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Sample records for disseminated skeletal metastasis

  1. sup 8 sup 9 Sr and sup 1 sup 5 sup 3 Sm-EDTMP therapy of disseminated skeletal metastasis

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    Zhang Jun Ning; Zhu Shou Peng

    2001-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed on 72 patients with disseminated skeletal metastasis to evaluate the effect of strontium-89 or samarium-153 EDTMP therapy. There existed 87.88% of clinical response, 12.12% of no response in the group treated with strontium-89 as compared with 90.24% of clinical response, 9.76% no response in one treated with samarium-153 EDTMP; and there were no correlation between the treatment results and the amounts of isotopes administrated. The results suggest that strontium-89 or samarium-153 EDTMP therapy is a method of first choice in the palliative treatment for disseminated skeletal metastasis

  2. Ventricular metastasis resulting in disseminated intravascular coagulation

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    Davis Ian D

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC complicates up to 7% of malignancies, the commonest solid organ association being adenocarcinoma. Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC has rarely been associated with DIC. Case presentation A 74-year-old woman with TCC bladder and DIC was found to have a cardiac lesion suspicious for metastatic disease. The DIC improved with infusion of plasma and administration of Vitamin K, however the cardiac lesion was deemed inoperable and chemotherapy inappropriate; given the patients functional status. We postulate that direct activation of the coagulation cascade by the intraventricular metastasis probably triggered the coagulopathy in this patient. Conclusion Cardiac metastases should be considered in cancer patients with otherwise unexplained DIC. This may influence treatment choices.

  3. Contemporary approaches for imaging skeletal metastasis

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    David Ulmert; Lilja Solnes; Daniel LJ Thorek

    2015-01-01

    The skeleton is a common site of cancer metastasis. Notably high incidences of bone lesions are found for breast, prostate, and renal carcinoma. Malignant bone tumors result in significant patient morbidity. Identification of these lesions is a critical step to accurately stratify patients, guide treatment course, monitor disease progression, and evaluate response to therapy. Diagnosis of cancer in the skeleton typically relies on indirect bone-targeted radiotracer uptake at sites of active bone remodeling. In this manuscript, we discuss established and emerging tools and techniques for detection of bone lesions, quantification of skeletal tumor burden, and current clinical challenges.

  4. Malignant intraventricular meningioma with craniospinal dissemination and concurrent pulmonary metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Malignant intraventricular meningiomas are quite rare and may spread along the craniospinal axis or extraneurally. However, simultaneous cerebrospinal dissemination and distal extraneural metastasis has seldom been reported. Case presentation A 51-year-old woman presented with recurrent anaplastic meningioma in the trigone of right lateral ventricle over a 1.5-year period. Suggested radiotherapy was refused after each operation. The patient showed a local relapse and dissemination around the previous tumoral cavity and along the spinal canal during the last recurrence. Left pulmonary metastasis was also found. She died despite multiple lesion resections. Conclusions Malignant intraventricular meningiomas are an uncommon subset of intracranial meningiomas, and have a great potential for intraneural and extraneural metastasis. Systemic investigation for metastasis is required after surgery, especially for those without adjuvant therapies. PMID:25073808

  5. Skeletal metastasis: treatments, mouse models,and the Wnt signaling

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    Kenneth C.Valkenburg; Matthew R.Steensma; Bart O.Williams; Zhendong Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal metastases result in significant morbidity and mortality.This is particularly true of cancers with a strong predilection for the bone,such as breast,prostate,and lung cancers.There is currently no reliable cure for skeletal metastasis,and palliative therapy options are limited.The Wnt signaling pathway has been found to play an integral role in the process of skeletal metastasis and may be an important clinical target.Several experimental models of skeletal metastasis have been used to find new biomarkers and test new treatments.In this review,we discuss pathologic process of bone metastasis,the roles of the Wnt signaling,and the available experimental models and treatments.

  6. Skeletal metastasis: the effect on immature skeleton

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    Ogden, J.A.; Ogden, D.A.

    1982-12-01

    The unique opportunity to study the entire appendicular skeleton of a child who died from metastatic angiosarcoma allowed detailed assessment of radiographically evident involvement. Virtually every portion of the appendicular skeleton had evidence of metastatic disease. However, the extent of involvement was extremely variable, especially when contralateral regions were assessed. The most likely region of metastasis, the metaphysis, is normally a fenestrated cortex of woven bone in the young child, rather than a well demarcated cortex formed by osteon (lamellar) bone, as it is in the adult. The pattern of destruction is such that less extensive areas may be involved before becoming radiographically evident, and trabecular bone involvement may be evident even without cortical damage. The metaphyseal metastatic spread supports the concept of arterial hematogeneous dissemination, comparable to osteomyelitis in the child. Pathologic metaphyseal fractures involved both proximal humeri; the fracture also extended along a portion of the methaphyseal-physeal interface in one humerus. In one distal femur the physis readily separated from the metaphysis; this was a nondisplaced type 1 growth mechanism injury.

  7. Distant skeletal muscle metastasis from intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma presenting as Budd-Chiari syndrome

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    Oh Sung Kwon; Young Sook Park; Jong Eun Joo; Dae Won Jun; Sang Heum Kim; Mee Yeon Chung; Nam In Kim; Moon Hee Song; Han Hyo Lee; Seung Hwan Kim; Yoon Ju Jo

    2007-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant neoplasm arising from the biliary epithelium, which frequently invades adjacent organs or metastasizes to other visceral organs such as the lungs, bones, adrenals, and brain. However, distant skeletal muscle metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma has never been described before to the best of our knowledge and, furthermore, Budd-Chiari syndrome secondary to intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is also extremely rare. Here we present the first case overall of distant muscle metastasis from intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma presenting as Budd-Chiari syndrome. A 44-year-old man admitted to the hospital with complaints of abdominal distension, edema of both legs, back pain and anorexia of 30 o" duration. Computed tomography and ultrasonography-guided percutaneous muscle biopsy established intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with disseminated thrombosis from inferior vena cava to bilateral iliac and femoral veins, and multiple skeletal muscle metastases in bilateral buttock and erector spinal muscle.

  8. Animal cancer models of skeletal metastasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hibberd, Catherine; Cossigny, Davina A F; Quan, Gerald M Y

    2013-01-01

    ... ability, and poorer quality of life. Animal cancer models of skeletal metastases are essential for better understanding of the molecular pathways behind metastatic spread and local growth and invasion of bone, to enable analysis of host...

  9. Skeletal muscle metastasis from uterine leiomyosarcoma

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    O' Brien, J.M.; Brennan, D.D.; Taylor, D.H.; Eustace, S.J. [Cappagh National Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Holloway, D.P.; O' Keane, J.C. [Cappagh National Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Pathology, Dublin (Ireland); Hurson, B. [Cappagh National Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Dublin (Ireland)

    2004-11-01

    A case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with a rapidly enlarging painful right thigh mass is presented. She had a known diagnosis of uterine leiomyosarcoma following a hysterectomy for dysfunctional uterine bleeding. She subsequently developed a single hepatic metastatic deposit that responded well to radiofrequency ablation. Whole-body MRI and MRA revealed a vascular mass in the sartorius muscle and a smaller adjacent mass in the gracilis muscle, proven to represent metastatic leiomyosarcoma of uterine origin. To our knowledge, metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma to the skeletal muscle has not been described previously in the English medical literature. (orig.)

  10. Skeletal muscle metastasis from uterine leiomyosarcoma.

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    O'Brien, J M; Brennan, D D; Taylor, D H; Holloway, D P; Hurson, B; O'Keane, J C; Eustace, S J

    2004-11-01

    A case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with a rapidly enlarging painful right thigh mass is presented. She had a known diagnosis of uterine leiomyosarcoma following a hysterectomy for dysfunctional uterine bleeding. She subsequently developed a single hepatic metastatic deposit that responded well to radiofrequency ablation. Whole-body MRI and MRA revealed a vascular mass in the sartorius muscle and a smaller adjacent mass in the gracilis muscle, proven to represent metastatic leiomyosarcoma of uterine origin. To our knowledge, metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma to the skeletal muscle has not been described previously in the English medical literature.

  11. Semaphorin 4D Promotes Skeletal Metastasis in Breast Cancer.

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    Yang, Ying-Hua; Buhamrah, Asma; Schneider, Abraham; Lin, Yi-Ling; Zhou, Hua; Bugshan, Amr; Basile, John R

    2016-01-01

    Bone density is controlled by interactions between osteoclasts, which resorb bone, and osteoblasts, which deposit it. The semaphorins and their receptors, the plexins, originally shown to function in the immune system and to provide chemotactic cues for axon guidance, are now known to play a role in this process as well. Emerging data have identified Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) as a product of osteoclasts acting through its receptor Plexin-B1 on osteoblasts to inhibit their function, tipping the balance of bone homeostasis in favor of resorption. Breast cancers and other epithelial malignancies overexpress Sema4D, so we theorized that tumor cells could be exploiting this pathway to establish lytic skeletal metastases. Here, we use measurements of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function in vitro and a mouse model of skeletal metastasis to demonstrate that both soluble Sema4D and protein produced by the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 inhibits differentiation of MC3T3 cells, an osteoblast cell line, and their ability to form mineralized tissues, while Sema4D-mediated induction of IL-8 and LIX/CXCL5, the murine homologue of IL-8, increases osteoclast numbers and activity. We also observe a decrease in the number of bone metastases in mice injected with MDA-MB-231 cells when Sema4D is silenced by RNA interference. These results are significant because treatments directed at suppression of skeletal metastases in bone-homing malignancies usually work by arresting bone remodeling, potentially leading to skeletal fragility, a significant problem in patient management. Targeting Sema4D in these cancers would not affect bone remodeling and therefore could elicit an improved therapeutic result without the debilitating side effects.

  12. Semaphorin 4D Promotes Skeletal Metastasis in Breast Cancer.

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    Ying-Hua Yang

    Full Text Available Bone density is controlled by interactions between osteoclasts, which resorb bone, and osteoblasts, which deposit it. The semaphorins and their receptors, the plexins, originally shown to function in the immune system and to provide chemotactic cues for axon guidance, are now known to play a role in this process as well. Emerging data have identified Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D as a product of osteoclasts acting through its receptor Plexin-B1 on osteoblasts to inhibit their function, tipping the balance of bone homeostasis in favor of resorption. Breast cancers and other epithelial malignancies overexpress Sema4D, so we theorized that tumor cells could be exploiting this pathway to establish lytic skeletal metastases. Here, we use measurements of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function in vitro and a mouse model of skeletal metastasis to demonstrate that both soluble Sema4D and protein produced by the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 inhibits differentiation of MC3T3 cells, an osteoblast cell line, and their ability to form mineralized tissues, while Sema4D-mediated induction of IL-8 and LIX/CXCL5, the murine homologue of IL-8, increases osteoclast numbers and activity. We also observe a decrease in the number of bone metastases in mice injected with MDA-MB-231 cells when Sema4D is silenced by RNA interference. These results are significant because treatments directed at suppression of skeletal metastases in bone-homing malignancies usually work by arresting bone remodeling, potentially leading to skeletal fragility, a significant problem in patient management. Targeting Sema4D in these cancers would not affect bone remodeling and therefore could elicit an improved therapeutic result without the debilitating side effects.

  13. Microenvironments and Signaling Pathways Regulating Early Dissemination, Dormancy, and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    the MMTV- Neu -CFP model and we have also performed single cell RNA-seq which will allow us in the next year to identify the early and late gene...signatures in DTCs we proposed in our grant. 15. SUBJECT TERMS dormancy, early dissemination, EMT, macrophages, TMEM 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  14. Microenvironments and Signaling Pathways Regulating Early Dissemination, Dormancy, and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    metastases (overt and micrometastases) (Fig. 1E- F). Macro-metastases originating from early cancer cell mammospheres displayed a glandular phenotype but...whether a HER2+/P-p38lo profile was linked to the partial or total activation of an epithelium to mesenchyme transition program 19. Treatment of MCF10A...metastasis found in nude mice injected with MMTV-HER2 mammospheres (upper left). Upper right, shows differentiated glandular ductal structures found within

  15. Paucity of muscle metastasis in otherwise widely disseminated cancer: a conundrum.

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    LaBan, Myron M; Nagarajan, Ramya; Riutta, Justin C

    2010-11-01

    Despite widespread dissemination of cancer to multiple organs, muscle metastasis remains a rare occurrence. Limiting factors in this regard include, among others, repetitive muscle contraction, increased lactic acid, and decreased pH as well as protease metabolism. With the approval of hospital's research committee, a 10-yr review of histopathologic and imaging studies of patients diagnosed as having muscle metastasis was attempted. A review of the literature dealing with this phenomenon was also initiated. The review of the literature with reference to muscle metastasis highlighted its rare occurrence, which in turn correlated with our own 40-yr clinical experience (M.M.L.). As a potential target, muscle tissue remains an "infrequent soil" for metastasis because of its unique mechanical and metabolic qualities.

  16. Skeletal metastasis of carcinoid tumors: Two case reports and review of the literature.

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    Hori, Takeshi; Yasuda, Taketoshi; Suzuki, Kayo; Kanamori, Masahiko; Kimura, Tomoatsu

    2012-05-01

    Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine neoplasms derived from enterochromaffin cells. Skeletal metastases from carcinoid tumors are considered to be extremely rare. In this study, we present two cases of carcinoid tumors that metastasized to the bone. Furthermore, we review 50 published case reports and reveal the features of skeletal metastasis of carcinoid tumors. The first case involved a 59-year-old man with a history of multiple metastases of a lung carcinoid tumor. The patient complained of back pain and numbness in the lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed metastases in the thoracic spine. A spinal decompression was performed and the symptoms were resolved. The second case involved a 74-year-old man had been diagnosed with a lung carcinoid tumor 15 years previously and complained of left thigh pain. A radiograph showed osteolytic lesions in the shaft of the left femur. We repaired the femur using an intramedullary nail following curettage of the tumor. A radiograph of the femur revealed a callus on the pathological fracture. The patient was able to walk using a crutch 3 months after surgery. We reviewed 50 cases that described skeletal metastasis from carcinoid tumors. The average age of the patients was 54.9 years and 33 patients (66%) were male. The most common site of skeletal metastasis was the spine. We also investigated the survival rate of patients who developed skeletal metastasis from carcinoid tumors. The findings showed that survival of patients who developed osteolytic skeletal metastasis was worse than that of patients who developed osteosclerotic skeletal metastasis.

  17. Breast Fibroblasts Modulate Early Dissemination, Tumorigenesis, and Metastasis through Alteration of Extracellular Matrix Characteristics

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    Nancy Dumont

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A wealth of evidence has now demonstrated that the microenvironment in which a tumorigenic cell evolves is as critical to its evolution as the genetic mutations it accrues. However, there is still relatively little known about how signals from the microenvironment contribute to the early events in the progression to malignancy. To address this question, we used a premalignant mammary model to examine how fibroblasts, and the extracellular matrix (ECM proteins they secrete, influence progression to malignancy. Their effect on metastatic malignant cells was also assessed for comparison. We found that carcinoma-associated fibroblasts, and the distinct aligned ECM they deposit, can cause both premalignant and malignant mammary epithelial cells to assume a mesenchymal morphology that is associated with increased dissemination and metastasis, while benign reduction mammoplasty fibroblasts favor the maintenance of an epithelial morphology and constrain early dissemination, tumor growth, and metastasis. Our results suggest that normalizing the organization of the ECM could be effective in limiting systemic dissemination and tumor growth.

  18. Significance of Lymph Node Metastasis in Cancer Dissemination of Head and Neck Cancer

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    Jae-Keun Cho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lymph node metastasis (LNM in many solid cancers is a well-known prognostic factor; however, it has been debated whether regional LNM simply reflects tumor aggressiveness or is a source for further tumor dissemination. Similarly, the metastatic process in head and neck cancer (HNC has not been fully evaluated. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relative significance of LNM in metastatic cascade of HNC using functional imaging of HNC patients and molecular imaging in in vivo models. First, we analyzed 18Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET parameters of 117 patients with oral cancer. The primary tumor and nodal PET parameters were measured separately, and survival analyses were conducted on the basis of clinical and PET variables to identify significant prognostic factors. In multivariate analyses, we found that only the metastatic node PET values were significant. Next, we compared the relative frequency of lung metastasis in primary ear tumors versus lymph node (LN tumors, and we tested the rate of lung metastasis in another animal model, in which each animal had both primary and LN tumors that were expressing different colors. As a result, LN tumors showed higher frequencies of lung metastasis compared to orthotopic primary tumors. In color-matched comparisons, the relative contribution to lung metastasis was higher in LN tumors than in primary tumors, although both primary and LN tumors caused lung metastases. In summary, tumors growing in the LN microenvironment spread to systemic sites more commonly than primary tumors in HNC, suggesting that the adequate management of LNM can reduce further systemic metastasis.

  19. [A Resected Case of Cecal Cancer with Simultaneous Liver, Spleen, and Ovarian Metastasis and Peritoneal Dissemination].

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    Nakamoto, Takayuki; Ueda, Takeshi; Koyama, Fumikazu; Nishigori, Naoto; Inoue, Takashi; Kawasaki, Keijirou; Obara, Shinsaku; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Fujii, Hisao; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-11-01

    We herein report the case of a patient with a cecal cancer with simultaneous liver, spleen, and ovarian metastases as well as peritoneal dissemination who achieved a long-term survival. The patient was a 67-year-old female. Ileocecal resection with partial hepatectomy, splenectomy, simple total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and resection of the peritoneal dissemination were performed. The final diagnosis was Stage IV (T4a, N1, M1b[H1, P3, OTH]). Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered, but abdominal computed tomography(CT)revealed a metachronous liver metastasis 41 months later. We performed partial hepatectomy, and the patient continued adjuvant chemotherapy. The patient is currently alive and disease-free 30 months after the last operation, 72 months after the initial surgery.

  20. Skeletal metastasis of carcinoid tumors: Two case reports and review of the literature

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    HORI, TAKESHI; YASUDA, TAKETOSHI; Suzuki, Kayo; KANAMORI, MASAHIKO; KIMURA, TOMOATSU

    2012-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine neoplasms derived from enterochromaffin cells. Skeletal metastases from carcinoid tumors are considered to be extremely rare. In this study, we present two cases of carcinoid tumors that metastasized to the bone. Furthermore, we review 50 published case reports and reveal the features of skeletal metastasis of carcinoid tumors. The first case involved a 59-year-old man with a history of multiple metastases of a lung carcinoid tumor. The patient complained o...

  1. Post-operative breast cancer patients diagnosed with skeletal metastasis without bone pain had fewer skeletal-related events and deaths than those with bone pain

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    Koizumi Mitsuru

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skeletal metastases are often accompanied by bone pain. To investigate the clinical meaning of bone pain associated with skeletal metastasis in breast cancer patients after surgery, we explored whether the presence of bone pain was due to skeletal-related events (SREs or survival (cause specific death, CSD, retrospectively. Methods Consecutive breast cancer patients undergoing surgery between 1988 and 1998 were examined for signs of skeletal metastasis until December 2006. Patients who were diagnosed as having skeletal metastasis were the subjects of this study. Bone scans were performed annually for 5, 7 or 10 years; they were also conducted if skeletal metastasis was suspected. Data concerning bone pain and tumor markers at the time of skeletal metastasis diagnosis, and data relating to various factors including tumors, lymph nodes and hormone receptors at the time of surgery, were investigated. The relationships between factors such as bone pain, SRE and CSD were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox's analysis. Results Skeletal metastasis occurred in 668 patients but the pain status of two patients was unknown, therefore 666 patients were included in the study. At the time of skeletal metastasis diagnosis 270 patients complained of pain; however, 396 patients did not. Analysis of data using Cox's and Kaplan-Meier methods demonstrated that patients without pain had fewer SREs and better survival rates than those with pain. Hazard ratios regarding SRE (base = patients without pain were 2.331 in univariate analysis and 2.243 in multivariate analysis. Hazard ratios regarding CSD (base = patients without pain were 1.441 in univariate analysis and 1.535 in multivariate analysis. Similar results were obtained when analyses were carried out using the date of surgery as the starting point. Conclusion Bone pain at diagnosis of skeletal metastasis was an indicator of increased SRE and CSD. However, these data did not

  2. Natural killer lytic-associated molecule plays a role in controlling tumor dissemination and metastasis

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    Richard Glenn Hoover

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer lytic-associated molecule (NKLAM is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a major role in the cytolytic activity of NK cells. NKLAM is rapidly synthesized and then targeted to the granule membranes of NK cells upon NK activation. Previous studies have shown an essential role for NKLAM in NK killing activity in vitro. These findings were extended to an in vivo model of NK-mediated tumor killing in which NKLAM-deficient knockout (KO mice injected with B16 melanoma cells were found to have significantly higher numbers of pulmonary tumor nodules than wild type (WT mice. To further investigate the role of NKLAM and NK function in tumor immunity in vivo, we utilized additional tumor models to compare tumor development and progression in NKLAM KO and WT mice. Primary tumor growth, dissemination, and metastasis of RMA-S lymphoma cells and E0771 breast cancer cells were evaluated. Both tumor cell lines were stably transfected with constructs that allow expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP, which serves as a tumor-specific marker. Intravenous injection of NK-sensitive RMA-S lymphoma cells resulted in greater dissemination of lymphoma cells in NKLAM KO mice than in WT mice. Lymphoma cells were found in the lymph nodes and bone marrow of NKLAM KO mice two weeks after injection; few detectable tumor cells remained in WT mice. E0771 syngeneic breast cancer cells were injected into the mammary pads of NKLAM KO and WT mice. Primary tumor growth was greater in NKLAM KO than in WT mice. More significantly, there were four to five fold more tumor cells in the blood and lungs of NKLAM KO than in WT mice two weeks after injection of tumor cells into the mammary pad. These results indicate that NKLAM plays a role in tumor development in vivo, especially in controlling tumor dissemination and metastasis to distant sites.

  3. Cranial and spinal leptomeningeal dissemination in esthesioneuroblastoma: Two reports of distant central nervous system metastasis and rationale for treatment

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    Sivakumar, Walavan; Oh, Nathan; Cutler, Aaron; Colman, Howard; Couldwell, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Esthesioneuroblastoma is a locally aggressive cancer of the nasal cavity. While systemic metastasis can occur in 10-30% of patients, there are only six reported cases of distal metastasis from leptomeningeal dissemination. Case Description: The authors report two cases of esthesioneuroblastoma treated previously with multimodal therapy in which distal metastatic recurrence was found and describe their treatment protocol, which has resulted in long-term success. Conclusion: Understanding the drivers of leptomeningeal dissemination in more prevalent primary neuroectodermal tumors may hold the key to developing successful treatment algorithms for this disease. PMID:26682087

  4. Clavicle metastasis from carcinoma thyroid- an atypical skeletal event and a management dilemma.

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    Krishnamurthy, Arvind

    2015-09-01

    Bone metastases is a well described event in the natural history of thyroid cancers and has the potential to severely impact the quality of life by causing pain, fractures and spinal cord compression. Follicular thyroid carcinomas have a greater propensity for distal metastasis than papillary and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. The most common sites of skeletal metastasis among thyroid cancer patients are femur followed by humerus, pelvis, radius, and scapula. Clavicle metastasis at initial presentation is exceedingly rare. Although many studies have examined the various prognostic factors for patients with bony metastases from thyroid cancers, very few have actually evaluated the effects of surgical management. We present an unusual case of metastatic papillary carcinoma thyroid presenting with clavicle metastasis and review the role of surgical management of bone metastases. Clavicular resection as a part of the management of metastatic papillary carcinoma thyroid has, to the best of our knowledge never been reported before.

  5. Pathogenesis and treatment of skeletal metastasis: studies in animal models

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    Buijs, Jeroen Theodorus

    2009-01-01

    The skeleton is one of the most common organs to be affected by metastatic disease. However, only a restricted number of solid cancers, especially those of the breast and prostate, are responsible for the majority of the bone metastases. Bone metastases are a major cause of morbidity, characterized by severe pain and high incidence of fractures, spinal cord compression and bone marrow aplasia requiring hospitalization. Despite the high frequency of skeletal metastases, the molecular mechanism...

  6. Extramedullary skeletal muscle metastasis of glioblastoma:A case report and literature review

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    Li Wang; Rongqing Li; Xudong Feng; Shuling Song; Yong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to explore the clinicopathologic, immunophenotypic, and diag-nostic features of extramedul ary metastases of glioblastoma. Methods One case of extramedul ary skeletal muscle metastasis of glioblastoma was studied, in-cluding the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features. Results A 24-year-old man underwent surgical resection for glioblastoma (WHO grade IV) in the left temporal parietal region fol owed by radiotherapy and temozolomide therapy. One year and nine months later, he developed an extramedul ary skeletal muscle metastasis in L4, and the histology was remarkably dif erent from that of the primary glioblastoma specimen. The immunohistochemical analysis also showed changes. In the metastasis, the smal cel s were negative for GFAP; weakly positive for S-100; and positive for nestin, NSE, and CD56, with 60% of cel s positive for p53 and 40% positive for Ki-67. The giant cel s showed strong positivity for GFAP and S-100, and weak expression of p53, Ki-67, nestin, NSE, and CD56. The primary glioblastoma specimen showed strong positivity for GFAP and S-100 and was negative for NSE, nestin, and CD56, with around 25% of the tumor cel s positive for p53 and a Ki-67 labeling index of 20%. Conclusion Extraneural metastasis (ENM) is a rare complication of glial tumors and glioma stem cel s may be related to the metastasis. Since extraneural metastasis may occur in patients without central nervous symptoms, any unusual signs during the fol ow-up of patients diagnosed with glioblas-toma should not be underestimated.

  7. Solitary Skeletal Muscle Metastasis as First Site of Recurrence of Cervical Cancer: A Case Report

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    Indumathy Varadarajan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide, with a large majority of prevalence (85% in developing countries. As of 2012, it accounts for 7.5% of all female cancer deaths. Despite its high prevalence, skeletal muscle metastasis from cervical cancer is extremely uncommon. In our extensive literature search, we were able to find only 8 cases where skeletal muscle metastasis was the only site of recurrence. We report a case of a 52-year-old African-American woman with a past medical history of cervical cancer (stage IIIB who presented with pain and swelling in her left upper arm over the preceding 2 months. MRI of the left upper arm showed a solid well-circumscribed mass measuring 7.0 × 2.8 × 2.5 cm, deep to the biceps. Biopsy of the mass revealed a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma that was p16-positive. PET scan showed that the lesion was the sole site of metastasis. She received local radiation with concurrent chemotherapy. Follow-up MRI 6 months after the completion of therapy showed resolution of the mass. She has remained disease-free for the last 24 months as evidenced by a PET/CT scan in May 2016. In this case report, we discuss the role of imaging and pathology in the diagnosis of a solitary metastatic lesion. This case also emphasizes the importance of a close follow-up which aids in early intervention, increasing overall survival.

  8. Cardiac metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland with severe disseminated intravascular coagulation: A case report.

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    Yoshihiro, Tomoyasu; Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Kusaba, Hitoshi; Nakashima, Torahiko; Obara, Teppei; Nio, Kenta; Takayoshi, Kotoe; Kodama, Hiroyuki; Tsuruta, Nobuhiro; Kiyohara, Hideyuki; Asai, Kaori; Harada, Eiji; Kamezaki, Kenjiro; Arita, Takeshi; Sato, Masanobu; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Arita, Shuji; Ariyama, Hiroshi; Odashiro, Keita; Oda, Yoshinao; Akashi, Koichi; Baba, Eishi

    2017-01-01

    Distant metastasis of primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the thyroid gland is rare and, to the best of our knowledge, cardiac metastasis has not been reported to date. A 57-year-old man underwent surgery and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for stage IVA SCC of the thyroid gland. After 3 months, the patient was admitted to the Kyushu University Hospital (Fukuoka, Japan) with subcutaneous hematomas of the left thigh and lower leg, and he was diagnosed with cardiac and mediastinal lymph node metastases of SCC of the thyroid gland with severe disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Echocardiography revealed a mass, 52 mm in greatest diameter, protruding from the interventricular septum towards the right ventricle. Weekly administration of paclitaxel and concurrent irradiation of the cardiac and lymph node metastases were performed. Eighteen days after the initiation of chemoradiotherapy, the DIC and hematomas had significantly improved, and the cardiac metastasis was stable. However, 2 months after admission, the patient developed dyspnea and multiple nodular shadows appeared to be spreading in the subpleura of the lungs bilaterally, which were initially suspected to be pulmonary tumor embolisms. Prednisolone and subsequent administration of lenvatinib were not effective and the patient succumbed to respiratory failure. Severe DIC caused by extremely rare cardiac metastasis of SCC of the thyroid gland was effectively controlled by chemoradiotherapy. However, intensive local control appears to be required for this condition.

  9. Skeletal Muscle Metastasis from Renal Cell Carcinoma; 21 cases and review of the literature

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    Tamara Miner Haygood

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to raise radiologists’ awareness of skeletal muscle metastases (SMM in renal cell carcinoma (RCC cases and to clarify their imaging appearance. Methods: A retrospective analysis was undertaken of 21 patients between 44–75 years old with 72 SMM treated from January 1990 to May 2009 at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas, USA. Additionally, 37 patients with 44 SMM from a literature review were analysed. Results: Among the 21 patients, the majority of SMM were asymptomatic and detected via computed tomography (CT. Mean metastasis size was 18.3 mm and the most common site was the trunk muscles (83.3%. The interval between discovery of the primary tumour and metastasis detection ranged up to 234 months. Peripheral enhancement (47.1% was the most common post-contrast CT pattern and non-contrasted CT lesions were often isodense. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI characteristics were varied. Five lesions with available T1-weighted pre-contrast images were hyperintense to the surrounding muscle. Other organ metastases were present in 20 patients. Of the 44 SMM reported in the literature, the majority were symptomatic. Average metastasis size was 53.4 mm and only 20.5% of SMM were in trunk muscles. The average interval between tumour discovery and metastasis detection was 101 months. Other organ metastases were recorded in 17 out of 29 patients. Conclusion: SMM should always be considered in patients with RCC, even well after primary treatment. SMM from RCC may be invisible on CT without intravenous contrast; contrast-enhanced studies are therefore recommended. SMM are often hyperintense to the surrounding muscle on T1-weighted MRI scans.

  10. Implication of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha in prostate cancer skeletal metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingxin Liu; Danielle Jernigan; Yun Zhang; Alessandro Fatatis

    2011-01-01

    Metastasis represents by far the most feared complication of prostate carcinoma and is the main cause of death for patients.The skeleton is frequently targeted by disseminated cancer cells andrepresents the sole site of spread in more than 80% of prostate cancer cases.Compatibility between select malignant phenotypes and the microenvironment of colonized tissues is broadly recognized as the culprit for the organ-tropism of cancer cells.Here,we review our recent studies showing that the expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) supports the survival and growth of prostate cancer cells in the skeleton and that the soluble fraction of bone marrow activates PDGFRα in a ligand-independent fashion.Finally,we offer pre-clinical evidence that this receptor is a viable target for therapy.

  11. Dorsal vertebral column abnormalities in dogs with disseminated idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, S De; Volk, H A

    2014-06-21

    Although disseminated idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) most often affects the ventral aspect of the vertebral column, this study evaluated the occurrence, nature and clinical relevance of dorsal vertebral column abnormalities in 10 dogs with DISH for which CT or MRI and a complete neurological examination were available. Dorsal vertebral column abnormalities were present in eight dogs and included articular process hypertrophy (n=7 dogs), periarticular new bone formation (n=1), pseudoarthrosis between spinous processes (n=4) and thickening of the dorsal lamina (n=4). These dorsal vertebral abnormalities caused clinically relevant vertebral canal stenosis in six dogs and were the only cause of clinical signs in four of these dogs. Although the lumbosacral joint was not affected by DISH, these six dogs demonstrated lumbosacral vertebral canal stenosis and clinical signs of cauda equina compression, which included paraparesis (n=5 dogs), lumbosacral pain (n=4), urinary incontinence (n=4), faecal incontinence (n=1) and urinary and faecal incontinence (n=1). There is a possible association between DISH and hypertrophy of dorsal vertebral structures, potentially resulting in vertebral canal stenosis. Although these changes occurred at segments fused by DISH, they predominantly affected adjacent non-affected segments.

  12. Intraperitoneal Mesenchymal Cells Promote the Development of Peritoneal Metastasis Partly by Supporting Long Migration of Disseminated Tumor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joji Kitayama

    Full Text Available The human peritoneal cavity contains a small number of free cells of mesenchymal cell lineage. Intraperitoneal mesenchymal cells (PMC play supportive roles in metastasis formation on the peritoneum. In this study, we found that PMC, when co-cultuerd with human gastric cancer cells, MKN45, enhanced the proliferation of MKN45 when cultured at low, but not high, cellular density. Also, PMC suppressed apoptotic cell death of MKN45 only under low density culture conditions. Time-lapse videoanalysis clearly demonstrated that PMC randomly migrated more vigorously than did MKN45, and strongly enhanced the migration behavior of co-cultured MKN45. In fact, the majority of MKN45 migrated together in direct physical contact with PMC, and the sum of migration lengths from original position of co-cultured MKN45 for 48 hours was approximately 10 times longer than that of MKN45 cultured alone. Our data suggest that enhanced migration can increase the chance of direct contact or positional proximity among sparcely distributed MKN45, which may bring survival advantages to tumor cells. This may be one of the important mechanisms of peritoneal metastasis, since only a small number of tumor cells are considered to be disseminated in the early step of metastasis formation on the peritoneum.

  13. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal metastases; Diagnostica per immagini delle metastasi scheletriche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scutellari, P. N.; Addonisio, G.; Righi, R. [Ferrara Univ., Ferrara (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Chirurgiche, Anestesiologiche e Radiologiche, Sez. di Diagnostica e Terapia Radiologiche; Giganti, M. [Ferrara Univ., Ferrara (Italy). Dipt. di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, Sez. di Medicina Nucleare

    2000-12-01

    Purpose of this article is to present an algorithm for detection and diagnosis of skeletal metastases, which may be applied differently in symptomatic and asymptomatic cancer patients. February to March 1999 it was randomly selected and retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of 100 cancer patients (70 women and 30 men; mean age: 63 years, range: 55-87). All the patients had been staged according to TNM criteria and had undergone conventional radiography and bone scan; when findings were equivocal, CT and MRI had been performed too. The primary lesions responsible for bone metastases were sited in the: breast (51 cases), colon (30 cases: 17 men and 13 women), lung (7 cases: 6 men and 1 woman), stomach (4 cases: 2 men and 2 women), skin (4 cases: 3 men and 1 woman), kidney (2 men), pleura (1 woman), and finally liver (1 man). The most frequent radiographic pattern was the lytic type (52%), followed by osteosclerotic, mixed, lytic vs mixed and osteosclerotic vs lytic patterns. The patients were divided into two groups: group A patients were asymptomatic and group B patients had local symptoms and/or pain. Skeletal metastases are the most common malignant bone tumors: the spine and the pelvis are the most frequent sites of metastasis, because of the presence of high amounts of red (hematopoietic active) bone marrow. Pain is the main symptom, even though many bone metastases are asymptomatic. Pathological fractures are the most severe consequences. With the algorithm for detection and diagnosis of skeletal metastases two different diagnostic courses are available for asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Bone scintigraphy remains the technique of choice in asymptomatic patients in whom skeletal metastases are suspected. However this technique, though very sensitive, is poorly specific, and thus a negative bone scan finding is double-checked with another physical examination: if the findings remain negative, the diagnostic workup is over. On the contrary, in

  14. [Metastasis in maxilar sinus as only manifestation of disseminate renal adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Muros, B; Bonilla Parrilla, R; Solano Romero, J R; Rodríguez Baró, J G; Verge González, J

    2007-01-01

    Paranasal sinuses and nose metastasis are very uncommon. About 50 have been reported. Renal cell carcinoma is the primary neoplasm which most frequently metastasizes in the nasosinusal region, followed by breast and lug. Symptoms are unspecific, but the epistaxis constitutes the most common sign due to the significant vascularizations of the tumor. Prognosis is poor. The survival rate fluctuates between 15-30% at 5 years. Surgery is the elective treatment.

  15. Treatment Planning and Fracture Prediction in Patients with Skeletal Metastasis with CT-based Rigidity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarian, Ara; Entezari, Vahid; Zurakowski, David; Calderon, Nathan; Hipp, John A.; Villa-Camacho, Juan C.; Lin, Patrick P.; Cheung, Felix H.; Aboulafia, Albert J.; Turcotte, Robert; Anderson, Megan E.; Gebhardt, Mark C.; Cheng, Edward Y.; Terek, Richard M.; Yaszemski, Michael; Damron, Timothy A.; Snyder, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pathological fractures could be prevented if reliable methods of fracture risk assessment were available. A multi-center, prospective study was conducted to identify significant predictors of physicians' treatment plan for skeletal metastasis based on clinical fracture risk assessments and the proposed CT-based Rigidity Analysis (CTRA). Methods Orthopaedic oncologists selected a treatment plan for 124 patients with 149 metastatic lesions based on Mirels method. Then, CTRA was performed and the results were provided to the physicians, who were asked to reassess their treatment plan. The pre- and post-CTRA treatment plans were compared to identify cases where the treatment plan was changed based on the CTRA report. Patients were followed for a 4 month period to establish the incidence of pathological fractures. Results Pain, lesion type and lesion size were significant predictors of the pre-CTRA plan. After providing the CTRA results, physicians changed their plan for 36 patients. CTRA results, pain and primary source of metastasis were significant predictors of the post-CTRA plan. Follow up of patients who did not undergo fixation resulted in 7 fractures; CTRA predicted these fractures with 100% sensitivity and 90% specificity, whereas the Mirels method was 71% sensitive and 50% specific. Conclusions Lesion type and size and pain level influenced the physicians’ plans for management of metastatic lesions. Physicians’ treatment plans and fracture risk predictions were significantly influenced by the availability of CTRA results. Due to its high sensitivity and specificity. CTRA could potentially be used as a screening method for pathological fractures. PMID:25724521

  16. Endoscopy-verified occult subependymal dissemination of glioblastoma and brain metastasis undetected by MRI: prognostic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacoangeli M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Maurizio Iacoangeli,1 Alessandro Di Rienzo,1 Roberto Colasanti,1 Antonio Zizzi,2 Maurizio Gladi,1 Lorenzo Alvaro,1 Niccolò Nocchi,1 Lucia Giovanna Maria Di Somma,1 Marina Scarpelli,2 Massimo Scerrati11Department of Neurosurgery, 2Department of Pathology, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Umberto I General Hospital, Ancona, ItalyAbstract: Although various prognostic indices exist for patients with malignant brain tumors, the prognostic significance of the subependymal spread of intracranial tumors is still a matter of debate. In this paper, we report the cases of two intraventricular lesions, a recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM and a brain metastasis, each successfully treated with a neuroendoscopic approach. Thanks to this minimally invasive approach, we achieved good therapeutic results: we obtained a histological diagnosis; we controlled intracranial hypertension by treating the associated hydrocephalus and, above all, compared with a microsurgical approach, we reduced the risks related to dissection and brain retraction. Moreover, in both cases, neuroendoscopy enabled us to identify an initial, precocious subependymal tumor spreading below the threshold of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI detection. This finding, undetected in pre-operative MRI scans, was then evident during follow-up neuroimaging studies. In light of these data, a neuroendoscopic approach might play a leading role in better defining the prognosis and optimally tailored management protocols for GBM and brain metastasis.Keywords: subependymal spreading, glioblastoma, brain metastasis, endoscopy, minimally invasive surgery, prognosis

  17. ATOH1 Promotes Leptomeningeal Dissemination and Metastasis of Sonic Hedgehog Subgroup Medulloblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grausam, Katie B; Dooyema, Samuel D R; Bihannic, Laure; Premathilake, Hasitha; Morrissy, A Sorana; Forget, Antoine; Schaefer, Amanda M; Gundelach, Justin H; Macura, Slobodan; Maher, Diane M; Wang, Xin; Heglin, Alex H; Ge, Xijin; Zeng, Erliang; Puget, Stephanie; Chandrasekar, Indra; Surendran, Kameswaran; Bram, Richard J; Schüller, Ulrich; Talyor, Michael D; Ayrault, Olivier; Zhao, Haotian

    2017-07-15

    Medulloblastoma arising from the cerebellum is the most common pediatric brain malignancy, with leptomeningeal metastases often present at diagnosis and recurrence associated with poor clinical outcome. In this study, we used mouse medulloblastoma models to explore the relationship of tumor pathophysiology and dysregulated expression of the NOTCH pathway transcription factor ATOH1, which is present in aggressive medulloblastoma subtypes driven by aberrant Sonic Hedgehog/Patched (SHH/PTCH) signaling. In experiments with conditional ATOH1 mouse mutants crossed to Ptch1(+/-) mice, which develop SHH-driven medulloblastoma, animals with Atoh1 transgene expression developed highly penetrant medulloblastoma at a young age with extensive leptomeningeal disease and metastasis to the spinal cord and brain, resembling xenografts of human SHH medulloblastoma. Metastatic tumors retained abnormal SHH signaling like tumor xenografts. Conversely, ATOH1 expression was detected consistently in recurrent and metastatic SHH medulloblastoma. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and gene expression profiling identified candidate ATOH1 targets in tumor cells involved in development and tumorigenesis. Among these targets specific to metastatic tumors, there was an enrichment in those implicated in extracellular matrix remodeling activity, cytoskeletal network and interaction with microenvironment, indicating a shift in transcriptomic and epigenomic landscapes during metastasis. Treatment with bone morphogenetic protein or SHH pathway inhibitors decreased tumor cell proliferation and suppressed metastatic tumor growth, respectively. Our work reveals a dynamic ATOH1-driven molecular cascade underlying medulloblastoma metastasis that offers possible therapeutic opportunities. Cancer Res; 77(14); 3766-77. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Mechanistic role of p38 MAPK in gastric cancer dissemination in a rodent model peritoneal metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, Luigina; Mencarelli, Andrea; Santorelli, Chiara; Renga, Barbara; Cipriani, Sabrina; Cavazzoni, Emanuel; Palladino, Giuseppe; Laufer, Stefan; Burnet, Michael; Donini, Annibale; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2012-01-15

    Peritoneal dissemination is a highly frequent complication of poorly differentiated gastric cancers for which no effective therapies are available. Constitutive activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling cascades is recognized as a causative factor in the malignant transformation of several carcinoma cell types. In the present study we provide evidence that p38 MAPK inhibition protects against gastric cancer cells dissemination in a mouse model of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Administering mice with ML3403 and SB203580, potent and selective p38 MAPK inhibitors, attenuate the formation of neoplastic foci induced by intraperitoneal inoculation of gastric cancer cells. By gene array analysis we found that such a protective effect correlates with a robust downregulation in the expression of CXC chemokine receptor-4, Fms-related tyrosine kinase 4 (FLT4), the non-receptor spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) and the collagen α2(IV) (COL4A2) in neoplasic foci. Inhibition of p38 MAPK in vivo increased the sensitivity of tumor cells to cisplatin and associated with a robust downregulation in the expression of the multidrug resistance (MDR)-1, a well defined marker of resistance to chemotherapy. In summary, p38 MAPK inhibition by a small molecule is beneficial in preventing the peritoneal dissemination of poorly differentiated gastric cancer cells by acting at multiple check-points in the process of attachment and diffusion of tumor cells in the peritoneum.

  19. Metastasis 'systems' biology: how are macro-environmental signals transmitted into microenvironmental cues for disseminated tumor cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelak, Candice Alexandra; Ghajar, Cyrus Michael

    2017-10-01

    Disseminated breast tumor cells reside on or near stable microvascular endothelium. Currently, the cues that disrupt DTC dormancy and facilitate outgrowth are largely unknown. This article explores the hypothesis that specific patient lifestyle exposures (e.g., alcohol abuse) may disrupt the microenvironments that maintain disseminated tumor cell (DTC) dormancy in a tissue-specific fashion. We suggest that such exposures are 'transmitted' to the dormant niche in the form of injury. Thus, we discuss the relationship between wound healing and metastasis using liver as an example to illustrate how injury steers the phenotype of liver endothelium and perivascular hepatic stellate cells to a potentially pro-metastatic one. We posit further that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) - recently shown to prevent metastatic relapse - may act by preserving the dormant niche. We conclude by suggesting that maintenance of the dormant niche - either through patient lifestyle or via development of therapeutics that mimic local molecular cues/responses that coincide with a healthy lifestyle - is a means to prevent metastatic relapse, and should be the subject of far greater research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Galectin-3 in bone tumor microenvironment: a beacon for individual skeletal metastasis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kosei; Kho, Dong Hyo; Yanagawa, Takashi; Zimel, Melissa; Heath, Elisabeth; Hogan, Victor; Raz, Avraham

    2016-06-01

    The skeleton is frequently a secondary growth site of disseminated cancers, often leading to painful and devastating clinical outcomes. Metastatic cancer distorts bone marrow homeostasis through tumor-derived factors, which shapes different bone tumor microenvironments depending on the tumor cells' origin. Here, we propose a novel insight on tumor-secreted Galectin-3 (Gal-3) that controls the induction of an inflammatory cascade, differentiation of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and bone marrow cells, resulting in bone destruction and therapeutic failure. In the approaching era of personalized medicine, the current treatment modalities targeting bone metastatic environments are provided to the patient with limited consideration of the cancer cells' origin. Our new outlook suggests delivering individual tumor microenvironment treatments based on the expression level/activity/functionality of tumor-derived factors, rather than utilizing a commonly shared therapeutic umbrella. The notion of "Gal-3-associated bone remodeling" could be the first step toward a specific personalized therapy for each cancer type generating a different bone niche in patients afflicted with non-curable bone metastasis.

  1. Skeletal Muscle Metastasis as an Initial Presentation of Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutahir A. Tunio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC frequently metastasizes to the lungs and bones. However, metastasis to the skeletal muscles is an extremely rare manifestation of FTC. To date, only seven cases of FTC have been reported in the literature. Skeletal muscle metastases from FTC usually remain asymptomatic or manifest as swelling and are associated with dismal prognosis. Case Presentation. A 45-year-old Saudi woman presented with right buttock swelling since 8 months. Physical examination revealed right gluteal mass of size  cm and right thyroid lobe nodule. The rest of examination was unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed  cm lobulated mass arising from the gluteus medius muscle, and tru-cut biopsy confirmed the metastatic papillary carcinoma of thyroid origin. The patient subsequently underwent palliative radiotherapy followed by total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine ablation. At the time of publication, the patient was alive with partial response in gluteal mass. Conclusion. Skeletal muscles metastases are a rare manifestation of FTC, and searching for the primary focus in a patient with skeletal muscle metastasis, thyroid cancer should be considered as differential diagnosis.

  2. Endoscopy-verified occult subependymal dissemination of glioblastoma and brain metastasis undetected by MRI: prognostic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Di Rienzo, Alessandro; Colasanti, Roberto; Zizzi, Antonio; Gladi, Maurizio; Alvaro, Lorenzo; Nocchi, Niccolò; Di Somma, Lucia Giovanna Maria; Scarpelli, Marina; Scerrati, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Although various prognostic indices exist for patients with malignant brain tumors, the prognostic significance of the subependymal spread of intracranial tumors is still a matter of debate. In this paper, we report the cases of two intraventricular lesions, a recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and a brain metastasis, each successfully treated with a neuroendoscopic approach. Thanks to this minimally invasive approach, we achieved good therapeutic results: we obtained a histological diagnosis; we controlled intracranial hypertension by treating the associated hydrocephalus and, above all, compared with a microsurgical approach, we reduced the risks related to dissection and brain retraction. Moreover, in both cases, neuroendoscopy enabled us to identify an initial, precocious subependymal tumor spreading below the threshold of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection. This finding, undetected in pre-operative MRI scans, was then evident during follow-up neuroimaging studies. In light of these data, a neuroendoscopic approach might play a leading role in better defining the prognosis and optimally tailored management protocols for GBM and brain metastasis. PMID:23271915

  3. Axillary node metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma with hürthle and signet ring cell differentiation. A case of disseminated thyroid cancer with peculiar histologic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiofalo Maria

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiated thyroid cancer is usually associated with an excellent prognosis and indolent course. Distant metastases are rare events at the onset of thyroid cancer. Among these presentations, metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes is even more unusual: only few cases were previously reported in the literature; there has been no report of axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. Axillary lymph node metastasis generally arises in the context of disseminated disease and carries an ominous prognosis. Case presentation Here we present a case of axillary lymph node metastasis in the context of disseminated differentiated thyroid cancer. The patient underwent near total thyroidectomy and neck and axillary lymph node dissection. A histopathological diagnosis of poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma with "signet ring cells" and Hürthle cell features was established. The patient received radioactive iodine therapy and TSH suppression therapy. Subsequently his serum thyroglobulin level decreased to 44.000 ng/ml from over 100.000 ng/ml. Discussion and Conclusion Currently there are only few reported cases of axillary node metastases from thyroid cancer, and to our knowledge, this is the first report on axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. "Signet ring cell" is a morphologic feature shared by both benign and, more rarely, malignant follicular thyroid neoplasm, and it generally correlates with an arrest in folliculogenesis. Our case is one of the rare "signet ring cells" carcinomas so far described.

  4. 1 case of skeletal muscle metastasis after resection of rectal cancer%直肠癌术后横纹肌转移1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昌胜; 孙茂松

    2015-01-01

    After resection of rectal cancer,the tumor is more prone to transfer,the main way of transfer are the direct spread, lymph node metastasis,blood and plant metastasis and so on.Skeletal muscle metastasis of rectal cancer is rare in clinic.In this paper,the author briefly introduces the 1 case of skeletal muscle metastasis after resection of rectal cancer,to provide discuss for the clinical.%目的:直肠癌术后较易发生转移,其转移的途径主要有直接蔓延、淋巴转移、血运和种植转移等.直肠癌的骨骼肌转移临床上非常罕见,本文简要介绍直肠癌术后横纹肌转移1例,为临床提供探讨.

  5. Renal Metastasis and Dual (18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose and 131I) Avid Skeletal Metastasis in a Patient with Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Prashanth; Rekha, Pobbi Setty Radhakrishna Gupta; Prabhu, Meghana; Venkataramarao, Sunil Hejjaji; Raju, Nalini; Chandrasekhar, Naveen Hedne; Kannan, Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) though usually behaves in an indolent manner, can have unusual metastatic presentation. Initial presentation of metastatic disease has been reported in 1–12% of DTC being less frequent in papillary (~2%) than in follicular (~10%) thyroid carcinoma. Renal metastasis from DTC is very rare. To our knowledge, only about 30 cases have been reported in the English literature to date. To make clinicians aware that management of such high-risk thyroid cancer frequently requires novel multimodality imaging and therapeutic techniques. A 72-year-old female is described who presented with abdominal pain and bilateral lower limbs swelling. Initial contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan of abdomen showed a well-encapsulated mass in the upper pole of right kidney favoring a renal cell carcinoma. Postright sided radical nephrectomy, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry reports suggested metastatic deposits from thyroid malignancy. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-CT demonstrated hypermetabolic nodule in the left lobe of thyroid and a lytic lesion involving left acetabulum suggestive of skeletal metastasis. Subsequently, ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid nodules in bilateral lobes confirmed thyroid malignancy (Bethesda 6/6). Total thyroidectomy revealed papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) (follicular variant-PTC [FV-PTC]). After surgery, 131I-whole body scan showed iodine avid lytic lesion in the left acetabulum. The present case is a rare scenario of a renal metastasis as the presenting feature of an FV-PTC. Dual avidity in metastatic thyroid cancers (iodine and FDG) is rare and based on the degree of dedifferentiation of the DTC. PMID:28242987

  6. New models of hematogenous ovarian cancer metastasis demonstrate preferential spread to the ovary and a requirement for the ovary for abdominal dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Lan G; Burgos-Ojeda, Daniela; Wu, Rong; Cho, Kathleen; Bai, Shoumei; Buckanovich, Ronald J

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggest that many high-grade serous "ovarian" cancers (HGSOC) start in the fallopian tube. Cancer cells are then recruited to the ovary and then spread diffusely through the abdomen. The mechanism of ovarian cancer spread was thought to be largely due to direct shedding of tumor cells into the peritoneal cavity with vascular spread being of limited importance. Recent work challenges this dogma, suggesting hematogenous spread of ovarian cancer may play a larger role in ovarian cancer cell metastasis than previously thought. One reason the role of vascular spread of ovarian cancer has not been fully elucidated is the lack of easily accessible models of vascular ovarian cancer metastasis. Here, we present 3 metastatic models of ovarian cancer which confirm the ability of ovarian cancer to hematogenously spread. Strikingly, we observe a high rate of metastasis to the ovary with the development of ascites in these models. Interestingly, oophorectomy resulted in a complete loss of peritoneal metastases and ascites. Taken together, our data indicate that hematogenously disseminated HGSOC cells have a unique tropism for the ovary and that hematogenous spread in ovarian cancer may be more common than appreciated. Furthermore, our studies support a critical role for the ovary in promoting HGSOC cell metastasis to the abdomen. The models developed here represent important new tools to evaluate both the mechanism of cancer cell recruitment to the ovary and understand and target key steps in ovarian cancer metastasis.

  7. Bone metastasis model with multiorgan dissemination of human small-cell lung cancer (SBC-5) cells in natural killer cell-depleted SCID mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, T; Yano, S; Hanibuchi, M; Sone, S

    2000-01-01

    Lung cancer is commonly associated with multiorgan metastasis, and bone is a frequent metastatic site for lung cancer. Nevertheless, no bone metastasis model of lung cancer with multiorgan dissemination is available, which could provide opportunity to study the molecular pathogenesis. We examined the abilities of eight human lung cancer cell lines injected intravenously into natural killer (NK) cell-depleted SCID mice to generate metastatic nodules in bone and multiple organs, and explored the correlation of the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) with the bone metastasis. Although all the small-cell carcinoma cell lines (SBC-5, SBC-3, SBC-3/ADM, H69, H69/VP) formed metastatic nodules in multiple organs (liver, kidney, and lymph nodes), only SBC-5 cells reproducibly developed bone metastases. Squamous cell carcinoma (RERF-LC-AI) cells metastasized mainly into the liver and kidneys, whereas adenocarcinoma (PC-14, A549) mainly produced colonies in the lungs. As assessed by X-ray photography, the osteolytic bone metastases produced by SBC-5 cells were detected as early as on day 28, and all recipient mice developed bone metastasis by day 35. The expression of PTHrP in eight cell lines was directly correlated with the formation of bone metastasis. No correlation was observed between the formation of bone metastasis and the expression of other metastasis-related cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-11, TNF-alpha, VEGF, M-CSF). Consistent with the formation of bone metastasis by SBC-5 cells, the levels of PTHrP and calcium in the mouse serum were increased in a time-dependent manner, suggesting that PTHrP produced by human lung cancer may play a crucial role in the formation of bone metastasis and hypercalcemia. These findings indicate that a bone metastasis model of SBC-5 cells may be useful for clarifying the molecular aspects of the metastatic processes in different organ microenvironments and the development of therapeutic modalities for lung cancer

  8. Femoral Metastasis from Penile Carcinoma: Report of 2 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Braumann; Panagiotis Tsagozis; Rikard Wedin; Otte Brosjö

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Penile cancer rarely gives symptomatic skeletal metastases. Methods. We present 2 patients with squamous carcinoma of the penis who were surgically treated for metastases in the femur. Results. Both patients had pathological fractures and were operated on. In one case, the skeletal metastasis preceded any lymphatic spread of the disease, suggesting early haematogenous dissemination. Conclusions. Endoprosthetic reconstruction resulted in pain relief and restored the ambulatory capacit...

  9. Alterations of the Bone Marrow Microenvironment Contribute to Prostate Cancer Skeletal Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    584–593. doi:10.1038/ nrc867 14. Roodman GD (2004) Mechanisms of bone metastasis. New Engl J Med 350(16):1655–1664. doi:10.1056/NEJMra030831 15...90. doi:10.1182/blood-2006-05-021352 39. Shiozawa Y, Havens AM, Jung Y, Ziegler AM, Pedersen EA, Wang J, Lu G, Roodman GD, Loberg RD, Pienta KJ...6 Fabiana N. Soki1, David Sadler1, Sudha Sud2, Sandra Tisdelle5, Stephanie D. Daignault4, Jeffrey A. Nemeth6, 7 Linda A. Snyder6, Thomas J. Wronski5

  10. 核素骨显像与MRI对骨转移癌的诊断比较%The comparation of skeletal scintigraphy and MRI in diasnosing bone metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄泽黎; 张宁; 张洋; 罗伟军; 曾晓红; 梁少强; 孙宗文

    2009-01-01

    目的 评价骨显像与MRI在诊断骨转移瘤中的价值.方法 对64例可疑骨转移的恶性肿瘤患者行核素骨显像与MRI检查(两种检查间隔时间不超过2周),凡骨显像表现为明显的放射性聚集或缺损和(或)MRI的T1加权像表现为低信号强度且T2加权像表现为高低混杂或高信号强度和(或)骨质破坏的椎体均认为是肿瘤骨转移.结果 核素骨显像能有效地检出全身骨转移癌灶;MRI对扫描范围内骨转移癌检出的病灶数高于核素骨显像;核素骨显像单发病灶有一定的假阳性(3,9),MRI单发病灶假阳性较少(0/7),但部分病例(3/7)经核素骨显像检查证实为多发骨转移;MRI能了解局部病灶的准确位置及周围软组织情况.结论 核素骨显像较MRI能更有效地检出全身骨转移癌灶,是早期诊断转移癌的首选方法 ;MRI特异性更高,解剖定位明确,并能显示软组织病灶,两种检查方法 相互结合,对骨转移的诊断和治疗有重要意义.%Objective To evaluate the values of skeletal scintigraphy and MRI in detecting osseous metastasis.Methods Skeletal scintigraphy and MRI were performed in sixty-four patients with suspicious bone metastasis malignant tumor;all patients underwent skeletal scintigrapghy and MRI examinations within two weeks.Metastatic foci were defined as lesions that showed aggravations/defections of bone tracer uptakes on serial scans,and/or low signal intensity on T1WI and/or high signal intensity on T2WI of MRI,and/or bone destruction.Results Planar skeletal scintigraphy could detect the whole body bone metastasis lesions more effectively;MRI discovered more metastasis lesions than planar skeletal scintigraphy in the range of the MRI scaned;certain amounts of false-positive cases might be present in single focal cases by skeletalscintigraphy(3/9).Relatively,MRI had less false-positive cases in single foci(0/7),but the three single foci cases detected by MRI were confirmed as multi

  11. [A case report of two-term surgery for focal progression of a huge liver metastasis and peritoneal dissemination from gastrointestinal stromal tumor during imatinib mesylate treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Takahiro; Teraoka, Hitoshi; Kitayama, Kisyu; Nomura, Shinya; Kanehara, Isao; Nishino, Hiroji

    2014-03-01

    We report a patient who underwent 2-term surgery to treat focal progression of a huge liver metastasis and peritoneal dissemination from a gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor(GIST)during imatinib mesylate treatment. A 59-year-old man underwent an emergency surgery for perforative peritonitis caused by gastric GIST in June 2006 and a partial resection of the stomach in September 2006. Four years later, abdominal computed tomography(CT)detected a huge liver tumor that occupied the entire right lobe. We initiated imatinib mesylate treatment(400mg/day), and the patient maintained stable disease for several months. However, focal progression of the huge liver tumor and a peritoneal tumor at the splenic hilum were revealed by CT; therefore, an extended right hepatic resection was performed in August 2011 and a distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, and partial resection of the stomach were performed in February 2012. The patient died of the primary disease at 16 months after the hepatic resection for focal progression.

  12. The relationship between skeletal-related events and bone scan index for the treatment of bone metastasis with breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Naohito; Ichihara, Hironori; Togawa, Takashi; Nagashima, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between the automated bone scan index (aBSI) and skeletal-related events (SRE) in breast cancer patients with bone metastasis. A computer-aided software (BONENAVI™) that was developed using an Artificial Neural Network (Artificial Neural Network) was used for the present analysis. Forty-five patients diagnosed with bone metastasis due to breast cancer from April 2005 through March 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Before and after the time of initial treatment, aBSI, Artificial Neural Network score, and hotspot number were calculated, and the relationships between these scores and SRE were analyzed. Twenty cases showed decreased (improved) aBSI values after initial treatment (Group A), and 25 cases showed unchanged/increased (worsened) aBSI values (Group B). Chi-square analysis revealed a significant difference in incident numbers of SRE between the two groups--one case in Group A and 12 in Group B (Pbone metabolic or tumor markers, alkaline phosphatase was significantly correlated with aBSI at the time of initial treatment (R=0.69, Pcancer patients with bone metastasis at high risk of SRE.

  13. Femoral Metastasis from Penile Carcinoma: Report of 2 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Braumann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Penile cancer rarely gives symptomatic skeletal metastases. Methods. We present 2 patients with squamous carcinoma of the penis who were surgically treated for metastases in the femur. Results. Both patients had pathological fractures and were operated on. In one case, the skeletal metastasis preceded any lymphatic spread of the disease, suggesting early haematogenous dissemination. Conclusions. Endoprosthetic reconstruction resulted in pain relief and restored the ambulatory capacity. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility for symptomatic bone metastases with a risk for pathological fracture in patients with penile cancer.

  14. Femoral Metastasis from Penile Carcinoma: Report of 2 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braumann, Laura; Tsagozis, Panagiotis; Wedin, Rikard; Brosjö, Otte

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Penile cancer rarely gives symptomatic skeletal metastases. Methods. We present 2 patients with squamous carcinoma of the penis who were surgically treated for metastases in the femur. Results. Both patients had pathological fractures and were operated on. In one case, the skeletal metastasis preceded any lymphatic spread of the disease, suggesting early haematogenous dissemination. Conclusions. Endoprosthetic reconstruction resulted in pain relief and restored the ambulatory capacity. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility for symptomatic bone metastases with a risk for pathological fracture in patients with penile cancer.

  15. Disseminated typical bronchial carcinoid tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novković Dobrivoje

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bronchial carcinoids belong to a rare type of lung tumors. If they do not expose outstanding neuroendocrine activity, they develop without clearly visible symptoms. They are often detected during a routine examination. According to their clinical pathological features, they are divided into typical and atypical tumors. Typical bronchial carcinoids metastasize to distant organs very rarely. Localized forms are effectively treated by surgery. The methods of conservative treatment should be applied in other cases. Case report. We presented a 65-year-old patient with carcinoid lung tumor detected by a routine examination. Additional analysis (chest X-ray, computed tomography of the chest, ultrasound of the abdomen, skeletal scintigraphy, bronhoscopy, histopathological analysis of the bioptate of bronchial tumor, as well as bronchial brushing cytology and immunohistochemical staining performed with markers specific for neuroendocrine tumor proved a morphologically typical lung carcinoid with dissemination to the liver and skeletal system, which is very rarely found in typical carcinoids. Conclusion. The presented case with carcinoid used to be showed morphological and pathohistological characteristics of typical bronchial carcinoid. With its metastasis to the liver and skeletal system it demonstrated unusual clinical course that used to be considered as rare phenomenon. Due to its frequent asymptomatic course and varied manifestation, bronchial carcinoid could be considered as a diagnostic challenge requiring a multidisciplinary approach.

  16. Decoding Melanoma Metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damsky, William E. Jr. [Department of Dermatology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont (United States); Rosenbaum, Lara E.; Bosenberg, Marcus, E-mail: Marcus.Bosenberg@yale.edu [Department of Dermatology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2010-12-30

    Metastasis accounts for the vast majority of morbidity and mortality associated with melanoma. Evidence suggests melanoma has a predilection for metastasis to particular organs. Experimental analyses have begun to shed light on the mechanisms regulating melanoma metastasis and organ specificity, but these analyses are complicated by observations of metastatic dormancy and dissemination of melanocytes that are not yet fully malignant. Additionally, tumor extrinsic factors in the microenvironment, both at the site of the primary tumor and the site of metastasis, play important roles in mediating the metastatic process. As metastasis research moves forward, paradigms explaining melanoma metastasis as a step-wise process must also reflect the temporal complexity and heterogeneity in progression of this disease. Genetic drivers of melanoma as well as extrinsic regulators of disease spread, particularly those that mediate metastasis to specific organs, must also be incorporated into newer models of melanoma metastasis.

  17. Decoding Melanoma Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Bosenberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis accounts for the vast majority of morbidity and mortality associated with melanoma. Evidence suggests melanoma has a predilection for metastasis to particular organs. Experimental analyses have begun to shed light on the mechanisms regulating melanoma metastasis and organ specificity, but these analyses are complicated by observations of metastatic dormancy and dissemination of melanocytes that are not yet fully malignant. Additionally, tumor extrinsic factors in the microenvironment, both at the site of the primary tumor and the site of metastasis, play important roles in mediating the metastatic process. As metastasis research moves forward, paradigms explaining melanoma metastasis as a step-wise process must also reflect the temporal complexity and heterogeneity in progression of this disease. Genetic drivers of melanoma as well as extrinsic regulators of disease spread, particularly those that mediate metastasis to specific organs, must also be incorporated into newer models of melanoma metastasis.

  18. Clinical manifestations and radiosensitivity of skeletal metastases in case of renal carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohmberg, W.

    1983-10-01

    Among 130 patients with disseminated renal cell carcinomas 29 cases with skeletal involvement have been analyzed. Skeletal metastasis is associated with oligotopic and frequently extraosseous growth of large metastases. Extraosseous growth was noted in 85% of the cases. This phenomenon was less frequent in cases with combined metastatic involvement of bone and visceral organs. Skeletal metastases were shown to be fairly resistant to radiation therapy in terms of objective remission although symptomatic pain relief could usually be achieved. Interestingly, in cases with osseous involvement only the survival was significantly longer compared to visceral and mixed forms of metastatic disease. Radiotherapeutic consequences resulting from this biological behaviour of osseous metastases are discussed.

  19. Discordant Findings of Skeletal Metastasis Between Tc99m MDP Bone Scans and F18 FDG PET/CT Imaging for Advanced Breast and Lung Cancers—Two Case Reports and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wen Chen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, Tc99m methyl diphosphate (MDP bone scintigraphy provides high-sensitivity detection of skeletal metastasis from breast and lung cancers in regular follow-up. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT, based on the glucose metabolism of malignant cells, plays a role in describing rumor growth, proliferation of neoplasm and the extent of metastasis. In general, concordant findings of skeletal metastasis are seen on both types of image, especially in cases of breast and lung cancer. However, there were extremely discordant findings of skeletal metastasis between bone scans and F18 FDG PET/CT imaging in two cases among 300 consecutive F18 FDG PET/CT follow-up exams of patients with malignancies, during the past year, in our center. Both cases, one of breast cancer and one of lung cancer, had negative bone scintigraphic findings, but a diffusely high grade of F18 FDG avid marrow infiltration in the axial spine, leading to the diagnosis of stage IV disease in both cases. Owing to variant genetic aberrance of malignance, F18 FDG PET/CT reveals direct evidence of diffuse, rapid neoplasm metabolism in the bone marrow of the spine, but not of secondary osteoblastic reactions in vivo. F18 FDG PET/CT should always be employed in the follow-up of patients with malignancies.

  20. Skeletal metastasis as detected by 18F-FDG PET with negative CT of the PET/CT: Frequency and impact on cancer staging and or management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of our study is to assess the frequency of detection of PET positive CT negative skeletal metastases (SM and determine the impact of such detection on staging and/or management in patients who had FDG PET/CT as part of the cancer work up.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 2000 18F-FDG PET/CT scans of known cancer patients. A log was kept to record cases of suspected SM with or without bone changes from the low-dose non-contrast CT. The presence or absence of SM was evaluated based on available pathological and clinical data. The impact of detection of such lesions on cancer staging and/or management was evaluated by a board certified oncologist.Results: Of the 2000 cases, 18F-FDG PET/CT suggested SM in 146/2000 (7.3%. Of those 146 cases, 105 (72% were positive on both PET and CT. The remaining 41 (28% had PET positive CT negative bone lesions. SM was confirmed in 36/41 (88% PET positive/CT negative cases. This was based on biopsy, imaging or clinical follow-up. The detection of PET positive CT negative SM did not change staging or management in 7/36 (19.4%. However, staging and/or management was affected in 29/36 (80.6%. Conclusions: SM is not uncommon in 18F-FDG PET/CT, as it accounts for 146/2000 (7.3% of cases. PET demonstrated FDG-avid SM without a CT abnormality in at least 36/146 (25%. Patients staging and or management changed in 29/36 (80.5%. We concluded that 18F-FDG PET is sensitive in detection of SM with significant impact on staging & or management. Key words18F-FDG PET/CT, Skeletal metastasis, PET positive, CT negative

  1. Physiopathology of Spine Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Maccauro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The metastasis is the spread of cancer from one part of the body to another. Two-thirds of patients with cancer will develop bone metastasis. Breast, prostate and lung cancer are responsible for more than 80% of cases of metastatic bone disease. The spine is the most common site of bone metastasis. A spinal metastasis may cause pain, instability and neurological injuries. The diffusion through Batson venous system is the principal process of spinal metastasis, but the dissemination is possible also through arterial and lymphatic system or by contiguity. Once cancer cells have invaded the bone, they produce growth factors that stimulate osteoblastic or osteolytic activity resulting in bone remodeling with release of other growth factors that lead to a vicious cycle of bone destruction and growth of local tumour.

  2. [Biology of cancer metastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    Metastatic dissemination represents the true cause of the malignant character of cancers. Its targeting is much more difficult than that of cell proliferation, because metastasis, like angiogenesis, involves a number of complex interactions between tumour and stroma; the contribution of adhesion and motility pathways is added to that of proliferation and survival pathways. Long distance extension, discontinuous in respect to the primitive tumour, is a major feature of cancer and the main cause of patients' death. Cancer cells use two main dissemination pathways: the lymphatic pathway, leading to the invasion of the lymph nodes draining the organs where the tumour evolves; and the blood pathway, leading to the invasion of distant organs such as liver, brain, bone or lung. Metastasis is inscribed within the properties of the primitive tumour, as shown by the comparative molecular analysis of the primitive tumour and its own metastases: their similarity is always more important than what could be expected from the general activation of "metastasis genes" or the inhibition of "metastasis suppressor genes". Among the signalling pathways involved in metastasis, one can mention the integrin pathway, the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) pathway, the chemokine pathway, the dependence receptor pathway and many others. These pathways allow the possibility of therapeutic targeting, thanks to therapeutic antibodies or small molecules inhibiting the kinases involved in these signalling pathways, but not a single properly anti-metastatic drug has yet been proposed: the complexity and the diversity of the processes allowing metastasis emergence, as well as the fact that the activation mechanisms are more often epigenetic than genetic and are generally physiological processes misled by the malignant cell, render especially difficult the therapeutic approach of metastasis.

  3. Disseminated sporotrichosis

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Cabello, Raúl; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Romero-Feregrino, Raúl; Sánchez, Carlos Javier; Linares, Yancy; Zavala, Jorge Tay; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Romero-Feregrino, Rodrigo; Vega, José T Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii. It is a primary cutaneous infection and it has different clinical forms: disseminated by lymphatic vessels (75%), localised cutaneous form (20%), disseminated cutaneous and extracuteus rarely. The systemic disseminated sporotrichosis is considered a severe opportunistic infection. The best diagnostic test is the culture. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man, originally from Puebla, Mexico, with a diagn...

  4. Disseminated sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Cabello, Raúl; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Romero-Feregrino, Raúl; Sánchez, Carlos Javier; Linares, Yancy; Zavala, Jorge Tay; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Romero-Feregrino, Rodrigo; Vega, José T Sánchez

    2011-03-25

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii. It is a primary cutaneous infection and it has different clinical forms: disseminated by lymphatic vessels (75%), localised cutaneous form (20%), disseminated cutaneous and extracuteus rarely. The systemic disseminated sporotrichosis is considered a severe opportunistic infection. The best diagnostic test is the culture. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man, originally from Puebla, Mexico, with a diagnosis of disseminated sporotrichosis. Differential diagnosis with other pathologies includes leishmaniasis, chromoblastomycosis, tuberculosis verrucose and lymphangitis. The development of unusual presentations in immunocompromised patients has been reported.

  5. Disseminated sporotrichosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Cabello, Raúl; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Romero-Feregrino, Raúl; Sánchez, Carlos Javier; Linares, Yancy; Zavala, Jorge Tay; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Romero-Feregrino, Rodrigo; Vega, José T Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii. It is a primary cutaneous infection and it has different clinical forms: disseminated by lymphatic vessels (75%), localised cutaneous form (20%), disseminated cutaneous and extracuteus rarely. The systemic disseminated sporotrichosis is considered a severe opportunistic infection. The best diagnostic test is the culture. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man, originally from Puebla, Mexico, with a diagnosis of disseminated sporotrichosis. Differential diagnosis with other pathologies includes leishmaniasis, chromoblastomycosis, tuberculosis verrucose and lymphangitis. The development of unusual presentations in immunocompromised patients has been reported. PMID:22700076

  6. Impending Atypical Femoral Fracture in Patients With Medullary Thyroid Cancer With Skeletal Metastasis Treated With Long-term Bisphosphonate and Denosumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Mitsuru; Gokita, Tabu; Toda, Kazuhisa

    2017-02-24

    Atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) occur in osteoporosis patients receiving long-term bisphosphonate. Atypical femoral fractures also occur in cancer patients receiving long-term bisphosphonate or denosumab, but the prevalence is low. We describe a 53-year-old woman with a history of medullary thyroid cancer and skull metastasis who was prescribed bisphosphonate for 6 years and denosumab for 1.5 years, consecutively. Bone scintigraphy performed because of spontaneous groin pain showed uptake in the lateral aspect of the left femur, which was confirmed as impending AFF. In oncological patients receiving long-term bisphosphonate or denosumab, AFF should be included as a differential diagnosis with focal femoral findings.

  7. Imaging of bone metastasis: An update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerard; J; O’Sullivan; Fiona; L; Carty; Carmel; G; Cronin

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of skeletal metastasis is critical for accurate staging and optimal treatment. This paper briefly reviews our current understanding of the biological mechanisms through which tumours metastasise to bone and describes the available imaging methods to diagnose bone metastasis and monitor response to treatment. Among the various imaging modalities currently available for imaging skeletal metastasis, hybrid techniques whichfuse morphological and functional data are the most sensitive and specific, and positron emission tomography(PET)/computed tomography and PET/magnetic resonance imaging will almost certainly continue to evolve and become increasingly important in this regard.

  8. Three-dimensional context regulation of metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erler, Janine Terra; Weaver, Valerie M

    2009-01-01

    stroma to promote transformation, tumor growth, motility and invasion, enhance cancer cell survival, enable metastatic dissemination, and facilitate the establishment of tumor cells at distant sites. Matrix degradation can additionally promote malignant progression and metastasis. Tumor hypoxia...... is functionally linked to altered stromal-epithelial interactions. Hypoxia additionally induces the expression of pro-migratory, survival and invasion genes, and up-regulates expression of ECM components and modifying enzymes, to enhance tumor progression and metastasis. Synergistic interactions between matrix...

  9. Pulmonary Metastasis from Pseudomyxoma Peritonei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Kitai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP is a rare clinical condition, where copious mucinous ascites accumulate in the peritoneal cavity due to dissemination of mucin-producing tumor. Because of this disseminating, yet nonmetastasizing, behavior, PMP attracts much interest from surgical oncologists in that aggressive locoregional therapy can give the opportunity of long survival and even cure. Although extra-abdominal metastasis is exceptionally rare, the lung is the most likely site in such a case. In this paper, the clinical findings and treatment of eleven cases with pulmonary metastasis from PMP were reviewed, including ten cases in the literature and one case which we experienced. The clinical features of PMP cases with pulmonary metastasis were similar to cases without pulmonary metastasis. The histological type was low-grade mucinous neoplasm in most cases. Pulmonary lesions were resected in seven cases in which abdominal lesions were controlled by cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy or another therapeutic modality. Disease-free state was maintained in five cases at the end of the follow-up period. However, it should be noted that rapid progression after resection was seen in two cases, suggesting that biological features may have changed by surgical intervention.

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Megakaryocytes in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    10. Liao J, McCauley LK 2006 Skeletal metastasis: Established and emerging roles of parathyroid hormone related protein ( PTHrP ). Cancer Metastasis...expressed PTHrP facilitates prostate cancer-induced osteoblastic lesions. International Journal of Cancer 2008; Aug 26;123(10):2267-2278. 7

  11. Cancer stem cells and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Katia; Fodde, Riccardo

    2012-06-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a subpopulation of tumour cells endowed with self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation capacity but also with an innate resistance to cytotoxic agents, a feature likely to pose major clinical challenges towards the complete eradication of minimal residual disease in cancer patients. Operationally, CSCs are defined by their tumour-propagating ability when serially transplanted into immune-compromised mice and by their capacity to fully recapitulate the original heterogeneity of cell types observed in the primary lesions they are derived from. CSCs were first identified in haematopoietic malignancies and later in a broad spectrum of solid tumours including those of the breast, colon and brain. Notably, several CSC characteristics are relevant to metastasis, such as motility, invasiveness and, as mentioned above, resistance to DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Here, we have reviewed the current literature on the relation between CSCs and metastasis formation. Preliminary studies on cancer cell lines and patient-derived material suggest a rate-limiting role for stem-like cells in the processes of tumour cell dissemination and metastasis formation. However, additional studies are needed to deliver formal proof of their identity as the cell of origin of recurrences at distant organ sites. Nevertheless, several studies have already provided pre-clinical evidence of the efficacy of novel therapies directed against disseminated CSCs.

  12. An unusual metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma: Biceps brachii muscle

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    Muzaffer Sariaydin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle metastasis of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC is a rare occurrence, and the most effective treatment modality is currently unknown. In this case presentation, we report a patient with NSCLC who underwent palliative radiotherapy for biceps muscle metastasis of NSLCS. Our case was a 49-year-old woman who had lung adenocarcinoma with biceps muscle metastasis. She had been followed up for 2 years due to Stage IV lung adenocarcinoma from whom a biopsy was taken from a painful mass in right arm that was found to be compatible with metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma. She had palliative radiotherapy for her painful mass and systemic chemotherapy was planned. After palliative radiotherapy, the pain originating from the metastatic mass in right biceps muscle alleviated. Palliative radiotherapy can be a valuable treatment option for cases with skeletal muscle metastasis.

  13. 99mTc-MDP 全身骨扫描和血清 CEA、NSE、CYFR21-1、CA125 测定对小细胞肺癌骨转移的临床评价%Clinical evaluation of 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy and serum CEA, NSE,CYFRA21-1 and CA125 in skeletal metastasis of the small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炜; 郭万华

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析99m Tc-MDP全身骨扫描小细胞肺癌骨转移病灶分布特点及血清肿瘤标志物CEA、NSE、CYFRA21-1、CA125与小细胞肺癌骨转移发生的相关性. 方法:回顾性分析56例经病理证实的小细胞肺癌患者 99m Tc-MDP全身骨扫描影像表现及血清肿瘤标志物水平,用ROC曲线及Spearman相关分析评价肿瘤标志物水平对肺癌骨转移发生及发展的诊断意义. 结果:21 例骨转移阳性病灶中胸部占46.60%,脊柱34.95%,骨盆9.71%,四肢5.83%,头颅2.91%. 骨转移阳性组CEA、NSE 质量浓度高于骨转移阴性组(均P<0.05),曲线下面积(AUC)分别为0.789、0.717,且CEA、NSE质量浓度与骨转移分级呈正相关(r值分别为0.540、0.417). 结论:小细胞肺癌以胸部及脊柱等中轴骨多发性骨转移为主,CEA、NSE血清水平随着骨转移病灶数的增加有显著上升趋势,对判定小细胞肺癌骨转移的发生及发展有一定的参考意义.%Objective:To analyze the distribution characteristic of the skeletal metastasis lesion in 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy and the correlation between serum tumor marker (CEA,NSE, CYFRA21-1 and CA125) and skeletal metastasis in small cell lung cancer .Methods:56 cases with small cell lung confirmed by pathology were examined with 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy .Serum concentration of CEA , NSE, CYFRA21-1 and CA125 were measured one week before whole-body bone scanning .ROC curve and spearman correlation analysis were used to evaluate the serum tumor markers in diagnose the development of the skeletal metastasis .Results: 21 imaging positive lesions were identified as the skeletal metastasis .The distribution of the skeletal metastasis lesions were:chest(46.60%), spine(34.95%), pelvis(9.71%), four limbs(5.83%), skull(2.91%).CEA,NSE levels in bone metastasis group were significant higher than those in the negative group ( P<0.05 ) and the area of ROC curve were 0.789 and 0.717 respectively(P<0.05).There was a correlation between

  14. Potential Anti-metastasis Natural Compounds for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanvorachote, Pithi; Chamni, Supakarn; Ninsontia, Chuanpit; Phiboonchaiyanan, Preeyaporn Plaimee

    2016-11-01

    As lung cancer is the most common malignancy worldwide and high mortalities are the result of metastasis, novel information surpassing the treatment strategies and therapeutic agents focusing on cancer dissemination are of interest. Lung cancer metastasis involves increased motility, survival in circulation and ability to form new tumors. Metastatic cells increase their aggressive features by utilizing several mechanisms to overcome hindrances of metastasis, including epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased in cellular survival and migratory signals. Sufficient amounts of natural product-derived compounds have been shown to have promising anti-metastasis activities by suppressing key molecular features upholding such cell aggressiveness. The knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms rendering cell dissemination together with the anti-metastasis information of natural product-derived compounds may lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  15. Intramedullary metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffie, D; Stefanko, S Z

    1980-01-01

    Three cases of intramedullary metastases and one of a metastasis into the medulla oblongata are described. In two cases the primary tumour was a bronchial carcinoma and in one case a carcinoma of the breast. In one patient a primary tumour could not be found. The literature on this condition is reviewed and the difficulties of clinical diagnosis are discussed. The question remains unanswered as to the mechanism by which these tumour-cells reach the spinal cord and there is, as yet, no satisfactory explanation for the relative rare occurrence of these metastases.

  16. Three-dimensional context regulation of metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Janine T; Weaver, Valerie M

    2009-01-01

    Tumor progression ensues within a three-dimensional microenvironment that consists of cellular and non-cellular components. The extracellular matrix (ECM) and hypoxia are two non-cellular components that potently influence metastasis. ECM remodeling and collagen cross-linking stiffen the tissue stroma to promote transformation, tumor growth, motility and invasion, enhance cancer cell survival, enable metastatic dissemination, and facilitate the establishment of tumor cells at distant sites. Matrix degradation can additionally promote malignant progression and metastasis. Tumor hypoxia is functionally linked to altered stromal-epithelial interactions. Hypoxia additionally induces the expression of pro-migratory, survival and invasion genes, and up-regulates expression of ECM components and modifying enzymes, to enhance tumor progression and metastasis. Synergistic interactions between matrix remodeling and tumor hypoxia influence common mechanisms that maximize tumor progression and cooperate to drive metastasis. Thus, clarifying the molecular pathways by which ECM remodeling and tumor hypoxia intersect to promote tumor progression should identify novel therapeutic targets.

  17. Invasion and metastasis in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleg, Shereen; Büchler, Peter; Ludwig, Roman; Büchler, Markus W; Friess, Helmut

    2003-01-22

    Pancreatic cancer remains a challenging disease with an overall cumulative 5-year survival rate below 1%. The process of cancer initiation, progression and metastasis is still not understood well. Invasion and tumor metastasis are closely related and both occur within a tumour-host microecology, where stroma and tumour cells exchange enzymes and cytokines that modify the local extracellular matrix, stimulate cell migration, and promote cell proliferation and tumor cell survival. During the last decade considerable progress has been made in understanding genetic alterations of genes involved in local and systemic tumor growth. The most important changes occur in genes which regulate cell cycle progression, extracellular matrix homeostasis and cell migration. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that epigenetic factors including angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis may participate in the formation of tumor metastasis. In this review we highlight the most important genetic alterations involved in tumor invasion and metastasis and further outline the role of tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in systemic tumor dissemination.

  18. Ovarian carcinoma presenting as cutaneous nasal metastasis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    António, Ana Marta; Alves, João Vitor; Goulão, João; Bártolo, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic ovarian cancer uncommonly presents with skin metastasis. When present, skin metastases of ovarian cancer are usually localized in the vicinity of the primary tumor. We report a case of a 58-year-old woman with a rapid growing erythematous, well-defined nodule localized on the left nasal ala. A skin biopsy was performed and histopathological and immunohistochemical findings were compatible with a cutaneous metastasis of adenocarcinoma. A systematic investigation revealed a bilateral ovarian cystadenocarcinoma associated with visceral dissemination, likely associated with nose cutaneous metastasis. We report a very uncommon case because of the presentation of ovarian carcinoma as cutaneous metastasis. To our knowledge, this atypical localization on the nose has not been described yet in the literature.

  19. Disseminated histoplasmosis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by inhaling dust from spore-infected bird droppings. In the disseminated ... fairly high for people with untreated widespread (disseminated) histoplasmosis, but is reduced significantly with treatment.

  20. A rare case of disseminated cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debananda Gonjhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is a common tropical disease and a common cause of seizures and neurological morbidity. Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most common manifestation of the disease involving the central nervous system (CNS. One of the uncommon manifestations of cysticercosis is its disseminated form. The most commonly affected organs are the subcutaneous tissues, skeletal muscles, lungs, brain, eyes, liver, and occasionally the heart, thyroid, and pancreas but in widespread dissemination it can involve any organ in the body. We report here a case of a 35-year-old-female with disseminated cysticercosis (DCC. She attended our hospital with headache, fever, and symptoms of multiple palpable nodules. After the investigations, she was diagnosed with DCC involving the brain and subcutaneous tissues all over the body. Then she was successfully treated with albendazole and steroids.

  1. Gall bladder carcinoma presenting with spinal metastasis: A rare phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit K Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal metastasis as a primary presentation of gall bladder carcinoma is rare. A 50-year-old lady presented with neck pain and weakness in her right upper limb of 3 months duration. Clinical and imaging work-up suggested locally advanced gall bladder carcinoma with metastasis to cervical vertebra and sternum. Only one case till date has been reported where the patient presented with neurological symptoms due to pathological fracture secondary to metastasis from an occult gall bladder carcinoma. Although rare, an occult gall bladder cancer may present with neurological symptoms due to pathological fracture of spine secondary to metastasis. We present a brief review of literature of patients who presented with skeletal metastases in clinically silent gall bladder malignancy. Palliative care issues in advanced gall bladder carcinoma have also been discussed.

  2. Some hot issues in the treatment of bone metastasis of breast cancer: interpretation of Expert Consensus on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Bone Metastasis and Skeletal Related Diseases in Breast Cancer (2014 version)%乳腺癌骨转移治疗的若干热点问题思考和讨论:乳腺癌骨转移和骨相关疾病临床诊疗专家共识(2014版)解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王如良; 江泽飞

    2015-01-01

    乳腺癌是女性最常见的恶性肿瘤,骨转移引起的骨痛、病理性骨折等骨相关事件可严重影响患者的生命质量.2014年中国抗癌协会乳腺癌专业委员会组织相关专家再次讨论制定了"乳腺癌骨转移和骨相关疾病临床诊疗专家共识(2014版)",文章对其中若干热点问题进行一些思考及探讨.%Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor in women, bone related events (SREs), such as bone pain, pathological fracture and so on, can affect seriously the quality of life.Experts in Chinese Anti-Cancer Association, Committee of Breast Cancer Society (CACA-CBCS) discussed the Consensus on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Bone Metastasis and Skeletal Related Diseases in Breast Cancer (2014 version), here reflections on several hot issues were explored.

  3. 肠内营养用于术前肠道准备对结直肠癌患者腹腔和肠腔脱落癌细胞及复发转移的影响%Effect of enteral nutrition as replacement of traditional bowel preparation on the intraperitoneal and intraluminal disseminated tumor cells, recurrence and metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦; 陶凯雄; 王国斌; 卢昕; 李晓辉; 黄洋; 叶芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of enteral nutrition as replacement of mechanical bowel preparation on peritoneal and intraluminal disseminated tumor cells,recurrence and metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer.Methods A total of 120 colorectal cancer patients between March 2007and December 2011 were enrolled prospectively and randomly divided into two groups.Group A(n=60)received preoperative bowel preparation with enteral nutrition fluid(30 ml·kg-1·d-1),without enema,taxative or antibiotics.Group B (n=60)underwent traditional intestinal preparation consecutively 3 days before operation,including fasting,oral antibiotic,and cleaning enema.All the patients received peritoneal lavage with 400 ml of normal saline at the time of laparotomy and 200 ml of the lavage fluid was collected.All the cases underwent distal colorectal lavage with 1000 ml of normal saline before anastomosis,and 500 ml of the lavage fluid was collected.Fluid samples were quickly sent for exfoliated cytological examination.The positive rates of exfoliated cancer cell in peritoneal cavity and intraluminal cavity,postoperative complication,recurrence and metastasis were compared between the two groups.Results In group A,exfoliated cancer cells were found in 5 of 60 cases (8.3%) in peritoneal lavage fluid and in 9 of 60 cases(15.0%) in distal colorectal lavage fluid,while in group B,cancer cells were found in 13 of 60 cases(12.5%) and 19 of 60 cases(31.7%) respectively.There were significant differences between group A and B(P=0.041,P=0.031).Fifty-five patients in group A were followed up from16 to 46 months after surgery,as well 57 patients in group B.Rates of lacal recurrence and distant metastasis in Group A and B were 5.5% vs.7.0% and 10.9% vs.10.5% respectively.There were no significant differences(P=0.733,P=0.984).There was no significant difference in 3-year survival rate between the two groups(80% vs.78%,P=0.312).Conclusions Enteral nutrition instead of traditional

  4. Dissemination Strategy Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Kjems, Jørgen; Farinetti, Laura;

    This report describes the dissemination and exploitation strategy for project Virtual Campus Hub (EU FP7 contract RI-283746). The project duration is October 2011-13 and the dissemination and exploitation plan will be revised continuously during the project’s lifecycle.......This report describes the dissemination and exploitation strategy for project Virtual Campus Hub (EU FP7 contract RI-283746). The project duration is October 2011-13 and the dissemination and exploitation plan will be revised continuously during the project’s lifecycle....

  5. Isolated metastasis of colon cancer to the scapula: is surgical resection warranted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onesti Jill K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distant metastases from colon cancer spread most frequently to the liver and the lung. Risk factors include positive lymph nodes and high grade tumors. Isolated metastases to the appendicular skeleton are very rare, particularly in the absence of identifiable risk factors. Case report The patient was a 55 year old male with no previous personal or family history of colon cancer. Routine screening revealed a sigmoid adenocarcinoma. He underwent resection with primary anastomosis and was found to have Stage IIA colon cancer. He declined chemotherapy as part of a clinical trial, and eight months later was found to have an isolated metastasis in his right scapula. This was treated medically, but grew to 12 × 15 cm. The patient underwent a curative forequarter amputation and is now more than four years from his original colon surgery. Discussion Stage IIA colon cancers are associated with a high five year survival rate, and chemotherapy is not automatically given. If metastases occur, they are likely to arise from local recurrence or follow lymphatic dissemination to the liver or lungs. Isolated skeletal metastases are quite rare and are usually confined to the axial skeleton. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an isolated scapular metastasis in a patient with node negative disease. The decision to treat the recurrence with radiation and chemotherapy did not reduce the tumor, and a forequarter amputation was eventually required. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of adequately analyzing the stage of colon cancer and offering appropriate treatment. Equally important is the early involvement of a surgeon in discussing the timing of the treatment for recurrence. Perhaps if the patient had received chemotherapy or earlier resection, he could have been spared the forequarter amputation. The physician must also be aware of the remote possibility of an unusual presentation of metastasis in order to pursue

  6. DCB - Tumor Metastasis Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor metastasis research examines the mechanisms that allow cancer cells to leave the primary tumor and spread to another part of the body. Learn about recent tumor metastasis research studies supported by the Division of Cancer Biology.

  7. Microenvironments and Signaling Pathways Regulating Early Dissemination, Dormancy, and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This could contribute silently to therapy resistance and late metastatic relapse. Unfortunately, these events have remained understudied because...cells expressing sFRP were generated using sFRP lentiviral vectors. Wnt3a and DKK1 conditioned media was prepared from Wnt3a expressing L-cells and Dkk1...expressing 293T cells. Vectors and sFRP plasmids were a kind gift from Dr. Stuart Aaronson, ISMMS, New York, NY. Conditioned media was prepared

  8. Microenvironments and Signaling Pathways Regulating Early Dissemination, Dormancy, and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    in different target organs. We then processed them using the C1 Fluidigm system and submitted these samples for RNAseq analysis. This effort was...microenvironment. Plans for the coming year: We will receive complete RNAseq data soon and perform bioinformatics analysis to compare the expression...protocol to obtain single-cell RNASeq using C1 Single-Cell and Illumina Systems. This pipeline was applied for single cell analysis from early cancer

  9. KISS1 over-expression suppresses metastasis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in a xenograft mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying molecular targets for treatment of pancreatic cancer metastasis is critical due to the high frequency of dissemination prior to diagnosis of this lethal disease. Because the KISS1 metastasis suppressor is expressed at reduced levels in advanced pancreatic cancer, we hypothesized that re-...

  10. Comparison of the clinic value of whole body MR diffusion weighted imaging and radionuclide bone scan in the diagnosis of skeletal metastasis of breast cancer%全身弥散加权成像与同位素骨扫描诊断乳腺癌骨转移对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林建华; 谭理连; 何伟红; 黄勇; 李敏红; 邬恒夫

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较全身弥散加权成像(WB-DWI)、同位素骨扫描(radionuclide bone scan)技术在乳腺癌骨转移的应用价值.方法:40例经病理证实为乳腺癌的患者分别作WB-DWI及同位素骨扫描检查.WB-DWI检查使用反转恢复平面回波弥散序列行全身扫描,将骨骼系统分为3个区域,分别记录每个患者各区域WB-DWI阳性病例数.对所有WB-DWI及同位素骨扫描影像表现的乳腺癌转移例数及发生部位行统计学比较.结果:WB-DWI阳性病例为35例,共检出病灶数为146个;同位素骨扫描阳性病例为30例,共检出病灶数为141个,WB-DWI的病灶检出率高于同位素骨扫描;WB-DWI与同位素骨扫描诊断乳腺癌骨转移例数及发生部位无统计学差异.结论:WB-DWI检查无辐射,覆盖范围大,具有较高的敏感性,对乳腺癌骨转移早期筛查、诊断及预后评价方面具有重要的临床应用价值.%Objective:To compare the value of MR whole body diffusion weighted imaging (WB-DWI) and radionuclide bone scan (RN) in the detection of bone metastasis of breast cancer. Methods: Forty patients with pathology proved breast cancer were enrolled. All patients underwent MR WB-DWI and RN,inversion recovery echo-planar diffusion scan sequence from head to foot was used for WB-DWI. The skeletal system was divided into three regions and the positive cases were recorded patient by patient in each region. Chi-square test was performed in patients and regions of bone metastasis detected by WB-DWI and RN for comparison. Results: A total of 146 metastasis lesions in 35 patients were detected by WBDWI while 141 lesions in 30 patients by RN. The detection rate of WB-DWI was higher than that of RN. No statistic differences were assessed in the number and locations of the bone metastasis diagnosed by WB-DWI and RN. Conclusion: MR WBDWI has no radiation,large coverage and high sensitivity,which plays a significant role in early bone metastasis screening, diagnosis and

  11. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 141. Thachil J, Toh CH. Current concepts in the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Thromb Res . 2012;129 ...

  12. Metastasis of Prostate Adenocarcinoma to the Testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campara, Zoran; Simic, Dejan; Aleksic, Predrag; Spasic, Aleksandar; Milicevic, Snjezana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Prostate carcinoma is the most frequently diagnosed carcinoma in the male population. The most typical places of the metastases are pelvic lymphatic glands, bones and lungs, and very rarely it metastasizes into a testis. The prognostic importance of testicular metastasis of prostate cancer is not yet well-known, due to a very few published cases. According to the known facts, it is certain that a metastasis of the prostate carcinoma into a testis is a sign of an advanced disease. Case report: This work presents a 48-year-old patient, to whom an adenocarcinoma of the prostate has been proven by the pathohistological finding of transrectal biopsy, performed due to the elevated level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Nine years after the initial diagnosis, due to a gradual rise of PSA and tumorous enlargement of the left testis, left inguinal orchectomy and right orchectomy were performed. Metastatic dissemination of prostate adenocarcinoma into a testis was determined by a pathohistological analysis of the left testis. Conclusion: The metastasis of the prostate carcinoma into a testis, as a rare localization of the metastatic dissemination, after additionally performed orchectomy along with further oncological therapy, can provide a continuation of a good life quality as well as a control of the disease in a longer time period. PMID:27703299

  13. Mechanisms of osteolytic and osteoblastic skeletal lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Roodman, G; Silbermann, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The bone is a frequent site for tumor metastasis, and cancer in the bone results in marked disturbances of bone remodeling that can be lytic, blastic or a combination of the two. Patients with advanced malignancies that have metastasized to the bone frequently suffer from debilitating skeletal-related events, including pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression syndromes, disorders of calcium and phosphate homeostasis and severe cancer-related pain. This review will discuss recent studies on the mechanisms responsible for osteolytic and osteoblastic metastasis and how their identification has resulted in the development of new agents for patients with metastatic bone disease. PMID:26539296

  14. Skeletal sarcoidosis; Skelettsarkoidose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyschmidt, J. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Beratungsstelle und Referenzzentrum fuer Osteoradiologie, Bremen (Germany); Freyschmidt, P. [Dermatologische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Schwalmstadt (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Presentation of the etiology, pathology, clinical course, radiology and differential diagnostics of skeletal sarcoidosis. Noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas can trigger solitary, multiple or disseminated osteolysis, reactive osteosclerosis and/or granulomatous synovitis. The incidence of sarcoidosis is 10-12 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Skeletal involvement is approximately 14 %. Skeletal involvement occurs almost exclusively in the stage of lymph node and pulmonary manifestation. Most cases of skeletal involvement are clinically asymptomatic. In the case of synovial involvement, unspecific joint complaints (arthralgia) or less commonly arthritis can occur. Typical skin alterations can be diagnostically significant. Punch out lesions osteolysis, coarse destruction and osteosclerosis can occur, which are best visualized with projection radiography and/or computed tomography. Pure bone marrow foci without interaction with the bone can only be detected with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and more recently with positron emission tomography (PET), mostly as incidental findings. There is a predeliction for the hand and trunk skeleton. Skeletal tuberculosis, metastases, multiple myeloma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis and sarcoid-like reactions in solid tumors must be differentiated. The key factors for correct diagnosis are thorax radiography, thorax CT and dermatological manifestations. (orig.) [German] Darstellung von Aetiologie, Pathologie, Klinik, Radiologie und Differenzialdiagnose der Skelettsarkoidose. Nichtverkaesende Epitheloidzellgranulome koennen solitaere, multiple oder disseminierte Osteolysen, reaktive Osteosklerosen und/oder eine granulomatoese Synovialitis ausloesen. Inzidenz der Sarkoidose: 10-12/100.000 Einwohner/Jahr. Skelettbeteiligung ca. 14 %. Skelettbeteiligungen kommen fast ausschliesslich im Stadium einer Lymphknoten- und pulmonalen Manifestation vor. Die meisten Skelettbeteiligungen verlaufen klinisch stumm. Bei synovialer

  15. Skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  16. 全身MR扩散加权成像与骨扫描探测骨转移灶的初步对比研究%Comparison of whole body MR diffusion weighted imaging and skeletal scintigraphy In detecting bone metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐贤; 马林; 张金山; 蔡幼铨; 徐白萱; 程流泉; 郭行高

    2008-01-01

    目的 通过与单光子发射计算机体层摄影术(SPECT)骨扫描对比,初步探讨全身MR扩散加权成像(DWI)技术探测骨转移灶的可行性.方法 对42名正常志愿者及38例可疑合并骨转移的恶性肿瘤患者行全身MR DWI及SPECT骨扫描,并将骨骼系统分为8个区域,分别记录每例患者各区域全身MR DWI和SPECT骨扫描分别显示的病灶数目及各区域阳性病例数,进行每一患者及每一区域的全身MR DWI及骨扫描的对照分析.结果 全身MR DWI阳性病例30例,受累区域69处,共探测出病灶数169处;骨扫描阳性病例29例,受累区域68处,共探测出病灶数156处;全身MR DWI阳性而SPECT骨扫描阴性者2例,SPECT骨扫描阳性而全身MR DWI阴性者1例;SPECT骨扫描阴性而全身MR DWI阳性区域8例,其中,脊柱3例、骨盆2例、股骨3例;骨扫描阳性而全身MRDWI阴性区域7例,其中颅骨4例、肩胛骨2例、胸锁骨1例.结论 全身MR DWI与SPECT骨扫描对检测骨转移病灶有很好的一致性,且两者可互相补充;全身MR DWI还可检测各脏器及淋巴结病灶,适用于肿瘤患者随访.%0bjective To evaluate the application of whole body MR diffusion weighted imaging (DWI)in the detection of bone metastasis using skeletal scintigraphy as the referenee.Methods Fonv.two healthy volunteers and 38 patients with malignant tumors were enrolled in our studv.A11 the patients received MR examination and skeletal scintigraphy within one week.MR examination was performed on GE signa 3.0T MR scanner using a build.in body coil.The skeletal system Was divided into eight regons and the images of the whole body MR DWI and skeletal seintigraphy were reviewed to compare the two modalities patient by patient and region by region.The images were reviewed separately by two radiologists and two nuclear medicine physicians,who were blinded to the results of another imaging modality.Results A total of 169 metastatic lesions in 69 regions of 30 patients were

  17. Macrophage Function in Early Dissemination and Dormancy of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    of Oncological Sciences, The Immunology Institute, Tisch Cancer Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA 3Department of...cell 13, 58-68. Joyce, J. A., and Pollard, J. W. (2009). Microenvironmental regulation of metastasis. Nature reviews Cancer 9, 239-252. Kaplan, R. N...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0365 TITLE: Macrophage Functions in Early Dissemination and Dormancy of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nina

  18. Exercise, natural immunity, and tumor metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman-Goetz, L

    1994-02-01

    Exercise has been shown to reduce the growth of primary tumors and to enhance certain aspects of host natural immunity. The question of whether these are independent phenomena or are casually related has not been systematically evaluated. This paper presents information concerning the methodological difficulties in studying proposed relationships between exercise and cancer, focusing specifically on tumor metastasis, the process by which malignant cells disseminate to distant organs and establish new colonies. This paper also focuses on how natural immune processes and tumor cells exert bidirectional influences on each other. It is suggested that the direction of the impact of exercise on the control of metastatic spread of neoplastic cells will reflect, in part, the sensitivity of the specific tumor to cytolysis by natural immune mechanisms, the route of dissemination, the timing of exercise relative to tumor exposure, and whether exercise acts as a distress or eustress state.

  19. [Vademecum of skeletal complications of malignancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, Céline; Dietrich, Pierre-Yves; Ben Aïssa, Assma

    2013-05-22

    Bone metastasis is a frequent complication for cancer patients leading pain, fracture, spinal cord compression and hypercalcemia. A multidisciplinary approach is strongly recommended to optimize the different treatment options (i.e. radiotherapy, surgery and vertebroplasty) in the context of the underlying cancer. The effectiveness of bisphosphonates and denosumab to reduce skeletal events has widely been demonstrated. Prevention and treatment of bone complications are crucial for maintaining the independence and quality of life of patients.

  20. Dissemination and Exploitation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio; Fransson, Torsten

    of Technology in Sweden, Politecnico di Torino in Italy, and Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. The project is partially funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme (project no. RI-283746). This report describes the final dissemination and exploitation strategy...

  1. Evaluation of inoperable pancreatic carcinoma based on tumor metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Yasuhiko; Ueda, Michio; Kubota, Toru; Endo, Itaru; Sekido, Hitoshi; Togo, Shinji; Shimada, Hiroshi [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-05-01

    Many pancreatic cancers are detected only after they are far advanced, and thus show a poor prognosis. We evaluated the survival of patients with inoperable pancreatic carcinoma, and strategy treatment. Subjects were 72 persons with advanced inoperable pancreatic carcinoma selected from among 144 examined at our department from May 1992 to March 2001. Patient factors (age, gender, and nutrition), tumor factors (hepatic metastasis, peritoneal dissemination, and distant metastasis), and treatment (radiotherapy, systemic chemotherapy, and hepatic arterial infusion therapy (HAI)) were studied and survival evaluated statistically. Overall mean survival was 175 days and the 1-year survival ratio was 13.5%. With multivariate analysis, prognostic factors were hepatic metastasis and radiotherapy. We therefore re-evaluated 56 patients treated with radiotherapy. In the group with no hepatic metastasis whose mean survival was 247 days, the prognostic factor was systemic chemotherapy. In the group with hepatic metastasis, mean survival was 140 days and the prognostic factor was the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) on admission. HAI was also a significant factor, which prolonged survival time with univariate analysis. Radiotherapy will be conducted for all inoperable pancreatic carcinomas. For the group with no hepatic metastasis, systemic chemotherapy is effective and for the group with hepatic metastasis. HAI will be selected. (author)

  2. Disseminating Service Registry Records

    OpenAIRE

    A. Apps

    2006-01-01

    The JISC Information Environment Service Registry (IESR) contains descriptions of collections of resources available to researchers, learners and teachers in the UK, along with technical service access details. This paper describes the data model and metadata description schema of IESR, and the services IESR provides to disseminate its records. There is a particular focus on the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) interface, including a possible use scenario. I...

  3. Developing an Effective Dissemination Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, Austin, TX. National Center for the Dissemination of Disability Research.

    This booklet offers guidelines for the development of dissemination strategies, especially those concerned with research and programs. Individual sections address: the importance of including sound dissemination plans in grant proposals, factors found to be closely related to information utilization in the dissemination process, a philosophical…

  4. Dissecting Tumor-Stromal Interactions in Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin Kang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bone metastasis is a frequent occurrence in breast cancer, affecting more than 70% of late stage cancer patients with severe complications such as fracture, bone pain, and hypercalcemia. The pathogenesis of osteolytic bone metastasis depends on cross-communications between tumor cells and various stromal cells residing in the bone microenvironment. Several growth factor signaling pathways, secreted micro RNAs (miRNAs and exosomes are functional mediators of tumor-stromal interactions in bone metastasis. We developed a functional genomic approach to systemically identified molecular pathways utilized by breast cancer cells to engage the bone stroma in order to generate osteolytic bone metastasis. We showed that elevated expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1 in disseminated breast tumor cells mediates the recruitment of pre-osteoclasts and promotes their differentiation to mature osteoclasts during the bone metastasis formation. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β is released from bone matrix upon bone destruction, and signals to breast cancer to further enhance their malignancy in developing bone metastasis. We furthered identified Jagged1 as a TGF-β target genes in tumor cells that engaged bone stromal cells through the activation of Notch signaling to provide a positive feedback to promote tumor growth and to activate osteoclast differentiation. Substantially change in miRNA expression was observed in osteoclasts during their differentiation and maturation, which can be exploited as circulating biomarkers of emerging bone metastasis and therapeutic targets for the treatment of bone metastasis. Further research in this direction may lead to improved diagnosis and treatment strategies for bone metastasis.

  5. Integrated Molecular Profiling of Human Gastric Cancer Identifies DDR2 as a Potential Regulator of Peritoneal Dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashige, Junji; Hasegawa, Takanori; Niida, Atsushi; Sugimachi, Keishi; Deng, Niantao; Mima, Kosuke; Uchi, Ryutaro; Sawada, Genta; Takahashi, Yusuke; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Inomata, Masashi; Kitano, Seigo; Fukagawa, Takeo; Sasako, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Hiroki; Sasaki, Shin; Mori, Masaki; Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi; Baba, Hideo; Miyano, Satoru; Tan, Patrick; Mimori, Koshi

    2016-03-03

    Peritoneal dissemination is the most frequent, incurable metastasis occurring in patients with advanced gastric cancer (GC). However, molecular mechanisms driving peritoneal dissemination still remain poorly understood. Here, we aimed to provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms that drive the peritoneal dissemination of GC. We performed combined expression analysis with in vivo-selected metastatic cell lines and samples from 200 GC patients to identify driver genes of peritoneal dissemination. The driver-gene functions associated with GC dissemination were examined using a mouse xenograft model. We identified a peritoneal dissemination-associated expression signature, whose profile correlated with those of genes related to development, focal adhesion, and the extracellular matrix. Among the genes comprising the expression signature, we identified that discoidin-domain receptor 2 (DDR2) as a potential regulator of peritoneal dissemination. The DDR2 was upregulated by the loss of DNA methylation and that DDR2 knockdown reduced peritoneal metastasis in a xenograft model. Dasatinib, an inhibitor of the DDR2 signaling pathway, effectively suppressed peritoneal dissemination. DDR2 was identified as a driver gene for GC dissemination from the combined expression signature and can potentially serve as a novel therapeutic target for inhibiting GC peritoneal dissemination.

  6. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various me...

  7. Multiple Metastasis-Like Bone Lesions in Scintigraphic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple benign osteolytic lesions are very hard to differentiate from disseminated bone metastasis. Whole-body bone scintigraphy (WBBS with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP demonstrates multiple lesions with increased uptake in any bone involved. Even combined with medical history and multiple imaging results, such as MRI and CT, the clinical diagnosis of metastasis lesion remains as a challenge. These clinical characteristics are similar to multiple malignant bone metastases and therefore affect the following treatment procedures. In this paper, we analyzed multiple benign osteolytic lesions, like eosinophilic granuloma (EG, multiple myeloma (MM, disseminated tuberculosis, fibrous dysplasia, or enchondroma, occurring in our daily clinical work and concluded that additional attention should be paid before giving the diagnosis of multiple bone metastases.

  8. Therapy for bone metastasis from different cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Zhang; Peng Tan; Baoguo Mi; Chao Song; Yi Deng; Hanfeng Guan

    2016-01-01

    The bone is the most common target organ of cancer metastasis. Bone metastasis leads to considerable morbidity due to skeletal-related events (SREs). These include bone pain, hypercalcemia, pathologic frac-tures, and compression of the spinal cord. Cancers such as those of the lung, breast, prostate, and kidney are more likely to cause SREs than other cancer types. Additionaly, some blood cancers, including multiple myeloma and lymphoma, frequently cause SREs. In this article, we review the conventional therapies for metastatic bone disease, including drug therapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Among osteoclast-targeting agents, bisphosphonates and nuclear factor kappa-B ligand inhibitors are the most widely used agents to prevent cancer-related bone loss. Unsealed radioisotopes are also considered promising in cancer therapy. Currently, iodine-131, strontium-89, and radium-223 are available for the treatment of bone metastasis. However, the treatments for blood cancers with SREs are diferent from those of other cancers. In those cases, new classes of agents including proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, monoclonal anti-bodies, and histone deacetylase inhibitors have shown remarkable eficacy. We also discuss the potential development of new therapies for these diseases.

  9. Metastasis of Breast Carcinoma to Intercostal Muscle Detected by Breast MRI: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kyung Eun; Son, Eun Ju; Kim, Jeong Ah; Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young; Jeong, Joon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Breast cancer can metastasize to any organ; however, distant metastases are unusual at the time of diagnosis. Furthermore metastasis to skeletal muscle is an uncommon manifestation of malignancy. We report a case of a 45-year-old woman diagnosed with cancer of the left breast with metastases to the ipsilateral intercostal muscle. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of intercostal muscle metastasis from breast cancer in the English literature

  10. The role of osteoclasts in breast cancer bone metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Le Pape

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer frequently metastasises to the skeleton, interfering with the normal bone remodelling process and inducing bone degradation. Bone degradation is caused by osteoclasts, the normal bone-resorbing cells. Osteoclast-mediated bone degradation subsequently leads to the release of bone-derived factors that promote skeletal tumour growth. Osteoclasts themselves stimulate tumour growth. This Review describes the molecular mechanisms through which osteoclasts and breast cancer cells collaborate with each other, triggering the formation of osteolytic bone metastasis.

  11. Bone metastasis of glandular cardiac myxoma mimicking a metastatic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppin, Shantveer G; Jambhekar, Nirmala; Puri, Ajay; Kumar, Rajiv; Agarwal, Manish; Sanghvi, Darshana

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal metastasis from a cardiac myxoma is rare. We describe an extremely unusual case of a cardiac myxoma metastasing to the femur in a 46-year-old female presenting with pain in the right hip. Radiographs showed an expansile lytic lesion with pathological fracture involving the neck and proximal shaft of the right femur. Histology revealed features of cardiac myxoma with heterologous glandular elements, which was initially mistaken for a metastatic mucin-secreting adenocarcinoma.

  12. Mandibular metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky, Alejandro; Mareso, Eduardo Arístides; Klurfan, Federico Juan; Gonzalez, Maximiliano Jorge

    2003-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma mandibular metastasis are not very frequent and the cases described in literature are few. Due to its bloodstream dissemination, most of them are a consequence of the follicular variant of thyroid carcinomas. A case is presented and a review of the clinicopathologic characteristics of the lesion is made, so the oral and maxilofacial surgeon can recognize it, make a correct differential diagnosis with other mandibular radioluciencies and in consequence, carry out an adequate treatment.

  13. Skeletal coccidioidomycosis: imaging findings in 19 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeppa, M.A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, California Univ., Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Greenspan, A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, California Univ., Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); McGahan, J.P. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, California Univ., Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Laorr, A. [Dept. of Radiology, California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States); Steinbach, L.S. [Dept. of Radiology, California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the distribution and radiologic appearance of skeletal coccidioidomycosis in 19 documented cases. Medical records of 19 patients with clinically confirmed skeletal occidioidomycosis were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were studied with plain radiography, skeletal scintigraphy and MRI. Multiple lesions were seen in 11 of 19 patients (58%). Of a total of 46 lesions, 27 (59%) were described as punched-out lytic, 10 (22%) as permeative/destructive, and 9 (17%) as involving a joint and/or disk space. Lesions were identified in almost every bone (with the exception of the facial bones, ulna, carpus, and fibula) and were most commonly found in the axial skeleton (20 of 46; 43%). Plain radiographs are effective in the initial evaluation of bones and joints, scintigraphic studies can identify disseminated disease, and CT and MRI are effective in determining soft tissue involvement and spinal abnormalities. (orig./MG)

  14. Bone sialoprotein and osteopontin in bone metastasis of osteotropic cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Thomas E; Miller, Andrew H; Godwin, Andrew K; Wang, Jinxi

    2014-02-01

    The mechanisms underlying malignant cell metastasis to secondary sites such as bone are complex and no doubt multifactorial. Members of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs) family, particularly bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN), exhibit multiple activities known to promote malignant cell proliferation, detachment, invasion, and metastasis of several osteotropic cancers. The expression level of BSP and OPN is elevated in a variety of human cancers, particularly those that metastasize preferentially to the skeleton. Recent studies suggest that the "osteomimicry" of malignant cells is not only conferred by transmembrane receptors bound by BSP and OPN, but includes the "switch" in gene expression repertoire typically expressed in cells of skeletal lineage. Understanding the role of BSP and OPN in tumor progression, altered pathophysiology of bone microenvironment, and tumor metastasis to bone will likely result in development of better diagnostic approaches and therapeutic regimens for osteotropic malignant diseases.

  15. The pre-metastatic niche: is metastasis random?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Thomas R; Gartland, Alison; Erler, Janine T

    2012-01-01

    The metastasis of solid tumours is a vastly complex, dynamic and systemic process involving both primary tumour cells as well as a wide array of stromal and vascular cells. The recruitment and activation of host cells by tumours at both the primary and metastatic sites is crucial for successful metastatic dissemination highlighting the systemic nature of disease progression. The appropriation of distant metastatic sites by primary tumours and the generation of so-called pre-metastatic niches have gained much interest in the last decade complementing the century old 'seed and soil' hypothesis. The idea that tumours are capable of pre-defining future sites of metastasis is both exciting and terrifying as we try to understand the dynamic networks associated with solid tumour metastasis. Exactly how a tumour cell can alter the distant metastatic microenvironment is of great importance and will unlock novel strategies for successfully targeting these processes.

  16. The pre-metastatic niche: is metastasis random?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Thomas R; Gartland, Alison; Erler, Janine T

    2012-01-01

    The metastasis of solid tumours is a vastly complex, dynamic and systemic process involving both primary tumour cells as well as a wide array of stromal and vascular cells. The recruitment and activation of host cells by tumours at both the primary and metastatic sites is crucial for successful metastatic dissemination highlighting the systemic nature of disease progression. The appropriation of distant metastatic sites by primary tumours and the generation of so-called pre-metastatic niches have gained much interest in the last decade complementing the century old 'seed and soil' hypothesis. The idea that tumours are capable of pre-defining future sites of metastasis is both exciting and terrifying as we try to understand the dynamic networks associated with solid tumour metastasis. Exactly how a tumour cell can alter the distant metastatic microenvironment is of great importance and will unlock novel strategies for successfully targeting these processes. PMID:27127624

  17. Delusions of Disseminated Fungosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Gassiep

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Delusional infestation is a rare monosymptomatic hypochondriacal psychosis according to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013. It can be a primary disorder or associated with an underlying psychological or physical disorder. It commonly presents as delusional parasitosis, and less than 1% may be fungi related. We present this case as it is a rare presentation of a rare condition. Case Presentation. Our patient is a 60-year-old Caucasian man who presented with a 7-year history of delusional infestation manifested as a disseminated fungal infection. He had previously been reviewed by multiple physicians for the same with no systemic illness diagnosed. After multiple reviews and thorough investigation we diagnosed him with a likely delusional disorder. As is common with this patient cohort he refused psychiatric review or antipsychotic medication. Conclusion. A delusion of a disseminated fungal infestation is a rare condition. It is exceedingly difficult to treat as these patients often refuse to believe the investigation results and diagnosis. Furthermore, they either refuse or are noncompliant with treatment. Multidisciplinary outpatient evaluation may be the best way to allay patient fears and improve treatment compliance.

  18. Hypoxia-mediated metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Joan; Erler, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is responsible for more than 90 % of deaths among cancer patient. It is a highly complex process that involves the interplay between cancer cells, the tumor microenvironment, and even noncancerous host cells. Metastasis can be seen as a step-wise process: acquisition of malignant phenotype, invasion into surrounding tissue, intravasation into blood vessels, survival in circulation, extravasation to distant sites, and colonization of new organs. Before the actual metastatic process, the secondary site is also prepared for the arrival of the cancer cells through formation of "premetastatic niches." Hypoxia (low oxygen tension) is commonly found in solid tumors more than a few millimeters cubed and often is associated with a poor prognosis. Hypoxia increases angiogenesis, cancer cell survival, and metastasis. This chapter described how hypoxia regulates each step of the metastatic process and how blocking hypoxia-driven metastasis through targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1, or downstream effector molecules such as the lysyl oxidase family may represent highly effective preventive strategies against metastasis in cancer patients.

  19. Evolution of metastasis revealed by mutational landscapes of chemically induced skin cancers | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human tumors show a high level of genetic heterogeneity, but the processes that influence the timing and route of metastatic dissemination of the subclones are unknown. Here we have used whole-exome sequencing of 103 matched benign, malignant and metastatic skin tumors from genetically heterogeneous mice to demonstrate that most metastases disseminate synchronously from the primary tumor, supporting parallel rather than linear evolution as the predominant model of metastasis.

  20. AIDS defining disease: Disseminated cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Anupama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated cryptococcosis is one of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome defining criteria and the most common cause of life threatening meningitis. Disseminated lesions in the skin manifest as papules or nodules that mimic molluscum contagiosum (MC. We report here a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient who presented with MC like lesions. Disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed by India ink preparation and histopathology. The condition of the patient improved with amphotercin B.

  1. Metastasis to the penis. Case reports and review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Løntoft, E

    1991-01-01

    Metastasis to the penis is rare, despite rich vascularization and complex circulation. Less than 200 cases have been reported. Three new cases of penis metastasis from primary tumours in the bladder and prostate, respectively, are described. The most common symptoms are penile induration...... and swelling. Treatments, all of which must be considered merely palliative, consist of local tumour excision, radiation therapy, cytostatic and hormone therapy, possibly with partial or total penis amputation. The prognosis is poor, irrespective of the therapy and site of the primary tumour. More than 80......% of the patients die within six months after the occurrence of penis metastasis, as a result of disseminated cancer disease....

  2. Whistle from Afar: A Case of Endotracheal Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitoti Chattopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endotracheal metastasis is a rare situation, usually associated with malignancies of breast and gastrointestinal tract, specially colon. Papillary carcinoma of thyroid commonly disseminates through lymphatic channels and tracheal involvement through vascular route is rarely reported. Here, we report a case of tracheal metastasis from papillary carcinoma of thyroid. The patient responded to external beam radiation therapy with cobalt 60 beams in a dose of 44 Gy followed by a 16 Gy boost. The patient is under followup and is presently asymptomatic. This paper adds to the repertoire of evidence in treatment of endotracheal metastasis.

  3. The independent roles of mechanical, structural and adhesion characteristics of 3D hydrogels on the regulation of cancer invasion and dissemination

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Jennifer N.; Singh, Anirudha; Rothenberg, Ashley R.; Elisseeff, Jennifer H.; Ewald, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis begins with the escape, or dissemination, of cancer cells from the primary tumor. We recently demonstrated that tumors preferentially disseminate into collagen I and not into basement membrane protein gels (Matrigel). In this study, we used synthetic polymer systems to define material properties that could induce dissemination into Matrigel. We first specifically varied rigidity by varying the crosslinking density of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) networks within Matrigel scaffolds. I...

  4. Breast metastasis in osteosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roebuck, D.J.; Sato, J.K.; Fahmy, J. [Children`s Hospital, Los Angeles, California (United States). Department of Radiology

    1999-02-01

    A young girl with a history of chondroblastic osteosarcoma of the tibia developed a pulmonary metastasis which was treated by metastasectomy, chemotherapy and lung irradiation. Three years later, at the age of 15, she developed a breast mass which was excised and which proved to be a poorly differentiated sarcoma. This was almost certainly a metastasis rather than a radiation-induced second primary tumour, in view of the short interval since radiotherapy. The ultrasonographic features of this lesion are presented here and the differential diagnosis is discussed in this context. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 12 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Metastasis Is Cell Motility Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuyuki ITOH

    2009-01-01

    @@ Multidisciplinary approach (surgery, chemotherapy and radiation) for the primary site of cancer is now almost established, however, recurrence, inva-sion and metastasis are still life threatening, thus the effort of fighting against metastasis is critical and crucial.

  6. Twist, a master regulator of morphogenesis, plays an essential role in tumor metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Mani, Sendurai A; Donaher, Joana Liu; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Itzykson, Raphael A; Come, Christophe; Savagner, Pierre; Gitelman, Inna; Richardson, Andrea; Weinberg, Robert A

    2004-06-25

    Metastasis is a multistep process during which cancer cells disseminate from the site of primary tumors and establish secondary tumors in distant organs. In a search for key regulators of metastasis in a murine breast tumor model, we have found that the transcription factor Twist, a master regulator of embryonic morphogenesis, plays an essential role in metastasis. Suppression of Twist expression in highly metastatic mammary carcinoma cells specifically inhibits their ability to metastasize from the mammary gland to the lung. Ectopic expression of Twist results in loss of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, activation of mesenchymal markers, and induction of cell motility, suggesting that Twist contributes to metastasis by promoting an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In human breast cancers, high level of Twist expression is correlated with invasive lobular carcinoma, a highly infiltrating tumor type associated with loss of E-cadherin expression. These results establish a mechanistic link between Twist, EMT, and tumor metastasis.

  7. Pathogenesis and treatment of skeletal metastasis : studies in animal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Jeroen Theodorus

    2009-01-01

    The skeleton is one of the most common organs to be affected by metastatic disease. However, only a restricted number of solid cancers, especially those of the breast and prostate, are responsible for the majority of the bone metastases. Bone metastases are a major cause of morbidity, characterized

  8. Pathogenesis and treatment of skeletal metastasis : studies in animal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Jeroen Theodorus

    2009-01-01

    The skeleton is one of the most common organs to be affected by metastatic disease. However, only a restricted number of solid cancers, especially those of the breast and prostate, are responsible for the majority of the bone metastases. Bone metastases are a major cause of morbidity, characterized

  9. Brain metastasis from esophageal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almasi Saeid

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastasis from esophageal carcinoma is rare. In our center, among 301 cases of esophageal cancer referred for radiotherapy during a 14-year period, brain metastasis from esophageal carcinoma was detected in one case. An unusual case of esophageal carcinoma that presented with brain metastasis is reported.

  10. Vaginal metastasis of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhayoune, Khadija; El Fatemi, Hinde; El Ghaouti, Meryem; Bannani, Abdelaziz; Melhouf, Abdelilah; Harmouch, Taoufik

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal metastasis from pancreatic cancer is an extreme case and often indicates a poor prognosis. We present a case of pancreatic carcinoma with metastasis to the vagina that was discovered by vaginal bleeding. To our knowledge, this is the third case in the world of a primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma discovered of symptoms from a vaginal metastasis.

  11. Metastatic Uterine Leiomyosarcoma Involving Bilateral Ovarian Stroma without Capsular Involvement Implies a Local Route of Hematogenous Dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dandapani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine sarcomas spread via lymphatic and hematogenous dissemination, direct extension, or transtubal transport. Distant metastasis often involves the lungs. Ovarian metastasis is uncommon. Here we present an unusual case of a large, high-grade uLMS with metastatic disease internal to both ovaries without capsular involvement or other abdominal diseases, and discovered in a patient with distant metastases to the lungs, suggesting likely hematogenous dissemination of uLMS to the ovaries in this case. Knowledge of usual uLMS metastases may influence surgical management in select cases.

  12. Selected Dissemination/Diffusion Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Marshall L.

    This analysis of selected diffusion and dissemination methods used by developer-demonstrator projects in the National Diffusion Network discusses strategies under the following headings: managing the project, developing materials, disseminating information, conducting awareness sessions, training personnel, using certified trainers, providing…

  13. Performativity: enrollments, contexts, dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Soares Leite

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The term performativity and its inflexions have been applied to several concepts in the field of educational research. In this study, we trace the dissemination of the word performativity and its correlates, starting from the meanings attributed to the term by Stephen Ball, in his analysis of contemporary educational policies, but also using the theories of Jacques Derrida and Judith Butler, who used these terms to refer to social processes of signification and identification, and also references made to the term in studies of Anthropology, Arts, Political Science, Linguistics, Philosophy and Physics. On top of that, we researched studies in the field of academic education, examining articles from journals and other periodicals published over the last five years, in order to discuss the various meanings attributed to the term within the educational field. We present, in this paper, a synthesis of our investigations, highlighting the affirmations, negations and truth effects that can be construed from the use of these terms in educational research, in particular when approaching current educational policies.

  14. [Vaginal metastasis of renal carcinoma (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, P; Marx, F J

    1977-11-01

    Four cases of vaginal metastases of renal carcinoma are reported. This is an incidence of 1.3% in 313 operated patients (from 1/1/70 to 12/31/76). A surgical treatment of primary renal carcinoma and vaginal metastasis seems to be reasonable in there cases. Since in accordance with the literature metastatic involvement of vagina and vulva seems not to be a very rare finding, the diagnostic in renal carcinoma should imply a gynecologic examination. Although in carcinoma of the left kidney metastatic spreading into the external female genitalia most probably occurs by a retrograde venous pathway (left ovarian vein), the way of dissemination in carcinoma of the right side is unclear.

  15. Platelets alter tumor cell attributes to propel metastasis: programming in transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Laurie J; Felding-Habermann, Brunhilde

    2011-11-15

    Metastasis of epithelial tumors critically depends on acquisition of a disseminating phenotype that allows tumor cells to colonize distant organs. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Labelle et al. demonstrate that an epithelial-mesenchymal-like transition can be induced by interaction between platelets and tumor cells.

  16. Cathepsins mediate tumor metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong-Jun; Tan; Zheng-Ke; Peng; Jin-Ping; Lu; Fa-Qing; Tang

    2013-01-01

    Cathepsins are highly expressed in various human cancers, associated with tumor metastasis. It is superfamily, concluding A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, L, K, O, S, V, and W family members. As a group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases, each member has a different function, playing different roles in distinct tumorigenic processes such as proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and invasion. Cathepsins belong to a diverse number of enzyme subtypes, including cysteine proteases, serine proteases and aspartic proteases. The contribution of cathepsins to invasion in human cancers is well documented, although the precise mechanisms by which cathepsins exert their effects are still not clear. In the present review, the role of cathepsin family members in cancer is discussed.

  17. How Is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Treated? Treatment for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) depends ... and treat the underlying cause. Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation People who have acute DIC may have severe ...

  18. Solitary midbrain metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongerboer de Visser, B W; Moffie, D

    1981-01-01

    The available clinical and pathological data of 5 cases with solitary midbrain metastasis including 2 of the present study are reviewed. Progressive dementia occurred in one case and mild dementia in another who also developed ocular symptoms. Ocular symptoms with sensory and coordination disturbances were seen in one, and only ocular symptoms in another case. Right-sided hemiplegia of 5 years duration occurred in the remaining case. Survival in tegmentum lesions is short.

  19. Testicular leiomyosarcoma with metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Giridhar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary leiomyosarcoma of testis is a rare entity with few cases reported in literature. Primary leiomyosarcoma of testis usually occurs following radiotherapy or long-term anabolic steroid use. Without these predisposing factors, its occurrence is rare. In the present study, we present a rare case of primary leiomyosarcoma of testis occurring in an elderly patient, with an unusual presentation mimicking epididymo-orchitis and metastasis eight months following high inguinal orchidectomy.

  20. Targeting Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    invasion and many of the drugs used in this study could act synergistically. Zebrafish genetic and transplant models have emerged as a promising...cells into 2-day old 6 embryos . The injected zebrafish were returned to water containing the various matched drugs and maintained at 34°C. The...the presence of the drugs. Percentage of metastasis was set as the number of embryos containing more than 5 cells outside the yolk sac. Total

  1. Pathogenesis of bone metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdinc Nayir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone metastases are more frequently seen as a complication of cancer than primary bone tumors. For example, it can be seen in as many as 70% of advanced stage breast and prostate cancer cases. Metastatic bone disease is generally categorized as osteoblastic, and osteolytic disease. However most of the cancer types demonstrate a wide spectrum between these two extremes. Paracrine interaction between parathyroid hormone–related protein (PTHrP which increases the rate of bone osteolysis, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β plays a role in osteolytic metastasis. Increased local bone PTHrP concentration increases expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL with resultant activation of osteoclastogenesis. Endothelin – 1 (ET-1, and dickkopf homolog -1 (DKK-1 produced by tumor involve in osteoblastic metastasis. DKK-1 is the central regulator of osteoblastic activity, and osteoblastic bone metastasis. For the elaboration of treatment strategies against frequently seen complication, that is, bone metastases, targets involving in pathogenesis of these complications should be taken into consideration.

  2. Potential of targeted drug delivery system for the treatment of bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinay, Raichur; KusumDevi, V

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a devastating complication of cancer that requires an immediate attention. Although our understanding of the metastatic process has improved over the years, yet a number of questions still remain unanswered, and more research is required for complete understanding of the skeletal consequences of metastasis. Furthermore, as no effective treatments are available for some of the most common skeleton disorders such as arthritis, osteoarthritis, osteosarcoma and metastatic bone cancer, there is an urgent need to develop new drugs and drug delivery systems for safe and efficient clinical treatments. Hence this article describes the potential of targeted delivery platforms aimed specifically at bone metastasized tumors. The review gives a brief understanding of the proposed mechanisms of metastasis and focuses primarily on the targeting moieties such as bisphosphonates, which represent the current gold standard in bone metastasis therapies. Special focus has been given to the targeted nanoparticulate systems for treating bone metastasis and its future. Also highlighted are some of the therapeutic targets that can be exploited for designing therapies for bone metastasis. Some of the patented molecules for bone metastasis prevention and treatment have also been discussed. Recently proposed HIFU-CHEM, which utilizes High Intensity Focused ultrasound (HIFU) guided by MRI in combination with temperature-sensitive nanomedicines has also been briefed. The study has been concluded with a focus on the innovations requiring an immediate attention that could improve the treatment modality of bone metastasis.

  3. Diffuse metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma into skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundt, W.; Braunschweig, R.; Reiser, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Skeletal muscle is one of the most unusual sites of metastasis from any malignancy. We report a patient with rapidly progressive contractures due to metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma of unknown origin into the skeletal muscle. This 61-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of rapidly evolving, painful restriction of mobility of his right arm and his legs. Computed tomography showed diffuse metastatic nodules in all muscles, particularly in the hip abductors. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive infiltration of the muscle with carcinoma cells. (orig.) With 4 figs., 21 refs.

  4. Anoikis Resistance: An Essential Prerequisite for Tumor Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Nyun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is a multistep process including dissociation of cancer cells from primary sites, survival in the vascular system, and proliferation in distant target organs. As a barrier to metastasis, cells normally undergo an apoptotic process known as “anoikis,” a form of cell death due to loss of contact with the extracellular matrix or neighboring cells. Cancer cells acquire anoikis resistance to survive after detachment from the primary sites and travel through the circulatory and lymphatic systems to disseminate throughout the body. Because recent technological advances enable us to detect rare circulating tumor cells, which are anoikis resistant, currently, anoikis resistance becomes a hot topic in cancer research. Detailed molecular and functional analyses of anoikis resistant cells may provide insight into the biology of cancer metastasis and identify novel therapeutic targets for prevention of cancer dissemination. This paper comprehensively describes recent investigations of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying anoikis and anoikis resistance in relation to intrinsic and extrinsic death signaling, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, growth factor receptors, energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species, membrane microdomains, and lipid rafts.

  5. Disseminated Intra-Abdominal Hydatidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Fátima; Maguiña, Ciro; Seas, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 26-year-old male Peruvian patient who presented with disseminated intra-abdominal hydatidosis. The patient was treated with surgical removal of the cysts and prolonged medical treatment with albendazole. PMID:24006293

  6. Herpes zoster (shingles) disseminated (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes zoster (shingles) normally occurs in a limited area that follows a dermatome (see the "dermatome" picture). In individuals with damaged immune systems, herpes zoster may be widespread (disseminated), causing serious illness. ...

  7. DISSEMINATED HISTOPLASMOSIS DIAGNOSED ON BONE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-02

    Dec 2, 2009 ... four cases are presented; two infants and two adults. All had ... Diagnosis was made incidentally on bone marrow aspirate cytology. .... for disseminated histoplasmosis include transplant recipients .... Clinical and laboratory.

  8. Ovarian metastasis of malignant melanoma: The first pediatric case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Araki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of an 8-year-old girl with metastasis of malignant melanoma (MM to the ovary. She was initially diagnosed with cutaneous MM on the left buttock for which she underwent wide local excision, left inguinal/pelvic lymph node dissection, and subcutaneous injection of interferon beta. In spite of the treatment, she developed dissemination of MM to the liver, the bone, and the right ovary. All the lesions responded well to systemic chemotherapy (intravenous dacarbazine, except for the right ovarian tumor. She underwent an elective right salpingo-oophorectomy to avoid torsion or rupture of the tumor. However, she developed metastases to the contralateral ovary with peritoneal dissemination in 4 months. She received home palliative care and died at home 14 months after the last surgery. Ovarian metastasis of MM is a rare form of dissemination, and only 15 adult cases have ever been reported. Our patient is the first pediatric case. Since there is no standard of surgical indication for metastatic MM to the ovary, palliative resection can be an option for improving quality of life of a patient with this rare condition.

  9. Central skeletal sarcoidosis mimicking metastatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmi, Danit; Smith, Stacy; Mulligan, Michael E. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease that histologically typically shows non-caseating granulomas. The most common radiologic finding is hilar and mediastinal adenopathy. Patients with widely disseminated disease may show involvement of the peripheral appendicular skeleton in 1-13% of such cases. A primary skeletal presentation without other manifestations typical of the disease is rare. We present a case of sarcoidosis in a middle-aged Caucasian man in whom the disease presented with widespread lytic lesions in the axial skeleton and long bones, mimicking metastatic disease. There was no involvement of the peripheral skeleton, skin or lungs. (orig.)

  10. Solitary osseous metastasis of rectal carcinoma masquerading as osteogenic sarcoma on post-chemotherapy imaging: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udare, Amar; Sable, Nilesh; Kumar, Rajiv; Thakur, Meenakshi; Juvekar, Shashikant [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)

    2015-02-15

    Solitary metastases from colorectal carcinoma in the absence of hepatic or pulmonary metastases are rare. These can have a diverse imaging appearance, particularly after chemotherapy. It is important identify patients with solitary skeletal metastases, as they have a better prognosis than those with multiple skeletal or visceral metastases. We describe an unusual case of a solitary metastasis to the femur in a case of colon carcinoma that went undiagnosed and later presented with imaging features of osteogenic sarcoma.

  11. Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Buccal Mucosa 19 Years after Radical Nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernani Gil-Julio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC has high metastatic potential, which requires early diagnosis to optimize the chance of cure. Metastasis of RCC to the head and neck region is less common and metastasis to the buccal mucosa is extremely rare. This phenomenon occurs mostly in patients with generalized dissemination, especially with lung metastases. In this article we report a case of buccal mucosa metastasis from RCC in a 65-year-old man who presented 19 years after undergoing a left radical nephrectomy for clear cell RCC. Surgical excision of the buccal lesion was performed without evidence of recurrence or new metastatic lesions after 6 years of followup. To our knowledge, this is the first case of metastasis to the buccal mucosa from a RCC reported in the literature.

  12. Apropos of a case of cutaneous metastasis from laryngeal cancer with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeeta Trehan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous metastasis from laryngeal carcinoma is a rare occurrence. A 55-year-old male patient with supraglottic cancer was treated with concurrent chemoradiation. Eighteen months later, he presented with ulceroproliferative growth on dorsum of the right hand. Biopsy revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Further investigations revealed underlying bone destruction with lung metastasis. In view of poor general condition and widespread dissemination of disease, palliative radiotherapy was delivered to the hand of the patient. He achieved satisfactory palliation in form of pain relief, control of bleeding, and discharge. The present report serves to emphasize the importance of properly diagnosing metastatic spread to unusual sites. Such metastasis is rare and is associated with a poor prognosis. Treatment is usually aimed at providing pain relief in these patients with limited life expectancy. Hence, we present a case of extensive cutaneous metastasis from laryngeal carcinoma with review of the literature.

  13. Tumor-stroma interactions a trademark for metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Monica; Planet, Evarist; Arnal-Estape, Anna; Pavlovic, Milica; Tarragona, Maria; Gomis, Roger R

    2011-10-01

    We aimed to unravel genes that are significantly associated with metastasis in order to identify functions that support disseminated disease. We identify genes associated with metastasis and verify its clinical correlations using publicly available primary tumor expression profile data sets. We used facilities in R and Bioconductor (GSEA). Specific data structures and functions were imported. Our results show that genes associated with metastasis in primary tumor enriched for pathways associated with immune infiltration or cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. As an example, we focus on the enrichment of TGFBR2 and TGF|X A set of communication tools capital for tumor-stroma interactions that define metastasis to the lung and support bone colonization. We showed that tumor-stroma communication through cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway is selected in primary tumors with high risk of relapse. High levels of these factors support systemic instigation of the far metastatic nest as well as local metastatic-specific functions that provide solid ground for metastatic development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lysyl Oxidase, a Targetable Secreted Molecule Involved in Cancer Metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Thomas R; Gartland, Alison; Erler, Janine T

    2016-01-01

    Secondary metastatic cancer remains the single biggest cause of mortality and morbidity across most solid tumors. In breast cancer, 100% of deaths are attributed to metastasis. At present, there are no "cures" for secondary metastatic cancer of any form and there is an urgent unmet clinical need...... to improve the tools available in our arsenal against this disease, both in terms of treatment, but also prevention. Recently, we showed that hypoxic induction of the extracellular matrix modifying enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX) correlates with metastatic dissemination to the bone in estrogen receptor negative...... breast cancer and is essential for the formation of premetastatic osteolytic lesions. We showed that in models of breast cancer metastasis, targeting LOX, or its downstream effects, significantly inhibited premetastatic niche formation and the resulting metastatic burden, offering preclinical validation...

  15. S100A4, a link between metastasis and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambartsumian, N.; Grigorian, M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is acknowledged to be a hallmark of neoplasia—both in cancer initiation and metastasis progression. Here we summarise data suggesting that S100A4 is а trigger of the cascade events that establish an inflammatory milieu and provide a potent flame for primary tumour growth...... and especially for its metastatic dissemination. The S100A4 protein belongs to the S100 superfamily of small Ca2+-binding proteins. Well established function of S100A4 is associated with induction and promotion of tumour metastasis. However, this protein is also involved in the pathogenesis of major human non......-communicable diseases (NCD), such as autoimmune diseases, fibrosis, and other disorders. Therefore, we suggest that S100A4 is a common pro-inflammatory factor involved in the pathogenesis of diverse NCD including cancer....

  16. The biology of cancer metastasis or, 'you cannot fix it if you do not know how it works'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, I J

    1991-10-01

    The major cause of death from cancer is the relentless growth of metastases that are resistant to conventional therapy. The pathogenesis of a metastasis is complex and requires that tumor cells complete a sequence of potentially lethal interactions with various host factors. The finding in 1973 that metastasis is a selective process and the finding in 1977 that malignant neoplasms are heterogeneous and contain few preexisting metastatic subpopulations have added a new dimension to our understanding of cancer and its spread. This understanding is now contributing to the design of better therapies against disseminated metastasis.

  17. Genomic alterations associated with early stages of breast tumor metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Rachel E; Ellsworth, Darrell L; Patney, Heather L; Deyarmin, Brenda; Hooke, Jeffrey A; Love, Brad; Shriver, Craig D

    2008-07-01

    Molecular studies suggest that acquisition of metastatic potential occurs early in the development of breast cancer; mechanisms by which cells disseminate from the primary carcinomas and successfully colonize foreign tissues are, however, largely unknown. Thus, we examined levels and patterns of chromosomal alterations in primary breast tumors from node-negative (n = 114) and node-positive (n = 115) patients to determine whether specific genomic changes are associated with tumor metastasis. Fifty-two genetic markers representing 26 chromosomal regions commonly altered in breast cancer were examined in laser microdissected tumor samples to assess levels and patterns of allelic imbalance (AI). Real time-PCR (RT-PCR) was performed to determine expression levels of candidate genes. Data was analyzed using exact unconditional and Student's t-tests with significance values of P .05 and P .002 used for the clinicopathological and genomic analyses, respectively. Overall levels of AI in primary breast tumors from node-negative (20.8%) and node-positive (21.9%) patients did not differ significantly (P = 0.291). When data were examined by chromosomal region, only chromosome 8q24 showed significantly higher levels (P .0005) of AI in node-positive primary tumors (23%) versus node-negative samples (6%). c-MYC showed significantly higher levels of gene expression in primary breast tumors from patients with lymph node metastasis. Higher frequencies of AI at chromosome 8q24 in patients with positive lymph nodes suggest that genetic changes in this region are important to the process of metastasis. Because overexpression of c-MYC has been associated with cellular dissemination as well as development of the premetastatic niche, alterations of the 8q24 region, including c-MYC, may be key determinants in the development of lymph node metastasis.

  18. Skeletally Dugundji spaces

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We introduce and investigate the class of skeletally Dugundji spaces as a skeletal analogue of Dugundji space. The main result states that the following conditions are equivalent for a given space $X$: (i) $X$ is skeletally Dugundji; (ii) Every compactification of $X$ is co-absolute to a Dugundji space; (iii) Every $C^*$-embedding of the absolute $p(X)$ in another space is strongly $\\pi$-regular; (iv) $X$ has a multiplicative lattice in the sense of Shchepin \\cite{s76} consisting of skeletal ...

  19. Non-small cell lung carcinoma metastasis to the anus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandapani, Ramya Gowri; Anosike, Chinedum; Ganguly, Akash

    2016-04-29

    A 70-year-old man presenting with a lung mass was investigated and treated with pneumonectomy for adenocarcinoma of the lung. He re-presented 3 months later with a large perianal abscess and mass. Subsequent investigations and biopsies showed disseminated metastases from the lung primary. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the nature of the anal metastasis from the lung adenocarcinoma. Lung cancer is notorious for metastases, hence it is important to be aware of the uncommon modes of spread, which will help obtain early diagnosis and optimise treatment.

  20. Medical treatment of breast cancer bone metastasis: from bisphosphonates to targeted drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Bulent; Cicin, Irfan

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer bone metastasis causing severe morbidity is commonly encountered in daily clinical practice. It causes pain, pathologic fractures, spinal cord and other nerve compression syndromes and life threatening hypercalcemia. Breast cancer metastasizes to bone through complicated steps in which numerous molecules play roles. Metastatic cells disrupt normal bone turnover and create a vicious cycle to which treatment efforts should be directed. Bisphosphonates have been used safely for more than two decades. As a group they delay time to first skeletal related event and reduce pain, but do not prevent development of bone metastasis in patients with no bone metastasis, and also do not prolong survival. The receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand inhibitor denosumab delays time to first skeletal related event and reduces the skeletal morbidity rate. Radionuclides are another treatment option for bone pain. New targeted therapies and radionuclides are still under investigation. In this review we will focus on mechanisms of bone metastasis and its medical treatment in breast cancer patients.

  1. Data Dissemination in Opportunistic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ciobanu, Radu

    2012-01-01

    Mobile devices integrating wireless short-range communication technologies make possible new applications for spontaneous communication, interaction and collaboration. An interesting approach is to use collaboration to facilitate communication when mobile devices are not able to establish direct communication paths. Opportunistic networks, formed when mobile devices communicate with each other while users are in close proximity, can help applications still exchange data in such cases. In opportunistic networks routes are built dynamically, as each mobile device acts according to the store-carry-and-forward paradigm. Thus, contacts between mobile devices are seen as opportunities to move data towards destination. In such networks data dissemination is done using forwarding and is usually based on a publish/subscribe model. Opportunistic data dissemination also raises questions concerning user privacy and incentives. Such problems are addressed di?erently by various opportunistic data dissemination techniques. ...

  2. Rrp1b, a new candidate susceptibility gene for breast cancer progression and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel P S Crawford

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel candidate metastasis modifier, ribosomal RNA processing 1 homolog B (Rrp1b, was identified through two independent approaches. First, yeast two-hybrid, immunoprecipitation, and functional assays demonstrated a physical and functional interaction between Rrp1b and the previous identified metastasis modifier Sipa1. In parallel, using mouse and human metastasis gene expression data it was observed that extracellular matrix (ECM genes are common components of metastasis predictive signatures, suggesting that ECM genes are either important markers or causal factors in metastasis. To investigate the relationship between ECM genes and poor prognosis in breast cancer, expression quantitative trait locus analysis of polyoma middle-T transgene-induced mammary tumor was performed. ECM gene expression was found to be consistently associated with Rrp1b expression. In vitro expression of Rrp1b significantly altered ECM gene expression, tumor growth, and dissemination in metastasis assays. Furthermore, a gene signature induced by ectopic expression of Rrp1b in tumor cells predicted survival in a human breast cancer gene expression dataset. Finally, constitutional polymorphism within RRP1B was found to be significantly associated with tumor progression in two independent breast cancer cohorts. These data suggest that RRP1B may be a novel susceptibility gene for breast cancer progression and metastasis.

  3. Rrp1b, a new candidate susceptibility gene for breast cancer progression and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel P S Crawford

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel candidate metastasis modifier, ribosomal RNA processing 1 homolog B (Rrp1b, was identified through two independent approaches. First, yeast two-hybrid, immunoprecipitation, and functional assays demonstrated a physical and functional interaction between Rrp1b and the previous identified metastasis modifier Sipa1. In parallel, using mouse and human metastasis gene expression data it was observed that extracellular matrix (ECM genes are common components of metastasis predictive signatures, suggesting that ECM genes are either important markers or causal factors in metastasis. To investigate the relationship between ECM genes and poor prognosis in breast cancer, expression quantitative trait locus analysis of polyoma middle-T transgene-induced mammary tumor was performed. ECM gene expression was found to be consistently associated with Rrp1b expression. In vitro expression of Rrp1b significantly altered ECM gene expression, tumor growth, and dissemination in metastasis assays. Furthermore, a gene signature induced by ectopic expression of Rrp1b in tumor cells predicted survival in a human breast cancer gene expression dataset. Finally, constitutional polymorphism within RRP1B was found to be significantly associated with tumor progression in two independent breast cancer cohorts. These data suggest that RRP1B may be a novel susceptibility gene for breast cancer progression and metastasis.

  4. PET/CT: First-Line Examination to Assess Disease Extent of Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerter, Jason; Sundell, John; Vroman, Penny

    2016-09-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is an infection caused by inhalation of the Coccidioides fungus. Most infections remain subclinical or are confined to the pulmonary system. Disseminated disease is rare. Traditionally, a combination of imaging modalities has been used to determine disease extent. We suggest (18)F-FDG PET/CT as a single first-line imaging examination to assess disease extent. We present a case of disseminated coccidioidomycosis to the lung, mediastinum, soft tissues, and skeletal system. To our knowledge, no prior case reports demonstrate such widespread disease using PET/CT. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  5. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JA. Skeletal dysplasias. In: Herring JA, ed. Tachdjian's Pediatric Orthopaedics . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 40. Moore KL, Persaud V, Torchia MG. Skeletal system. In: Moore KL, Persaud V, Torchia MG, eds. ... Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. ...

  6. Dural metastases from disseminated prostate cancer clinically mimicking a benign reactive condition of the dura: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, S; Ecke, T; Wohlfarth, B; Koch, S; Erbersdobler, A

    2011-01-01

    Dural spread from prostate cancer (PC) is exceedingly uncommon. We report on a 62-year-old man suffering from disseminated PC with osseous metastases who presented with a parietal skull metastasis along with a circumscribed nodular thickening of the adjacent dura. Magnetic resonance imaging findings suggested a benign reactive condition of the dura which, however, histologically turned out to be a dural metastasis. Therefore, the present case report stresses the notion that very rarely, disseminated PC might present with clinically unsuspected dural metastases radiologically mimicking a benign condition.

  7. Disseminating an Effective Educational Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Saul

    1992-01-01

    Reasons for the failure to adopt behavior-analytic teaching strategies include the perception that behavior analysis is coercive and controlling, difficulties in implementation, university factors, and marketing problems. The goal of dissemination of these strategies could be met through creating motivational conditions and devising marketing…

  8. Ampullary carcinoma with cutaneous metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ting Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater is a rare gastrointestinal tumor. Additionally, cutaneous metastasis from such an internal malignancy is also uncommon. We reported the case of a 55-year-old man afflicted with ampullary carcinoma with cutaneous metastasis. The patient did not undergo the standard Whipple procedure but received chemotherapy due to apparent left neck lymph node metastasis noted by initial PET/CT imaging. The skin metastasis presented as a left neck infiltrating purpuric lesion, which was confirmed by skin biopsy approximately one year after the patient's disease was first diagnosed. Thereafter, the patient received further chemotherapy pursuant to his course of medical management. Skin metastasis usually represents a poor patient prognosis. In these cases, treatment of cutaneous metastasis typically includes systemic chemotherapy and local management such as radiation therapy or tumor excision. And when choosing a chemotherapy regimen for the ampullary cancer, the histological subtypes (intestinal or pancreatobiliary should be comprehensively considered. In our review of the literature, the intestinal type seems to have less distant lymph node metastasis, advanced local invasion, as well as recurrence than pancreatobiliary type of ampullary cancer.

  9. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability...... of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence......, of altered protein expressions profiles and/or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics offer enormous promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and exercise-induced adaptation; however, skeletal muscle...

  10. Angiotensin II facilitates breast cancer cell migration and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Rodrigues-Ferreira

    Full Text Available Breast cancer metastasis is a leading cause of death by malignancy in women worldwide. Efforts are being made to further characterize the rate-limiting steps of cancer metastasis, i.e. extravasation of circulating tumor cells and colonization of secondary organs. In this study, we investigated whether angiotensin II, a major vasoactive peptide both produced locally and released in the bloodstream, may trigger activating signals that contribute to cancer cell extravasation and metastasis. We used an experimental in vivo model of cancer metastasis in which bioluminescent breast tumor cells (D3H2LN were injected intra-cardiacally into nude mice in order to recapitulate the late and essential steps of metastatic dissemination. Real-time intravital imaging studies revealed that angiotensin II accelerates the formation of metastatic foci at secondary sites. Pre-treatment of cancer cells with the peptide increases the number of mice with metastases, as well as the number and size of metastases per mouse. In vitro, angiotensin II contributes to each sequential step of cancer metastasis by promoting cancer cell adhesion to endothelial cells, trans-endothelial migration and tumor cell migration across extracellular matrix. At the molecular level, a total of 102 genes differentially expressed following angiotensin II pre-treatment were identified by comparative DNA microarray. Angiotensin II regulates two groups of connected genes related to its precursor angiotensinogen. Among those, up-regulated MMP2/MMP9 and ICAM1 stand at the crossroad of a network of genes involved in cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Our data suggest that targeting angiotensin II production or action may represent a valuable therapeutic option to prevent metastatic progression of invasive breast tumors.

  11. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with pericardial metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Wen Chen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is prevalent in Taiwan and is characterized by a high frequency of nodal metastasis. The most common organs with distal metastases are the bones, lungs, and liver, with extremely rare cases to the pericardium. Herein, we report a rare case with NPC who presented with dyspnea and orthopnea. Serial studies, including pericardial biopsy, revealed NPC with pericardial metastasis and pericardial effusion. The tumor cells of both the original and metastatic tumors were positive for Epstein–Barr virus by in situ hybridization. This is the first histologically confirmed case of NPC with pericardial metastasis.

  12. Expression of metastasis suppressor BRMS1 in breast cancer cells results in a marked delay in cellular adhesion to matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metastatic dissemination is a multi-step process that depends on cancer cells’ ability to respond to microenvironmental cues by adapting adhesion abilities and undergoing cytoskeletal rearrangement. Breast Cancer Metastasis Suppressor 1 (BRMS1) affects several steps of the metastatic cascade: it dec...

  13. Disseminated Mycobacterium celatum infection in a white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, M. F.; Grondahl, C.; Giese, Steen Bjørck

    2006-01-01

    An adult female white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis) was presented with abdominal enlargement and hard subcutaneous masses. Necropsy findings included bony masses extending from skeletal structures, disseminated pale foci in the liver, and a pale mass in the kidney. Histological examination...... revealed multifocal to coalescing granulomatous inflammation in the bone, liver, kidney, lung and spleen. Mycobacterium celatum was isolated from the liver and identified by DNA sequencing. This is the first report of M. celatum infection in an avian species....

  14. Cutaneous metastasis in anorectal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendra Varma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous metastasis in anorectal adenocarcinoma is a rare entity. Here, we report the case of a 40-year-old female who presented with yellowish-brown, irregular, solid, elevated rashes over the pubis with a recent history off palliative colostomy for anorectal adenocarcinoma. Clinically, we suspected metastasis that was proved on biopsy. We report this case due to the rare presenting site (i.e., perineum of a metastatic adenocarcinoma.

  15. [Ocular metastasis heralding gastric adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekrine, T; Tawfiq, N; Bouchbika, Z; Benchakroun, N; Jouhadi, H; Sahraoui, S; Benider, A

    2010-10-01

    Ocular metastasis is a rare presenting feature of gastric adenocarcinoma. We report a 48-year-old woman who presented with a decrease in visual acuity of the right eye leading to the discovery of an ocular metastasis. Diagnostic work-up identified a gastric adenocarcinoma with pulmonary metastases. She received four cycles of chemotherapy combining epirubicin, cisplatin and fluorouracil. The patient died 6 months after the diagnosis of respiratory failure.

  16. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability...... of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence...

  17. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for production of bone metastasis, but not visceral metastasis, by human small cell lung cancer SBC-5 cells in natural killer cell-depleted SCID mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Toyokazu; Yano, Seiji; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Kanematsu, Takanori; Muguruma, Hiroaki; Sone, Saburo

    2004-02-10

    We previously established an osteolytic bone metastasis model with multiorgan dissemination in natural killer (NK) cell-depleted severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice using human small cell lung cancer cells (SBC-5), which highly express the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). In our present study, we evaluated the role of PTHrP on bone metastasis by SBC-5 cells using anti-PTHrP neutralizing antibody (Ab). Anti-PTHrP Ab did not affect the proliferation or cytokine production of SBC-5 cells in vitro. Repeated intravenous injection with anti-PTHrP Ab inhibited the formation of bone metastasis in a dose-dependent manner, while the same treatment had no significant effect on the metastasis to visceral organs (lung, liver, kidney and lymph node). In addition, treatment with anti-PTHrP Ab improved the elevated serum calcium level, associated with inhibition of osteolytic bone metastasis, suggesting that anti-PTHrP Ab inhibited bone metastasis via suppression of bone resorption probably by neutralizing PTHrP. These findings suggest that PTHrP is essential for bone metastasis, but not visceral metastasis, by small cell lung cancer SBC-5 cells.

  18. Knowledge dissemination: a core mission

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    It’s been a year since the CERN Council approved our policy on intellectual property management, so I’d like to take a look at what we’ve achieved since then. In short, a great deal. We’ve moved away from a fairly unregulated approach towards a well balanced and clearly defined system built around sound intellectual property management designed to deliver maximum dissemination and benefit for society from CERN innovation. It’s a move that I celebrate and fully support.   In 2009, CERN signed two partnership agreements to develop CERN technologies, two commercial licenses and eleven R&D licenses. Last year, the figures were six partnership agreements, five commercial licenses and twenty R&D licenses, indicating a real increase in dissemination efforts. From 2009 to 2010, however, the number of new technologies that were identified and disclosed hardly changed: nine in 2009, ten in 2010. These numbers are good, but we must improve, particu...

  19. Acute disseminated histoplasmosis and endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCAPELLATO Pablo G.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated histoplasmosis is a frequent condition in HIV carriers. Thirty-five cases of endocarditis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum have been reported in international literature, and all these descriptions correspond to a context of subacute disseminated histoplasmosis. This paper presents the case of a HIV-positive patient with fever, dyspnea, weight loss, vomiting and polyadenopathies to whom histoplasmosis was diagnosed following blood-cultures and isolation of the agent responsible for cutaneous lesions, and in whom aortic-valve vegetations were found during an echocardiogram. The patient was treated with amphotericin B and had a good outcome; subsequent echocardiograms showed no vegetations. Literature on the subject is reviewed, with special emphasis on diagnosis and treatment of previously described cases.

  20. Myeloma multiplex with pulmonary dissemination

    OpenAIRE

    Terzić Brankica; Maksić Đoko; Škuletić Vesna; Pilčević Dejan; Mijušković Mirjana; Čukić Zoran; Obrenčević Katarina; Petrović Marijana; Tadić-Pilčević Jelena; Petrović Milica

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Multiple myeloma is a hemathological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone the marrow. Extramedullary dissemination of multiple myeloma is uncommon. In several cases only, the multiple myeloma malignant plasma cells had diseminated to the lung parenchyma. Case report. We presented a case of multiple myeloma with lung plasmacytoma, in a 79-year-old patient, hospitalized for febrility and infiltrative m...

  1. Perforating Disseminated Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Lozanova; Lyubomir Dourmishev; Snejina Vassileva; Ljubka Miteva; Maria Balabanova

    2013-01-01

    Perforating necrobiosis lipoidica is a very rare clinical variant which consists of degeneration and transepidermal elimination of the collagen with few cases reported in the literature. In two-thirds of the patients it associates with diabetes, with no relation with the glucose control. We present a 42-year-old female patient with a 7-year history of diabetes on insulin therapy, referred to our clinic with a 3-year history of multiple asymptomatic firm plaques disseminated on the upper and l...

  2. MRI in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldemeyer, K.S. (Div. of Neuroradiology, Dept. of Radiology, Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)); Smith, R.R. (Div. of Neuroradiology, Dept. of Radiology, Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)); Harris, T.M. (Div. of Neuroradiology, Dept. of Radiology, Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)); Edwards, M.K. (Div. of Neuroradiology, Dept. of Radiology, Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States))

    1994-04-01

    A retrospective analysis of CT and MRI studies in 12 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was performed. MRI was the definitive modality for the assessment of the lesions of ADEM: all patients had abnormalities consistent with the clinical diagnosis. Ten had abnormalities in the brain, three spinal cord lesions, and three showed evidence of optic neuritis. CT was normal in 6 of the 7 patients in which it was performed. (orig.)

  3. Disseminated sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Kareem; Turker, Tolga; Zangeneh, Tirdad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sporothrix schenckii, the causative agent of sporotrichosis, is a relatively rare infection. Local infection usually occurs through direct inoculation of the organism through the skin; disseminated disease is rarely seen. This article describes a case of disseminated sporotrichosis in a middle-aged man without the commonly seen risk factors for dissemination. PMID:27583270

  4. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bach, A. D; Beier, J. P; Stern‐Staeter, J; Horch, R. E

    2004-01-01

    The reconstruction of skeletal muscle tissue either lost by traumatic injury or tumor ablation or functional damage due to myopathies is hampered by the lack of availability of functional substitution...

  5. Tumor cell migration screen identifies SRPK1 as breast cancer metastasis determinant

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roosmalen, Wies; Le Dévédec, Sylvia E.; Golani, Ofra; Smid, Marcel; Pulyakhina, Irina; Timmermans, Annemieke M.; Look, Maxime P.; Zi, Di; Pont, Chantal; de Graauw, Marjo; Naffar-Abu-Amara, Suha; Kirsanova, Catherine; Rustici, Gabriella; Hoen, Peter A.C. ‘t; Martens, John W.M.; Foekens, John A.; Geiger, Benjamin; van de Water, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cell migration is a key process for cancer cell dissemination and metastasis that is controlled by signal-mediated cytoskeletal and cell matrix adhesion remodeling. Using a phagokinetic track assay with migratory H1299 cells, we performed an siRNA screen of almost 1,500 genes encoding kinases/phosphatases and adhesome- and migration-related proteins to identify genes that affect tumor cell migration speed and persistence. Thirty candidate genes that altered cell migration were validated in live tumor cell migration assays. Eight were associated with metastasis-free survival in breast cancer patients, with integrin β3–binding protein (ITGB3BP), MAP3K8, NIMA-related kinase (NEK2), and SHC-transforming protein 1 (SHC1) being the most predictive. Examination of genes that modulate migration indicated that SRPK1, encoding the splicing factor kinase SRSF protein kinase 1, is relevant to breast cancer outcomes, as it was highly expressed in basal breast cancer. Furthermore, high SRPK1 expression correlated with poor breast cancer disease outcome and preferential metastasis to the lungs and brain. In 2 independent murine models of breast tumor metastasis, stable shRNA-based SRPK1 knockdown suppressed metastasis to distant organs, including lung, liver, and spleen, and inhibited focal adhesion reorganization. Our study provides comprehensive information on the molecular determinants of tumor cell migration and suggests that SRPK1 has potential as a drug target for limiting breast cancer metastasis. PMID:25774502

  6. Blocking the adhesion cascade at the premetastatic niche for prevention of breast cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shin-Ae; Hasan, Nafis; Mann, Aman P; Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Lichao; Morris, Lynsie; Zhu, Weizhu; Zhao, Yan D; Suh, K Stephen; Dooley, William C; Volk, David; Gorenstein, David G; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Rui, Hallgeir; Tanaka, Takemi

    2015-06-01

    Shear-resistant adhesion and extravasation of disseminated cancer cells at the target organ is a crucial step in hematogenous metastasis. We found that the vascular adhesion molecule E-selectin preferentially promoted the shear-resistant adhesion and transendothelial migration of the estrogen receptor (ER)(-)/CD44(+) hormone-independent breast cancer cells, but not of the ER(+)/CD44(-/low) hormone-dependent breast cancer cells. Coincidentally, CD44(+) breast cancer cells were abundant in metastatic lung and brain lesions in ER(-) breast cancer, suggesting that E-selectin supports hematogenous metastasis of ER(-)/CD44(+) breast cancer. In an attempt to prevent hematogenous metastasis through the inhibition of a shear-resistant adhesion of CD44(+) cancer cells to E-selectin-expressing blood vessels on the premetastatic niche, an E-selectin targeted aptamer (ESTA) was developed. We demonstrated that a single intravenous injection of ESTA reduced metastases to a baseline level in both syngeneic and xenogeneic forced breast cancer metastasis models without relocating the site of metastasis. The effect of ESTA was absent in E-selectin knockout mice, suggesting that E-selectin is a molecular target of ESTA. Our data highlight the potential application of an E-selectin antagonist for the prevention of hematogenous metastasis of ER(-)/CD44(+) breast cancer.

  7. Natural history of malignant bone disease in hepatocellular carcinoma: final results of a multicenter bone metastasis survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Santini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bone is an uncommon site of metastasis in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Therefore, there are few studies concerning the natural history of bone metastasis in patients with HCC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data on clinicopathology, survival, skeletal-related events (SREs, and bone-directed therapies for 211 deceased HCC patients with evidence of bone metastasis were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The median age was 70 years; 172 patients were male (81.5%. The median overall survival was 19 months. The median time to the onset of bone metastasis was 13 months (22.2% at HCC diagnosis; 64.9% patients had multiple bone metastases. Spine was the most common site of bone metastasis (59.7%. Most of these lesions were osteolytic (82.4%; 88.5% of them were treated with zoledronic acid. At multivariate analysis, only the Child Score was significantly correlated with a shorter time to diagnosis of bone metastases (p = 0.001, HR = 1.819. The median survival from bone metastasis was 7 months. At multivariate analysis, HCC etiology (p = 0.005, ECOG performance status (p = 0.002 and treatment with bisphosphonate (p = 0.024 were associated with shorter survival after bone disease occurrence. The site of bone metastasis but not the number of bone lesions was associated with the survival from first skeletal related event (SRE (p = 0.021 and OS (p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a significant improvement in the understanding the natural history of skeletal disease in HCC patients. An early and appropriate management of these patients is dramatically needed in order to avoid subsequent worsening of their quality of life.

  8. Natural History of Malignant Bone Disease in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Final Results of a Multicenter Bone Metastasis Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Daniele; Pantano, Francesco; Riccardi, Ferdinando; Di Costanzo, Giovan Giuseppe; Addeo, Raffaele; Guida, Francesco Maria; Ceruso, Mariella Spalato; Barni, Sandro; Bertocchi, Paola; Marinelli, Sara; Marchetti, Paolo; Russo, Antonio; Scartozzi, Mario; Faloppi, Luca; Santoni, Matteo; Cascinu, Stefano; Maiello, Evaristo; Silvestris, Franco; Tucci, Marco; Ibrahim, Toni; Masi, Gianluca; Gnoni, Antonio; Comandone, Alessandro; Fazio, Nicola; Conti, Alessandro; Imarisio, Ilaria; Pisconti, Salvatore; Giommoni, Elisa; Cinieri, Saverio; Catalano, Vincenzo; Palmieri, Vincenzo Ostilio; Infante, Giovanni; Aieta, Michele; Trogu, Antonio; Gadaleta, Cosmo Damiano; Brunetti, Anna Elisabetta; Lorusso, Vito; Silvestris, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Background Bone is an uncommon site of metastasis in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, there are few studies concerning the natural history of bone metastasis in patients with HCC. Patients and Methods Data on clinicopathology, survival, skeletal-related events (SREs), and bone-directed therapies for 211 deceased HCC patients with evidence of bone metastasis were statistically analyzed. Results The median age was 70 years; 172 patients were male (81.5%). The median overall survival was 19 months. The median time to the onset of bone metastasis was 13 months (22.2% at HCC diagnosis); 64.9% patients had multiple bone metastases. Spine was the most common site of bone metastasis (59.7%). Most of these lesions were osteolytic (82.4%); 88.5% of them were treated with zoledronic acid. At multivariate analysis, only the Child Score was significantly correlated with a shorter time to diagnosis of bone metastases (p = 0.001, HR = 1.819). The median survival from bone metastasis was 7 months. At multivariate analysis, HCC etiology (p = 0.005), ECOG performance status (p = 0.002) and treatment with bisphosphonate (p = 0.024) were associated with shorter survival after bone disease occurrence. The site of bone metastasis but not the number of bone lesions was associated with the survival from first skeletal related event (SRE) (p = 0.021) and OS (p = 0.001). Conclusions This study provides a significant improvement in the understanding the natural history of skeletal disease in HCC patients. An early and appropriate management of these patients is dramatically needed in order to avoid subsequent worsening of their quality of life. PMID:25170882

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma of supraglottic larynx with metastasis to all five distal phalanges of left hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous metastasis from carcinoma larynx is a rare presentation and to the phalynx is the rarest. We herein describe a case report of carcinoma supraglottic larynx, which is involving all five distal phalanges of left hand with simultaneous metastases to lung and liver. Acrometastasis is an unusual presentation, which might mimic an infectious or inflammatory pathology. The brief report highlights the importance of clinical awareness of metastatic dissemination to unusual sites in the face of increasing cancer survivorship.

  10. Relation between primary tumor FDG avidity and site of first distant metastasis in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae Hong; Moon, Seung Hwan; Cho, Young Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2016-08-01

    Identification of tumor imaging features associated with metastatic pattern may allow better understanding of cancer dissemination. Here, we investigated how primary tumor F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity influences the first site of breast cancer metastasis.Subjects were 264 patients with advanced breast cancer who underwent positron emission tomography/computed tomography at diagnosis and had metastasis at presentation (n = 193) or metastatic relapse after surgery (n = 71). Primary tumor FDG avidity (maximum SUV [SUVmax] ≥10.1) was compared with histology and first metastatic sites.The most common site of first metastasis was the bone, occurring in 62.7% of patients with metastasis at presentation and 38.0% of those with metastatic relapse. First metastasis to lung occurred in 30.1% and 35.2%, and to liver in 25.4% and 15.2% of respective groups. In patients with metastasis at presentation, primary tumors were FDG avid in 98/193 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (37.8% vs 22.1%; P = 0.018). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors were FDG avid in 31/71 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (48.4% vs 25.0%; P = 0.041) and liver (29.0% vs 5.0%; P = 0.008). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors that were FDG avid but hormone receptor negative had more first metastasis to lung (57.9% vs 26.9%; P = 0.016).FDG-avid primary breast tumors have favored first spread to the lung and liver, which suggests that tumor cells with heightened glycolytic activity better colonize these organs.

  11. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma with skeletal involvement

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    Takechi,Hideo

    1978-10-01

    Full Text Available Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of soft part is rather common but malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the bone is rarely encountered clinically. Authors present five cases of malignant fibrous histiocytoma with skeletal involvement and discuss their clinical course, x-ray findings and histological features. This tumor has marked tendency for local recurrence and metastasis. Other bone tumors such as giant cell tumor, aneurysmal bone cyst, non ossifying fibroma, osteosarcoma, fibrosarcoma of bone and metastatic cancer can be excluded by several characteristic findings observed in x-rays as well as histopathological features. All information on the patient should be carefully analysed, because it is difficult to decide whether bone involvement is primary or secondary. Four out of five cases definitely originated within the bone.

  12. Comparative analysis of metastasis variants derived from human prostate carcinoma cells: roles in intravasation of VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and uPA-mediated invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conn, Erin M; Bøtkjær, Kenneth Alrø; Kupriyanova, Tatyana A;

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the process of tumor cell intravasation, we used the human tumor-chick embryo spontaneous metastasis model to select in vivo high (PC-hi/diss) and low (PC-lo/diss) disseminating variants from the human PC-3 prostate carcinoma cell line. These variants dramatically differed in their int......To analyze the process of tumor cell intravasation, we used the human tumor-chick embryo spontaneous metastasis model to select in vivo high (PC-hi/diss) and low (PC-lo/diss) disseminating variants from the human PC-3 prostate carcinoma cell line. These variants dramatically differed...

  13. Cyr61 silencing reduces vascularization and dissemination of osteosarcoma tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, N; Vilalta, M; Bawa, O; Opolon, P; Blanco, J; Fromigué, O

    2015-06-11

    Osteosarcoma is the most prevalent primary pediatric cancer-related bone disease. These tumors frequently develop resistance to chemotherapy and are highly metastatic, leading to poor outcome. Thus, there is a need for new therapeutic strategies that can prevent cell dissemination. We previously showed that CYR61/CCN1 expression in osteosarcoma cells is correlated to aggressiveness both in vitro and in vivo in mouse models, as well as in patients. In this study, we found that CYR61 is a critical contributor to the vascularization of primary tumor. We demonstrate that silencing CYR61, using lentiviral transduction, leads to a significant reduction in expression level of pro-angiogenic markers such as VEGF, FGF2, PECAM and angiopoietins concomitantly to an increased expression of major anti-angiogenic markers such as thrombospondin-1 and SPARC. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 family member expression, a key pathway in osteosarcoma metastatic capacity was also downregulated when CYR61 was downregulated in osteosarcoma cells. Using a metastatic murine model, we show that CYR61 silencing in osteosarcoma cells results in reduced tumor vasculature and slows tumor growth compared with control. We also find that microvessel density correlates with lung metastasis occurrence and that CYR61 silencing in osteosarcoma cells limits the number of metastases. Taken together, our data indicate that CYR61 silencing can blunt the malignant behavior of osteosarcoma tumor cells by limiting primary tumor growth and dissemination process.

  14. Disseminated pleomorphic myofibrosarcoma in a grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mete, A; Woods, L; Famini, D; Anderson, M

    2012-01-01

    The pathological and diagnostic features of a widely disseminated pleomorphic high-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma are described in a 23-year-old male brown bear (Ursus arctos horribilis). Firm, solid, white to tan neoplastic nodules, often with cavitated or soft grey-red necrotic centres, were observed throughout most internal organs, subcutaneous tissues and skeletal muscles on gross examination. Microscopically, the tumour consisted of pleomorphic spindle cells forming interlacing fascicles with a focal storiform pattern with large numbers of bizarre polygonal multinucleate cells, frequently within a collagenous stroma. Immunohistochemistry, Masson's trichrome stain and transmission electron microscopy designated the myofibroblast as the cell of origin. This is the first case of a high-grade myofibrosarcoma in a grizzly bear.

  15. The roles of microRNAs and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping An; Wei Chen; Yu Zhao; Zhongyin Zhou; Hesheng Luo; Ximing Xu

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Distant metastasis is the major cause of death in patients with CRC. During progression to metastasis in which malignant cel s disseminate from the primary tumor to seeding other organs, a multistep process is involved. Cancer cel s proliferate, invade microenvironment, en-ter into the blood circulation, then survive and colonize into distant organs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are key regulators and mechanism in tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis. We review the roles of EMT and microRNAs, especial y EMT related microRNAs in the metastatic pathway of CRC. MicroRNAs provide us a set of potential therapeutic applications and molecular target for CRC.

  16. A Systems Biology Approach Identifies FUT8 as a Driver of Melanoma Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praveen; Fontanals-Cirera, Barbara; Sokolova, Elena; Jacob, Samson; Vaiana, Christopher A; Argibay, Diana; Davalos, Veronica; McDermott, Meagan; Nayak, Shruti; Darvishian, Farbod; Castillo, Mireia; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Osman, Iman; Fenyö, David; Mahal, Lara K; Hernando, Eva

    2017-06-12

    Association of aberrant glycosylation with melanoma progression is based mainly on analyses of cell lines. Here we present a systems-based study of glycomic changes and corresponding enzymes associated with melanoma metastasis in patient samples. Upregulation of core fucosylation (FUT8) and downregulation of α-1,2 fucosylation (FUT1, FUT2) were identified as features of metastatic melanoma. Using both in vitro and in vivo studies, we demonstrate FUT8 is a driver of melanoma metastasis which, when silenced, suppresses invasion and tumor dissemination. Glycoprotein targets of FUT8 were enriched in cell migration proteins including the adhesion molecule L1CAM. Core fucosylation impacted L1CAM cleavage and the ability of L1CAM to support melanoma invasion. FUT8 and its targets represent therapeutic targets in melanoma metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Microenvironment Determinants of Brain Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chenyu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metastasis accounts for 90% of cancer-related mortality. Brain metastases generally present during the late stages in the natural history of cancer progression. Recent advances in cancer treatment and management have resulted in better control of systemic disease metastatic to organs other than the brain and improved patient survival. However, patients who experience recurrent disease manifest an increasing number of brain metastases, which are usually refractory to therapies. To meet the new challenges of controlling brain metastasis, the research community has been tackling the problem with novel experimental models and research tools, which have led to an improved understanding of brain metastasis. The time-tested "seed-and-soil" hypothesis of metastasis indicates that successful outgrowth of deadly metastatic tumors depends on permissible interactions between the metastatic cancer cells and the site-specific microenvironment in the host organs. Consistently, recent studies indicate that the brain, the major component of the central nervous system, has unique physiological features that can determine the outcome of metastatic tumor growth. The current review summarizes recent discoveries on these tumor-brain interactions, and the potential clinical implications these novel findings could have for the better treatment of patients with brain metastasis.

  18. Perforating Disseminated Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum

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    Paula Lozanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perforating necrobiosis lipoidica is a very rare clinical variant which consists of degeneration and transepidermal elimination of the collagen with few cases reported in the literature. In two-thirds of the patients it associates with diabetes, with no relation with the glucose control. We present a 42-year-old female patient with a 7-year history of diabetes on insulin therapy, referred to our clinic with a 3-year history of multiple asymptomatic firm plaques disseminated on the upper and lower extremities. The clinical and histological findings proved the diagnosis of perforating necrobiosis lipoidica.

  19. Disseminated Tuberculosis Mimicking Ankylosing Spondylitis

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    Valérie Huyge

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting mainly the axial skeleton. Here we report a case of a man with a clinical suspicion of ankylosing spondylitis but with a persistence of increased inflammatory markers. In this case, 18F-FDG-PET/CT revealed multiple hypermetabolic lesions in axial skeleton, lymph nodes, and the lung, suggestive of either disseminated tuberculosis or lymphoma. Histological analysis of the pulmonary lesion revealed mycobacterium tuberculosis. This case highlights, firstly, the importance of excluding other diagnoses in the presence of clinical picture of ankylosing spondylitis and high inflammatory markers and, secondly, the determining role of PET/CT.

  20. [Orbital metastasis in malignant melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroli, G L; Hamedani, M; Barraco, P; Oubaaz, A; Morax, S

    2001-03-01

    We report the case of a 60-year-old man presenting bilateral progressive proptosis with diplopia, weight loss, tachycardia, nervosity, and stomach pain. These signs seemed at first to favor a diagnosis of Graves'ophthalmopathy. Thyroid tests were negative and the initial orbital CT scan was considered normal. A new radiological investigation 4 months later in our hospital revealed typical hypertrophy of the extraocular muscles compatible with orbital metastasis. The systemic investigations demonstrated a pulmonary tumor, multiple hepatic lesions, and several pigmented nodules of gastric mucosa. The pathology of pulmonary and gastric specimens confirmed the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. The primary lesion remains unknown. The authors discuss the differential diagnoses of orbital metastasis and the radiological characteristics of orbital metastasis in malignant melanoma.

  1. Myeloma multiplex with pulmonary dissemination

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    Terzić Brankica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Multiple myeloma is a hemathological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone the marrow. Extramedullary dissemination of multiple myeloma is uncommon. In several cases only, the multiple myeloma malignant plasma cells had diseminated to the lung parenchyma. Case report. We presented a case of multiple myeloma with lung plasmacytoma, in a 79-year-old patient, hospitalized for febrility and infiltrative mass in the right lung. Two months before the patient was admitted, because of developing terminal renal failure, hemodialysis treatment had started three times a week. Since then, the patient was oliguric, but because of febrility and hemoptysis that appeared, at first he was treated with dual antibiotic therapy which resulted in temporary improvement of his general condition, but pleural effusion remained. After thoracocentesis, followed by myelogram, the multiple myeloma diagnosis was established. Conclusion. In patients of middle and older age, with general weakness, exhaustion, loss of weight, renal failure which progresses to the end stage rapidly, if symptoms of respiratory tract occur, consider this uncommon disease - extramedullary dissemination of multiple myeloma.

  2. Small Bowel Dissemination of Coccidioidomycosis

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    Shengmei Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal coccidioidomycosis is extremely rare, with less than 10 cases reported in the literature. We report a case of small bowel dissemination of coccidioidomycosis in a 21-year-old African American male with a history of living in San Joaquin Valley. The patient presented with one week of abdominal pain, nausea, shortness of breath, intermittent fever, and sweat, and one month of abdominal distention. A chest radiograph revealed complete effusion of left lung. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed diffuse small bowel thickening and enhancement, as well as omental and peritoneal nodules, and ascites. The coccidioidal complement fixation titer was 1 : 256. The duodenal biopsy revealed many spherules filled with round fungal endospores. Later, blood fungal culture showed positivity for Coccidioides immitis. The final diagnosis is disseminated coccidioidomycosis involving lungs, blood, and duodenum. Despite aggressive antifungal therapy, the patient’s clinical situation deteriorated and he succumbed to multisystem organ failure one and half months later. A high index of suspicion for gastrointestinal coccidioidomycosis should be maintained in patients from an endemic area presenting as abdominal distention and pain.

  3. Metastasis to a spinal meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansil, Rohit; Walia, Bipin S; Khan, Zahid; Abrari, Andleeb

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis of one cancer to another is rare. Here, we report a spinal meningioma that was infiltrated by metastatic deposits from another cancer. A 62-year-old male presented with a progressive spastic paraparesis. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the spine suggested a well-defined intradural extramedullary (IDEM) T8 mass in the dorsal spinal canal. When excised, it proved histologically to be a meningothelial meningioma infiltrated by metastatic deposits from an adenocarcinoma. Tumor to tumor metastasis rarely occurs, and meningioma, owing to its biological character and increased vascularity, is one of the most common recipients of a metastases from other lesions.

  4. The challenge of targeting metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Isaiah J; Kripke, Margaret L

    2015-12-01

    Metastases that are resistant to conventional therapy are the major cause of death from cancer. In most patients, metastasis has already occurred by the time of diagnosis. Thus, the prevention of metastasis is unlikely to be of therapeutic benefit. The biological heterogeneity of metastases presents a major obstacle to treatment. However, the growth and survival of metastases depend on interactions between tumor cells and host homeostatic mechanisms. Targeting these interactions, in addition to the tumor cells, can produce synergistic therapeutic effects against existing metastases.

  5. Carcinoma of uterine cervix with isolated metastasis to fibula and its unusual behavior: Report of a case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha Rajesh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone metastasis from carcinoma cervix is uncommon, especially in the distal appendicular skeleton. A 36 year old lady presented with carcinoma of uterine cervix, FIGO, stage IIb. She was treated with radical radiotherapy. Nine months later, she developed an isolated lytic lesion in right fibula, which turned out to be a metastatic lesion. The patient is doing well, 3 years after the surgical excision of metastasis. This is one of the few documented cases of metastasis to fibula, arising from carcinoma of uterine cervix and probably the first with isolated metastasis of this site. Unlike the dismal outcome commonly seen in patients with bone secondaries, she continues to be disease free and alive at 39 months of follow up, after the development of skeletal metastasis.

  6. Lipolysis in Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Annette Karen Lundbeck

    and especially the energy sensor 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is activated during exercise, has received increased attention. However, whether AMPK is an activator or inhibitor of lipolysis in skeletal muscle is not clear. Therefore, we in study I aimed to identify the role...... contraction. Accordingly, AMPK is suggested to be an important regulator of basal IMTG and lipid handling in skeletal muscle as well as an important activator of lipolysis by phosphorylation of ATGL and HSL during muscle contractions. Oversupply of energy and dietary fat leads to obesity and accumulation...... chemical structure of DAG. We took advantage of the fact that insulin sensitivity is increased after exercise, and that mice knocked out (KO) of HSL accumulate DAG after exercise, and measured insulin stimulated glucose uptake after treadmill running in skeletal muscle from HSL KO mice and wildtype control...

  7. Natural History of Malignant Bone Disease in Renal Cancer: Final Results of an Italian Bone Metastasis Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Daniele; Procopio, Giuseppe; Porta, Camillo; Ibrahim, Toni; Barni, Sandro; Mazzara, Calogero; Fontana, Andrea; Berruti, Alfredo; Berardi, Rossana; Vincenzi, Bruno; Ortega, Cinzia; Ottaviani, Davide; Carteni, Giacomo; Lanzetta, Gaetano; Virzì, Vladimir; Santoni, Matteo; Silvestris, Nicola; Satolli, Maria Antonietta; Collovà, Elena; Russo, Antonio; Badalamenti, Giuseppe; Fedeli, Stefano Luzi; Tanca, Francesca Maria; Adamo, Vincenzo; Maiello, Evaristo; Sabbatini, Roberto; Felici, Alessandra; Cinieri, Saverio; Tonini, Giuseppe; Bracarda, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone metastasis represents an increasing clinical problem in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) as disease-related survival improves. There are few data on the natural history of bone disease in RCC. Patients and methods Data on clinicopathology, survival, skeletal-related events (SREs), and bone-directed therapies for 398 deceased RCC patients (286 male, 112 female) with evidence of bone metastasis were statistically analyzed. Results Median time to bone metastasis was 25 months for patients without bone metastasis at diagnosis. Median time to diagnosis of bone metastasis by MSKCC risk was 24 months for good, 5 months for intermediate, and 0 months for poor risk. Median number of SREs/patient was one, and 71% of patients experienced at least one SRE. Median times to first, second, and third SRE were 2, 5, and 12 months, respectively. Median survival was 12 months after bone metastasis diagnosis and 10 months after first SRE. Among 181 patients who received zoledronic acid (ZOL), median time to first SRE was significantly prolonged versus control (n = 186) (3 months vs 1 month for control; P<0.05). Conclusions RCC patients with bone metastasis are at continuous risk of SREs, and in this survey ZOL effectively reduced this risk. PMID:24386138

  8. Natural history of malignant bone disease in renal cancer: final results of an Italian bone metastasis survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Santini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bone metastasis represents an increasing clinical problem in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC as disease-related survival improves. There are few data on the natural history of bone disease in RCC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data on clinicopathology, survival, skeletal-related events (SREs, and bone-directed therapies for 398 deceased RCC patients (286 male, 112 female with evidence of bone metastasis were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: Median time to bone metastasis was 25 months for patients without bone metastasis at diagnosis. Median time to diagnosis of bone metastasis by MSKCC risk was 24 months for good, 5 months for intermediate, and 0 months for poor risk. Median number of SREs/patient was one, and 71% of patients experienced at least one SRE. Median times to first, second, and third SRE were 2, 5, and 12 months, respectively. Median survival was 12 months after bone metastasis diagnosis and 10 months after first SRE. Among 181 patients who received zoledronic acid (ZOL, median time to first SRE was significantly prolonged versus control (n = 186 (3 months vs 1 month for control; P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: RCC patients with bone metastasis are at continuous risk of SREs, and in this survey ZOL effectively reduced this risk.

  9. Metastasis genetics, epigenetics, and the tumor microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    KISS1 is a member of a family of genes known as metastasis suppressors, defined by their ability to block metastasis without blocking primary tumor development and growth. KISS1 re-expression in multiple metastatic cell lines of diverse cellular origin suppresses metastasis; yet, still allows comple...

  10. Right ventricular metastasis of leiomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stagmo Martin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metastatic presentation of leiomyosarcoma in the heart is very rare. We present transthoracic echocardiography and combined PET/CT images of a case with a large right ventricular metastasis of leiomyosarcoma. The patient was placed on cytostatic drugs for palliative purposes, but passed away one month later because of an untreatable ventricular tackycardia.

  11. Obstetrical disseminated intravascular coagulation score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takao

    2014-06-01

    Obstetrical disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is usually a very acute, serious complication of pregnancy. The obstetrical DIC score helps with making a prompt diagnosis and starting treatment early. This DIC score, in which higher scores are given for clinical parameters rather than for laboratory parameters, has three components: (i) the underlying diseases; (ii) the clinical symptoms; and (iii) the laboratory findings (coagulation tests). It is justifiably appropriate to initiate therapy for DIC when the obstetrical DIC score reaches 8 points or more before obtaining the results of coagulation tests. Improvement of blood coagulation tests and clinical symptoms are essential to the efficacy evaluation for treatment after a diagnosis of obstetrical DIC. Therefore, the efficacy evaluation criteria for obstetrical DIC are also defined to enable follow-up of the clinical efficacy of DIC therapy.

  12. Treatment of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makruasi, Nisa

    2015-11-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by systemic activation of blood coagulation, generation of thrombin, and leading to disturbance of the microvasculature. In this article, definition and diagnostic criteria of DIC depend on the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH). There is no gold standard for diagnosis of DIC, only low quality evidence is used in general practice. Many diagnostic tests and repeated measurement are required. For the treatment of DIC, there is no good quality evidence. The most important treatment for DIC is the specific treatment of the conditions associated DIC. Platelets and/or plasma transfusion may be also necessary if indicated. Nevertheless, there is no gold standard for diagnosis and treatment of DIC, we use only low quality evidence in general practice.

  13. Crosstalk between tumor cells and microenvironment via Wnt pathway in colorectal cancer dissemination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Huang; Xiang Du

    2008-01-01

    Invasion and metastasis are the deadly face of malignant tumors. Considering the high rate of incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer, it is critical to determine the mechanisms of its dissemination. In the parallel investigation of the invasive front and tumor center area of colorectal cancer (CRC), observation of heterogeneous p-catenin distribution and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) at the invasive front suggested that there might be a crosstalk between tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment. Wnt signaling pathway is also involved in the cancer progression due to its key role in CRC tumorigenesis. Moreover, in recent years, there is increasing evidence that the regulators of microenvironment, including extracellular matrix, growth factors and inflammatory factors, are associated with the activation of Wnt pathway and the mobility of tumor cells. In this review, we will try to explain how these molecules trigger metastasis via the Wnt pathway.

  14. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer metastasis: A system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Xu, Enping; Liu, Hong; Wan, Ledong; Lai, Maode

    2015-08-01

    Tumor metastasis is a multi-step process by which tumor cells disseminate from their primary site and form secondary tumors at a distant site. And metastasis is the major cause of death in the vast majority of cancer patients. However, the mechanisms underlying each step remain obscure. In the past decade, a developmental program epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been increasingly recognized to play pivotal and intricate roles in promoting carcinoma invasion and metastasis. The EMT process is very complex and controlled by various families of transcriptional regulators through different signaling pathways. In this system review, we focus on the molecular network of the EMT program and its malignant phenotypes associated with metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC), including cancer stem cells, tumor budding, circulating tumor cells and drug resistance. A better understanding of the molecular regulation of the dynamic EMT program during tumor metastasis will help to provide much-needed therapeutic interventions to target this program when treating metastatic CRC.

  15. Lung cancer-associated brain metastasis: Molecular mechanisms and therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Meysam; Bahrami, Tayyeb; Salmaninejad, Arash; Nosrati, Rahim; Ghaffari, Parisa; Ghaffari, Seyed H

    2017-09-18

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related mortality in humans. There are several reasons for this high rate of mortality, including metastasis to several organs, especially the brain. In fact, lung cancer is responsible for approximately 50% of all brain metastases, which are very difficult to manage. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying lung cancer-associated brain metastasis brings up novel therapeutic promises with the hope to ameliorate the severity of the disease. Here, we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of lung cancer dissemination and metastasis to the brain, as well as promising horizons for impeding lung cancer brain metastasis, including the role of cancer stem cells, the blood-brain barrier, interactions of lung cancer cells with the brain microenvironment and lung cancer-driven systemic processes, as well as the role of growth factor/receptor tyrosine kinases, cell adhesion molecules and non-coding RNAs. In addition, we provide an overview of current and novel therapeutic approaches, including radiotherapy, surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery, chemotherapy, as also targeted cancer stem cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-based therapies, micro-RNA-based therapies and other small molecule or antibody-based therapies. We will also discuss the daunting potential of some combined therapies. The identification of molecular mechanisms underlying lung cancer metastasis has opened up new avenues towards their eradication and provides interesting opportunities for future research aimed at the development of novel targeted therapies.

  16. HEMATOGENOUS SPREADING OF HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA CELLS: POSSIBLE PREDICTOR OF RECURRENCE OR METASTASIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yangfu; HU Jingqun; YANG Xiaojie; LI Shende; YANG Zhihua

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the status of hematogenous spreading of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) before or after surgical treatment or transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and to elucidate the significance of peripheral blood Alphafetoprotein (AFP) mRNA expression in predicting recurrence or metastasis of HCC. Methods: Peripheral venous bloods were collected from 60 patients with HCC,20 of whom had received TACE before blood samples were collected, and from 30 subjects as control (10 cases with benign liver disorders, 20 healthy donors). AFP cDNA was amplified from 5 ml whole blood by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR). Results: Of the 60 patients with HCC, 32 cases (53.3%) had positive AFP mRNA in their peripheral blood. In 33 patients with intra-and/or extrahepatic metastasis, 27 (81.1%) were positive for AFP mRNA. In patients who didn't yet have metastasis when samples were collected, 11 (29.7%) gave positive AFP mRNA, 6of whom developed tumor recurrence or metastasis after the samples were collected. The presence of AFP mRNA correlated with the stage of HCC and the presence of intrahepatic and/or extrahepatic metastasis, but did not correlate with tumor size and serum AFP level. There was no significant difference in AFP mRNA expression before and after surgical treatment or TACE.Conclusion: Detection of AFP mRNA by PCR provides a sensitive and specific assay of hematogenous dissemination of HCC. TACE can not prevent metastasis of HCC. Systemic chemotherapy or immunotherapy is needed to prevent occult or overt metastasis.

  17. Immunohistochemical markers of distant metastasis in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Juan P; Martínez, Patricia; Allonca, Eva; Alonso-Durán, Laura; Suárez, Carlos; Astudillo, Aurora; García-Pedrero, Juana María

    2014-03-01

    Metastasis remains a major cause of mortality in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Current clinicopathological features have shown limited predictability for the risk of distant metastasis in individual patients, and therefore more accurate and reliable markers are needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of various molecular markers present in primary tumors to predict the risk of developing distant metastasis. Restrictive clinical criteria were applied for patient selection in order to carry out a case-control study with comparable clinical features on a group-wide basis and a similar risk of metastasis. All patients were surgically treated (with postoperative radiotherapy when appropriate) and classified as stage IV disease. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for a panel of proteins known to participate in cellular processes relevant to metastatic dissemination (E-cadherin, annexin A2, cortactin, FAK, EGFR, p53, and p-AKT). Results showed that the loss of E-cadherin expression was significantly correlated with the risk of distant metastasis (P = 0.002; log-rank test), while the loss of annexin A2 expression was nearly statistically significant (P = 0.06). None of the other protein markers assessed were associated with the development of distant metastasis. Therefore, according to our data the loss of epithelial adhesion seems to play a central role in the development of metastasis in HNSCC, and more importantly, immunohistochemical assessment of key proteins involved in cell adhesion regulation, such as E-cadherin could represent a useful tool to evaluate easily and routinely the metastatic potential of these carcinomas.

  18. Breast Cancer Metastasis to Pituitary Infandibulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Poursadegh Fard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis from breast cancer to other parts of the body is very common, but the spread of the tumor to pituitary gland, especially to infandibulum, is a rare presentation. At the time of pituitary metastasis, a majority of the patients have clinical and radiological evidence of the disease. It seems that the posterior area of the gland is the most common site of metastasis, probably due to highly rich blood supply through the hypophyseal artery. The present report introduces a case of a 55-years-old woman presented with diabetes insipidus resulting from metastasis of the tumor to pituitary infandibulum, which is a rare site for metastasis, without significant complaint resulting from metastasis to other part of the body, or other primary diseases. Further evaluation revealed that in spite of previous reports, which metastasis usually happens in end stage of cancer, the patients had primary breast cancer. In subsequent evaluations of the case, hypofunction of adenohypophysis was also detected

  19. OVARIAN METASTASIS IN PATIENT WITH ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Feng-zhi; CHEN Yi-nan; ZHANG Guo-nan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical pathological characteristics of ovarian metastasis of endometrial carcinoma and the factors affecting prognosis. Methods: Retrospective analysis was made to the clinical pathological outcome of endometrial carcinoma patients receiving surgical treatment in our hospital from January 1990 to December 2002. Results:Among the 191 cases of endometrial carcinoma patients, 17 cases (8.9%) had ovarian metastasis and young patients were more likely to have ovarian metastasis. The multiple factor analysis showed that the independent risk factors of ovarian metastasis in endometrial carcinoma included the depth of myometrial invasion, lymph node metastasis and pathological types. Conclusion: Ovarian metastasis in patients with endometrial carcinoma is associated with poor prognosis, the depth of myometrial invasion, lymph node metastasis and histologic types are independent risk factors affecting the prognosis. For young patients at early stage of the disease, it should be prudent as to whether to retain the ovary.

  20. Automated whole animal bio-imaging assay for human cancer dissemination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerander P S Ghotra

    Full Text Available A quantitative bio-imaging platform is developed for analysis of human cancer dissemination in a short-term vertebrate xenotransplantation assay. Six days after implantation of cancer cells in zebrafish embryos, automated imaging in 96 well plates coupled to image analysis algorithms quantifies spreading throughout the host. Findings in this model correlate with behavior in long-term rodent xenograft models for panels of poorly- versus highly malignant cell lines derived from breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer. In addition, cancer cells with scattered mesenchymal characteristics show higher dissemination capacity than cell types with epithelial appearance. Moreover, RNA interference establishes the metastasis-suppressor role for E-cadherin in this model. This automated quantitative whole animal bio-imaging assay can serve as a first-line in vivo screening step in the anti-cancer drug target discovery pipeline.

  1. PRICKLE1 Contributes to Cancer Cell Dissemination through Its Interaction with mTORC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daulat, Avais M; Bertucci, François; Audebert, Stéphane; Sergé, Arnauld; Finetti, Pascal; Josselin, Emmanuelle; Castellano, Rémy; Birnbaum, Daniel; Angers, Stéphane; Borg, Jean-Paul

    2016-05-23

    Components of the evolutionarily conserved developmental planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway were recently described to play a prominent role in cancer cell dissemination. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PCP molecules drive the spread of cancer cells remain largely unknown. PRICKLE1 encodes a PCP protein bound to the promigratory serine/threonine kinase MINK1. We identify RICTOR, a member of the mTORC2 complex, as a PRICKLE1-binding partner and show that the integrity of the PRICKLE1-MINK1-RICTOR complex is required for activation of AKT, regulation of focal adhesions, and cancer cell migration. Disruption of the PRICKLE1-RICTOR interaction results in a strong impairment of breast cancer cell dissemination in xenograft assays. Finally, we show that upregulation of PRICKLE1 in basal breast cancers, a subtype characterized by high metastatic potential, is associated with poor metastasis-free survival.

  2. The Tenth National Dissemination Conference. A Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlig, Richard K.

    This report on the Tenth National Dissemination Conference of 1977 outlines the purposes of the conference and summarizes the present state of educational information dissemination. National programs are described, including the National Institute of Education State Capacity Building Program, the National Diffusion Network, the Dissemination…

  3. Curriculum Dissemination as Planned Cultural Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudduck, Jean

    The author traces the change from the use of the term "diffusion" to the term "dissemination" with reference to curriculum projects in Britain and discusses implications of the change. Although at one time the two terms were used interchangeably, the term "dissemination" now emphasizes techniques of effective management rather than the educational…

  4. Federal Mechanisms to Support Intervention Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Augusto; Bennett, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines federal mechanisms that support program developers and researchers in disseminating effective interventions for public benefit. The purpose of this paper is not to discuss the dissemination of intervention research (i.e., how to inform stakeholders about research findings), nor is it intended to discuss the research of…

  5. D5.1 Dissemination Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Lillian; Ryberg, Thomas; Eleftheriou, Paraskevi

    2009-01-01

    at defining the dissemination goals as well as the project’s target audience and channels through which the EATrain2 solution is going to be promoted. It also includes partners competences in the dissemination area and detailed schedule of events thematically related to the project’s scope. The deliverable...

  6. D5.1 Dissemination Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Lillian; Ryberg, Thomas; Eleftheriou, Paraskevi

    2009-01-01

    at defining the dissemination goals as well as the project’s target audience and channels through which the EATrain2 solution is going to be promoted. It also includes partners competences in the dissemination area and detailed schedule of events thematically related to the project’s scope. The deliverable...

  7. Photodynamic therapy using nanoparticle loaded with indocyanine green for experimental peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Hironori; Morimoto, Yuji; Takahata, Risa; Nomura, Shinsuke; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Horiguchi, Hiroyuki; Hiraki, Shuichi; Ono, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Hiromi; Saito, Daizo; Hara, Isao; Ozeki, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Junji; Hase, Kazuo

    2014-12-01

    Although there have been multiple advances in the development of novel anticancer agents and operative procedures, prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer remains poor, especially in patients with peritoneal metastasis. In this study, we established nanoparticles loaded with indocyanine green (ICG) derivatives: ICG loaded lactosomes (ICGm) and investigated the diagnostic and therapeutic value of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using ICGm for experimental peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer. Experimental peritoneal disseminated xenografts of human gastric cancer were established in nude mice. Three weeks after intraperitoneal injection of the cancer cells, either ICGm (ICGm-treated mice) or ICG solution (ICG-treated mice) was injected through the tail vein. Forty-eight hours after injection of the photosensitizer, in vivo and ex vivo imaging was carried out. For PDT, 48 h after injection of the photosensitizer, other mice were irradiated through the abdominal wall, and the body weight and survival rate were monitored. In vivo imaging revealed that peritoneal tumors were visualized through the abdominal wall in ICGm-treated mice, whereas only non-specific fluorescence was observed in ICG-treated mice. The PDT reduced the total weight of the disseminated nodules and significantly improved weight loss and survival rate in ICGm-treated mice. In conclusion, ICGm can be used as a novel diagnostic and therapeutic nanodevice in peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer.

  8. Pericytes limit tumor cell metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xian, Xiaojie; Håkansson, Joakim; Ståhlberg, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Previously we observed that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) deficiency in beta tumor cells facilitates metastasis into distant organs and local lymph nodes. Here, we show that NCAM-deficient beta cell tumors grew leaky blood vessels with perturbed pericyte-endothelial cell-cell interactions...... and deficient perivascular deposition of ECM components. Conversely, tumor cell expression of NCAM in a fibrosarcoma model (T241) improved pericyte recruitment and increased perivascular deposition of ECM molecules. Together, these findings suggest that NCAM may limit tumor cell metastasis by stabilizing...... the microvessel wall. To directly address whether pericyte dysfunction increases the metastatic potential of solid tumors, we studied beta cell tumorigenesis in primary pericyte-deficient Pdgfb(ret/ret) mice. This resulted in beta tumor cell metastases in distant organs and local lymph nodes, demonstrating a role...

  9. RARE CASE OF COLONIC METASTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is the second most common type of cancer in females and the third in males worldwide. The most common sites of colon cancer metastasis are the regional lymph nodes, liver, lung, bone and brain. In this case report, an extremely rare case of colon adenocarcinoma with metastasis to the philtrum with extensive peritoneal and bowel involvement is presented. A 44 year old male presented with a change in bowel habits, melena and weight loss . Diagnosed to have carcinoma rectum underwent Abdominoperenial resection (APR two y ears back. Biopsies were consistent with the diagnosis of invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Now presented with swelling over philtrum . Fine needle aspiration (FNAC was done suggestive of adenocarcinoma. This case presented for its uncommon presentation.

  10. Endocannabinoids as Guardians of Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeder, Irmgard

    2016-02-10

    Endocannabinoids including anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol are involved in cancer pathophysiology in several ways, including tumor growth and progression, peritumoral inflammation, nausea and cancer pain. Recently we showed that the endocannabinoid profiles are deranged during cancer to an extent that this manifests in alterations of plasma endocannabinoids in cancer patients, which was mimicked by similar changes in rodent models of local and metastatic cancer. The present topical review summarizes the complexity of endocannabinoid signaling in the context of tumor growth and metastasis.

  11. Lysyl Oxidase, a Targetable Secreted Molecule Involved in Cancer Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Thomas R; Gartland, Alison; Erler, Janine T

    2016-01-15

    Secondary metastatic cancer remains the single biggest cause of mortality and morbidity across most solid tumors. In breast cancer, 100% of deaths are attributed to metastasis. At present, there are no "cures" for secondary metastatic cancer of any form and there is an urgent unmet clinical need to improve the tools available in our arsenal against this disease, both in terms of treatment, but also prevention. Recently, we showed that hypoxic induction of the extracellular matrix modifying enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX) correlates with metastatic dissemination to the bone in estrogen receptor negative breast cancer and is essential for the formation of premetastatic osteolytic lesions. We showed that in models of breast cancer metastasis, targeting LOX, or its downstream effects, significantly inhibited premetastatic niche formation and the resulting metastatic burden, offering preclinical validation of this enzyme as a therapeutic target for metastatic breast cancer. Our work is the latest in an emerging body of work supporting the targeting of LOX and calls for greater efforts in developing therapeutics against this extracellular secreted factor in the prevention of cancer progression across multiple solid tumor types.

  12. Immune escape mechanisms in colorectal cancer pathogenesis and liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancione, Massimo; Giordano, Guido; Remo, Andrea; Febbraro, Antonio; Sabatino, Lina; Manfrin, Erminia; Ceccarelli, Michele; Colantuoni, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, growing evidence indicates that the tumor microenvironment (TME) contributes with genomic/epigenomic aberrations of malignant cells to enhance cancer cells survival, invasion, and dissemination. Many factors, produced or de novo synthesized by immune, stromal, or malignant cells, acting in a paracrine and autocrine fashion, remodel TME and the adaptive immune response culminating in metastasis. Taking into account the recent accomplishments in the field of immune oncology and using metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) as a model, we propose that the evasion of the immune surveillance and metastatic spread can be achieved through a number of mechanisms that include (a) intrinsic plasticity and adaptability of immune and malignant cells to paracrine and autocrine stimuli or genotoxic stresses; (b) alteration of positional schemes of myeloid-lineage cells, produced by factors controlling the balance between tumour-suppressing and tumour-promoting activities; (c) acquisition by cancer cells of aberrant immune-phenotypic traits (NT5E/CD73, CD68, and CD163) that enhance the interactions among TME components through the production of immune-suppressive mediators. These properties may represent the driving force of metastatic progression and thus clinically exploitable for cancer prevention and therapy. In this review we summarize results and suggest new hypotheses that favour the growing impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells on tumour progression, metastasis, and therapy resistance.

  13. Osteosarcoma relapse as pleural metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabrata Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor in children and young adults arising from primitive mesenchymal bone-forming cells. The lung is the most common site of metastasis of osteosarcoma. Here, we report a case of a 14-year-old male patient having osteosarcoma of tibia presenting to us for evaluation of left-sided pleural effusion after 4 years of mid-thigh amputation. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography thorax revealed a large, heterogeneous, calcified mass (+277 H.U at left upper and middle lobe along with massive left-sided pleural effusion. Thoracoscopy revealed a lung metastasis in the right upper and middle lobe along with 2-cm diameter mass found on the surface of parietal pleura. Lung tumor was resected and biopsy of the pleural mass was carried out. Histopathological examination from both the masses was suggestive of metastatic osteosarcoma. The case underlines the importance of performing thoracoscopy in patients of osteosarcoma who recur with lung metastasis.

  14. Unusual Metastasis from Carcinoma Cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Virendra; Kausar, Mehlam; Naik, Ayush; Batra, Manika

    2016-10-01

    Although the incidence of cancer cervix has reduced in India during the last two decades, still most of the patients presenting in tertiary care centers are in advanced stages. At this center, we see 6% of cancer cervix cases every year, and most of these cases are in stage III and IVa. All these patients have squamous cell carcinoma and were treated with a combination of external and intracavitary radiotherapy along with concurrent cisplatin given once weekly. Eighty-nine point nine % patients had achieved a complete response. Local recurrence was seen in 17.9% at a median duration of 10.5 months, and 8.17% developed distant metastasis involving lung, liver, bone, and supraclavicular lymph nodes. Three patients developed metastasis at unusual sites involving breast, paraspinal muscles, and duodenum which are very rarely involved. These patients were treated with chemotherapy using carboplatin and Paclitaxel combination but succumbed within 8-10 months of development of metastasis. The cause of involvement of these unusual sites is not clear, but it may be hematological spread, and we want to share these reports such that these sites are seen during follow-up of patients of cancer cervix.

  15. Essentials of skeletal radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yochum, T.R.; Rowe, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the following topics of skeletal radiology: Positioning of patients for diagnostic radiology and normal anatomy; congenital malformations of skeleton; measurements in radiology; spondylolisthesis; metabolic and endocrine diseases of bone and their diagnostic aspects; image processing of vertebrae, skeleton, bone fractures evaluations and epidemiological and social aspects of some bone diseases. Various modalities as CT scanning, NMR imaging, ultrasonography and biomedical radiography are briefly discussed in relation to bone pathology.

  16. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  17. Skeletal adaptations to bipedalism

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiljević Perica; Žabar Andrea; Aleksić Milena

    2014-01-01

    Bipedalism is the main characteristic of humans. During evolutin bipedalism emerged probably as an adaptation to a changing environment. Major changes in skeletal system included femur, pelvis, skull and spine. The significance of bipedal locomotion: Bipedalism freed the forelimbs for carrying objects, creation and usage of tools. In the upright position animals have a broader view of the environment and the early detection of predators is crucial for survival. Bipedal locomotion makes larger...

  18. High SPARC Expression Starting from Dysplasia, Associated with Breast Carcinoma, Is Predictive for Bone Metastasis without Enhancement of Plasma Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, Paola; Bendinelli, Paola; Morelli, Daniele; Drago, Lorenzo; Luzzati, Alessandro; Perrucchini, Giuseppe; Bonini, Chiara; Matteucci, Emanuela; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2015-01-01

    In order to become established in the skeleton, metastatic cells disseminating from the breast carcinoma need to acquire organ-specific traits. There are no effective predictors for who will develop bone metastasis to guide long-term predictive therapy. Our purpose was to individuate events critical for bone colonization to make a molecular classification of breast carcinoma useful for bone-metastasis outcome. In dysplasia adjacent to carcinoma and in pair-matched specimens of bone metastasis we examined SPARC expression and localization as well as Endothelin 1/ETAR signals by immunohistochemistry, and the evaluation of plasma levels of SPARC by ELISA was also performed. In patients with breast carcinoma metastasizing to bone, SPARC and Endothelin 1/ETAR axis were highly expressed from dysplasia until bone metastasis, but the SPARC plasma level was as low as that of normal women, in contrast to patients that never develop bone metastasis, suggesting that circulating SPARC was counter adhesive. Altogether, the early identification of SPARC/Endothelin 1/ETAR in dysplastic lesions would be important to devise therapies preventing metastasis engraftment, since often carcinoma cells spread to distant organs at the time or even before patients present with cancer. PMID:26703564

  19. A rare radiological manifestation of disseminated tuberculous spondylitisin acquired immune deficiency syndrome patient: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Won; Koo, Joon Bum; Kim, Tae Eun [Dept. of of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Dongguk University School of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The spine is the most common site of skeletal involvement in tuberculosis. The radiologic features are reportedly characterized by destruction of the vertebral body, subligamentous extension or subchondral penetration, frequent paravertebral abscess formation and late involvement of the disk space. We experienced a case of a 25-year-old male who was a human immunodeficiency virus carrier without antiretroviral therapy. Incidental findings on abdominal computed tomography included multiple well-demarcated and ovoid osteolytic lesions with hyperdense rims disseminated in the thoracic, lumbar, and sacrum vertebrae, as well as in both ilii. On the lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging, multiple small round lesions of isointense signal intensity with peripheral hyperintense rims were found on both T1- and T2-weighted imaging. The lesions had peripheral rim enhancement on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. Based on our experience, this rare image finding is one of the manifestations of disseminated tuberculosis.

  20. S100A4 Elevation Empowers Expression of Metastasis Effector Molecules in Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Thamir M.; Bennett, Daimark; Platt-Higgins, Angela M.; Al-Medhity, Morteta; Barraclough, Roger; Rudland, Philip S.

    2017-01-01

    Many human glandular cancers metastasize along nerve tracts, but the mechanisms involved are generally poorly understood. The calcium-binding protein S100A4 is expressed at elevated levels in human cancers, where it has been linked to increased invasion and metastasis. Here we report genetic studies in a Drosophila model to define S100A4 effector functions that mediate metastatic dissemination of mutant Ras-induced tumors in the developing nervous system. In flies overexpressing mutant RasVal12 and S100A4, there was a significant increase in activation of the stress kinase JNK and production of the matrix metalloproteinase MMP1. Genetic or chemical blockades of JNK and MMP1 suppressed metastatic dissemination associated with S100A4 elevation, defining required signaling pathway(s) for S100A4 in this setting. In clinical specimens of human breast cancer, elevated levels of the mammalian paralogs MMP2, MMP9, and MMP13 are associated with a 4- to 9-fold relative decrease in patient survival. In individual tumors, levels of MMP2 and MMP13 correlated more closely with levels of S100A4, whereas MMP9 levels correlated more closely with the S100 family member S100P. Overall, our results suggest the existence of evolutionarily conserved pathways used by S100A4 to promote metastatic dissemination, with potential prognostic and therapeutic implications for metastasis by cancers that preferentially exploit nerve tract migration routes. PMID:27927689

  1. Macrophage Efferocytosis and Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0408 TITLE: Macrophage Efferocytosis and Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jacqueline D. Jones...0408 Macrophage Efferocytosis and Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...efferocytosis. The translation of this functional role during pathophysiological states such as tumor metastasis to the skeleton is unknown. The purpose of this

  2. Oral gingival metastasis: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Aswath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cavity is a rare target for metastasis with an incidence of 1% among all oral cancers. In 24% of such cases, oral metastasis is the first indication of an undiagnosed primary. Metastatic oral malignancies have been reported in the mandible, tongue, and gingiva. Although gingival metastasis has been reported from lung, prostate, rectal carcinoma in men and carcinoma of breast, adrenal glands, and genitalia in females, gingival metastasis from carcinoma of the penis has not been reported. Herein, a case of metastatic gingival carcinoma that developed after extraction of teeth from primary carcinoma of the penis is presented. An extensive literature search revealed no such similar case reports.

  3. Roles of Fyn in pancreatic cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Yu; Cai, Lei; Bie, Ping; Wang, Shu-Guang; Jiang, Yan; Dong, Jia-Hong; Li, Xiao-Wu

    2010-02-01

    Src family kinases have been suggested to be associated with the metastasis of tumors, but their related mechanisms remain unclear. The aims of the present study were to assess the possible mechanisms by which the inhibition of Fyn activation regulates pancreatic cancer metastasis. We examined the expressions of Fyn in human pancreatic cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry and systematically investigated the relationship between Fyn expression and pancreatic cancer metastasis. A nude mouse xenograft model induced by BxPC3 cells with or without the inhibition of Fyn activation was used to explore the effect of the inhibition of Fyn on metastasis in vivo. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-labeling assays were used to examine the effect of the inhibition of Fyn on the cell proliferation of BxPC3 pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were performed to explore the possible mechanism of Fyn-induced metastasis. We found that the upregulation of Fyn expression was correlated with human pancreatic cancer metastasis. In BxPC3 pancreatic cancer cells, the inhibition of Fyn activation by kinase-dead Fyn transfection decreased liver metastasis in nude mice. Further analyses showed that Fyn activity modulated pancreatic cell metastasis through the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis. Our results suggest a possible mechanism by which Fyn activity regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis that exerts an effect on pancreatic cancer metastasis.

  4. Prostate cancer and metastasis initiating stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kathleen Kelly; Juan Juan Yin

    2008-01-01

    Androgen refractory prostate cancer metastasis is a major clinical challenge.Mechanism-based approaches to treating prostate cancer metastasis require an understanding of the developmental origin of the metastasis-initiating cell.Properties of prostate cancer metastases such as plasticity with respect to differentiated phenotype and androgen independence are consistent with the transformation of a prostate epithelial progenitor or stem cell leading to metastasis.This review focuses upon current evidence and concepts addressing the identification and properties of normal prostate stem or progenitor cells and their transformed counterparts.

  5. Zosteriform skin metastasis of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Hao; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsieh, Te-Chun; Wu, Po-Yuan

    2012-12-01

    Skin metastasis from internal organ malignancy has a 5% to about 10% incidence, and zosteriform metastasis is much rarer. We present the case of a 51-year-old male smoker initially given a diagnosis of right lower lung adenocarcinoma T2N3M0 who developed new-onset zosteriform skin metastasis over the right-side T3∼T5 dermatomes documented by skin biopsy specimen. The probable mechanism for this band-distributed skin metastasis is the retrograde flow of lymph after obstruction by cancer cells. Such a phenomenon may be demonstrated by lymphoscintigraphy.

  6. Management of skeletal metastases: An orthopaedic surgeon′s guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish G Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal metastasis is a common cause of severe morbidity, reduction in quality of life (QOL and often early mortality. Its prevalence is rising due to a higher rate of diagnosis, better systemic treatment, longer lives with the disease and higher disease burden rate. As people with cancer live longer and with rising sensitivity of body imaging and surveillance, the incidence of pathological fracture, metastatic epidural cord compression is rising and constitutes a challenge for the orthopedic surgeon to maintain their QOL. Metastatic disease is no longer a death sentence condemning patients to "terminal care." In the era of multidisciplinary care and effective systemic targeted and nontargeted therapy, patient expectations of QOL, even during palliative end of care period is high. We lay emphasis on proving the diagnosis of metastasis by biopsy and histopathology and discuss imaging modalities to help estimate fracture risk and map disease extent. This article discusses at length the evidence and decision-making process of various modalities to treat skeletal metastasis. The modalities range from radiation including image-guided, stereotactic and whole body radiation, systemic targeted or hormonal therapy, spinal decompression with or without stabilization, extended curettage with stabilization, resection in select cases with megaprosthetic or biological reconstruction, percutaneous procedures using radio frequency ablation, cementoplasties and discusses the role of emerging modalities like high frequency ultrasound-guided ablation, cryotherapy and whole body radionuclide therapy. The focus lies on the role of multidisciplinary care, which considers complex decisions on patient centric prognosis, comorbidities, cost, feasibility and expectations in order to maximize outcomes on QOL issues.

  7. Regional distribution of bone metastases in skeletal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Füsun Aydoğan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bone metastases are the most common malign lesions of skeletal system. The aim of this study is to determine regional distribution of bone metastases detected scintigraphically. Methods: Ninety-seven patients (53 male, 44 female with primary malignancy who performed bone scintigraphy in our clinic between January 2012 and August 2013 included to study. The mean age of patients was 59±15.9 years (range 19-84.The patients who had bone metastasis and regional distribution of these metastases were detected. Results: Bone metastasis was detected in 38 (39.2% of all patients. The metastases were multipl in 32 (84.2% patients and single in 6 (15.8% patients. Fifteen of malignancies that metastasize to bone were prostate cancer in 15 (39.5% patients, breast cancer in 8 (21% patients, lung cancer in 2 (5.3% patients, urinary bladder cancer in 3 (7.9% patients and other malignancies (rectum, stomach, cervix, lymphoma etc. in 10 (26.3% patients. Ninety-two metastasis regions were detected. 24 (26.1% of them were vertebrae, 15 (16.3% of them were pelvic bone, 17 (18.5% of them were costa, 6 (6.5% of them were upper extremity, 12 (13% of them were lower extremity, 6 (6.5% of them were calvarium, 6 (6.5% of them were sternum, 4 (4.35% of them were scapula and 3 (3.3% of them were clavicula. Conclusion: Bone metastases are detected in two thirds of metastatic cancer cases. The most common site of bone metastases is axial skeletal system and vertebrae take the first place in this system. Bone scintigraphy is the most important imaging modality used in the evaluation of bone metastases.

  8. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Levi

    2009-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome that may complicate a variety of diseases, including malignant disease. DIC is characterized by widespread, intravascular activation of coagulation (leading to intravascular fibrin deposition) and simultaneous consumption of coagulation fact

  9. Smart-tag Based Data Dissemination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Beaufour, Allan; Leopold, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring wide, hostile areas requires disseminating data between fixed, disconnected clusters of sensor nodes. It is not always possible to install long-range radios in order to cover the whole area. We propose to leverage the movement of mobile individuals, equipped with smart......-tags, to disseminate data across disconnected static nodes spread across a wide area. Static nodes and mobile smart-tags exchange data when they are in the vicinity of each other; smart-tags disseminate data as they move around. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for update propagation and a model for smart......-tag based data dissemination. We use simulation to study the characteristics of the model we propose. Finally, we present an implementation based on Bluetooth smart-tags....

  10. Disseminated Herpes Zoster in Association with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchabal D

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV infected individuals are susceptible to a wide variety of skin manifestations due to profound defect in cell-mediated immunity. We describe 2 patients with Disseminated Herpes Zoster, both the patients has associated HIV infection.

  11. The dissemination and implementation of national asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dissemination and implementation of national asthma guidelines in South ... This article describes the methodology of Outcome Mapping and illustrates this in ... in their own settings. South African Family Practice Vol. 49 (5) 2007: pp. 5-8 ...

  12. Study on 41Ca-AMS for diagnosis and assessment of cancer bone metastasis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongtao; Pang, Fangfang; Jiang, Shan; He, Ming; Dong, Kejun; Dou, Liang; Pang, Yijun; Yang, Xianlin; Ruan, Xiangdong; Liu, Manjun; Xia, Chunbo

    2015-10-01

    The annual incidence of new cancer patients in China is about 2 million, 30-40% of which will end up with bone metastasis. Profound study on the preclinical model and early diagnosis of cancer bone metastasis in rats are very significant for the drug development, better understanding and treatment of bone metastases. In order to monitor the process of bone metabolism and early detection of bone metastasis of cancer cells, a technique of 41Ca isotope tracer combined with AMS has been developed and applied in the study on the bone metastasis of cancer cells by rat model. In this work, 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into different groups, and tumor cells injected respectively into the tail vein, femoral artery, femoral cavity and the thigh muscle to establish the rat models for bone metastases. The most appropriate model, i.e., the thigh muscle group, was finally adopted in our real metastases experiment. Each rat in this group was intramuscularly (i.m.) injected with 250 μl CaCl2 solution (containing 1.4 mg Ca and 5nCi 41Ca). About 40 days later, the rat mammary gland carcinoma cells (Walker 256) were injected into these rats following the established protocol. After bone metastasis, medicine interventions were performed. The sequential urine and blood samples were collected and analyzed for 41Ca (by AMS) and N-terminal telopeptide (Ntx), respectively. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) values in the femur and the tibia were measured by CT scan. The results of 41Ca/Ca in longitudinal urinary samples can sensitively reveal the skeletal perturbations caused by bone metastasis of rats, suggests that 41Ca might be similarly developed for human use and improve clinical management through the assessment of the curative effect and non-invasive detection of the earliest stages of cancer growth in bone.

  13. Orbital metastasis as the initial presentation of lung adenocarcinoma: a case report

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    Sun LC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Liangchao Sun,1,2,* Yali Qi,1,3,* Xindong Sun,2 Jinming Yu,2 Xue Meng2 1Medical College of Shandong University, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan, 3Department of Oncology, The Second Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Orbital metastasis as the initial presentation of lung adenocarcinoma is very rare, and so the lack of knowledge about this phenomenon can easily result in misdiagnosis, either as a orbital primary tumor or benign lesion. Here, we report a rare case in which the orbital symptom appeared first without any pulmonary manifestations. Our patient developed decreasing vision in his right eye over a 3-month duration. He then presented with proptosis and multiple aches from head to back. After systemic evaluation, our patient was diagnosed with Stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer and was managed with palliative chemoradiotherapy. The final result of treatment suggests that the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy on orbital metastasis is uncertain, and only some orbital metastatic masses may have a favorable response to radiation. Furthermore, we review the recent data and provide an in-depth discussion on the clinical features and course of ocular pulmonary metastases, and explain a new type of non-small-cell lung cancer metastatic pattern for ophthalmologists and oncologists to help them distinguish the orbital metastasis as the first manifestation. Keywords: orbital metastasis, skeletal metastasis, rare metastasis, initial presentation, lung adenocarcinoma

  14. On the growth and dissemination laws in a mathematical model of metastatic growth

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    Benzekry Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis represents one of the main clinical challenge in cancer treatment since it is associated with the majority of deaths. Recent technological advances allow quantification of the dynamics of the process by means of noninvasive techniques such as longitudinal tracking of bioluminescent cells. The metastatic process was simplified here into two essential components – dissemination and colonization – which were mathematically formalized in terms of simple quantitative laws. The resulting mathematical model was confronted to in vivo experimental data of spontaneous metastasis after primary tumor resection. We discuss how much information can be inferred from confrontation of theories to the data with emphasis on identifiability issues. It is shown that two mutually exclusive assumptions for the secondary growth law (namely same or different from the primary tumor growth law could fit equally well the data. Similarly, the fractal dimension coeffcient in the dissemination law could not be uniquely determined from data on total metastatic burden only. Together, these results delimitate the range of information that can be recovered from fitting data of metastatic growth to already simplified mathematical models.

  15. Recurrence or metastasis of HCC: predictors, early detection and experimental antiangiogenic therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Fu Jiang; Zhi Hua Yang; Jin Qun Hu

    2000-01-01

    AIM To investigate the predictors for recurrence or metastasis of HCC, and to evaluate the effect of antiangiogenic therapy on the growth of transplantable human HCC in nude mice. METHODS RT-PCR was used to measure the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in 56 pairs of nontumorous liver and tumor samples. Sixty blood samples from human HCC were examined by nested RT-PCR to find out AFP mRNA. Recombinant human endostatin and polyclonal antibody against VEGF were administered to treat human HCC transplanted in nude mice. RESULTS Thirty of 56 HCC samples showed stronger expression of MMP-9 in tumorous tissues than in nontumorous tissues. Fifteen of the 26 patients with relative expression level of MMP-9 more than 0.34 developed tumor recurrence or metastasis, whereas only 7 of 30 patients with relative expression level less than 0.34 developed tumor recurrence (P<0.05).There was no significant difference in the relative expression level of VEGF between patients with postoperative recurrence or metastasis and those without recurrence. AFP mRNA was detectable in 53.3% of patients with HCC. The sensitivity and specificity of AFP mRNA as a marker to detect hematogenous dissemination of HCC cells was 81.8% and 84.4%, respectively. Recombinant human endostatin and polyclonal antibody against VEGF inhibited the growth of transplantable HCC in nude mice by 52.2% and 45.7%, respectively.CONCLUSION MMP-9 expression in HCC correlates with the postoperative recurrence or metastasis of HCC. Patients with high level of MMP-9 expression in HCC are susceptible to metastasis. AFP mRNA could serve as an indicator of hematogenous spreading of HCC cells in circulation and a predictor of recurrence or metastasis of HCC. Antiangiogenesis may be an adjuvant therapy for HCC.

  16. Significance and therapeutic implications of endothelial progenitor cells in angiogenic-mediated tumour metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Valentina; Jiang, Wen G; Lane, Jane; Cui, Yu-Xin

    2016-04-01

    Cancer conveys profound social and economic consequences throughout the world. Metastasis is responsible for approximately 90% of cancer-associated mortality and, when it occurs, cancer becomes almost incurable. During metastatic dissemination, cancer cells pass through a series of complex steps including the establishment of tumour-associated angiogenesis. The human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPCs) are a cell population derived from the bone marrow which are required for endothelial tubulogenesis and neovascularization. They also express abundant inflammatory cytokines and paracrine angiogenic factors. Clinically hEPCs are highly correlated with relapse, disease progression, metastasis and treatment response in malignancies such as breast cancer, ovarian cancer and non-small-cell lung carcinoma. It has become evident that the hEPCs are involved in the angiogenesis-required progression and metastasis of tumours. However, it is not clear in what way the signalling pathways, controlling the normal cellular function of human BM-derived EPCs, are hijacked by aggressive tumour cells to facilitate tumour metastasis. In addition, the actual roles of hEPCs in tumour angiogenesis-mediated metastasis are not well characterised. In this paper we reviewed the clinical relevance of the hEPCs with cancer diagnosis, progression and prognosis. We further summarised the effects of tumour microenvironment on the hEPCs and underlying mechanisms. We also hypothesized the roles of altered hEPCs in tumour angiogenesis and metastasis. We hope this review may enhance our understanding of the interaction between hEPCs and tumour cells thus aiding the development of cellular-targeted anti-tumour therapies.

  17. Miliary brain metastasis presenting with calcification in a patient with lung cancer: a case report

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    Inomata Minehiko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Miliary brain metastasis is an extremely rare form of brain metastasis which can present with atypical imaging findings. We report the case of a patient with miliary brain metastasis of lung cancer showing calcification in metastatic lesions. Case presentation A 68-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma. Brain computed tomography revealed multiple small calcified lesions in both cerebral hemispheres. Mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (exon 21, L858R in lung cancer cells was detected, and treatment with gefitinib was initiated. A partial response was observed; however, the patient was readmitted to our hospital because of regrowth of the primary lesion and complaints of nausea, headache, and difficulty walking. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed scattered tiny nodules enhanced by gadolinium. A diagnosis of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis was made on the basis of cerebrospinal fluid cytology. The patient’s general status worsened, and she died 356 days after the day of first medical examination. Upon autopsy, the brain was found to be edematous and swollen. Lung carcinoma cells were diffusely disseminated on the meningeal surface. Metastatic foci of small nodular form, accompanied by calcifications, were also found in the brain parenchyma. We diagnosed miliary metastasis of lung carcinoma. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the third report of calcified miliary brain metastasis confirmed by autopsy. We describe calcified lesions that increased in size during the clinical course of nine months. Brain computed tomography findings that reveal multiple small calcified lesions in patients with malignancy should raise suspicion of miliary brain metastasis.

  18. Evaluation of the enhanced permeability and retention effect in the early stages of lymph node metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikada, Mamoru; Sukhbaatar, Ariunbuyan; Miura, Yoshinobu; Horie, Sachiko; Sakamoto, Maya; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2017-02-17

    Most solid cancers spread to new sites via the lymphatics before hematogenous dissemination. However, only a small fraction of an intravenously administered anti-cancer drug enters the lymphatic system to reach metastatic lymph nodes (LNs). Here, we show that the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect is not induced during the early stages of LN metastasis. Luciferase-expressing tumor cells were injected into the subiliac LN of the MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mouse to induce metastasis to the proper axillary LN (PALN). In vivo biofluorescence imaging was used to confirm metastasis induction and to quantify the EPR effect, measured as PALN accumulation of intravenously injected indocyanine green (ICG) liposomes. PALN blood vessel volume changes were measured by contrast-enhanced high-frequency ultrasound imaging. The volume and density of blood vessels in the PALN increased until day 29 after inoculation whereas the LN volume remained constant. ICG retention was first detected on day 29 post-inoculation. While CD31-positive cells increased up to day 29 post-inoculation, α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells were detected on day 29 post-inoculation for the first time. These results suggest that the EPR effect was not induced in the early stages of LN metastasis; therefore, systemic chemotherapy would likely not be beneficial during the early stages of LN metastasis. The development of an alternative drug delivery system, independent of the EPR effect, is required for the treatment of LN metastasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Metastasis-related plasma membrane proteins of human breast cancer cells identified by comparative quantitative mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Lund, Rikke; Hansen, Helle V

    2009-01-01

    The spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to form metastasis at distant sites is a complex multi-step process. The cancer cell proteins, and plasma membrane proteins in particular, involved in this process are poorly defined and a study of the very early events of the metastatic process using...... clinical samples or in vitro assays is not feasible. We have used a unique model system consisting of two isogenic human breast cancer cell lines that are equally tumorigenic in mice, but while one gives rise to metastasis, the other disseminates single cells that remain dormant at distant organs. Membrane...... by the two cell lines. The study demonstrates a quantitative and comparative proteomic strategy to identify clinically-relevant key molecules in the early events of metastasis, some of which may prove to be potential targets for cancer therapy....

  20. PKD1 phosphorylation-dependent degradation of SNAIL by SCF-FBXO11 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hanqiu; Shen, Minhong; Cha, Yin-Lian; Li, Wenyang; Wei, Yong; Blanco, Mario Andres; Ren, Guangwen; Zhou, Tianhua; Storz, Peter; Wang, Hui-Yun; Kang, Yibin

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Metastatic dissemination is often initiated by the reactivation of an embryonic development program referred to as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The transcription factor SNAIL promotes EMT and elicits associated pathological characteristics, such as invasion, metastasis and stemness. To better understand the post-translational regulation of SNAIL, we performed a luciferase-based genome-wide E3 ligase siRNA library screen and identified SCF-FBXO11 as an important E3 which targets SNAIL for ubiquitylation and degradation. Furthermore, we discovered that SNAIL degradation by FBXO11 is dependent on Serine-11 phosphorylation of SNAIL by protein kinase D1 (PKD1). FBXO11 blocks SNAIL-induced EMT, tumor initiation and metastasis in multiple breast cancer models. These findings establish the PKD1-FBXO11-SNAIL axis as a mechanism of post-translational regulation of EMT and cancer metastasis. PMID:25203322

  1. Simultaneous Resection of Disseminated Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Haga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old woman with abdominal pain and vomiting was admitted to our hospital. Colonoscopy showed an advanced colon cancer that encompassed the entire circumference of the descending colon’s lumen. The patient was diagnosed with occlusive ileus associated with the colon cancer. She had been watched for liver cirrhosis due to the hepatitis C virus and received radiofrequency ablation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC 6 years previously. Although she exhibited a gradual increase in serum levels of α-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II starting 2 years before admission, no tumors were detected in the liver by abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography. On admission, contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed not only the colon cancer but also a tumor adjacent to the cecum. Both tumors were successfully removed by surgery and a pathological analysis revealed that the cecum tumor was poorly-differentiated HCC. The serum levels of α-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II declined markedly after the operation and no masses considered as peritoneal metastasis have been detected to date. This is the first report of the simultaneous resection of disseminated HCC and colon cancer.

  2. Development of a Patient-Derived Xenograft (PDX) of Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis in a Zebrafish Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercatali, Laura; La Manna, Federico; Groenewoud, Arwin; Casadei, Roberto; Recine, Federica; Miserocchi, Giacomo; Pieri, Federica; Liverani, Chiara; Bongiovanni, Alberto; Spadazzi, Chiara; de Vita, Alessandro; van der Pluijm, Gabri; Giorgini, Andrea; Biagini, Roberto; Amadori, Dino; Ibrahim, Toni; Snaar-Jagalska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a complex process that needs to be better understood in order to help clinicians prevent and treat it. Xenografts using patient-derived material (PDX) rather than cancer cell lines are a novel approach that guarantees more clinically realistic results. A primary culture of bone metastasis derived from a 67-year-old patient with breast cancer was cultured and then injected into zebrafish (ZF) embryos to study its metastatic potential. In vivo behavior and results of gene expression analyses of the primary culture were compared with those of cancer cell lines with different metastatic potential (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231). The MCF7 cell line, which has the same hormonal receptor status as the bone metastasis primary culture, did not survive in the in vivo model. Conversely, MDA-MB-231 disseminated and colonized different parts of the ZF, including caudal hematopoietic tissues (CHT), revealing a migratory phenotype. Primary culture cells disseminated and in later stages extravasated from the vessels, engrafting into ZF tissues and reaching the CHT. Primary cell behavior reflected the clinical course of the patient’s medical history. Our results underline the potential for using PDX models in bone metastasis research and outline new methods for the clinical application of this in vivo model. PMID:27556456

  3. Development of a Patient-Derived Xenograft (PDX of Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis in a Zebrafish Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mercatali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone metastasis is a complex process that needs to be better understood in order to help clinicians prevent and treat it. Xenografts using patient-derived material (PDX rather than cancer cell lines are a novel approach that guarantees more clinically realistic results. A primary culture of bone metastasis derived from a 67-year-old patient with breast cancer was cultured and then injected into zebrafish (ZF embryos to study its metastatic potential. In vivo behavior and results of gene expression analyses of the primary culture were compared with those of cancer cell lines with different metastatic potential (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231. The MCF7 cell line, which has the same hormonal receptor status as the bone metastasis primary culture, did not survive in the in vivo model. Conversely, MDA-MB-231 disseminated and colonized different parts of the ZF, including caudal hematopoietic tissues (CHT, revealing a migratory phenotype. Primary culture cells disseminated and in later stages extravasated from the vessels, engrafting into ZF tissues and reaching the CHT. Primary cell behavior reflected the clinical course of the patient’s medical history. Our results underline the potential for using PDX models in bone metastasis research and outline new methods for the clinical application of this in vivo model.

  4. Pancreatic Metastasis from Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pancreas is an unusual location for metastases from other primary cancers. Rarely, pancreatic metastases from kidney or colorectal cancers have been reported. However, a variety of other cancers may also spread to the pancreas. We report an exceptional case of pancreatic metastasis from prostate cancer. Differences in management between primary and secondary pancreatic tumors make recognition of metastases to the pancreas an objective of first importance. Knowledge of unusual locations for metastatic spread will reduce diagnostic delay and lead to a timely delivery of an appropriate treatment.

  5. Vesical metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Antunes

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic vesical tumors are rare, and constitute approximately 1% of all neoplasias affecting this organ. The authors report the case of a 63-year old woman with vesical metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma. Patient presented signs of cachexia and complained of left lumbar pain and dysuria unresponsive to antibiotic therapy for approximately 5 months. She reported a previous partial gastrectomy due to ulcerative undifferentiated gastric adenocarcinoma 1 year and 9 months before. Cystoscopy revealed an extensive vegetative lesion in bladder, occupying its entire mucosal surface. The biopsy revealed metastatic signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma.

  6. Osteosarcoma relapse as pleural metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Debabrata Saha; Kaushik Saha; Arpita Banerjee; Debraj Jash

    2013-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor in children and young adults arising from primitive mesenchymal bone-forming cells. The lung is the most common site of metastasis of osteosarcoma. Here, we report a case of a 14-year-old male patient having osteosarcoma of tibia presenting to us for evaluation of left-sided pleural effusion after 4 years of mid-thigh amputation. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography thorax revealed a large, heterogeneous, calcified mass (+277 H.U) at left up...

  7. Sigmoid adenocarcinoma with renal metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carini Dagnoni

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 75-year-old man submitted to a rectosigmoidectomy and partial cystectomy because of a sigmoid cancer and colovesical fistula. Seven months later and after four cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy, a lesion was detected in the kidney. Histology revealed tubular adenocarcinoma, which meant sigmoid cancer metastasis. Kidney metastases are very rare in colorectal cancer (CRC, but may be generally associated with an unfavorable prognosis. Thus, patients with metastatic CRC and kidney tumors are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

  8. Detection of bone metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma by bone scintigraphy: A retrospective study in perspective of limited resource settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Kapoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is an aggressive tumor with a significant proportion of patients presenting with distant metastasis. The skeleton is one of the most common sites of distant failure. This retrospective study was performed to analyze the incidence and patterns of skeletal metastasis in NPC detected by bone scintigraphy in resource-poor settings. Materials and Methods: We analyzed records of 301 NPC patients attending our oncology outpatient department from January 2002 to December 2012. Of these, 33 patients who presented with bony pain underwent bone scan (BS for suspect of skeletal metastasis. In patients with positive scans, histological diagnosis to confirm metastasis was attempted. Results: Bone metastasis (BM was found in 19 patients (57.6% of patients undergoing BS, 6.3% of total NPC patients. About 36.8% and 15.8% of BM cases were in the age group 20-29 and 30-39 years, respectively (P = 0.27. 63.1% of metastatic cases were of World Health Organization type-II histology (P = 0.021. Of the patients diagnosed with BM, 52.6% belonged to stage IV at presentation (P = 0.022. Spine was involved in 56% of the positive cases, followed by the pelvis (32%, and ribs (24%. On univariate analysis, histology (P < 0.001, stage at diagnosis (P = 0.007 and age group (P = 0.001 were identified as significant factors affecting BM. However, on multivariate analysis, only stage (P = 0.001 was a significant factor. Conclusion: Bone scintigraphy can be considered in limited resource settings for the evaluation of distant metastasis in the patients of advanced NPC.

  9. Role of surgery in breast metastasis from carcinoma of the cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Yadav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the cervix is the most common malignancy among women in India. Although metastatic disease is common, metastasis to breast is rare. A limited number of case reports are published in the world literature. Most of the previous reports of metastatic cervical carcinoma to breast are either autopsy series or widely disseminated disease where no treatment options were available. A rare case of cervical carcinoma presenting as metastasis in breast is reported here where palliative mastectomy improved the general condition of the patient. A female patient aged 58 years was diagnosed and treated for cervical carcinoma, FIGO stage 2B. Four months after the treatment which included both external beam and intracavitory radiotherapy, the patient presented with breast and lung metastasis. Palliative mastectomy was done which improved the general condition of the patient. Metastatic carcinoma of the cervix can present as a case of breast carcinoma. In an appropriate setting, this possibility should be kept in mind. Palliative mastectomy should be offered for patients of cervical carcinoma with metastasis to breast when needed.

  10. Lung adenocarcinoma presenting as a solitary gingival metastasis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Francesco

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gingival metastases are very rare and generally occur in disseminated tumors. We report a case of solitary gingival metastasis of lung cancer. Case presentation We report the case of a 74-year-old asymptomatic Caucasian woman affected by a rapidly growing, painless gingival swelling. Histopathologic examination of the excisional biopsy showed metastasis of poorly differentiated thyroid transcription factor 1-positive adenocarcinoma. A total-body computed tomographic scan revealed a tumor of the right lung lower lobe with ipsilateral, mediastinal lymph node swelling. Moreover, bone scintigraphy revealed no bone metastases. No other metastases were found, so we planned a multi-modal therapeutic approach with a curative intent. However, the tumor proved to be intrinsically resistant and highly aggressive. Conclusion The presentation of solitary gingival metastasis is exceptional. In view of its rapid clinical evolution, our case confirms that gingival metastasis is an important prognostic factor. This behavior raises the question whether the poor prognosis for patients with tumors with oral metastases depends on its diffuse spread or on its highly malignant nature.

  11. [A Case of Pseudo-Meigs Syndrome Associated with Metachronous Ovarian Metastasis from Ascending Colon Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachi, Takafumi; Nishikawa, Shinsuke; Tokura, Tomohisa; Iwama, Masahiro; Akaishi, Takanobu; Umehara, Minoru; Umehara, Yutaka; Murata, Akihiko; Takahashi, Kenichi; Morita, Takayuki

    2015-10-01

    We experienced a case of pseudo-Meigs syndrome associated with metachronous metastasis to the ovary from ascending colon cancer. A 65-year-old woman underwent curative surgery for ascending colon cancer at another hospital. A follow-up CT carried out 3 months after the surgery revealed a right ovarian tumor and a large amount of ascites. The patient was diagnosed with ovarian metastasis from ascending colon cancer with carcinomatous peritonitis. Palliative care was recommended, and she presented at our department for a second opinion. In spite of a large amount of ascites and pleural effusion, no disseminating tumor was detected on contrast-enhanced CT at our hospital, and we recommended that she undergo a diagnostic laparotomy. The laparotomy was negative for carcinomatous peritonitis and a right oophorectomy was performed. The histopathological findings indicated that the ovarian tumor was consistent with metastasis from ascending colon cancer. After the surgery, we initiated chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6+bevacizumab and the symptoms were well controlled. A follow-up CT carried out 11 months after the surgery revealed a left ovarian tumor and increased ascites, and the patient underwent a left oophorectomy. Then, chemotherapy with the same regimen was administered for 12 months, and she did not develop any signs of recurrence for 27 months after the surgery. Ovarian metastasis from colon cancer may occasionally cause pseudo-Meigs syndrome, and it is important to be aware of the usefulness of oophorectomy for the control of ascites and pleural effusion.

  12. The Mesothelial Origin of Carcinoma Associated-Fibroblasts in Peritoneal Metastasis

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    Angela Rynne-Vidal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid tumors are complex and unstructured organs that, in addition to cancer cells, also contain other cell types. Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs represent an important population in the tumor microenviroment and participate in several stages of tumor progression, including cancer cell migration/invasion and metastasis. During peritoneal metastasis, cancer cells detach from the primary tumor, such as ovarian or gastrointestinal, disseminate through the peritoneal fluid and colonize the peritoneum. Tumor cells metastasize by attaching to and invading through the mesothelial cell (MC monolayer that lines the peritoneal cavity, then colonizing the submesothelial compact zone where CAFs accumulate. CAFs may derive from different sources depending on the surrounding metastatic niche. In peritoneal metastasis, a sizeable subpopulation of CAFs originates from MCs through a mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (MMT, which promotes adhesion, invasion, vascularization and subsequent tumor growth. The bidirectional communication between cancer cells and MC-derived CAFs via secretion of a wide range of cytokines, growth factors and extracellular matrix components seems to be crucial for the establishment and progression of the metastasis in the peritoneum. This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of novel advances in understanding how peritoneal CAFs provide cancer cells with a supportive microenvironment, as well as the development of future therapeutic approaches by interfering with the MMT in the peritoneum.

  13. Integrins and Their Extracellular Matrix Ligands in Lymphangiogenesis and Lymph Node Metastasis

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    Jie Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, the late Judah Folkman postulated that tumors grow proportionately to their blood supply and that tumor angiogenesis removed this limitation promoting growth and metastasis. Work over the past 40 years, varying from molecular examination to clinical trials, verified this hypothesis and identified a host of therapeutic targets to limit tumor angiogenesis, including the integrin family of extracellular matrix receptors. However, the propensity for some tumors to spread through lymphatics suggests that lymphangiogenesis plays a similarly important role. Lymphangiogenesis inhibitors reduce lymph node metastasis, the leading indicator of poor prognosis, whereas inducing lymphangiogenesis promotes lymph node metastasis even in cancers not prone to lymphatic dissemination. Recent works highlight a role for integrins in lymphangiogenesis and suggest that integrin inhibitors may serve as therapeutic targets to limit lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis. This review discusses the current literature on integrin-matrix interactions in lymphatic vessel development and lymphangiogenesis and highlights our current knowledge on how specific integrins regulate tumor lymphangiogenesis.

  14. Cholangiocarcinoma presenting as a solitary epididymal metastasis: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey David M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solid tumor metastasis to the epididymis is a rare occurrence and is mostly discovered incidentally at autopsy or after therapeutic orchidectomy for prostate cancer. Other primary carcinomas that have been demonstrated to metastasize to the paratesticular region include those originating in the stomach, kidney, ileum, and colon. Case presentation A 72-year-old gentleman presented with a firm and tender mass involving the right epididymis. On examination, he was jaundiced. Computed tomography of the abdomen demonstrated an obstructive stricture of the extra-hepatic bile ducts, in keeping with a cholangiocarcinoma, through which a metal stent was endoscopically inserted for symptomatic relief. Subsequent right radical orchidectomy yielded a diffusely infiltrative adenocarcinoma obliterating the epididymis, extending into the rete testis, vas deferens and spermatic cord and showing widespread vascular and perineural invasion. Residual epididymal, rete, and testicular tubules showed no in situ neoplasia. Morphologically and immunohistochemically the features were in keeping with a metastasis from a primary cholangiocarcinoma. Conclusion Only two cases of bile duct carcinoma metastasising to the male genital tract have previously been reported in the literature, the testis being the main site of metastasis in both cases. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of cholangiocarcinoma metastasising primarily to the epididymis, and presenting as a solitary epididymal metastasis in the absence of disseminated disease. It serves to highlight the importance of performing a thorough examination of the male external genitalia both clinically, in the follow up of cancer patients, and at autopsy.

  15. ESID, dissemination, and community psychology: a case of partial implementation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Denis O; Jakes, Susan S; Emshoff, James; Blakely, Craig

    2003-12-01

    Dissemination, the second stage of Experimental Social Innovation and Dissemination (ESID) is a critical, if not defining, element of this social change model. This paper attempts to assess the extent to which community psychology has adopted and implemented ESID's dissemination focus in its training and publications. We identify four levels of commitment to dissemination: dissemination advocate, dissemination activist, dissemination researcher, and experimental dissemination researcher. Content analyses of textbooks, journal publications, and conference papers and a brief survey of doctoral training in the field were conducted. Findings suggest that the dissemination aspects of ESID have been modestly and partially implemented within the field. That is, although there is some evidence of a commitment to dissemination practice (advocate, activist), there is much less evidence of a commitment to dissemination research. The implications of these findings for the effectiveness of the ESID model and for training and practice in community psychology are discussed.

  16. Skeletal adaptations to bipedalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Perica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipedalism is the main characteristic of humans. During evolutin bipedalism emerged probably as an adaptation to a changing environment. Major changes in skeletal system included femur, pelvis, skull and spine. The significance of bipedal locomotion: Bipedalism freed the forelimbs for carrying objects, creation and usage of tools. In the upright position animals have a broader view of the environment and the early detection of predators is crucial for survival. Bipedal locomotion makes larger distances easier to pass, which is very important in the migration of hominids.

  17. Skeletal Effects of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and disability. Smoking has long been identified as a risk factor for osteoporosis, with data showing that older smokers have decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk compared to nonsmokers, particularly at the hip. The increase in fracture risk in smokers is out of proportion to the effects on bone density, indicating deficits in bone quality. Advanced imaging techniques have demonstrated microarchitectural deterioration in smokers, particularly in the trabecular compartment. The mechanisms by which smoking affects skeletal health remain unclear, although multiple pathways have been proposed. Smoking cessation may at least partially reverse the adverse effects of smoking on the skeleton.

  18. Isolated cardiophrenic angle node metastasis from ovarian primary. report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avenia Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynaecologic malignancy. It usually spreads out of the abdomen involving thoraco-abdominal organs and serosal surface. This disease is poorly curable and surgery, at early stage, is supposed to achieve the best survival outcome. In systemic dissemination, chemiotherapy is indicated, sometimes with neoadjuvant aim. The most common clinical expressions of advanced ovarian carcinoma are multiple adenopathy, neoplastic pleuritis, peritoneal seeding and distant metastasis, mainly hepatic and pulmonary. Isolated adenopathy of the mediastinum is rare and isolated bilateral have never been described before. We report two cases of isolated bilateral cardiophrenic angle lymphnode metastasis from ovarian carcinoma, without peritoneal and pleural involvement. Both patients were successfully resected through minimally invasive thoracic surgery. About the role of surgery, few data are available but survival seems to be longer after resection thus, more investigation is required to make the indication to surgery more appropriate in advanced cases.

  19. Skeletal muscle sodium channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Sophie; Fontaine, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    This is an update on skeletal muscle sodium channelopathies since knowledge in the field have dramatically increased in the past years. The relationship between two phenotypes and SCN4A has been confirmed with additional cases that remain extremely rare: severe neonatal episodic laryngospasm mimicking encephalopathy, which should be actively searched for since patients respond well to sodium channel blockers; congenital myasthenic syndromes, which have the particularity to be the first recessive Nav1.4 channelopathy. Deep DNA sequencing suggests the contribution of other ion channels in the clinical expressivity of sodium channelopathies, which may be one of the factors modulating the latter. The increased knowledge of channel molecular structure, the quantity of sodium channel blockers, and the availability of preclinical models would permit a most personalized choice of medication for patients suffering from these debilitating neuromuscular diseases. Advances in the understanding of the molecular structure of voltage-gated sodium channels, as well as availability of preclinical models, would lead to improved medical care of patients suffering from skeletal muscle, as well as other sodium channelopathies.

  20. Fibrous dysplasia mimicking bone metastasis on both bone scintigraphy and {sup 18}F FDG PET CT: Diagnostic dilemma in a patient with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KC, Sud Hir Suman; Sharma, Punit; Singh, Har Man Deep; Bal, Chand Rasekhar; Kumar, Rake Sh [India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2012-12-15

    Bone is the most common distant site to which breast cancer metastasizes. Commonly used imaging modalities for imaging bone metastasis are bone scintigraphy, plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET). Although bone scintigraphy gas high sensitivity for detecting bone metastasis, its specificity is low. This is because of the fact that bone scintigraphy images secondary changes in bone rather than just tumor cells {sup 18}F fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F FDG) PET CT, on the other hand, directly images the tumor cells' glucose metabolism. Unfortunately, similar to bone scintigraphy, benign bone conditions can also show increased {sup 18}F FDG uptake on PET CT, and PET positive asymptomatic fibrous dysplasia can be misinterpreted as a metastasis. Fibrous dysplasia of bone has wide skeletal distribution, with variability of {sup 18}F FDG uptake and CT appearance. It is therefore important to recognize the characteristics of this skeletal dysplasia, to allow differentiation from skeletal metastasis. Bone lesions with {sup 18}F FDG uptake need to be carefully interpreted when evaluating patients with known malignancy. In doubtful cases, fibrous dysplasia should be given as a differential diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis may be warranted, as highlighted in the present case.

  1. The independent roles of mechanical, structural and adhesion characteristics of 3D hydrogels on the regulation of cancer invasion and dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jennifer N; Singh, Anirudha; Rothenberg, Ashley R; Elisseeff, Jennifer H; Ewald, Andrew J

    2013-12-01

    Metastasis begins with the escape, or dissemination, of cancer cells from the primary tumor. We recently demonstrated that tumors preferentially disseminate into collagen I and not into basement membrane protein gels (Matrigel). In this study, we used synthetic polymer systems to define material properties that could induce dissemination into Matrigel. We first specifically varied rigidity by varying the crosslinking density of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) networks within Matrigel scaffolds. Increased microenvironmental rigidity limited epithelial growth but did not promote dissemination. We next incorporated adhesive signals into the PEG network using peptide-conjugated cyclodextrin (α-CDYRGDS) rings. The α-CDYRGDS rings threaded along the PEG polymers, enabling independent control of matrix mechanics, adhesive peptide composition, and adhesive density. Adhesive PEG networks induced dissemination of normal and malignant mammary epithelial cells at intermediate values of adhesion and rigidity. Our data reveal that microenvironmental signals can induce dissemination of normal and malignant epithelial cells without requiring the fibrillar structure of collagen I or containing collagen I-specific adhesion sequences. Finally, the nanobiomaterials and assays developed in this study are generally useful both in 3D culture of primary mammalian tissues and in the systematic evaluation of the specific role of mechanical and adhesive inputs on 3D tumor growth, invasion, and dissemination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Ji Yoon [Dept. of Pathology, National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis.

  3. Smart-tag Based Data Dissemination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Beaufour, Allan; Leopold, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring wide, hostile areas requires disseminating data between fixed, disconnected clusters of sensor nodes. It is not always possible to install long-range radios in order to cover the whole area. We propose to leverage the movement of mobile individuals, equipped with smart-tags, to dissemi......-tag based data dissemination. We use simulation to study the characteristics of the model we propose. Finally, we present an implementation based on Bluetooth smart-tags.......Monitoring wide, hostile areas requires disseminating data between fixed, disconnected clusters of sensor nodes. It is not always possible to install long-range radios in order to cover the whole area. We propose to leverage the movement of mobile individuals, equipped with smart......-tags, to disseminate data across disconnected static nodes spread across a wide area. Static nodes and mobile smart-tags exchange data when they are in the vicinity of each other; smart-tags disseminate data as they move around. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for update propagation and a model for smart...

  4. Comprehensive analysis of information dissemination in disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Huang, H.; Su, Boni

    2016-11-01

    China is a country that experiences a large number of disasters. The number of deaths caused by large-scale disasters and accidents in past 10 years is around 900,000. More than 92.8 percent of these deaths could be avoided if there were an effective pre-warning system deployed. Knowledge of the information dissemination characteristics of different information media taking into consideration governmental assistance (information published by a government) in disasters in urban areas, plays a critical role in increasing response time and reducing the number of deaths and economic losses. In this paper we have developed a comprehensive information dissemination model to optimize efficiency of pre-warning mechanics. This model also can be used for disseminating information for evacuees making real-time evacuation plans. We analyzed every single information dissemination models for pre-warning in disasters by considering 14 media: short message service (SMS), phone, television, radio, news portals, Wechat, microblogs, email, newspapers, loudspeaker vehicles, loudspeakers, oral communication, and passive information acquisition via visual and auditory senses. Since governmental assistance is very useful in a disaster, we calculated the sensitivity of governmental assistance ratio. The results provide useful references for information dissemination during disasters in urban areas.

  5. Postoperative systemic dissemination of injected elemental mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk-Hyung; Park, Seung Won; Moon, Kyung-Yoon

    2011-04-01

    There were only a few reports of mercury on pulmonary artery. However, there is no data on surgery related mercury dissemination. The objective of the present article is to describe one case of postoperative injected mercury dissemination. A 19-year-old man presented severe neck pain including meningeal irritation sign and abdominal pain after injection of mercury for the purpose of suicide. Radiologic study showed injected mercury in the neck involving high cervical epidural space and subcutaneous layer of abdomen. Partial hemilaminectomy and open mercury evacuation of spinal canal was performed. For the removal of abdominal subcutaneous mercury, C-arm guided needle aspiration was done. After surgery, radiologic study showed disseminated mercury in the lung, heart, skull base and low spinal canal. Neck pain and abdominal pain were improved after surgery. During 1 month after surgery, there was no symptom of mercury intoxication except increased mercury concentration of urine, blood and hair. We assumed the bone work during surgery might have caused mercury dissemination. Therefore, we recommend minimal invasive surgical technique for removal of injected mercury. If open exposures are needed, cautious surgical technique to prohibit mercury dissemination is necessary and normal barrier should be protected to prevent the migration of mercury.

  6. Biomarkers of residual disease, disseminated tumor cells, and metastases in the MMTV-PyMT breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Franci

    Full Text Available Cancer metastases arise in part from disseminated tumor cells originating from the primary tumor and from residual disease persisting after therapy. The identification of biomarkers on micro-metastases, disseminated tumors, and residual disease may yield novel tools for early detection and treatment of these disease states prior to their development into metastases and recurrent tumors. Here we describe the molecular profiling of disseminated tumor cells in lungs, lung metastases, and residual tumor cells in the MMTV-PyMT breast cancer model. MMTV-PyMT mice were bred with actin-GFP mice, and focal hyperplastic lesions from pubertal MMTV-PyMT;actin-GFP mice were orthotopically transplanted into FVB/n mice to track single tumor foci. Tumor-bearing mice were treated with TAC chemotherapy (docetaxel, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and residual and relapsed tumor cells were sorted and profiled by mRNA microarray analysis. Data analysis revealed enrichment of the Jak/Stat pathway, Notch pathway, and epigenetic regulators in residual tumors. Stat1 was significantly up-regulated in a DNA-damage-resistant population of residual tumor cells, and a pre-existing Stat1 sub-population was identified in untreated tumors. Tumor cells from adenomas, carcinomas, lung disseminated tumor cells, and lung metastases were also sorted from MMTV-PyMT transplant mice and profiled by mRNA microarray. Whereas disseminated tumors cells appeared similar to carcinoma cells at the mRNA level, lung metastases were genotypically very different from disseminated cells and primary tumors. Lung metastases were enriched for a number of chromatin-modifying genes and stem cell-associated genes. Histone analysis of H3K4 and H3K9 suggested that lung metastases had been reprogrammed during malignant progression. These data identify novel biomarkers of residual tumor cells and disseminated tumor cells and implicate pathways that may mediate metastasis formation and tumor relapse after

  7. Agricultural information dissemination using ICTs: A review and analysis of information dissemination models in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades, China’s agriculture sector has been transformed from the traditional to modern practice through the effective deployment of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs. Information processing and dissemination have played a critical role in this transformation process. Many studies in relation to agriculture information services have been conducted in China, but few of them have attempted to provide a comprehensive review and analysis of different information dissemination models and their applications. This paper aims to review and identify the ICT based information dissemination models in China and to share the knowledge and experience in applying emerging ICTs in disseminating agriculture information to farmers and farm communities to improve productivity and economic, social and environmental sustainability. The paper reviews and analyzes the development stages of China’s agricultural information dissemination systems and different mechanisms for agricultural information service development and operations. Seven ICT-based information dissemination models are identified and discussed. Success cases are presented. The findings provide a useful direction for researchers and practitioners in developing future ICT based information dissemination systems. It is hoped that this paper will also help other developing countries to learn from China’s experience and best practice in their endeavor of applying emerging ICTs in agriculture information dissemination and knowledge transfer.

  8. Primary disseminated extrapulmonary multidrug resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Das

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated tuberculosis is a common mode of presentation of tuberculosis in patients both with and without HIV/AIDS in India. However, primary multidrug resistance in disseminated tuberculosis involving only the extrapulmonary sites in an immunocompetent adult is rare. Here, we report a case of a 19-year-old man who had disseminated tuberculosis involving left pleura, pericardium, peritoneum and intraabdominal lymph nodes. He was initially taking WHO category I antituberculous drugs, but was not responding in spite of 5 months of chemotherapy. Culture of the pleural biopsy specimen grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis which was resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin. He was put on therapy for multidrug resistant tuberculosis,following 24 months of chemotherapyhe had an uneventful recovery.

  9. Pineocytoma with diffuse dissemination to the leptomeninges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Selch

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pineal parenchymal tumors are rare. Of the three types of pineal parenchymal tumors, pineocytomas are the least aggressive and are not known to diffusely disseminate. In this paper, we report the successful treatment of a case of pineocytoma with diffuse leptomeningeal relapse following initial stereotactic radiotherapy. A 39-year-old female presented with headaches, balance impairment, urinary incontinence, and blunted affect. A pineal mass was discovered on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. A diagnosis of pineocytoma was established with an endoscopic pineal gland biopsy, and the patient received stereotactic radiotherapy. Ten years later, she developed diffuse leptomeningeal dissemination. The patient was then successfully treated with craniospinal radiation therapy. Leptomeningeal spread may develop as late as 10 years after initial presentation of pineocytoma. Our case demonstrates the importance of long-term follow-up of patients with pineal parenchymal tumors following radiation therapy, and the efficacy of craniospinal radiation in the treatment of leptomeningeal dissemination.

  10. Tracking Users for a Targeted Dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bautier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available How to build a dissemination and communication strategy in a world where users have easy access to a deluge of data and information from various origins and where IT tools and design standards change so quickly that users behaviour and their expectations are continuously modified? The first challenge of Eurostat is clearly to know what users want: we know our different types of users but we have to identify how they get our data, what they do with our data, how they react to our outputs and which sort of new service they would like us to propose. Translating these needs into a visual dissemination is a new challenge undertaken by Eurostat through a new portal, new mobile apps and new info graphs and basic application as well as increasing the visibility on Google. The objective of this paper is to share Eurostat's experience in identifying user Leeds and to show how concretely this information has been visually disseminated.

  11. {sup 68}Ga Labeling of DOTMP using Freeze-dried Kit for the Imaging of Bone Metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dho, So Hee; Choi, Sangmu; Kim, Sooyong; Cho, Eunha; Lee, Soyoung; Jung, Sunghee; Lim, Jaecheong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Bone is a favorable site of metastasis and is invaded common primary tumors such as prostate, breast, and lung. Due to the progressive pain and mortality of the bone metastasis, effort has been focused on the detection of bone metastasis in the field of nuclear medicine (Mitterhauser, Toegel et al. 2007, Mirzaei, Jalilian et al. 2015). In designing suitable imaging agents for bone metastasis, multidentate polyaminophosphonate are regarded as the most promising candidates as carrier ligands owing to their high bone affinity, selective localization in skeletal lesions and ability to form metal chelates with high in-vivo stability (Chakraborty, Das et al. 2008). 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetramethylene. Freeze-dried DOTMP kit vial was consist of 400 μ of DOTMP, 19.27 mg of ammonium acetate and 17.62 mg of ascorbic acid. All the preparative steps were carried out under aseptic conditions, and the prepared kit vials were shown in Fig. 3(A). The easy and efficient labeling of this kit with 68Ga make them suitable for preparing 68Ga-DOTMP for imaging of bone metastasis.

  12. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

      The connective tissue content of skeletal muscle is believed to be the major factor responsible for defining the eating quality of different meat cuts, although attempts to correlate quantifications based on traditional histological methods have not as yet been able to prove this relation....... Collagen, being the major protein in connective tissue, has been extensively investigated with regard to its relation to meat tenderness, but the results have been rather conflicting. Meat from older animals is tougher than that from younger animals, and changes in the properties of the collagen due...... that collagen plays a significant role in determining the tenderness of meat. What are we missing? Therefore, fundamental aspects of connective tissue research have been the centre of attention throughout this thesis. A holistic view has been applied, glancing at this complex tissue which has many facets...

  13. Pediatric aspects of skeletal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozono, Keiichi; Namba, Noriyuki; Kubota, Takuo; Kitaoka, Taichi; Miura, Kohji; Ohata, Yasuhisa; Fujiwara, Makoto; Miyoshi, Yoko; Michigami, Toshimi

    2012-10-01

    Skeletal dysplasia is a disorder of skeletal development characterized by abnormality in shape, length, a number and mineral density of the bone. Skeletal dysplasia is often associated with manifestation of other organs such as lung, brain and sensory systems. Skeletal dysplasias or dysostosis are classified with more than 400 different names. Enchondral bone formation is a coordinated event of chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation and exchange of terminally maturated chondrocyte with bone. Impaired enchondral bone formation will lead to skeletal dysplasia, especially associated with short long bones. Appropriate bone volume and mineral density are achieved by balance of bone formation and bone resorption and mineralization. The gene encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 is responsible for achondroplasia, representative skeletal dysplasia with short stature. The treatment with growth hormone is approved for achondroplasia in Japan. Osteogenesis imperfecta is characterized by low bone mineral density and fragile bone. Data on the beneficial effect of bisphosphonate for osteogenesis imperfecta are accumulating. Osteopetrosis has high bone mineral density, but sometimes show bone fragility. In Japan as well as other countries, pediatrician treat larger numbers of patients with skeletal dysplasia with short stature and fragile bones compared to 20 years ago.

  14. Dissemination and Exploitation: Project Goals beyond Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Kristin; Reitz, Anja

    2017-04-01

    Dissemination and Exploitation are essential parts of public funded projects. In Horizon 2020 a plan for the exploitation and dissemination of results (PEDR) is a requirement. The plan should contain a clear vision on the objectives of the project in relation to actions for dissemination and potential exploitation of the project results. The actions follow the basic idea to spread the knowledge and results gathered within the project and face the challenge of how to bring the results into potentially relevant policy circle and how they impact the market. The plan follows the purpose to assess the impact of the project and to address various target groups who are interested in the project results. Simply put, dissemination concentrates on the transfer of knowledge and exploitation on the commercialization of the project. Beyond the question of the measurability of project`s impact, strategies within science marketing can serve purposes beyond internal and external communication. Accordingly, project managers are facing the challenge to implement a dissemination and exploitation strategy that ideally supports the identification of all partners with the project and matches the current discourse of the project`s content within the society, politics and economy. A consolidated plan might unite all projects partners under a central idea and supports the identification with the project beyond the individual research questions. Which applications, strategies and methods can be used to bring forward a PEDR that accompanies a project successfully and allows a comprehensive assessment of the project afterwards? Which hurdles might project managers experience in the dissemination process and which tasks should be fulfilled by the project manager?

  15. PML promotes metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer through transcriptional regulation of HIF1A target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponente, Manfredi; Campanini, Letizia; Cuttano, Roberto; Piunti, Andrea; Delledonne, Giacomo A; Coltella, Nadia; Valsecchi, Roberta; Villa, Alessandra; Cavallaro, Ugo; Pattini, Linda; Doglioni, Claudio; Bernardi, Rosa

    2017-02-23

    Elucidating the molecular basis of tumor metastasis is pivotal for eradicating cancer-related mortality. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) encompasses a class of aggressive tumors characterized by high rates of recurrence and metastasis, as well as poor overall survival. Here, we find that the promyelocytic leukemia protein PML exerts a prometastatic function in TNBC that can be targeted by arsenic trioxide. We found that, in TNBC patients, constitutive HIF1A activity induces high expression of PML, along with a number of HIF1A target genes that promote metastasis at multiple levels. Intriguingly, PML controls the expression of these genes by binding to their regulatory regions along with HIF1A. This mechanism is specific to TNBC cells and does not occur in other subtypes of breast cancer where PML and prometastatic HIF1A target genes are underexpressed. As a consequence, PML promotes cell migration, invasion, and metastasis in TNBC cell and mouse models. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of PML with arsenic trioxide, a PML-degrading agent used to treat promyelocytic leukemia patients, delays tumor growth, impairs TNBC metastasis, and cooperates with chemotherapy by preventing metastatic dissemination. In conclusion, we report identification of a prometastatic pathway in TNBC and suggest clinical development toward the use of arsenic trioxide for TNBC patients.

  16. Berberine reverses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and inhibits metastasis and tumor-induced angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shu-Chen; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Hsu, Li-Sung; Chen, Kuo-Shuen; Su, Mei-Yu; Chen, Pei-Ni

    2014-12-01

    Metastasis is the most common cause of cancer-related death in patients, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is essential for cancer metastasis, which is a multistep complicated process that includes local invasion, intravasation, extravasation, and proliferation at distant sites. When cancer cells metastasize, angiogenesis is also required for metastatic dissemination, given that an increase in vascular density will allow easier access of tumor cells to circulation, and represents a rational target for therapeutic intervention. Berberine has several anti-inflammation and anticancer biologic effects. In this study, we provided molecular evidence that is associated with the antimetastatic effect of berberine by showing a nearly complete inhibition on invasion (P metalloproteinase-2 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Berberine reversed transforming growth factor-β1-induced EMT and caused upregulation of epithelial markers such as E-cadherin and inhibited mesenchymal markers such as N-cadherin and snail-1. Selective snail-1 inhibition by snail-1-specific small interfering RNA also showed increased E-cadherin expression in SiHa cells. Berberine also reduced tumor-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, an in vivo BALB/c nude mice xenograft model and tail vein injection model showed that berberine treatment reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis by oral gavage, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggested that berberine could reduce metastasis and angiogenesis of cervical cancer cells, thereby constituting an adjuvant treatment of metastasis control.

  17. Platelet integrin α6β1 controls lung metastasis through direct binding to cancer cell–derived ADAM9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammadova-Bach, Elmina; Zigrino, Paola; Brucker, Camille; Bourdon, Catherine; Freund, Monique; Abrams, Scott I.; Orend, Gertaud; Gachet, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic dissemination of cancer cells, which accounts for 90% of cancer mortality, is the ultimate hallmark of malignancy. Growing evidence suggests that blood platelets have a predominant role in tumor metastasis; however, the molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that genetic deficiency of integrin α6β1 on platelets markedly decreases experimental and spontaneous lung metastasis. In vitro and in vivo assays reveal that human and mouse platelet α6β1 supports platelet adhesion to various types of cancer cells. Using a knockdown approach, we identified ADAM9 as the major counter receptor of α6β1 on both human and mouse tumor cells. Static and flow-based adhesion assays of platelets binding to DC-9, a recombinant protein covering the disintegrin-cysteine domain of ADAM9, demonstrated that this receptor directly binds to platelet α6β1. In vivo studies showed that the interplay between platelet α6β1 and tumor cell–expressed ADAM9 promotes efficient lung metastasis. The integrin α6β1–dependent platelet-tumor cell interaction induces platelet activation and favors the extravasation process of tumor cells. Finally, we demonstrate that a pharmacological approach targeting α6β1 efficiently impairs tumor metastasis through a platelet-dependent mechanism. Our study reveals a mechanism by which platelets promote tumor metastasis and suggests that integrin α6β1 represents a promising target for antimetastatic therapies. PMID:27699237

  18. PML promotes metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer through transcriptional regulation of HIF1A target genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponente, Manfredi; Campanini, Letizia; Cuttano, Roberto; Piunti, Andrea; Delledonne, Giacomo A.; Coltella, Nadia; Valsecchi, Roberta; Villa, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating the molecular basis of tumor metastasis is pivotal for eradicating cancer-related mortality. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) encompasses a class of aggressive tumors characterized by high rates of recurrence and metastasis, as well as poor overall survival. Here, we find that the promyelocytic leukemia protein PML exerts a prometastatic function in TNBC that can be targeted by arsenic trioxide. We found that, in TNBC patients, constitutive HIF1A activity induces high expression of PML, along with a number of HIF1A target genes that promote metastasis at multiple levels. Intriguingly, PML controls the expression of these genes by binding to their regulatory regions along with HIF1A. This mechanism is specific to TNBC cells and does not occur in other subtypes of breast cancer where PML and prometastatic HIF1A target genes are underexpressed. As a consequence, PML promotes cell migration, invasion, and metastasis in TNBC cell and mouse models. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of PML with arsenic trioxide, a PML-degrading agent used to treat promyelocytic leukemia patients, delays tumor growth, impairs TNBC metastasis, and cooperates with chemotherapy by preventing metastatic dissemination. In conclusion, we report identification of a prometastatic pathway in TNBC and suggest clinical development toward the use of arsenic trioxide for TNBC patients. PMID:28239645

  19. Skeletal Muscle Na+ Channel Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina eSimkin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Five inherited human disorders affecting skeletal muscle contraction have been traced to mutations in the gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.4. The main symptoms of these disorders are myotonia or periodic paralysis caused by changes in skeletal muscle fiber excitability. Symptoms of these disorders vary from mild or latent disease to incapacitating or even death in severe cases. As new human sodium channel mutations corresponding to disease states become discovered, the importance of understanding the role of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle function and disease state grows.

  20. Choroidal metastasis from leiomyosarcoma in two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Feinstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma is a malignant tumor of mesenchymal cells and is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma. Leiomyosarcoma is a notably rare tumor in the ophthalmic region and can be of primary, secondary or metastatic origin. To the best of our knowledge, there has only been one published case of leiomyosarcoma metastasis to the choroid. In this case study, we report two cases of primary leiomyosarcoma with metastasis to the choroid of the eye. Both cases displayed systemic metastasis and showed response to high dose plaque radiotherapy. Despite its prevalence as the leading form of sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma rarely metastasizes to the ocular region.

  1. Natural History of Malignant Bone Disease in Gastric Cancer: Final Results of a Multicenter Bone Metastasis Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestris, Nicola; Pantano, Francesco; Ibrahim, Toni; Gamucci, Teresa; De Vita, Fernando; Di Palma, Teresa; Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Barni, Sandro; Bernardo, Antonio; Febbraro, Antonio; Satolli, Maria Antonietta; Bertocchi, Paola; Catalano, Vincenzo; Giommoni, Elisa; Comandone, Alessandro; Maiello, Evaristo; Riccardi, Ferdinando; Ferrara, Raimondo; Trogu, Antonio; Berardi, Rossana; Leo, Silvana; Bertolini, Alessandro; Angelini, Francesco; Cinieri, Saverio; Russo, Antonio; Pisconti, Salvatore; Brunetti, Anna Elisabetta; Azzariti, Amalia; Santini, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone metastasis represents an increasing clinical problem in advanced gastric cancer (GC) as disease-related survival improves. In literature, few data on the natural history of bone disease in GC are available. Patients and Methods Data on clinicopathology, skeletal outcomes, skeletal-related events (SREs), and bone-directed therapies for 208 deceased GC patients with evidence of bone metastasis were statistically analyzed. Results Median time to bone metastasis was 8 months (CI 95%, 6.125–9.875 months) considering all included patients. Median number of SREs/patient was one. Less than half of the patients (31%) experienced at least one and only 4 and 2% experienced at least two and three events, respectively. Median times to first and second SRE were 2 and 4 months, respectively. Median survival was 6 months after bone metastasis diagnosis and 3 months after first SRE. Median survival in patients who did not experience SREs was 5 months. Among patients who received zoledronic acid before the first SRE, the median time to appearance of first SRE was significantly prolonged compared to control (7 months vs 4 months for control; P: 0.0005). Conclusions To our knowledge, this retrospective analysis is the largest multicenter study to demonstrate that bone metastases from GC are not so rare, are commonly aggressive and result in relatively early onset of SREs in the majority of patients. Indeed, our large study, which included 90 patients treated with ZOL, showed, for the first time in literature, a significant extension of time to first SRE and increase in the median survival time after diagnosis of bone metastasis. Taken together, these data may support the beneficial effects of ZOL in GC patients. PMID:24204569

  2. Cutaneous metastasis from a myoepithelial carcinoma of submandibular salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Abhijit; Barwad, Adarsh; Bal, Amanjit; Dey, Pranab

    2015-01-01

    Myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor of salivary gland with locally aggressive nature and potential for distant metastasis. It is composed of tumor cells with myoepithelial differentiation showing varied cytomorphology. Lungs and kidneys are the commonest sites for distant metastasis. Cutaneous metastasis of myoepithelial carcinoma is very rare. In this report, we described cutaneous metastasis of myoepithelial carcinoma arising from submandibular gland.

  3. Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings.

  4. Collection, verification, sharing and dissemination of data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Utzinger, Jürg; Kristensen, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    The scientific community is charged with growing demands regarding the management of project data and outputs and the dissemination of key results to various stakeholders. We discuss experiences and lessons from CONTRAST, a multidisciplinary alliance that had been funded by the European Commission...

  5. Knowledge Management and Global Information Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umunadi, Ejiwoke Kennedy

    2014-01-01

    The paper looked at knowledge management and global information dissemination. Knowledge is a very powerful tool for survival, growth and development. It can be seen as the information, understanding and skills that you gain through education or experience. The paper was addressed under the following sub-headings: Knowledge management knowledge…

  6. Computer software management, evaluation, and dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center involving the collection, processing, and distribution of software developed under the auspices of NASA and certain other federal agencies are reported. Program checkout and evaluation, inventory control, customer services and marketing, dissemination, program maintenance, and special development tasks are discussed.

  7. A Primer on Disseminating Applied Quantitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Bethany A.; DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant B.

    2010-01-01

    Transparency and replication are essential features of scientific inquiry, yet scientific communications of applied quantitative research are often lacking in much-needed procedural information. In an effort to promote researchers dissemination of their quantitative studies in a cohesive, detailed, and informative manner, the authors delineate…

  8. Evolution of diffusion and dissemination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, James W

    2008-01-01

    The article provides a review and considers how the diffusion of innovations Research paradigm has changed, and offers suggestions for the further development of this theory of social change. Main emphases of diffusion Research studies are compared over time, with special attention to applications of diffusion theory-based concepts as types of dissemination science. A considerable degree of paradigmatic evolution is observed. The classical diffusion model focused on adopter innovativeness, individuals as the locus of decision, communication channels, and adoption as the primary outcome measures in post hoc observational study designs. The diffusion systems in question were centralized, with fidelity of implementation often assumed. Current dissemination Research and practice is better characterized by tests of interventions that operationalize one or more diffusion theory-based concepts and concepts from other change approaches, involve complex organizations as the units of adoption, and focus on implementation issues. Foment characterizes dissemination and implementation Research, Reflecting both its interdisciplinary Roots and the imperative of spreading evidence-based innovations as a basis for a new paradigm of translational studies of dissemination science.

  9. ESEA III Evaluation and Dissemination: An Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balyeat, Ralph R.; Norman, C. Douglas

    This study surveyed evaluation and dissemination/diffusion practices of ESEA III projects funded in the 1969 fiscal year, which projects are nearing the end of their operations as federally supported programs. The study attempted to discover if (1) the projects were evaluated in accordance with generally accepted procedures, (2) the project…

  10. The Hawaii Educational Dissemination Diffusion System Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kellet; And Others

    Hawaii's endeavor to use information technology to improve educational practices within the state is described in four major sections: (1) the framework of the plan, including a brief history of dissemination, the goals of the plan, and philosophic statements on resources, linkages, and leadership; (2) the resource component, including an…

  11. Building State Capacity in Dissemination: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Ernest W.

    This review was developed by and principally for the National Testing Service (NTS) Dissemination Project Staff. It is one of eight activities being used by NTS to develop a design for an evaluation of the State Capacity Building Program. The review is in two parts. The first part provides background information, evaluation methodologies and…

  12. Data Dissemination in Mobile Phone Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Le, Viet Duc; Le Viet Duc, L Duc

    Deploying sensors over large areas is costly in terms of configuration, hardware, and maintenance. Using onboard sensors of today mobile phones can significantly reduce the expenses in monitoring areas and disseminating events or data. Via the available short-range Bluetooth and/or WiFi interfaces,

  13. Data Dissemination in Mobile Phone Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Viet-Duc; Le, Viet-Duc

    2012-01-01

    Deploying sensors over large areas is costly in terms of configuration, hardware, and maintenance. Using onboard sensors of today mobile phones can significantly reduce the expenses in monitoring areas and disseminating events or data. Via the available short-range Bluetooth and/or WiFi interfaces,

  14. Disseminated Gastrointestinal Mucormycosis in Immunocompromised Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Sun Ha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is an uncommon opportunistic fungal infection mostly affecting immunocompromised patients and gastrointestinal mucormycosis is a rare and life-threatening. We describe a 31-year-old man with a history of idiopathic cyclic neutropenia who developed perforations of the stomach and intestine and intra-abdominal bleeding due to disseminated gastrointestinal mucormycosis after the initial operation.

  15. CHRONIC DISSEMINATED HISTOPLASMOSIS WITH PROLONGED LATENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case of chronic disseminated histoplasmosis in an ex-serviceman is described. Evidence is presented to support a latency period of over sixty years between acquisition of infection and clinical manifestation. This is the longest latency period for histoplasmosis described in the medical literature...

  16. The FAIR-INNOVATION dissemination project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, R

    2001-08-01

    The goal of the FAIR-INNOVATION dissemination project (FLAIR-FLOW 3) (1997-2000) was to disseminate R&D results from the EU FAIR programme to small and medium-sized food enterprises (SMEs), health professionals (HPs) and consumer groups (CGs) in 19 European countries. The dissemination routes were: (i) one-page technical documents on research results; (ii) their reproduction on the internet; (iii) their reproduction in journals Europe-wide; (iv) workshops on results from EU-supported food research programmes; and (v) lectures and poster presentations by FLAIR-FLOW network personnel. Of the 135 one-pagers produced, 62% were targeted at SMEs, 18% at HPs and 5% at CGs. The remaining 15% were on food safety and were common to the three target groups. There were 1047 publications arising from one-pages in trade journals, and over 8000 requests (paper route) were received for follow-up information. These were in addition to 240 k downloads from the FLAIR-FLOW 3 web site (www.flair-flow.com). Initiatives for HPs included specially collated versions of the one-pagers for major conferences, 20 focused workshops, and interaction with the European Federation of Associations of Dieticians. Currently, dissemination is continuing through FLAIR-FLOW 4 (2001-2003) in 24 countries. FLAIR-FLOW 4 is co-ordinated by M. Jean François Quillien from INRA-CRIAA (FR) at criaa@rennes.inra.fr.

  17. Disseminated Enteroviral Infection Associated with Obinutuzumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendle, Claire; Gilbertson, Michael; Korman, Tony M; Golder, Vera; Morand, Eric; Opat, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    Two cases of disseminated enteroviral infection occurred in patients who received the CD20 monoclonal antibody obinutuzumab. Clinical features included hepatitis, edema, and a dermatomyositis-like syndrome. These manifestations may be unfamiliar to clinicians and are possibly responsive to intravenous immunoglobulin. Clinicians should remain vigilant for enteroviral infections in patients receiving obinutuzumab.

  18. Disseminated Enteroviral Infection Associated with Obinutuzumab

    OpenAIRE

    Dendle, Claire; Gilbertson, Michael; Korman, Tony M; Golder, Vera; Morand, Eric; Opat, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Two cases of disseminated enteroviral infection occurred in patients who received the CD20 monoclonal antibody obinutuzumab. Clinical features included hepatitis, edema, and a dermatomyositis-like syndrome. These manifestations may be unfamiliar to clinicians and are possibly responsive to intravenous immunoglobulin. Clinicians should remain vigilant for enteroviral infections in patients receiving obinutuzumab.

  19. Knowledge Management and Global Information Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umunadi, Ejiwoke Kennedy

    2014-01-01

    The paper looked at knowledge management and global information dissemination. Knowledge is a very powerful tool for survival, growth and development. It can be seen as the information, understanding and skills that you gain through education or experience. The paper was addressed under the following sub-headings: Knowledge management knowledge…

  20. Differential diagnosis of disseminated periventricular calcifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, P.; Piepgras, U.

    1986-08-01

    Juvenile disseminated periventricular calcifications may occur in tuberous sclerosis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegaly, and in tuberculous meningitis. Cysticercosis, by contrast, does not result in corresponding intracerebral foci until an older age. Differential diagnosis is no problem if clinical findings are typical (tuberous sclerosis) or if serological verification is positive. However, any unclear clinical diagnosis can often be secured by CT.

  1. A Proposed Framework for Educational Innovation Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Benjamin T.; Wu, Yun; Sankar, Chetan S.; Jones-Farmer, L. Allison

    2012-01-01

    Although the need for new educational technologies is increasing, the process for disseminating these innovations remains a challenge. A literature review shows that few studies have thoroughly investigated this area. Furthermore, there is no comprehensive framework or coordinated research agenda that may be used to guide such investigation. This…

  2. Strategies for Production and Dissemination of CAI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, W. P.; Scott, G. F.

    The Individualization Project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) was organized on a cooperative basis with a federal agency and several community colleges. The main design goals were to produce needed courseware, move smoothly from research and development to a production mode of operation, and to emphasize dissemination of…

  3. Disseminating Traffic Information in Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alyas Shahid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Wifi based system is described for disseminating traffic information in vehicular networks. Basic aim of this approach is to distribute information regarding the traffic conditions such as traffic congestions or safety warnings to vehicles in an effective way.

  4. Simvastatin effects on skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Stride, Nis; Hey-Mogensen, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9).......Glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) content, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity were measured in simvastatin-treated patients (n = 10) and in well-matched control subjects (n = 9)....

  5. Anti-Angiogenic Treatment (Sunitinib for Disseminated Malignant Haemangiopericytoma: A Case Study and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Delgado

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A meningeal haemangiopericytoma (HP is a mesenchymal tumour that makes up less than 1% of all CNS tumours. HPs arise from pericytes and present high rates of recurrence and distant metastasis. The primary treatment option is surgery. When the disease is disseminated, chemotherapy produces a weak and short-lived response; therefore, new drugs are needed. Case Presentation: We describe the case of a 65-year-old woman with a 13-year history of recurrent HP. After local treatment with radiotherapy, she developed metastases that required systemic treatment, and treatment with sunitinib, an oral inhibitor of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and the platelet-derived growth factor receptor, was initiated. As a result, radiological stabilisation of the systemic disease was maintained for over 12 months. Conclusions: Anti-angiogenic agents can be useful for treating disseminated HP, but further studies are needed to confirm their possible role in controlling metastatic disease.

  6. Osteosarcoma metastasis causing ileo-ileal intussusception

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abbo, Olivier; Pinnagoda, Kalitha; Micol, Lionel A; Beck-Popovic, Maya; Joseph, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    .... We conclude that, in patients with a history of osteosarcoma lung metastasis, echographic and/or computed tomography scan evidence of a small bowel obstruction with intussusception should lead...

  7. Isolated Malignant Melanoma Metastasis to the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne K. Larsen, MD

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field.

  8. Biology of cancer invasion and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareel, M M; Crombez, R

    1992-01-01

    Current concepts of invasion eventually leading to metastasis are discussed and exemplified by cancers of the head and neck mucosa. Invasion occurs at a number of steps, each step making an ecosystem comprising not only the neoplastic cells but also their normal counterparts, a variety of host cells and the extracellular matrix. The ecosystem concept may explain aspects of metastasis such as site-dependence and organ-specificity of cancer metastasis as well as invasiveness of normal leucocytes. Genes implicated in invasion and metastasis are actively searched for. Recently, the epithelial cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin has been identified as an i- (invasion suppressor) gene product, i.e. a molecule the expression of which counterbalances i+ (invasion promotor) gene activity. Downregulation of E-cadherin in human head and neck cancers may account for their invasive and metastatic behaviour.

  9. Organotropic metastasis: role of tumor exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Xuetao

    2016-02-01

    A recent paper in Nature shows that tumor exosomes expressing unique integrins can determine organotropic metastasis by preparing pre-metastatic niche through their integrins-mediated fusion with and fertilization of organ-specific resident cells.

  10. Evolution of metastasis revealed by mutational landscapes of chemically induced skin cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Melissa Q; Halliwill, Kyle D; Chin, Douglas; Delrosario, Reyno; Hirst, Gillian; Vuong, Peter; Jen, Kuang-Yu; Hewinson, James; Adams, David J; Balmain, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Human tumors show a high level of genetic heterogeneity, but the processes that influence the timing and route of metastatic dissemination of the subclones are unknown. Here we have used whole-exome sequencing of 103 matched benign, malignant and metastatic skin tumors from genetically heterogeneous mice to demonstrate that most metastases disseminate synchronously from the primary tumor, supporting parallel rather than linear evolution as the predominant model of metastasis. Shared mutations between primary carcinomas and their matched metastases have the distinct A-to-T signature of the initiating carcinogen dimethylbenzanthracene, but non-shared mutations are primarily G-to-T, a signature associated with oxidative stress. The existence of carcinomas that either did or did not metastasize in the same host animal suggests that there are tumor-intrinsic factors that influence metastatic seeding. We also demonstrate the importance of germline polymorphisms in determining allele-specific mutations, and we identify somatic genetic alterations that are specifically related to initiation of carcinogenesis by Hras or Kras mutations. Mouse tumors that mimic the genetic heterogeneity of human cancers can aid our understanding of the clonal evolution of metastasis and provide a realistic model for the testing of novel therapies. PMID:26523969

  11. Mutant p53-associated myosin-X upregulation promotes breast cancer invasion and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjonen, Antti; Kaukonen, Riina; Mattila, Elina; Rouhi, Pegah; Högnäs, Gunilla; Sihto, Harri; Miller, Bryan W; Morton, Jennifer P; Bucher, Elmar; Taimen, Pekka; Virtakoivu, Reetta; Cao, Yihai; Sansom, Owen J; Joensuu, Heikki; Ivaska, Johanna

    2014-03-01

    Mutations of the tumor suppressor TP53 are present in many forms of human cancer and are associated with increased tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Several mechanisms have been identified for promoting dissemination of cancer cells with TP53 mutations, including increased targeting of integrins to the plasma membrane. Here, we demonstrate a role for the filopodia-inducing motor protein Myosin-X (Myo10) in mutant p53-driven cancer invasion. Analysis of gene expression profiles from 2 breast cancer data sets revealed that MYO10 was highly expressed in aggressive cancer subtypes. Myo10 was required for breast cancer cell invasion and dissemination in multiple cancer cell lines and murine models of cancer metastasis. Evaluation of a Myo10 mutant without the integrin-binding domain revealed that the ability of Myo10 to transport β₁ integrins to the filopodia tip is required for invasion. Introduction of mutant p53 promoted Myo10 expression in cancer cells and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in mice, whereas suppression of endogenous mutant p53 attenuated Myo10 levels and cell invasion. In clinical breast carcinomas, Myo10 was predominantly expressed at the invasive edges and correlated with the presence of TP53 mutations and poor prognosis. These data indicate that Myo10 upregulation in mutant p53-driven cancers is necessary for invasion and that plasma-membrane protrusions, such as filopodia, may serve as specialized metastatic engines.

  12. Targeting Leptin as a Therapeutic Strategy against Ovarian Cancer Peritoneal Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao; Liu, Yi; Gong, Cheng; Ji, Teng; Zhou, Xiaoshui; Zhang, Taoran; Wan, Dongyi; Xu, Sen; Jin, Ping; Yang, Xin; Li, Xiaoting; Ma, Ding; Yang, Zongyuan; Gao, Qinglei

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of death in patients with gynecologic malignancy. Malignant ascites, a shared symptom of advanced OC patients, plays an important role in the peritoneal metastasis cascade of OC. Since leptin existed in great amount in malignant ascites, we speculated that it might be involved in the modulation of tumor cells malignant behavior. Here, we demonstrated that blocking of leptin could significantly suppress ovarian malignant ascitesinduced metastatic aggravation of OC cells. Furthermore, our results suggested that leptin was highly expressed in OC and correlated with poor outcome of OC patients. Recombinant leptin notably promoted the migration, invasion and proliferation of OC cells. Mechanistically, we found that leptin induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program in OC cells through the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway partly impaired leptin-induced malignant transformation of OC cells. More importantly, our in vivo xenograft experiment showed that blocking of leptin could dramatically inhibit OC cells peritoneal dissemination. Collectively, this study emphasized the importance of leptin in OC progression and illustrated a novel mechanism that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway was involved in leptin-induced EMT. Our findings provide new insights into leptin exertion on OC metastasis and identify the potential of leptin neutralizing as a novel strategy against OC peritoneal dissemination. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Prognostic Significance of Peritoneal Metastasis in Stage IV Colorectal Cancer Patients With R0 Resection: A Multicenter, Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Keiichi; Kawai, Kazushige; Ishihara, Soichiro; Hata, Keisuke; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Oba, Koji; Sugihara, Kenichi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-10-01

    Stage IV colorectal cancer encompasses various clinical conditions. The differences in prognosis after surgery between different metastatic organs have not been fully investigated. This study aimed to assess prognostic significance in peritoneal metastasis in R0 resected stage IV colorectal cancer. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study of patients with R0 resected stage IV colorectal cancer; they were categorized into 3 groups according to the number and location of metastatic organs, including single-organ metastasis in the peritoneum, single-organ metastasis at sites except the peritoneum, and multiple-organ metastases. This study used data accumulated by the Japanese Study Group for Postoperative Follow-Up of Colorectal Cancer. A total of 1133 patients with R0 resected stage IV colorectal cancer were registered retrospectively between 1997 and 2007 in 20 referral hospitals. Cancer-specific survival rates between the groups were measured. The median cancer-specific survival of the single-organ metastasis in the peritoneum group was considerably shorter than that of the single-organ metastasis at a site other than the peritoneum group and was almost comparable to that of the multiple-organ metastases group (3.41 years, 6.20 years, and 2.99 years). In a multivariate analysis of cancer-specific survival, peritoneal dissemination was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor of survival. The median postrecurrence survival of single-organ metastasis in the peritoneum group was considerably shorter than that of the single-organ metastasis at a site other than the peritoneum group. Approximately half of the patients who experienced recurrence of single-organ metastasis in the peritoneum experienced peritoneal recurrence. This was a retrospective, population-based study that requires a prospective design to validate its conclusions. Peritoneal metastasis of colorectal cancer frequently recurred in the peritoneum even after R0 resection. The cancer

  14. Isolated malignant melanoma metastasis to the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne K; Krag, Christen; Geertsen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field.......SUMMARY: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field....

  15. Gastric metastasis by lung small cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni Casella; Camillo Di Bella; Antonino Roberto Cambareri; Carmelo Antonio Buda; Gianluigi Corti; Filippo Magri; Stefano Crippa; Vittorio Baldini

    2006-01-01

    Metastatic tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are rare. We describe a case of gastric metastasis due to primary lung cancer, revealed by an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE). Haematogenous metastases to the stomach are a rare event. To our knowledge, only 55 cases have been described in the international literature. In these patients, the prognosis is very poor. We report herein a case of gastric metastasis by lung small cell carcinoma,with a review of the literature about this rare entity.

  16. Molecular mechanisms of metastasis in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noel W.Clarke; Claire A.Hart; Mick D.Brown

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) preferentially metastasizes to the bone marrow stroma of the axial skeleton.This activity is the principal cause of PCa morbidity and mortality.The exact mechanism of PCa metastasis is currently unknown,although considerable progress has been made in determining the key players in this process.In this review,we present the current understanding of the molecular processes driving PCa metastasis to the bone.

  17. Gastric metastasis by lung small cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Giovanni; Bella, Camillo Di; Cambareri, Antonino Roberto; Buda, Carmelo Antonio; Corti, Gianluigi; Magri, Filippo; Crippa, Stefano; Baldini, Vittorio

    2006-01-01

    Metastatic tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are rare. We describe a case of gastric metastasis due to primary lung cancer, revealed by an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE). Haematogenous metastases to the stomach are a rare event. To our knowledge, only 55 cases have been described in the international literature. In these patients, the prognosis is very poor. We report herein a case of gastric metastasis by lung small cell carcinoma, with a review of the literature about this rare entity. PMID:16810769

  18. Dissemination Matters: Influences of Dissemination Activities on User Types in an Online Educational Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yuan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Emerging online educational communities provide spaces for teachers to find resources, create instructional activities, and share these activities with others. Within these online communities, individual users’ activities may vary widely, and thus different user types can be identified. In addition, users’ patterns of activities in online communities are dynamic, and further can be affected by dissemination activities. Through analyzing usage analytics in an online teacher community called the Instructional Architect, this study explores the influences of dissemination activities on the usage patterns of different user types. Results show that dissemination activities can play an important role in encouraging users’ active participation, while the absence of dissemination activities can further increase participation inequality.

  19. Aneuploidy and Skeletal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakar, Archana; Harris, John R.; McKelvey, Kent D.; Suva, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The normal human chromosome complement consists of 46 chromosomes comprising 22 morphologically different pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. Variations in either chromosome number and/or structure frequently result in significant mental impairment, and/or a variety of other clinical problems, among them, altered bone mass and strength. Chromosomal syndromes associated with specific chromosomal abnormalities are classified as either numerical or structural and may involve more than one chromosome. Aneuploidy refers to the presence of an extra copy of a specific chromosome, or trisomy, as seen in Down’s syndrome (trisomy 21), or the absence of a single chromosome, or monosomy, as seen in Turner syndrome (a single X chromosome in females: 45, X). Aneuploidies have diverse phenotypic consequences, ranging from severe mental retardation and developmental abnormalities to increased susceptibility to various neoplasms and premature death. In fact, trisomy 21 is the prototypical aneuploidy in humans, is the most common genetic abnormality associated with longevity and is one of the most widespread genetic causes of intellectual disability. In this review, the impact of trisomy 21 on the bone mass, architecture, skeletal health and quality of life of people with Down syndrome will be discussed. PMID:24980541

  20. Cellular Plasticity in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dima Y. Jadaan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Experimental data suggest that tumour cells can reversibly transition between epithelial and mesenchymal states (EMT and MET, a phenomenon known as cellular plasticity. The aim of this review was to appraise the clinical evidence for the role of cellular plasticity in prostate cancer (PC bone metastasis. Methods. An electronic search was performed using PubMed for studies that have examined the differential expression of epithelial, mesenchymal, and stem cell markers in human PC bone metastasis tissues. Results. The review included nineteen studies. More than 60% of the studies used ≤20 bone metastasis samples, and there were several sources of heterogeneity between studies. Overall, most stem cell markers analysed, except for CXCR4, were positively expressed in bone metastasis tissues, while the expression of EMT and MET markers was heterogeneous between and within samples. Several EMT and stemness markers that are involved in osteomimicry, such as Notch, Met receptor, and Wnt/β pathway, were highly expressed in bone metastases. Conclusions. Clinical findings support the role of cellular plasticity in PC bone metastasis and suggest that epithelial and mesenchymal states cannot be taken in isolation when targeting PC bone metastasis. The paper also highlights several challenges in the clinical detection of cellular plasticity.

  1. Roles of TGFβ in metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Padua; Joan Massagué

    2009-01-01

    The TGFβ signaling pathway is conserved from flies to humans and has been shown to regulate such diverse pro-cesses as cell proliferation,differentiation,motility,adhesion,organization,and programmed cell death.Both in vitro and in vivo experiments suggest that TGFβ can utilize these varied programs to promote cancer metastasis through its effects on the tumor microenvironment,enhanced invasive properties,and inhibifion of immune cell function.Recent clinical evidence demonstrating a link between TGFβ signaling and cancer progression is fostering interest in this signaling pathway as a therapeutic target.Anti-TGFβ therapies are currently being developed and tested in pre-clinical studies.However,targeting TGFβ carries a substantial risk as this pathway is implicated in multiple homeo-static processes and is also known to have tumor-suppressor functions.Additionally,clinical and experimental results show that TGFβ has diverse and often conflicting roles in tumor progression even within the same tumor types.The development of TGFβ inhibitors for clinical use will require a deeper understanding of TGFβ signaling,its conse- quences,and the contexts in which it acts.

  2. Morphed and moving: TNFα-driven motility promotes cell dissemination through MAP4K4-induced cytoskeleton remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ma

    2014-04-01

    cytoskeleton regulatory kinase MAP4K4. We discuss here the relevance of TNFα-MAP4K4 signaling for pathogen-driven cell dissemination and its potential impact on the induction of metastasis in human cancer.

  3. Nek2 siRNA therapy using a portal venous port-catheter system for liver metastasis in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokuryo, Toshio; Hibino, Shigeru; Suzuki, Kazushi; Watanabe, Katsutaka; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Nagino, Masato; Senga, Takeshi; Hamaguchi, Michinari

    2016-09-01

    Nek2 (NIMA-related kinase 2) is a serine-threonine kinase and human homolog of the mitotic regulator NIMA of Aspergillus nidulan. We reported the efficiency of Nek2 siRNA in several cancer xenograft models using cholangiocarcinoma, breast cancer and colorectal cancer. Pancreatic cancer is difficult to treat due to its rapid progression and resistance to chemotherapy. Novel treatments are urgently required to improve survival in pancreatic cancer, and siRNA are a promising therapeutic option. However, finding an in vivo drug delivery system of siRNA remains a major problem for clinical application. In this study, the overexpression of Nek2 was identified in pancreatic cancer cell lines. Nek2 siRNA inhibited tumor growth in a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model of pancreatic cancer, prolonged the survival time in an intraperitoneal xenograft mouse model and efficiently prevented the progression of liver metastasis using a portal venous port-catheter system. Taken together, Nek2 is an effective therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. An adequate delivery system is considered important in treating advanced pancreatic cancer, such as peritoneal dissemination and liver metastasis. Further investigations are required on the safety and side effects of the portal venous port-catheter system. We hope that Nek2 siRNA will be a novel therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer with liver metastasis and peritoneal dissemination.

  4. Slug promotes survival during metastasis through suppression of Puma-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seaho; Yao, Jiahong; Suyama, Kimita; Qian, Xia; Qian, Bin-Zhi; Bandyopadhyay, Sanmay; Loudig, Olivier; De Leon-Rodriguez, Carlos; Zhou, Zhen Ni; Segall, Jeffrey; Macian, Fernando; Norton, Larry; Hazan, Rachel B

    2014-07-15

    Tumor cells must overcome apoptosis to survive throughout metastatic dissemination and distal organ colonization. Here, we show in the Polyoma Middle T mammary tumor model that N-cadherin (Cdh2) expression causes Slug (Snai2) upregulation, which in turn promotes carcinoma cell survival. Slug was dramatically upregulated in metastases relative to primary tumors. Consistent with a role in metastasis, Slug knockdown in carcinoma cells suppressed lung colonization by decreasing cell survival at metastatic sites, but had no effect on tumor cell invasion or extravasation. In support of this idea, Slug inhibition by shRNA sensitized tumor cells to apoptosis by DNA damage, resulting in caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. The prosurvival effect of Slug was found to be caused by direct repression of the proapoptotic gene, Puma (Bbc3), by Slug. Consistent with a pivotal role for a Slug-Puma axis in metastasis, inhibition of Puma by RNA interference in Slug-knockdown cells rescued lung colonization, whereas Puma overexpression in control tumor cells suppressed lung metastasis. The survival function of the Slug-Puma axis was confirmed in human breast cancer cells, where Slug knockdown increased Puma expression and inhibited lung colonization. This study demonstrates a pivotal role for Slug in carcinoma cell survival, implying that disruption of the Slug-Puma axis may impinge on the survival of metastatic cells.

  5. Antagonism of chemokine receptor CXCR3 inhibits osteosarcoma metastasis to lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradelli, Emmanuelle; Karimdjee-Soilihi, Babou; Michiels, Jean-François; Ricci, Jean-Ehrland; Millet, Marie-Ange; Vandenbos, Fanny; Sullivan, Timothy J; Collins, Tassie L; Johnson, Michael G; Medina, Julio C; Kleinerman, Eugenie S; Schmid-Alliana, Annie; Schmid-Antomarchi, Heidy

    2009-12-01

    Metastasis continues to be the leading cause of mortality for patients with cancer. Several years ago, it became clear that chemokines and their receptors could control the tumor progress. CXCR3 has now been identified in many cancers including osteosarcoma and CXCR3 ligands were expressed by lungs that are the primary sites to which this tumor metastasize. This study tested the hypothesis that disruption of the CXCR3/CXCR3 ligands complexes could lead to a decrease in lungs metastasis. The experimental design involved the use of the CXCR3 antagonist, AMG487 and 2 murine models of osteosarcoma lung metastases. After tail vein injection of osteosarcoma cells, mice that were systematically treated with AMG487 according to preventive or curative protocols had a significant reduction in metastatic disease. Treatment of osteosarcoma cells in vitro with AMG487 led to decreased migration, decreased matrix metalloproteinase activity, decreased proliferation/survival and increased caspase-independent death. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that CXCR3 and their ligands intervene in the initial dissemination of the osteosarcoma cells to the lungs and stimulate the growth and expansion of the metastatic foci in later stages. Moreover, these studies indicate that targeting CXCR3 may specifically inhibit tumor metastasis without adversely affecting antitumoral host response.

  6. EMT cells increase breast cancer metastasis via paracrine GLI activation in neighbouring tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Deepika; Zhou, Hengbo; Oliphant, Michael U J; Zhang, Xiaomei; Simon, Lukas M; Henke, David M; Shaw, Chad A; Wu, Meng-Fen; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; White, Lisa D; Lewis, Michael T; Ford, Heide L

    2017-06-12

    Recent fate-mapping studies concluded that EMT is not required for metastasis of carcinomas. Here we challenge this conclusion by showing that these studies failed to account for possible crosstalk between EMT and non-EMT cells that promotes dissemination of non-EMT cells. In breast cancer models, EMT cells induce increased metastasis of weakly metastatic, non-EMT tumour cells in a paracrine manner, in part by non-cell autonomous activation of the GLI transcription factor. Treatment with GANT61, a GLI1/2 inhibitor, but not with IPI 926, a Smoothened inhibitor, blocks this effect and inhibits growth in PDX models. In human breast tumours, the EMT-transcription factors strongly correlate with activated Hedgehog/GLI signalling but not with the Hh ligands. Our findings indicate that EMT contributes to metastasis via non-cell autonomous effects that activate the Hh pathway. Although all Hh inhibitors may act against tumours with canonical Hh/GLI signalling, only GLI inhibitors would act against non-canonical EMT-induced GLI activation.

  7. Development of a realistic in vivo bone metastasis model of human renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valta, Maija P; Zhao, Hongjuan; Ingels, Alexandre; Thong, Alan E; Nolley, Rosalie; Saar, Matthias; Peehl, Donna M

    2014-06-01

    About one-third of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have bone metastases. The incidence of RCC is increasing and bone metastatic RCC merits greater focus. Realistic preclinical bone metastasis models of RCC are lacking, hampering the development of effective therapies. We developed a realistic in vivo bone metastasis model of human RCC by implanting precision-cut tissue slices under the renal capsule of immunodeficient mice. The presence of disseminated cells in bone marrow of tissue slice graft (TSG)-bearing mice was screened by human-specific polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by immunohistology using human-specific antibody. Disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow of TSG-bearing mice derived from three of seven RCC patients were detected as early as 1 month after tissue implantation at a high frequency with close resemblance to parent tumors (e.g., CAIX expression and high vascularity). The metastatic patterns of TSGs correlated with disease progression in patients. In addition, TSGs retained capacity to metastasize to bone at high frequency after serial passaging and cryopreservation. Moreover, bone metastases in mice responded to Temsirolimus treatment. Intratibial injections of single cells generated from TSGs showed 100 % engraftment and produced X-ray-visible tumors as early as 3 weeks after cancer cell inoculation. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) and histological analysis revealed osteolytic characteristics of these lesions. Our results demonstrated that orthotopic RCC TSGs have potential to develop bone metastases that respond to standard therapy. This first reported primary RCC bone metastasis model provides a realistic setting to test therapeutics to prevent or treat bone metastases in RCC.

  8. Occurrence of cancer at multiple sites: Towards distinguishing multigenesis from metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occurrence of tumors at multiple sites is a hallmark of malignant cancers and contributes to the high mortality of cancers. The formation of multi-site cancers (MSCs has conventionally been regarded as a result of hematogenous metastasis. However, some MSCs may appear as unusual in the sense of vascular dissemination pattern and therefore be explained by alternative metastasis models or even by non-metastatic independent formation mechanisms. Results Through literature review and incorporation of recent advance in understanding aging and development, we identified two alternative mechanisms for the independent formation of MSCs: 1 formation of separate tumors from cancer-initiating cells (CICs mutated at an early stage of development and then diverging as to their physical locations upon further development, 2 formation of separate tumors from different CICs that contain mutations in some convergent ways. Either of these processes does not require long-distance migration and/or vascular dissemination of cancer cells from a primary site to a secondary site. Thus, we classify the formation of these MSCs from indigenous CICs (iCICs into a new mechanistic category of tumor formation – multigenesis. Conclusion A multigenesis view on multi-site cancer (MSCs may offer explanations for some "unusual metastasis" and has important implications for designing expanded strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of cancers. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Carlo C. Maley nominated by Laura F. Landweber and Razvan T. Radulescu nominated by David R. Kaplan. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  9. EMPOWER. Deliverable no 7.1 Dissemination Plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwissen, M.; Fioreze, T.; Thomas, T.; Pickerden, C.; Hof, T.

    2015-01-01

    This deliverable describes the general plan regarding all dissemination activities of the consortium partners and work packages during the project. This links directly to D7.4 where the realization of different dissemination activities will be reported.

  10. Ecodriver. D2.1: Dissemination and communication plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quental, N.; Brouwers, R.F.T.

    2012-01-01

    The dissemination plan sets the reference for all planned dissemination activities during the project lifetime. It defines target groups, communication actions, how it will be performed, by whom and when.

  11. EMPOWER. Deliverable no 7.1 Dissemination Plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwissen, M.; Fioreze, T.; Thomas, T.; Pickerden, C.; Hof, T.

    2015-01-01

    This deliverable describes the general plan regarding all dissemination activities of the consortium partners and work packages during the project. This links directly to D7.4 where the realization of different dissemination activities will be reported.

  12. Hepatic metastasis of thymoma: case report and immunohistochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speisky, Daniela; de Davila, María Teresa García; Vigovich, Felix; Mendez, Julian; Maurette, Rafael; Ejarque, Marcos García; Spina, Juan Carlos; Iotti, Alejandro; Dezanzo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Thymomas are rare tumours characterised by their slow growth and capacity to invade directly by contiguity. While distant dissemination is infrequent, all sub-types of thymoma have the capacity to metastasise to extrathoracic organs. We present here the case of a female patient with a liver mass discovered 13 years after the removal of a mediastinal thymoma and after ten years from thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma. The histopathological study showed that the lesion contained an epithelial component, which was immunohistochemically positive for pankeratin. It was accompanied by numerous small lymphocytes testing positive for TdT, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD99, and CD43. The result was consistent with hepatic metastatic thymoma sub-type B1, according to the World Health Organisation classification (WHO). Our case highlights the importance of morphological and immunohistological examinations in the differential diagnosis of visceral masses in patients with a history of thymoma. Given the infrequency of its metastasis and the increased risk of developing other primary tumours that these patients have, these studies play a significant role. PMID:28101136

  13. Targeting Serglycin Prevents Metastasis in Murine Mammary Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Roy

    Full Text Available In hematopoietic cells, serglycin proteoglycans mainly contribute to proper storage and secretion of inflammatory mediators via their negatively charged glycosaminoglycans. Serglycin proteoglycans are also expressed in cancer cells where increased expression has been linked to poor prognosis. However, the serglycin-dependent mediators promoting cancer progression remain to be determined. In the present study we report that genetic ablation of serglycin proteoglycan completely blocks lung metastasis in the MMTV-PyMT-driven mouse breast cancer model, while serglycin-deficiency did not affect primary tumour growth or number of mammary tumours. Although E-cadherin expression was higher in the serglycin-deficient primary tumour tissue, indicating reduced invasiveness, serglycin-deficient tumour cells were still detected in the circulation. These data suggest that serglycin proteoglycans play a role in extravasation as well as colonization and growth of metastatic cells. A microarray expression analysis and functional annotation of differentially expressed genes identified several biological pathways where serglycin may be important. Our results suggest that serglycin and serglycin-dependent mediators are potential drug targets to prevent metastatic disease/dissemination of cancer.

  14. A dynamic model for tumour growth and metastasis formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, Volker; Schumacher, Udo

    2012-07-05

    A simple and fast computational model to describe the dynamics of tumour growth and metastasis formation is presented. The model is based on the calculation of successive generations of tumour cells and enables one to describe biologically important entities like tumour volume, time point of 1st metastatic growth or number of metastatic colonies at a given time. The model entirely relies on the chronology of these successive events of the metastatic cascade. The simulation calculations were performed for two embedded growth models to describe the Gompertzian like growth behaviour of tumours. The initial training of the models was carried out using an analytical solution for the size distribution of metastases of a hepatocellular carcinoma. We then show the applicability of our models to clinical data from the Munich Cancer Registry. Growth and dissemination characteristics of metastatic cells originating from cells in the primary breast cancer can be modelled thus showing its ability to perform systematic analyses relevant for clinical breast cancer research and treatment. In particular, our calculations show that generally metastases formation has already been initiated before the primary can be detected clinically.

  15. Up-Regulated FASN Expression Promotes Transcoelomic Metastasis of Ovarian Cancer Cell through Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid synthase (FASN, responsible for the de novo synthesis of fatty acids, has been shown to act as an oncogene in various human cancers. However, the mechanisms by which FASN favors the progression of ovarian carcinoma remain unknown. In this study, we evaluated FASN expression in ovarian cancer and investigated how FASN regulates the aggressiveness of ovarian cancer cells. Our results show that increased FASN is associated with the peritoneal metastasis of ovarian cancers. Over-expression of FASN results in a significant increase of tumor burden in peritoneal dissemination, accompanied by augment in cellular colony formation and metastatic ability. Correspondingly, FASN knockdown using RNA interference in ovarian cancer cells inhibits the migration in vitro and experimental peritoneal dissemination in vivo. Mechanistic studies reveal that FASN promotes Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition (EMT via a transcriptional regulation of E-cadherin and N-cadherin, which is also confirmed by luciferase promoter activity analysis. Taken together, our work demonstrates that FASN promotes the peritoneal dissemination of ovarian cancer cells, at least in part through the induction of EMT. These findings suggest that FASN plays a critical role in the peritoneal metastasis of ovarian cancer. Targeting de novo lipogenesis may have a therapeutic potential for advanced ovarian cancer.

  16. An evidence-based knowledgebase of metastasis suppressors to identify key pathways relevant to cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Li, Zhe; Qu, Hong

    2015-10-21

    Metastasis suppressor genes (MS genes) are genes that play important roles in inhibiting the process of cancer metastasis without preventing growth of the primary tumor. Identification of these genes and understanding their functions are critical for investigation of cancer metastasis. Recent studies on cancer metastasis have identified many new susceptibility MS genes. However, the comprehensive illustration of diverse cellular processes regulated by metastasis suppressors during the metastasis cascade is lacking. Thus, the relationship between MS genes and cancer risk is still unclear. To unveil the cellular complexity of MS genes, we have constructed MSGene (http://MSGene.bioinfo-minzhao.org/), the first literature-based gene resource for exploring human MS genes. In total, we manually curated 194 experimentally verified MS genes and mapped to 1448 homologous genes from 17 model species. Follow-up functional analyses associated 194 human MS genes with epithelium/tissue morphogenesis and epithelia cell proliferation. In addition, pathway analysis highlights the prominent role of MS genes in activation of platelets and coagulation system in tumor metastatic cascade. Moreover, global mutation pattern of MS genes across multiple cancers may reveal common cancer metastasis mechanisms. All these results illustrate the importance of MSGene to our understanding on cell development and cancer metastasis.

  17. Dissemination of CERN Technologies Through External Entrepreneurs

    CERN Document Server

    Lande, Bjørnulf Visdal; Huuse, Henning

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on dissemination of innovations through external entrepreneurs. The innovations studied are developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and commercialized by entrepreneurs establishing spin-off companies on the outside of the Organization. The objective of this study is to provide knowledge to facilitate future external entrepreneurs to increase dissemination of CERN technologies. The research questions looks at the timeline from preparations for creating the spin-off company, until having a product for commercialization in the market. A qualitative cross case investigation was conducted to assess the experiences of four spin-off companies. A framework was created to structure the discussion by finding and categorizing impeding- and success factors seen from the entrepreneurs point of view. The findings where structured in three phases respectively, the time before starting the company, the beginning of the company and the final development before selling products. Th...

  18. Dissemination of Educational Tools and Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, C.

    1998-05-01

    The IDEAS program is oriented towards innovative approaches to education and therefore result in a wide range of programs including Astro Capella (the creation of a capella astronomy songs written and performed by a group from NASA/GSFC, Smale, Boyd, and Granger), video kiosks in the Air and Space Museum (SAO, Dow), teaching astronomy in the parks (U of Wisconsin, Bjorkman, Wilcots), as well as the more bread and butter programs of teacher training and curriculum development. In addition to describing some of the diverse programs to come out of the IDEAS programs, I will discuss the dissemination of the results of those programs, and especially the role of the broker/facilitator in that dissemination. The audience is invited to participate in this discussion.

  19. [Disseminated intravascular coagulation in solid tumours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, François Régis; Garcia-Hejl, Carine; Moussaid, Yassine; Schernberg, Antoine; Bidard, François-Clément; Pavic, Michel; Khenifer, Safia; Stoclin, Annabelle

    2014-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a complex abnormality of hemostasis with dramatic consequences and long described as associated with tumors. Yet the diagnosis and management of paraneoplastic DIC are poorly defined. The purpose of this paper is to review DIC associated with solid tumors, at the pathophysiological and therapeutic levels in particular. We also report data from a recent retrospective series of patients with DIC in the context of a solid tumor, to illustrate the epidemiological, clinical and prognostic.

  20. Tension Hydrothorax Related to Disseminated Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnaKate Deal, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 34-year-old woman presenting to the emergency department (ED with dyspnea, cough, and fever. She was found to have a tension hydrothorax and was treated with ultrasound-guided thoracentesis in the ED. Subsequent inpatient evaluation showed the patient had disseminated endometriosis. Tension hydrothorax has not been previously described in the literature as a complication of this disease.

  1. Disseminated histoplasmosis with oral and cutaneous manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vidyanath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycotic infection caused by the dimorphic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum. Systemic histoplasmosis has emerged as an important opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients and those in endemic areas. Reported cases of histoplasmosis have been low in India with less than 50 cases being reported. We are reporting a case of disseminated histoplasmosis with oral and cutaneous involvement in an HIV seronegative patient.

  2. Disseminated aspergillosis associated with tsunami lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Yutaka; Tagami, Takashi; Kusakabe, Takashi; Kido, Norihiro; Kawaguchi, Takanori; Omura, Mariko; Tosa, Ryoichi

    2012-10-01

    Many survivors of the tsunami that occurred following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, contracted a systemic disorder called "tsunami lung," a series of severe systemic infections following aspiration pneumonia caused by near drowning in the tsunami. Generally, the cause of aspiration pneumonia is polymicrobial, including fungi and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, but Aspergillus infection is rarely reported. Here we report a case of tsunami lung complicated by disseminated aspergillosis, as diagnosed during autopsy.

  3. First description of cervical intradural thymoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Nicola; Mancarella, Cristina; Colistra, Davide; Landi, Alessandro; Dugoni, Demo Eugenio; Delfini, Roberto

    2015-11-16

    Thymoma and thymic carcinoma are rare epithelial tumors, which originate from the thymus gland. According to the World Health Organization there are "organotypic" (types A, AB, B1, B2, and B3) and "non-organotypic" (thymic carcinomas) thymomas. Type B3 thymomas are aggressive tumors, which can metastasize. Due to the rarity of these lesions, only 7 cases of extradural metastasis are described in the literature. We report the first and unique case of a man with cervical intradural B3 thymoma metastasis. A 46-year-old man underwent thymoma surgical removal. The year after the procedure he was treated for a parietal pleura metastasis. In 2006 he underwent cervical-dorsal extradural metastasis removal and C5-Th1 stabilization. Seven years after he came to our observation complaining left cervicobrachialgia and a reduction of strength of the left arm. He underwent a cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging, which showed a new lesion at the C5-C7 level. The patient underwent a surgery for the intradural B3 thymoma metastasis. Neurological symptoms improved although the removal was subtotal. He went through postoperative radiation therapy with further mass reduction. Spinal metastases are extremely rare. To date, only 7 cases of spinal extradural metastasis have been described in the literature. This is the first case of spinal intradural metastasis. Early individuation of these tumors and surgical treatment improve neurological outcome in patients with spinal cord compression. A multimodal treatment including neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery and postoperative radiation therapy seems to improve survival in patients with metastatic thymoma.

  4. TGFβ2 dictates disseminated tumour cell fate in target organs through TGFβ-RIII and p38α/β signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragado, Paloma; Estrada, Yeriel; Parikh, Falguni; Krause, Sarah; Capobianco, Carla; Farina, Hernan G.; Schewe, Denis M; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.

    2013-01-01

    In patients non-proliferative disseminated tumour cells (DTCs) can persist in the bone marrow (BM) while other organs (i.e. lung) present growing metastasis. This suggested that the BM might be a metastasis “restrictive soil” by encoding dormancy-inducing cues in DTCs. Here we show in a HNSCC model that strong and specific TGFβ2 signalling in the BM activates p38α/β, inducing a [ERK/p38]low signalling ratio. This results in induction of DEC2/SHARP1 and p27, downregulation of CDK4 and dormancy of malignant DTCs. TGFβ2-induced dormancy required TGFβ-receptor-I, TGFβ-receptor-III and SMAD1/5 activation to induce p27. In lungs, a metastasis “permissive soil” with low TGFβ2 levels, DTC dormancy was short lived and followed by metastatic growth. Importantly, systemic inhibition of TGFβ-receptor-I or p38α/β activities awakened dormant DTCs fueling multi-organ metastasis. Our work reveals a “seed and soil” mechanism where TGFβ2 and TGFβRIII signalling through p38α/β regulates DTC dormancy and defines restrictive (BM) and -permissive (lung) microenvironments for HNSCC metastasis. PMID:24161934

  5. Whole genome sequence analysis suggests intratumoral heterogeneity in dissemination of breast cancer to lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Blighe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intratumoral heterogeneity may help drive resistance to targeted therapies in cancer. In breast cancer, the presence of nodal metastases is a key indicator of poorer overall survival. The aim of this study was to identify somatic genetic alterations in early dissemination of breast cancer by whole genome next generation sequencing (NGS of a primary breast tumor, a matched locally-involved axillary lymph node and healthy normal DNA from blood. METHODS: Whole genome NGS was performed on 12 µg (range 11.1-13.3 µg of DNA isolated from fresh-frozen primary breast tumor, axillary lymph node and peripheral blood following the DNA nanoball sequencing protocol. Single nucleotide variants, insertions, deletions, and substitutions were identified through a bioinformatic pipeline and compared to CIN25, a key set of genes associated with tumor metastasis. RESULTS: Whole genome sequencing revealed overlapping variants between the tumor and node, but also variants that were unique to each. Novel mutations unique to the node included those found in two CIN25 targets, TGIF2 and CCNB2, which are related to transcription cyclin activity and chromosomal stability, respectively, and a unique frameshift in PDS5B, which is required for accurate sister chromatid segregation during cell division. We also identified dominant clonal variants that progressed from tumor to node, including SNVs in TP53 and ARAP3, which mediates rearrangements to the cytoskeleton and cell shape, and an insertion in TOP2A, the expression of which is significantly associated with tumor proliferation and can segregate breast cancers by outcome. CONCLUSION: This case study provides preliminary evidence that primary tumor and early nodal metastasis have largely overlapping somatic genetic alterations. There were very few mutations unique to the involved node. However, significant conclusions regarding early dissemination needs analysis of a larger number of patient samples.

  6. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Harnalikar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis, a systemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum var capsulatum and Histoplasma capsulatum var duboisii is endemic to many parts of the world. The clinical manifestations range from acute or chronic pulmonary infection to a progressive disseminated disease. After initial exposure to the fungus, the infection is self-limited and restricted to the lungs in 99% of healthy individuals. The remaining 1%, however, progress to either disseminated or chronic disease involving the lungs, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow or rarely, the skin and mucous membranes. Mucocutaneous histoplasmosis is frequently reported in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, but it is rare in immunocompetent hosts. A 60-year-old male presented with asymptomatic swelling of the hard palate and crusted papules and nodules over the extremities, face and trunk. Clinically, the diagnoses of cutaneous cryptococcosis versus histoplasmosis was considered in this patient. A chest X-ray revealed hilar lymphadenopathy. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV was nonreactive. Skin biopsy revealed multiple tiny intracellular round yeast forms with a halo in the mid-dermis. Culture of the skin biopsy in Sabouraud′s dextrose agar showed colonies of Histoplasma capsulatum. Despite an investigation including no evidence of underlying immunosuppression was found, he was started on IV amphotericin-B (0.5 mg/kg/day. However, the patient succumbed to his disease 2 days after presentation. We report a rare case of disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent individual.

  7. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Following Pneumococcal Meningitis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majzoobi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is an acute inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, resulting in various neurological symptoms. Usually, the disease appears following vaccination or systemic viral infections. In rare cases, the disease appears following pneumococcal infections. Case Presentation The patient was a 27 year-old man who was referred to the clinic following a few days of fever and cold with consciousness deficit and right hemiplegia. Based on the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and diagnosis of pneumococcal meningitis, he received suitable antibiotic treatment. Despite complete return of consciousness, good general condition, and negative smear and culture of CSF, fever continued and no considerable improvement was observed in the hemiplegia. Therefore, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed and according to the findings, treatment was started with the diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Treatment with prednisolone at first obviated the fever and after a month brought about a complete hemiplegia cure. Following the status of the patient after three months, his MRI clearly showed considerable reduction in lesions. Discussion There is possible occurrence of ADEM following pneumococcal meningitis. Regarding the occurrence of neurological symptoms such as visual disturbance, hemiparesis or hemiplegia following bacterial meningitis, ADEM can be considered as one of the differential diagnoses to be accompanied by MRI. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis should be treated using suitable dose of corticosteroids.

  8. Use of UDP for efficient imagery dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandolini, Robert; Au, T. A.; Lui, Andrew K.; Owen, Michael J.; Grigg, Mark W.

    2000-05-01

    In the defence organization, imagery represents an important information source for users in the tactical, operational and strategic environments. Its wider dissemination may rely on deployed communication networks that are often unstable with high bit error rates and outages. This paper presents efficient techniques for imagery dissemination using the user datagram protocol (UDP). The use of UDP is compared with the popular transmission control protocol and shown to be superior in performance for error prone IP networks. We have employed a wavelet based coder producing an embedded bit-stream. The packetization of the bit-stream is investigated and we show that it is better to tile an image into independent embedded bit-streams when the network performance is poor. Variable-size tiling is compared with, and shown to be superior to, a fixed-size tiling approach. Selective re-transmission of lost packets is implemented for efficient imagery dissemination using UDP. The selective re- transmission scheme is a function of network bandwidth, delay times, error rates and the significance of the packet.

  9. Disseminated nocardiosis after unrelated bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Yutaro; Doki, Noriko; Senoo, Yasushi; Sekiya, Noritaka; Kurosawa, Shuhei; Tsuboi, Satoshi; Ohashi, Kazuteru

    2016-12-01

    Nocardiosis is a rare bacterial infection occurring mainly in patients with deficient cell-mediated immunity. Although disseminated nocardiosis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a rare complication, it is associated with high mortality. Moreover, after allo-HSCT, nocardiosis may be mistaken for other bacterial or fungal infections because clinical and radiographic findings of pulmonary, cerebral, and cutaneous nocardiosis lesions are non-specific. Here, we report a case of disseminated nocardiosis (caused by Nocardia abscessus) with skin, pulmonary, liver, lymph node, and multiple brain abscesses in a patient after allo-HSCT. The patient initially responded clinically and radiographically to imipenem/cilastin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole therapy. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of nocardiosis in allo-HSCT recipients who are treated with multiple immunosuppressive agents to control chronic graft-versus-host disease. Accurate diagnosis and identification of disseminated nocardiosis is important to ensure administration of the correct antibiotic regimen. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Monophasic Wilms’ tumor with multiple skeletal metastases in a young female: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeranga YL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wilms’ tumor (nephroblastoma is the most common renal tumor in children. It is uncommon in adolescent and skeletal metastasis at the time of presentation is even rare. The present case is a rare monophasic blastemal variant of Wilms’ tumor presenting with multiple skeletal metastases in a young female. We report a case of 23-year-old female presented with severe low backache and colicky right loin pain of 1 month and constant dull aching left upper arm pain of 20 days duration. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT abdomen revealed heterogeneously enhancing soft tissue density mass with central nonenhancing areas arising from the upper pole of the right kidney. Whole body 18F-Sodium Fluoride (NaF Positron emission tomography– computed tomography (PET/CT bone scintigraphy revealed multiple skeletal metastases. The patient underwent right radical nephrectomy and the tumor was confirmed as adult Wilms’ tumor by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Skeletal metastasis may be the first presentation in a case of adolescent Wilms’ tumor, and this possibility should be considered when an adolescent patient presents with flank pain and a renal mass. The clinical course of adult Wilms’ tumor with blastemal component is very aggressive with high chances of recurrence and mortality

  11. Study on {sup 41}Ca-AMS for diagnosis and assessment of cancer bone metastasis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Hongtao; Pang, Fangfang [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Jiang, Shan; He, Ming; Dong, Kejun; Dou, Liang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Pang, Yijun [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Yang, Xianlin [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Ruan, Xiangdong [College of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Liu, Manjun; Xia, Chunbo [Guiin Medical University, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The annual incidence of new cancer patients in China is about 2 million, 30–40% of which will end up with bone metastasis. Profound study on the preclinical model and early diagnosis of cancer bone metastasis in rats are very significant for the drug development, better understanding and treatment of bone metastases. In order to monitor the process of bone metabolism and early detection of bone metastasis of cancer cells, a technique of {sup 41}Ca isotope tracer combined with AMS has been developed and applied in the study on the bone metastasis of cancer cells by rat model. In this work, 3-month-old female Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into different groups, and tumor cells injected respectively into the tail vein, femoral artery, femoral cavity and the thigh muscle to establish the rat models for bone metastases. The most appropriate model, i.e., the thigh muscle group, was finally adopted in our real metastases experiment. Each rat in this group was intramuscularly (i.m.) injected with 250 μl CaCl{sub 2} solution (containing 1.4 mg Ca and 5nCi {sup 41}Ca). About 40 days later, the rat mammary gland carcinoma cells (Walker 256) were injected into these rats following the established protocol. After bone metastasis, medicine interventions were performed. The sequential urine and blood samples were collected and analyzed for {sup 41}Ca (by AMS) and N-terminal telopeptide (Ntx), respectively. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) values in the femur and the tibia were measured by CT scan. The results of {sup 41}Ca/Ca in longitudinal urinary samples can sensitively reveal the skeletal perturbations caused by bone metastasis of rats, suggests that {sup 41}Ca might be similarly developed for human use and improve clinical management through the assessment of the curative effect and non-invasive detection of the earliest stages of cancer growth in bone.

  12. Clinical significance of intraventricular metastasis in patients with concomitant leptomeningeal metastasis from lung cancer%肺癌脑室内转移瘤对伴发脑膜转移的提示意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘振宇; 袁婷婷; 杨国姿; 王爱林; 石硙岩; 董丽华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the significance of intraventricular metastasis in the diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis from lung cancer.Methods Nineteen lung cancer patients with intraventricular metastasis,admitted to and confirmed by brain MRI in our hospital from May 2010 to December 2012,were selected in our study.All of the patients accepted cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)examination.The clinical and imaging findings and CSF examination results were analyzed.Results All 19 patients had cerebral parenehyma metastasis; the lesions of 16 patients located in the lateral ventricle,4 in the third ventricle and 8 in the fourth ventricle and aquaeductus cerebra; 9 patients had 2 metastatic lesions of intraventricular,which were disseminated.According to the disease history,imaging manifestation,clinical features and CSF examination results,13 patients (68%) were diagnosed with leptomeningeal metastasis.Conclusions Referring to the mechanism of leptomeningeal metastasis and imaging findings,intraventricular metastasis can lead to leptomeningeal metastasis; while tumor cells implantation caused by leptomeningeal metastasis can also form intraventricular metastasis.Therefore,intraventricular metastasis has the suggestive role for the diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis from lung cancer; intraventricular metastasis is one of the imaging characteristics in leptomeningeal metastasis from lung cancer.%目的 探讨肺癌患者磁共振(MRI)检查显示脑室内转移瘤是否对可能同时存在的脑膜转移具有提示作用.方法 选取吉林大学第一医院放疗科自2010年12月至2013年1月收治的19例头部MRI检查证实存在脑室内转移病灶,并具有脑脊液相关检查的肺癌患者,分析其临床及影像学表现、脑脊液检查结果等相关临床资料. 结果 19例患者均合并脑实质内转移病灶;16例患者脑室内病灶位于侧脑室,4例位于第三脑室,8例位于第四脑室及中脑导水管;其中9例同时存在脑室内2

  13. Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Ayuko; Costa-Silva, Bruno; Shen, Tang-Long; Rodrigues, Goncalo; Hashimoto, Ayako; Tesic Mark, Milica; Molina, Henrik; Kohsaka, Shinji; Di Giannatale, Angela; Ceder, Sophia; Singh, Swarnima; Williams, Caitlin; Soplop, Nadine; Uryu, Kunihiro; Pharmer, Lindsay; King, Tari; Bojmar, Linda; Davies, Alexander E; Ararso, Yonathan; Zhang, Tuo; Zhang, Haiying; Hernandez, Jonathan; Weiss, Joshua M; Dumont-Cole, Vanessa D; Kramer, Kimberly; Wexler, Leonard H; Narendran, Aru; Schwartz, Gary K; Healey, John H; Sandstrom, Per; Labori, Knut Jørgen; Kure, Elin H; Grandgenett, Paul M; Hollingsworth, Michael A; de Sousa, Maria; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Jain, Maneesh; Mallya, Kavita; Batra, Surinder K; Jarnagin, William R; Brady, Mary S; Fodstad, Oystein; Muller, Volkmar; Pantel, Klaus; Minn, Andy J; Bissell, Mina J; Garcia, Benjamin A; Kang, Yibin; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K; Ghajar, Cyrus M; Matei, Irina; Peinado, Hector; Bromberg, Jacqueline; Lyden, David

    2015-11-19

    Ever since Stephen Paget's 1889 hypothesis, metastatic organotropism has remained one of cancer's greatest mysteries. Here we demonstrate that exosomes from mouse and human lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells fuse preferentially with resident cells at their predicted destination, namely lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells, liver Kupffer cells and brain endothelial cells. We show that tumour-derived exosomes uptaken by organ-specific cells prepare the pre-metastatic niche. Treatment with exosomes from lung-tropic models redirected the metastasis of bone-tropic tumour cells. Exosome proteomics revealed distinct integrin expression patterns, in which the exosomal integrins α6β4 and α6β1 were associated with lung metastasis, while exosomal integrin αvβ5 was linked to liver metastasis. Targeting the integrins α6β4 and αvβ5 decreased exosome uptake, as well as lung and liver metastasis, respectively. We demonstrate that exosome integrin uptake by resident cells activates Src phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory S100 gene expression. Finally, our clinical data indicate that exosomal integrins could be used to predict organ-specific metastasis.

  14. False Positive F-18 FDG PET/CT of Skeletal Metastasis Due to Solitary Eosinophilic Granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mansberg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A 31 year old female with a 3 month history of focal right mid posterior thoracic pain, and solitary lytic lesion in the right 7th rib posteriorly on bone scan (SPECT/CT was referred for PET/CT to identify alternate site for biopsy in suspected malignancy. The patient had no significant past medical history and was afebrile with mildly elevated inflammatory markers. A solitary intensely FDG avid focus was demonstrated localised to a well-defined lytic lesion with partial cortical erosion on the posterior aspect of the right 7th rib. No adjacent soft tissue abnormality was seen. No other site of biopsy was demonstrated. As malignancy (metastatic or primary was not excluded, CT guided localisation with hookwire and blue dye injection was performed immediately prior to partial resection of the right 7th rib. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma.

  15. Cerebro-Oculo-Facio-Skeletal Syndrome (COFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information... You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Cerebro-Oculo-Facio-Skeletal Syndrome (COFS) Information Page Cerebro-Oculo-Facio-Skeletal Syndrome (COFS) Information Page Search ...

  16. Plant-derived anticancer agents: a promising treatment for bone metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a very frequent complication of advanced cancer, and it remains an incurable disease. Current therapies that have been approved for the treatment of bone metastases delay the occurrence of skeletal-related events and can extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. However, they will not cure or cause the regression of established bone metastases, and new side effects are emerging after prolonged treatment. Thus, new therapies are severely needed. There are compelling evidences from in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies that support the use of compounds derived from plants to treat several forms of cancers including bone metastasis. More than 25% of the drugs used during the past 20 years were directly derived from plants, whereas another 25% are chemically altered natural products. Still, only 5–15% of the ∼250 000 higher plants have ever been investigated for bioactive compounds. There is a growing interest for the study of anticancer drugs with relatively low side effects that target specific key signaling pathways that control the establishment and progression of the cancer metastasis. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify new natural compounds with high efficiency in cancer prevention and treatment. Extensive reviews about plant-derived agents and their use in cancer have been published, but none when it comes to the treatment of bone metastases. Only a few of these compounds have been evaluated for the treatment of bone metastasis; here we describe some of the most prominent ones that are having the potential to reach the clinic soon.

  17. A hypoxic signature marks tumors formed by disseminated tumor cells in the BALB-neuT mammary cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msaki, Aichi; Pastò, Anna; Curtarello, Matteo; Arigoni, Maddalena; Barutello, Giuseppina; Calogero, Raffaele Adolfo; Macagno, Marco; Cavallo, Federica; Amadori, Alberto; Indraccolo, Stefano

    2016-05-31

    Metastasis is the final stage of cancer progression. Some evidence indicates that tumor cell dissemination occurs early in the natural history of cancer progression. Disseminated tumor cells (DTC) have been described in the bone marrow (BM) of cancer patients as well as in experimental models, where they correlate with later development of metastasis. However, little is known about the tumorigenic features of DTC obtained at different time points along tumor progression. Here, we found that early DTC isolated from BM of 15-17 week-old Her2/neu transgenic (BALB-neuT) mice were not tumorigenic in immunodeficient mice. In contrast, DTC-derived tumors were easily detectable when late DTC obtained from 19-22 week-old BALB-neuT mice were injected. Angiogenesis, which contributes to regulate tumor dormancy, appeared dispensable to reactivate late DTC, although it accelerated growth of secondary DTC tumors. Compared with parental mammary tumors, gene expression profiling disclosed a distinctive transcriptional signature of late DTC tumors which was enriched for hypoxia-related transcripts and was maintained in ex-vivo cell culture. Altogether, these findings highlight a different tumorigenic potential of early and late DTC in the BALB-neuT model and describe a HIF-1α-related transcriptional signature in DTC tumors, which may render DTC angiogenesis-competent, when placed in a favourable environment.

  18. CXCR4 Protein Epitope Mimetic Antagonist POL5551 Disrupts Metastasis and Enhances Chemotherapy Effect in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jingyu; Hurchla, Michelle A; Fontana, Francesca; Su, Xinming; Amend, Sarah R; Esser, Alison K; Douglas, Garry J; Mudalagiriyappa, Chidananda; Luker, Kathryn E; Pluard, Timothy; Ademuyiwa, Foluso O; Romagnoli, Barbara; Tuffin, Gérald; Chevalier, Eric; Luker, Gary D; Bauer, Michael; Zimmermann, Johann; Aft, Rebecca L; Dembowsky, Klaus; Weilbaecher, Katherine N

    2015-11-01

    The SDF-1 receptor CXCR4 has been associated with early metastasis and poorer prognosis in breast cancers, especially the most aggressive triple-negative subtype. In line with previous reports, we found that tumoral CXCR4 expression in patients with locally advanced breast cancer was associated with increased metastases and rapid tumor progression. Moreover, high CXCR4 expression identified a group of bone marrow-disseminated tumor cells (DTC)-negative patients at high risk for metastasis and death. The protein epitope mimetic (PEM) POL5551, a novel CXCR4 antagonist, inhibited binding of SDF-1 to CXCR4, had no direct effects on tumor cell viability, but reduced migration of breast cancer cells in vitro. In two orthotopic models of triple-negative breast cancer, POL5551 had little inhibitory effect on primary tumor growth, but significantly reduced distant metastasis. When combined with eribulin, a chemotherapeutic microtubule inhibitor, POL5551 additively reduced metastasis and prolonged survival in mice after resection of the primary tumor compared with single-agent eribulin. Hypothesizing that POL5551 may mobilize tumor cells from their microenvironment and sensitize them to chemotherapy, we used a "chemotherapy framing" dosing strategy. When administered shortly before and after eribulin treatment, three doses of POL5551 with eribulin reduced bone and liver tumor burden more effectively than chemotherapy alone. These data suggest that sequenced administration of CXCR4 antagonists with cytotoxic chemotherapy synergize to reduce distant metastases. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Melanoma cell metastasis via P-selectin-mediated activation of acid sphingomyelinase in platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Katrin Anne; Beckmann, Nadine; Adams, Constantin; Hessler, Gabriele; Kramer, Melanie; Gulbins, Erich; Carpinteiro, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Metastatic dissemination of cancer cells is one of the hallmarks of malignancy and accounts for approximately 90 % of human cancer deaths. Within the blood vasculature, tumor cells may aggregate with platelets to form clots, adhere to and spread onto endothelial cells, and finally extravasate to form metastatic colonies. We have previously shown that sphingolipids play a central role in the interaction of tumor cells with platelets; this interaction is a prerequisite for hematogenous tumor metastasis in at least some tumor models. Here we show that the interaction between melanoma cells and platelets results in rapid and transient activation and secretion of acid sphingomyelinase (Asm) in WT but not in P-selectin-deficient platelets. Stimulation of P-selectin resulted in activation of p38 MAPK, and inhibition of p38 MAPK in platelets prevented the secretion of Asm after interaction with tumor cells. Intravenous injection of melanoma cells into WT mice resulted in multiple lung metastases, while in P-selectin-deficient mice pulmonary tumor metastasis and trapping of tumor cells in the lung was significantly reduced. Pre-incubation of tumor cells with recombinant ASM restored trapping of B16F10 melanoma cells in the lung in P-selectin-deficient mice. These findings indicate a novel pathway in tumor metastasis, i.e., tumor cell mediated activation of P-selectin in platelets, followed by activation and secretion of Asm and in turn release of ceramide and tumor metastasis. The data suggest that p38 MAPK acts downstream from P-selectin and is necessary for the secretion of Asm.

  20. Successful Self-Expandable Metallic Stent Placement for a Case of Distal Rectal Stenosis due to Gastric Cancer Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Okugawa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A 47-year-old woman was diagnosed as having advanced gastric cancer with malignant ascites. Despite chemotherapy, recurrent peritoneal dissemination was seen 1.5 years after operation. A computed tomography scan revealed rectal stenosis due to Schnitzler's metastasis. When the distance from the distal end of the obstruction to the anal verge is less than 5 cm, stent replacement has been said to be contraindicated due to the development of anal pain and foreign body sensation. Although the distance from the distal end of the obstruction to the anal verge was 4 cm in this case, a WallFlex™ colonic stent could be placed. She stayed home, and luminal patency remained until she died 270 days after stent insertion. This report demonstrates that rectal obstruction located less than 5 cm from the anal verge due to Schnitzler's metastasis could be treated by stenting without any symptomatic or technical complications.

  1. The role of lysyl oxidase, the extracellular matrix and the pre-metastatic niche in bone metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Gartland

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most deaths from solid cancers occur as a result of secondary metastasis to distant sites. Bone is the most frequent metastatic site for many cancer types and can account for up to 80% of cancer-related deaths in certain tumours. The progression from a discrete solid primary tumour to devastating and painful bone metastases is a complex process involving multiple cell types and steps. There is increasing evidence that modulation of the extracellular matrix plays an important role in the lethal transition from a primary to disseminated metastatic bone tumour. This review provides an overview of the current understanding on the role of role of lysyl oxidase, the extracellular matrix and the pre-metastatic niche in bone metastasis

  2. The role of lysyl oxidase, the extracellular matrix and the pre-metastatic niche in bone metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gartland, Alison; Erler, Janine Terra; Cox, Thomas Robert

    2016-01-01

    and painful bone metastases is a complex process involving multiple cell types and steps. There is increasing evidence that modulation of the extracellular matrix plays an important role in the lethal transition from a primary to disseminated metastatic bone tumour. This review provides an overview......Most deaths from solid cancers occur as a result of secondary metastasis to distant sites. Bone is the most frequent metastatic site for many cancer types and can account for up to 80% of cancer-related deaths in certain tumours. The progression from a discrete solid primary tumour to devastating...... of the current understanding on the role of role of lysyl oxidase, the extracellular matrix and the pre-metastatic niche in bone metastasis....

  3. Skeletal stem cells and their contribution to skeletal fragility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, A.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related osteoporotic fractures are major health care problem worldwide and are the result of impaired bone formation, decreased bone mass and bone fragility. Bone formation is accomplished by skeletal stem cells (SSC) that are recruited to bone surfaces from bone marrow microenvironment. This...

  4. Breast metastasis from carcinoma of gall bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaz Ahmad Malik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of gall bladder has early lymphatic and haematogenous spread. Most common extra abdominal site of metastasis is the lung. Metastasis to breast from carcinoma of breast is very rare. Our case describes an interesting case of carcinoma of gall bladder metastising to breast. A 50-year-old female presented to our outpatient department with a small nodule on upper outer quadrant of left breast. Patient had a history of cholecystectomy done for symptomatic gall stones 2 years back. Histopathological examination of the gall bladder specimen showed adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder with invasion to lamina propria. No additional treatment was offered to the patient. The breast nodule was excised and sent for histopathological examination. Histopathological examination revealed metastising adenocarcinoma. Patient was subjected to palliative chemotherapy (Gamcitabine and carboplatin. However, patient died of hepatic encephalopathy after 5 months. Our case reports an unusual site of metastasis from carcinoma of gall bladder which is very rare.

  5. Minimal residual disease in breast cancer: an overview of circulating and disseminated tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachtsidis, A; McInnes, L M; Jacobsen, N; Thompson, E W; Saunders, C M

    2016-08-01

    Within the field of cancer research, focus on the study of minimal residual disease (MRD) in the context of carcinoma has grown exponentially over the past several years. MRD encompasses circulating tumour cells (CTCs)-cancer cells on the move via the circulatory or lymphatic system, disseminated tumour cells (DTCs)-cancer cells which have escaped into a distant site (most studies have focused on bone marrow), and resistant cancer cells surviving therapy-be they local or distant, all of which may ultimately give rise to local relapse or overt metastasis. Initial studies simply recorded the presence and number of CTCs and DTCs; however recent advances are allowing assessment of the relationship between their persistence, patient prognosis and the biological properties of MRD, leading to a better understanding of the metastatic process. Technological developments for the isolation and analysis of circulating and disseminated tumour cells continue to emerge, creating new opportunities to monitor disease progression and perhaps alter disease outcome. This review outlines our knowledge to date on both measurement and categorisation of MRD in the form of CTCs and DTCs with respect to how this relates to cancer outcomes, and the hurdles and future of research into both CTCs and DTCs.

  6. Scientific dissemination discourse a study of specialized magazines disseminating science to lay audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Moraes Gonçalves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific Dissemination enunciations in the media are form of public discourse that integrates social, cultural, ideological and political aspects related to their spatial and temporal context. With theoretical support of Discourse Analysis the article presents distinct modes of disseminating science to the lay audience found in three magazines disseminating scientific knowledge: the Scientific American Brazil, Pesquisa Fapesp and Superinteressante. The editorial commitment of each one of these magazines to its readers is the basis of the discursive construction. The Scientific American Brazil draws on many sources for its explanations using a technical approach and close proximity to the patterns of science. The Pesquisa FAPESP magazine addresses the themes in their Brazilian context, uses Brazilian scientists as sources and adopts the journalistic reporting genre with exts by specislized journalists. Superinteressante magazine has a has a more distant commitment to science with exts free from using, instead, catch phrases, slang and types of comparison appropriate the language of its audience.

  7. SCIENTIFIC DISSEMINATION DISCOURSE A STUDY OF SPECIALIZED MAGAZINES DISSEMINATING SCIENCE TO LAY AUDIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Moraes Gonçalves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific Dissemination enunciations in the media are form of public discourse that integrates social, cultural, ideological and political aspects related to their spatial and temporal context. With theoretical support of Discourse Analysis the article presents distinct modes of disseminating science to the lay audience found in three magazines disseminating scientific knowledge: the Scientific American Brazil, Pesquisa Fapesp and Superinteressante. The editorial commitment of each one of these magazines to its readers is the basis of the discursive construction. The Scientific American Brazil draws on many sources for its explanations using a technical approach and close proximity to the patterns of science. The Pesquisa FAPESP magazine addresses the themes in their Brazilian context, uses Brazilian scientists as sources and adopts the journalistic reporting genre with exts by specislized journalists. Superinteressante magazine has a has a more distant commitment to science with exts free from using, instead, catch phrases, slang and types of comparison appropriate the language of its audience. 

  8. Radiotherapy for metastasis from breast and lung cancer. Bone and Brain metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Ito, Hisao; Kutsuki, Shoji; Kawada, Tetsuya; Toya, Kazuhito; Kubo, Atsushi [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-03-01

    Bone or brain metastasis is the common and serious condition restricting the quality of life (QOL) of the cancer patients and radiotherapy frequently plays an important role in relief of their symptoms. Because radiotherapy is given with palliative intent to the patients with limited, if variable, life expectancy, radiation schedules need to be identified which give maximum patient benefit with minimum associated morbidity and minimum disturbance of the patients` remaining life. We retrospectively analyzed 222 patients with the bone or the brain metastasis from lung or breast cancer to evaluate the effect of radiotherapy on their prognosis and QOL. The 3-year survival rates of the patients with breast and lung cancer were 21% and 3%, respectively (p<0.0001), and breast cancer patients seemed to have better prognosis than lung cancer patients for both bone metastasis (p<0.0001) and brain metastasis (p=0.09). Symptom relief by radiotherapy was obtained 84% for bone metastasis and 64% for brain metastasis and it was not affected by primary lesion (lung or breast). Sixty seven per cent of the bone and the brain metastasis was derived from adenocarcinoma and it had a tendency to give the better prognosis comparing with squamous cell carcinoma. Radiation schedules should be flexibly corresponded to the patients` tumor type (metastatic site, primary disease or histology), even if it is `just` a palliative therapy, considering their prognosis and QOL. (author)

  9. Twist modulates lymphangiogenesis and correlates with lymph node metastasis in supraglottic carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Su-mei; YU Liang; TIAN Jia-jun; MA Ju-ke; LI Jian-feng; XU Wei; WANG Hai-bo

    2011-01-01

    Background Twist is a highly conserved epithelial-mesenchymal transcription factor that has been reported to be a key factor in tumor malignancy, including lymph node metastasis. It represents the major step of dissemination and serves as a chief prognostic indicator of disease progression. However, the mechanism by which Twist regulates lymph node metastasis remains incompletely understood. Studies on the mechanism of metastasis are thus required for determining appropriate therapeutic strategies.Methods Immunohistochemistry for lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor 1 (LYVE-1), Ki-67, Twist, vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3) was performed to detect lymphatic vessel density (LVD), cell proliferation levels and the expressions of Twist, VEGF-C, and VEGFR-3 were determined from 66 primary supraglottic carcinoma tissue samples from 36 patients with lymph node metastasis (pathological N+, pN+) and 30 patients without metastasis (pathological NO, pNO). Western blotting analysis of the proteins in pN+ and pNO primary tumors was used to characterize the expressions of Twist, VEGF-C, and VEGFR-3further.Results The LVD was 22.4±10.3 in pN+ patients and 6.8±4.1 in pNO ones. For Ki-67, the number of proliferous cells in pN+ patients was greater than that in pNO ones. Both, however, were associated with their clinical nodal stages. In pN+patients, Twist, VEGF-C, and VEGFR-3 expressions were 86.11% (31/36), 80.56% (29/36), and 58.33% (21/36),respectively. These values were higher than those found for pNO patients (i.e., 13/30, 11/30, and 7/30, respectively) (P <0.05). Among the samples with Twist expression, 88.64% were VEGF-C-positive and 59.09% were VEGFR-3-positive.The pNO counterparts were 4.55% and 9.09%, respectively (P<0.05). The expressions of Twist, VEGF-C, and VEGFR-3in pN+ patients obtained through Western blotting analysis were significantly higher than those in pNO patients, and the

  10. Disseminated bone lesions in AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma, a bad prognosis? About four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wassilew

    2012-11-01

    diagnosis is wide, and include bacillary angiomatosis, cancers or metastasis. Chemotherapy and antiretroviral treatment did not affect bone lesions using CT scan despite a good response on other KS-affected sites. Prognostic factors are well established in AIDS-associated KS [2]; however disseminated bone disease does not seem to have an impact on disease evolution. A larger sample size is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  11. Isolated asymptomatic masseter muscle metastasis as first sign of metastatic disease in a patient with known melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjorup, Caroline Asirvatham; Hendel, Helle Westergren; Svane, Inge Marie

    2016-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman diagnosed with a nodular melanoma on the right shoulder had a PET/CT scan 13 months later demonstrating a FDG-avid mass in the left masseter muscle, which was asymptomatic and not clinically evident. Pathologic analysis confirmed metastasis of melanoma. Further subcutaneous......, intramuscular and bone metastases developed and the patient was treated with surgery and immunotherapy. The patient is in complete-remission with no evident metastases seen on PET/CT 2.5 years after treatment with adoptive cell therapy using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL therapy). Asymptomatic skeletal...

  12. Cutaneous metastasis from carcinoma of tonsil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasmajumdar S

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematogenous spread from carcinoma of tonsil is an uncommon event and skin is an extremely rare site of metastasis. We encountered a 40-year-old male patient who initially presented with carcinoma of the tonsil with T3N2cMO disease and treated by curative radiotherapy. After about 2 years, he developed a skin lesion in the periorbital region which on cytological examination turned out to be metastasis from tonsillar carcinoma. The present paper describes this rare case report along with a brief review of the literature.

  13. Duodenal Metastasis of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

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    Huang-Chi Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic malignant mesothelioma of the pleura is uncommon at the time of initial diagnosis. The gastrointestinal lumen is rarely found at autopsy in patients with widespread disease. Here, we describe an extremely rare case of isolated duodenal metastasis of sarcomatoid mesothelioma of the pleura in a 73-year-old man, without memory of any direct exposure to asbestos. The possibility of gastrointestinal tract metastasis should be considered in the presence of anemia or positive occult blood test in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.

  14. Cranial computed tomographic abnormalities in leptomeningeal metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.Y.; Glass, J.P.; Geoffray, A.; Wallace, S.

    1984-11-01

    Sixty-four (57.6%) of 111 cancer patients with cerebrospinal fluid cytology positive for malignant cells had cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans within 2 weeks before or after a lumbar puncture. Twenty-two (34.3%) of the 64 had abnormal CT findings indicative of leptomeningeal metastasis. Thirteen (59.6%) of these 22 patients had associated parenchymal metastases. Recognition of leptomeningeal disease may alter the management of patients with parenchymal metastases. Communicating hydrocephalus in cancer patients should be considered to be related to leptomeningeal metastasis until proven otherwise.

  15. [Surgical managment of colorectal liver metastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prot, Thomas; Halkic, Nermin; Demartines, Nicolas

    2007-06-27

    Surgery offer the only curative treatment for colorectal hepatic metastasis. Nowadays, five-year survival increases up to 58% in selected cases, due to the improvement and combination of chemotherapy, surgery and ablative treatment like embolisation, radio-frequency or cryoablation. Surgery should be integrated in a multi disciplinary approach and initial work-up must take in account patient general conditions, tumor location, and possible extra hepatic extension. Thus, a surgical resection may be performed immediately or after preparation with chemotherapy or selective portal embolization. Management of liver metastasis should be carried out in oncological hepato-biliary centre.

  16. The Multiple Roles of Exosomes in Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidle, Ulrich H; Birzele, Fabian; Kollmorgen, Gwen; Rüger, Rüdiger

    2017-01-02

    Exosomes are important contributors to cell-cell communication and their role as diagnostic markers for cancer and the pathogenesis for cancer is under intensive investigation. Here, we focus on their role in metastasis-related processes. We discuss their impact regarding promotion of invasion and migration of tumor cells, conditioning of lymph nodes, generation of premetastatic niches and organotropism of metastasis. Furthermore, we highlight interactions of exosomes with bone marrow and stromal components such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, myeloid- and other immune-related cells in the context of metastases. For all processes as described above, we outline molecular and cellular components for therapeutic intervention with metastatic processes.

  17. Primary renal osteosarcoma with systemic dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Puri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary renal osteosarcoma is an uncommon disease, which, unlike its skeletal counterpart, presents mostly in adults, and is generally diagnosed late due to its non-specific features and intra-abdominal location. Even if the disease is localized at diagnosis, it follows an aggressive course despite radical surgery and adjuvant treatment. We report a case of renal osteosarcoma in a 65-year-old female, who developed regional recurrence, and lung and bone metastases soon after radical nephrectomy for localized disease. Chemotherapy was ineffective in controlling systemic disease.

  18. Popliteal lymph node metastasis of tibial osteoblastic osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalın Dirik

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Lymph node metastasis of osteosarcoma is a rare entity and metastatic patterns could not be clearly explained. On the other hand, the effects of lymph node metastasis on prognosis are also not clearly defined and further studies are needed.

  19. Bilateral choroidal metastasis from carcinoma of the submandibular gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Sheeja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumor is the most common uveal malignancy. However, choroidal metastasis from a salivary gland neoplasm is extremely rare. We report a case of bilateral, multifocal choroidal metastasis from carcinoma of the submandibular gland.

  20. Revisiting the Seed-and-soil Theory of Cancer Metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaonan QIAN

    2009-01-01

    @@ In 1889, Paget proposed a "Seed-and-Soil" theory for cancer metastasis.According to this theory, cancer metastasis is not random, and one remote organ is more prone to be the seat of secondary tumor growth than another.

  1. Thinking of modern wushu dissemination method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    martial arts in China for thousands of years culture heritage plays an important role, today has become a symbol of Chinese national culture. Martial arts in the long history of several thousand years, continuous development and fusion, formed a unique mode of transmission, and under the changing trend of the development of modern science and technology, not according to the traditional Chinese wushu dissemination, combined with the contemporary science and technology, network promotion, development of martial arts school, strengthen the cultural background, is the best way out for the spread of Chinese martial arts.

  2. Disseminated toxocariasis in an immunocompetent host

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madan; Raj; Aryal; Paras; Karmacharya; Amrit; Pokharel; Smith; Giri; Ranjan; Pathak; Richard; Alweis

    2014-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Toxocara canis,or less commonly,Toxocara cati,which is one of the most common zoonotic infections worldwide.It commonly affects the pediatric and immunocompromised population;however,it has rarely been reported in the immunocompetent adults.Two of the well-recognized syndromes in children are visceral larva migrans and ocular larva migrans.Infection in adults usually ranges from asymptomatic to nonspecific symptoms which makes the diagnosis challenging.A case of 36 year-old male was presented with disseminated toxocariasis with pulmonary and hepatic involvement and striking peripheral eosinophilia.

  3. Disseminated toxocariasis in an immunocompetent host

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madan Raj Aryal; Paras Karmacharya; Amrit Pokharel; Smith Giri; Ranjan Pathak; Richard Alweis

    2014-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Toxocara canis, or less commonly, Toxocara cati, which is one of the most common zoonotic infections worldwide. It commonly affects the pediatric and immunocompromised population; however, it has rarely been reported in the immunocompetent adults. Two of the well-recognized syndromes in children are visceral larva migrans and ocular larva migrans. Infection in adults usually ranges from asymptomatic to non-specific symptoms which makes the diagnosis challenging. A case of 36 year-old male was presented with disseminated toxocariasis with pulmonary and hepatic involvement and striking peripheral eosinophilia.

  4. Disseminated lupus vulgaris: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Burce; Zindanci, Ilkin; Turkoglu, Zafer; Kavala, Mukaddes; Ulucay, Vasfiye; Demir, Filiz Topaloglu

    2014-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is a secondary form of cutaneous tuberculosis which persists for years if not treated. The head and neck are the most commonly affected sites. While less frequently arms and legs, and rarely the trunk and the scalp are involved. Herein, we describe a 73-year-old man with a 5-year history of slowly growing, atrophic, some eroded and ulcerated, red-brown plaques on his forehead, nose, cheeks, ear lobes, trunk and extremites. All of his disseminated lesions healed after antituberculosis therapy.

  5. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis with multifocal musculoskeletal disease involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. McConnell, DO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of disseminated coccidioidomycosis with multifocal musculoskeletal involvement. The patient presented to the emergency department with left shoulder pain and swelling. Magnetic resonance imaging of the left shoulder revealed enhancing soft tissue masses, bony lesions, and fluid collections in and around the glenohumeral joint with involvement of the proximal humerus, glenoid, and rotator cuff musculature. Multiple additional areas of involvement were subsequently discovered. Fungal cultures confirmed coccidioidomycosis infection at all surgical sites with superimposed polymicrobial bacterial infection in the left shoulder.

  6. The Diagnosis and Man Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flelcher B.; Taylor.Jr

    2003-01-01

    @@ This review describes disseminated intravascular coagulation(DIC) as a syndrome in which hemostatic factors are activated and products are generated. This syndrome ranges in severity from an obvious decompensated coagulopathy (overt-DIC) to the subclinical compensated activation of hemostatic factors(non-overt DIC). Ths first part of this review emphasizes two points: First, activation of the hemostatic system is controlled by a vast network of capillaries and venules through anticoagulant and antiinflammatory regulatory factors that operate from the endothelium( e. G. , protein C and thrombomodulin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor).

  7. Choosing a skeletal muscle relaxant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Sharon; Ginzburg, Regina

    2008-08-01

    Skeletal muscle relaxants are widely used in treating musculoskeletal conditions. However, evidence of their effectiveness consists mainly of studies with poor methodologic design. In addition, these drugs have not been proven to be superior to acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support using skeletal muscle relaxants for short-term relief of acute low back pain when nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen are not effective or tolerated. Comparison studies have not shown one skeletal muscle relaxant to be superior to another. Cyclobenzaprine is the most heavily studied and has been shown to be effective for various musculoskeletal conditions. The sedative properties of tizanidine and cyclobenzaprine may benefit patients with insomnia caused by severe muscle spasms. Methocarbamol and metaxalone are less sedating, although effectiveness evidence is limited. Adverse effects, particularly dizziness and drowsiness, are consistently reported with all skeletal muscle relaxants. The potential adverse effects should be communicated clearly to the patient. Because of limited comparable effectiveness data, choice of agent should be based on side-effect profile, patient preference, abuse potential, and possible drug interactions.

  8. Clonal expansion and linear genome evolution through breast cancer progression from pre-invasive stages to asynchronous metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Lænkholm, Anne Vibeke

    step. Our data, contrary to the proposed model of early dissemination of metastatic cells and parallel progression of primary tumors and metastases, provide evidence of linear progression of breast cancer with relatively late dissemination from the primary tumor. The genomic discordance between......Evolution of the breast cancer genome from pre-invasive stages to asynchronous metastasis is complex and mostly unexplored, but highly demanded as it may provide novel markers for and mechanistic insights in cancer progression. The increasing use of personalized therapy of breast cancer...... necessitates knowledge of the degree of genomic concordance between different steps of malignant progression as primary tumors often are used as surrogates of systemic disease. Based on exome sequencing we performed copy number profiling and point mutation detection on successive steps of breast cancer...

  9. Bone targeted therapies for the prevention of skeletal morbidity in men with prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Saylor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Men with prostate cancer suffer substantially from bone-related complications. Androgen deprivation therapy itself is a cause of loss of bone mineral density and is associated with an increased incidence of osteoporotic fractures. In advanced disease, bone is by far the most common site of metastasis. Complications of bone metastases prominently include pain and the potential for skeletal events such as spinal cord compression and pathologic fractures. Elevated osteoclast activity is an important aspect of the pathophysiology of both treatment-related osteoporosis and skeletal complications due to metastases. The osteoclast is therefore a therapeutic target. Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody to receptor activator of nuclear factor-κ-B ligand that was designed to potently inhibit osteoclast activity and is the central focus of this review. Bisphosphonates, radiopharmaceuticals and systemically-active hormonal agents such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide have each been shown to improve skeletal morbidity in specific clinical situations. Denosumab is the only agent that has been shown to prevent osteoporotic fractures in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy and at elevated risk for fracture. It has also demonstrated superiority to the potent bisphosphonate zoledronic acid for the prevention of skeletal-related events in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer metastatic to bone. Efficacy and toxicity data will be discussed.

  10. Bone targeted therapies for the prevention of skeletal morbidity in men with prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philip J Saylor

    2014-01-01

    Men with prostate cancer suffer substantially from bone-related complications. Androgen deprivation therapy itself is a cause of loss of bone mineral density and is associated with an increased incidence of osteoporotic fractures. In advanced disease, bone is by far the most common site of metastasis. Complications of bone metastases prominently include pain and the potential for skeletal events such as spinal cord compression and pathologic fractures. Elevated osteoclast activity is an important aspect of the pathophysiology of both treatment-related osteoporosis and skeletal complications due to metastases. The osteoclast is therefore a therapeutic target. Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody to receptor activator of nuclear factor-k-B ligand that was designed to potently inhibit osteoclast activity and is the central focus of this review. Bisphosphonates, radiopharmaceuticals and systemically-active hormonal agents such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide have each been shown to improve skeletal morbidity in speciifc clinical situations. Denosumab is the only agent that has been shown to prevent osteoporotic fractures in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy and at elevated risk for fracture. It has also demonstrated superiority to the potent bisphosphonate zoledronic acid for the prevention of skeletal-related events in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer metastatic to bone. Efifcacy and toxicity data will be discussed.

  11. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by

  12. Metastasis in renal cell carcinoma: Biology and implications for therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Gong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although multiple advances have been made in systemic therapy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC, metastatic RCC remains incurable. In the current review, we focus on the underlying biology of RCC and plausible mechanisms of metastasis. We further outline evolving strategies to combat metastasis through adjuvant therapy. Finally, we discuss clinical patterns of metastasis in RCC and how distinct systemic therapy approaches may be considered based on the anatomic location of metastasis.

  13. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2008-12-01

    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society.

  14. Imaging of Pelvic Bone Metastasis from Malignant Phyllodes Breast Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Ba D.

    2015-01-01

    The author reports a patient with a malignant phyllodes breast tumor, who then had a ten-year disease free interval before she developed a left pelvic bone metastasis and soft tissue invasion. Cross-sectional and radionuclide imaging of its musculoskeletal metastasis is presented. Literature concerning bone metastasis from phyllodes tumor is also briefly reviewed and discussed, along with its epidemiology.

  15. Intra-abdominal metastasis in osteosarcoma: survey and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejin, Kebudi; Aykan, Ozgüven A; Omer, Görgün; Ensar, Yekeler; Bilge, Bilgiç; Inci, Ayan; Harzem, Ozger

    2011-10-01

    Extrapulmonary metastasis, particularly abdominal metastasis from osteogenic sarcoma, are rare and generally appear as a solid mass of calcification as the primary tumor. The aim of this case report is to document the incidence, characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of abdominal metastasis in osteosarcomas in a single institution and to review the literature. From September 1989 to December 2002, 94 children ≤16 years of age with osteosarcomas were diagnosed and treated in the Division of Pediatric Oncology, Oncology Institute, Istanbul University. Patients with abdominal metastasis were assessed. Two girls of 94 patients (2.1%) with osteosarcoma developed abdominal metastasis. One had pulmonary metastasis at diagnosis and the other had developed lung metastasis 15 months after diagnosis. They developed abdominal metastasis 4 and 3 years after diagnosis during therapy or relapse at a median duration of 16 months (1-70 months) from initial diagnosis. All patients had metastasis to various sites, mostly lung, at the time the abdominal metastasis were detected. Treatment included surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy in one and only surgery in the other patient. Both patients died at a median time of 4 months (2-6 months) from the time of abdominal metastasis with progressive disease. Abdominal metastasis in osteosarcoma is a rare event, but abdomen should be investigated in case of recurrence from osteosarcoma. The outcome for these patients is dismal in this series and in the literature.

  16. Leptomeningeal metastasis after surgical resection of brain metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. van der Ree; D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); C.J.J. Avezaat (Cees); C.J. Vecht; M.J. van den Bent (Martin); P.A.E. Sillevis Smitt (Peter)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and risk factors for leptomeningeal metastasis after surgery for brain metastasis of solid tumors. METHODS: Review of the records of all patients operated on for brain metastasis between January 1990 and August 1995. RES

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, M

    2014-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which systemic activation of coagulation without a specific localization occurs, resulting in extensive formation of intravascular fibrin, particularly in small and midsize vessels. Disseminated intravascular coagulation may lead to several altered coagulation parameters, including a low platelet count, abnormal global clotting assays, low levels of physiological anticoagulant proteases, or increased fibrin degradation products. Also, more complex assays for activation of coagulation factors or pathways may indicate involvement of these molecules in DIC. None of these tests alone, however, can accurately ascertain or rebuff a diagnosis of DIC. Nonetheless, a combination of readily available routine assays may be instrumental in establishing a diagnosis of DIC and can also be useful to point to a subset of patients with DIC that may need definite, often costly, interventions in the hemostatic system. Current insights on relevant etiological pathways that may contribute to the occurrence of DIC have led to innovative therapeutic and adjunctive approaches to patient with DIC. Management options directed at the amelioration of hemostatic activation may tentatively be indicated and were found to be advantageous in experimental and clinical investigations. These treatments encompass elimination of tissue factor-mediated thrombin generation or restitution of normal anticoagulant function.

  18. New trends in knowledge dissemination: TED Talks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Scotto di Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the key elements of ethos, pathos and logos linguistic strategies as some main features of TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design Talks, popularizing speeches aiming at Knowledge Dissemination. Through a comparison between the TED Talk ‘HIV - How to fight an epidemic of bad laws’, by Shereen El-Feki (2012a, and another speech held by the same author at the  2012 Symposia The Global Commission on HIV and the Law, addressed to specialists, the paper analyses TED Talks as an innovative tool of popularization, which breaches the typical triangularisation ‘scientist-mediator-audience’, bringing scientists directly into contact with their audiences. Drawing upon Aristotle’s three pillars of rhetoric, the paper analyses the strategies used to establish the ethos of the speech, by proposing a topic as morally worth of spreading; pathos, by creating a direct contact with the public; and logos, investigated through an analysis of the elements used to recontextualise scientific discourses into popularized speeches. The analysis suggests that TED Talks are a recodification, not a mere translation of texts; they are a means to disseminate knowledge reducing the asymmetry between audiences and scientists.

  19. Disseminated Cerebrospinal Embryonal Tumor in the Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armocida, Daniele; Caporlingua, Federico; Lapadula, Gennaro; Elefante, Grazia Maria; Antonelli, Manila; Salvati, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. According to the 2016 World Health Organization classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System, the term Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor has been replaced by the term Embryonal Tumor (ET). We present a case of disseminated cerebrospinal ET presenting in an adult patient. Illustrative Case. A 49-year-old male presenting with low back pain, dysuria, and hypoesthesia of the lower extremities referred to our emergency department. Brain and whole spine contrast-enhanced MRI documented a diffusively disseminated heterogeneous neoplasm with intradural extra- and intramedullary involvement of the cervicothoracic tract and cauda equina. A primary biopsy of the lumbosacral localization was performed through L5 bilateral laminectomy. Histologic diagnosis was Embryonal Tumor Not Otherwise Specified. The patient underwent chemotherapy with postoperative adjuvant alternating Vincristine-Doxorubicin-Ifosfamide (VAI) and Ifosfamide-Etoposide (IE). Discussion. Spinal ETs are exceedingly rare especially when presenting in the adult patient. Neurosurgical and oncologic management is still unclear. When feasible, surgical removal should always be performed to obtain a histologic diagnosis. Postoperative adjuvant therapy might entail both chemo- and radiotherapy; however a consensus on this matter is still lacking. PMID:27818821

  20. Clean coal technology promotion and dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchener, A.J.; McMullan, J.T.; Kubica, K. (and others) [IEA Coal Research Ltd, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    This project has provided a means to valorise the technical achievements of the CCT power generation RD&D activities arising from the ECSC and RFCS coal utilisation programmes. The focus has been on promotion and dissemination of such results to major coal-using Member States that have recently joined the European Union, namely Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania. A comprehensive review of the scope and achievements of the ECSC and RFCS projects on coal-fired power generation RD&D has been prepared and posted on the IEACCC website. This document has been translated by the partners in the three designated States and disseminated to their respective national stakeholders. Workshops have been held successfully in each country to promote the findings of the review and to determine their respective primary interests in future RD&D. The attendees have included representatives of major power plant operators, equipment manufacturers and developers, research institutes and universities. Very positive feedback was received from those stakeholders. The project has been completed with the circulation of the report and associated information to comparable stakeholders in the EU-15 countries and other newer members of the European Union via various networks and associations. 2 tabs., 3 apps.

  1. [Disseminated histoplasmosis treated by boluses of fluconazole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandengue Ebenye, C; Takuefou Mfangam, B; Nouédoui, C; Atangana, P J A

    2015-01-01

    We report a case in which an HIV-infected man was cured of disseminated histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum var duboisii) after treatment by high-dose fluconazole (1,600 mg taken four times daily) for 2 months, combined with active antiretroviral therapy. The choice of fluconazole at this dosage was motivated by its availability as a generic and thus inexpensive medication, the patient's precarious status, and his critical clinical condition. At the end of the second month of treatment, the patient chose to stop the fluconazole, which he could no longer afford, while continuing the antiretroviral treatment, which was free. The clinical and laboratory improvement observed from the first week has continued to progress for more than 8 months after fluconazole treatment stopped. This single case needs - and deserves - to be confirmed in a series of patients. Nonetheless it makes it possible to envision fluconazole as a low-cost and efficacious antifungal agent for the treatment of disseminated histoplasmosis in AIDS patients in sub-Saharan Africa.

  2. A new protein Girdin in tumor metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; FU Li; GU Feng; MA Yong-jie

    2010-01-01

    @@ The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt serine/threonine kinase system regulates multiple cellular processes through the phosphorylation of a great number of downstream substrates and has been recognized as an important pathway for signal transduction, and in cancer invasion and metastasis.

  3. Inguinal lymph node metastasis of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloane McGraw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of adenocarcinoma of colon with unusual metastasis to inguinal lymph nodes. Our patient is a young male with bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy, bone pains, and jaundice who presented as carcinoma of unknown primary. He was diagnosed as widely metastatic adenocarcinoma of colon for which he received chemotherapy and has had a good response to the treatment.

  4. [Diagnosis and treatment of brain metastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajama, Carlos; Lorenzoni, José; Tagle, Patricio

    2008-10-01

    Cerebral metastasis occur in 20 to 30 percent of patients with systemic cancer and are the most common type of intracranial tumor. The median survival of untreated patients is one month with a slightly longer survival in those treated with steroids. Patients treated with whole brain radiation therapy survive between 3 to 6 months. In selected cases survival can increase to 10 to 12 months with combination of surgery and radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery alone or associated to radiotherapy. Most brain metastasis arise from lung, breast and melanomas. The most important criteria for selecting patients who will benefit from surgery or stereotactic radiosurgery are a Karnofsky score of 70 or more, systemic control of the cancer and absence of leptomeningeal involvement. Surgery is indicated in patients with a single lesion located in an accessible zone and stereotactic radiosurgery is indicated for lesions up to 3 cm of diameter, and in patients with up to 3 or 4 metastasis, no matter their location. The survival benefit of chemotherapy in brain metastasis has not been demonstrated.

  5. Diagnosis of bone metastasis from thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechsgaard, Thor; Lelkaitis, Giedrius; Jensen, Karl E

    2015-01-01

    (MRI), but histology revealed a metastasis from thyroid carcinoma, although the patient had no previous history of thyroid malignancy and resection of the thyroid gland was without malignancy. Ultrasound-guided biopsy was possible due to cortical destruction and the multidisciplinary approach with re...

  6. Severe Hyperkalemia and Bilateral Adrenal Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nagler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal metastases are a common finding in metastatic lung and breast cancer. Often there are no clinical symptoms suggesting them. In this paper, we present a case of a 66-year-old man with metastatic lung cancer suffering from severe hyperkaliemia due to hypoaldosteronism as a result of bilateral adrenal metastasis.

  7. Hydrogen Technical Analysis -- Dissemination of Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Kervitsky, Jr.

    2006-03-20

    SENTECH is a small energy and environmental consulting firm providing technical, analytical, and communications solutions to technology management issues. The activities proposed by SENTECH focused on gathering and developing communications materials and information, and various dissemination activities to present the benefits of hydrogen energy to a broad audience while at the same time establishing permanent communications channels to enable continued two-way dialog with these audiences in future years. Effective communications and information dissemination is critical to the acceptance of new technology. Hydrogen technologies face the additional challenge of safety preconceptions formed primarily as a result of the crash of the Hindenburg. Effective communications play a key role in all aspects of human interaction, and will help to overcome the perceptual barriers, whether of safety, economics, or benefits. As originally proposed SENTECH identified three distinct information dissemination activities to address three distinct but important audiences; these formed the basis for the task structure used in phases 1 and 2. The tasks were: (1) Print information--Brochures that target the certain segment of the population and will be distributed via relevant technical conferences and traditional distribution channels. (2) Face-to-face meetings--With industries identified to have a stake in hydrogen energy. The three industry audiences are architect/engineering firms, renewable energy firms, and energy companies that have not made a commitment to hydrogen (3) Educational Forums--The final audience is students--the future engineers, technicians, and energy consumers. SENTECH will expand on its previous educational work in this area. The communications activities proposed by SENTECH and completed as a result of this cooperative agreement was designed to compliment the research and development work funded by the DOE by presenting the technical achievements and validations

  8. Definitive surgery and intraoperative photodynamic therapy: a prospective study of local control and survival for patients with pleural dissemination of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Charles B; Cengel, Keith A

    2014-02-01

    Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with pleural dissemination have very limited survivals often of just 6-9 months. Prior reports of aggressive surgical resection of pleural metastases have shown no consistent improvements in overall survival and very high rates of local recurrences. Based on this and the generally very diffuse pleural dissemination seen in patients, chemotherapy and palliative interventions are standard of care. By attempting to sterile microscopic residual disease after surgical resection, intraoperative photodynamic therapy (PDT) could improve local pleural control and overall survival compared with surgery alone for patients with NSCLC with pleural metastasis. Prior attempts to demonstrate an improvement in clinical outcomes with PDT as an intraoperative adjuvant combined with definitive surgery to treat pleural malignancies have not been successful, perhaps due, in part, to limited ability to perform real-time dosimetry and ensure adequate and even light distribution throughout the chest cavity. A stratified phase II trial assessed the efficacy of definitive surgery and intraoperative PDT with real-time dosimetry in patients with NSCLC with pleural dissemination demonstrated prolonged local control and a higher than expected 21.7-month median survival from the time of surgery and PDT among 22 enrolled patients. This is the first ever report describing optimal methods, techniques, and dosimetry that could be used to safely and reproducibly deliver intraoperative PDT to the chest cavity as part of multimodality therapy for NSCLC with pleural metastasis.

  9. Prototheca zopfii genotype 2 disseminated infection in a dog with neurological signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Sonne

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Prototheca zopfii is an alga that can cause disease in animals and humans. Here, we reported a case of systemic protothecosis in a 2-year-old female Boxer. The animal exhibited tetraparesis and vertical nystagmus. It died two weeks after the onset of clinical signs and was necropsied. At gross examination, whitish areas were identified in the heart. Oval or round structures were observed by microscopic examination, some of which formed morula-like structures compatible with algae in the heart, skeletal muscle, and brain. Growth of Prototheca sp. was observed in the heart after culture at 37°C on Sabouraud agar medium with chloramphenicol. Immunohistochemical analysis of the heart and brain using an anti-Prototheca zopfii polyclonal antibody yielded positive results. Genotyping of the cultured agent from brain and heart samples was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism of a specific 18S rDNA fragment. P. zopfii genotype 2 was reported to be the cause of disseminated protothecosis in this dog with manifestation in the brain, heart, and skeletal muscle.

  10. A case report of thyroid gland metastasis associated with lung metastasis from colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Nozawa, Keijiro; Aoyagi, Yoshiko; Ishihara, Soichiro; Matsuda, Keiji; Fukushima, Junichi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid gland metastasis of malignant tumors is observed in 1.9% to 9.5% of histologically examined autopsy cases. Thyroid metastasis from colon cancer is extremely rare and the prognosis is poor. Here we report a case of lung metastasis and thyroid gland metastasis following sigmoid colon cancer surgery. In 2000, a 58-year-old woman underwent a sigmoid colectomy for sigmoid colon cancer. In 2005, a metastatic lung tumor was detected by chest CT. The patient underwent a partial thoracoscopic resection of the left lung in April 2005. On a CT scan taken 3 years and 4 months after the lung resection, a tumor mass was observed in the left lung and a low-absorption region with an unclear border was seen in the left lobe of the thyroid gland. Thyroid aspiration cytology showed adenocarcinoma, and a diagnosis of thyroid gland metastasis from sigmoid colon cancer was made. In April 2008 a subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. Following surgery, the patient underwent chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6 and bevacizumab. Nevertheless a number of lung metastases and expressions of lung metastasis were subsequently observed. Histopathological examination revealed a number of metastases of differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma in the thyroid gland from colon cancer.

  11. Renal small B-cell lymphoma with plasmacytic differentiation presenting with monoclonal gammopathy and disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula de Oliveira Pádua Prestes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary renal lymphomas are very rare. However, the kidney may be a site of metastasis, usually from a disseminated aggressive lymphoma. A 58-year-old woman was brought to the medical facility due to acute mental confusion, severe hypotension, septic shock, and signs of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Laboratory tests showed severe leukopenia, renal failure, altered liver function, and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase levels. Protein electrophoresis revealed hypergammaglobulinemia with a monoclonal peak of IgG lambda. The clinical outcome was fulminant and the patient died less than 24 hours after admission. Autopsy revealed an indolent B-cell lymphoma with extensive plasmacytic differentiation infiltrating the right renal sinus and involving the submandibular and sublingual glands, cervical and peri-aortic lymph nodes, multiple microscopic foci in pituitary and adrenal glands, lung, breast, liver, thyroid, and bone marrow. Numerous IgG4-positive plasma cells were detected by immunohistochemistry although other histological features of IgG4-related disease were missing. There was also extensive hemorrhagic necrosis of the adrenal glands and purulent cystitis, which was probably responsible for the septic shock. The authors concluded that the kidney was most likely the primary site of the indolent lymphoma, as that was the site with the largest tumor mass. Infiltration of other organs was considered as dissemination of the disease. The differential diagnosis with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma is discussed.

  12. AFP mRNA level in enriched circulating tumor cells from hepatocellular carcinoma patient blood samples is a pivotal predictive marker for metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Junhua; Niu, Xiaojuan; Zou, Lihui; Li, Lin; Li, Shugang; Han, Jingli; Zhang, Peiying; Song, Jinghai; Xiao, Fei

    2016-08-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) quantification may be helpful for evaluating cancer dissemination, predicting prognosis and assessing therapeutic effectiveness and safety. In the present study, CTCs from blood samples of 72 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were enriched with anti-EpCAM nanoparticles. AFP mRNA level was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after enrichment of CTCs from HCC blood samples at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after hepatectomy, respectively. AFP mRNA expression in CTCs was positive in 43 patients (59.7%) and negative in 29 patients (40.3%) before hepatectomy. Among 43 patients with positive AFP mRNA expression in CTCs before hepatectomy, 10 and 11 were diagnosed as intrahepatic/extrahepatic metastasis before and after hepatectomy, respectively. In addition, these 21 patients with metastasis had persisting positive AFP mRNA of CTCs during the whole tested year. Specifically, 3 patients with AFP mRNA negative in CTCs before hepatectomy changed to be positive at 6 and 9 months, and 2 of them were diagnosed as metastasis 12 months after hepatectomy. We conclude that the positive AFP mRNA of CTCs can be a pivotal predictor for HCC metastasis before and after hepatectomy. The release of AFP expression from hepatocellular carcinoma cells into circulation must be a major source of HCC metastasis.

  13. Performance modeling of data dissemination in vehicular ad hoc networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaqfeh, Moumena; Lakas, Abderrahmane; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    ad hoc nature which does not require fixed infrastructure or centralized administration. However, designing scalable information dissemination techniques for VANET applications remains a challenging task due to the inherent nature of such highly dynamic environments. Existing dissemination techniques...... often resort to simulation for performance evaluation and there are only few studies that offer mathematical modeling. In this paper we provide a comparative study of existing performance modeling approaches for data dissemination techniques designed for different VANET applications....

  14. Gastric cancer metastasis mimicking primary lung cancer - case report and review of the literature; Metastase de cancer gastrico simulando neoplasia primaria de pulmao - relato de caso e revisao da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Ledesma, Jorge Alberto; Urban, Linei Augusta Brolini Delle; Liu, Cristhian Bau [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Servico de Radiologia]. E-mail: info@dapi.com.br; Reis Filho, Jorge Sergio [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Servico de Patologia; Oliveira Filho, Adilson Gil; Ferri, Mauricio Beller; Hossaka, Marco Aurelio [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas

    2002-04-01

    Gastric cancer frequently presents intraperitoneal spread. Distant metastasis are rare. The authors describe a case of a 47-year-old white man, long-term cigarette smoker, who had a right upper lobe mass seen on plain films and computed tomography of the chest. A gastric adenocarcinoma was concomitantly diagnosed by endoscopic examination. A bronchoscopy guided biopsy showed that the lung mass was in fact a metastasis from gastric adenocarcinoma. In this article, the imaging findings of gastric cancer and the patterns of dissemination to other organs are reviewed. (author)

  15. Endothelial cells promote triple-negative breast cancer cell metastasis via PAI-1 and CCL5 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenwen; Xu, Jing; Fang, Hehui; Tang, Lin; Chen, Weiwei; Sun, Qian; Zhang, Qun; Yang, Fang; Sun, Zijia; Cao, Lulu; Wang, Yucai; Guan, Xiaoxiang

    2017-09-12

    Endothelial cells (ECs) in the tumor microenvironment have been reported to play a more active role in solid tumor growth and metastatic dissemination than simply providing the physical structure to form conduits for blood flow; however, the involvement of ECs in the process of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) metastasis has not been addressed. Here, we demonstrate that ECs-when mixed with TNBC cells-could increase TNBC cell metastatic potency. After treatment with TGF-β to induce endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), TNBC cells could produce plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and stimulate the expression and secretion of the chemokine, CCL5, from ECs, which then acts in a paracrine fashion on TNBC cells to enhance their migration, invasion, and metastasis. CCL5, in turn, accelerates TNBC cell secretion of PAI-1 and promotes TNBC cell metastasis, thus forming a positive feedback loop. Moreover, this enhanced metastatic ability is reversible and dependent on CCL5 signaling via the chemokine receptor, CCR5. Of importance, key features of this pathway are manifested in patients with TNBC and in The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Taken together, our results suggest that ECs enhance EMT-induced TNBC cell metastasis via PAI-1 and CCL5 signaling and illustrate the potential of developing new PAI-1- and CCL5-targeting therapy for patients with TNBC.-Zhang, W., Xu, J., Fang, H., Tang, L., Chen, W., Sun, Q., Zhang, Q., Yang, F., Sun, Z., Cao, L., Wang, Y., Guan, X. Endothelial cells promote triple-negative breast cancer cell metastasis via PAI-1 and CCL5 signaling. © FASEB.

  16. A reductionist metastasis-on-a-chip platform for in vitro tumor progression modeling and drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skardal, Aleksander; Devarasetty, Mahesh; Forsythe, Steven; Atala, Anthony; Soker, Shay

    2016-09-01

    Current animal and 2-D cell culture models employed in metastasis research and drug discovery remain poor mimics of human cancer physiology. Here we describe a "metastasis-on-a-chip" system allowing real time tracking of fluorescent colon cancer cells migrating from hydrogel-fabricated gut constructs to downstream liver constructs within a circulatory fluidic device system that responds to environmental manipulation and drug treatment. Devices consist of two chambers in which gut and liver constructs are housed independently, but are connected in series via circulating fluid flow. Constructs were biofabricated with a hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel system, capable of a variety of customizations, inside of which representative host tissue cells were suspended and metastatic colon carcinoma tumor foci were created. The host tissue of the constructs expressed normal epithelial markers, which the tumor foci failed to express. Instead, tumor regions lost membrane-bound adhesion markers, and expressed mesenchymal and proliferative markers, suggesting a metastatic phenotype. Metastatic tumor foci grew in size, eventually disseminating from the intestine construct and entering circulation, subsequently reaching in the liver construct, thus mimicking some of the migratory events observed during metastasis. Lastly, we demonstrated the ability to manipulate the system, including chemically modulating the hydrogel system mechanical properties and administering chemotherapeutic agents, and evaluated the effects of these parameters on invasive tumor migration. These results describe the capability of this early stage metastasis-on-a-chip system to model several important characteristics of human metastasis, thereby demonstrating the potential of the platform for making meaningful advances in cancer investigation and drug discovery. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2020-2032. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Dissemination strategy for Lean thinking in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannapfel, Petra; Poksinska, Bozena; Thomas, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to knowledge about dissemination strategies for Lean thinking throughout multiple healthcare organisations. The Ostergötland county council, Sweden (CCO) was chosen as a case study for an healthcare Lean-thinking dissemination strategies. Document analysis and interviews were used and results were compared with similar strategies employed by staff at the National Health Service Institute for Innovation (NHSI) and improvement in Great Britain and the Odense University Hospital in Denmark. The Lean improvement programme was introduced to tackle challenges such as an ageing society, rising care expectations and budgetary and economic constraints. It was designed as a long-term programme to create added value for patients and employee involvement. The dissemination strategy was: forming clear visions and objectives; piloting; training potential adopters; and formal dissemination. The CCO strategy was focused primarily on managers and was not meant to involve all staff until the implementation stage. Staff at the NHSI attempted to address nurses needs during dissemination, which questioned whether the CCO managers' dissemination strategy is sustainable. This paper inspires healthcare managers and decision makers who aim to disseminate Lean production in their organisations. There are many case studies describing Lean implementation in single healthcare organisations, but little is known about effective dissemination and implementation strategies in large healthcare systems. The authors, therefore, suggest activities for developing and implementing dissemination strategies in multiple healthcare organisations.

  18. Skeletal and body composition evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazess, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Research on radiation detectors for absorptiometry; analysis of errors affective single photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; analysis of errors affecting dual photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; comparison of skeletal measurements with other techniques; cooperation with NASA projects for skeletal evaluation in spaceflight (Experiment MO-78) and in laboratory studies with immobilized animals; studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis; organization of scientific meetings and workshops on absorptiometric measurement; and development of instrumentation for measurement of fluid shifts in the human body were performed. Instrumentation was developed that allows accurate and precise (2% error) measurements of mineral content in compact and trabecular bone and of the total skeleton. Instrumentation was also developed to measure fluid shifts in the extremities. Radiation exposure with those procedures is low (2-10 MREM). One hundred seventy three technical reports and one hundred and four published papers of studies from the University of Wisconsin Bone Mineral Lab are listed.

  19. Role of Versican, Hyaluronan and CD44 in Ovarian Cancer Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda P. Ween

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence to suggest that extracellular matrix (ECM components play an active role in tumor progression and are an important determinant for the growth and progression of solid tumors. Tumor cells interfere with the normal programming of ECM biosynthesis and can extensively modify the structure and composition of the matrix. In ovarian cancer alterations in the extracellular environment are critical for tumor initiation and progression and intra-peritoneal dissemination. ECM molecules including versican and hyaluronan (HA which interacts with the HA receptor, CD44, have been shown to play critical roles in ovarian cancer metastasis. This review focuses on versican, HA, and CD44 and their potential as therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer.

  20. CXCR4/CXCL12 in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Metastasis to the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Cavallaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer represents the leading cause of cancer-related mortality throughout the world. Patients die of local progression, disseminated disease, or both. At least one third of the people with lung cancer develop brain metastases at some point during their disease, even often before the diagnosis of lung cancer is made. The high rate of brain metastasis makes lung cancer the most common type of tumor to spread to the brain. It is critical to understand the biologic basis of brain metastases to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. This review will focus on the emerging data supporting the involvement of the chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 in the brain metastatic evolution of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC and the pharmacological tools that may be used to interfere with this signaling axis.

  1. P62: An emerging oncotarget for osteolytic metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone metastasis occurs in the majority of late-stage tumors with poor prognosis. It is mainly classified as osteoblastic metastasis and osteolytic metastasis. The pathogenesis of osteolytic metastasis is a “vicious cycle” between tumor cells and bone cells (primarily the osteoclasts, which is mediated by secretory factors. The P62 adapter protein is a versatile multitasker between tumor cells and bone cells. The overexpression of P62 has been detected among a variety of tumors, playing positive roles in both tumorigenesis and metastasis. Moreover, P62 is an important modulator of the osteoclastogenesis pathway. Therefore, the ability of P62 to modulate tumors and osteoclasts suggests that it may be a feasible oncotarget for bone metastasis, especially for osteolytic metastasis. Recent research has shown that a P62 DNA vaccine triggered effective anti-tumor, anti-metastatic and anti-osteoporotic activities. Growing lines of evidence point to P62 as an emerging oncotarget for osteolytic metastasis. In this review, we outline the different roles of P62 in tumor cells and osteoclasts, focusing on the P62-related signaling pathway in key steps of osteolytic metastasis, including tumorigenesis, metastasis and osteoclastogenesis. Finally, we discuss the newest observations on P62 as an oncotarget for osteolytic metastasis treatment.

  2. Telemedicine: challenges to dissemination in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Santos de Varge Maldonado

    Full Text Available Abstract: Telemedicine has been seen as an important tool for facing the challenges of universal health systems. The goal of this article is to discuss the main challenges to its full dissemination in Brazil. Being a somewhat new area, there are not many scientific papers that systematize it. This article is an exploratory paper, as it aims to provide an overall perspective on the subject. From an economic point of view, telemedicine is a strategic area due to its an intrinsic potential of being a source for generating innovation, for requiring and incorporating technological breakthroughs from other areas, and for its interdisciplinary nature and dynamic inter-relations that drive different industries. From the social perspective, it has the potential to make access to health services democratic, by connecting remote regions with health services located in hospitals and centers of reference for prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

  3. [Disseminated intravascular coagulation: clinical and biological diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touaoussa, Aziz; El Youssi, Hind; El Hassani, Imane; Hanouf, Daham; El Bergui, Imane; Zoulati, Ghizlane; Amrani Hassani, Moncef

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by the systemic activation of blood coagulation. Its pathophysiological mechanisms are complex and dependent on the underlying pathology, making the clinical and biological expression of quite variable DIC. Among the various biological parameters disrupted, most are not specific, and none of them allows in itself to make the diagnosis. All this does not facilitate the task of the practitioner for diagnosis of overt DIC, much less that of the non-overt DIC, early stage whose treatment would improve the prognosis. These considerations have led to develop scores, combining several parameters depending on their availability in daily practice, as well as their diagnostic relevance. Of all the scores, the ISTH (International society of thrombosis and hemostasis) remains the most used.

  4. Multilocular disseminated tarlov cysts: importance of imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, Subramanyam; Sundaram, P Shanmuga

    2014-01-01

    With technological advancements and wider availability of multimodality imaging, incidental lesions are frequently identified in patients undergoing various imaging studies. We report here a case of multiloculated disseminated perineural or Tarlov cysts (TCs). The primary aim of our study was to (1) provide a comprehensive review of the clinical, imaging and histopathological features of TCs (2) to draw attention to the fact that multiple lumbo-sacral and dorsal TCs can produce nerve injuries and serious movement disturbances (3) to document the usefulness of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scan in noninvasive diagnosis and guiding management in such cases. These cysts are clearly identified by MR and computerized tomography imaging of the lumbosacral spine. However, there are no reports on the scintigraphic findings of TCs in literature. TCs are typically benign, asymptomatic lesions that can simply be monitored. Until date, no consensus exists about the best surgical strategy to be followed for their management.

  5. Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, E.M. [London Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. {sup 211}At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (author)

  6. Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, E.M. [London University (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore, to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB)) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. {sup 211}At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (authors)

  7. Subcapsular sinus macrophages limit acute gammaherpesvirus dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederico, Bruno; Chao, Brittany; Lawler, Clara; May, Janet S; Stevenson, Philip G

    2015-08-01

    Lymphocyte proliferation, mobility and longevity make them prime targets for virus infection. Myeloid cells that process and present environmental antigens to lymphocytes are consequently an important line of defence. Subcapsular sinus macrophages (SSMs) filter the afferent lymph and communicate with B-cells. How they interact with B-cell-tropic viruses is unknown. We analysed their encounter with murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4), an experimentally accessible gammaherpesvirus related to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. MuHV-4 disseminated via lymph nodes, and intranasally or subcutaneously inoculated virions readily infected SSMs. However, this infection was poorly productive. SSM depletion with clodronate-loaded liposomes or with diphtheria toxin in CD169-diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice increased B-cell infection and hastened virus spread to the spleen. Dendritic cells provided the main route to B-cells, and SSMs slowed host colonization, apparently by absorbing virions non-productively from the afferent lymph.

  8. Disseminating natural language processed clinical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Elizabeth S; Hripcsak, George; Friedman, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Through Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, information can be extracted from clinical narratives for a variety of applications (e.g., patient management). While the complex and nested output of NLP systems can be expressed in standard formats, such as the eXtensible Markup Language (XML), these representations may not be directly suitable for certain end-users or applications. The availability of a âeuro tabular' format that simplifies the content and structure of NLP output may facilitate the dissemination and use by users who are more familiar with common spreadsheet, database, or statistical tools. In this paper, we describe the knowledge-based design of a tabular representation for NLP output and development of a transformation program for the structured output of MedLEE, an NLP system at our institution. Through an evaluation, we found that the simplified tabular format is comparable to existing more complex NLP formats in effectiveness for identifying clinical conditions in narrative reports.

  9. Quinine-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Abed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Every drug comes with some side effect. It is the benefit/risk ratio that determines the medical use of the drug. Quinine, a known antimalarial drug, has been used for nocturnal leg cramps since the 1930s; it is associated with severe life-threatening hematological and cardiovascular side effects. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, albeit rare, is a known coagulopathy associated with Quinine. It is imperative to inquire about the Quinine intake in medication history in patients with coagulopathy, as most patients still consider it a harmless home remedy for nocturnal leg cramps. In this report, we present a case of coagulopathy in a middle-aged woman, who gave a history of taking Quinine for nocturnal leg cramps, as her home remedy. Early identification of the offending agent led to the diagnosis, prompt discontinuation of the medication, and complete recovery and prevented the future possibility of recurrence.

  10. An uncommon presentation of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis (PDH caused by Histoplasma capsulatum generally develops in immunocompromised patients or those on long-term systemic corticosteroid therapy. Here, we report a case of PDH in an immunocompetent patient, which is a rare occurrence. A 56- year-old male patient, whose work often led him to caves, now reported with a low-grade fever and altered sensorium. Investigations revealed hyponatremia, bilateral adrenal enlargement, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. A rare complication of the manifestations of histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient, in the form of ring lesions in the brain, came to light during the clinical investigations. The patient developed generalized tonic–clonic convulsions and needed care for the critical condition 2 weeks into treatment. This case report traces the clinical course, histological and serological findings, and response to amphotericin B therapy in the patient.

  11. Disseminated visceral coccidiosis in sandhill cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.W.; Novilla, M.N.; Fayer, R.; Iverson, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) caused by Eimeria spp was first recognized as a disease entity in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and whooping cranes (G americana) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Because cranes produced at the Center are reintroduced to the wild to augment wild populations, studies involving both experimentally induced and natural infections were initiated to determine the potential or actual occurrence of DVC in wild Gruidae. Nine sandhill cranes dosed orally with eimerian oocysts of wild origin developed lesions characteristic of DVC. Extraintestinal granulomas associated with developing schizonts were found in 6 birds. Similar lesions were observed in wild sandhill cranes throughout parts of midwestern United States, Alaska, and Saskatchewan. These studies revealed the wide geographic distribution and the high frequency of occurrence of DVC in wild cranes.

  12. Data Dissemination in Mobile Computing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr A. Venugopal Reddy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Data dissemination in asymmetrical communicationenvironment, where the downlink communication capacity ismuch greater than the uplink communication capacity, is bestsuited for mobile environment. In this architecture there will bea stationary server continuously broadcasting different dataitems over the air. The mobile clients continuously listen to thechannel and access the data of their interest whenever itappears on the channel and download the same. The typicalapplications of such architecture are stock market information,weather information, traffic information etc. The importantissue that is to be addressed in this type of data disseminationis – how quickly the mobile clients access the data item of theirinterest i.e. minimum access time so that the mobile clients savethe precious battery power while they are on mobile. Thispaper reviews the various techniques for achieving theminimum access time. The advantages and disadvantages arediscussed and explored different research areas for achievingthe minimum access time.

  13. Unusual presentation of a pancreatic cyst resulting from osteosarcoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Burcu; Obuch, Joshua; Fukami, Norio; Pokharel, Sajal S

    2015-07-21

    Pancreatic metastases are uncommon. They have been reported in lung cancer, gastrointestinal malignancies, breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, lymphoma and sarcoma, and usually have solid morphology. Cystic metastasis to the pancreas is even more rare with few case reports in the literature. However, with the increasing use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging as well as endoscopic ultrasound, more such lesions may be detected. Metastasis to the pancreas from osteosarcoma is highly unusual, but can be seen with the increasing survival of patients with osteosarcoma. We present an extremely rare case of a predominantly cystic lesion of the pancreas, which was diagnosed as metastasis from osteosarcoma. The pathophysiology of the cystic component of the metastasis of osteosarcoma is unknown. Cystic necrotic degeneration of the solid metastasis or pancreatitis secondary to the metastasis with development of associated fluid collection can be considered. Metastasis should remain a differential consideration even for primarily cystic lesions of the pancreas.

  14. Redox regulation of cancer metastasis: molecular signaling and therapeutic opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenyong; Zou, Linzhi; Huang, Canhua; Lei, Yunlong

    2014-08-01

    Cancer metastasis is the major cause of cancer-related mortality. Accumulated evidence has shown that high-metastasis potential cancer cells have more reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation compared with low-metastasis potential cancer cells. ROS can function as second messengers to regulate multiple cancer metastasis-related signaling pathways via reversible oxidative posttranslational modifications of cysteine in key redox-sensitive proteins, which leads to the structural and functional change of these proteins. Because ROS can promote cancer metastasis, therapeutic strategies aiming at inducing/reducing cellular ROS level or targeting redox sensors involved in metastasis hold great potential in developing new efficient approaches for anticancer therapy. In this review, we summarize recent findings on regulation of tumor metastasis by key redox sensors and describe the potential of targeting redox signaling pathways for cancer therapy.

  15. Epigenetic regulation of skeletal myogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Saccone, Valentina; Puri, Pier Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    During embryogenesis a timely and coordinated expression of different subsets of genes drives the formation of skeletal muscles in response to developmental cues. In this review, we will summarize the most recent advances on the “epigenetic network” that promotes the transcription of selective groups of genes in muscle progenitors, through the concerted action of chromatin-associated complexes that modify histone tails and microRNAs (miRNAs). These epigenetic players cooperate to establish fo...

  16. [Analysis of dissemination pathways for poliovirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohka, Seii

    2009-06-01

    Poliomyelitis is an acute disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by poliovirus (PV). In humans, an infection is initiated by oral ingestion of the virus, followed by multiplication in the alimentary mucosa, from which the virus spreads through the bloodstream. Paralytic poliomyelitis initiates from the invasion of the central nervous system by circulating poliovirus, probably via the blood-brain barrier. After the virus enters the central nervous system, it replicates in neurons, especially in motor neurons, inducing the cell death that causes paralytic poliomyelitis. Along with this route of dissemination, a neuron-specific pathway has been reported in humans, monkeys, and PV-sensitive transgenic (Tg) mice carrying the PV receptor (hPVR/CD155) gene. It is important for the efficient virus dissemination to overcome the barriers as follows; i) to access the target tissue, ii) to enter the cells, iii) to reach the place for the replication, iv) to replicate efficiently. PV is easily transferred to humans orally; however, no rodent model for oral infections has been developed. We analyzed the each barrier above, and showed that PV is inactivated by the low pH of the gastric contents in mice. We also demonstrated that type 1 interferon signaling plays an important role in determining permissivity in the alimentary tract. As for the neural pathway, we demonstrated that direct efficient interaction between the cytoplasmic domain and cytoplasmic dynein is essential for the efficient retrograde transport of PV-containing vesicles along microtubules for the hPVR-dependent PV transport. On the other hand, we found that hPVR-independent axonal transport of PV was also observed in hPVR-Tg and non-Tg mice, indicating that several different pathways for PV axonal transport exist.

  17. Intracranial germinoma with ventricular system dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-yun CHEN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the clinical, neuroimaging and histopathological features of intracranial germinoma.  Methods One case of intracranial germinoma with ventricular system dissemination was reported, and related literatures were reviewed.  Results A 34-year-old male complained of progressive dizziness for 30 d and manifested unsteady gait for 45 d. Radiological examinations revealed low signal intensity on T1WI and hyperintense on T2WI in the corpus callosum, left cerebellum, around the fourth ventricle, aqueduct mesencephalon, the ventral pons and pineal region, with even or uneven enhancement after contrast. The clinical initial diagnosis was "intracranial multiple focal lesions and high possibility of multiple sclerosis". After well response to glucocorticoid impact and dehydration, the patient stopped taking drugs but presented relapse and exacerbation. Later, he underwent biopsy on pineal region and was diagnosed as intracranial germinoma. Microscopically, the big germ cells and lymphocytes coexisted. Tumor cells were epithelioid cells with transparent cytoplasm, prominent nuclei and mitotic activity. Lymphocytes were distributed along interstitial substance of vessel and fiber, and individual syncytiotrophoblasts were sprasely distributed. Immunohistochemical staining showed tumor cells were positive for CD117 and OCT3/4, and the syncytiotrophoblasts were positive for β-human chorionic gonadotropin ( β-hCG. The clinical symptoms were completely alleviated after radiotherapy and chemotherapy.  Conclusions Because of the sensitivity for radiotherapy and chemotherapy, intracranial germinoma can be diagnosed and treated early to improve its prognosis. However, it is very easy to disseminate along with ventricular system and form multiple lesions, leading to atypical clinical and imaging manifestations, which is a big challenge for clinical diagnosis. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.05.010

  18. Comprehensive resource: Skeletal gene database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, L; Ho, N C; Park, S S; Powell, J; Francomano, C A

    2001-01-01

    The Skeletal Gene Database (SGD) is an integrated resource that provides comprehensive information about bone-related genes, mRNA, and proteins expressed in human and mouse, with rich links to numerous other electronic tools. SGD contains expressed sequence tag (EST) data from all the skeletal-related cDNA libraries that are available to the public. It supplies the query/data access analytic tools for users to search and compare each gene expressed in skeletal tissue(s). The results derived from EST tissue expression profiling will allow users to get the data on the mRNA copy numbers of each gene expressed in each tissue and its normalized value. From the SGD, researchers can obtain information regarding the name, symbol, size, exon/intron number, chromosomal location, LocusLink, and related disease (if any is known) of each gene. This electronic compendium also furnishes information on the protein of the corresponding gene including the protein size (amino acid number and molecular weight). It provides swift and ready access to other useful databases including OMIM, UniGene and PUBMED. The data will be updated regularly in step with current and future research, thereby providing what we hope will serve as a highly useful source of information and a powerful analytic tool to the scientific community.

  19. Soluble fibrin inhibits monocyte adherence and cytotoxicity against tumor cells: implications for cancer metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Shonak

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soluble fibrin (sFn is a marker for disseminated intravascular coagulation and may have prognostic significance, especially in metastasis. However, a role for sFn in the etiology of metastatic cancer growth has not been extensively studied. We have reported that sFn cross-linked platelet binding to tumor cells via the major platelet fibrin receptor αIIbβ3, and tumor cell CD54 (ICAM-1, which is the receptor for two of the leukocyte β2 integrins (αLβ2 and aMβ2. We hypothesized that sFn may also affect leukocyte adherence, recognition, and killing of tumor cells. Furthermore, in a rat experimental metastasis model sFn pre-treatment of tumor cells enhanced metastasis by over 60% compared to untreated cells. Other studies have shown that fibrin(ogen binds to the monocyte integrin αMβ2. This study therefore sought to investigate the effect of sFn on β2 integrin mediated monocyte adherence and killing of tumor cells. Methods The role of sFn in monocyte adherence and cytotoxicity against tumor cells was initially studied using static microplate adherence and cytotoxicity assays, and under physiologically relevant flow conditions in a microscope perfusion incubator system. Blocking studies were performed using monoclonal antibodies specific for β2 integrins and CD54, and specific peptides which inhibit sFn binding to these receptors. Results Enhancement of monocyte/tumor cell adherence was observed when only one cell type was bound to sFn, but profound inhibition was observed when sFn was bound to both monocytes and tumor cells. This effect was also reflected in the pattern of monocyte cytotoxicity. Studies using monoclonal blocking antibodies and specific blocking peptides (which did not affect normal coagulation showed that the predominant mechanism of fibrin inhibition is via its binding to αMβ2 on monocytes, and to CD54 on both leukocytes and tumor cells. Conclusion sFn inhibits monocyte adherence and cytotoxicity of

  20. FRZB up-regulation is correlated with hepatic metastasis and poor prognosis in colon carcinoma patients with hepatic metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanping; Zhang, Fang; Lan, Huanrong; Chen, Ke; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Guoming; Teng, Lisong; Jin, Ketao

    2015-01-01

    Frizzled-related protein (FRZB) was up-regulated in hepatic metastasis samples compared with primary colon cancer samples in our previous work. However, the clinical relevance of FRZB in colon cancer hepatic metastasis remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of FRZB in patients with colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis after hepatic resection. FRZB expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) primary colon carcinoma and paired hepatic metastasis tissues from 136 patients with liver metastasis from colon carcinoma that underwent hepatic resection. The relation between FRZB expression and clinicopathologic factors and long-term prognosis in these 136 patients was retrospectively examined. The prognostic significance of negative or positive FRZB expression in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis was assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank tests. Positive expression of FRZB was correlated with liver metastasis of colon cancer. Univariate analysis indicated significantly worse overall survival (OS) for patients with a positive FRZB expression in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis than for patients with a negative FRZB expression. Multivariate analysis showed positive-FRZB in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis to be an independent prognostic factor for OS after hepatic resection (P = 0.001). Positive expression of FRZB was statistically significantly associated with poor prognosis of patients with colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis. FRZB could be a novel predictor for poor prognosis of patients with colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis after hepatic resection.

  1. Recurrence in skeletal muscle from squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zannoni Gian

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of skeletal muscle metastases is a very rare event. Only two cases of late skeletal muscle recurrence from cervical cancer have been documented until now. Case presentation A 38-year old patient, submitted to radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for a squamous FIGO stage IB1 cervical carcinoma, presented after 76 months with a palpable, and painless swelling on the left hemithorax. MRI showed a nodule located in the context of the intercostal muscles. Pathology revealed the presence of metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma of similar morphology as the primary. On the basis of FDG-PET findings, which excluded other sites of disease, surgical excision of the lesion was performed. The patient was triaged to chemotherapy plus external radiotherapy. Conclusion A case of skeletal muscle recurrence from cervical cancer after a very long interval from primary diagnosis is reported. Muscular pain or weakness, or just a palpable mass in a patient with a history of cancer has always to raise the suspicion of muscle metastasis.

  2. The exercised skeletal muscle: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Marini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The skeletal muscle is the second more plastic tissue of the body - second to the nervous tissue only. In fact, both physical activity and inactivity contribute to modify the skeletal muscle, by continuous signaling through nerve impulses, mechanical stimuli and humoral clues. In turn, the skeletal muscle sends signals to the body, thus contributing to its homeostasis. We'll review here the contribute of physical exercise to the shaping of skeletal muscle, to the adaptation of its mass and function to the different needs imposed by different physical activities and to the attainment of the health benefits associated with active skeletal muscles. Focus will primarily be on the molecular pathways and on gene regulation that result in skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise.

  3. Progression and metastasis of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Helmut H

    2016-03-01

    Metastasis in lung cancer is a multifaceted process. In this review, we will dissect the process in several isolated steps such as angiogenesis, hypoxia, circulation, and establishment of a metastatic focus. In reality, several of these processes overlap and occur even simultaneously, but such a presentation would be unreadable. Metastasis requires cell migration toward higher oxygen tension, which is based on changing the structure of the cell (epithelial-mesenchymal transition), orientation within the stroma and stroma interaction, and communication with the immune system to avoid attack. Once in the blood stream, cells have to survive trapping by the coagulation system, to survive shear stress in small blood vessels, and to find the right location for extravasation. Once outside in the metastatic locus, tumor cells have to learn the communication with the "foreign" stroma cells to establish vascular supply and again express molecules, which induce immune tolerance.

  4. Melanoma metastasis to the spleen: Laparoscopic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trindade Manoel Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of minimally invasive surgery in the management of metastasis to the spleen. A 67-year-old male patient with possible splenic soft tissue melanoma metastasis was referred to our hospital. He had a history of an excised soft tissue melanoma from his back eight months earlier, and the control abdominal computer tomography (CT scan revealed a hypodense spleen lesion. The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery to diagnose and treat the splenic lesion. The splenectomy was performed and the histological examination revealed a melanoma. The patient had a good postoperative course and was discharged on the second postoperative day. On his 12-month follow-up there was no sign of recurrence. The laparoscopic approach is a safe and effective alternative for treatment of splenic metastases.

  5. Melanoma metastasis to the spleen: Laparoscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Manoel Roberto Maciel; Blaya, Rodrigo; Trindade, Eduardo Neubarth

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of minimally invasive surgery in the management of metastasis to the spleen. A 67-year-old male patient with possible splenic soft tissue melanoma metastasis was referred to our hospital. He had a history of an excised soft tissue melanoma from his back eight months earlier, and the control abdominal computer tomography (CT) scan revealed a hypodense spleen lesion. The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery to diagnose and treat the splenic lesion. The splenectomy was performed and the histological examination revealed a melanoma. The patient had a good postoperative course and was discharged on the second postoperative day. On his 12-month follow-up there was no sign of recurrence. The laparoscopic approach is a safe and effective alternative for treatment of splenic metastases. PMID:19547681

  6. Modeling tumor invasion and metastasis in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne O. Miles

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of major signaling pathways between humans and flies has made Drosophila a useful model organism for cancer research. Our understanding of the mechanisms regulating cell growth, differentiation and development has been considerably advanced by studies in Drosophila. Several recent high profile studies have examined the processes constraining the metastatic growth of tumor cells in fruit fly models. Cell invasion can be studied in the context of an in vivo setting in flies, enabling the genetic requirements of the microenvironment of tumor cells undergoing metastasis to be analyzed. This Perspective discusses the strengths and limitations of Drosophila models of cancer invasion and the unique tools that have enabled these studies. It also highlights several recent reports that together make a strong case for Drosophila as a system with the potential for both testing novel concepts in tumor progression and cell invasion, and for uncovering players in metastasis.

  7. Computational systems biology in cancer brain metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huiming; Tan, Hua; Zhao, Weiling; Jin, Guangxu; Sharma, Sambad; Xing, Fei; Watabe, Kounosuke; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases occur in 20-40% of patients with advanced malignancies. A better understanding of the mechanism of this disease will help us to identify novel therapeutic strategies. In this review, we will discuss the systems biology approaches used in this area, including bioinformatics and mathematical modeling. Bioinformatics has been used for identifying the molecular mechanisms driving brain metastasis and mathematical modeling methods for analyzing dynamics of a system and predicting optimal therapeutic strategies. We will illustrate the strategies, procedures, and computational techniques used for studying systems biology in cancer brain metastases. We will give examples on how to use a systems biology approach to analyze a complex disease. Some of the approaches used to identify relevant networks, pathways, and possibly biomarkers in metastasis will be reviewed into details. Finally, certain challenges and possible future directions in this area will also be discussed.

  8. Modeling tumor invasion and metastasis in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Wayne O; Dyson, Nicholas J; Walker, James A

    2011-11-01

    Conservation of major signaling pathways between humans and flies has made Drosophila a useful model organism for cancer research. Our understanding of the mechanisms regulating cell growth, differentiation and development has been considerably advanced by studies in Drosophila. Several recent high profile studies have examined the processes constraining the metastatic growth of tumor cells in fruit fly models. Cell invasion can be studied in the context of an in vivo setting in flies, enabling the genetic requirements of the microenvironment of tumor cells undergoing metastasis to be analyzed. This Perspective discusses the strengths and limitations of Drosophila models of cancer invasion and the unique tools that have enabled these studies. It also highlights several recent reports that together make a strong case for Drosophila as a system with the potential for both testing novel concepts in tumor progression and cell invasion, and for uncovering players in metastasis.

  9. Hypothesis: Disseminated Intravascular Inflammation as the Inflammatory Counterpart to Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Brian S.; Bull, Maureen H.

    1994-08-01

    We have identified a leukocyte activation syndrome that is occasionally associated with the transfusion of intraoperatively recovered erythrocytes. This syndrome appears to result from intravascular damage caused by leukocytes activated during the erythrocyte salvage process. We hypothesize that this syndrome is part of a larger disease grouping: disseminated intravascular inflammation (DII). DII is the analog of the coagulation disorder disseminated intravascular coagulation. In disseminated intravascular coagulation, the organ damage results from uncontrolled activation of the clotting pathway; in DII the damage is caused by leukocytes that have become activated by direct contact with bacteria or in rare instances-such as erythrocyte salvage-in the absence of bacteria and bacterial products. Recent studies of the hazards associated with intraoperative blood salvage indicate that activation of leukocytes can be achieved by exposure to activated platelets alone. If such activated leukocytes are reinfused along with the washed erythrocytes, widespread organ damage may result. The lung is the organ most severely affected by activated leukocytes. Adult respiratory distress syndrome is one outcome. It is likely that DII is a presently unrecognized pathophysiological process that complicates a variety of primary disease states and increases their lethality.

  10. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FEASIBILITY OF WHOLE BODY DIFFUSION WEIGHTED IMAGING IN DIAGNOSIS OF METASTASIS OF TUMOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-he Yang; Jian-zhong Lin; Xin Wang; Jian-hua Lu; Zhong Chen

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of whole body diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis of metastatic tumor.Methods Fifty-six patients (40 males and 16 females, age ranging from 29 to 84 years with a mean age of 57 years) with a variety of primary tumors were investigated by whole body DWI combined with computed tomography (CT) and/or conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Twelve patients underwent positron emission tomography. The final diagnosis was made on the basis of CT or high resolution CT result for lung lesion and MRI or CT result for skull, abdomen and other parts. All tumors were classified into four groups by their diameter: below 1.0 cm, 1.0-1.9 cm, 2.0-2.9 cm, and above 3.0 cm. The sensitivity and specificity of whole body DWI in the detection of metastatic tumor were analyzed.Results The sensitivities of whole body DWI for screening metastasis oftlie four groups were 38%, 75%, 97%, and 100%, respectively. Whole body DWI showed the highest sensitivity and specificity for detecting metastasis of the skeletal system. It was difficult to find metastatic tumor whose diameter was below 1.0 cm, or lymph nodes located in the pelvis with diameter below 2.0 cm. Conclusions Whole body DWI is a promising method in the diagnosis ofmetastastic tumors. With the perfection of scanning parameter, whole body DWI should be a new effective whole body technique for tumor detection.

  11. Thymoma Metastasis to the Semimembranosus Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kenta; Susa, Michiro; Ogata, Sho; Ozeki, Yuichi; Chiba, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Thymoma is the most common thymic epithelial tumor whose classification was first introduced in 1999. Type B2 thymoma is considered a moderate/high-risk tumor; however, extrathoracic metastases are extremely rare with limited reports to date. In this report, we present a rare thymoma metastasis to the semimembranosus muscle, which was resected with a wide margin after confirmation by open biopsy. At the final follow-up after 1 year, no local recurrence has been observed. PMID:28203162

  12. Prostate Cancer Presenting with Parietal Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Abdoul Karim; Abubakar, Babagana Mustapha; Kabore, Moussa

    2017-01-01

    Bone metastases from prostate cancer are very common. They are usually located on the axial skeleton. However, cranial bone metastases especially to the parietal bone are rare. We report a case of metastatic prostate cancer presenting with left parietal bone metastasis in a patient with no urological symptoms or signs. We should consider prostate cancer in any man above 60 years presenting unusual bone lesions.

  13. Heparanase Mechanisms in Melanoma Brain Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    with HPSE- mediated cell signaling and actions, and ultimately affecting the modulation of BMM. Accordingly, this, by employing the pINDUCER lentiviral...found that HPSE plays important roles in mechanisms modulating BMM onset. A new molecular mechanism was also identified by which HPSE mediates an... mediated by enzymatically active heparanase. Our work has implicated heparanase as a promoter of brain metastasis since the enzyme is most active in cells

  14. Isolated penile metastasis from bladder carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demuren, O.A. [Department of Radiology and Imaging, Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Koriech, O. [Department of Oncology, Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1999-10-01

    Metastases of the penis are uncommon, with only approximately 300 cases reported since 1870. In up to 70 % of patients, the primary tumour is located in the urogenital tract. Furthermore, isolated metastases of the penis are exceptionally rare. We report a case of solitary squamous cell metastasis of the penis presenting with painful swelling initially thought to be inflammatory in origin. The CT and MR imaging findings are presented with a short review of the literature. (orig.) With 2 figs., 9 refs.

  15. Mandibular metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Tae Min [Dept. of Advanced General Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kee Dong; Jeong, Ho Gui; Park, Won Se [Advanced General Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Tumors metastasizing from distant regions to the oral and maxillofacial region are uncommon, comprising only 1%-2% of all malignancies. Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignancy that arises from cholangiocytes, which are epithelial cells that line the bile ducts. These cancers are difficult to diagnose and have a poor prognosis. In this paper, we report a rare case of mandibular metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma diagnosed at the primary site and discuss the radiographic findings observed in this case.

  16. [Intrascrotal metastasis in a renal cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja Escudero, J; Pascual Samaniego, M; Martín Blanco, S; de Castro Olmedo, C; Gonzalo, V; Fernández del Busto, E

    2004-04-01

    The present article reports a case of intrascrotal metastasis of renal adenocarcinoma. This is an unusual case. A 66-year-old male patient undewent right radical nephrectomy and cavotomy for renal cell carcinoma with renal vein infiltration and thrombus in cava. Six months later the patient present with a nodulous enlargement intrascrotal and roots of penis. And he died 15 moths after nephrectomy. Usually intrascrotal metastases are a late event in the course after detection of a renal carcinoma.

  17. Insulin-induced gene 2 expression correlates with colorectal cancer metastasis and disease outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengjie; Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qiong; Wu, Zhiyong; Shi, Weiwei; Yang, Bo; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide accounting for ∼9% of cancer-related deaths, 90% of which are due to metastasis resulting from resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Hence, it is imperative to develop novel biomarkers of CRC. Insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) has been previously reported to be a negative regulator of cholesterol synthesis and was recently identified as a putative-positive prognostic biomarker for colon and pancreatic cancer prognosis. Even though it has been suggested as a colon cancer biomarker and as an inhibitor of Bax-mediated apoptosis, the role of INSIG2 in CRC is elusive. We initially validated that INSIG2 is a gene with univariate-negative prognostic capacity to discriminate human colon cancer survivorship and that if present along with adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene mutations further decrease overall survival. Gain- and loss-of-function studies of INSIG2 showed that the gene product is responsible for inducing migration and invasion and maintenance of the mesenchymal phenotype in vitro and metastasis in vivo. Interestingly, loss of INSIG2 did not affect tumorigenic potential per se, but affected hepatic invasion in a xenograft assay. Our findings reinforce that INSIG2 is a novel colon cancer biomarker, and suggest, for the first time, an exclusive connection between INSIG2 and metastatic dissemination without any effect on tumorigenesis. © 2015 IUBMB Life, 68(1):65-71, 2016.

  18. Using tumour phylogenetics to identify the roots of metastasis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naxerova, Kamila; Jain, Rakesh K

    2015-05-01

    In cancer, much uncertainty remains regarding the origins of metastatic disease. Models of metastatic progression offer competing views on when dissemination occurs (at an early or late stage of tumour development), whether metastases at different sites arise independently and directly from the primary tumour or give rise to each other, and whether dynamic cell exchange occurs between synchronously growing lesions. Although it is probable that many routes can lead to the establishment of systemic disease, clinical observations suggest that distinct modes of metastasis might prevail in different tumour types. Gaining a more-comprehensive understanding of the evolutionary processes that underlie metastasis is not only relevant from a basic biological perspective, but also has profound clinical implications. The 'tree of life' of metastatic cancer contains answers to many outstanding questions about the development of systemic disease, but has only been reconstructed in a limited number of patients. Here we review available data on the phylogenetic relationships between primary solid tumours and their metastases, and examine to what degree they support different models of metastatic progression. We provide a description of experimental methods for lineage tracing in human cancer, ranging from broad DNA-sequencing approaches to more-targeted techniques, and discuss their respective benefits and caveats. Finally, we propose future research questions in the area of cancer phylogenetics.

  19. Tetrandrine Suppresses Cancer Angiogenesis and Metastasis in 4T1 Tumor Bearing Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Li Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis remains the most deadly aspect of cancer and still evades direct treatment. Thus, there is a great need to develop new treatment regimens to suppress tumor cells that have escaped surgical removal or that may have already disseminated. We have found that tetrandrine (TET exhibits anticolon cancer activity. Here, we investigate the inhibition effect of TET to breast cancer metastasis, angiogenesis and its molecular basis underlying TET’s anticancer activity. We compare TET with chemotherapy drug doxorubicin in 4T1 tumor bearing BALB/c mice model and find that TET exhibits an anticancer metastatic and antiangiogenic activities better than those of doxorubicin. The lung metastatic sites were decreased by TET, which is confirmed by bioluminescence imaging in vivo. On the other hand, laser doppler perfusion imaging (LDI was used for measuring the blood flow of tumor in 4T1-tumor bearing mice. As a result, the local blood perfusion of tumor was markedly decreased by TET after 3 weeks. Mechanistically, TET treatment leads to a decrease in p-ERK level and an increase in NF-κB levels in HUVECs. TET also regulated metastatic and angiogenic related proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, integrin β5, endothelial cell specific molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in vivo.

  20. Targeting Tumor Cell Invasion and Dissemination In Vivo by an Aptamer That Inhibits Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator through a Novel Multifunctional Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botkjaer, Kenneth A; Deryugina, Elena I; Dupont, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    , because the topology of the proteases' active sites are highly similar. In an effort to generate highly specific uPA inhibitors with new inhibitory modalities, we isolated uPA-binding RNA aptamers by screening a library of 35 nucleotides long 2'-fluoro-pyrimidine RNA molecules using a version of human pro...... in the chick embryo assay of cell escape from microtumors. Finally, upanap-126 significantly reduced the levels of tumor cell intravasation and dissemination in the chick embryo model of spontaneous metastasis. Together, our findings show that usage of upanap-126 represents a novel multifunctional mechanistic...

  1. pH-Responsive Wormlike Micelles with Sequential Metastasis Targeting Inhibit Lung Metastasis of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinyu; Yu, Haijun; Bao, Xiaoyue; Cao, Haiqiang; Yin, Qi; Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Yaping

    2016-02-18

    Cancer metastasis is the main cause for the high mortality in breast cancer patients. Herein, we first report succinobucol-loaded pH-responsive wormlike micelles (PWMs) with sequential targeting capability to inhibit lung metastasis of breast cancer. PWMs can in a first step be delivered specifically to the sites of metastases in the lungs and then enable the intracellular pH-stimulus responsive drug release in cancer cells to improve the anti-metastatic effect. PWMs are identified as nanofibrillar assemblies with a diameter of 19.9 ± 1.9 nm and a length within the 50-200 nm range, and exhibited pH-sensitive drug release behavior in response to acidic intracellular environments. Moreover, PWMs can obviously inhibit the migration and invasion abilities of metastatic 4T1 breast cancer cells, and reduce the expression of the metastasis-associated vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) at 400 ng mL(-1) of succinobucol. In particular, PWMs can induce a higher specific accumulation in lung and be specifically delivered to the sites of metastases in lung, thereby leading to an 86.6% inhibition on lung metastasis of breast cancer. Therefore, the use of sequentially targeting PWMs can become an encouraging strategy for specific targeting and effective treatment of cancer metastasis.

  2. Pathobiology of cancer metastasis: a short account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feller Liviu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer-initiating cells display aberrant functional and phenotypic characteristics of normal stem cells from which they evolved by accumulation of multiple cytogenetic and/or epigenetic alterations. Signal transduction pathways which are essential for normal stem cell function are abnormally expressed by cancer cells, with a cancer cell phenotype playing an essential role in cancerization and metastasis. Local tumour progression, metastasis and metastatic tumour growth are mediated by direct cell-to-cell and paracrine reciprocal interactions between cancer cells and various stromal cells including fibroblasts, macrophages, bone marrow derived stem cells and progenitor cells. These interactions mediate breakdown of basement membrane barriers and angiogenesis both locally at the invasive front of the primary tumour and at the distant metastatic site; attract primary tumour cells to the candidate metastatic site; and promote proliferation, survival and growth of primary tumour cells and of metastatic cells at their distant site. It is the purpose of this article to highlight the analogies between some of the genetic programs of normal stem cells, and of cancer cells participating in the process of metastasis.

  3. Spinal Intramedullary Metastasis of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Basaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Breast cancer accounts for approximately one-third of all cancers in females. Approximately 8.5 % of all central nervous system metastases are located in the spinal cord. These patients have rapidly progressing neurological deficits and require immediate examination. The aim of surgery is decompression of neural tissue and histological evaluation of the tumor. In this paper, we present a case of breast cancer metastasis in thoracic spinal intramedullary area which had been partially excised and then given adjuvant radiotherapy. Case. A 43-year-old female patient with breast cancer for 8 years was admitted to our hospital with complaints of weakness in both legs. Eight years ago, she received chemotherapy and radiotherapy. On her neurological examination, she had paraparesis (left lower extremity: 2/5, right lower extremity: 3/5 and urinary incontinence. Spinal MRI revealed a gadolinium enhancing intramedullary lesion. Pathologic examination of the lesion was consistent with breast carcinoma metastasis. The patient has been taken into radiotherapy. Conclusion. Spinal intramedullary metastasis of breast cancer is an extremely rare situation, but it has a high morbidity and mortality rate. Microsurgical resection is necessary for preservation or amelioration of neurological state and also for increased life expectancy and quality.

  4. Cancer metastasis - tricks of the trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeshan, Rabia; Mutahir, Zeeshan

    2017-08-20

    Decades of cancer research have unraveled genetic, epigenetic and molecular pathways leading to plausible therapeutic targets; many of which hold great promise in improving clinical outcomes. Metastatic tumors become evident early on and are one of the major causes of cancer-related fatalities worldwide. This review depicts the sequential events of cancer metastasis. Genetic and epigenetic heterogeneity influences local tumor cell invasion, intravasation, survival in circulation, extravasation and colonization to distant sites. Each sequential event is associated with heterogeneous tumor microenvironment, gain of competence, unique population of cancer stem cells (CSCs), circulatory pathway, compatible niche and immune system support. A tight regulation of metastasis-promoting mechanisms and, in parallel, evading inhibitory mechanisms contribute to the severity and site of metastasis. A comprehensive understanding of tumor cell fate as an individual entity, as well as in combination with different promoting factors and associated molecular mechanisms, is anticipated in the coming years. This will enable scientists to depict design strategies for targeted cancer therapies.

  5. Hepatic metastasis complicated by abscess formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Liao; Lihua, Qiu; Xianming, Diao; Qiyong, Gong

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic abscesses and hepatic metastasis are common diseases. However, hepatic abscesses seldom occur in patients with hepatic metastases. We describe a case of a 67-year-old female patient with abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed several lesions, with the largest lesion displaying features of both hepatic pyogenic abscess and liver metastasis. These features included iso- or hypointense signaling on T1WI and T2WI, hyperintense signaling on diffusion weighted imaging of the thick wall, and mixed hyperintense signal in the center on DWI, as well as dramatic and irregular peripheral enhancement was detected on LAVA dynamic contrast scanning. Aspiration and culture of the largest lesions revealed Klebsiella pneumoniae and a pathologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. At this point, the patient admitted a history of colon adenocarcinoma 9 years ago treated with hemicolectomy. Therefore, this patient was considered to have a hepatic pyogenic abscesses complicated by hepatic metastasis. The patient began treatment for the responsible pathogens and underwent chemoembolization of the liver lesions. In special cases, we could attempt to pursue a more detailed search for coexistence of microorganism infection and tumor.

  6. A Report of Disseminated Carcinomatosis of the Bone Marrow Originating from Transverse Colon Cancer Successfully Treated with Chemotherapy Using XELOX plus Bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayasu Naito

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A 61-year-old male, who had been admitted to another hospital due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, was referred to our hospital. Total colonoscopy, abdominal dynamic CT and positron-emission tomography revealed bone metastasis and multiple lymphocytic metastases from transverse colon cancer in addition to disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow (DCBM. We immediately performed chemotherapy with XELOX + bevacizumab and denosumab against DCBM from transverse colon cancer in order to avoid radical surgery. In addition, we initiated the administration of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin for 1 week to treat DIC. The patient was able to tolerate and receive 4 cycles of chemotherapy without any severe side effects. After receiving the 4 cycles of treatment, he recovered from DIC, and the bone and multiple lymphocytic metastases disappeared.

  7. Disseminated Fusariosis Occurring in Two Patients Despite Posaconazole Prophylaxis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bose, Prithviraj; Parekh, Hiral D.; Holter, Jennifer L.; Greenfield, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    Posaconazole is widely used for prophylaxis against invasive fungal infections in patients undergoing myeloablative therapy. Disseminated fusariosis is a serious invasive mold infection in such patients. Preclinical and clinical studies indicate activity of posaconazole against Fusarium. We describe two cases of disseminated fusariosis that occurred despite posaconazole prophylaxis.

  8. A directional data dissemination protocol for vehicular environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Ramon S.; Barbosa, Rafael R.R.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Heijenk, Geert; Scholten, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a simple and robust dissemination protocol that efficiently deals with data dissemination in both dense and sparse vehicular networks. Our goal is to address highway scenarios where vehicles equipped with sensors detect an event, e.g., a hazard and broadcast an event message to a

  9. Fair and adaptive data dissemination for traffic information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Ramon S.; Ohazulike, Anthony E.; Sommer, Christoph; Scholten, Hans; Dressler, Falko; Havinga, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) are expected to serve as support to the development of not only safety applications but also information-rich applications that disseminate relevant data to vehicles. Due to the continuous collection, processing, and dissemination of data, one crucial requirement i

  10. Disseminated histoplasmosis in a Danish patient with AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, E; Franzmann, M; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1989-01-01

    We present the first case of disseminated histoplasmosis in an AIDS patient in Europe, a 33-year-old Danish homosexual man, and recommend a detailed travel history in HIV-positive patients presenting with fever, weight loss and organomegaly. In Scandinavia disseminated histoplasmosis is rare...

  11. Host defence against disseminated and invasive Candida albicans infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Alouise Gabrielle

    2004-01-01

    The yeast Candida albicans is the primary etiologic agent of disseminated and invasive candidiasis. The incidence of disseminated and invasive candidiasis has paralleled the use of modern medical procedures that adversely affect the immune system, and highlights the difficulty of treating disseminat

  12. Towards Opportunistic Sensed Data Dissemination in Vehicular Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza Schwartz, Ramon; van Dijk, H.W.; Scholten, Johan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes guidelines for the design of dissemination protocols for data sensed in vehicular environments in view of a number of potential applications. We organize the data dissemination process in three main tasks: discovery, assessment, and seizing of data exchange opportuni­ties. One

  13. Photoletter to the editor: Disseminated histoplasmosis with initial oral manifestations

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Surabhi; Sardana, Kabir; Vijay K Garg

    2013-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that may present in a variety of clinical manifestations. Involvment of the oral mucosa is very rare and may occur as part of disseminated histoplasmosis or as isolated involvement. We present a patient with disseminated histoplasmosis, in whom oral lesions were the initial manifestation of the disease.

  14. A novel case of canine disseminated aspergillosis following mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jackson T; Frazho, Jean K; Randell, Susan C

    2012-02-01

    An intact bitch with a history of mating was presented with severe lameness and a vulvar discharge. A mixed lytic, proliferative tibial lesion and open pyometra were diagnosed. Bone biopsy and uterine culture revealed disseminated aspergillosis. This is the first report of Aspergillus pyometra with dissemination following mating in the dog.

  15. Cultivating Change: Disseminating Innovation in Higher Education Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannaway, Deanne; Hinton, Tilly; Berry, Bianca; Moore, Kaitlin

    2013-01-01

    Effective dissemination is crucial if innovation and development in teaching and learning in higher education are to lead to sustainable changes in practice. In 2003, King used an agricultural metaphor to challenge innovators to understand the purposes behind their dissemination aims. Similar to the way that seed can be spread, one could choose to…

  16. Fluid Analysis of Network Content Dissemination and Cloud Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01 Sep 2015 to 30 Nov 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fluid analysis of network content dissemination and cloud systems...2015 to 30 Nov 2016 AFOSR GRANT NUMBER: FA9550-15-1-0183 TITLE: Fluid analysis of network content dissemination and cloud systems PI: Fernando

  17. Parathyroid hormone-related protein: potential therapeutic target for melanoma invasion and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dao Chao; Yang, Xian Fang; Ochietti, Benoît; Fadhil, Ibtihal; Camirand, Anne; Kremer, Richard

    2014-10-01

    The role of PTHrP in the highly metastatic human melanoma disease is not known. This study investigates the mechanisms of action of this secreted factor through homozygous inactivation of the Pthrp gene in A375 human melanoma cells. In vitro, Pthrp-ablated cells (knockout [KO]-A375, -/-) showed decreased motility and anchorage-independent growth, rounder morphology, and a significant reduction in invasion capacity compared with nonablated A375 cells (wild-type [WT]-A375, +/+). PTHrP peptide 1-34 and conditioned medium from WT-A375 cells partially restored the invasive phenotype in KO-A375. Pthrp ablation substantially decreased actin polymerization, matrix metallopeptidase 9 expression and focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation. In vivo, green fluorescent protein-transduced ablated and nonablated A375 cells were injected intracardially or sc into nude mice to study proliferation and multiorgan metastasis. Dissemination of injected Pthrp-ablated cells to lung and liver was reduced by 85% and 50%, respectively, compared with nonablated controls (120 hours after injection). The number of metastatic lesions and the percentage of animals with metastasis were markedly lower in mice injected with Pthrp-ablated A375, and 45% of these animals survived a 7-week period compared with 15% of mice injected with nonablated WT-A375. When mice injected with WT-A375 were treated with our blocking anti-PTHrP monoclonal antibody raised against the first 33 amino acids of human PTHrP, tumor size was decreased by more than 80% over 4 weeks and survival was significantly improved over 8 months. This study provides direct evidence of the major role for PTHrP in melanoma invasion and metastasis and suggests that agents that suppress PTHrP may be beneficial against melanoma progression.

  18. Discoidin domain receptor 2 facilitates prostate cancer bone metastasis via regulating parathyroid hormone-related protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhang; Jin, Su; Wei, Zhang; Huilian, Hou; Zhanhai, Yin; Yue, Teng; Juan, Li; Jing, Li; Libo, Yao; Xu, Li

    2014-09-01

    Prostate cancer frequently metastasizes to the skeleton but the underlying mechanism remains largely undefined. Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is a member of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family and is activated by collagen binding. This study aimed to investigate the function and detailed mechanism of DDR2 in prostate cancer bone dissemination. Herein we found that DDR2 was strongly expressed in bone-metastatic prostate cancer cells and tissues compared to that in normal controls. Enhanced expression of constitutively activated DDR2 led to elevation in motility and invasiveness of prostate cancer cells, whereas knockdown of DDR2 through specific shRNA caused a dramatic repression. Knockdown of DDR2 in prostate cancer cells resulted in significant decrease in the proliferation, differentiation and function of osteoblast. Over-expression of DDR2 in prostate cancer cells resulted in notable acceleration of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, whereas knockdown of DDR2 exhibited the opposite effects. An intrabone injection bone metastasis animal model demonstrated that DDR2 promoted osteolytic metastasis in vivo. Molecular evidence demonstrated that DDR2 regulated the expression, secretion, and promoter activity of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), via modulating Runx2 phosphorylation and transactivity. DDR2 was responsive to TGF-β and involved in TGF-β-mediated osteoclast activation and bone resorption. In addition, DDR2 facilitated prostate cancer cells adhere to type I collagen. This study reveals for the first time that DDR2 plays an essential role in prostate cancer bone metastasis. The mechanism disclosure may provide therapeutic targets for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  19. Unusual florid skeletal manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashebu, Samuel D.; Dahniya, Mohamed H.; Muhtaseb, Sayeed A.; Aduh, Prosper [Department of Radiology, Al-Adan Hospital (Kuwait)

    2002-12-01

    We report a case of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) with advanced and unusual skeletal manifestations - a rare occurrence in developed countries nowadays. The literature is briefly reviewed. (orig.)

  20. Surgical management and outcome of skeletal metastatic disease of the humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, P; Ruppert, M; Tsitsilonis, S; Melcher, I; Schaser, K-D; Märdian, S

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Evaluation of outcome after surgical treatment of humerus metastases with a focus on tumour and patient derived factors, timing and strategy of intervention, surgical outcome and complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty-fie patients with a mean age of 64.3 years (range 25-89) with 66 metastases of the humerus were surgically treated in a 7-year time-period and retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS Renal cell carcinoma and breast cancer were the most abundant types of primary tumour. The mean time from diagnosis of primary tumour to fist metastasis was 14.5 months (range 0-173). The mean time from diagnosis of metastasis to surgery was 21.4 months (range 0-173). 38/28 intramedullary nails/locking plates were used for 58/8 manifest/impending pathological fractures. Mean cumulative survival was 16.3 months and implant failure rate was 6.1% with a mean time from initial surgery to revision of 22.2-20.6 months. CONCLUSIONS Our data indicate that treatment with intramedullary fiation or cement augmented plate osteosynthesis is successful for the vast majority of patients, but thorough clinical evaluation and precise decision making adapted to the patient's estimated life expectancy must be applied to avoid overtreatment or risk of implant failure. Key words: bone metastases, skeletal metastatic disease, humerus metastasis, pathologic fracture, impending fracture.