanese Chemical (Dallas) and Methanex Corp. (Vancouver) are in the process of dissolving the partnership they had formed to restart Hoechst Celanese's methanol plant at Clear Lake, TX. Hoechst Celanese says it is actively seeking replacement partners and has several likely prospects, while Methanex is concentrating on its other ventures. Those include its just-completed acquisition of Fletcher Challenge's (Auckland, NZ) methanol business and a joint venture with American Cyanamid to convert an ammonia plant at Fortier, LA to methanol. Methanex will still be the world's largest producer of methanol. Officially, the negotiations between Methanex and Hoechst Celanese 'just broke down over the last month or so,' says Steve Yurich, operations manager for the Clear Lake plant. Market sources, however, say that Methanex found itself 'with too many irons in the fire' and pulled out before it ran into financial or perhaps even antitrust difficulties

  12. Trace Explosives Signatures from World War II Unexploded Undersea Ordnance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrach, M. R.; Chutjian, A.; Plett, G. A.

    1998-01-01

    Trace explosives signatures of TNT and DNT have been extracted from multiple sediment samples adjacent to unexploded undersea ordnance at Halifax Harbor, Canada. The ordnance was hurled into the harbor during a massive explosion some 50 years earlier, in 1945 after World War II had ended. Laboratory sediment extractions were made using the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method in seawater and detection using the Reversal Electron Attachment Detection (READ) technique and, in the case of DNT, a commercial gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Results show that, after more than 50 years in the environment, ordnance that appeared to be physically intact gave good explosives signatures at the parts per billion level, whereas ordnance that had been cracked open during the explosion gave no signatures at the 10 parts per trillion sensitivity level. These measurements appear to provide the first reported data of explosives signatures from undersea unexploded ordnance.

  13. Controlled Detonation Dynamics in Additively Manufactured High Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Andrew; Tappan, Bryce; Bowden, Patrick; Manner, Virginia; Clements, Brad; Menikoff, Ralph; Ionita, Axinte; Branch, Brittany; Dattelbaum, Dana; Espy, Michelle; Patterson, Brian; Wu, Ruilian; Mueller, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    The effect of structure in explosives has long been a subject of interest to explosives engineers and scientists. Through structure, detonation dynamics in explosives can be manipulated, introducing a new level of safety and directed performance into these previously difficult to control materials. New advances in additive manufacturing (AM) allow the deliberate introduction of exact internal structures at dimensions approaching the mesoscale of these energetic materials. We show through simulation and experiment that this structure can be used to control detonation behavior by manipulating complex shockwave interactions. We use high-speed video and shorting mag-wires to determine the detonation velocity in AM generated explosive structures, demonstrating, for the first time, a method of controlling the directional propagation of reactive flow through the controlled introduction of structure within a high explosive. With ongoing improvement in the AM methods available coupled with guidance through modeling and simulations, more complex interactions are being explored. LANL LDRD Office.

  14. Steam explosion simulation code JASMINE v.3 user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Maruyama, Yu; Nakamura, Hideo

    2008-07-01

    A steam explosion occurs when hot liquid contacts with cold volatile liquid. In this phenomenon, fine fragmentation of the hot liquid causes extremely rapid heat transfer from the hot liquid to the cold volatile liquid, and explosive vaporization, bringing shock waves and destructive forces. The steam explosion due to the contact of the molten core material and coolant water during severe accidents of light water reactors has been regarded as a potential threat to the integrity of the containment vessel. We developed a mechanistic steam explosion simulation code, JASMINE, that is applicable to plant scale assessment of the steam explosion loads. This document, as a manual for users of JASMINE code, describes the models, numerical solution methods, and also some verification and example calculations, as well as practical instructions for input preparation and usage of the code. (author)

  15. Asymmetric Explosion of Type Ia Supernovae and Their Observational Signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Keiichi

    2010-01-01

    The nature of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) explosions has not yet been clarified, despite their importance in astrophysics and cosmology. Recent theoretical investigations suggest that asymmetric distribution of initial thermonuclear sparks may be a key in the SN Ia explosion mechanism. In this paper, the first observational evidence of the asymmetry in SN Ia explosions is presented: We have found that late-time nebular spectra of various SNe Ia show a diversity in wavelengths of emission lines. This feature is inconsistent with any spherically symmetric explosion models, and indicates that the innermost region, a likely product of the deflagration wave propagation, shows an off-set with respect to the explosion center. The diversity in the emission-line wavelengths could naturally be explained by a combination of different viewing angles.

  16. Theoretical model of the early phases of an underground explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, I.G.; Scorgie, G.C.

    1970-01-01

    Introduction In the early phases of the intense underground explosions contemplated in peaceful applications the rock near the explosive exhibits fluid behaviour; at great distances its behaviour can usefully be investigated in terms of linear elasticity; and at intermediate distances we think of a solid exhibiting various inelastic effects including cracking and tensile fracture. The present paper outlines a mathematical model that attempts to include in some degree the main features of this range of behaviour. A more detailed treatment than is given here, and its relationship to the work of others, is given in a paper by the authors. A computer program ATHENE has been written based on this model and its use is illustrated by examining some aspects of two types of explosions. One is a chemical explosion which eventually formed a crater and the other a nuclear explosion which remained wholly contained

  17. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a search site for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  18. Recovery Audit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Recovery Audit Programs mission is to identify and correct Medicare improper payments through the efficient detection and collection of overpayments made on...

  19. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  20. Recovery of uranium resources from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurushima, Morihiro

    1980-01-01

    After the oil crisis in 1973, the development of atomic energy has become important as substitute energy, and the stable acquisition of uranium resources is indispensable, in order to promote smoothly the use of atomic energy. The Ministry of International Trade and Industry has engaged actively in the project ''The survey on the technical development of the system for recovering uranium and others from sea water'' since 1974. 80% of the uranium resources in the world is distributed in USA, Canada, South Africa, Australia and Niger, and in near future, the price of uranium ores may be raised. Japan must promote powerfully the development of foreign uranium resources, but also it is very important to get domestic uranium by efficiently recovering the uranium dissolved in sea water, the amount of which was estimated at 4 billion tons, and its practical use is expected in 1990s. The uranium concentration in sea water is about 3 g in 1000 t sea water. The processes of separation and recovery are as follows: (1) adsorption of uranium to titanic acid powder adsorbent by bringing sea water in contact with it, (2) dissolving the collected uranium with ammonium carbonate, the desorption agent, (3) concentration of uranium solution by ion exchange method or ion flotation method to 2800 ppm. The outline of the model plant is explained. (Kako, I.)

  1. NUMERICAL MODEL FOR THE KRAKATOA HYDROVOLCANIC EXPLOSION AND TSUNAMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Mader

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Krakatoa exploded August 27, 1883 obliterating 5 square miles of land and leaving a crater 3.5 miles across and 200-300 meters deep. Thirty three feet high tsunami waves hit Anjer and Merak demolishing the towns and killing over 10,000 people. In Merak the wave rose to 135 feet above sea level and moved 100 ton coral blocks up on the shore.Tsunami waves swept over 300 coastal towns and villages killing 40,000 people. The sea withdrew at Bombay, India and killed one person in Sri Lanka.The tsunami was produced by a hydrovolcanic explosion and the associated shock wave and pyroclastic flows.A hydrovolcanic explosion is generated by the interaction of hot magma with ground water. It is called Surtseyan after the 1963 explosive eruption off Iceland. The water flashes to steam and expands explosively. Liquid water becoming water gas at constant volume generates a pressure of 30,000 atmospheres.The Krakatoa hydrovolcanic explosion was modeled using the full Navier-Stokes AMREulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE which includes the high pressure physics of explosions.The water in the hydrovolcanic explosion was described as liquid water heated by the magma to 1100 degree Kelvin or 19 kcal/mole. The high temperature water is an explosive with the hot liquid water going to a water gas. The BKW steady state detonation state has a peak pressure of 89 kilobars, a propagation velocity of 5900 meters/second and the water is compressed to 1.33 grams/cc.The observed Krakatoa tsunami had a period of less than 5 minutes and wavelength of less than 7 kilometers and thus rapidly decayed. The far field tsunami wave was negligible. The air shock generated by the hydrovolcanic explosion propagated around the world and coupled to the ocean resulting in the explosion being recorded on tide gauges around the world.

  2. Modeling a High Explosive Cylinder Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocher, Marvin A.

    2017-06-01

    Cylindrical assemblies constructed from high explosives encased in an inert confining material are often used in experiments aimed at calibrating and validating continuum level models for the so-called equation of state (constitutive model for the spherical part of the Cauchy tensor). Such is the case in the work to be discussed here. In particular, work will be described involving the modeling of a series of experiments involving PBX-9501 encased in a copper cylinder. The objective of the work is to test and perhaps refine a set of phenomenological parameters for the Wescott-Stewart-Davis reactive burn model. The focus of this talk will be on modeling the experiments, which turned out to be non-trivial. The modeling is conducted using ALE methodology.

  3. Seismic explosion sources on an ice cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shulgin, Alexey; Thybo, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Controlled source seismic investigation of crustal structure below ice covers is an emerging technique. We have recently conducted an explosive refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiment on the ice cap in east-central Greenland. The data-quality is high for all shot points and a full...... as a strong ice wave. The ice cap leads to low transmission of energy into the crust such that charges need be larger than in conventional onshore experiments to obtain reliable seismic signals. The strong reflection coefficient at the base of the ice generates strong multiples which may mask for secondary...... phases. This effect may be crucial for acquisition of reflection seismic profiles on ice caps. Our experience shows that it is essential to use optimum depth for the charges and to seal the boreholes carefully....

  4. Multistage reaction pathways in detonating high explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Vashishta, Priya

    2014-01-01

    Atomistic mechanisms underlying the reaction time and intermediate reaction products of detonating high explosives far from equilibrium have been elusive. This is because detonation is one of the hardest multiscale physics problems, in which diverse length and time scales play important roles. Here, large spatiotemporal-scale reactive molecular dynamics simulations validated by quantum molecular dynamics simulations reveal a two-stage reaction mechanism during the detonation of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine crystal. Rapid production of N 2 and H 2 O within ∼10 ps is followed by delayed production of CO molecules beyond ns. We found that further decomposition towards the final products is inhibited by the formation of large metastable carbon- and oxygen-rich clusters with fractal geometry. In addition, we found distinct unimolecular and intermolecular reaction pathways, respectively, for the rapid N 2 and H 2 O productions

  5. Nucleosynthesis in Type II Supernova Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Carrie; Hix, W. Raphael; Harris, A.; Manneschmidt, A.

    2016-09-01

    Type II are the most common class of the ``core collapse'' supernova, involving the destruction of a high mass star (> 8M⊙). Their death is a result of a self-gravitational force becoming unbalanced as fusion ceases in the stellar core, leading to the collapse of the core to form a neutron star. The propagation of the shock ignites fusion into heavier elements as it progress through the star. This process is the origin of most elements present in the universe. In recent years, the complex nature of the explosion (its hydrodynamics, transport of energy, and the created isotopes) have been studied with increasing physical fidelity. Detailed nucleosynthesis from models of these core collapse supernovae is calculated in a post-processing step, using thermodynamic trajectories. My work on the project has been to develop the tools to visualize the results of post-processing calculations in the 2D grid. National Science Foundation (NSF).

  6. Optimization of Composting for Explosives Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-30

    crustaceans Cdubia and rat oral toxicity screening. The leachates were also analyzed for explosives and TNT metabolites. The main conclusion of the ORNL study...967 NICKEL, TOTAL 7.7 u MG/KG 7.7 LEAD, TOTAL 4.5 MG/KG 0.98 ANTIMONY, TOTAL 15.6 MG/KG 11.6 SELENIUM, TOTAL 1.2 MG/KG 0.98 THALLIUM , TOTAL 2.0 u MG/KG...KG 2.0 LEAD, TOTAL 1.0 u MG/KG 1.0 SELENIUM, TOTAL 1.0 u MG/KG 1.0 THALLIUM , TOTAL 2.0 u MG/KG 2.0 BLANK1 89C141B-MB1 MERCURY, TOTAL 0.10 U MG/KG

  7. Evidence-based post-exercise recovery strategies in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-González, Julio; Terrados, Nicolás; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Delextrat, Anne; Jukic, Igor; Vaquera, Alejandro; Torres, Lorena; Schelling, Xavier; Stojanovic, Marko; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2016-01-01

    Basketball can be described as a moderate-to-long duration exercise including repeated bouts of high-intensity activity interspersed with periods of low to moderate active recovery or passive rest. A match is characterized by repeated explosive activities, such as sprints, jumps, shuffles and rapid changes in direction. In top-level modern basketball, players are frequently required to play consecutive matches with limited time to recover. To ensure adequate recovery after any basketball activity (i.e., match or training), it is necessary to know the type of fatigue induced and, if possible, its underlying mechanisms. Despite limited scientific evidence to support their effectiveness in facilitating optimal recovery, certain recovery strategies are commonly utilized in basketball. It is particularly important to optimize recovery because players spend a much greater proportion of their time recovering than they do in training. Therefore, the main aim of this report is to facilitate useful information that may lead to practical application, based on the scientific evidence and applied knowledge specifically in basketball.

  8. [Intermittent Explosive Disorder: A Controversial Diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Juan Pablo; Palacio, Juan David

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is aan externalizing externalising disorder characterized characterised by recurrent aggression episodes. Even though this disorder was described several decades ago, and it carries personal and social consequences, there is little in the medical scientific literature on this. bibliographic production about it is scanty. To perform a conceptualization conceptualisation of this disorder, through the review and bibliometric analysis of the available scientific articles. A search was performed in databases with the english English terms intermittent explosive disorder, impulse disorders control [MeSH], in combination with other terms. A bibliometric analysis in the GoPubMed® search engineer was also performed using all data obtained in the search. was also perfomed. IED prevalence ranges from 1.4% to 7%, it presents more frequently during middle adolescence, and with more noticeable repercussions in men males than in womenfemales. The psychopathological core of IED is the impulsive aggressive behaviour that presents in the form of «attacks» that occurs in response to a lower precipitating stimulus. Scientific publications about IED are few and relatively recent, and the vast majority is provided bycomes from the United States (56.56%), and headed by a single author. This fact highlights the need to replicate the findings described about the IED in order to demonstrate the validity and reliability of its diagnostic criteria. It is possible that doubts about the existence of a diagnosis lead have led to such a scant literature about the IED. Available studies about IED allow have allowed characterizing a group of subjects with episodes of impulsive aggression to be characterised, but this description requires replication in different latitudesneeds to be repeated in different areas. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrodynamic modeling and explosive compaction of ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenig, C.; Holt, A.; Finger, M.; Kuhl, W.

    1977-09-01

    High-density ceramics with high-strength microstructure were achieved by explosive compaction. Well-characterized Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, and boron powders were explosively compacted in both cylindrical and flat plate geometries. In cylindrical geometries compacted densities between 91 and 98 percent of theoretical were achieved. Microhardness measurements indicated that the strength and integrity of the microstructure were comparable to conventionally fabricated ceramics, even though all samples with densities greater than 90 percent theoretical contained macrocracks. Fractured surfaces evaluated by SEM showed evidence of boundary melting. Equation of state data for porous Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were used to calculate the irreversible work done on the sample as a function of pressure. This was expressed as a percentage of the total sample which could be melted. Calculations show that very little melting can be expected in samples shocked to less than 3 GPa. Significant melting and grain boundary fusion can be expected in samples shocked to pressures greater than 8 GPa. Hydrodynamic modeling of right cylinder compaction with detonation at one end was attempted by using a two-dimensional computer code. The complications of this analysis led to experiments using plane shock waves. Flat-plate compaction assemblies were designed and analyzed by 2-D hydrodynamic codes. The use of porous shock attenuators was evaluated. Experiments were performed on aluminum oxide powders in plane wave geometry. Microstructure evaluations were made as a function of location in the flat plate samples. 11 figures, 1 table.

  10. Phreatomagmatic explosive origin of Hrad Vallis, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lionel; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    2003-08-01

    Hrad Vallis is a ~370 m deep, ~800 km long depression located at 34°N, 218°W, in Elysium Planitia, Mars. A distinctive deposit, present on both sides of the source area of Hrad Vallis, has a maximum width of ~70 km along the strike of the depression, a lower unit extends for nearly 100 km away from the depression on either side, and an upper unit extends for ~50 km. Viking and Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images show lobate deposit boundaries, rheomorphic deformation, and numerous craters 270-580 m in diameter within the deposit. The deposit coincides with a broad topographic rise ~30 km wide and ~100-150 m high extending along the sides of the valley for at least 100 km along strike. We propose that these features formed when a dike underlying the axis of the valley generated a shallow sill, which in turn is partly responsible for the rise topography. The remainder of the rise consists of a mud-like deposit of ejecta from a large-scale phreatomagmatic explosion due to violent mechanical and thermal mixing between the central part of the sill and ice-rich rock layers in the upper few hundred meters of the crust in a fuel-coolant-type interaction. The observed range and thickness of ejecta and the depth of the Hrad depression imply explosion steam pressures up to 360 MPa, ejecta speeds of ~400 m s-1, and a sill at least 150 m thick intruded at a depth of ~350-400 m below the original surface.

  11. Development of Speditive Explosibility Test (SET): a statistical reliable method for combustible dust explosibility investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Danzi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The present work of thesis investigate the explosibility sensitivity and behavior of combustible solid materials, in the form of dusts. The first phase of the work has focused on the ignition sensitivity of combustible dusts, both in form of clouds than deposed as layers. Standard test methods has been used to assess ignition parameter of the samples, i.e. UNI EN 50821: 1999. MITC and MITL were measured for pure combustible dusts and for mixtures of different dusts. In particular mixtures of ...

  12. Increases in dissolved organic carbon accelerate loss of toxic Al in Adirondack lakes recovering from acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Dukett, James E; Houck, Nathan; Snyder, Phil; Capone, Sue

    2013-07-02

    Increasing pH and decreasing Al in surface waters recovering from acidification have been accompanied by increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and associated organic acids that partially offset pH increases and complicate assessments of recovery from acidification. To better understand the processes of recovery, monthly chemistry from 42 lakes in the Adirondack region, NY, collected from 1994 to 2011, were used to (1) evaluate long-term changes in DOC and associated strongly acidic organic acids and (2) use the base-cation surplus (BCS) as a chemical index to assess the effects of increasing DOC concentrations on the Al chemistry of these lakes. Over the study period, the BCS increased (p Al (IMAl) decreased (p Al resulted in a decrease in the IMAl fraction of total monomeric Al from 57% in 1994 to 23% in 2011. Increasing DOC concentrations have accelerated recovery in terms of decreasing toxic Al beyond that directly accomplished by reducing atmospheric deposition of strong mineral acids.

  13. Dissolved organic carbon and chromophoric dissolved organic matter properties of rivers in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Robert G. M.; Butler, Kenna D.; Aiken, George R.

    2012-09-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) parameters were measured over a range of discharge in 30 U.S. rivers, covering a diverse assortment of fluvial ecosystems in terms of watershed size and landscape drained. Relationships between CDOM absorption at a range of wavelengths (a254, a350, a440) and DOC in the 30 watersheds were found to correlate strongly and positively for the majority of U.S. rivers. However, four rivers (Colorado, Colombia, Rio Grande and St. Lawrence) exhibited statistically weak relationships between CDOM absorption and DOC. These four rivers are atypical, as they either drain from the Great Lakes or experience significant impoundment of water within their watersheds, and they exhibited values for dissolved organic matter (DOM) parameters indicative of autochthonous or anthropogenic sources or photochemically degraded allochthonous DOM and thus a decoupling between CDOM and DOC. CDOM quality parameters in the 30 rivers were found to be strongly correlated to DOM compositional metrics derived via XAD fractionation, highlighting the potential for examining DOM biochemical quality from CDOM measurements. This study establishes the ability to derive DOC concentration from CDOM absorption for the majority of U.S. rivers, describes characteristics of riverine systems where such an approach is not valid, and emphasizes the possibility of examining DOM composition and thus biogeochemical function via CDOM parameters. Therefore, the usefulness of CDOM measurements, both laboratory-based analyses and in situ instrumentation, for improving spatial and temporal resolution of DOC fluxes and DOM dynamics in future studies is considerable in a range of biogeochemical studies.

  14. Volcano Inflation prior to Gas Explosions at Semeru Volcano, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, T.; Iguchi, M.; Kawaguchi, R.; Surono, S.; Hendrasto, M.; Rosadi, U.

    2010-12-01

    Semeru volcano in east Java, Indonesia, is well known to exhibit small vulcanian eruptions at the summit crater. Such eruptive activity stopped on April 2009, but volcanic earthquakes started to occur in August and a lava dome was found in the summit crater on November. Since then, lava sometimes flows downward on the slope and small explosions emitting steams from active crater frequently occur every a few to a few tens of minutes. Since the explosions repeatedly occur with short intervals and the active crater is located close to the summit with an altitude of 3676m, the explosions are considered to originate from the gas (steams) from magma itself in the conduit and not to be caused by interactions of magma with the underground water. We installed a tiltmeter at the summit on March 2010 to study the volcanic eruption mechanisms. The tiltmeter (Pinnacle hybrid type, accuracy of measurement is 1 nrad ) was set at a depth of about 1 m around the summit about 500 m north from the active crater. The data stored every 1 s in the internal memory was uploaded every 6 hours by a small data logger with GPS time correction function. More than one thousand gas explosion events were observed for about 2 weeks. We analyze the tilt records as well as seismic signals recorded at stations of CVGHM, Indonesia. The tilt records clearly show uplift of the summit about 20 to 30 seconds before each explosion. Uplifts before large explosions reach to about 20 - 30 n rad, which is almost equivalent to the volume increase of about 100 m^3 beneath the crater. To examine the eruption magnitude dependence on the uplift, we classify the eruptions into five groups based on the amplitudes of seismograms associated with explosions. We stack the tilt records for these groups to reduce noises in the signals and to get general characteristics of the volcano inflations. The results show that the amplitudes of uplifts are almost proportional to the amplitudes of explosion earthquakes while the

  15. Dissolved organic carbon release by marine macrophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrón, C.; Apostolaki, E. T.; Duarte, C. M.

    2012-02-01

    Estimates of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release by marine macrophyte communities (seagrass meadows and macroalgal beds) were obtained experimentally using in situ benthic chambers. The effect of light availability on DOC release by macrophyte communities was examined in two communities both by comparing net DOC release under light and dark, and by examining the response of net DOC release to longer-term (days) experimental shading of the communities. All most 85% of the seagrass communities and almost all of macroalgal communities examined acted as net sources of DOC. There was a weak tendency for higher DOC fluxes under light than under dark conditions in seagrass meadow. There is no relationship between net DOC fluxes and gross primary production (GPP) and net community production (NCP), however, this relationship is positive between net DOC fluxes and community respiration. Net DOC fluxes were not affected by shading of a T. testudinum community in Florida for 5 days, however, shading of a mixed seagrass meadow in the Philippines led to a significant reduction on the net DOC release when shading was maintained for 6 days compared to only 2 days of shading. Based on published and unpublished results we also estimate the global net DOC production by marine macrophytes. The estimated global net DOC flux, and hence export, from marine macrophyte is about 0.197 ± 0.015 Pg C yr-1 or 0.212 ± 0.016 Pg C yr-1 depending if net DOC flux by seagrass meadows was estimated by taking into account the low or high global seagrass area, respectively.

  16. Dissolved Air Flotation of arsenic adsorbent particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Enrique Santander Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of arsenic from synthetic effluent was studied using the adsorbent particle flotation technique (APF and dissolved air flotation (DAF. A sample of an iron mineral was used as adsorbent particles of arsenic, ferric chloride as coagulant, cationic poly-acrylamide (NALCO 9808 as flocculants, and sodium oleate as collector. Adsorption studies to determine the pH influence, contact time, and adsorbent particles concentration on the adsorption of arsenic were carried out along with flotation studies to determine the removal efficiency of adsorbents particles. The results achieved indicate that the adsorption kinetic of arsenic is very rapid and that in range of pH’s from 2 to 7 the adsorption percentages remain constant. The equilibrium conditions were achieved in 60 minutes and about 95% of arsenic was adsorbed when used an adsorbent concentration of 2 g/L and pH 6.3. The maximum adsorption capacity of adsorbent particles was 4.96 mg/g. The mean free energy of adsorption (E was found to be 2.63 kJ/mol, which suggests physisorption. The results of the flotation studies demonstrated that when synthetic effluents with 8.9 mg/L of arsenic were treated under the following experimental conditions; 2 g/L of adsorbent particles, 120 mg/L of Fe(III, 2 mg/L of Nalco 9808, 20 mg/L of sodium oleate, and 40% of recycle ratio in the DAF, it was possible to reach 98% of arsenic removal and 6.3 NTU of residual turbidity in clarified synthetic effluent.

  17. Convective mass transfer around a dissolving bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplat, Jerome; Grandemange, Mathieu; Poulain, Cedric

    2017-11-01

    Heat or mass transfer around an evaporating drop or condensing vapor bubble is a complex issue due to the interplay between the substrate properties, diffusion- and convection-driven mass transfer, and Marangoni effects, to mention but a few. In order to disentangle these mechanisms, we focus here mainly on the convective mass transfer contribution in an isothermal mass transfer problem. For this, we study the case of a millimetric carbon dioxide bubble which is suspended under a substrate and dissolved into pure liquid water. The high solubility of CO2 in water makes the liquid denser and promotes a buoyant-driven flow at a high (solutal) Rayleigh number (Ra˜104 ). The alteration of p H allows the concentration field in the liquid to be imaged by laser fluorescence enabling us to measure both the global mass flux (bubble volume, contact angle) and local mass flux around the bubble along time. After a short period of mass diffusion, where the boundary layer thickens like the square root of time, convection starts and the CO2 is carried by a plume falling at constant velocity. The boundary layer thickness then reaches a plateau which depends on the bubble cross section. Meanwhile the plume velocity scales like (dV /d t )1 /2 with V being the volume of the bubble. As for the rate of volume loss, we recover a constant mass flux in the diffusion-driven regime followed by a decrease in the volume V like V2 /3 after convection has started. We present a model which agrees well with the bubble dynamics and discuss our results in the context of droplet evaporation, as well as high Rayleigh convection.

  18. Research on Initiation Sensitivity of Solid Explosive and Planer Initiation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Matsuo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, recently, there are a lot of techniques being demanded for complex process, various explosive initiation method and highly accurate control of detonation are needed. In this research, the metal foil explosion using high current is focused attention on the method to obtain linear or planate initiation easily, and the main evaluation of metal foil explosion to initiate explosive was conducted. The explosion power was evaluated by observing optically the underwater shock wave generated from the metal foil explosion. Secondly, in high energy explosive processing, there are several applications, such as shock compaction, explosive welding, food processing and explosive forming. In these explosive applications, a high sensitive explosive has been mainly used. The high sensitive explosive is so dangerous, since it can lead to explosion suddenly. So, for developing explosives, the safety is the most important thing as well as low manufacturing cost and explosive characteristics. In this work, we have focused on the initiation sensitivity of a solid explosive and performed numerical analysis of sympathetic detonation. The numerical analysis is calculated by LS-DYNA 3D (commercial code. To understand the initiation reaction of an explosive, Lee-Tarver equation was used and impact detonation process was analyzed by ALE code. Configuration of simulation model is a quarter of circular cylinder. The donor type of explosive (SEP was used as initiation explosive. When the donor explosive is exploded, a shock wave is generated and it propagates into PMMA, air and metallic layers in order. During passing through the layers, the shock wave is attenuated and finally, it has influence on the acceptor explosive, Comp. B. Here, we evaluate the initiation of acceptor explosive and discuss about detonation pressure, reactive rate of acceptor explosive and attenuation of impact pressure.

  19. Rapid quantification of radiocesium dissolved in water by using nonwoven fabric cartridge filters impregnated with potassium zinc ferrocyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Akira; Kawamoto, Tohru; Tsuji, Hideki; Kondo, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Yasukazu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a cartridge filter incorporating a nonwoven fabric impregnated with potassium zinc ferrocyanide (Zn-C) to effectively concentrate and quantify cesium dissolved in water. Experiments conducted with 137 Cs in conditioned water showed that at a flow rate of 2.5 L/min the filter could absorb 97.9% of dissolved 137 Cs from 20 L of water; high recovery efficiency was achieved over a pH range of 3-10. Test measurements of 137 Cs concentrations using Zn-C in river water agreed with the results derived by using an evaporative concentration method (within the counting error of the detector). Using this method, the pre-concentration time of radiocesium in 20 L of fresh water can be reduced to just 8 minutes. (author)

  20. The evolution and explosion of massive Stars II: Explosive hydrodynamics and nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woosley, S.E. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Weaver, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-08-30

    The nucleosynthetic yield of isotopes lighter than A = 66 (zinc) is determined for a grid of stellar masses and metallicities including stars of 11, 12, 13, 15, 18, 19, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, and 40 M{sub {circle_dot}} and metallicities Z = 0, 10{sup {minus}4}, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 times solar (a slightly reduced mass grid is employed for non-solar metallicities). Altogether 78 different model supernova explosions are calculated. In each case nucleosynthesis has already been determined for 200 isotopes in each of 600 to 1200 zones of the presupernova star, including the effects of time dependent convection. Here each star is exploded using a piston to give a specified final kinetic energy at infinity (typically 1.2 {times} 10{sup 51} erg), and the explosive modifications to the nucleosynthesis, including the effects of neutrino irradiation, determined. A single value of the critical {sup 12}C({sub {alpha},{gamma}}){sup 16}O reaction rate corresponding to S(300 keV) = 170 keV barns is used in all calculations. The synthesis of each isotope is discussed along with its sensitivity to model parameters. In each case, the final mass of the collapsed remnant is also determined and often found not to correspond to the location of the piston (typically the edge of the iron core), but to a ``mass cut`` farther out. This mass cut is sensitive not only to the explosion energy, but also to the presupernova structure, stellar mass, and the metallicity. Unless the explosion mechanism, for unknown reasons, provides a much larger characteristic energy in more massive stars, it appears likely that stars larger than about 30 M{sub {center_dot}} will experience considerable reimplosion of heavy elements following the initial launch of a successful shock. While such explosions will produce a viable, bright Type II supernova light curve, lacking the radioactive tail, they will have dramatically reduced yields of heavy elements and may leave black hole remnants of up to 10 and more solar masses.

  1. Aluminum-Enhanced Underwater Electrical Discharges for Steam Explosion Triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOGELAND, STEVE R.; NELSON, LLOYD S.; ROTH, THOMAS CHRISTOPHER

    1999-01-01

    For a number of years, we have been initiating steam explosions of single drops of molten materials with pressure and flow (bubble growth) transients generated by discharging a capacitor bank through gold bridgewires placed underwater. Recent experimental and theoretical advances in the field of steam explosions, however, have made it important to substantially increase these relatively mild transients in water without using high explosives, if possible. To do this with the same capacitor bank, we have discharged similar energies through tiny strips of aluminum foil submerged in water. By replacing the gold wires with the aluminum strips, we were able to add the energy of the aluminum-water combustion to that normally deposited electrically by the bridgewire explosion in water. The chemical enhancement of the explosive characteristics of the discharges was substantial: when the same electrical energies were discharged through the aluminum strips, peak pressures increased as much as 12-fold and maximum bubble volumes as much as 5-fold above those generated with the gold wires. For given weights of aluminum, the magnitudes of both parameters appeared to exceed those produced by the underwater explosion of equivalent weights of high explosives

  2. The concept of explosives malfunctioning in rock blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Q. [Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Val d`Or, Quebec (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    The problem of cross-hole explosive malfunctioning in rock blasting (including sympathetic detonation, desensitization and cut-offs) is a function of delay and spacing in a blast which should be designed to avoid such occurrences. On a delay-spacing chart, the phenomenon of explosive malfunctioning is explained by dividing the chart into different regions, while the shape and size of each region could vary from one explosive to the other. Over seventy blasts have been carried out at the CANMET Experimental Mine to identify the malfunctioning characteristics of specific emulsion, water-gel and dynamite explosives. In each experiment, two parallel blastholes, 32 mm in diameter and 1.7 m deep, were drilled downwards in an underground drift. Full coupling was achieved by tamping the explosives in the wet holes. The receptor hole is initiated with a delay following the donor hole in order to observe the timing effect on the explosives being shocked. High frequency vibration monitoring was used to identify the detonation or failure of the receptor hole. The VOD measurement was used for donor holes but not for the receptor holes because of the cut-off at the collar as a result of donor hole cratering, which was further confirmed with high speed video recording. The spacing is varied to modify the shock pressure the receptor charges are subjected to. Results are presented for the three explosives tested.

  3. Modelling and simulation of gas explosions in complex geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeter, Olav

    1998-12-31

    This thesis presents a three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code (EXSIM94) for modelling and simulation of gas explosions in complex geometries. It gives the theory and validates the following sub-models : (1) the flow resistance and turbulence generation model for densely packed regions, (2) the flow resistance and turbulence generation model for single objects, and (3) the quasi-laminar combustion model. It is found that a simple model for flow resistance and turbulence generation in densely packed beds is able to reproduce the medium and large scale MERGE explosion experiments of the Commission of European Communities (CEC) within a band of factor 2. The model for a single representation is found to predict explosion pressure in better agreement with the experiments with a modified k-{epsilon} model. This modification also gives a slightly improved grid independence for realistic gas explosion approaches. One laminar model is found unsuitable for gas explosion modelling because of strong grid dependence. Another laminar model is found to be relatively grid independent and to work well in harmony with the turbulent combustion model. The code is validated against 40 realistic gas explosion experiments. It is relatively grid independent in predicting explosion pressure in different offshore geometries. It can predict the influence of ignition point location, vent arrangements, different geometries, scaling effects and gas reactivity. The validation study concludes with statistical and uncertainty analyses of the code performance. 98 refs., 96 figs, 12 tabs.

  4. Parameters affecting the thermal behaviour of emulsion explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.E.G.; Feng, H.; Mintz, K.J.; Augsten, R.A. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory

    1999-07-01

    Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) and heat flux calorimetry (HFC) were used to study the sensitivity of ammonium nitrate (AN) and emulsion explosives to pressure and various other parameters. The explosives were evaluated in a series of experiments that examined the influence of pressure in both Argon and air environments at 5.4 MPa. Results of the study demonstrated that significantly lower onset temperatures were observed when the ammonium nitrate (AN) explosive was used in air. Results of the ARC study suggested that lower initial temperatures resulted in an elevated onset temperature. Lower onset temperatures observed in the study were attributed to oxidation of the oil phase in the emulsion. Onset temperatures for the AN explosive were lower than rates observed for the emulsion explosives. The size of the samples also influenced onset temperatures in both the ARC and HFC analyses. At heating rates of 0.1 degrees C per minute, the results of heat flux calorimetry revealed a complex exotherm pattern for the emulsion explosive in both Argon and in air. The high pressure of inert gas inhibited and delayed the exothermic reactions for the emulsion explosives. It was concluded that air-oxidative decomposition results in lower onset temperatures that are influenced by higher pressure rates. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  5. Aluminum-Enhanced Underwater Electrical Discharges for Steam Explosion Triggering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOGELAND, STEVE R.; NELSON, LLOYD S.; ROTH, THOMAS CHRISTOPHER

    1999-07-01

    For a number of years, we have been initiating steam explosions of single drops of molten materials with pressure and flow (bubble growth) transients generated by discharging a capacitor bank through gold bridgewires placed underwater. Recent experimental and theoretical advances in the field of steam explosions, however, have made it important to substantially increase these relatively mild transients in water without using high explosives, if possible. To do this with the same capacitor bank, we have discharged similar energies through tiny strips of aluminum foil submerged in water. By replacing the gold wires with the aluminum strips, we were able to add the energy of the aluminum-water combustion to that normally deposited electrically by the bridgewire explosion in water. The chemical enhancement of the explosive characteristics of the discharges was substantial: when the same electrical energies were discharged through the aluminum strips, peak pressures increased as much as 12-fold and maximum bubble volumes as much as 5-fold above those generated with the gold wires. For given weights of aluminum, the magnitudes of both parameters appeared to exceed those produced by the underwater explosion of equivalent weights of high explosives.

  6. Surface and body waves from surface and underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusubov, A.S.

    1976-06-01

    The characteristics of surface and ground waves were recorded for surface and underground explosions up to 100 tons and 40 kt in magnitude, respectively, and a preliminary analysis of these results is presented. The experiments were conducted at NTS in the Yucca Flats, Nevada. Ground motions were detected with triaxial geophones along seismic lines extending up to 16 miles from the point of explosions. A comparison of Rayleigh waves generated by surface and underground explosions in the same lake bed is presented indicating a very different behavior of surface and ground waves from the two types of explosions. The magnitude of the transverse wave for surface shots was smaller by a factor of two than its longitudinal counterpart. The dependence of apparent periods on the blast energy was not apparent at a fixed distance from the explosions. Changes in the apparent period with distance for both types of explosion are compared indicating a strong layering effect of the lake bed. The ground motion study was complimented by excavation of cavities generated by the explosions

  7. One dimensional shock ring up of a TATB based explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Malcolm

    2017-06-01

    Complex shock initiation of explosives is a gas gun technique that has been used for many years to explore shock sensitivity under various loading regimes. This body of work studies the shock initiation of a TATB-based explosive using a gas gun driven multiple shock technique somewhat between a double shock and ramp loading. In these experiments a shock wave rings up in a low impedance disc sandwiched between a high impedance flyer and anvil. The explosive sample under study has been placed in contact with the anvil and therefore each ring up is transmitted through the anvil into the explosive. This has created a stepped multiple shock input into the explosive, which can be tailored by varying both the dimensions within the ring up stage, and the flyer velocity. Typically the explosive sample will experience four to five stepped pulses before shock convergence. Two distinct shock initiation regimes have been studied; in the first the reactive growth in the explosive commences after shock coalescence and in the second the reactive growth commences within the first shocked state. In both cases the run distance to detonation, and growth of reaction has been measured using embedded particle velocity gauges.

  8. Change in lattice parameter of tantalum due to dissolved hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyanendra P. Tiwari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The volume expansion of tantalum due to the dissolved hydrogen has been determined using Bragg equation. The hydrogen was dissolved in the pure tantalum metal at constant temperature (360 °C and constant pressure (132 mbar by varying the duration of hydrogen charging. The amount of dissolved hydrogen was within the solid solubility limit. The samples with different hydrogen concentration were analyzed by X-ray diffraction technique. Slight peak shifts as well as peak broadening were observed. The relative changes of lattice parameters plotted against the hydrogen concentration revealed that the lattice parameters varied linearly with the hydrogen concentration.

  9. Isolation and chemical characterization of dissolved and colloidal organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, G.; Leenheer, J.

    1993-01-01

    Commonly used techniques for the concentration and isolation of organic matter from water, such as preparative chromatography, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis, and the methods used to analyze the organic matter obtained by these methods are reviewed. The development of methods to obtain organic matter that is associated with fractions of the dissolved organic carbon other than humic substances, such as organic bases, hydrophilic organic acids and colloidal organic matter are discussed. Methods specifically used to study dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved organic phosphorous are also discussed. -from Authors

  10. Highly sensitive detection of explosive triacetone triperoxide by an In{sub 2}O{sub 3} sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Wenhui; Zhang Weide; Chen Luya, E-mail: zhangwd@scut.edu.cn [Nano Science Research Center, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-08-06

    Triacetone triperoxide (TATP) is one of the most sensitive known explosives and can be easily synthesized using the commonly available chemicals acetone and hydrogen peroxide, but is difficult to be detected. In this study, In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by a glucose-assisted solvothermal method at 120 deg. C for 18 h. The gas sensor based on In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles exhibits a high response, fast response and recovery, a wide detecting range of 0.50-500 mg, good stability and excellent stability to TATP.

  11. A hybrid formulation for the numerical simulation of condensed phase explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, L.; Nikiforakis, N.

    2016-07-01

    In this article we present a new formulation and an associated numerical algorithm, for the simulation of combustion and transition to detonation of condensed-phase commercial- and military-grade explosives, which are confined by (or in general interacting with one or more) compliant inert materials. Examples include confined rate-stick problems and interaction of shock waves with gas cavities or solid particles in explosives. This formulation is based on an augmented Euler approach to account for the mixture of the explosive and its products, and a multi-phase diffuse interface approach to solve for the immiscible interaction between the mixture and the inert materials, so it is in essence a hybrid (augmented Euler and multi-phase) model. As such, it has many of the desirable features of the two approaches and, critically for our applications of interest, it provides the accurate recovery of temperature fields across all components. Moreover, it conveys a lot more physical information than augmented Euler, without the complexity of full multi-phase Baer-Nunziato-type models or the lack of robustness of augmented Euler models in the presence of more than two components. The model can sustain large density differences across material interfaces without the presence of spurious oscillations in velocity and pressure, and it can accommodate realistic equations of state and arbitrary (pressure- or temperature-based) reaction-rate laws. Under certain conditions, we show that the formulation reduces to well-known augmented Euler or multi-phase models, which have been extensively validated and used in practice. The full hybrid model and its reduced forms are validated against problems with exact (or independently-verified numerical) solutions and evaluated for robustness for rate-stick and shock-induced cavity collapse case-studies.

  12. Pathologic features of suicidal deaths caused by explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokos, M; Türk, E E; Madea, B; Koops, E; Longauer, F; Szabo, M; Huckenbeck, W; Gabriel, P; Barz, J

    2003-03-01

    Suicidal explosions that lack a terrorist background are only rarely encountered in the field of forensic pathology. The investigation of explosion-related fatalities can be a substantial challenge in medicolegal casework. Determining whether the manner of death is suicide, homicide, or accident in such cases can present an especially difficult task to the forensic pathologist. This study considers the pathologic features of suicidal deaths caused by explosives without a terrorist background. The modus operandi of the decedents reflected familiarity and proficiency, or at least a degree of specialized knowledge, with the construction and use of explosive devices. All explosions were set off in confined spaces. The injury patterns consisted of a combination of primary blast injuries (e.g. decapitation, traumatic amputation of limbs, gross lacerations of the body surface, blast injuries of gas-containing and hollow organs), secondary blast injuries (e.g. splinter-induced penetrating trauma), tertiary blast injuries (e.g. abrasions and contusions), and burn injuries (mostly of the flash type). The previously described symmetric distribution pattern of injuries in suicidal explosions was apparent only to a certain degree in the present series. Our observation of superficially sharp-edged wound margins with bridging in the depths of the lesion in blast-induced lacerations of the skin should deserve further attention in forthcoming cases of explosion-related fatalities because this finding is a diagnostic possibility that may support the theory of an explosion-related fatality under special circumstances, e.g. when the body has been dumped away from the place of death. Because a terrorist attack may be initially suspected in each case of suicide involving explosives, the importance of a joint inquiry based on expertise from police investigators, bomb experts, and forensic pathologists is evident.

  13. Process for recovery of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiewiorowski, T.K.; Thornsberry, W.L. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Process is claimed for the recovery of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid solution in which an organic extractant, containing uranium values and dissolved iron impurities and comprising a dialkylphosphoric acid and a trialkylphosphine oxide dissolved in a water immiscible organic solvent, is contacted with a substantially iron-free dilute aqueous phosphoric acid to remove said iron impurities. The removed impurities are bled from the system by feeding the resulting iron-loaded phosphoric acid to a secondary countercurrent uranium extraction operation from which they leave as part of the uranium-depleted acid raffinate. Also, process for recovering uranium in which the extractant, after it has been stripped of uranium values by aqueous ammonium carbonate, is contacted with a dilute aqueous acid selected from the group consisting of H 2 SO 4 , HCl, HNO 3 and iron-free H 3 PO 4 to improve the extraction efficiency of the organic extractant

  14. Low vulnerability explosives (LOVEX) for mass-use warheads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruneda, C.; Jessop, E.; McGuire, R.

    1990-03-13

    There is an ongoing effort at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop explosives with a significantly lower vulnerability to battlefield environments (bullets, fragments, sympathetic detonation) than current explosives (TNT and Comp B) without sacrificing performance or increasing costs. The approach taken is to develop a composite explosive which is comprised of inexpensive fillers such as RDX, NaNO{sub 3}, Al and a low modulus binder system. The binder system uses nitroglycerin/triacetin as an energetic plasticizer. This paper discusses the experimental results to date in vulnerability, performance and processing. 7 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Underground nuclear explosions. Study of the cavity radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, L.

    1968-11-01

    An underground nuclear explosion creates a cavity due to the expansion of the surrounding medium vaporized by the shot. The cavity radius is related to the energy of explosion and to the overburden pressure of the medium. The introduction of new elements such as the environment of the device (in a deep hole or in a tunnel) and the cohesion of the medium leads to a relationship which determines this radius. The known French and American underground explosions performed in various media, energy and overburden conditions, satisfy this relationship with a good precision. (author) [fr

  16. Discrimination between earthquakes and chemical explosions using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Ajit; Bhadauria, Y.S.; Roy, Falguni

    2012-05-01

    An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for discriminating between earthquakes and chemical explosions located at epicentral distances, Δ <5 deg from Gauribidanur Array (GBA) has been developed using the short period digital seismograms recorded at GBA. For training the ANN spectral amplitude ratios between P and Lg phases computed at 13 different frequencies in the frequency range of 2-8 Hz, corresponding to 20 earthquakes and 23 chemical explosions were used along with other parameters like magnitude, epicentral distance and amplitude ratios Rg/P and Rg/Lg. After training and development, the ANN has correctly identified a set of 21 test events, comprising 6 earthquakes and 15 chemical explosions. (author)

  17. On the Initiation of High Explosives by Laser Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenchik, A M

    2006-03-28

    The problem of laser initiation of high explosives in munitions is considered. In this situation, the laser illuminates a small spot on the casing, and lateral thermal transport affects the initiation temperature. We use a variational method to calculate the critical temperature for explosive initiation as a function the laser spot size, for common high explosives. The effect of the dwelling time of the irradiation is then evaluated. We demonstrate that in typical situations the critical temperature is determined by the dwelling time rather than by the laser spot size.

  18. Effects of explosion-generated shock waves in ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busby, M.R.; Kahn, J.E.; Belk, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    An explosion in a space causes an increase in temperature and pressure. To quantify the challenge that will be presented to essential components in a ventilation system, it is necessary to analyze the dynamics of a shock wave generated by an explosion, with attention directed to the propagation of such a wave in a duct. Using the equations of unsteady flow and shock tube theory, a theoretical model has been formulated to provide flow properties behind moving shock waves that have interacted with various changes in duct geometry. Empirical equations have been derived to calculate air pressure, temperature, Mach number, and velocity in a duct following an explosion

  19. The geometry of Strombolian explosions: insights from Doppler radar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouhier, Mathieu; Donnadieu, Franck

    2010-12-01

    Observations of Strombolian volcanic explosions were carried out at Etna's southeast crater on 2001 July 4 using a ground-based pulsed Doppler radar (VOLDORAD). To obtain quantitative constraints on the geometry of the explosions, we modelled synthetic Doppler spectra by combining the outputs of a ballistic model to compute the theoretical velocities of gas and particles, and an electromagnetic scattering model to calculate the synthetic echo power. This allowed us to reproduce the shapes of recorded Doppler spectra for each volcanic explosion. We examined the geometrical distribution of ejected pyroclasts for about 200 explosions and found two main types of explosion, each showing a distinctive spectral signature. The first type, characterized by the triangular shape of their Doppler spectra, represents 34 per cent of the explosions. This spectrum shape is related to a Gaussian distribution of the pyroclast ejection angles, where most of the volcanic material is ejected vertically within a narrow cone, with the particle concentration decreasing radially. The second type represents about 12 per cent of the explosions, and is characterized by a top-hat-shaped spectrum. It is produced by a uniform distribution of pyroclast ejection angles. In this case, the bubbles tend to burst above the crater rim and eject the ballistic clasts hemispherically without preferential orientation. The majority of the Strombolian explosions analysed (54 per cent) are intermediate between these end-member shapes, and show a triangular spectra truncated by a plateau. They result from a uniform distribution of ejection angles around the jet axis. The continuous radar recordings allowed us to carry out a statistical analysis on the geometrical features of the same 200 Strombolian explosions. Thus we find that 40° is a statistically representative aperture of the dispersion cone characterized by uniform ejecta distribution for explosions having a plateau component (i.e. 2/3 of all

  20. Initiation of detonation by impact on granular explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, H.

    1964-05-01

    A good number of experiments have shown up the particular behaviour of granular explosives when they are detonated by barrier transmitted shocks. Similar results can be obtained when the shock is induced by impact. In this case the pressure signal shape applied at the explosive is better known and both its intensity and duration can be varied. By using a mathematical model in which the law of chemical kinetics is a linear function of pressure, and different temperatures are used for solids and gases, it is possible to describe most of the behaviour of detonation initiation in solid granular explosives. (author) [fr