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Sample records for disregarding histopathological classification

  1. [Joint endoprosthesis pathology. Histopathological diagnostics and classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, V; Morawietz, L; Jakobs, M; Kienapfel, H; Ascherl, R; Bause, L; Kuhn, H; Matziolis, G; Skutek, M; Gehrke, T

    2011-05-01

    Prosthesis durability has steadily increased with high 10-year rates of 88-95%. However, four pathogenetic groups of diseases can decrease prosthesis durability: (1) periprosthetic wear particle disease (aseptic loosening) (2) bacterial infection (septic loosening) (3) periprosthetic ossification, and (4) arthrofibrosis. The histopathological "extended consensus classification of periprosthetic membranes" includes four types of membranes, arthrofibrosis, and osseous diseases of endoprosthetics: The four types of neosynovia are: wear particle-induced type (type I), mean prosthesis durability (MPD) in years 12.0; infectious type (type II), MPD 2.5; combined type (type III) MPD 4.2; and indeterminate type (type IV), MPD 5.5. Arthrofibrosis can be determined in three grades: grade 1 needs clinical information to be differentiated from a type IV membrane, and grades 2 & 3 can be diagnosed histopathologically. Periprosthetic ossification, osteopenia-induced fractures, and aseptic osteonecrosis can be histopathologically diagnosed safely with clinical information. The extended consensus classification of periprosthetic membranes may be a diagnostic groundwork for a future national endoprosthesis register.

  2. Revised histopathological consensus classification of joint implant related pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, V; Morawietz, L; Perino, G; Kienapfel, H; Ascherl, R; Hassenpflug, G J; Thomsen, M; Thomas, P; Huber, M; Kendoff, D; Baumhoer, D; Krukemeyer, M G; Natu, S; Boettner, F; Zustin, J; Kölbel, B; Rüther, W; Kretzer, J P; Tiemann, A; Trampuz, A; Frommelt, L; Tichilow, R; Söder, S; Müller, S; Parvizi, J; Illgner, U; Gehrke, T

    2014-12-01

    This extended classification of joint implant related pathology is a practical histopathologic classification based on defined morphological criteria covering the complete spectrum of pathohistologic changes in periprosthetic tissues. These changes may occur as a consequence of endoprosthetic replacement of large joints and may lead to a reduction in the prosthesis survival rate. We describe the established consensus classification of the periprosthetic membrane, in which aseptic and septic prosthetic loosening can be subdivided into four histological types, as well as histopathological criteria for additional significant pathologies including endoprosthetic-associated arthrofibrosis, particle-induced immunological, inflammatory and toxic mechanisms (adverse reactions), and bone tissue pathologies. These characteristic tissue alterations and their relationships are summarized in the extended classification. Since particle heterogeneity in periprosthetic tissue is high and particle identification is a necessary part of diagnosis, the identification of different types of particles is described in the histopathological particle algorithm. The morphological qualities of prosthetic material particles and the demarcation between abrasion and non-abrasion endogenous particles are also summarized. This feasible classification which is based on low cost standard tissue processing and examination and on well-defined diagnostic criteria is a solid platform for the histological diagnosis of implant associated pathologies providing a stable and reproducible tool for the surgical pathologist. Since this classification is suitable for standardized histopathological diagnostics, it might also provide a useful data set for joint arthroplasty registers, particularly for registers based on so-called routine data.

  3. Multi-label classification for colon cancer using histopathological images.

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    Xu, Yan; Jiao, Liping; Wang, Siyu; Wei, Junsheng; Fan, Yubo; Lai, Maode; Chang, Eric I-Chao

    2013-12-01

    Colon cancer classification has a significant guidance value in clinical diagnoses and medical prognoses. The classification of colon cancers with high accuracy is the premise of efficient treatment. Our task is to build a system for colon cancer detection and classification based on slide histopathological images. Some former researches focus on single label classification. Through analyzing large amount of colon cancer images, we found that one image may contain cancer regions of multiple types. Therefore, we reformulated the task as multi-label problem. Four kinds of features (Color Histogram, Gray-Level Co-occurrence Matrix, Histogram of Oriented Gradients and Euler number) were introduced to compose our discriminative feature set, extracted from our dataset that includes six single categories and four multi-label categories. In order to evaluate the performance and make comparison with our multi-label model, three commonly used multi-classification methods were designed in our experiment including one-against-all SVM (OAA), one-against-one SVM (OAO) and multi-structure SVM. Four indicators (Precision, Recall, F-measure, and Accuracy) under 3-fold cross-validation were used to validate the performance of our approach. Experiment results show that the precision, recall and F-measure of multi-label method as 73.7%, 68.2%, and 70.8% with all features, which are higher than the other three classifiers. These results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our method on colon histopathological images analysis.

  4. Histopathological Image Classification Using Discriminative Feature-Oriented Dictionary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Tiep Huu; Mousavi, Hojjat Seyed; Monga, Vishal; Rao, Ganesh; Rao, U K Arvind

    2016-03-01

    In histopathological image analysis, feature extraction for classification is a challenging task due to the diversity of histology features suitable for each problem as well as presence of rich geometrical structures. In this paper, we propose an automatic feature discovery framework via learning class-specific dictionaries and present a low-complexity method for classification and disease grading in histopathology. Essentially, our Discriminative Feature-oriented Dictionary Learning (DFDL) method learns class-specific dictionaries such that under a sparsity constraint, the learned dictionaries allow representing a new image sample parsimoniously via the dictionary corresponding to the class identity of the sample. At the same time, the dictionary is designed to be poorly capable of representing samples from other classes. Experiments on three challenging real-world image databases: 1) histopathological images of intraductal breast lesions, 2) mammalian kidney, lung and spleen images provided by the Animal Diagnostics Lab (ADL) at Pennsylvania State University, and 3) brain tumor images from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, reveal the merits of our proposal over state-of-the-art alternatives. Moreover, we demonstrate that DFDL exhibits a more graceful decay in classification accuracy against the number of training images which is highly desirable in practice where generous training is often not available.

  5. Weakly supervised histopathology cancer image segmentation and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Zhu, Jun-Yan; Chang, Eric I-Chao; Lai, Maode; Tu, Zhuowen

    2014-04-01

    Labeling a histopathology image as having cancerous regions or not is a critical task in cancer diagnosis; it is also clinically important to segment the cancer tissues and cluster them into various classes. Existing supervised approaches for image classification and segmentation require detailed manual annotations for the cancer pixels, which are time-consuming to obtain. In this paper, we propose a new learning method, multiple clustered instance learning (MCIL) (along the line of weakly supervised learning) for histopathology image segmentation. The proposed MCIL method simultaneously performs image-level classification (cancer vs. non-cancer image), medical image segmentation (cancer vs. non-cancer tissue), and patch-level clustering (different classes). We embed the clustering concept into the multiple instance learning (MIL) setting and derive a principled solution to performing the above three tasks in an integrated framework. In addition, we introduce contextual constraints as a prior for MCIL, which further reduces the ambiguity in MIL. Experimental results on histopathology colon cancer images and cytology images demonstrate the great advantage of MCIL over the competing methods.

  6. Gene expression in the urinary bladder: a common carcinoma in situ gene expression signature exists disregarding histopathological classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Andersen, Thomas Thykjær

    2004-01-01

    that contained genes with similar expression levels in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) with surrounding CIS and invasive TCC. However, no close relationship between TCC with adjacent CIS and invasive TCC was observed using hierarchical cluster analysis. Expression profiling of a series of biopsies from normal...... urothelium and urothelium with CIS lesions from the same urinary bladder revealed that the gene expression found in sTCC with surrounding CIS is found also in CIS biopsies as well as in histologically normal samples adjacent to the CIS lesions. Furthermore, we also identified similar gene expression changes...... not only in CIS biopsies but also in sTCC, mTCC, and, remarkably, in histologically normal urothelium from bladders with CIS. Identification of this expression signature could provide guidance for the selection of therapy and follow-up regimen in patients with early stage bladder cancer....

  7. Gene expression in the urinary bladder: a common carcinoma in situ gene expression signature exists disregarding histopathological classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Andersen, Thomas Thykjær

    2004-01-01

    The presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS) lesions in the urinary bladder is associated with a high risk of disease progression to a muscle invasive stage. In this study, we used microarray expression profiling to examine the gene expression patterns in superficial transitional cell carcinoma (s...... urothelium and urothelium with CIS lesions from the same urinary bladder revealed that the gene expression found in sTCC with surrounding CIS is found also in CIS biopsies as well as in histologically normal samples adjacent to the CIS lesions. Furthermore, we also identified similar gene expression changes...

  8. Changing Histopathological Diagnostics by Genome-Based Tumor Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kloth

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, tumors are classified by histopathological criteria, i.e., based on their specific morphological appearances. Consequently, current therapeutic decisions in oncology are strongly influenced by histology rather than underlying molecular or genomic aberrations. The increase of information on molecular changes however, enabled by the Human Genome Project and the International Cancer Genome Consortium as well as the manifold advances in molecular biology and high-throughput sequencing techniques, inaugurated the integration of genomic information into disease classification. Furthermore, in some cases it became evident that former classifications needed major revision and adaption. Such adaptations are often required by understanding the pathogenesis of a disease from a specific molecular alteration, using this molecular driver for targeted and highly effective therapies. Altogether, reclassifications should lead to higher information content of the underlying diagnoses, reflecting their molecular pathogenesis and resulting in optimized and individual therapeutic decisions. The objective of this article is to summarize some particularly important examples of genome-based classification approaches and associated therapeutic concepts. In addition to reviewing disease specific markers, we focus on potentially therapeutic or predictive markers and the relevance of molecular diagnostics in disease monitoring.

  9. [Revised consensus classification. Histopathological classification of diseases associated with joint endoprostheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, V; Morawietz, L; Kienapfel, H; Ascherl, R; Matziolis, G; Hassenpflug, J; Thomsen, M; Thomas, P; Huber, M; Schuh, C; Kendoff, D; Baumhoer, D; Krukemeyer, M G; Perino, G; Zustin, J; Berger, I; Rüther, W; Poremba, C; Gehrke, T

    2013-05-01

    The revised classification of the periprosthetic membrane (synovial-like interface membrane SLIM) encompasses all pathological alterations which can occur as a result of endoprosthetic replacement of major joints and lead to a reduction in durability of prostheses. This also includes the established consensus classification of SLIM by which aseptic and septic prosthetic loosening can be subdivided into four histological types and histopathological criteria for additional pathologies: endoprosthesis-associated arthrofibrosis, immunological/allergic alterations and osseous pathologies. This revision represents the foundation for the histopathological diagnostics of the total spectrum of diseases associated with joint prostheses, is a suitable basis for a standardized diagnostic procedure and etiological clarification of endoprosthesis failure and also as a data standard for endprosthesis registers, in particular for registers based on routine data (e.g. German endoprosthesis register).

  10. Evaluation of the histopathological classifications of American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis

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    A. L. Bittencourt

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the reliability of histopathological classifications of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis the authors compared the histopathological patterns of two biopsies taken simultaneously from the same patient, and classified the material according to Ridley et al. (1980, to Magalhães et al. (1986a, and to a more simplified classification with only three patterns. District histopathological aspects, were observed in different lesions or even in the same lesion. The authors concluded that histopathological patterns do not represent a stage of tegumentary leishmaniasis, thus they can not be correlated with prognosis and therapeutical response as suggested in the literature.

  11. Gene expression profiling of gliomas: merging genomic and histopathological classification for personalised therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Vitucci, M; Hayes, D N; Miller, C R

    2010-01-01

    The development of DNA microarray technologies over the past decade has revolutionised translational cancer research. These technologies were originally hailed as more objective, comprehensive replacements for traditional histopathological cancer classification systems, based on microscopic morphology. Although DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling (GEP) remains unlikely in the near term to completely replace morphological classification of primary brain tumours, specifically the dif...

  12. Male median raphe cysts: serial retrospective analysis and histopathological classification

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    Shao I-Hung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To review the clinical and pathological characteristics of median raphe cysts and to classify the lesions according to pathogenesis and histopathological findings. Methods The medical records of patients who were diagnosed with median raphe cysts between 2001 and 2010 were reviewed to document the clinical presentation and pathological findings of the cysts. Results Most patients were asymptomatic; however, 9 patients had inflammatory or infectious cysts that were tender or painful. Four patients who had cysts on the parameatus and distal prepuce had difficulty voiding. Hematuria and hematospermia were noted in 2 cases. Thirty-one cysts were lined with an urothelium-like epithelium, and a squamous epithelium lining was found in 3 cases. In 2 cases, a well-formed mucinous glandular structure was observed. The other 20 cysts consisted of mixed epithelia. After excision of the cysts under local or general anesthesia, an urethral fistula developed as a complication in only 1 case. Conclusions Median raphe cysts are benign lesions formed due to tissue trapping during the development of urethral folds. The cysts can be defined into 4 types based on pathological findings: urethral, epidermoid, glandular, and mixed. The associated symptoms and signs should be taken into consideration when determining the treatment for the cysts. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http//http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7727074877500751

  13. Automated classification of histopathology images of prostate cancer using a Bag-of-Words approach

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    Sanghavi, Foram M.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2016-05-01

    The goals of this paper are (1) test the Computer Aided Classification of the prostate cancer histopathology images based on the Bag-of-Words (BoW) approach (2) evaluate the performance of the classification grade 3 and 4 of the proposed method using the results of the approach proposed by the authors Khurd et al. in [9] and (3) classify the different grades of cancer namely, grade 0, 3, 4, and 5 using the proposed approach. The system performance is assessed using 132 prostate cancer histopathology of different grades. The system performance of the SURF features are also analyzed by comparing the results with SIFT features using different cluster sizes. The results show 90.15% accuracy in detection of prostate cancer images using SURF features with 75 clusters for k-mean clustering. The results showed higher sensitivity for SURF based BoW classification compared to SIFT based BoW.

  14. Changes in computed tomography features following preoperative chemotherapy for nephroblastoma: relation to histopathological classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Oeystein E.; Jeanes, Annmarie C.; Roebuck, Derek J.; Owens, Catherine M. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Great Ormond Street, WC1N 3JH, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J.; Risdon, Rupert A. [Department Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Michalski, Anthony J. [Department Haematology and Oncology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this study is to assess computed tomography (CT) changes, both volume estimates and subjective features, following preoperative chemotherapy for nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumour) in patients treated on the United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group Wilms' Tumour Study-3 (UKW-3) protocol and to compare CT changes and histopathological classification. Twenty-one nephroblastomas in 15 patients treated on UKW-3 were included. All patients were examined by CT before and after preoperative chemotherapy treatment. CT images were reviewed (estimated volume change and subjectively assessed features). CT changes were compared to histopathological classification. Of the 21 tumours, all five high-risk tumours decreased in volume following chemotherapy (median -79%; range -37 to -91%). The sole low-risk tumour decreased in volume by 98%. Ten intermediate-risk tumours decreased in volume (median -72%; range -6 to -98%) and five intermediate-risk tumours increased (median +110%; range +11 to +164%). None of the five high-risk tumours, compared to 15/16 intermediate or low-risk tumours, became less dense and/or more homogeneous, or virtually disappeared, following chemotherapy. Volume change following chemotherapy did not relate to histopathological risk group. Changes in subjectively assessed qualitative CT features were more strongly related to histopathological risk group. (orig.)

  15. Utility of multispectral imaging for nuclear classification of routine clinical histopathology imagery

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    Harvey Neal R

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present an analysis of the utility of multispectral versus standard RGB imagery for routine H&E stained histopathology images, in particular for pixel-level classification of nuclei. Our multispectral imagery has 29 spectral bands, spaced 10 nm within the visual range of 420–700 nm. It has been hypothesized that the additional spectral bands contain further information useful for classification as compared to the 3 standard bands of RGB imagery. We present analyses of our data designed to test this hypothesis. Results For classification using all available image bands, we find the best performance (equal tradeoff between detection rate and false alarm rate is obtained from either the multispectral or our "ccd" RGB imagery, with an overall increase in performance of 0.79% compared to the next best performing image type. For classification using single image bands, the single best multispectral band (in the red portion of the spectrum gave a performance increase of 0.57%, compared to performance of the single best RGB band (red. Additionally, red bands had the highest coefficients/preference in our classifiers. Principal components analysis of the multispectral imagery indicates only two significant image bands, which is not surprising given the presence of two stains. Conclusion Our results indicate that multispectral imagery for routine H&E stained histopathology provides minimal additional spectral information for a pixel-level nuclear classification task than would standard RGB imagery.

  16. Two-tier tissue decomposition for histopathological image representation and classification.

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    Gultekin, Tunc; Koyuncu, Can Fahrettin; Sokmensuer, Cenk; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2015-01-01

    In digital pathology, devising effective image representations is crucial to design robust automated diagnosis systems. To this end, many studies have proposed to develop object-based representations, instead of directly using image pixels, since a histopathological image may contain a considerable amount of noise typically at the pixel-level. These previous studies mostly employ color information to define their objects, which approximately represent histological tissue components in an image, and then use the spatial distribution of these objects for image representation and classification. Thus, object definition has a direct effect on the way of representing the image, which in turn affects classification accuracies. In this paper, our aim is to design a classification system for histopathological images. Towards this end, we present a new model for effective representation of these images that will be used by the classification system. The contributions of this model are twofold. First, it introduces a new two-tier tissue decomposition method for defining a set of multityped objects in an image. Different than the previous studies, these objects are defined combining texture, shape, and size information and they may correspond to individual histological tissue components as well as local tissue subregions of different characteristics. As its second contribution, it defines a new metric, which we call dominant blob scale, to characterize the shape and size of an object with a single scalar value. Our experiments on colon tissue images reveal that this new object definition and characterization provides distinguishing representation of normal and cancerous histopathological images, which is effective to obtain more accurate classification results compared to its counterparts.

  17. [Mammographic and ultrasonographic BIRADS classification and its correlation with histopathologic findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Martínez, M; Karchmer-Krivitzky, S; Melgar-Barriga, G; Molinar-Horcasitas, M L; Garza-Arrieta, J

    2016-03-01

    Screening programs for breast cancer include self and clinical examination and Imaging studies to obtain the BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) grade has been described as an important tool. In México, breast cancer is the leading death cause from malignancy in women and thus an early detection and prompt treatment is an important public health concern To compare the BIRADS classification with histopathological findings and cases of malignancy. This is a retrospective, observational and descriptive study about of the correlation between histopathological reports and BIRADS classification. Records of 1551 patients were reviewed, of which only 176 met the inclusion criteria. There was a predominance of fibrocystic condition. 44 patients had cancer, with varying degrees of detection according to each category of the classification where BIRADS 5 corresponded to 100% of the malignant cases. Consistent with the results reported by other authors, highlighting some situations like BIRADS 4C (where there was a slight difference compared to literature) and the BIRADS 5 in which a detection of 100% of cases of cancer was achieved.

  18. Frequency and histopathological classification of canine mastocytoma in the casuistry (period 2000-2006) of a histopathology veterinary laboratory in Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Heredia N., Ronald; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Perales C., Rosa; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima Perú.; Chavera C., Alfonso; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima Perú.; Tabacchi N., Luis; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Santillán A., Gilberto; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to classify mastocytomas according to histologic grade from samples of canine necropsies and biopsies diagnosed by histopathology in the Pathology Laboratory of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the National University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru in the period 2000-2006. A total of 40 cases of mastocytomas were found (4.5%) in 881 neoplasms. The classification of the mastocytomas based on the histologic grade indicated that el 42.5% were of grade I (w...

  19. An active learning based classification strategy for the minority class problem: application to histopathology annotation

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    Doyle Scott

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supervised classifiers for digital pathology can improve the ability of physicians to detect and diagnose diseases such as cancer. Generating training data for classifiers is problematic, since only domain experts (e.g. pathologists can correctly label ground truth data. Additionally, digital pathology datasets suffer from the "minority class problem", an issue where the number of exemplars from the non-target class outnumber target class exemplars which can bias the classifier and reduce accuracy. In this paper, we develop a training strategy combining active learning (AL with class-balancing. AL identifies unlabeled samples that are "informative" (i.e. likely to increase classifier performance for annotation, avoiding non-informative samples. This yields high accuracy with a smaller training set size compared with random learning (RL. Previous AL methods have not explicitly accounted for the minority class problem in biomedical images. Pre-specifying a target class ratio mitigates the problem of training bias. Finally, we develop a mathematical model to predict the number of annotations (cost required to achieve balanced training classes. In addition to predicting training cost, the model reveals the theoretical properties of AL in the context of the minority class problem. Results Using this class-balanced AL training strategy (CBAL, we build a classifier to distinguish cancer from non-cancer regions on digitized prostate histopathology. Our dataset consists of 12,000 image regions sampled from 100 biopsies (58 prostate cancer patients. We compare CBAL against: (1 unbalanced AL (UBAL, which uses AL but ignores class ratio; (2 class-balanced RL (CBRL, which uses RL with a specific class ratio; and (3 unbalanced RL (UBRL. The CBAL-trained classifier yields 2% greater accuracy and 3% higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC than alternatively-trained classifiers. Our cost model accurately predicts

  20. An active learning based classification strategy for the minority class problem: application to histopathology annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Scott; Monaco, James; Feldman, Michael; Tomaszewski, John; Madabhushi, Anant

    2011-10-28

    Supervised classifiers for digital pathology can improve the ability of physicians to detect and diagnose diseases such as cancer. Generating training data for classifiers is problematic, since only domain experts (e.g. pathologists) can correctly label ground truth data. Additionally, digital pathology datasets suffer from the "minority class problem", an issue where the number of exemplars from the non-target class outnumber target class exemplars which can bias the classifier and reduce accuracy. In this paper, we develop a training strategy combining active learning (AL) with class-balancing. AL identifies unlabeled samples that are "informative" (i.e. likely to increase classifier performance) for annotation, avoiding non-informative samples. This yields high accuracy with a smaller training set size compared with random learning (RL). Previous AL methods have not explicitly accounted for the minority class problem in biomedical images. Pre-specifying a target class ratio mitigates the problem of training bias. Finally, we develop a mathematical model to predict the number of annotations (cost) required to achieve balanced training classes. In addition to predicting training cost, the model reveals the theoretical properties of AL in the context of the minority class problem. Using this class-balanced AL training strategy (CBAL), we build a classifier to distinguish cancer from non-cancer regions on digitized prostate histopathology. Our dataset consists of 12,000 image regions sampled from 100 biopsies (58 prostate cancer patients). We compare CBAL against: (1) unbalanced AL (UBAL), which uses AL but ignores class ratio; (2) class-balanced RL (CBRL), which uses RL with a specific class ratio; and (3) unbalanced RL (UBRL). The CBAL-trained classifier yields 2% greater accuracy and 3% higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) than alternatively-trained classifiers. Our cost model accurately predicts the number of annotations necessary

  1. Cell nuclei attributed relational graphs for efficient representation and classification of gastric cancer in digital histopathology

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    Sharma, Harshita; Zerbe, Norman; Heim, Daniel; Wienert, Stephan; Lohmann, Sebastian; Hellwich, Olaf; Hufnagl, Peter

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a novel graph-based method for efficient representation and subsequent classification in histological whole slide images of gastric cancer. Her2/neu immunohistochemically stained and haematoxylin and eosin stained histological sections of gastric carcinoma are digitized. Immunohistochemical staining is used in practice by pathologists to determine extent of malignancy, however, it is laborious to visually discriminate the corresponding malignancy levels in the more commonly used haematoxylin and eosin stain, and this study attempts to solve this problem using a computer-based method. Cell nuclei are first isolated at high magnification using an automatic cell nuclei segmentation strategy, followed by construction of cell nuclei attributed relational graphs of the tissue regions. These graphs represent tissue architecture comprehensively, as they contain information about cell nuclei morphology as vertex attributes, along with knowledge of neighborhood in the form of edge linking and edge attributes. Global graph characteristics are derived and ensemble learning is used to discriminate between three types of malignancy levels, namely, non-tumor, Her2/neu positive tumor and Her2/neu negative tumor. Performance is compared with state of the art methods including four texture feature groups (Haralick, Gabor, Local Binary Patterns and Varma Zisserman features), color and intensity features, and Voronoi diagram and Delaunay triangulation. Texture, color and intensity information is also combined with graph-based knowledge, followed by correlation analysis. Quantitative assessment is performed using two cross validation strategies. On investigating the experimental results, it can be concluded that the proposed method provides a promising way for computer-based analysis of histopathological images of gastric cancer.

  2. 19 CFR 102.15 - Disregarded materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disregarded materials. 102.15 Section 102.15... TREASURY RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.15 Disregarded materials. (a) The following materials shall...: (1) Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale that are...

  3. A multi-scale superpixel classification approach to the detection of regions of interest in whole slide histopathology images

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    Bejnordi, Babak E.; Litjens, Geert; Hermsen, Meyke; Karssemeijer, Nico; van der Laak, Jeroen A. W. M.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for automatic detection of regions of interest in whole slide histopathological images. The proposed algorithm generates and classifies superpixels at multiple resolutions to detect regions of interest. The algorithm emulates the way the pathologist examines the whole slide histopathology image by processing the image at low magnifications and performing more sophisticated analysis only on areas requiring more detailed information. However, instead of the traditional usage of fixed sized rectangular patches for the identification of relevant areas, we use superpixels as the visual primitives to detect regions of interest. Rectangular patches can span multiple distinct structures, thus degrade the classification performance. The proposed multi-scale superpixel classification approach yields superior performance for the identification of the regions of interest. For the evaluation, a set of 10 whole slide histopathology images of breast tissue were used. Empirical evaluation of the performance of our proposed algorithm relative to expert manual annotations shows that the algorithm achieves an area under the Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.958, demonstrating its efficacy for the detection of regions of interest.

  4. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF EPITHELIAL RENAL-CELL TUMORS - RELATIONSHIP WITH A NEW HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBERG, E; VANDERHOUT, AH; OOSTERHUIS, JW; STORKEL, S; DIJKHUIZEN, T; ZWEERS, HMM; MENSINK, HJA; BUYS, CHCM; DEJONG, B; Dam, A.

    1993-01-01

    Renal-cell carcinomas (RCC) are clinically, histologically and cytogenetically very heterogeneous. The present histological WHO classification shows no clear correlation between histologic subtypes and specific chromosomal abnormalities. In 1986, a new classification was proposed by Thoenes and

  5. Clinical presentation and outcome prediction of clinical, serological, and histopathological classification schemes in ANCA-associated vasculitis with renal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Sánchez, Bertha M; Mejía-Vilet, Juan M; Morales-Buenrostro, Luis E; Loyola-Rodríguez, Georgina; Uribe-Uribe, Norma O; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    Several classification schemes have been developed for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), with actual debate focusing on their clinical and prognostic performance. Sixty-two patients with renal biopsy-proven AAV from a single center in Mexico City diagnosed between 2004 and 2013 were analyzed and classified under clinical (granulomatosis with polyangiitis [GPA], microscopic polyangiitis [MPA], renal limited vasculitis [RLV]), serological (proteinase 3 anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies [PR3-ANCA], myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies [MPO-ANCA], ANCA negative), and histopathological (focal, crescenteric, mixed-type, sclerosing) categories. Clinical presentation parameters were compared at baseline between classification groups, and the predictive value of different classification categories for disease and renal remission, relapse, renal, and patient survival was analyzed. Serological classification predicted relapse rate (PR3-ANCA hazard ratio for relapse 2.93, 1.20-7.17, p = 0.019). There were no differences in disease or renal remission, renal, or patient survival between clinical and serological categories. Histopathological classification predicted response to therapy, with a poorer renal remission rate for sclerosing group and those with less than 25 % normal glomeruli; in addition, it adequately delimited 24-month glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) evolution, but it did not predict renal nor patient survival. On multivariate models, renal replacement therapy (RRT) requirement (HR 8.07, CI 1.75-37.4, p = 0.008) and proteinuria (HR 1.49, CI 1.03-2.14, p = 0.034) at presentation predicted renal survival, while age (HR 1.10, CI 1.01-1.21, p = 0.041) and infective events during the induction phase (HR 4.72, 1.01-22.1, p = 0.049) negatively influenced patient survival. At present, ANCA-based serological classification may predict AAV relapses, but neither clinical nor serological

  6. Re-evaluation of the histopathologic classification of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis : a study of 121 patients in a single center

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Dong-yuan; Wu, Li-hua; Liu, Gang; Chen, Min; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; Zhao, Ming-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Background. The recently published histopathologic classification of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)associated glomerulonephritis might greatly aid in the prognostication of patients at the time of diagnosis. This study aims to re-evaluate the new classification for its prognostic capacit

  7. Squamous intraepithelial lesions of the anal squamocolumnar junction: Histopathological classification and HPV genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavero, Omar; McCloskey, Jenny; Molina, Vicente Marco; Quirós, Beatriz; Bravo, Ignacio G; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F Xavier; Pimenoff, Ville N

    2017-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related anal cancer lesions are often found adjacent to the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ). We have assessed the histopathology and associated HPV genotypes in anal SCJ lesions in surgically excised anal warts in HIV-negative and -positive patients. Histopathology identified 47 squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) adjacent to the SCJ amongst a total of 145 cases of clinically diagnosed anal condylomata. The anal SCJ lesions were further analyzed with p16, CK7 and p63 immunohistochemistry and HPV genotyping. Sixteen (16/47) of the excised anal wart lesions contained HSIL; Three were HSIL and exclusively associated with oncogenic HPVs. A further thirteen (13/47) were mixed lesions. Of these eight were HSILs with LSIL and six were HSILs with papillary immature metaplasia (PIM); Ten of the mixed lesions were associated with one or more oncogenic HPVs, while three cases were exclusively associated with HPV6. Clinically diagnosed anal warts cannot be assumed to be limited to low-grade lesions as anal warts of the SCJ often show heterogeneous lesions, with coexistence of LSIL, PIM, and HSIL. Lesions showing PIM, however, may mimic HSIL, because they are hypercellular, but lack the nuclear atypia and conspicuous mitotic activity of HSIL; and are p16 negative. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nuclear spatial and spectral features based evolutionary method for meningioma subtypes classification in histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Kiran; Majeed, Hammad; Irshad, Humayun

    2017-04-05

    Meningioma subtypes classification is a real-world multiclass problem from the realm of neuropathology. The major challenge in solving this problem is the inherent complexity due to high intra-class variability and low inter-class variation in tissue samples. The development of computational methods to assist pathologists in characterization of these tissue samples would have great diagnostic and prognostic value. In this article, we proposed an optimized evolutionary framework for the classification of benign meningioma into four subtypes. This framework investigates the imperative role of RGB color channels for discrimination of tumor subtypes and compute structural, statistical and spectral phenotypes. An evolutionary technique, Genetic Algorithm, in combination with Support Vector Machine is applied to tune classifier parameters and to select the best possible combination of extracted phenotypes that improved the classification accuracy (94.88%) on meningioma histology dataset, provided by the Institute of Neuropathology, Bielefeld. These statistics show that computational framework can robustly discriminate four subtypes of benign meningioma and may aid pathologists in the diagnosis and classification of these lesions.

  9. Statistical analysis of textural features for improved classification of oral histopathological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu Rama Krishnan, M; Shah, Pratik; Chakraborty, Chandan; Ray, Ajoy K

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an improved technique, which can assist oncopathologists in correct screening of oral precancerous conditions specially oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) with significant accuracy on the basis of collagen fibres in the sub-epithelial connective tissue. The proposed scheme is composed of collagen fibres segmentation, its textural feature extraction and selection, screening perfomance enhancement under Gaussian transformation and finally classification. In this study, collagen fibres are segmented on R,G,B color channels using back-probagation neural network from 60 normal and 59 OSF histological images followed by histogram specification for reducing the stain intensity variation. Henceforth, textural features of collgen area are extracted using fractal approaches viz., differential box counting and brownian motion curve . Feature selection is done using Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence criterion and the screening performance is evaluated based on various statistical tests to conform Gaussian nature. Here, the screening performance is enhanced under Gaussian transformation of the non-Gaussian features using hybrid distribution. Moreover, the routine screening is designed based on two statistical classifiers viz., Bayesian classification and support vector machines (SVM) to classify normal and OSF. It is observed that SVM with linear kernel function provides better classification accuracy (91.64%) as compared to Bayesian classifier. The addition of fractal features of collagen under Gaussian transformation improves Bayesian classifier's performance from 80.69% to 90.75%. Results are here studied and discussed.

  10. Diagnostic performance of whole brain volume perfusion CT in intra-axial brain tumors: Preoperative classification accuracy and histopathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xyda, Argyro, E-mail: argyro.xyda@med.uni-goettingen.de [Department of Neuroradiology, Georg-August University, University Hospital of Goettingen, Robert-Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany); Department of Radialogy, University Hospital of Heraklion, Voutes, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Haberland, Ulrike, E-mail: ulrike.haberland@siemens.com [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, Computed Tomography, Siemensstr. 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); Klotz, Ernst, E-mail: ernst.klotz@siemens.com [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, Computed Tomography, Siemensstr. 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); Jung, Klaus, E-mail: kjung1@uni-goettingen.de [Department of Medical Statistics, Georg-August University, Humboldtallee 32, 37073 Goettingen (Germany); Bock, Hans Christoph, E-mail: cbock@gmx.de [Department of Neurosurgery, Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital of Mainz, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55101 Mainz (Germany); Schramm, Ramona, E-mail: ramona.schramm@med.uni-goettingen.de [Department of Neuroradiology, Georg-August University, University Hospital of Goettingen, Robert-Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany); Knauth, Michael, E-mail: michael.knauth@med.uni-goettingen.de [Department of Neuroradiology, Georg-August University, University Hospital of Goettingen, Robert-Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany); Schramm, Peter, E-mail: p.schramm@med.uni-goettingen.de [Department of Neuroradiology, Georg-August University, University Hospital of Goettingen, Robert-Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Background: To evaluate the preoperative diagnostic power and classification accuracy of perfusion parameters derived from whole brain volume perfusion CT (VPCT) in patients with cerebral tumors. Methods: Sixty-three patients (31 male, 32 female; mean age 55.6 ± 13.9 years), with MRI findings suspected of cerebral lesions, underwent VPCT. Two readers independently evaluated VPCT data. Volumes of interest (VOIs) were marked circumscript around the tumor according to maximum intensity projection volumes, and then mapped automatically onto the cerebral blood volume (CBV), flow (CBF) and permeability Ktrans perfusion datasets. A second VOI was placed in the contra lateral cortex, as control. Correlations among perfusion values, tumor grade, cerebral hemisphere and VOIs were evaluated. Moreover, the diagnostic power of VPCT parameters, by means of positive and negative predictive value, was analyzed. Results: Our cohort included 32 high-grade gliomas WHO III/IV, 18 low-grade I/II, 6 primary cerebral lymphomas, 4 metastases and 3 tumor-like lesions. Ktrans demonstrated the highest sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value, with a cut-off point of 2.21 mL/100 mL/min, for both the comparisons between high-grade versus low-grade and low-grade versus primary cerebral lymphomas. However, for the differentiation between high-grade and primary cerebral lymphomas, CBF and CBV proved to have 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value, identifying preoperatively all the histopathologically proven high-grade gliomas. Conclusion: Volumetric perfusion data enable the hemodynamic assessment of the entire tumor extent and provide a method of preoperative differentiation among intra-axial cerebral tumors with promising diagnostic accuracy.

  11. Comparison between neuroimaging classifications and histopathological diagnoses using an international multicenter brain tumor magnetic resonance imaging database.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julia-Sape, M.; Acosta, D.M.; Majos, C.; Moreno-Torres, A.; Wesseling, P.; Acebes, J.J.; Griffiths, J.R.; Arus, C.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECT: The aim of this study was to estimate the accuracy of routine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies in the classification of brain tumors in terms of both cell type and grade of malignancy. METHODS: The authors retrospectively assessed the correlation between neuroimaging classifications a

  12. Usefulness of two independent histopathological classifications of tumor regression in patients with rectal cancer submitted to hyperfractionated pre-operative radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (L)ukasz Liszka; Ewa Zieli(n)ska-Paj(a)k; Jacek Paj(a)k; Dariusz Go(l)ka; Jacek Starzewski; Zbigniew Lorenc

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the usefulness of two independent histopathological classifications of rectal cancer regression following neo-adjuvant therapy.METHODS: Forty patients at the initial stage cT3NxMO submitted to preoperative radiotherapy (42 Gy during 18 d) and then to radical surgical treatment. The relationship between "T-downstaging" versus regressive changes expressed by tumor regression grade (TRG 1-5)and Nasierowska-Guttmejer classification (NG 1-3) was studied as well as the relationship between TRG and NG versus local tumor stage ypT and lymph nodes status,ypN.RESULTS: Complete regression (ypTO, TRG 1) was found in one patient. "T-downstaging" was observed in 11 (27.5%) patients. There was a weak statistical significance of the relationship between "T-downstaging"and TRG staging and NG stage. Patients with ypT1 were diagnosed as TRG 2-3 while those with ypT3 as TRG5.No lymph node metastases were found in patients with TRG 1-2. None of the patients without lymph node metastases were diagnosed as TRG 5. Patients in the ypT1 stage were NG 1-2. No lymph node metastases were found in NG 1. There was a significant correlation between TRG and NG.CONCLUSION: Histopathological classifications may be useful in the monitoring of the effects of hyperfractionated preoperative radiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer at the stage of cT3NxMO. There is no unequivocal relationship between "T-downstaging"and TRG and NG. There is some concordance in the assessment of lymph node status with ypT, TRG and NG.TRG and NG are of limited value for the risk assessment of the lymph node involvement.

  13. Clinical and electrophysiological findings in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis, based on the recent histopathological classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezer, F Irsel; Xasiyev, Farid; Soylemezoglu, Figen; Bilginer, Burcak; Oguz, Kader Karli; Saygi, Serap

    2016-11-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is a common pathology in MTLE, patients may show different surgical outcomes and clinical features. The 2013 ILAE classification subdivides HS into 3 types (HS type 1: severe neuronal loss and gliosis predominantly in CA1 and CA4 regions; - HS type 2: CA1 predominant; HS type 3: CA4 predominant) and includes "gliosis only, as no-HS". The association of clinical and electrophysiological findings with different HS types has not been reported previously in detail. 48 patients who had undergone temporal lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy due to mesial TLE-HS between February 2014 and February 2016 were included. The patients were divided into five groups: patients with HS ILAE type 1, HS ILAE type 2, HS ILAE type 3, FCD type IIIa, or gliosis/no HS. The correlation between HS ILAE types and clinical/EEG findings in patients with MTLE due to HS was investigated. Of the 48 patients 30 were male. In 23 patients, the resection was on the left side (48%). Three patients had only gliosis, 25 patients had HS ILAE type 1, 7 had HS ILAE type 2, and 4 had HS ILAE type 3. Nine of the 48 patients had cortical lamination abnormalities in the temporal lobe associated with HS (FCD type IIIa). All patients were seizure free for early follow up. There was no association between type of HS in terms of duration of epilepsy, onset age of epilepsy, lateralized or localized semiological findings, or interictal/ictal EEG findings. Family history of epilepsy or SGTCSs were statistically more frequent in patients with types 2 and 3 HS and status epilepticus was more frequent in patients with HS-FCD type IIIa. The patients with HS types 2 and 3 have more frequent SGTCS or status epilepticus as well as increased family history of epilepsy. These findings can be helpful in understanding the epileptogenicity-prognoses of HS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Politely Disregarded: Street Fiction, Mass Incarceration, and Critical Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orman, Karin; Lyiscott, Jamila

    2013-01-01

    Due to prevailing attitudes about the prison industrial complex and African American and Latino/Latina communities, the literary production of urban street fiction has been politely disregarded by our society. Through the use of critical praxis, utilizing urban street fiction in the classroom is a necessary and urgent act of social justice. Street…

  15. Two often disregarded aspects of Foucaultʼs pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, José-Philippe; Pujol, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the famous Foucault's pendulum by highlighting two often-disregarded aspects in mechanics courses. The first one concerns the existence of a local accelerated reference frame to express the law of dynamics without the Coriolis force. The second aspect deals with the geometrical phase that appears in pendulum dynamics. This last point, which could appear banal, should be related to analogous consideration in quantum physics. It is also linked to vectorial parallel transport of the pendulum angular momentum eigenvector. Numerical simulations with MATLAB are proposed.

  16. Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  17. 不同分级标准在胃肠道间质瘤危险程度评估中的价值%Evaluation of different histopathological classification in cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈丹平; 倪醒之; 殷晓璐; 沈艳莹

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨Fletcher和Miettinen两种不同分级标准对胃肠道间质瘤(gastrointestinal stromal tumors,GIST)危险程度评估的价值.方法 收集165例有完整临床病理及随访资料的GIST病例,应用Fletcher和Miettinen分级标准分别对165例和164例GIST的危险程度进行评估,应用Kaplan-Meier生存分析比较这两种标准在预测GIST恶性潜能中的价值.结果 本组165例按Fletcher分级标准评估GIST,其中高危组59例(35.8%)、中危组49例(29.7%)、低危组43例(26.1%)和极低危组14例(8.5%);按Miettinen分级标准评估164例GIST,其中高危组68例(41.5%)、中危组23例(14.0%)、低危组60例(36.6%)和极低危组13例(7.9%).两种分级中高危组的生存时间和无瘤生存时间均显著低于极低危、低危和中危组(P0.05).结论 Fletcher分级标准相对简易,对GIST预后评估有一定的价值;Miettinen分级标准按不同发病部位评估更能精确判别GIST生物学行为,对高危患者的准确判断及术后靶向治疗具有重要指导作用.%Objective To evaluate two different histopathological classification systems (Fletcher and Miettinen) for the risk in cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Methods One hundred and sixty-five GIST cases with complete clinicopathologic and follow-up data were evaluated for their biologic potential by the histopathological classification systems of Fletcher, and among those, 164 cases GIST were evaluated by the histopathological classification systems of Miettinen. The implication of two classification systems were compared by survival analysis. Results Evaluated by Fletcher histopathological classification system, 59 cases (35. 8%) were graded as high risk, 49 cases (29. 7%) as intermediate risk, 43 cases (26. 1%) as low risk and 14 cases (8. 5%) were very-low risk. Evaluated by Miettinen's system, 68 cases (41.5%) were as high risk, 23 cases (14. 0%) were intermedatie risk, 60 cases (36. 6%) were low risk and 13 cases (7. 9

  18. Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discusses definitions of the term “classification” and the related concepts “Concept/conceptualization,”“categorization,” “ordering,” “taxonomy” and “typology.” It further presents and discusses theories of classification including the influences of Aristotle...... and Wittgenstein. It presents different views on forming classes, including logical division, numerical taxonomy, historical classification, hermeneutical and pragmatic/critical views. Finally, issues related to artificial versus natural classification and taxonomic monism versus taxonomic pluralism are briefly...

  19. Nail histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B

    2013-09-01

    The structure of the nail unit is complex and many dermatologists and dermatopathologists have an incomplete understanding of it. Familiarity with the anatomy and histology of this unit, however, is a key factor in improving the diagnostic yield of nail biopsy. Inflammatory or infectious conditions that affect the nail can have a marked impact on a patient's quality of life. A wide-ranging variety of tumors can also develop in this region and they may be life-threatening or require surgery that will result in functional defects. The author reviews the anatomy and histology of the nail unit as well as the basic histopathologic findings in the most common conditions affecting the nails. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  20. A Neurocognitive Perspective on Developmental Disregard in Children with Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwink, Annemieke; Aarts, Pauline B. M.; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; Steenbergen, Bert

    2011-01-01

    A common problem in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) is the asymmetrical development of arm and hand capacity caused by the lack of use of the affected upper limb, or developmental disregard. In this paper, we provide a neuropsychological model that relates developmental disregard to attentional processes and motor learning. From this…

  1. A Neurocognitive Perspective on Developmental Disregard in Children with Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwink, Annemieke; Aarts, Pauline B. M.; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; Steenbergen, Bert

    2011-01-01

    A common problem in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) is the asymmetrical development of arm and hand capacity caused by the lack of use of the affected upper limb, or developmental disregard. In this paper, we provide a neuropsychological model that relates developmental disregard to attentional processes and motor learning. From this…

  2. 77 FR 37806 - Disregarded Entities and the Indoor Tanning Services Excise Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Services Excise Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final and temporary... (including qualified subchapter S subsidiaries) and the indoor tanning services excise tax. These regulations affect disregarded entities responsible for collecting the indoor tanning services excise tax and...

  3. CIVIL LAW AND THE DISREGARD OF THE LEGAL PERSONALITY OF COMPANIES LTDA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L. H. T. Macarenhas; S. F. S. Félix Moraes; V. Guerreiro

    2016-01-01

    .... The integration of theory disregard the Civil Code of 2002 is not about real innovation, because its application was already a reality in the Brazilian courts, even if the regulatory provisions...

  4. 19 CFR 351.106 - De minimis net countervailable subsidies and weighted-average dumping margins disregarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... weighted-average dumping margins disregarded. 351.106 Section 351.106 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE... minimis net countervailable subsidies and weighted-average dumping margins disregarded. (a) Introduction... practice of disregarding net countervailable subsidies or weighted-average dumping margins that were...

  5. CIVIL LAW AND THE DISREGARD OF THE LEGAL PERSONALITY OF COMPANIES LTDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. T. Macarenhas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper will address the importance that the legal person has the right to and for society, the legal system itself has instruments to protect such institute, correcting fraud and abuse in its exercise. Through the theory of piercing the corporate veil, the distinctive personality and patrimonial autonomy are removed temporarily, making partners and managers are held accountable, as if the entity does not exist. The integration of theory disregard the Civil Code of 2002 is not about real innovation, because its application was already a reality in the Brazilian courts, even if the regulatory provisions dealing hitherto disregard of the doctrine were so confused and often sometimes even erroneous.

  6. 26 CFR 1.7874-1 - Disregard of affiliate-owned stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Example 7. Loss of control—(i) Facts. P, a corporation, holds all the outstanding stock of USS, a domestic... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disregard of affiliate-owned stock. 1.7874-1... stock. (a) Scope. Section 7874(c)(2)(A) provides that stock of the foreign corporation referred to in...

  7. 76 FR 70057 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA...) (concerning individuals who work for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of religious faiths... their parents) of the Internal Revenue Code (``Code'') to entities that are disregarded as separate...

  8. 76 FR 67363 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... person employing him. However, there are some services which are explicitly excepted from the definition..., except as provided in paragraph (d). Services performed in the employ of a partnership are not within the... comprising the partnership. (d) A disregarded entity that is treated as a corporation under Sec. 301.7701-2(c...

  9. 77 FR 37838 - Disregarded Entities and the Indoor Tanning Services Excise Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Services Excise Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... (including qualified subchapter S subsidiaries) and the indoor tanning services excise tax. These regulations affect disregarded entities responsible for collecting the indoor tanning services excise tax and...

  10. 45 CFR 305.62 - Disregard of a failure which is of a technical nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... nature. 305.62 Section 305.62 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD... PENALTIES § 305.62 Disregard of a failure which is of a technical nature. A State subject to a penalty under... the noncompliance with one or more of the IV-D requirements, is of a technical nature which does not...

  11. The inbuilt long-term unfeasibility of environmental flows when disregarding riparian vegetation requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rivaes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental flows remain biased towards the traditional fish biological group and ignore the inter-annual flow variability that rules longer species life cycles, thus disregarding the long-term perspective of the riverine ecosystem. Incorporating riparian vegetation requirements into environmental flows could bring an important contribute to fill in this gap. The long-term after-effects of this shortcoming on the biological communities downstream of dams were never estimated before. We address this concern by evaluating the effects of environmental flow regimes disregarding riparian vegetation in the long-term perspective of the fluvial ecosystem. To achieve that purpose, the riparian vegetation evolution was modeled considering its structural response to a decade of different environmental flows, and the fish habitat availability was assessed for each of the resulting riparian habitat scenarios. We demonstrate that fish habitat availability changes accordingly to the long-term structural adjustments that riparian habitat endure following river regulation. Environmental flow regimes considering only aquatic biota become obsolete in few years due to the change of the habitat premises in which they were based on and, therefore, are unsustainable in the long run. Therefore, considering riparian vegetation requirements on environmental flows is mandatory to assure the effectiveness of those in the long-term perspective of the fluvial ecosystem.

  12. Developing the Observatory Test of Capacity, Performance, and Developmental Disregard (OTCPDD) for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuan-Chun; Chen, Hao-Ling; Wang, Tien-Ni; Shieh, Jeng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument, named the Observatory Test of Capacity, Performance, and Developmental Disregard (OTCPDD), for measuring the amount and quality of use of affected upper limb functions in the daily routines of children with CP. Methods Forty-eight participants (24 children with CP and 24 matched typically developing children) were recruited. The OTCPDD was administered twice (the spontaneous use condition first, followed by the forced use condition) on children with CP. Their parents were asked to complete the Pediatric Motor Activity Log-Revised (PMAL-R). The internal consistency, the intrarater and interrater reliabilities, and the convergent and discriminate validities were measured. Results The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) and the intrarater and interrater reliabilities were higher than 0.9 for all of the OTCPDD scores. The convergent validity was confirmed by significant correlations between the OTCPDD and the PMAL-R. For the discriminant validity, significant differences (p<0.05) were found between children with CP and typically developing children. Conclusions The results support that the OTCPDD is a reliable and valid observation-based assessment. The OTCPDD, which uses bimanual daily living activities, is able to represent the children’s general affected hand functions (including capacity, performance, and developmental disregard) in their daily routines. PMID:27010941

  13. Artefacts in histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Shailja

    2014-09-01

    Histopathology is the science of slide analysis for the diagnostic and research purposes. However, sometimes the presence of certain artefacts in a microscopic section can result in misinterpretations leading to diagnostic pitfalls that can result in increased patient morbidity. This article reviews the common artefacts encountered during slide examination alongside the remedial measures which can be undertaken to differentiate between an artefact and tissue constituent.

  14. Artefacts in histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailja Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Histopathology is the science of slide analysis for the diagnostic and research purposes. However, sometimes the presence of certain artefacts in a microscopic section can result in misinterpretations leading to diagnostic pitfalls that can result in increased patient morbidity. This article reviews the common artefacts encountered during slide examination alongside the remedial measures which can be undertaken to differentiate between an artefact and tissue constituent.

  15. Cystic adenomatoid malformation in children: CT histopathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, C; Bolli, V; Galeazzi, V; Fabrizzi, B; Fabrizzi, G

    2007-06-01

    This study was performed to assess the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in classifying the various types of cystic adenomatoid malformation (CAM) of the lung, as described by Stocker et al., taking histopathology as the gold standard. We retrospectively reviewed six cases of histologically proven CAM. Chest radiography, chest CT and histopathology results were available for all patients. The CT images were reviewed blinded to the histological findings, and attention was paid to the number and size of cysts so as to classify the lesions into the three groups described by Stocker et al. The classification of lesions based on the CT images was then correlated to the histopathological findings. Areas with small-sized cysts (2 cm) were seen in three cases (50%) whereas in the remaining case, the diagnosis was mixed type I and type II CAM. In one patient with type I CAM, an area of low-density consolidation around the cysts was interpreted as CAM in a context of pulmonary sequestration. The CT classification based on Stocker et al.'s categories was in agreement with the histopathological findings in four cases, whereas in the remaining two cases, the lesions were classed as type I or II on CT and as mixed (type I and II) lesions at histopathology. In one case, the CT classification was correct, but the histopathology revealed the coexistence of pulmonary sequestration. In our study, there was concordance between CT and histopathology in 66.7% of cases, whereas in 33.3% histopathology revealed areas with mixed grade lesions. CT proved to be accurate in identifying and characterising CAM and provided important information on lesion site and extension.

  16. Disregarding RBE variation in treatment plan comparison may lead to bias in favor of proton plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedenberg, Minna; Toma-Dasu, Iuliana

    2014-09-01

    Currently in proton radiation therapy, a constant relative biological effectiveness (RBE) equal to 1.1 is assumed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of disregarding variations in RBE on the comparison of proton and photon treatment plans. Intensity modulated treatment plans using photons and protons were created for three brain tumor cases with the target situated close to organs at risk. The proton plans were optimized assuming a standard RBE equal to 1.1, and the resulting linear energy transfer (LET) distribution for the plans was calculated. In the plan evaluation, the effect of a variable RBE was studied. The RBE model used considers the RBE variation with dose, LET, and the tissue specific parameter α/β of photons. The plan comparison was based on dose distributions, DVHs and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). Under the assumption of RBE=1.1, higher doses to the tumor and lower doses to the normal tissues were obtained for the proton plans compared to the photon plans. In contrast, when accounting for RBE variations, the comparison showed lower doses to the tumor and hot spots in organs at risk in the proton plans. These hot spots resulted in higher estimated NTCPs in the proton plans compared to the photon plans. Disregarding RBE variations might lead to suboptimal proton plans giving lower effect in the tumor and higher effect in normal tissues than expected. For cases where the target is situated close to structures sensitive to hot spot doses, this trend may lead to bias in favor of proton plans in treatment plan comparisons.

  17. Histopathology of chromoblastomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, F; Zuluaga, A I; Leon, W; Restrepo, A

    1989-01-01

    A study aimed at determining the histopathologic appearance of chromoblastomycotic lesions was undertaken. Biopsies from 26 patients with the disease were examined. It was found that 23 cases (88.46%) exhibited the organized mixed mycotic granuloma - OMMA -, a granuloma modified by the presence polymorphonuclear neutrophils - PMN's. An equal proportion of cases exhibited pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, with the epithelium playing an important role in the transepidermic elimination of the fungus. Healing of the lesions took place by fibrosis which was observed in 21 (80.77%) patients; this type of reaction was more common in the deeper areas of the dermis.

  18. Assessment of upper-limb capacity, performance, and developmental disregard in children with cerebral palsy: validity and reliability of the revised Video-Observation Aarts and Aarts module: Determine Developmental Disregard (VOAA-DDD-R)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwink, A.; Geerdink, Y.A.; Steenbergen, B.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Aarts, P.B.M.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the validity and reliability of the revised Video-Observation Aarts and Aarts module: Determine Developmental Disregard (VOAA-DDD-R). METHOD: Upper-limb capacity and performance were assessed in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP) by measuring overall duration of

  19. Assessment of upper-limb capacity, performance, and developmental disregard in children with cerebral palsy: validity and reliability of the revised Video-Observation Aarts and Aarts module: Determine Developmental Disregard (VOAA-DDD-R)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwink, A.; Geerdink, Y.A.; Steenbergen, B.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Aarts, P.B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the validity and reliability of the revised Video-Observation Aarts and Aarts module: Determine Developmental Disregard (VOAA-DDD-R). Method Upper-limb capacity and performance were assessed in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP) by measuring overall duration of a

  20. THE HISTOPATHOLOGY OF PSORIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mignogna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common, chronic, relapsing, papulo-squamous dermatitis, with overlying silvery scales. The scalp, sacral region, and extensor surfaces of extremity are commonly involved, even if flexural and intertriginous areas may be affected in the so-called “inverse psoriasis”. Involvement of nails is frequent. Oral lesions (geographic stomatitis and/or glossitis are commonly described. 5-8% of psoriatic patients develop arthritis. Interphalangeal joints are characteristically involved, but large joints are also affected. From a histological point of view, psoriasis is a dynamic dermatosis that changes during the evolution of an individual lesion; we can classify it in an early stage, advanced stage, and later lesions. Lesions are usually diagnostic only in early stages or near the margin of advancing plaques. Munro microabscesses and Kogoj micropustoles are diagnostic clues of psoriasis, but they aren’t always present. All other features can be found in numerous eczematous dermatitis. Key words: Psoriasis, histopathology, immunohistochemistry

  1. Neglect-like characteristics of developmental disregard in children with cerebral palsy revealed by event related potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, I.M.; Steenbergen, B.; Baas, C.M.; Aarts, P.B.M.; Jongsma, M.L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) often show diminished awareness of the remaining capacity of their affected upper limb. This phenomenon is known as Developmental Disregard (DD). DD has been explained by operant conditioning. Alternatively, DD can be described as a development

  2. Disregard of neurological impairments associated with neglected tropical diseases in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Sarpong, Esther; Karikari, Thomas K

    2016-06-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect people in the bottom billion poorest in the world. These diseases are concentrated in rural areas, conflict zones and urban slums in Africa and other tropical areas. While the World Health Organization recognizes seventeen priority NTDs, the list of conditions present in Africa and elsewhere that are eligible to be classified as NTDs is much longer. Although NTDs are generally marginalized, their associated neurological burden has been almost completely disregarded. However, reports indicate that trichuriasis, schistosomiasis and hookworm infection, among others, cause impairments in memory and cognition, negatively affecting school attendance rates and educational performance particularly among children, as well as agricultural productivity among adults. Consequently, the neurological impairments have substantial influence on education and economic productivity, thus aggravating and perpetuating poverty in affected societies. However, inadequate research, policy and public health attention has been paid to the neurological burdens associated with NTDs. In order to appropriately address these burdens, we recommend the development of policy interventions that focus on the following areas: (i) the introduction of training programs to develop the capacity of scientists and clinicians in research, diagnostic and treatment approaches (ii) the establishment of competitive research grant schemes to fund cutting-edge research into these neurological impairments, and (iii) the development of public health interventions to improve community awareness of the NTD-associated neurological problems, possibly enhancing disease prevention and expediting treatment.

  3. Quixotic medicine: physical and economic laws perilously disregarded in health care and medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haburchak, David R; Mitchell, Bradford C; Boomer, Craig J

    2008-12-01

    Wise medical practice requires balancing the idealistic goals of medicine with the physical and economic realities of their application. Clinicians should know and employ the rules, maxims, and heuristics that summarize these goals and constraints. There has been little formal study of rules or laws pertaining to therapeutics and prognosis, so the authors postulate four physical and four economic laws that apply to health care: the laws of (1) finitude, (2) inertia, (3) entropy, and (4) the uncertainty principle; and the laws of (5) diminishing returns, (6) unintended consequences, (7) distribution, and (8) economizing. These laws manifest themselves in the absence of health, the pathogenesis of disease, prognosis, and the behaviors of participants in the health care enterprise. Physicians and the public perilously disregard these laws, frequently producing misdiagnoses, distraction, false expectations, unanticipated and undesirable outcomes, inequitable distribution of scarce resources, distrust, and cynicism: in short, quixotic medicine. The origins and public reinforcement of quixotic medicine make it deaf to calls for pragmatism. To achieve the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education competency of systems-based practice, the authors recommend that premedical education return to a broader liberal arts curriculum and that medical education and training foster didactic and experiential knowledge of these eight laws.

  4. [Histopathological meniscus diagnostic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisseler-Eckhoff, A; Müller, K-M

    2009-06-01

    Menisci fulfill many functions within the complex biomechanics of the knee joint. In the case of meniscus lesions, sparing arthroscopic resections and operative refixation are the treatments of choice. With regard to diagnostics, this means that in general terms, the histopathologic diagnostics are carried out on detached meniscus fragments of between 5 mm and 2 cm in size. An experienced pathologist's knowledge of physiologically possible cellular and fibrous histological meniscus damage, as opposed to nonphysiological change regarded as normal with respect to age, is essential during a diagnostic meniscus evaluation. The clinician expects clear statements from the pathologist regarding the severity of previous or secondary degenerative meniscus damage, the age and type of traumatic tears, and appraisal of the relationship between trauma and meniscus damage from an insurance point of view. Close cooperation between the clinician and the pathologist allows for fast and unambiguous correlation of anamnesis, the clinical picture, and morphological reporting so that cases involving insurance problems - which are numerous, often long-term, and often unsatisfactory - can be clarified quickly.

  5. The type I error rate for in vivo Comet assay data when the hierarchical structure is disregarded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Merete Kjær; Kulahci, Murat

    The Comet assay is a sensitive technique for detection of DNA strand breaks. The experimental design of in vivo Comet assay studies are often hierarchically structured, which should be reWected in the statistical analysis. However, the hierarchical structure sometimes seems to be disregarded, and...... the exposition of the statistical methodology and to suitably account for the hierarchical structure of Comet assay data whenever present.......The Comet assay is a sensitive technique for detection of DNA strand breaks. The experimental design of in vivo Comet assay studies are often hierarchically structured, which should be reWected in the statistical analysis. However, the hierarchical structure sometimes seems to be disregarded......, and this imposes considerable impact on the type I error rate. This study aims to demonstrate the implications that result from disregarding the hierarchical structure. DiUerent combinations of the factor levels as they appear in a literature study give type I error rates up to 0.51 and for all combinations...

  6. Radiological Features and Postoperative Histopathologic Diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiological Features and Postoperative Histopathologic Diagnosis of Intracranial Masses at Tikur Anbessa ... East and Central African Journal of Surgery ... features and postoperative histopathology diagnosis of intracranial mass lesions.

  7. Una representación multi-características de imágenes basada en kernels para clasificación de imágenes de histopatología A KERNEL-BASED MULTI-FEATURE IMAGE REPRESENTATION FOR HISTOPATHOLOGY IMAGE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J MORENO

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel strategy for building a high-dimensional feature space to represent histopathology image contents. Histogram features, related to colors, textures and edges, are combined together in a unique image representation space using kernel functions. This feature space is further enhanced by the application of Latent Semantic Analysis, to model hidden relationships among visual patterns. All that information is included in the new image representation space. Then, Support Vector Machine classifiers are used to assign semantic labels to images. Processing and classification algorithms operate on top of kernel functions, so that, the structure of the feature space is completely controlled using similarity measures and a dual representation. The proposed approach has shown a successful performance in a classification task using a dataset with 1,502 real histopathology images in 18 different classes. The results show that our approach for histological image classification obtains an improved average performance of 20.6% when compared to a conventional classification approach based on SVM directly applied to the original kernel.Este trabajo presenta una estrategia nueva para la construcción de un espacio de características de gran dimensionalidad para la representación del contenido de imágenes de histopatología. Histogramas de características, relacionados con colores, texturas y bordes, son combinados para obtener una única representación de la imagen utilizando funciones de kernels. Este espacio de características es mejorado mediante la aplicación de Análisis de Semántica Latente, para modelar relaciones ocultas entre los patrones visuales. Esta información es incluida en la representación de la imagen en el nuevo espacio. Luego, un clasificador de Máquinas de Vectores de Soporte es utilizado para asignar etiquetas semánticas a las imágenes. Algoritmos de procesamiento y de clasificación son utilizados en las

  8. Learning histopathological patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kårsnäs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to demonstrate a method for automated image analysis of immunohistochemically stained tissue samples for extracting features that correlate with patient disease. We address the problem of quantifying tumor tissue and segmenting and counting cell nuclei. Materials and Methods: Our method utilizes a flexible segmentation method based on sparse coding trained from representative image samples. Nuclei counting is based on a nucleus model that takes size, shape, and nucleus probability into account. Nuclei clustering and overlays are resolved using a gray-weighted distance transform. We obtain a probability measure for pixels belonging to a nucleus from our segmentation procedure. Experiments are carried out on two sets of immunohistochemically stained images - one set based on the estrogen receptor (ER and the other on antigen KI-67. For the nuclei separation we have selected 207 ER image samples from 58 tissue micro array-cores corresponding to 58 patients and 136 KI-67 image samples also from 58 cores. The images are hand-annotated by marking the center position of each nucleus. For the ER data we have a total of 1006 nuclei and for the KI-67 we have 796 nuclei. Segmentation performance was evaluated in terms of missing nuclei, falsely detected nuclei, and multiple detections. The proposed method is compared to state-of-the-art Bayesian classification. Statistical analysis used: The performance of the proposed method and a state-of-the-art algorithm including variations thereof is compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: For both the ER experiment and the KI-67 experiment the proposed method exhibits lower error rates than the state-of-the-art method. Total error rates were 4.8 % and 7.7 % in the two experiments, corresponding to an average of 0.23 and 0.45 errors per image, respectively. The Wilcoxon rank sum tests show statistically significant improvements over the state-of-the-art method. Conclusions: We have

  9. [Histopathological differential diagnosis of primary liver tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honsová, E

    2014-03-01

    The most common primary hepatic malignancy is hepatocellular carcinoma, which constitutes 80-85% of all malignant epithelial neoplasms originating in the liver. The second most common primary hepatic malignancy is cholangiocellular carcinoma. In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in elucidating the molecular pathology of hepatic tumors. Advances in our understanding of molecular subtypes have led to a creation of a new classification system of hepatocellular adenomas, with important genotype-phenotype correlations and easy application to routine diagnostic practice. In the field of early hepatic neoplasia, a consensus on the definition of dysplastic nodules and early hepatocellular carcinoma has been reached. Immunohistochemical detection of glypican-3 and stromal invasion are used for the differential diagnosis. A lot of problems still exist in the category of mixed hepatocellular and cholangiocellular carcinoma. Although this category is recognized in the WHO classification, confusing terminology has been generated to describe tumors with morphological features of both HCC and CC. We further specify problems and pitfalls of the differential histopathological diagnosis of liver malignant tumors.

  10. [Histopathologic study of chronic sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayoff, M; Parache, R M; Bodelet, B; Gazel, P

    1983-01-01

    The conventional histopathology of the sinus is a criterium for the therapeutic indication, since it is possible to distinguish between granulomatous chronic sinusitis, chronic sinusitis with oedema and nasal polyposis. Each one of these clinical pictures has his own etiology and requires a specific therapeutic approach.

  11. Breast cancer histopathology image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veta, M.

    2014-01-01

    Pathology labs are currently undergoing a transformation towards a fully digital workflow. In addition to the digital management of tissue samples, pathology orders and reports, this includes the digitization of histopathology slides and use of computer monitors for viewing them, which aims to

  12. Histopathological spectrum of Psoriasiform dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PL Jayalakshmy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psoriasiform dermatitis is a frequently encountered terminology in a wide variety of inflammatory dermatoses. It often poses challenges to both dermatologists and pathologists alike. Clinical features when considered alone may not be reliable, as they vary with both disease duration and treatment. On the contrary, histopathological material constitutes definite hard evidence, which can be preserved and will continue to be available for future review. The objective of the study is to study the histopathological findings in Psoriasiform dermatitis.Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study in a tertiary care centre in Kerala, South India. All cases diagnosed as Psoriasis or mentioned as one of the differential diagnosis were included. The material included 66 skin biopsies. Patients with a previous diagnosis of the same were excluded from the study.Results: The lesions comprised 9% of the total number of skin biopsies. The age distribution pattern revealed that the highest percentage was in the 41-60 year age group (50% with a male preponderance of 65%. Psoriasis was the most common lesion (60.60% and Lichen simplex chronicus was the second most common lesion (10.60 %, encountered in the study.Conclusion: Some of the histopathological features are specific and characteristic for each entity like Psoriasis, Pityriasis rubra pilaris, Pityriasis rosea and Inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus whereas some overlap in lesions like Prurigo nodularis, Lichen simplex chronicus and Allergic contact dermatitis. Hence, combination of proper clinical observation and histopathological study will give a conclusive diagnosis.

  13. Breast cancer histopathology image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veta, M.

    2014-01-01

    Pathology labs are currently undergoing a transformation towards a fully digital workflow. In addition to the digital management of tissue samples, pathology orders and reports, this includes the digitization of histopathology slides and use of computer monitors for viewing them, which aims to repla

  14. Morphometry in pathology: another look at diagnostic histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collan, Y

    1984-11-01

    Histopathology is crucial for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions in many disease states. The created classifications, however, have not always allowed explicit recognition of diagnostic categories. So, considerable intra- and interobserver variations are possible under diagnostic circumstances. Better reproducibility can be reached by applying other than traditional methods. These include morphometry as well as special stains, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Morphometry is basic in that in detects structural and morphological aberrations in samples prepared by other methods and without doubt brings the element of accuracy to support the diagnostic decision. Morphometric approach includes item classification and grading, point counting and intersection counting methods, and the use of various semiautomatic or automatic instruments. In statistical morphometry morphometrical parameters are collected from several disease cases. Such data reinforced with prognostic follow-ups are the basis for disease classification. Diagnostic morphometry, on the other hand, tries to study the sample of one individual and give relevant data for diagnostic decisions. Morphometric methods allow estimation of the limits of possible performance in histopathology, estimation of human performance in the diagnostic process and estimation of the influence of interfering human factors. Diagnostic decisions as well as decisions linked with therapy are basically probabilistic. Also the data collected by diagnostic morphometry should be linked with probabilistic estimates of the prognostic relevance of the findings. Education of histopathology should be developed to meet these demands, both at elementary medical level and at postgraduate medical level. Education of morphometry can be incorporated into the medical curricula as shown by the experience at the University of Kuopio where aspects of morphometry are taught during histopathology course and special postgraduate courses have

  15. Histopathological examination of Acanthamoeba sclerokeratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kumiko Kato,1 Koji Hirano,2 Tetsuro Nagasaka,3 Koichi Matsunaga,1 Yuko Takashima,1 Mineo Kondo1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Mie University School of Medicine, Tsu, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Fujita Health University, Nagoya, Japan; 3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan Purpose: To report the histopathological findings in a case of severe Acanthamoeba sclerokeratitis (ASK. Patient and methods: A 46-year-old patient was referred to the Department of Ophthalmology of Mie University Hospital because of a severe corneal ulcer of the right eye of 6 months' duration. Our initial examination showed a ring-shaped corneal opacity with extensive epithelial defects and nodular scleritis. Cysts of Acanthamoeba were identified in cultures from corneal scrapings, and he was diagnosed with ASK. He was started on antiamoebic treatment, including topical micafungin and chlorhexidine. The corneal ulcer was debrided several times. One month later, he developed necrotizing scleritis, and the cornea suddenly perforated. The eye was enucleated because of severe pain and prepared for histopathological examination. Results: The histopathological examination showed an infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes throughout the corneal stroma and also in the limbal area of the sclera, forming an abscess. Granulation tissue was observed in the anterior sclera close to the ciliary body, but the posterior regions of the eye were not affected by inflammation or tissue destruction. The cysts of Acanthamoeba were observed only in the cornea. Conclusion: Histopathological examination of an eye with severe ASK showed that the inflammation and tissue granulation were present only in the anterior part of eye, and the posterior segment was not affected. Because the inflammation and tissue destruction were confined to the anterior segment, enucleation might not have been necessary if the severe pain was

  16. Pityriasis rosea: A histopathologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad D

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The histopathologic features of pityriasis rosea (PR have been considered by many authors to be compatible with those of dermatitis, but it is not surprising that histological difference may exist between PR and dermatitis. fifty patients of pityriasis rosea were included in this study. We studied the 50 biopsies including 9 biopsies from herald patches. The characteristic features were; absence or decrease of the granular cell layer, extravasation of red blood cells in papillary dermis and partly into the epidermis, dyskeratosis, liquefaction of basal cells, homogenization of papillary collagen, intraepidermal vesicles in apparently dry skin. In addition of these features, we observed prominent delling of epidermis and a typical spongiotic pattern not reported earlier. The biopsies from herald patches showed minor differences from the secondary lesions. We also compared the histopathological features of recent lesions with older lesions.

  17. The elite sport and Christianity debate: shifting focus from normative values to the conscious disregard for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Sinden, Jane

    2013-03-01

    Scholars and theologians continue to debate whether or not God's intended purpose of elite sport violates the creational normativity for elite sport. However, while it is important to be aware of the contradictions between elite sport and Christianity, there is a need for more deep-seated discussions about emotions and health problems in elite sport and why so many Christian athletes continue to train for their sport at the expense of their health. This paper summaries the present debate regarding elite sport and Christianity and then shifts the reader to an exploration of the normalization of emotion, and the consequence of emotional suppression on athletes health. In doing so, the author presents the disregard of health problems as a more concrete measure of how far athletes should push themselves in elite sport. The author makes recommendations for emotion education and suggests directions for future research and practice.

  18. 42 CFR 493.1219 - Condition: Histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Histopathology. 493.1219 Section 493....1219 Condition: Histopathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Histopathology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, §...

  19. [Histopathologic diagnostics in endoprosthetics: periprosthetic neosynovialitis, hypersensitivity reaction, and arthrofibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, V; Otto, M; Morawietz, L; Hopf, T; Jakobs, M; Klauser, W; Schwantes, B; Gehrke, T

    2009-06-01

    The durability of endoprosthetic implants of the large joints has increased over the last decades. North American studies have shown a 10-year durability of 94% for prosthetic hip implants, and European studies have shown 10-year durabilities of 88-95%. Pathologists differentiate three etiological disease patterns for the"pathology of endoprosthetics" that lead to reduction of implant durability: 1) periprosthetic particle disease (aseptic loosening), 2) infection, and 3) arthrofibrosis. Four types of neosynovitis/periprosthetic membrane have been determined in a consensus classification: particle-induced type (type I), with a mean prosthesis durability (MPD) of 12 years; infectious type (type II), MPD 2.5 years; combined type (type III), MPD 4.2 years; and indeterminate type (type IV), MPD 5.5 years. There are three histopathologic degrees of arthrofibrosis; grade 1 always needs clinical information for diagnosis, whereas grades 2 and 3 are distinct histopathologic entities.

  20. Evaluating IPMN and pancreatic carcinoma utilizing quantitative histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Evan S; Zhang, Hao Helen; Hill, Kimberly A; Patel, Charmi; Kha, Stephanie T; Yozwiak, Michael L; Bartels, Hubert; Nafissi, Nellie N; Watkins, Joseph C; Alberts, David S; Krouse, Robert S

    2016-10-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) are pancreatic lesions with uncertain biologic behavior. This study sought objective, accurate prediction tools, through the use of quantitative histopathological signatures of nuclear images, for classifying lesions as chronic pancreatitis (CP), IPMN, or pancreatic carcinoma (PC). Forty-four pancreatic resection patients were retrospectively identified for this study (12 CP; 16 IPMN; 16 PC). Regularized multinomial regression quantitatively classified each specimen as CP, IPMN, or PC in an automated, blinded fashion. Classification certainty was determined by subtracting the smallest classification probability from the largest probability (of the three groups). The certainty function varied from 1.0 (perfectly classified) to 0.0 (random). From each lesion, 180 ± 22 nuclei were imaged. Overall classification accuracy was 89.6% with six unique nuclear features. No CP cases were misclassified, 1/16 IPMN cases were misclassified, and 4/16 PC cases were misclassified. Certainty function was 0.75 ± 0.16 for correctly classified lesions and 0.47 ± 0.10 for incorrectly classified lesions (P = 0.0005). Uncertainty was identified in four of the five misclassified lesions. Quantitative histopathology provides a robust, novel method to distinguish among CP, IPMN, and PC with a quantitative measure of uncertainty. This may be useful when there is uncertainty in diagnosis.

  1. Histopathological Characteristics of Atrophic Gastritisin Adult Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marija Milicevic; Snezana Bozanic; Nenad Solajic

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic gastritis is inflammation of the gastric mucosa. It can be non-atrophic and atrophic. Atrophy isdefined as the loss of appropriate glands. It is frequently located in antral mucosa as consequence of Helicobacter pylori infectionand it is associated with intestinal gastric cancer. Goal: Describe histopathological and demographic characteristics of atrophicgastritis. Matherial and methods: We assessed the pathological reports of 100 patients with atrophic gastritis whose characteristicswere evaluated by using a semiquantitative scale of Sidney system of classification of gastritis. To assess the significance betweenthe incidence of various parametres we used ;~2 test. Results: We found that the difference in frequency of atrophic gastritis betweenmen and women was not statistically significant. The difference in distribution is statistically significant in favor of the antrum.Among patients who have atrophy with Helicobacterpylori infection and intestinal metaplasia and those who do not have metaplasia,it was found that the difference is highly statistically significant. Conclusion: The most frequent localisation of atrophic gastritis isantral mucosa. There is no difference between men and women in frequency of atrophic gastritis, while the aging is related with moreoften occurrence of atrophic gastritis.

  2. Histopathology of lupus nephritis: A single-center, cross-sectional study from Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineeta Shobha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study of SLE patients over a period of two years is reported. Renal biopsy of 32 selected patients revealed histopathological abnormalities and deposits of immune complexes, and were classified according to the WHO classification of LN (lupus nephritis. The clinical and laboratory parameters assessed were also in line with this classification, indicating the adequacy of these parameters for routine follow-up, and the biopsy was reserved for advanced cases of LN.

  3. 20 CFR 404.1263 - When fractional part of a cent may be disregarded-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....1263 When fractional part of a cent may be disregarded—for wages paid prior to 1987. In paying contributions to a Federal Reserve bank or branch, a State may disregard a fractional part of a cent unless it... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When fractional part of a cent may be...

  4. [Histopathological evaluation of the meniscus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisseler-Eckhoff, A; Müller, K-M

    2011-05-01

    Menisci fulfill many functions within the complex biomechanics of the knee joint. In the case of meniscus lesions, sparing arthroscopic resection and surgical refixation are the treatments of choice. In terms of diagnosis, this means in general that histopathologic diagnostics are carried out on detached meniscus fragments of between 5 mm and 2 cm in size. A good knowledge of physiologically possible cellular and fibrous histological meniscus damage, as opposed to nonphysiological change regarded as normal with respect to age, is essential for diagnostic meniscus evaluation. The clinician expects clear statements from the pathologist regarding the severity of previous or secondary degenerative meniscus damage, the age and type of traumatic tears, and an appraisal of the relationship between trauma and meniscus damage from an insurance point of view. Close cooperation between the clinician and the pathologist allows for a fast and unambiguous correlation of anamnesis, the clinical picture, and morphological reporting such that problematic insurance cases can be clarified quickly.

  5. Parallel multiple instance learning for extremely large histopathology image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Li, Yeshu; Shen, Zhengyang; Wu, Ziwei; Gao, Teng; Fan, Yubo; Lai, Maode; Chang, Eric I-Chao

    2017-08-03

    Histopathology images are critical for medical diagnosis, e.g., cancer and its treatment. A standard histopathology slice can be easily scanned at a high resolution of, say, 200,000×200,000 pixels. These high resolution images can make most existing imaging processing tools infeasible or less effective when operated on a single machine with limited memory, disk space and computing power. In this paper, we propose an algorithm tackling this new emerging "big data" problem utilizing parallel computing on High-Performance-Computing (HPC) clusters. Experimental results on a large-scale data set (1318 images at a scale of 10 billion pixels each) demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for low-latency real-time applications. The framework proposed an effective and efficient system for extremely large histopathology image analysis. It is based on the multiple instance learning formulation for weakly-supervised learning for image classification, segmentation and clustering. When a max-margin concept is adopted for different clusters, we obtain further improvement in clustering performance.

  6. Disregarding the 'Hole Argument'

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Bryan W

    2014-01-01

    Jim Weatherall has suggested that Einstein's hole argument, as presented by Earman and Norton (1987), is based on a misleading use of mathematics. I argue on the contrary that Weatherall demands an implausible restriction on how mathematics is used. The hole argument, on the other hand, is in no new danger at all.

  7. Histopathological analysis of 177 cases with operated intracranial meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guner Menekse

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Aim of this study is to evaluate histopathologic properties of patients with intracranial meningioma who were operated due to intracranial mass. Method: 177 cases diagnosed with intracranial meningioma were retrospectively examined in our clinic between the years of 2007-2012 and their age, sex, tumor localization, and histopathologic properties were analyzed. Results: 74.6% of 177 intracranial meningioma cases were females, 25.4% were males and the ratio of Male/Female was found 3.4/10. The age interval of the cases was between 12-105 years old. It was most frequently seen at the interval of 51-60. In histopathologic examination, 163 cases (92.1% were noted as WHO Grade I, 11 cases (6.2% were WHO Grade II, and 3 cases (1.7% were WHO Grade III. While meningotelial transitional, and psammomatous type was the most frequently seen in WHO Grade I, atypical meningioma was only dominant in Grade II. In WHO Grade II and III cases, dominance of the male sex was present. While 88.1% of the cases had supratentorial localization, 11.9% had infratentorial localization, 1 case had lateral ventricle localization. In 7 cases (3.9% of the series, multiple meningiomas were determined. Conclusion: In a series of 177 cases, intracranial meningiomas were seen between 51-60 years old and its most frequent localization was convexity. While Grade I cases were seen in the female sex, dominance of the male sex was present in Grade II and III cases. Additionally, all of multiple meningiomas detected were female cases. Meningotelial meningiomas constitute the most commonly seen subtype among Grade I cases. Key Words: Intracranial meningioma, histopathological classification, clinical study [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 41-59

  8. On generating cell exemplars for detection of mitotic cells in breast cancer histopathology images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloraidi, Nada A; Sirinukunwattana, Korsuk; Khan, Adnan M; Rajpoot, Nasir M

    2014-01-01

    Mitotic activity is one of the main criteria that pathologists use to decide the grade of the cancer. Computerised mitotic cell detection promises to bring efficiency and accuracy into the grading process. However, detection and classification of mitotic cells in breast cancer histopathology images is a challenging task because of the large intra-class variation in the visual appearance of mitotic cells in various stages of cell division life cycle. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that cells in histopathology images can be effectively represented using cell exemplars derived from sub-images of various kinds of cells in an image for the purposes of mitotic cell classification. We compare three methods for generating exemplar cells. The methods have been evaluated in terms of classification performance on the MITOS dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that eigencells combined with support vector machines produce reasonably high detection accuracy among all the methods.

  9. Impact scores of invasive plants are biased by disregard of environmental co-variation and non-linearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Thiele

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Prioritisation of high-impact species is becoming increasingly important for management of introduced species (‘neobiota’ because of their growing number of which, however, only a small fraction has substantial impacts. Impact scores for prioritising species may be affected by the type of effect model used. Recent studies have shown that environmental co-variation and non-linearity may be significant for effect models of biological invasions. Here, we test for differences in impact scores between simple and complex effect models of three invasive plant species (Heracleum mantegazzianum, Lupinus polyphyllus, Rosa rugosa.We investigated the effects of cover percentages of the invasive plants on species richness of invaded communities using both simple linear effect models (‘basic models’ and more complex linear or non-linear models including environmental co-factors (‘full models’. Then, we calculated impact scores for each invasive species as the average reduction of species richness predicted by basic and full effect models.All three non-native species had negative effects on species richness, but the full effect models also indicated significant influence of habitat types. Heracleum mantegazzianum had uniform linear effects in all habitats, while effects of L. polyphyllus interacted strongly with habitat type, and R. rugosa showed a marked non-linear relationship. Impact scores were overestimated by basic effect models for H. mantegazzianum and R. rugosa due to disregard of habitat effects and non-linearity, respectively. In contrast, impact of L. polyphyllus was underestimated by the basic model that did not account for the strong interaction of invader cover and habitat type.We conclude that simple linear models will often yield inaccurate impact scores of non-native species. Hence, effect models should consider environmental co-variation and, if necessary, non-linearity of the effects of biological invasions on native ecosystems.

  10. 42 CFR 493.1273 - Standard: Histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Histopathology. 493.1273 Section 493.1273 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 493.1273 Standard: Histopathology. (a) As specified in § 493.1256(e)(3), fluorescent...

  11. Correlation of primary tumor FDG uptake with histopathologic features of advanced gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Song, Bong Il; Kang, Yu Na [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Histopathologic features could affect the FDG uptake of primary gastric cancer and detection rate on FDG PET/CT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the FDG uptake of primary gastric cancer by correlating it with the histopathologic features of the tumors. Fifty patients with locally advanced gastric adenocarcinoma who were referred for preoperative FDG-PET/CT scans were enrolled in this study. The detection rate of PET/CT and maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) of the primary tumor were compared using the WHO, Lauren, Ming and Borrmann classifications and tumor size and location. In 45 of the 50 patients (90 %), the primary gastric tumors were detected by FDG PET/CT. On comparison using the WHO classification, the detection rate and SUV{sub max} of the tubular type were significantly higher than those of the poorly cohesive type. On comparison using the Lauren and Ming classifications, the SUV{sub maxs} of the intestinal type and expanding type were significantly higher than those of the diffuse and infiltrative type, respectively. On comparison using the Borrmann classification and tumor size and location, there was no significant difference in the detection rate and SUV{sub max} of primary gastric tumors. This study demonstrates that the poorly cohesive type according to the WHO classification, diffuse type according to the Lauren classification and infiltrative type according to the Ming classification have low FDG uptake in patients with locally advanced gastric carcinoma. Understanding the relationship between primary tumor FDG uptake and histopathologic features would be helpful in detecting the primary tumor by FDG PET/CT in patients with gastric cancer.

  12. Histopathologic changes during mesenteric ischaemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    administration of drugs (ketamine, heparin) and for administra- tion of saline given to ... Table 1 Histopathologic scoring based on я modification of the Swerdlow .... cal and contractile activities of the canine small intestines. Am. J. Surg. 1976 ...

  13. Assessment of organosomatic indices and histopathological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of organosomatic indices and histopathological changes in vital organs of ... of fish fed 0 and 20% BSSM inclusions showed no visible signs of damage. ... 20% in C. gariepinus' diet could cause adverse histological alterations.

  14. Breast Hemangioma: MR Appearance with Histopathological Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Ameen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast hemangioma is a rare tumor and when small, it may be difficult to diagnose using conventional imaging techniques. In this report the MR appearance is described with histopathological correlation.

  15. Renal and hepatic histopathology of intraperitoneally administered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-12

    Oct 12, 2016 ... The biochemistry and histopathology of intraperitoneally administered potassium ... and necrosis of crops in birds. ..... The stressful behavior of respiratory impairment .... specific bile acid transport system) which is responsible.

  16. Automated skin biopsy histopathological image annotation using multi-instance representation and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    With digitisation and the development of computer-aided diagnosis, histopathological image analysis has attracted considerable interest in recent years. In this article, we address the problem of the automated annotation of skin biopsy images, a special type of histopathological image analysis. In contrast to previous well-studied methods in histopathology, we propose a novel annotation method based on a multi-instance learning framework. The proposed framework first represents each skin biopsy image as a multi-instance sample using a graph cutting method, decomposing the image to a set of visually disjoint regions. Then, we construct two classification models using multi-instance learning algorithms, among which one provides determinate results and the other calculates a posterior probability. We evaluate the proposed annotation framework using a real dataset containing 6691 skin biopsy images, with 15 properties as target annotation terms. The results indicate that the proposed method is effective and medically acceptable. PMID:24565115

  17. Content-based image retrieval of digitized histopathology in boosted spectrally embedded spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Akshay; Doyle, Scott; Madabhushi, Anant

    2015-01-01

    Context: Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems allow for retrieval of images from within a database that are similar in visual content to a query image. This is useful for digital pathology, where text-based descriptors alone might be inadequate to accurately describe image content. By representing images via a set of quantitative image descriptors, the similarity between a query image with respect to archived, annotated images in a database can be computed and the most similar images retrieved. Recently, non-linear dimensionality reduction methods have become popular for embedding high-dimensional data into a reduced-dimensional space while preserving local object adjacencies, thereby allowing for object similarity to be determined more accurately in the reduced-dimensional space. However, most dimensionality reduction methods implicitly assume, in computing the reduced-dimensional representation, that all features are equally important. Aims: In this paper we present boosted spectral embedding(BoSE), which utilizes a boosted distance metric to selectively weight individual features (based on training data) to subsequently map the data into a reduced-dimensional space. Settings and Design: BoSE is evaluated against spectral embedding (SE) (which employs equal feature weighting) in the context of CBIR of digitized prostate and breast cancer histopathology images. Materials and Methods: The following datasets, which were comprised of a total of 154 hematoxylin and eosin stained histopathology images, were used: (1) Prostate cancer histopathology (benign vs. malignant), (2) estrogen receptor (ER) + breast cancer histopathology (low vs. high grade), and (3) HER2+ breast cancer histopathology (low vs. high levels of lymphocytic infiltration). Statistical Analysis Used: We plotted and calculated the area under precision-recall curves (AUPRC) and calculated classification accuracy using the Random Forest classifier. Results: BoSE outperformed SE both in terms of

  18. Content-based image retrieval of digitized histopathology in boosted spectrally embedded spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Content-based image retrieval (CBIR systems allow for retrieval of images from within a database that are similar in visual content to a query image. This is useful for digital pathology, where text-based descriptors alone might be inadequate to accurately describe image content. By representing images via a set of quantitative image descriptors, the similarity between a query image with respect to archived, annotated images in a database can be computed and the most similar images retrieved. Recently, non-linear dimensionality reduction methods have become popular for embedding high-dimensional data into a reduced-dimensional space while preserving local object adjacencies, thereby allowing for object similarity to be determined more accurately in the reduced-dimensional space. However, most dimensionality reduction methods implicitly assume, in computing the reduced-dimensional representation, that all features are equally important. Aims : In this paper we present boosted spectral embedding (BoSE, which utilizes a boosted distance metric to selectively weight individual features (based on training data to subsequently map the data into a reduced-dimensional space. Settings and Design : BoSE is evaluated against spectral embedding (SE (which employs equal feature weighting in the context of CBIR of digitized prostate and breast cancer histopathology images. Materials and Methods : The following datasets, which were comprised of a total of 154 hematoxylin and eosin stained histopathology images, were used: (1 Prostate cancer histopathology (benign vs. malignant, (2 estrogen receptor (ER + breast cancer histopathology (low vs. high grade, and (3 HER2+ breast cancer histopathology (low vs. high levels of lymphocytic infiltration. Statistical Analysis Used : We plotted and calculated the area under precision-recall curves (AUPRC and calculated classification accuracy using the Random Forest classifier. Results : BoSE outperformed SE both

  19. Mining histopathological images via composite hashing and online learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofan; Yang, Lin; Liu, Wei; Su, Hai; Zhang, Shaoting

    2014-01-01

    With a continuous growing amount of annotated histopathological images, large-scale and data-driven methods potentially provide the promise of bridging the semantic gap between these images and their diagnoses. The purpose of this paper is to increase the scale at which automated systems can entail scalable analysis of histopathological images in massive databases. Specifically, we propose a principled framework to unify hashing-based image retrieval and supervised learning. Concretely, composite hashing is designed to simultaneously fuse and compress multiple high-dimensional image features into tens of binary hash bits, enabling scalable image retrieval with a very low computational cost. Upon a local data subset that retains the retrieved images, supervised learning methods are applied on-the-fly to model image structures for accurate classification. Our framework is validated thoroughly on 1120 lung microscopic tissue images by differentiating adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma. The average accuracy as 87.5% with only 17ms running time, which compares favorably with other commonly used methods.

  20. Twenty-five years of RENHIS: a history of histopathological studies within EUVAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Daalen, Emma; Ferrario, Franco; Noël, Laure-Hélène; Waldherr, Rüdiger; Hagen, E Christiaan; Bruijn, Jan A; Bajema, Ingeborg M

    2015-04-01

    In the early 1990s, an international working group of experienced renal pathologists, the Renal Histology group, set up a scoring system for biopsies with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis. This scoring system subdivided glomerular, interstitial and vascular lesions and served as a tool for the evaluation of all renal biopsies from studies of the European Vasculitis Study Group (EUVAS). Histopathological studies gave new insights into the prediction of renal outcome in patients with ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis. Percentage of normal glomeruli and a selected number of interstitial parameters were reliable predictors of long-term follow-up glomerular filtration rate in all studies. Out of these results, a histopathological classification distinguishing focal, crescentic, mixed and sclerotic classes of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis was developed. Until today, 13 studies have validated this classification system. Future studies will try to determine if and how renal histology could be helpful in guiding treatment of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis.

  1. Histological classification of mesial temporal sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Dmitrenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS is the most common histopathology occurring in patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. Over the past decades, there have been various attempts to classify the variants of hippocampal neuronal cell loss in relation to postoperative outcome. However, no consensus on the common international definition and classification of MTS has been reached. The article describes the modern histological classification based on a semiquantitative hippocampal cell loss model. The publications dealing with the histological classification of mesial temporal sclerosis are reviewed. 

  2. Cell segmentation in histopathological images with deep learning algorithms by utilizing spatial relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Nuh; Bilgin, Gokhan

    2017-02-28

    In many computerized methods for cell detection, segmentation, and classification in digital histopathology that have recently emerged, the task of cell segmentation remains a chief problem for image processing in designing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems. In research and diagnostic studies on cancer, pathologists can use CAD systems as second readers to analyze high-resolution histopathological images. Since cell detection and segmentation are critical for cancer grade assessments, cellular and extracellular structures should primarily be extracted from histopathological images. In response, we sought to identify a useful cell segmentation approach with histopathological images that uses not only prominent deep learning algorithms (i.e., convolutional neural networks, stacked autoencoders, and deep belief networks), but also spatial relationships, information of which is critical for achieving better cell segmentation results. To that end, we collected cellular and extracellular samples from histopathological images by windowing in small patches with various sizes. In experiments, the segmentation accuracies of the methods used improved as the window sizes increased due to the addition of local spatial and contextual information. Once we compared the effects of training sample size and influence of window size, results revealed that the deep learning algorithms, especially convolutional neural networks and partly stacked autoencoders, performed better than conventional methods in cell segmentation.

  3. Quality and safety aspects in histopathology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adyanthaya, Soniya; Jose, Maji

    2013-09-01

    Histopathology is an art of analyzing and interpreting the shapes, sizes and architectural patterns of cells and tissues within a given specific clinical background and a science by which the image is placed in the context of knowledge of pathobiology, to arrive at an accurate diagnosis. To function effectively and safely, all the procedures and activities of histopathology laboratory should be evaluated and monitored accurately. In histopathology laboratory, the concept of quality control is applicable to pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical activities. Ensuring safety of working personnel as well as environment is also highly important. Safety issues that may come up in a histopathology lab are primarily those related to potentially hazardous chemicals, biohazardous materials, accidents linked to the equipment and instrumentation employed and general risks from electrical and fire hazards. This article discusses quality management system which can ensure quality performance in histopathology laboratory. The hazards in pathology laboratories and practical safety measures aimed at controlling the dangers are also discussed with the objective of promoting safety consciousness and the practice of laboratory safety.

  4. Classification of basic forms and types of marketing on-line communications

    OpenAIRE

    Yu.M. Melnik; L.Yu. Saher; N.S. Illiashenko; Yu.M. Ryazantseva

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research. The aim of the research is to analyze objects of the marketing Internet environment, systematize and classify elements of the communication process. Research results. The article presents analysis of the main problems of marketing online communications classification. Some of them are as follows: traditional scientific and methodological approaches disregard Internet as a media resource; development of software technology and technical means of product promotion vi...

  5. Is routine histopathology of tonsil specimen necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agida S Adoga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tonsillar diseases are common in paediatric and adult otolaryngological practice. These diseases require tonsillectomy. Specimens are subjected to histopathology routinely in my institution for fear of infections and tumour without consideration for risk factors. The financial burden is on the patients and waste of histopathologist′s man hour because other specimens are left un-attended. This study aims to find out the necessity of routine histopathology of tonsil specimens. Materials and Methods : A 2 year retrospective review of the histopathological results of two (paediatric and adult groups of 61 patients managed for tonsillar diseases at the ENT UNIT of Jos University Teaching Hospital from July 2005 to June, 2007. Data extracted included biodata, clinical features and histopathological diagnosis. Result : The 61 patients comprise 35 children and 26 adults. The youngest and oldest paediatric patients were 1 year and 3 months and 16 years respectively, a range of 1 year 3 months to 16 years. The youngest and oldest adults were 17 and 50 years with a range of 17-50 years. Groups mean ages were 5.1 and 28.5 years. The gender ratios were 1:2.7 and 1:1.9 respectively. One adult was HIV positive. The histopathological diagnosis were chronic nonspecific tonsillitis in 10(16.6%, follicular tonsillitis in 23(38.3%, chronic suppurative tonsillitis in 10(16.6%, lymphoid hyperplasia in 18(30.0% and lymphoma in 1(1.0% respectively. Conclusion : Histopathologic request for tonsillectomy specimens should be based on certain risk factors with consideration of the cost to patients and to spare the histopathologist′s man hour.

  6. Morphea simulating paucibacillary leprosy clinically and histopathologically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Saulo Torres Delgado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinically and histopathologically paucibacillary leprosy shows similar features with initial morphea. In this case we report a 24 yr-old male patient who presented to our dermatology department with diagnosed paucibacillary leprosy by his local dermatologist, and confirmed by perineurovascular lymphocytic infiltrate in the histopathological exam. On physical examination we found new plaque lesions that were suggestive of morphea with alteration of sensitivity. A new biopsy was performed showing sclerotic superficial dermis with thickening of the collagen bundles in deep dermis and linear arrays lymphocytic infiltrate between the collagen bundles that confirm the diagnosis of morphea.

  7. Mastitis, a Radiographic, Clinical, and Histopathologic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lin; Reddy, Vijaya; Solmos, Gene; Watkins, Latanja; Cimbaluk, David; Bitterman, Pincas; Ghai, Ritu; Gattuso, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis is a benign inflammatory process of the breast with heterogeneous histopathological findings, which clinically and radiographically may mimic a mammary carcinoma. We undertook a retrospective study on 37 cases of mastitis in our institution to correlate the radiographic imaging features and the clinical presentation with the histopathological findings. Histologically, there were 21 granulomatous, 7 fibrous, 3 plasma cell, 3 lupus, 2 lymphocytic, and 1 case of acute mastitis. Radiographically, 16/25 (64%) patients with ultrasound studies showed irregular hypoechoic masses suspicious for malignancy. Clinically, 38% of patients had an associated systemic disease. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Ensemble Learning of Tissue Components for Prostate Histopathology Image Grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeb Albashish

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble learning is an effective machine learning approach to improve the prediction performance by fusing several single classifier models. In computer-aided diagnosis system (CAD, machine learning has become one of the dominant solutions for tissue images diagnosis and grading. One problem in a single classifier model for multi-components of the tissue images combination to construct dense feature vectors is the overfitting. In this paper, an ensemble learning for multi-component tissue images classification approach is proposed. The prostate cancer Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E histopathology images from HUKM were used to test the proposed ensemble approach for diagnosing and Gleason grading. The experiments results of several prostate classification tasks, namely, benign vs. Grade 3, benign vs.Grade4, and Grade 3vs.Grade 4 show that the proposed ensemble significantly outperforms the previous typical CAD and the naïve approach that combines the texture features of all tissue component directly in dense feature vectors for a classifier.

  9. Mathematical (diagnostic algorithms in the digitization of oral histopathology: The new frontier in histopathological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Banerjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological progress in the digitalization of a complete histological glass slide has opened a new door in the tissue based diagnosis. Automated slide diagnosis can be made possible by the use of mathematical algorithms which are formulated by binary codes or values. These algorithms (diagnostic algorithms include both object based (object features, structures and pixel based (texture measures. The intra- and inter-observer errors inherent in the visual diagnosis of a histopathological slide are largely replaced by the use of diagnostic algorithms leading to a standardized and reproducible diagnosis. The present paper reviews the advances in digital histopathology especially related to the use of mathematical algorithms (diagnostic algorithms in the field of oral histopathology. The literature was reviewed for data relating to the use of algorithms utilized in the construction of computational software with special applications in oral histopathological diagnosis. The data were analyzed, and the types and end targets of the algorithms were tabulated. The advantages, specificities and reproducibility of the software, its shortcomings and its comparison with traditional methods of histopathological diagnosis were evaluated. Algorithms help in automated slide diagnosis by creating software with possible reduced errors and bias with a high degree of specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility. Akin to the identification of thumbprints and faces, software for histopathological diagnosis will in the near future be an important part of the histopathological diagnosis.

  10. Histopathological effects of boldenone in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Biolatti, B.

    2004-01-01

    Histopathology of male cattle previously found positive for béta-boldenone in urine in the Netherlands and in Italy was studied. The animals were derived from practice and several weeks had passed after the finding of béta-boldenone before the animals were examined. The animals consisted of 34 male

  11. Histopathology of fish: I. Techniques and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.

    1955-01-01

    The techniques of histopathology have been used for many years in the study of human and animal diseases. Until very recent times, however, histology has been applied to fish studies only very infrequently. This brief discussion is intended to acquaint the reader with the techniques and principles involved and to explain how histological studies may help to overcome fish diseases and nutritional problems.

  12. The role of Histopathology, Endometrium Thickness and Obstetric History in Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Cengiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the clinical manifestations of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB, ultrasonography findings and compare with histopathological results.Material and Method: A total of 404 women with AUB were classified as; Group I: 18-39 years, Group II: 40-50 years, Group III: >50 years old. Age, parity, bleeding pattern, menstrual history, laboratory results, ultrasonography and histopathological findings were evaluated. Results: Almost half presented with AUB were in the premenopausal group [196 (48.51%], followed by 150(37.13% postmenopausal group and 58(14.36% reproductive age group. The most common bleeding pattern was menometrorrhagia followed by metrorrhagia. Endometrial pathologies were observed in 306 (75.74% and normal menstrual pattern in 98 (24.26% participants of AUB. Endometrium cancer was seen in 7 (1.7% women. In the reproductive period most common pathology was hormonal imbalance pattern. Endometrial polyp was the dominant pathology in premenopausal and postmenopausal age groups. All malignancy cases were in the postmenopausal age group. Malignancy was in 4(19.04% women who gave birth < 3 and in 1(4.76% who had %u22653 children. Four women with vaginal delivery had malignancy whereas no malignancy was seen in women with only cesarean history. Among 109 women who had endometrial thickness 4mm, 30 (10.17% had endometrial hyperplasia, 6(2.03% had endometrium cancer. Discussion: Transvaginal ultrasonography can be used as diagnostic method to evaluate endometrial thickness and differentiate uterine pathologies. However in the case of recurrent uterine bleeding, endometrial sampling should be performed disregarding ultrasonography findings.

  13. A cross-sectional study of clinical, histopathological and direct immmunofluorescence diagnosis in autoimmune bullous diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anchal Jindal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunobullous diseases are morphologically heterogeneous and the differentiation between various subtypes is essential for proper treatment and prognosis. Aim of our study was to analyze and correlate clinical, histopathological and immunofluorescence findings in autoimmune bullous diseases. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done over a period of two years (2010-2012 after approval of the ethics committee. Sixty patients, who met the inclusion criteria of immunobullous disease, were included in the study. Skin biopsy for histopathology and direct immunofluorescence (DIF examination was taken. DIF using salt-split technique was done in few of the cases. The final diagnosis was based on clinical, histopathology and DIF findings. Pearson′s coefficient of correlation (r was calculated. Statistical Analysis was done using Epi info version. 7.0. Results: Fifty-three cases with clinical diagnosis of autoimmune bullous diseases were evaluated. In 88.6% of cases, histopathology diagnosis was consistent with clinical diagnosis and in 75.5% of cases, DIF findings were consistent with clinical diagnosis. A positive relation was seen between clinical and DIF findings with r = 0.65 and between histopathology and DIF findings with r = 0.75. DIF positivity was seen in 100% cases of bullous pemphigoid (BP and pemphigus foliaceous and 94.7% cases of pemphigus vulgaris, which was statistically significant with p < 0.05. In DIF salt-split test, deposition was seen on roof of blister in BP whereas on floor in epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence-based guidance for the diagnosis and classification of various immunobullous disorders. DIF test should be done in conjunction with histopathology for definitive diagnosis and to minimize both: False-positive and false-negative results.

  14. A cascade from disregard for rules of conduct at preschool age to parental power assertion at early school age to antisocial behavior in early preadolescence: Interplay with the child's skin conductance level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Brock, Rebecca L; Boldt, Lea J

    2017-08-01

    Young children's disregard for conduct rules (failing to experience discomfort following transgressions and violating adults' prohibitions) often foreshadows future antisocial trajectories, perhaps in part because it elicits more power-assertive parental discipline, which in turn promotes children's antisocial behavior. This process may be particularly likely for children with low skin conductance level (SCL). In 102 two-parent community families, we tested a model in which children's SCL, assessed at 8 years, was posed as a moderator of the cascade from children's disregard for conduct rules at 4.5 years to parents' power assertion at 5.5 and 6.5 years to antisocial behavior at 10 and 12 years. Children's disregard for conduct rules was observed in scripted laboratory paradigms, parents' power assertion was observed in discipline contexts, and children's antisocial behavior was rated by parents. Conditional process analyses revealed that the developmental cascade from early disregard for rules to future parental power assertion to antisocial outcomes occurred only for the children with low SCL (below median), but not their high-SCL (above median) peers. By elucidating the specific interplay among children's disregard for rules, the parenting they receive, and their psychophysiology, this study represents a developmentally informed, multilevel approach to early etiology of antisocial behavior.

  15. Abundance of the benign melanocytic universe: Dermoscopic-histopathological correlation in nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltsche, Nora; Schmid-Zalaudek, Karin; Deinlein, Teresa; Rammel, Katrin; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Zalaudek, Iris

    2017-05-01

    The broad universe of "melanocytic nevi" includes a variety of different subtypes, which can be classified either due to their morphology, epidemiology, genetic alterations or risk for developing melanoma. Regarding morphology, on the one hand macroscopic/clinical and on the other hand histopathological appearance were used to subdivide in the past, often resulting in confusion and poor interobserver agreement, while nowadays dermoscopy presents the clinician's precious bridge between naked-eye examination and histopathological diagnostics, allowing prediction of the lesions' histopathology, follow up and monitoring over time without need of excision. The non-invasive dermoscopic examination relies on the assessment of colors, patterns and the distribution of both within a cutaneous lesion. Until today, the correspondence of certain dermoscopic colors and patterns to certain histopathological correlates has been reported for a huge amount of different cutaneous lesions. Moreover, the correspondence of certain dermoscopic features to certain body sites, age groups and pigmentary traits, but also to specific genetic alterations in lesions, has been broadly investigated. Dermoscopy has led us to a new understanding of melanocytic nevi's biology and evolution and, last but not least, to a new classification system, which we want to present herein. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  16. Histopathologic features of melanoma in difficult-to-diagnose lesions: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Manuel Lora; Young, Eric D; Bush, James; McKenzie, Katelyn; Hunt, Edgar; Tonkovic-Capin, Viseslav; Jacobs, Melissa; Kucenic, Michael; Fraga, Garth R

    2017-09-01

    Dermatopathology is considered the gold standard for melanoma diagnosis, but a subset of cases is difficult to diagnose by histopathology. The goals of this study were to measure the accuracy of histopathologic features in difficult-to-diagnose melanocytic tumors and the interobserver agreement of those features. This is a case-control study of histopathologic features of melanoma in 100 difficult-to-diagnose melanocytic neoplasms (40 melanomas and 60 nevi). Slides were blindly evaluated by 5 dermatopathologists. Frequencies, predictive values, and interobserver agreement were calculated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the most influential features in arriving at a diagnosis of melanoma. Asymmetry, single-cell melanocytosis, solar elastosis, pagetoid melanocytosis, and broad surface diameter were most influential in arriving at a diagnosis of melanoma. Asymmetry and single-cell melanocytosis were most predictive of melanoma. Fleiss kappa was melanoma. This study is limited by the small sample size, selection bias, and binary classification of melanocytic lesions. Our results indicate histopathologic features of melanoma in difficult-to-diagnose lesions vary in accuracy and reproducibility. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Histopathology of Lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejka, A.; Schmitz, J.L.; England, D.M.; Callister, S.M.; Schell, R.F.

    1989-05-01

    The authors studied the histopathologic evolution of arthritis in nonirradiated and irradiated hamsters infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Nonirradiated hamsters injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi developed an acute inflammatory reaction involving the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and dermis. This acute inflammatory reaction was short-lived and was replaced by a mild chronic synovitis as the number of detectable spirochetes in the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and perineurovascular areas diminished. Exposing hamsters to radiation before inoculation with B. burgdorferi exacerbated and prolonged the acute inflammatory phase. Spirochetes also persisted longer in the periarticular soft tissues. A major histopathologic finding was destructive and erosive bone changes of the hind paws, which resulted in deformation of the joints. These studies should be helpful in defining the immune mechanism participating in the onset, progression, and resolution of Lyme arthritis.

  18. Histopathologic Approach to Oral Cavity Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuyan Demirkesen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of the oral cavity may be either a reflection of system or cutaneous diseases or can be seen as a primary oral lesion. These lesions are inflammatory reactions due to miscellaneous mechanisms, ulceration or erosion, reactive proliferative nodules, precancerous or neoplastic diseases. In this study, microscopic features of the most common diseases, together with their differential diagnosis are discussed. Some of the diseases of the oral cavity have overlapping histopathological findings. In these conditions, ancillary methods such as immunoflourescence or immunohistochemistry can be performed. Deep biopsies from representative areas are essential for proper histopathological diagnosis. Moreover, informing the pathologist about the exact anatomic localization of the biopsy, as well as the clinical findings of the lesion is crucial for a better approach.

  19. Lichen Planus-a Clinico-histopathological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Vijay

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinico-histopathological features of 75 patients of lichen planus were studied. The male to female ratio was 1:13. The largest number of patients (30.6% fell into the 31-40 year age group. Two patients had systemic hypertension. There was no history of lichen planus in the family. All patients presented with severe itching within 1-2 months of onset. Papular lesions were seen in 72% and papules with plaques were seen 16%. Lower limbs were involved in 38% of cases. Mucosal involvement was seen in 24% in addition to skin involvement ; nail involvement hypertrophicus (17.3%. Lichen planopilaris and oral lichen planus were uncommon. Clinico-histopathological discrepancies were observed in 7 patients. Civatte bodies were seen in only 37% of cases.

  20. Clinical and histopathological study of palmoplantar keratoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan P

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of palmo-plantar keratoderma in eighty-two cases showed that twenty different diseases, both hereditary and acquired were responsible for palmoplantar keratoderma. Maximum number of cases were of hereditary variety of palmoplantar keratoderma (Unna-Thost syndrome (28.05%. Whereas psoriasis was the leading cause among the acquired conditions (17.07%. Two histopathological types of Unna-Thost syndrome and their correlation with clinical features are reported.

  1. Large Penile Mass With Unusual Benign Histopathology

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    Nate Johnson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is an extremely rare condition presenting as a lesion on the glans penis in older men. Physical exam without biopsy cannot differentiate malignant from nonmalignant growth. We report a case of large penile mass in an elderly male with a history of lichen sclerosis, highly suspicious for malignancy. Subsequent surgical removal and biopsy demonstrated pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, an unusual benign histopathologic diagnosis with unclear prognosis. We review the literature and discuss options for treatment and surveillance.

  2. Histopathology of Conjunctivochalasis Compared to Normal Conjunctiva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Hesam; Mahbod, Mirgholamreza; Amoli, Fahimeh A.; Kiarudi, Mohammad Y.; Jabbarvand, Mahmoud; Kheirkhah, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the histopathologic changes in the conjunctiva of patients with conjunctivochalasis (CCh) compared to age-matched controls. Methods: This cross-sectional, controlled study included 27 eyes of 27 patients with CCh and 16 eyes of 16 age-matched controls. A biopsy of the bulbar conjunctiva was performed along the temporal lower lid margin before cataract surgery in both groups. Histopathologic evaluation of the specimens was done with light microscopy using staining with hematoxylin/eosin, periodic acid Schiff, and van Gieson elastic stain. Various histopathologic features of the conjunctival epithelium and stroma were compared between the two groups. Results: The mean age of patients was 62.4 ± 6.9 years in the CCh group and 65.1 ± 6.3 years in the control group (P = 0.54). No significant differences were noted between the two groups in terms of conjunctival epithelial changes including papillomatosis, epithelial clefts, epithelial goblet cells, or infiltration of inflammatory cells. Mean thickness of the conjunctival stroma was 0.21 ± 0.08 mm in the CCh group and 0.26 ± 0.21 mm in the control group (P = 0.10). For the conjunctival stroma, there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of elastosis, fibrosis, lymphangiectasia, or infiltration of inflammatory cells. Conclusion: No noticeable differences were found in the histopathologic features by light microscopy between eyes with CCh and those of age-matched controls. Therefore, the primary pathology of CCh may not be within the conjunctiva itself. Instead, loose attachment of the conjunctiva to the underlying tissue may be the reason for the redundant folds in the bulbar conjunctiva. PMID:27994801

  3. Comparative histopathology of vitiligo and contact depigmentation

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    Mittal R

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen cases of vitiligo and 12 cases of contact depigmentation were compared histopathologically. Incontinence of melanin in dermis was seen in 33% cases of contact depigmentation and 6.6% cases of vitiligo. Mononuclear infiltrate was more in contact depigmentation and had lichenoid character at places. Vasculitis with perivascular mononuclear infiltrate was seen in all cases of contact depigmentation. It is proposed that chemicals responsible for contact destruction of melanocytes.

  4. Histopathological and immunohistochemical profile in anaplastic gangliogliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Rojas, Alfredo E; Diaz-Perez, Julio A; Chinchilla-Olaya, Sandra I; Amaro, Deirdre; Lozano-Castillo, Alfonso; Restrepo-Escobar, Ligia I

    2013-01-01

    The anaplastic ganglioglioma (AG) is the high-grade counterpart of ganglioglioma, a rare mixed tumor composed of neuronal/ganglion and glial cells. We describe the histopathology and immunohistochemistry in 7 cases of AG and correlate them with the clinical and radiological features. Our AG patients correspond to 2.5% of the central nervous system tumor patients evaluated in our institution. The mean age at presentation was 25.7 years, with a male predominance. The most common clinical presentation was generalized tonic-clonic seizures (3/7 cases), in correlation with frequent cortical/subcortical location (6/7 cases). Histopathologically, all our cases showed high-grade features in glial (glial fibrillary acid protein-positive) and neuron-ganglion cells (synaptophysin, PGP-9.5, neurofilament, NSE and CD56-positive), as well as moderate cellularity, frequent mitotic figures and a Ki-67 labeling index >5%. All our patients had poor survival. We found that a typical histopathological and immunohistochemical profile is constant and can be useful in early diagnosis of these aggressive neoplasms. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of Hashimoto thyroiditis

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    H Kazem Amani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intrathyroid lymphoid tissue is accrued in Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT. Histologically, this acquired lymphoid tissue bears a close resemblance to mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT and can evolve to lymphoma. Aim: To demonstrate the morphological, and immunohistochemical profiles of Hashimoto thyroiditis and to ascertain the importance of light chain restriction in distinguishing HT with extensive lymphoplasmacytoid infiltrate from MALT lymphoma. Materials and Methods: We studied histopathologically and immunohistochemically (CD20, CD3, Igk, Igl and cytokeratin 30 cases of HT for evaluation of the lymphoid infiltrate and the presence of lymphoepithelial lesions (LELs. Distinguishing between early thyroid lymphoma and HT was evaluated by light chain restriction. These findings were compared with two cases of primary thyroid lymphoma. Results: The histopathological findings were characteristic of HT. Immunohistochemistry confirmed inconspicuous, rare B-cell LELs as well as a prominent T-lymphocyte population. Testing for light chain restriction showed polyclonal population of plasma cells. The cases of MALT lymphoma had distinct destructive lymphoepithelial lesions, B-cell immunophenotyping and showed kappa light chain restriction in the plasmacytoid population. Conclusions: Hashimoto thyroiditis differs both histopathologically and immunohistochemically from thyroid lymphoma. In suspicious cases, immunohistochemistry could be helpful in reaching a definitive diagnosis.

  6. Preoperative and postoperative histopathological findings in patients with endometrial hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Biljana; Stanojević Zorica; Živković Vesna; Lalošević Dušan; Gligorijević Jasmina; Krstić Miljan

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the histopathological findings in curettage and hysterectomy specimens, to evaluate the accuracy of histopathological diagnosis in curettage specimens, and to determine the frequency of coexisting endometrial carcinoma in patients with histopathological diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia. Material and methods. Curettage and hysterectomy specimens of 135 female patients with initially diagnosed endometrial hyperplasia were retros...

  7. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  8. A Novel CAD System for Mitosis detection Using Histopathology Slide Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashk, Ashkan; Helfroush, Mohammad Sadegh; Danyali, Habibollah; Akbarzadeh, Mojgan

    2014-04-01

    Histopathology slides are one of the most applicable resources for pathology studies. As observation of these kinds of slides even by skillful pathologists is a tedious and time-consuming activity, computerizing this procedure aids the experts to have faster analysis with more case studies per day. In this paper, an automatic mitosis detection system (AMDS) for breast cancer histopathological slide images is proposed. In the proposed AMDS, the general phases of an automatic image based analyzer are considered and in each phase, some special innovations are employed. In the pre-processing step to segment the input digital histopathology images more precisely, 2D anisotropic diffusion filters are applied to them. In the training segmentation phase, the histopathological slide images are segmented based on RGB contents of their pixels using maximum likelihood estimation. Then, the mitosis and non-mitosis candidates are processed and hence that their completed local binary patterns are extracted object-wise. For the classification phase, two subsequently non-linear support vector machine classifiers are trained pixel-wise and object-wise, respectively. For the evaluation of the proposed AMDS, some object and region based measures are employed. Having computed the evaluation criteria, our proposed method performs more efficient according to f-measure metric (70.94% for Aperio XT scanner images and 70.11% for Hamamatsu images) than the methods proposed by other participants at Mitos-ICPR2012 contest in breast cancer histopathological images. The experimental results show the higher performance of the proposed AMDS compared with other competitive systems proposed in Mitos-ICPR2012 contest.

  9. Classifications of central solar domestic hot water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J. Y.; Hao, B.; Peng, C.; Wang, S. S.

    2016-08-01

    Currently, there are many means by which to classify solar domestic hot water systems, which are often categorized according to their scope of supply, solar collector positions, and type of heat storage tank. However, the lack of systematic and scientific classification as well as the general disregard of the thermal performance of the auxiliary heat source is important to DHW systems. Thus, the primary focus of this paper is to determine a classification system for solar domestic hot water systems based on the positions of the solar collector and auxiliary heating device, both respectively and in combination. Field-testing data regarding many central solar DHW systems demonstrates that the position of the auxiliary heat source clearly reflects the operational energy consumption. The consumption of collective auxiliary heating hot water system is much higher than individual auxiliary heating hot water system. In addition, costs are significantly reduced by the separation of the heat storage tank and the auxiliary heating device.

  10. Comparative histopathology of scabies versus nodular scabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative histopathology was studied in 25 cases of scabies versus 25 cases of nodular scabies which were selected from Dermato-Venereology out patients. Salient differences observed were that in scabies lifting of stratum corneum at places was seen in all 100% cases, spongiosis in 100%, spongiotic vesicles in 28%, burrows in 56%, mite in 40% and vasculitis in 28% whereas in nodular scabies acanthosis was seen in 100%, pseudo epitheliomatous hyperplasia in 8%, burrows in 48%, mite in 24% and vasculitis in 84%. In nodular scabies, dermal infiltrate in 32% cases was arranged as lymphoid follicles with admixture of plasma cells and eosinophils.

  11. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  12. Xenolog classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Charlotte A; Stolzer, Maureen; Ropp, Patrick J; Barker, Daniel; Durand, Dannie

    2017-03-01

    Orthology analysis is a fundamental tool in comparative genomics. Sophisticated methods have been developed to distinguish between orthologs and paralogs and to classify paralogs into subtypes depending on the duplication mechanism and timing, relative to speciation. However, no comparable framework exists for xenologs: gene pairs whose history, since their divergence, includes a horizontal transfer. Further, the diversity of gene pairs that meet this broad definition calls for classification of xenologs with similar properties into subtypes. We present a xenolog classification that uses phylogenetic reconciliation to assign each pair of genes to a class based on the event responsible for their divergence and the historical association between genes and species. Our classes distinguish between genes related through transfer alone and genes related through duplication and transfer. Further, they separate closely-related genes in distantly-related species from distantly-related genes in closely-related species. We present formal rules that assign gene pairs to specific xenolog classes, given a reconciled gene tree with an arbitrary number of duplications and transfers. These xenology classification rules have been implemented in software and tested on a collection of ∼13 000 prokaryotic gene families. In addition, we present a case study demonstrating the connection between xenolog classification and gene function prediction. The xenolog classification rules have been implemented in N otung 2.9, a freely available phylogenetic reconciliation software package. http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~durand/Notung . Gene trees are available at http://dx.doi.org/10.7488/ds/1503 . durand@cmu.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  13. Histopathologic Patterns of Nervous System Tumors Based on Computer Vision Methods and Whole Slide Imaging (WSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Walkowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Making an automatic diagnosis based on virtual slides and whole slide imaging or even determining whether a case belongs to a single class, representing a specific disease, is a big challenge. In this work we focus on WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System. We try to design a method which allows to automatically distinguish virtual slides which contain histopathologic patterns characteristic of glioblastoma – pseudopalisading necrosis and discriminate cases with neurinoma (schwannoma, which contain similar structures – palisading (Verocay bodies.

  14. Molecular and Histopathological Changes Associated with Keratoconus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Mariam Lotfy; Helwa, Inas; Drewry, Michelle; Seremwe, Mutsa; Estes, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is a corneal thinning disorder that leads to loss of visual acuity through ectasia, opacity, and irregular astigmatism. It is one of the leading indicators for corneal transplantation in the Western countries. KC usually starts at puberty and progresses until the third or fourth decade; however its progression differs among patients. In the keratoconic cornea, all layers except the endothelium have been shown to have histopathological structural changes. Despite numerous studies in the last several decades, the mechanisms of KC development and progression remain unclear. Both genetic and environmental factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of KC. Many previous articles have reviewed the genetic aspects of KC, but in this review we summarize the histopathological features of different layers of cornea and discuss the differentially expressed proteins in the KC-affected cornea. This summary will help emphasize the major molecular defects in KC and identify additional research areas related to KC, potentially opening up possibilities for novel methods of KC prevention and therapeutic intervention. PMID:28251158

  15. Phyllodes tumor: diagnostic imaging and histopathology findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Alina Cristiana; Roşca, Elena; Daina, Lucia Georgeta; Muţiu, Gabriela; Pirte, Adriana Nicoleta; Rahotă, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are rare breast tumors, accounting for less than 1% of all primary tumors of the breast. Histologically, phyllodes tumors can be divided into benign (60%), borderline (20%) and malignant (20%). The mammography examination was performed by means of a digital mammography system Giotto 3D Images; the ultrasound examination was performed through a GE Logiq P6 device and histological confirmation was possible after surgery or following the histological biopsy. We grouped the nine patients who presented clinically palpable nodules into two groups, namely: the six patients presenting histological benign results into Group I, and Group II where we included those with borderline and malignant histological results. Mammography performed in 77.7% revealed a well-circumscribed round or oval opacity or with contour lobules. Ultrasound examination was performed in all patients. Mammography and ultrasound have limitation in differentiating between benign lesion and phyllodes tumor. In the nine analyzed cases, mammographic and ultrasound examinations did not allow the differentiation into the three groups of phyllodes tumor. Histopathological examination is considered the golden standard for their diagnosis. Correlations between mammographic and microscopic aspects were inconclusive for determining the degree of differentiation, ultrasound changes could be correlated with the histopathological aspects.

  16. Histopathology for the diagnosis of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological examination of tissue biopsies for the identification of infectious organisms is a very important diagnostic tool. Conventional culture confirmation of tissue biopsies often fail to identify any pathogen as, first of all, invariably most of the tissue samples that are collected and sent for culture isolation are inappropriately collected in formalin, which prevents pathogen growth in culture media. Inadequate processing like grinding, etc. further hinders isolation. Presence of inhibitors like dead tissue debris, fibers, etc. also delays isolation. Microbiologists often lack expertise in identifying infectious pathogens directly from tissue biopsies by microscopic visualization. This review therefore acquaints microbiologists with the various methods available for detecting infectious agents by using histological stains. On histopathological examination of the tissue biopsy once, it is determined that a disease is likely to be due to an infection and has characterized the inflammatory response and hence associated microorganisms should be thoroughly looked for. Although some microorganisms or their cytopathic effects may be clearly visible on routine haematoxylin- and eosin-stained sections, additional histochemical stains are often needed for their complete characterization. Highly specific molecular techniques, such as immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and nucleic acid amplification, may be needed in certain instances to establish the diagnosis of infection. Through appropriate morphologic diagnoses and interlaboratory communication and collaboration, direct microscopic visualization of tissue samples can thus be very helpful in reaching a correct and rapid diagnosis.

  17. Histopathological characterization of a Cameron lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jordan; Brar, Sonia; Sidhu, Jagmohan S

    2012-10-01

    Cameron lesions are linear erosions located at the neck of a hiatal hernia (HH) in patients with a large HH. The prevalence has been seen in up to 5% of patients with HH who undergo esophagogastroduodenoscopy, and they can be associated with overt gastrointestinal bleeding or anemia. These lesions occur due to vascular compression by the diaphragm in a large sliding HH. Histopathologic changes seen in the biopsy tissue of a Cameron lesion are due to ischemia, but this ischemia is reversible with treatment of HH. The existence of this entity and the histopathologic picture of a Cameron lesion is not well known to pathologists, and therefore, a microscopic picture of a Cameron lesion can be easily confused with ischemic gastritis. Ischemic gastritis is the result of atherosclerosis, usually seen in older people, unrelated to HH, and is not easily reversible. The authors received a gastric biopsy of a hiatal hernia without any associated clinical diagnosis of a Cameron lesion conveyed to the pathologist. This biopsy tissue showed ischemic changes in the gastric mucosa on microscopic examination. Diagnosis of ischemic gastritis was considered but ruled out after the case was discussed with the gastroenterologist. The correct diagnosis was made once the clinical diagnosis of HH with Cameron lesion (ie, a vertical red erosion) was made known to the pathologist. By reporting this case, the authors aim to increase awareness of Cameron lesion among pathologists so that they ask about the presence of a Cameron lesion before making the diagnosis of ischemic gastritis.

  18. Paederus fuscipes dermatitis. A histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni, G; Brazzelli, V; Rosso, R; Pavan, M

    1991-10-01

    Paederus fuscipes (PF) dermatitis is a self-healing blistering disorder of the skin caused by a small insect belonging to genus Paederus, family Staphylinidae, order Coleoptera. Crushing PF on the skin causes acute dermatitis within 24 hours, corresponding in shape and dimensions to the area affected by the substance released (pederin). The acute vesicular lesions become crusted and scaly within a few days and heal completely in 10-12 days, with a transitory postinflammatory hypercromic patch. Twenty consecutive cases of PF dermatitis at different stages were studied histologically by routine light microscopy. The pederin causes a spectrum of histopathologic changes ranging from acute epidermal necrosis and blistering in acute stages, to marked acanthosis with mitotic figures in the late stages. PF dermatitis is an entomological model of irritant contact dermatitis, having histopathologic features of intraepidermal and subepidermal blistering, epidermal necrosis and acantholysis. The presence of some acantholytic foci, relatively far from the foci of clinically involved skin, in four of the cases considered suggests a possible role of pederin in inducing acantholysis indirectly. Acantholysis is probably caused by the release of epidermal proteases.

  19. Metastatic pheochromocytoma: clinical, genetic, and histopathologic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinka, Tomáš; Musil, Zdeněk; Dušková, Jaroslava; Burton, Deborah; Merino, Maria J; Milosevic, Dragana; Widimský, Jiří; Pacak, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Background Pheochromocytomas are tumors arising from chromaffin tissue located in the adrenal medulla associated with typical symptoms and signs which may occasionally develop metastases, which are defined as the presence of tumor cells at sites where these cells are not found. This retrospective analysis was focused on clinical, genetic, and histopathologic characteristics of primary metastatic versus primary benign pheochromocytomas. Materials and methods We identified 41 subjects with metastatic pheochromocytoma and 108 subjects with apparently benign pheochromocytoma. We assessed dimension and biochemical profile of the primary tumor, age at presentation, and time to develop metastases. Results Subjects with metastatic pheochromocytoma presented at a significantly younger age (41.4±14.7 vs. 50.2±13.7 years; Ppheochromocytomas. No significant differences were found in the incidence of genetic mutations in both groups of subjects (25.7 % in the metastatic group and 14.7 % in the benign group; P=0.13). From available histopathologic markers of potential malignancy, only necrosis occurred more frequently in subjects with metastatic pheochromocytoma (27.6 % vs. 0 %; Ppheochromocytoma and age of its first presentation are two independent risk factors associated with the development of metastatic disease. PMID:21692797

  20. Histopathology of ameloblastoma of the jaws; some critical observations based on a 40 years single institution experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Doenja; Bloemena, Elisabeth; H A Aartman, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine all cases of intraosseous benign ameloblastomas treated between 1970 and 2010 in a single institution and to look for a possible correlation between the histopathological aspects and the demographical and clinical parameters, as well as the treatment outcome. The data of a total number of 44 patients were retrieved from the records. Nine patients were excluded because of doubt about the correct diagnosis (8 patients) or because of an extra-osseous presentation (1 patient). No statistically significant differences were found between the histopathological (sub)types of ameloblastomas and the demographical and clinical parameters, nor between the histopathological (sub)types and treatment outcome. Of the 28 patients treated by enucleation, in 17 patients one or more recurrences occurred, with no significant predilection for any histopathological (sub)type, including the unicystic type. There were no significant differences in the recurrence rate after enucleation in patients below and above the age of 20 years either. In six out of 17 patients with a recurrence, the recurrent lesion showed a different histopathological subtype than was encountered in the primary. In two cases a change from solid/multicystic to desmoplastic ameloblastomas was noticed. In conclusion, the current histopathological classification of benign intraosseous ameloblastoma does not seem to have clinical relevance with the possible exception of the luminal unicystic ameloblastoma that has been removed in toto, unfragmented. Since no primary desmoplastic ameloblastomas were encountered in the present study no further comments can be made on this apparently rare entity. Key words: Odontogenic tumours, ameloblastoma, histopathology. PMID:22157674

  1. Gallbladder polyps: ultrasonographic and histopathological findings correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rodriguez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder polyp is an increasingly common diagnosis, primarily as an abdominal ultrasound finding requested by another cause. Studies report a prevalence between 4% and 5.6%. The importance of an accurate diagnosis is related to the possibility of developing a malignancy desease. The objectvie is to correlate ultrasound and histopathologic findings in gallbladder polyp patients operated at the Hospital San Juan de Dios de La Serena. We reviewed retrospectively the medical records of patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallbladder polyp from January 2000 to December 2010. a total of 40 patients underwent cholecystectomy for gallbladder polyp. 16 only had its tab clinic with abdominal ultrasonography report and the pathology report. 13 of them (81% were female. The mean age was 46 + / - 12 years. The reason for the ultrasonography was in 9 patients (56% abdominal pain in 3 patients (19%, a finding in asymptomatic patients, in one patient (6% biliary colic, none had jaundice, and in 3 patients (19% the cause was different. According to Abdominal ultrasound, the number of polyps was 1.1 + / - 0.3 per patient, and the average size was 5.8 + / - 1.8 mm. Histopathological examination showed the presence of polyps colesterolínicos in 11 of the 16 patients (69%. In the series described the abdominal ultrasonography showed a PPV = 0.68 for the diagnosis of gallbladder polyp. According to the report histopathological cholesterolosis diagnosed chronic cholecystitis in six cases (37.5%, chronic cholecystitis in six cases (37.5%, cholesterolosis in three cases (18.75% and cholelithiasis in one case (6 , 25%. Not demonstrated the presence of adenomas or foci of carcinoma in situ. In conclusion the described series does not allow to extrapolated or compare conclusions with other national and international series due to the small number of patients studied. There is a substantial sub-register of the pathology because the majority of patients undergoing

  2. Histopathologic Outcomes of Robotic Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul R. Patel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotically assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is a minimally invasive alternative for the treatment of prostate cancer. We report the histopathologic and shortterm PSA outcomes of 500 robotic radical prostatectomies. Five hundred patients underwent robotic radical prostatectomy. The procedure was performed via a six trocar transperitoneal technique. Prostatectomy specimens were analyzed for TNM stage, Gleason’s grade, tumor location, volume, specimen weight, seminal vesicle involvement, and margin status. A positive margin was reported if cancer cells were found at the inked specimen margin. PSA data were collected every 3 months for the first year, then every 6 months for a year, then yearly. The average preoperative PSA was 6.9 (1–90 with Gleason’s score of 5 (2%, 6 (52%, 7 (40%, 8 (4%, and 9 (2%; postoperatively, histopathologic analysis showed Gleason's 6 (44%, 7 (42%, 8 (10%, and 9 (4%; 10, 5, 63, 15, 5, and 2% had pathologic stage T2a, T2b, T2c, T3a, T3b, and T4, respectively. Positive margin rate was 9.4% for the entire series. The positive margin rate per 100 cases was: 13% (1–100, 8% (101–200, 13% (201–300, 5% (301–400, and 8% (401–500. By stage, it was 2, 4, and 2.5% for T2a, T2b, T2c tumors; 23% (T3a, 46% (T3b, and 53% (T4a. For organ-confined disease (T2, the margin rate was 2.5% and it was 31% for nonorgan-confined disease. There were a total of 47 positive margins, 26 (56% posterolateral, 4 (8.5% apical, 4 (8.5% bladder neck, 2 (4% seminal vesicle, and 11 (23% multifocal. Ninety-five percent of patients (n = 500 have undetectable PSA (<0.1 at average follow-up of 9.7 months. Recurrence has only been seen with nonorgan-confined tumors. Of those patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 year (average 15.7 months, 95% have undetectable PSA (<0.1. Our initial experience with robotic radical prostatectomy is promising. Histopathologic outcomes are acceptable with a low overall, positive margin rate. Shortterm

  3. Histopathological study of feline eosinophilic dermatoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondati, A; Fondevila, D; Ferrer, L

    2001-12-01

    A retrospective study was conducted on skin specimens from 24 cats with eosinophilic granuloma complex. The specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and Gallego's trichrome stain. In all specimens, flame figures and/or large foci of so-called "collagen degeneration" were detected and histopathological features were not predictive of the clinical picture. Use of the term eosinophilic dermatosis was advocated in diagnostic dermatopathology. On trichrome-stained sections, normally stained collagen fibres were identified in the middle of both flame figures and large foci of "collagen degeneration" and the debris surrounding collagen bundles showed the same tinctorial properties as eosinophil granules. Eosinophil degranulation around collagen bundles seemed to represent the major pathogenetic event in these lesions, analogous with human flame figures. The term flame figures might therefore be more accurately used to designate those foci of eosinophilic to partly basophilic debris commonly referred to as "collagen degeneration".

  4. Salivary Duct Cyst: Histo-pathologic Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Vinayachandran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-neoplastic cysts of the salivary glands are uncommon and represent 2-5% of all salivary gland lesions. They are mainly mucoceles or salivary duct cysts. Unlike a mucocele, which is surrounded by granulation tissue, the salivary duct cyst is lined by epithelium. Salivary duct cysts are more common in the oral minor salivary glands and rarely occur in the major salivary glands, show a marked predilection for the superficial lobe of the parotid, and represent 10% of all salivary gland cysts. Neoplastic differentiation of the lining of the salivary duct cyst has been reported. We report a case of a salivary duct cyst of the left parotid gland, with a review of radiographic and histopathologic features.

  5. Ovarian fibroma--clinical and histopathological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanesaratnam, V; Dutta, R; Jayalakshmi, P

    1990-11-01

    Twenty-three cases of ovarian fibroma, comprising 3% of all benign tumors seen over a 20-year period, were analyzed. It was unilateral in all cases affecting more commonly the left ovary (70%). Whilst a majority of cases (77%) were encountered in the reproductive age group, the tumor was rare before the second decade. Only in 13% of cases was ascitis clinically detectable. This was not influenced by the size and weight (average of 9.3 x 10.8 x 11.1 cm and 959 g, respectively) of the tumors; a smooth-surfaced tumor was, however, associated with a greater amount of peritoneal fluid. Varying degrees of calcification in some tumors are detectable on ultrasonography and occasionally on abdominal radiography. The classical Meig's Syndrome was seldom encountered. The histopathological features, diagnostic problems and management are discussed.

  6. CT diagnosis of retinoblastoma with histopathologic correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivecrona, H. [Dept. of Radiology, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Agerberg, P.A. [Dept. of Radiology, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Huaman, A. [Dept. of Pathology, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1994-08-01

    The authors correlated the radiologic and histopathologic characteristics of 108 retinoblastomas in 98 patients. Calcifications were demonstrable by CT scans in 92.6% of the cases, whereas only 82% were evident upon routine histologic study. Cases of severe invasion of the optic nerve beyond the lamina cribrosa and up to the surgical margin of the nerve were detected by CT scans. Lesser degrees of invasion could not be determined by the same method. Orbital extension was also demonstrable, whereas invasion limited to the sclera was rarely accessible to CT diagnosis. Choroidal invasion was not detectable. Computerized tomography detected enlargement of the ipsilateral lacrimal gland in 17.5% of patients. This phenomenon correlates with invasion of the choroid and the optic nerve. (orig.)

  7. Immunopathology and histopathology of experimental chlamydial salpingitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, D L

    1985-01-01

    Experimental infection of fallopian tubes was produced in four sexually mature pig-tailed monkeys (Macaca nemestrina) by intratubal inoculation with serovar E or F Chlamydia trachomatis. Infection was confirmed by reisolation of the organism from both the endosalpinx and the endocervix. An antibody response to the infecting strain of C. trachomatis was demonstrated in monkey sera and in cervical secretions by the microimmunofluorescence test. A cellular immune response to C. trachomatis was shown by the in vitro lymphocyte transformation assay. Histopathologic examination of the endosalpinx following infection showed epithelial degeneration and deciliation of ciliated cells. Lymphocytic infiltration into both submucosa and mucosa was present at day 7 and approximated areas of epithelial cell degeneration. Two control monkeys remained unresponsive throughout the study. These results indicate that the pig-tailed macaque should be a suitable model for further studies of the pathogenesis of, immune responses to, and therapy for acute C. trachomatis salpingitis.

  8. Histopathology of marine vibrio wound infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, E N; Leonard, G L; Castillo, L E; Genre, C F; Pankey, G A

    1981-12-01

    Although marine vibrio wound infections and septicemia are being reported with increasing frequency, description of the histopathologic changes has been scanty. The histologic alterations in three patients with primary marine vibrio wound infections are presented. The lesions are characterized by intense acute cellulitis of the subcutis with much tissue destruction and extension into the adjacent dermis. The superficial dermis is devitalized and lacks an inflammatory cellular infiltrate. Subepidermal noninflammatory bullae are formed. Many organisms are seen both within the areas of intense acute inflammation and in devitalized areas. Organisms and inflammation are especially oriented around vessels, with associated acute vasculitis. It is concluded that the morphologic picture in marine vibrio wound infections is nonspecific yet characteristic.

  9. Value of routine histopathological examination of appendices in Hong Kong.

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, W; Fu, K H

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study of the histopathological findings of more than 11,443 appendices submitted as surgical specimens over 14 years was performed in this department. In most cases routine histopathological examination added little clinically important information to other clinical and operative gross findings, but a variety of interesting and uncommon lesions were identified. In 85 cases clinically important pathological findings were first discovered on routine histopathological examination...

  10. Multispectral band selection and spatial characterization: Application to mitosis detection in breast cancer histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, H; Gouaillard, A; Roux, L; Racoceanu, D

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer is the second most frequent cancer. The reference process for breast cancer prognosis is Nottingham grading system. According to this system, mitosis detection is one of the three important criteria required for grading process and quantifying the locality and prognosis of a tumor. Multispectral imaging, as relatively new to the field of histopathology, has the advantage, over traditional RGB imaging, to capture spectrally resolved information at specific frequencies, across the electromagnetic spectrum. This study aims at evaluating the accuracy of mitosis detection on histopathological multispectral images. The proposed framework includes: selection of spectral bands and focal planes, detection of candidate mitotic regions and computation of morphological and multispectral statistical features. A state-of-the-art of the methods for mitosis classification is also provided. This framework has been evaluated on MITOS multispectral dataset and achieved higher detection rate (67.35%) and F-Measure (63.74%) than the best MITOS contest results (Roux et al., 2013). Our results indicate that the selected multispectral bands have more discriminant information than a single spectral band or all spectral bands for mitotic figures, validating the interest of using multispectral images to improve the quality of the diagnostic in histopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Weighted Hashing with Multiple Cues for Cell-Level Analysis of Histopathological Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofan; Su, Hai; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Shaoting

    2015-01-01

    Recently, content-based image retrieval has been investigated for histopathological image analysis, focusing on improving the accuracy and scalability. The main motivation is to interpret a new image (i.e., query image) by searching among a potentially large-scale database of training images in real-time. Hashing methods have been employed because of their promising performance. However, most previous works apply hashing algorithms on the whole images, while the important information of histopathological images usually lies in individual cells. In addition, they usually only hash one type of features, even though it is often necessary to inspect multiple cues of cells. Therefore, we propose a probabilistic-based hashing framework to model multiple cues of cells for accurate analysis of histopathological images. Specifically, each cue of a cell is compressed as binary codes by kernelized and supervised hashing, and the importance of each hash entry is determined adaptively according to its discriminativity, which can be represented as probability scores. Given these scores, we also propose several feature fusion and selection schemes to integrate their strengths. The classification of the whole image is conducted by aggregating the results from multiple cues of all cells. We apply our algorithm on differentiating adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma, i.e., two types of lung cancers, using a large dataset containing thousands of lung microscopic tissue images. It achieves 90.3% accuracy by hashing and retrieving multiple cues of half-million cells.

  12. Histopathological Feature of Acute Appendicitis in Kerman-Iran from 1997 to 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nabipour

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis is one of the most common surgical conditions that affect about seven percent of the population. The histopathologic stages of appendicitis are important to regarding prognosis. To evaluate pathologic features of appendix after operation, this study was designed. 2753 appendices specimen that had been received to department of pathology of two major hospitals in Kerman-Iran during five years periods were reviewed by two pathologist and classification was performed by followed: Normal, early acute, acute, suppurative or purulent, gangrenous and perforated appendicitis. There were 54.6% males, the average age of patients was 24.9+/-13.3 (mean+/-SD, that 76.6% was under 30 years old. 34.2% of reports were normal histopathologically. The accuracy rate of acute appendicitis was 65.8%. Perforation observed to 0.8%. There was significant difference between sex and stage of development of appendicitis. Seasonal incidence was difference in various histopathology views, significantly. Finally, acute appendicitis was more frequent in men than women and was increase by age specially 19-30 years. Our results showed appendicitis was more frequent and higher in stage at winter.

  13. [Clinico-histopathological correlations of venous wall modifications in chronic venous insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironiuc, A; Palcau, L; Andercou, O; Rogojan, L; Todoran, M; Gordan, G

    2008-01-01

    The interest manifested for the conjunctive tissue pathology leaded to the study of the structural disorder that appears in the varicose veins walls. The study is a prospective one initiated in March 2007 made on 11 patients with varicose disease hospitalized at Cluj-Napoca within Surgery Clinic no. II. The purpose of this study is to point out the histopathological modifications in the varicose venous wall (great saphenous vein cross, communicating veins, perforating veins), as well as the correlation of histopathological results with the evolutive stage of chronic vein insufficiency (CEAP classification) and with the clinical score at these patients. The histopathological (HP) results for 2 of the patients revealed hypertrophy of the media, intimal hyperplasia (stage II) corresponding to a CEAP 3. Six patients were integrated in HP stage III due to the partial intimal fibrosis corresponding to a CEAP 6 for one case, CEAP 4 one case, CEAP 3 four cases. One patient had HP stage I with CEAP 3 and two patients had HP stage IV corresponding to CEAP 5, respectively CEAP 6.

  14. Linfomas não-Hodgkin extranodais em Salvador-Bahia: aspectos clínicos e classificação histopatológica segundo a OMS-2001 Extranodal non-Hodgkins lymphomas in Salvador, Brazil: clinical aspects and histopathological classification according to the WHO-2001 guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinho M. Silva Neto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Linfomas não-Hodgkin (LNH extranodais representam cerca de um terço de todos os linfomas e atualmente apresentam taxa de incidência maior que a de linfomas nodais. Diferenças entre LNH nodais e extranodais incluem etiologia, formas de apresentação e resposta terapêutica, entretanto não dispomos de dados na nossa população. Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar os LNH extranodais diagnosticados no Hospital Aristides Maltez, em Salvador-Bahia. Foram avaliados, retrospectivamente, 145 diagnósticos de linfoma não-Hodgkin, segundo a OMS-2001, no período de janeiro de 1999 a julho de 2001. A freqüência de linfomas extranodais foi de 30,3%. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 55,6 anos e a relação homem/mulher foi de 1:1. A maioria dos pacientes apresentava estadios avançados (III ou IV de Ann Arbor, presença de sintomas B, LDH normal, bom desempenho pela escala do ECOG e IPI entre zero e dois. Nove pacientes estão vivos e em remissão completa (22,5% após um seguimento médio de 23 meses. O sítio extranodal mais comumente acometido foram as tonsilas, seguidas pela cavidade oral, pele e trato gastrointestinal, dentre outros. O linfoma difuso de grandes células B foi o mais comum subtipo histológico, seguido pelo linfoma anaplásico de grandes células. Concluímos que o mais freqüente sítio extranodal de apresentação em nosso estudo difere da maioria da literatura, porém nossa freqüência de linfoma extranodal é semelhante à mesma.Extranodal non-Hodgkins lymphomas represent approximately one third of all lymphomas and currently have an incidence higher than nodal lymphomas. Differences in etiology, presentation and outcome of these lymphomas have been reported. However, there are no data in our population. This study was carried out in the Pathological Anatomy Service of Aristides Maltez Hospital in Salvador, Bahia. One hundred and forty-five non-Hodgkins lymphomas cases according to the WHO-2001 classification

  15. Automated labeling of cancer textures in larynx histopathology slides using quasi-supervised learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Devrim; Sarioglu, Sulen; Karacali, Bilge

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the performance of a quasi-supervised statistical learning algorithm, operating on datasets having normal and neoplastic tissues, to identify larynx squamous cell carcinomas. Furthermore, cancer texture separability measures against normal tissues are to be developed and compared either for colorectal or larynx tissues. Light microscopic digital images from histopathological sections were obtained from laryngectomy materials including squamous cell carcinoma and nonneoplastic regions. The texture features were calculated by using co-occurrence matrices and local histograms. The texture features were input to the quasi-supervised learning algorithm. Larynx regions containing squamous cell carcinomas were accurately identified, having false and true positive rates up to 21% and 87%, respectively. Larynx squamous cell carcinoma versus normal tissue texture separability measures were higher than colorectal adenocarcinoma versus normal textures for the colorectal database. Furthermore, the resultant labeling performances for all larynx datasets are higher than or equal to that of colorectal datasets. The results in larynx datasets, in comparison with the former colorectal study, suggested that quasi-supervised texture classification is to be a helpful method in histopathological image classification and analysis.

  16. Stacked Sparse Autoencoder (SSAE) for Nuclei Detection on Breast Cancer Histopathology Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Xiang, Lei; Liu, Qingshan; Gilmore, Hannah; Wu, Jianzhong; Tang, Jinghai; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-01-01

    Automated nuclear detection is a critical step for a number of computer assisted pathology related image analysis algorithms such as for automated grading of breast cancer tissue specimens. The Nottingham Histologic Score system is highly correlated with the shape and appearance of breast cancer nuclei in histopathological images. However, automated nucleus detection is complicated by 1) the large number of nuclei and the size of high resolution digitized pathology images, and 2) the variability in size, shape, appearance, and texture of the individual nuclei. Recently there has been interest in the application of "Deep Learning" strategies for classification and analysis of big image data. Histopathology, given its size and complexity, represents an excellent use case for application of deep learning strategies. In this paper, a Stacked Sparse Autoencoder (SSAE), an instance of a deep learning strategy, is presented for efficient nuclei detection on high-resolution histopathological images of breast cancer. The SSAE learns high-level features from just pixel intensities alone in order to identify distinguishing features of nuclei. A sliding window operation is applied to each image in order to represent image patches via high-level features obtained via the auto-encoder, which are then subsequently fed to a classifier which categorizes each image patch as nuclear or non-nuclear. Across a cohort of 500 histopathological images (2200 × 2200) and approximately 3500 manually segmented individual nuclei serving as the groundtruth, SSAE was shown to have an improved F-measure 84.49% and an average area under Precision-Recall curve (AveP) 78.83%. The SSAE approach also out-performed nine other state of the art nuclear detection strategies.

  17. A new prognostic histopathologic classiifcation ofnasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-YunWang; Shie-LeeCheah; MingLee; LiGao; Hui-ZhongZhang; Jie-HuaHe; HaoJiang; Pei-QingMa; Xiao-DongZhu; LiangZeng; Chun-YanChen; Yih-LeongChang; GangChen; Ma-YanHuang; ShaFu; QiongShao; An-JiaHan; Hai-GangLi; Chun-KuiShao; Pei-YuHuang; Chao-NanQian; Tai-XiangLu; Ka-FaiTo; Jin-TianLi; WeiminYe; IngemarErnberg; HoKeungNg; JosephT.S.Wee; Yi-XinZeng; Hans-OlovAdami; AnthonyT.C.Chan1; Jian-YongShao; JacquelineS.G.Hwang; Hai-QiangMai; Yan-FenFeng; EllenT.Chang; Chen-PingWang; MichaelKoonMingKam

    2016-01-01

    Background:The current World Health Organization (WHO) classiifcation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) con‑veys little prognostic information. This study aimed to propose an NPC histopathologic classiifcation that can poten‑tially be used to predict prognosis and treatment response. Methods:We initially developed a histopathologic classiifcation based on the morphologic traits and cell differentia‑tion of tumors of 2716 NPC patients who were identiifed at Sun Yat‑sen University Cancer Center (SYSUCC) (training cohort). Then, the proposed classiifcation was applied to 1702 patients (retrospective validation cohort) from hospitals outside SYSUCC and 1613 patients (prospective validation cohort) from SYSUCC. The effcacy of radiochemotherapy and radiotherapy modalities was compared between the proposed subtypes. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% conifdence intervals (CI) for overall survival (OS). Results:The 5‑year OS rates for all NPC patients who were diagnosed with epithelial carcinoma (EC; 3708 patients), mixed sarcomatoid‑epithelial carcinoma (MSEC; 1247 patients), sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC; 823 patients), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; 253 patients) were 79.4%, 70.5%, 59.6%, and 42.6%, respectively (P<0.001). In mul‑tivariate models, patients with MSEC had a shorter OS than patients with EC (HR=1.44, 95% CI=1.27–1.62), SC (HR=2.00, 95% CI=1.76–2.28), or SCC (HR=4.23, 95% CI=3.34–5.38). Radiochemotherapy signiifcantly improved survival compared with radiotherapy alone for patients with EC (HR=0.67, 95% CI=0.56–0.80), MSEC (HR=0.58, 95% CI=0.49–0.75), and possibly for those with SCC (HR=0.63; 95% CI=0.40–0.98), but not for patients with SC (HR=0.97, 95% CI=0.74–1.28). Conclusions:The proposed classiifcation offers more information for the prediction of NPC prognosis compared with the WHO classiifcation and might be a valuable tool to guide treatment decisions for subtypes that are

  18. Two Cases of Melasma with Unusual Histopathologic Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Won-Hyoung

    2006-01-01

    We reported two cases of clinically typical melasma presenting with unusual histopathologic findings. In one case, the epidermal melanocytes were markedly increased in number and protruded into the dermis, and in the other case, increased epidermal pigmentation as well as dermal melanocytosis were found. We suggested that the various treatment modalities of melasma should be applied depend on its histopathologic finding. PMID:16614533

  19. The accuracy of extended histopathology to detect immunotoxic chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germolec, D.R.; Kashon, M.; Nyska, A.; Kuper, C.F.; Portier, C.; Kommineni, C.; Johnson, K.A.; Luster, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of extended histopathology to detect immunotoxic chemicals in female B6C3F1 mice was evaluated under the auspices of the National Toxicology Program (NTP). A workgroup was formed consisting of four pathologists who conducted extended histopathological evaluation of lymphoid tissues

  20. Histopathological changes observed in the heart and gizzard of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2006-10-02

    Oct 2, 2006 ... 2Department of Pharmacology, FPGMI, Lahore, Pakistan. 3Department of ... histopathological studies and effects of different levels were studied in these tissues. Histopathological .... translocation of the pyloric adjacent to the isthmus of the stomach produ- ... Chromium also causes toxicological effects on ...

  1. Histopathology of human laser thermal angioplasty recanalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R A; White, G H; Vlasak, J; Fujitani, R; Kopchok, G E

    1988-01-01

    Laserprobe thermal-assisted balloon, angioplasty (LTBA) has demonstrated promising initial clinical results in recanalizing stenotic or occluded superficial femoral and popliteal arteries. Over the past year we have obtained six specimens of laserprobe thermal (LT) and LTBA treated total occlusions (avg. length 12 cm) for histopathologic examination from patients who were treated for limb salvage. Three tissue specimens were obtained acutely, and one was obtained at 6, 8, and 13 days, respectively, after laser angioplasty at the time of revision for complications or failed procedures. Serial histologic sections of the treated LT segments demonstrated recanalization of atherosclerotic lesions to approximately 60-70% of the probe diameter. The LT channels were lined by a thin layer of carbonized or coagulated tissue and several layers of cell necrosis. The histology of the thermal injury was similar regardless of whether it was produced by the heated metal cap or by free argon laser energy. Stellate balloon angioplasty fractures were frequently filled with thrombus. Analysis of these human LT and LTBA specimens revealed that the thermal device produces a confined injury through the path of least resistance. Balloon dilatation produces fragmented cracks in the vessel wall, which appear to be more thrombogenic than the carbonized LT surface. With improved guidance methods, LTBA shows potential for continuing development.

  2. Myelodysplastic syndromes: histopathology as prognostic factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Maura

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow biopsy allows evaluation of cellularity, abnormal localization of immature precursors and fibrosis in myelodysplastic syndrome. It has been considered important to make diagnosis and prognosis of this disorder. The object of this study evaluated the influence of histopathological parameters, such as cellularity, erythroid/myeloid ratio, abnormal localization of immature precursors and marrow fibrosis, on survival of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. Forty-six patients, admitted from April 1985 to June 1998, and diagnosed as being myelodysplastic syndrome according to French-American-British criteria, were selected. There were 20 males and 26 females, with median age of 61 years. Forty-six bone marrow smears and 36 trephine biopsies were reviewed. Mean survival of hypocellular cases was 64.8 months and of hyper and normocellular cases was 31.8 months. Patients with predominance of erythroid hyperplasia had mean survival of 50.8 months, greater than those with predominance of myeloid hyperplasia (20.3 months. There was no statistical difference in survival of patients with or without abnormal localization of immature precursors and with or without marrow fibrosis. Bone marrow biopsy is a useful tool for the identification of parameters that influence prognosis in myelodysplastic syndrome. Hypocellularity and erythroid hyperplasia were correlated with longer survival while myeloid hyperplasia with poorer survival.

  3. Oral mucocele: A clinical and histopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramani B More

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the data between 2010 and 2011 of, clinically and histopathologically diagnosed 58 oral mucoceles for age, gender, type, site, color, cause, symptoms and dimension. Results: Oral mucoceles were highly prevalent in the age group of 15-24 years, were seen in 51.72% of males and 48.28% of females, with a ratio of 1.07:1. The extravasation type (84.48% was more common than the retention type (15.52%. The most common affected site was lower lip (36.20% followed by ventral surface of the tongue (25.86%. The lowest frequency was observed in floor of mouth, upper lip and palate. The maximum numbers of mucoceles were asymptomatic (58.62%, and the color of the overlying mucosa had color of adjacent normal mucosa (48.28%. It was also observed that most of the mucoceles had diameter ranging from 5 to 14 mm. The causative factors of the lesion were lip biting (22.41%, trauma (5.18% and numerous lesions (72.41%. Conclusion: Oral Mucoceles are frequently seen in an oral medicine service, mainly affecting young people and lower lip, measuring around 5 to 14 mm and the extravasation type being the most common.

  4. Diffuse panbronchiolitis with histopathological confirmation among Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢广顺; 李龙芸; 刘鸿瑞; 张伟宏; 朱元珏

    2004-01-01

    Background Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) was originally and is still primarily reported in Japan, rarely in other countries. As macrolide therapy is effective for this disease with once dismal prognosis, familiarity with its clinical features is urgently needed, especially for clinicians outside Japan. The objectives of this study were to investigate the clinical features of DPB in a Chinese population and propose diagnostic procedures that will lead to increased awareness of this treatable disease among clinicians, ultimately allowing for more rapid diagnosis. Methods After a literature review, the clinical features of DPB were histopathologically confirmed in a series of 9 cases either by open lung biopsy or video-assisted thoracic surgical biopsy, resulting in the largest series of confirmed DPB cases in a non-Japanese population. Here, the cases are retrospectively described and diagnostic procedures are discussed.Conclusions Although its clinical features may vary with disease course and ethnic populations, most cases of DPB can be diagnosed or suggested according to clinical diagnostic criteria. However, underdiagnosis as a result of unfamiliarity with its clinical features and diagnostic criteria prevails. If difficulty in diagnosis arises, the diagnosis should be based on clinicopathological features and the exclusion of other diseases. Few cases can be confirmed by transbronchial biopsies; in these cases, either an open-lung biopsy or a video-assisted thoracic surgical lung biopsy should be recommended.

  5. Critical steps in tissue processing in histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comanescu, Maria; Annaratone, Laura; D'Armento, Giuseppe; Cardos, Georgeta; Sapino, Anna; Bussolati, Gianni

    2012-04-01

    Histopathological diagnosis using Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE) tissues is essential for the prognostic and therapeutic management of cancer patients. Pathologists are being confronted with increasing demands, from both clinicians and patients, to provide immunophenotypic and gene expression data from FFPE tissues to allow the planning of personalized therapeutic regimens. Recent improvements in the protocols for pre-analysis processing of pathological tissues aim to better preserve cellular details and to conserve antigens and nucleic acid sequences. These developments have been recently patented. The international protocol for the transporting of surgical specimens from the surgical theatre to the pathology department is to immerse the specimen in formalin. The alternative method of sealing the specimens into bags under a vacuum and then cooling is a well-accepted and environmentally safe procedure that overcomes the many drawbacks linked to transfer in formalin. Importantly, RNA is notoriously poorly preserved in FFPE tissue. Due to this, successful procedures for the extraction of genetic information from archival tissues have been the object of several studies and patents. Novel molecular approaches for RT-qPCR and gene array analysis on FFPE tissues are presented here. Moreover, a major advance is reported in this study, the observation that tissue fixation in cold conditions allows a much better preservation of nucleic acid sequences.

  6. Postmenopausal osteoporosis - clinical, biological and histopathological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Oana Roxana; Popescu, Mihaela; Novac, Liliana; Mogoantă, LaurenŢiu; Pavel, LaurenŢiu Petrişor; Vicaş, Răzvan Marius; Trăistaru, Magdalena Rodica

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common disorders in postmenopausal women, affecting the quality of life and increasing the risk for fractures in minor traumas. Changes in the bone microarchitecture causes static changes in the body and affects motility. In this study, we analyzed two groups of women, one with physiological menopause and one with surgically induced menopause. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was suspected based on the clinical symptoms and confirmed by assessing bone mineral density by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Comparing some clinical and biological aspects there was noted that a much higher percentage of women with surgically induced menopause exhibited increases in body mass index, changes in serum lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose, serum calcium, magnesemia and osteocalcin. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the histopathological aspects of bone tissue examined from these two groups. In all patients, there was identified a significant reduction in the number of osteocytes and osteoblasts, the expansion of haversian channels, reducing the number of trabecular bone in the cancellous bone with wide areola cavities often full of adipose tissue, non-homogenous demineralization of both the compact bone and the cancellous bone, atrophy and even absence of the endosteal, and the presence of multiple microfractures. Our study showed that early surgically induced menopause more intensely alters the lipid, carbohydrate and mineral metabolism, thus favoring the onset of osteoporosis.

  7. Classification in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys classification research literature, discusses various classification theories, and shows that the focus has traditionally been on establishing a scientific foundation for classification research. This paper argues that a shift has taken place, and suggests that contemporary...... classification research focus on contextual information as the guide for the design and construction of classification schemes....

  8. Classification in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, John

    Despite some inroads by the Library of Congress Classification and short-lived experimentation with Universal Decimal Classification and Bliss Classification, Dewey Decimal Classification, with its ability in recent editions to be hospitable to local needs, remains the most widely used classification system in Australia. Although supplemented at…

  9. Landmine detection and classification with complex-valued hybrid neural network using scattering parameters dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Chung; Bose, N K

    2005-05-01

    Neural networks have been applied to landmine detection from data generated by different kinds of sensors. Real-valued neural networks have been used for detecting landmines from scattering parameters measured by ground penetrating radar (GPR) after disregarding phase information. This paper presents results using complex-valued neural networks, capable of phase-sensitive detection followed by classification. A two-layer hybrid neural network structure incorporating both supervised and unsupervised learning is proposed to detect and then classify the types of landmines. Tests are also reported on a benchmark data.

  10. Endometrial cancer: results of clinical and histopathological staging compared to magnetic resonance imaging using an endorectal surface coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocker, Kerstin A; Alt, Céline D; Breyer, Ulrike; Hallscheidt, Peter; Sohn, Christof

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the staging accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an endorectal surface coil on patients with endometrial cancer compared to results obtained using the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification and histopathology. In this prospective study, patients with biopsy-proven endometrial cancer were staged clinically using the FIGO classification before undergoing 1.5 T MRI with an endorectal surface coil (eMRI). The staging results from the FIGO classification and from eMRI were compared with the histopathological results after surgery. Furthermore, each patient was given a questionnaire designed by the authors to evaluate the patients' opinions on eMRI. The responses were examined using the methods of descriptive analysis. A total of 33 consecutive patients were recruited and clinically staged before undergoing eMRI. Subsequently, 21 patients underwent primary surgery and 12 patients primary radiochemotherapy. The FIGO stages were identical to the histopathological results in 17 (81 %) cases, and those of eMRI were identical in 15 (71 %). In 13 (62 %) cases, FIGO and eMRI staged identically. In 12 (57 %) of the 21 cases, all three staging modalities diagnosed the same tumor stage. eMRI overstaged the tumor in four patients and understaged it in two. All T1a tumors were staged correctly by eMRI. Eighteen patients answered the questionnaire, of whom 11 (61 %) patients stated that their experience with eMRI was overall positive. It seems feasible in principle to employ eMRI for diagnosing patients with endometrial cancer stage T1a. Yet, the results of eMRI for our study population were not better than the results obtained using the FIGO classification or than those from using MRI without an endorectal surface coil. eMRI thus does not meet the expectations based on its use in other pelvic tumor entities.

  11. Reporting tumor molecular heterogeneity in histopathological diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mafficini

    Full Text Available Detection of molecular tumor heterogeneity has become of paramount importance with the advent of targeted therapies. Analysis for detection should be comprehensive, timely and based on routinely available tumor samples.To evaluate the diagnostic potential of targeted multigene next-generation sequencing (TM-NGS in characterizing gastrointestinal cancer molecular heterogeneity.35 gastrointestinal tract tumors, five of each intestinal type gastric carcinomas, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, ampulla of Vater carcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, cholangiocarcinomas, pancreatic solid pseudopapillary tumors were assessed for mutations in 46 cancer-associated genes, using Ion Torrent semiconductor-based TM-NGS. One ampulla of Vater carcinoma cell line and one hepatic carcinosarcoma served to assess assay sensitivity. TP53, PIK3CA, KRAS, and BRAF mutations were validated by conventional Sanger sequencing.TM-NGS yielded overlapping results on matched fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues, with a mutation detection limit of 1% for fresh-frozen high molecular weight DNA and 2% for FFPE partially degraded DNA. At least one somatic mutation was observed in all tumors tested; multiple alterations were detected in 20/35 (57% tumors. Seven cancers displayed significant differences in allelic frequencies for distinct mutations, indicating the presence of intratumor molecular heterogeneity; this was confirmed on selected samples by immunohistochemistry of p53 and Smad4, showing concordance with mutational analysis.TM-NGS is able to detect and quantitate multiple gene alterations from limited amounts of DNA, moving one step closer to a next-generation histopathologic diagnosis that integrates morphologic, immunophenotypic, and multigene mutational analysis on routinely processed tissues, essential for personalized cancer therapy.

  12. Reporting Tumor Molecular Heterogeneity in Histopathological Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafficini, Andrea; Amato, Eliana; Fassan, Matteo; Simbolo, Michele; Antonello, Davide; Vicentini, Caterina; Scardoni, Maria; Bersani, Samantha; Gottardi, Marisa; Rusev, Borislav; Malpeli, Giorgio; Corbo, Vincenzo; Barbi, Stefano; Sikora, Katarzyna O.; Lawlor, Rita T.; Tortora, Giampaolo; Scarpa, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Background Detection of molecular tumor heterogeneity has become of paramount importance with the advent of targeted therapies. Analysis for detection should be comprehensive, timely and based on routinely available tumor samples. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic potential of targeted multigene next-generation sequencing (TM-NGS) in characterizing gastrointestinal cancer molecular heterogeneity. Methods 35 gastrointestinal tract tumors, five of each intestinal type gastric carcinomas, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, ampulla of Vater carcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, cholangiocarcinomas, pancreatic solid pseudopapillary tumors were assessed for mutations in 46 cancer-associated genes, using Ion Torrent semiconductor-based TM-NGS. One ampulla of Vater carcinoma cell line and one hepatic carcinosarcoma served to assess assay sensitivity. TP53, PIK3CA, KRAS, and BRAF mutations were validated by conventional Sanger sequencing. Results TM-NGS yielded overlapping results on matched fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, with a mutation detection limit of 1% for fresh-frozen high molecular weight DNA and 2% for FFPE partially degraded DNA. At least one somatic mutation was observed in all tumors tested; multiple alterations were detected in 20/35 (57%) tumors. Seven cancers displayed significant differences in allelic frequencies for distinct mutations, indicating the presence of intratumor molecular heterogeneity; this was confirmed on selected samples by immunohistochemistry of p53 and Smad4, showing concordance with mutational analysis. Conclusions TM-NGS is able to detect and quantitate multiple gene alterations from limited amounts of DNA, moving one step closer to a next-generation histopathologic diagnosis that integrates morphologic, immunophenotypic, and multigene mutational analysis on routinely processed tissues, essential for personalized cancer therapy. PMID:25127237

  13. Margins of oral leukoplakia: autofluorescence and histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvers, D; Braunschweig, T; Hilgers, R-D; Ghassemi, A; Möhlhenrich, S C; Hölzle, F; Gerressen, M; Modabber, A

    2015-02-01

    Autofluorescence devices are widely used to examine oral lesions. The aim of this study was to see whether there were any signs of dysplasia, parakeratosis, or mucosal inflammation in the borders of homogeneous oral leukoplakia using autofluorescence, and we also compared clinically visible extensions with those detected by autofluorescence. Twenty patients with 26 homogeneous areas of oral leukoplakia were included in the study. After the clinically visible extensions of the lesion had been marked, we took a photograph through the autofluorescence device, which showed both borders in one picture. We then used photo-editing software to measure the size of the area of leukoplakia together with the area with loss of autofluorescence. We took 3 punch biopsy specimens: one from the leukoplakia, one 2.5mm from its marked borders, and one from healthy mucosa. Seventy-eight biopsy specimens were examined by an experienced pathologist, and 95% CI calculated to assess the amount of parakeratosis. Spearman's rank correlation was used to assess the association with mucosal inflammation. Ten areas of leukoplakia were surrounded by normal green autofluorescence, and 16 were consistent with loss of autofluorescence with a mean size of 66%, which exceeded the clinically visible size of the area of leukoplakia. We calculated that there was a strong association between these entities and their surrounding areas, with loss of autofluorescence for parakeratosis. Some leukoplakias showed clinically invisible extensions during histopathological examination and autofluorescence. The technique described enables clinicians to measure the extent of these lesions beyond their visible margins. We found no dysplasia, which emphasises that autofluorescence detects non-dysplastic lesions caused by mucosal inflammation and parakeratosis.

  14. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study also consisted of the counting of microorganisms colonies forming units in samples of intrauterine content, tests of antimicrobial susceptibility of the E. coli isolates and the histological examination of the uterus. E. coli was the most prevalent microorganism isolated (76.6%) and 120 strains (79.5%) were positive for sfa, 86 (56.9%) were positive for cnf, 87 (57.6%) were positive for pap, 52 (34.4%) were positive for hly, 51 (33.8%) were positive for iuc and 5 (3.3%) were positive for afa genes. One observed more sensitivity of E. coli to norfloxacin, polimixin B, sulphazotrin, chloranfenicol and enrofloxacin. In 42% of the samples of uterine walls where microorganisms were isolated, the sizes of the areas of the inflammatory responses corresponded to 39–56%. Virulence factors were identified in 98.0% of the strains evaluated, demonstrating a high frequency of potentially pathogenic E. coli. It must be considered that dogs are animals that are living in close proximity to man for thousands of years and have an important role in the transmission of E. coli to other animals and to man. PMID:24031249

  15. Oral mucocele: A clinical and histopathological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Chandramani B; Bhavsar, Khushbu; Varma, Saurabh; Tailor, Mansi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral mucocele is the most common benign minor (accessory) salivary gland lesion, caused due to mechanical trauma to the excretory duct of the gland. Clinically they are characterized by single or multiple, soft, fluctuant nodule, ranging from the normal color of the oral mucosa to deep blue. It affects at any age and is equally present in both sexes with highest incidence in second decade of life. They are classified as extravasation or retention type. Objectives: To analyze the data between 2010 and 2011 of, clinically and histopathologically diagnosed 58 oral mucoceles for age, gender, type, site, color, cause, symptoms and dimension. Results: Oral mucoceles were highly prevalent in the age group of 15-24 years, were seen in 51.72% of males and 48.28% of females, with a ratio of 1.07:1. The extravasation type (84.48%) was more common than the retention type (15.52%). The most common affected site was lower lip (36.20%) followed by ventral surface of the tongue (25.86%). The lowest frequency was observed in floor of mouth, upper lip and palate. The maximum numbers of mucoceles were asymptomatic (58.62%), and the color of the overlying mucosa had color of adjacent normal mucosa (48.28%). It was also observed that most of the mucoceles had diameter ranging from 5 to 14 mm. The causative factors of the lesion were lip biting (22.41%), trauma (5.18%) and numerous lesions (72.41%). Conclusion: Oral Mucoceles are frequently seen in an oral medicine service, mainly affecting young people and lower lip, measuring around 5 to 14 mm and the extravasation type being the most common. PMID:25364184

  16. Correlation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Tumor Volume with Histopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkbey, Baris; Mani, Haresh; Aras, Omer; Rastinehad, Ardeshir R.; Shah, Vijay; Bernardo, Marcelino; Pohida, Thomas; Daar, Dagane; Benjamin, Compton; McKinney, Yolanda L.; Linehan, W. Marston; Wood, Bradford J.; Merino, Maria J.; Choyke, Peter L.; Pinto, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The biology of prostate cancer may be influenced by the index lesion. The definition of index lesion volume is important for appropriate decision making, especially for image guided focal treatment. We determined the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging for determining index tumor volume compared with volumes derived from histopathology. Materials and Methods We evaluated 135 patients (mean age 59.3 years) with a mean prostate specific antigen of 6.74 ng/dl who underwent multiparametric 3T endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate and subsequent radical prostatectomy. Index tumor volume was determined prospectively and independently by magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology. The ellipsoid formula was applied to determine histopathology tumor volume, whereas manual tumor segmentation was used to determine magnetic resonance tumor volume. Histopathology tumor volume was correlated with age and prostate specific antigen whereas magnetic resonance tumor volume involved Pearson correlation and linear regression methods. In addition, the predictive power of magnetic resonance tumor volume, prostate specific antigen and age for estimating histopathology tumor volume (greater than 0.5 cm3) was assessed by ROC analysis. The same analysis was also conducted for the 1.15 shrinkage factor corrected histopathology data set. Results There was a positive correlation between histopathology tumor volume and magnetic resonance tumor volume (Pearson coefficient 0.633, p <0.0001), but a weak correlation between prostate specific antigen and histopathology tumor volume (Pearson coefficient 0.237, p=0.003). On linear regression analysis histopathology tumor volume and magnetic resonance tumor volume were correlated (r2=0.401, p <0.00001). On ROC analysis AUC values for magnetic resonance tumor volume, prostate specific antigen and age in estimating tumors larger than 0.5 cm3 at histopathology were 0.949 (p <0.0000001), 0.685 (p=0.001) and 0.627 (p=0

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology in the femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatori, Yoshio; Kamogawa, Morihide; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Ninomiya, Setsuo; Kokubo, Takashi

    1989-05-01

    To correlate the magnetic resonance (MR) images with the histopathological findings in the femoral head, the histopathology of 24 femoral heads, 15 with osteonecrosis, five with osteoarthritis and four with other hip disorders were subjected to preoperative MR imaging which demonstrated low intensity areas due to long T1 relaxation time in the femoral head. The MR signal was low where fibrovascular tissue, disintegrated fibrovascular tissue, amorphous necrotic material, bone, or cartilagenous tissue occupied the medullary space. From this study, it seems possible to predict the histopathologic changes in the femoral head using MR images. (author).

  18. Uveodermatologic Syndrome in a Siberian Husky: Clinical and Histopathological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hee Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old, intact male Siberian Husky was presented with corneal opacity, eye lid swelling, depigmentation, alopecia and erythema predominantly on face. Bilateral uveitis preceded periocular and nasal planum depigmentation. Ancillary tests excluded other systemic diseases. Histopathology of the skin revealed lichenoid interface dermatitis with pigmentary incontinence. Diffuse pyogranulomatous inflammation of the globes was also noted. Based on the clinical signs and characteristic histopathological findings, the dog was diagnosed as uveodermatologic syndrome (UDS. Further treatment was not attempted in this case and the dog was euthanized. This case report describes typical clinical and histopathologic features of UDS in a Siberian Husky.

  19. Cascaded discrimination of normal, abnormal, and confounder classes in histopathology: Gleason grading of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyle Scott

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated classification of histopathology involves identification of multiple classes, including benign, cancerous, and confounder categories. The confounder tissue classes can often mimic and share attributes with both the diseased and normal tissue classes, and can be particularly difficult to identify, both manually and by automated classifiers. In the case of prostate cancer, they may be several confounding tissue types present in a biopsy sample, posing as major sources of diagnostic error for pathologists. Two common multi-class approaches are one-shot classification (OSC, where all classes are identified simultaneously, and one-versus-all (OVA, where a “target” class is distinguished from all “non-target” classes. OSC is typically unable to handle discrimination of classes of varying similarity (e.g. with images of prostate atrophy and high grade cancer, while OVA forces several heterogeneous classes into a single “non-target” class. In this work, we present a cascaded (CAS approach to classifying prostate biopsy tissue samples, where images from different classes are grouped to maximize intra-group homogeneity while maximizing inter-group heterogeneity. Results We apply the CAS approach to categorize 2000 tissue samples taken from 214 patient studies into seven classes: epithelium, stroma, atrophy, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, and prostate cancer Gleason grades 3, 4, and 5. A series of increasingly granular binary classifiers are used to split the different tissue classes until the images have been categorized into a single unique class. Our automatically-extracted image feature set includes architectural features based on location of the nuclei within the tissue sample as well as texture features extracted on a per-pixel level. The CAS strategy yields a positive predictive value (PPV of 0.86 in classifying the 2000 tissue images into one of 7 classes, compared with the OVA (0.77 PPV and OSC

  20. Breast histopathology using random decision forests-based classification of infrared spectroscopic imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerich, David M.; Walsh, Michael; Kadjacsy-Balla, Andre; Mittal, Shachi; Bhargava, Rohit

    2014-03-01

    Current methods for cancer detection rely on clinical stains, often using immunohistochemistry techniques. Pathologists then evaluate the stained tissue in order to determine cancer stage treatment options. These methods are commonly used, however they are non-quantitative and it is difficult to control for staining quality. In this paper, we propose the use of mid-infrared spectroscopic imaging to classify tissue types in tumor biopsy samples. Our goal is to augment the data available to pathologists by providing them with quantitative chemical information to aid diagnostic activities in clinical and research activities related to breast cancer.

  1. A KERNEL-BASED MULTI-FEATURE IMAGE REPRESENTATION FOR HISTOPATHOLOGY IMAGE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. MORENO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una estrategia nueva para la construcción de un espacio de ca- racterísticas de gran dimensionalidad para la representación del contenido de imágenes de histopatología. Histogramas de características, relacionados con colores, texturas y bordes, son combinados para obtener una única representación de la imagen utilizando funciones de kernels. Este espacio de características es mejorado mediante la aplicación de Análisis de Semántica Latente, para modelar relaciones ocultas entre los patrones visuales. Esta información es incluida en la representación de la imagen en el nuevo es- pacio. Luego, un clasificador de Máquinas de Vectores de Soporte es utilizado para asignar etiquetas semánticas a las imágenes. Algoritmos de procesamiento y de clasi- ficación son utilizados en las funciones del kernel, por lo que la estructura del espacio de características es completamente controlada mediante medidas de similitud y la representación dual. El enfoque propuesto mostró un desempeño exitoso en la tarea de clasificación con un conjunto de datos de 1.502 imágenes reales de histopatología en 18 clases diferentes. Los resultados muestran que nuestro enfoque para la clasifica- ción de imágenes histológicas obtiene una mejora promedio en el rendimiento del 20,6% en comparación con un método de clasificación convencional, basado en la aplicación de una Máquina de Vectores de Soporte sobre la función de kernel original.

  2. ACUTE APPENDICITIS- SONOLOGICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjani M. Reddy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to study the- 1. Correlation between sonological and histopathological diagnosis of acute appendicitis. 2. Prevalence of acute appendicitis in various age groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, MVJ Medical College and Research Hospital, Bangalore, for a period of 2 years from March 2013 to February 2015. Data collection was prospective. A computer-assisted search of all the reports of ultrasonography with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis was conducted within the departmental database. A total of 244 patients (128 male patients and 116 female patients with acute appendicitis were identified and the study was conducted. RESULTS In the study, total of 244 patients were diagnosed with acute appendicitis. Out of these, 128 patients were males and 116 patients were females. The incidence of acute appendicitis was most prevalent in age group between 21 to 30 years (36.5% in our study. The least incidence was noted in age group of above 60 yrs. with only 1 out of 244 patients (0.4% was diagnosed with acute appendicitis. The histological features noted were suppuration/inflammation, gangrenous, lymphoid hyperplasia and perforation. In our study, 143 inflammation/suppuration (58.6%, 37 gangrenous (15.1%, 24 lymphoid hyperplastic (9.8% and 1 perforation (0.4% was noted. Hence, the incidence of inflammation/suppuration was found to be most common and perforation was found to be the least finding. The suppurative/inflammatory feature was most common histological type in all the age groups except for the age group above 60 yrs. The gangrenous features were most commonly seen in the age group between 11 to 20 yrs. followed by 20 to 30 yrs. Faecolith was most commonly found in age group of 21 to 30 yrs. (12 cases followed by age group of 11 to 20 yrs. (10 cases. CONCLUSION It was noted that the incidence of acute appendicitis was most commonly noted in younger age group

  3. Three-dimensional digital breast histopathology imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, G. M.; Peressotti, C.; Mawdsley, G. E.; Eidt, S.; Ge, M.; Morgan, T.; Zubovits, J. T.; Yaffe, M. J.

    2005-04-01

    We have developed a digital histology imaging system that has the potential to improve the accuracy of surgical margin assessment in the treatment of breast cancer by providing finer sampling and 3D visualization. The system is capable of producing a 3D representation of histopathology from an entire lumpectomy specimen. We acquire digital photomicrographs of a stack of large (120 x 170 mm) histology slides cut serially through the entire specimen. The images are then registered and displayed in 2D and 3D. This approach dramatically improves sampling and can improve visualization of tissue structures compared to current, small-format histology. The system consists of a brightfield microscope, adapted with a freeze-frame digital video camera and a large, motorized translation stage. The image of each slide is acquired as a mosaic of adjacent tiles, each tile representing one field-of-view of the microscope, and the mosaic is assembled into a seamless composite image. The assembly is done by a program developed to build image sets at six different levels within a multiresolution pyramid. A database-linked viewing program has been created to efficiently register and display the animated stack of images, which occupies about 80 GB of disk space per lumpectomy at full resolution, on a high-resolution (3840 x 2400 pixels) colour monitor. The scanning or tiling approach to digitization is inherently susceptible to two artefacts which disrupt the composite image, and which impose more stringent requirements on system performance. Although non-uniform illumination across any one isolated tile may not be discernible, the eye readily detects this non-uniformity when the entire assembly of tiles is viewed. The pattern is caused by deficiencies in optical alignment, spectrum of the light source, or camera corrections. The imaging task requires that features as small as 3.2 &mum in extent be seamlessly preserved. However, inadequate accuracy in positioning of the translation

  4. Clinical neurophysiological correlates of histopathological abnormalities in epilepsy surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrier, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    In search for variables that determine outcome in patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy who undergo epilepsy surgery, we identified specific combinations of clinical neurophysiological findings with their underlying histopathology. These findings may have important surgical consequences. In a

  5. Histopathologic approaches to detect changes indicative of immunotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, C.F.; Harleman, J.H.; Richter-Reichelm, H.B.; Vos, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    Toxicologic pathology is crucial in the identification and characterization of health effects following exposure to xenobiotics, mainly in toxicity experiments in rodents. Regarding regulatory toxicology, histopathology of lymphoid organs and tissues is a cornerstone in the identification of immunot

  6. Temporomandibular joint disc; a proposed histopathological degeneration grading score system

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Summary. Aims: The purpose of this study was to draw up a TMJ disc histopathological score that is a semiquantitative transcription of the entire spectrum of TMJ disc degenerative diseases related to changes in disc tissue, and then validate the proposed grading, in order to contribute to a standardized histopathological diagnosis. Methods: Sections from sixty two temporomandibular joint disc specimens affected by tissue degenerative changes and stained with Hematox...

  7. Classification of the web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges faced by investigations into the classification of the Web and outlines inquiries that are needed to use principles for bibliographic classification to construct classifications of the Web. This paper suggests that the classification of the Web meets challenges...

  8. Clinical-histopathological concordance in head and neck lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahily Espino Otero

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical-histopathological data contributes to a better diagnosis, assessment and treatment of head and neck lesions. Objective: To determine clinical-histopathological correlation of head and neck lesions. Methods: a descriptive, retrospective, observational study was developed in a series of cases (360 patients to determine the clinical diagnostic scope in relation to the histopathological techniques used in the Maxillary Surgery Service of “Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” hospital between June 2006 and 2007. Required data was taken from clinical histories and records from Pathological Anatomy, which were transferred to a form design for that purpose. Results: The age group of 0-19 years had the higher concordance among the studied groups (72,4%. 59, 7% of the studied cases had clinical-histopathological concordance, mainly in extra-oral lesions (60, 4% particularly in the vermilion border (82, 4 % and among the intra-oral the most common were those in the vestibular duct (100%. The most important lesions where clinical diagnosis did not coincide with histopathological diagnosis were fibroma with 23 in the intra-oral and warts and a total of 34 in extra-oral, followed by basal carcinomas. Conclusions: There is a significant correlation between clinical and histopathological diagnosis, suggesting high attention quality and correct application of the clinical method as central element in patients’ management.

  9. Imaging and histopathological aspects in aseptic osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trăistaru, Magdalena Rodica; Kamal, Diana; Kamal, Kamal Constantin; Rogoveanu, Otilia Constantina; Popescu, Mihai; Bondari, Simona; Alexandru, Dragoş Ovidiu; Ionovici, Nina; Grecu, Dan Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Aseptic osteonecrosis causes various clinical manifestations, depending on its location, but has in common a histopathological and radiological substrate. Aseptic osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a condition whose pathogenesis remains unclear despite many theories developed so far, and the discovery of numerous risk factors. The objective of this study is to emphasize the role of imaging techniques and correlating histology and immunohistochemistry methods in order to more accurately stage the disease. This retrospective study was performed on a total of 103 patients with clinical and radiological suspicion of unilateral or bilateral osteonecrosis. For the diagnosis criteria, we used clinical information, pelvic X-ray images, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). For the inclusion of patients in a disease stage, we used the Association Research Circulation Osseous (ARCO) classification system. For patients diagnosed at an advanced stage, who underwent hip arthroplasty, we harvested biological material necessary for the histopathological study. There were differences in the appearance and extent of the lesion on the histological samples compared to macroscopic examination and even those obtained through imaging means, particularly for patients in evolutionary stage III. Aspects such as the extension of the area of fibrosis, bone tissue remodeling, the density of the newly formed vascular network and degree of impairment of the cartilage, are determined more accurately using histology and immunohistochemistry techniques. Before classifying patients in a certain stage, after correlating clinical and imaging data, histopathological aspects have to be considered, particularly in patients in stages III and IV, in which total hip arthroplasty could be delayed.

  10. Clinicopathological classification and individualized treatment of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hui; LIU Yin-hua; XU Ling; ZHAO Jian-xin; DUAN Xue-ning; YE Jing-ming; LI Ting

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinicopathological classification was proposed in the St.Gallen Consensus Report 2011.We conducted a retrospective analysis of breast cancer subtypes,tumor-nodal-metastatic (TNM) staging,and histopathological grade to investigate the value of these parameters in the treatment strategies of invasive breast cancer.Methods A retrospective analysis of breast cancer subtypes,TNM staging,and histopathological grading of 213 cases has been performed by the methods recommended in the St.Gallen International Expert Consensus Report 2011.The estrogen receptor (ER),progesterone receptor (PR),human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2),and Ki-67 of 213 tumor samples have been investigated by immunohistochemistry according to methods for classifying breast cancer subtypes proposed in the St.Gallen Consensus Report 2011.Results The luminal A subtype was found in 53 patients (24.9%),the luminal B subtype was found in 112 patients (52.6%),the HER2-positive subtype was found in 22 patients (10.3%),and the triple-negative subtype was found in 26 patients (12%).Histopathological grade and TNM staging differed significantly among the four subtypes of breast cancer (P<0.001).Conclusion It is important to consider TNM staging and histopathological grading in the treatment strategies of breast cancer based on the current clinicopathological classification methods.

  11. Histopathology effects of nickel nanoparticles on lungs, liver, and spleen tissues in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdari, Marziyeh; Ziaee Ghahnavieh, Marziyeh

    2014-09-01

    Because of the classification of the nickel compounds as carcinogenic substances, there is a need for in vivo tests to nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs) for observing their effects on health experimentally. Spherical NiNPs with 10 nm in diameter and 75 ppm concentration were applied for investigating their toxicities within male albino mice as an in vivo model. We randomly made sham group, control group, and 75 ppm group (with five animals in each group). Then, the nanoparticles were injected into mice intraperitonealy for 7 days and after that their lungs, liver, and spleen were removed for histopathological observations. At the end of the test, section microscopic observations of liver, spleen, and lung in sham and control groups showed normal tissues but these tissues underwent significant abnormal effects in 75 ppm group. NiNPs can cause undesirable effects in lungs, liver, and spleen tissues with same condition of this study.

  12. Differential diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma in situ using skin histopathological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozi, Navid; Zakerolhosseini, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Differential diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma in situ is of great importance for prognosis and decision making in the disease treatment procedure. Currently, differential diagnosis is done by pathologists based on examination of the histopathological slides under the microscope, which is time consuming and prone to inter and intra observer variability. In this paper, we have proposed an automated method for differential diagnosis of SCC in situ from actinic keratosis, which is known to be a precursor of squamous cell carcinoma. The process begins with epidermis segmentation and cornified layer removal. Then, epidermis axis is specified using the paths in its skeleton and the granular layer is removed via connected components analysis. Finally, diagnosis is done based on the classification result of intensity profiles extracted from lines perpendicular to the epidermis axis. The results of the study are in agreement with the gold standards provided by expert pathologists.

  13. Comparison of normalization algorithms for cross-batch color segmentation of histopathological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ryan A; Kothari, Sonal; Wang, May D

    2014-01-01

    Automated processing of digital histopathology slides has the potential to streamline patient care and provide new tools for cancer classification and grading. Before automatic analysis is possible, quality control procedures are applied to ensure that each image can be read consistently. One important quality control step is color normalization of the slide image, which adjusts for color variances (batch-effects) caused by differences in stain preparation and image acquisition equipment. Color batch-effects affect color-based features and reduce the performance of supervised color segmentation algorithms on images acquired separately. To identify an optimal normalization technique for histopathological color segmentation applications, five color normalization algorithms were compared in this study using 204 images from four image batches. Among the normalization methods, two global color normalization methods normalized colors from all stain simultaneously and three stain color normalization methods normalized colors from individual stains extracted using color deconvolution. Stain color normalization methods performed significantly better than global color normalization methods in 11 of 12 cross-batch experiments (pnormalization method using k-means clustering was found to be the best choice because of high stain segmentation accuracy and low computational complexity.

  14. Placental Malaria in Colombia: Histopathologic Findings in Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Arango, Eliana; Maestre, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Studies on gestational malaria and placental malaria have been scarce in malaria-endemic areas of the Western Hemisphere. To describe the histopathology of placental malaria in Colombia, a longitudinal descriptive study was conducted. In this study, 179 placentas were studied by histologic analysis (112 with gestational malaria and 67 negative for malaria). Placental malaria was confirmed in 22.35%, 50.0% had previous infections, and 47.5% had acute infections. Typical malaria-associated changes were observed in 37%. The most common changes were villitis, intervillitis, deciduitis, increased fibrin deposition, increased syncytial knots, mononuclear (monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes), polymorphonuclear cell infiltration, and trophozoites in fetal erythrocytes. No association was found between type of placental changes observed and histopathologic classification of placental malaria. The findings are consistent with those reported for placental malaria in other regions. Plasmodium vivax was the main parasite responsible for placental and gestational malaria, but its role in the pathogenesis of placental malaria was not conclusive. PMID:23546807

  15. Diagnostic value of antithyroid peroxidase antibody for incidental autoimmune thyroiditis based on histopathologic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Myung Ho; Kim, Dong Wook; Hong, Hyun Pyo; Park, Young Mi; Kwon, Min Jeong; Jung, Soo Jin; Kim, Young Wook; Kang, Taewoo

    2012-12-01

    Detection of antithyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) is widely used in the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), but no research has evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of TPOAb detection using histopathologic reference standards. To fill this research gap, this study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of detection of TPOAb and that of other serological markers in asymptomatic patients who had been diagnosed with AIT by histopathologic analysis after thyroid surgery. After review of patient records, 598 patients who had undergone thyroid nodule surgery were enrolled for examination for thyroid parenchyma by a pathologist and classification into no co-existing lymphocytic thyroiditis, Hashimoto thyroiditis, or non-Hashimoto type of lymphocytic thyroiditis (NHLT). The correlation between patient serological data and thyroid parenchyma pathology was analyzed. Statistically significant differences (P lymphocytic thyroiditis and no co-existing lymphocytic thyroiditis groups regarding thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and TPOAb levels. And, TPOAb titer was significantly associated with the degree of inflammation. An abnormal TPOAb titer was found in 86 of the 598 patients (14.4 %) and the specificity of TPOAb detection for AIT diagnosis was found to be 96.9 %. The prevalence of Hashimoto thyroiditis and NHLT in the 560 papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients was found to be 7.9 and 17.9 %, respectively. The results indicate that TPOAb titer is associated with the degree of thyroid inflammation and that detection of TPOAb is a very specific means of diagnosing AIT. The results also indicate that the incidence of AIT and PTC coexistence is relatively high.

  16. Osteosarcoma of limb bones: a clinical, radiological and histopathological diagnostic agreement at Black Lion Teaching Hospital, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamisho, Biruk L; Admasie, Daniel; Negash, Bayush E; Tinsay, Mihiret W

    2009-06-01

    To measure the strength of agreement in clinical, radiological and histopathological diagnosis of osteosarcoma in a 5 year study period. Addis Ababa University, Black-Lion ('Tikur Anbessa') Hospital-BLH, is the country's highest tertiary level referral and teaching hospital. The departments involved in this study (Radiology, Pathology and Orthopedics) receive referred patients from all over the country. All bone tumor patients, presenting to the three departments at BLH between the study period, December, 2003 - March, 2008 were recruited for the study. 51 patients with radiological diagnosis of osteosarcoma of the extremities were identified and their clinical and histopathological diagnoses reviewed in detail. All patients had a clinical examination, plain radiographs and biopsies of the affected part of the extremity. Radiographs of selected difficult cases were discussed at joint orthopedic & radiologic sessions every week. The radiological and histopathological diagnoses made were categorized separately using WHO classification of bone tumors. Strength of agreement between radiological and histopathological diagnoses was measured using Cohen's Kappa test. Of the total of 216 bone tumor patients presented and biopsied in the five year period, fifty one (51) had osteosarcoma of extremity bones. Commonest age affected by osteosarcoma was 16 (7-55 years) and sex ratio was 1:1. Osteosarcoma was also the single most common clinical, radiological and histological diagnosis made. Considering all bone tumors presented together, the study indicated that radiological diagnosis was confirmed by similar histological diagnosis in 172 out 205 cases (84%) and the corresponding Cohen's Kappa value (0.82) showed excellent level of agreement between radiological and histological diagnoses of all bone tumors. The agreement between radiological and histopathological diagnoses of osteosarcoma of the limbs was 84.5%. There is an excellent agreement between clinical, radiological and

  17. Cluster Based Text Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cluster based classification model for suspicious email detection and other text classification tasks. The text classification tasks comprise many training examples that require a complex classification model. Using clusters for classification makes the model simpler and increases th...... datasets. Our model also outperforms A Decision Cluster Classification (ADCC) and the Decision Cluster Forest Classification (DCFC) models on the Reuters-21578 dataset....

  18. Histopathological placental lesions in mild gestational hyperglycemic and diabetic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudge Marilza VC

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate and compare the incidence of histopathological placental lesions in mild gestational hyperglycemia, gestational diabetes and overt diabetes at term and preterm gestation. Research design and methods One-hundred-and-thirty-one placental samples were collected from Diabetes mellitus (DM positive screened patients. Two diagnostic tests, glycemic profile and 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in parallel identified 4 groups normoglycemic, mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH, gestational DM (GDM or overt DM (DM. Placental tissue specimens and sections from 4 groups were obtained by uniform random sampling and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results Placentas from MGH group presented 17 types of histopathological change and higher rates of syncytial nodes and endarteritis. GDM placentas presented only nine types of histopathological change, high rates of dysmaturity, low rates of calcification and no syncytial nodes. Overt DM placentas showed 22 types of histopathological change, 21 of which were present in the preterm period. There were histopathological similarities between MGH and DM placentas, but the former exhibited a higher incidence of endarteritis, which has been described as a "post-mortem" phenomenon. Conclusion Our results confirmed that the distinct placental changes associated with DM and MGH depend on gestational period during which the diabetic insult occurs. It may reasonably be inferred that subclinical maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy, as showed in MGH group, is responsible for increased placental endarteritis, a postmortem lesion in the live fetus.

  19. Detection of mitotic nuclei in breast histopathology images using localized ACM and Random Kitchen Sink based classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, K Sabeena; Nair, Madhu S; Bindu, G R

    2016-08-01

    The exact measure of mitotic nuclei is a crucial parameter in breast cancer grading and prognosis. This can be achieved by improving the mitotic detection accuracy by careful design of segmentation and classification techniques. In this paper, segmentation of nuclei from breast histopathology images are carried out by Localized Active Contour Model (LACM) utilizing bio-inspired optimization techniques in the detection stage, in order to handle diffused intensities present along object boundaries. Further, the application of a new optimal machine learning algorithm capable of classifying strong non-linear data such as Random Kitchen Sink (RKS), shows improved classification performance. The proposed method has been tested on Mitosis detection in breast cancer histological images (MITOS) dataset provided for MITOS-ATYPIA CONTEST 2014. The proposed framework achieved 95% recall, 98% precision and 96% F-score.

  20. Correlation of Clinico-pathological Classification of Hansen's Disease in a South Indian City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, A C; Pai, R R; Gautam, K; Kuruvila, M

    2014-01-01

    Hansen's Disease (HD) presents itself in different forms depending on the individual's immune status, and based on this Ridley-Jopling classified the disease into five sub-groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of histopathology and bacteriological index (BI) in accurate staging of HD with clinical correlation. Fifty HD patients with clinical diagnosis confirmed by histopathology were included. Patients in reaction and on treatment were excluded. Case records and histopathological slides were viewed and BI was recorded. In 10/50 cases, a diagnosis of HD was made or suspected, but were not clinically classified. In these, histopathology proved useful in diagnosis and classification. Indeterminate HD was the most common histopathological diagnosis (6 cases). The remaining 40 patients, were clinically classified using the Ridley-Jopling classification, as Indeterminate Leprosy (IL) in 10/40 (25%), Tuberculoid Leprosy (TT) 5/40 (12.5%), Borderline Tuberculoid (BT) 16/40 (40%), Borderline Lepromatous (BL) 4/40 (10%) and Lepromatous Leprosy (LL) 5 (12.5%). HD was common in males with male to female ratio of 1.66:1 and affected the younger individuals (maximum in 21 to 30 years). On histopathology BT was the most common type (40%) followed by IL (27.5%), BL (12.5%), TT (10%) and LL (10%). No case of Mid-Borderline (BB) type was diagnosed clinically or histopathologically. Overall concordance between clinical and histopathological diagnosis was 65% (26/40 cases) and for each type was IL = 80%, TT = 20%, BT = 75%, BL = 50% and LL = 60%. Where classification seemed difficult as in cases of BT and BL, II played an important role. The overall concordance between clinical classification and histopathological diagnosis of DO is 65% in this study. Th *discordance that is observed is between BT and TT, the paucibacillary type and BL andILL the multibacillary type and hence the treatment is not affected. Overall, IL was a common diagnosis on histopathology in this

  1. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Thyroid Nodules: Correlation with Surgical Histopathology Histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargess Ghazaleh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Approximately 7% of people have thyroid nodules. The most important consideration in evaluating patients with thyroid nodules is whether the nodule is malignant. Fine needle aspiration (FNA biopsy is the best, safest, and most cost-effective measure for distinguishing malignancy, thus preventing unnecessary surgeries. In this survey, adequacy of smears, cytologic findings, histologic findings, and their concordance, have been studied. Materials and Methods: FNA biopsy was performed in 200 patients with palpable thyroid nodules in 2004-2005. Cytologic findings and adequacy of specimens were recorded. Of the 200 patients, 39 had surgery; postoperative histological results were compared with FNA biopsy results.Results: Of FNA smears, 88% were adequate; of these adequate smears, 57.2% were benign, 34.2% were suspicious for malignancy, and 8.6% were reported as malignant. When results of surgical pathology were compared with FNA cytology results, all benign surgical specimens also had benign cytology results, and all malignant surgical specimens had malignant results on cytology evaluation. In nodules with suspicious cytology, histopathology showed that 50% were malignant and 50% were benign.Conclusions: FNA is a simple and cost-effective procedure for identifying benign and malignant nodules. The incidence of malignant pathology in nodules with suspicious cytology was higher than other studies.Turk Jem 2008; 12: 73-4

  2. Correlation between Histopathological and Endoscopic Findings of Stomach Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmuda, S; Bashar, M F; Yesmin, N; Khatun, M A

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out in the Department of Pathology of Islami Bank Hospital, Barisal to correlate between histopathological and endoscopic diagnosis of suspected malignant gastric lesions. A total of sixty six endoscopic biopsies were studied retrospectively, during the period from February 2011 to January 2014. The biopsies were retrieved using video-endoscope. These were transferred to a bottle containing 10% neutral formalin, processed and stained routinely with Haematoxylin and Eosin. Out of 66(100%) gastric endoscopic biopsies, 29(44%) were malignant. The correlation of endoscopic and histopathological diagnosis of these gastric lesions was 44%. Endoscopic examination and biopsy is a convenient procedure for accurate objective assessment of patients with symptoms of gastrointestinal tract. Endoscopy is incomplete without biopsy and histopathology is the gold standard for the diagnosis of endoscopically detected lesions.

  3. Neuroradiology and histopathology in two cases of adult medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Rojas, Alfredo E; Diaz-Perez, Julio A; Raju, Sharat; Lozano-Castillo, Alfonso

    2014-04-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common central nervous system neoplasm in children and only rarely presents in the adult population. Recent molecular biology findings have characterized MB as a heterogeneous neoplasm distinguished by well-defined tumour subsets each with specific histologic and molecular features. Available immunohistochemical stains can now be used to differentiate the distinct molecular types of MB. This report analyzed the histopathologic and neuroradiologic features of two new cases of adult MB. Imaging studies in these patients revealed the morphological appearance of high-grade, well-circumscribed heterogeneous tumours with necrosis, located laterally within the posterior cranial fossa. Histopathology of resected samples demonstrated high-grade tumours (WHO grade IV) containing sheets of undifferentiated neural cells with high mitotic activity and evidence of necrosis. The histopathologic and molecular characteristics of these cases of MB are reviewed for potential applications in new molecular methods of imaging.

  4. Histopathological changes in tendinopathy--potential roles of BMPs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Pauline Po Yee

    2013-12-01

    The pathogenesis of tendinopathy remains unclear. Chondro-osteogenic BMPs such as BMP-2, BMP-4 and BMP-7 have been reported in clinical samples and animal models of tendinopathy. As chondrocyte-like cells and ossified deposits have been observed in both clinical samples and animal models of failed tendon healing tendinopathy, chondro-osteogenic BMPs might contribute to tissue metaplasia and other histopathological changes in tendinopathy. In this review I have summarized the current evidence supporting the roles of chondro-osteogenic BMPs in the histopathological changes of tendinopathy. The potential targets, effects and sources of these BMPs are discussed. I have also provided directions for future studies about the potential roles of BMPs in the pathogenesis of tendinopathy. Better understanding of the roles of these BMPs in the histopathological changes of tendinopathy could provide new options for the prevention and treatment of this disabling tendon disorder.

  5. Classification of cultivated plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandenburg, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Agricultural practice demands principles for classification, starting from the basal entity in cultivated plants: the cultivar. In establishing biosystematic relationships between wild, weedy and cultivated plants, the species concept needs re-examination. Combining of botanic classification, based

  6. Histopathologic effects of formaldehyde exposure on rat kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Golalipour

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: Formaldehyde is a chemical traditionally used for fixing the cadaver. It is vaporized during dissection and practical studying on cadaver. Studies show that this vapour can cause some clinical sympotms such as throat, eye, skin and nasal irritation.This study was designed to determine the histopathological changes of rat kidney tissue exposed to formaldehyde for 18 weeks.Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 28, 6-7 weeks postnatal albino Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 3 case groups (E1: 4hrs/d, 4d/w; E2: 2hrs/d, 4d/w; E3: 2hrs/d, 2d/w and one control group (C. The kidney specimens were sectioned and stained with H&E technique for histopathological study.Results: In all histopathology sections of groups E1, E2 and E3, the following similar changes were observed: Mild congestion in the glumeroles, focal congestion and vacuolar (hydropic degeneration of tubular cells only mild non-specific congestion in renal vessels. There were no evidences of fibrotic change or inflammatory cells infiltration among interstitial tissue. Also there were no abnormalities in the staining of nucleus and cytoplasm. In Control group (C, no histopathologic changes were observed.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that formaldehyde vapour with a concentrations used in our study, can not induce histopathologic changes which could be detectable by light microscope. Also, there is no direct relationship between the duration of exposure to formaldehyde vapour and the intensity of histopathologic changes in the kidney.

  7. Classification of Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectra from Normal and Malignant bladder tissues using Learning Vector Quantization Neural Network in Bladder Cancer Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Mascarenhas, Kim Komal; Patil, Choudhary

    2008-01-01

    the classification accuracy of LVQ with other classifiers (eg. SVM and Multi Layer Perceptron) for the same data set. Good agreement has been obtained between LVQ based classification of spectroscopy data and histopathology results which demonstrate the use of LVQ classifier in bladder cancer diagnosis....

  8. The epidemiology, pathogenesis and histopathology of fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levene, Adam P; Goldin, Robert D

    2012-08-01

    Fatty liver disease includes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD), each of which is increasing in prevalence. Each represents a histological spectrum that extends from isolated steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. NAFLD is associated with obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance, and is considered to be the liver manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The pathogenesis of NAFLD and ALD involves cytokines, adipokines, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Histopathology is the gold standard for assessing the severity of liver damage in NAFLD and ALD. We have reviewed the literature, and described and compared the epidemiology, natural disease history, pathogenesis and histopathology of NAFLD and ALD.

  9. Delay in the histopathologic diagnosis of mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldhammer Skov, Anne; Gniadecki, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of mycosis fungoides (MF) is difficult in early stages and is based on a combination of clinical findings and histopathologic criteria. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic delay in MF and to investigate the rationale for multiple biopsies in a single-centre, retrospec......The diagnosis of mycosis fungoides (MF) is difficult in early stages and is based on a combination of clinical findings and histopathologic criteria. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic delay in MF and to investigate the rationale for multiple biopsies in a single...

  10. Real-Time Elastography Visualization and Histopathological Characterization of Rabbit Atherosclerotic Carotid Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ZhenZhen; Liu, NaNa; Zhang, LiFeng; Li, XiaoYing; Han, XueSong; Peng, YanQing; Dang, MeiZheng; Sun, LiTao; Tian, JiaWei

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of non-invasive vascular real-time elastography imaging (RTE) in visualizing the composition of rabbit carotid atherosclerotic plaque as determined by histopathology, a rabbit model of accelerated carotid atherosclerosis was used. Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into two groups of 15 rabbits each. The first group was fed a cholesterol-rich diet and received balloon-induced injury the left common carotid artery endothelium, whereas the second group only received a cholesterol-rich diet. The rabbits were all examined in vivo with HITACHI non-invasive vascular real-time elastography (Hi-RTE) at baseline and 12 wk, and results from the elastography were compared with American Heart Association histologic classifications. Hi-RTE and the American Heart Association histologic classifications had good agreement, with weighted Cohen's kappa (95% confidence internal) of 0.785 (0.649-0.920). Strains of segmented plaques that were stained in different colors were statistically different (p visualizing normal and atherosclerotic rabbit carotid arteries non-invasively. This affordable and reliable method can be widely applied in research of both animal and human peripheral artery atherosclerosis.

  11. Renal graft survival according to Banff 2013 classification in indication biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arias-Cabrales

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The Banff 2013 classification facilitates a histological diagnosis in 95% of indication biopsies. While diagnostic category 6 is the most common, a change in the predominant histopathology was observed according to time elapsed since transplantation. Antibody-mediated changes are associated with worse graft survival.

  12. Classification of refrigerants; Classification des fluides frigorigenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document was made from the US standard ANSI/ASHRAE 34 published in 2001 and entitled 'designation and safety classification of refrigerants'. This classification allows to clearly organize in an international way the overall refrigerants used in the world thanks to a codification of the refrigerants in correspondence with their chemical composition. This note explains this codification: prefix, suffixes (hydrocarbons and derived fluids, azeotropic and non-azeotropic mixtures, various organic compounds, non-organic compounds), safety classification (toxicity, flammability, case of mixtures). (J.S.)

  13. Mitosis Detection for Invasive Breast Cancer Grading in Histopathological Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angshuman; Mukherjee, Dipti Prasad

    2015-11-01

    Histopathological grading of cancer not only offers an insight to the patients' prognosis but also helps in making individual treatment plans. Mitosis counts in histopathological slides play a crucial role for invasive breast cancer grading using the Nottingham grading system. Pathologists perform this grading by manual examinations of a few thousand images for each patient. Hence, finding the mitotic figures from these images is a tedious job and also prone to observer variability due to variations in the appearances of the mitotic cells. We propose a fast and accurate approach for automatic mitosis detection from histopathological images. We employ area morphological scale space for cell segmentation. The scale space is constructed in a novel manner by restricting the scales with the maximization of relative-entropy between the cells and the background. This results in precise cell segmentation. The segmented cells are classified in mitotic and non-mitotic category using the random forest classifier. Experiments show at least 12% improvement in F1 score on more than 450 histopathological images at 40× magnification.

  14. Non-technical skills in histopathology: definition and discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Peter W; Fioratou, Evie; Flin, Rhona

    2011-09-01

    Health care is a high-risk industry, with most documented adverse incidents being associated with 'human factors' including cognitive and social skills termed 'non-technical skills'. Non-technical skills complement the diagnostic and specialist skills and professional attributes required by medical practitioners, including histopathologists, and can enhance the quality of practice and delivery of health-care services and thus contribute to patient safety. This review aims to introduce histopathologists to non-technical skills and how these pertain to everyday histopathological practice. Drawing from other domains in medicine, specifically anaesthesia and surgery, a variety of non-technical skills are identified and described in the context of histopathology to illustrate the role each plays, often collectively, in daily practice. The generic non-technical skills are defined as situation awareness, decision-making, communication, teamwork, leadership, managing stress and coping with fatigue. Example scenarios from histopathology are presented and the contributions to outcomes made by non-technical skills are explained. Consideration of these specific non-technical skills as a component in histopathology training may benefit practitioners as well as assuring patient safety.

  15. Pericoronal radiolucencies with significant pathology: Clinico-histopathologic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Anand

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of the study was to correlate the provisional diagnosis of pericoronal radiolucencies associated with impacted, embedded, or unerupted teeth with the histopathologic diagnosis, and also to emphasize the importance of early detection for better diagnosis and management. Methods: This is a retrospective study involving 18 cases of pericoronal radiolucencies associated with unerupted, embedded, or impacted teeth whose data during 1-year period were retrieved, and were reviewed for clinical, radiological, and histopathologic data. Also, comparison and correlation of clinico-histopathologic diagnosis was made. Results: Of the 18 cases, 11 were provisionally diagnosed as dentigerous cyst and the remaining were diagnosed as ameloblastoma, odontogenic keratocyst, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, and calcifying epithelial odontogenic cyst. Histopathologic diagnosis of the 18 cases showed varied results, with only 10% correlating with the provisional diagnosis. Conclusion: Although many pathological processes may present radiographically as pericoronal radiolucencies associated with unerupted teeth, the most common is the dentigerous cyst. Hence, it is crucial for the clinician to fully investigate all teeth that fail to erupt at the expected time, and promptly initiate appropriate assessment and management of suspected cystic lesions.

  16. Oral submucous fibrosis: A clinico-histopathological study in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is a precancerous condition associated with the use of areca nut in various forms. There are very few reports to correlate the clinical stage to histopathological grading in OSF. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based study was conducted on 75 OSF cases who visited our hospital in Chennai from 2000-2003. A detailed history of each patient was recorded along with a clinical examination. Biopsy was performed for histopathological correlation. Clinical stage of the disease in terms of the ability to open one′s mouth was correlated with histopathological grading. Results: The male to female ratio of OSF cases was 6:1. All forms of areca nut products were associated with OSF. Chewing of paanmasala was associated with early presentation of OSF as compared to chewing of the betel nut. Out of 57 cases, which were in clinical stage II, 91.2% had histological grading of I and II in equal proportions and 8.8% had histological grade III. Out of 13 cases that showed a clinical stage of III, 52% showed a histological grade of II, 40% grade III and 8% grade I. Conclusion: In the present study, there was no direct correlation between clinical stages and histopathological grading. The possibility of difference in the severity and extent of fibrosis in different regions of the oral mucosa and involved muscles were considered as contributory factors for this variation.

  17. Histopathological correlations to ureteral lesions visualized during ureteroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lildal, Søren Kissow; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Andreassen, Kim Hovgaard

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To correlate ureteral lesions visualized during ureteroscopy with histopathological findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ureteral access sheaths (UAS) sized 13/15 Fr. were inserted bilaterally in 22 laboratory pigs. During retraction of the UAS with a semirigid ureteroscope inside, ureteral...

  18. Clinical, Radiological, Microbiological, and Histopathological Aspects of Acquired Dacryocystoceles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selam Yekta Sendul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study is to investigate the etiology and the clinical, microbiological, histopathological, and radiological findings of acquired dacryocystoceles. Methods. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the clinical records of 10 eyes of 8 patients with dacryocystoceles who underwent external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR surgery. Etiology, presenting symptoms and radiological findings as well as microbiological and histopathological assessment results and outcome were analyzed. Results. The records of 8 patients with dacryocystoceles were included in this study. In the histopathological evaluations of the samples collected from the lacrimal sac wall, chronic inflammation was found in all biopsied samples and fibrosis was observed in two histopathological evaluations. Computerized tomography (CT imaging showed fluid collection separated from adjacent tissues by a thin rim, corresponding to dacryocystoceles in the sac. In the microbiological culture examination of samples collected from the fluid within the cyst, no bacterial growth in 5 eyes, gram-negative bacillus growth in 3 eyes, and gram-positive cocci growth in 2 eyes were found. Conclusions. Acquired dacryocystoceles were observed extremely rarely and a definite pathogenic agent could not be identified in any of the cases, either microbiologically or histologically, whereas chronic inflammation was detected in all cases in our study.

  19. Urothelial neoplasia of the urinary bladder--comparison of interobserver variability for WHO Classification 1972 with WHO/ISUP Consensus Classification 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoon, Nadira; Iqbal, Muhammad Ashraf; Jamal, Shahid; Luqman, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    Classification of urothelial bladder tumours is an important factor in the treatment and prognosis of these lesions. Over the years many classifications have been proposed for this purpose. The objective of this study was to classify urothelial neoplasms of the urinary bladder using the latest WHO/ISUP Consensus Classification 1998 and WHO Classification 1972 and compare the two regarding interobserver variability. This study included 100 consecutive biopsy specimens of urothelial neoplasms of the urinary bladder diagnosed at the department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi. These were classified according to WHO Classification 1972 and WHO/ISUP Consensus Classification 1998 by 2 groups of pathologists independently. The tumour categories for WHO classification 1972; papilloma, and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) grades I, II and III were compared with the WHO/ISUP Consensus Classification entities of papilloma, papillary neoplasm of low malignant potential, low grade and high grade papillary carcinomas. Kappa statistics were used to evaluate interobserver variability. Chi square test was used to calculate significance. There was agreement on 80 tumours between the two groups of histopathologists when using WHO classification 1972 while there was agreement on 95 tumours using WHO/ISUP consensus classification. The value of Kappa for WHO Classification was 0.68 (good agreement) whereas for WHO/ISUP Consensus Classification it was 0.91 (excellent agreement). The difference between the two systems was statistically significant (pISUP Consensus Classification 1998 showed less interobserver variability than WHO Classification 1972 in the evaluation of bladder tumours. It was found easier to apply by both groups. There was less agreement on the benign and borderline lesions using both the classifications.

  20. Classification, disease, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutel, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Classification shapes medicine and guides its practice. Understanding classification must be part of the quest to better understand the social context and implications of diagnosis. Classifications are part of the human work that provides a foundation for the recognition and study of illness: deciding how the vast expanse of nature can be partitioned into meaningful chunks, stabilizing and structuring what is otherwise disordered. This article explores the aims of classification, their embodiment in medical diagnosis, and the historical traditions of medical classification. It provides a brief overview of the aims and principles of classification and their relevance to contemporary medicine. It also demonstrates how classifications operate as social framing devices that enable and disable communication, assert and refute authority, and are important items for sociological study.

  1. Histopathological Analysis of 422 Nononcological Hysterectomies in a University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Ates

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the surgical indications, routes of surgery and the correlation between preoperative diagnosis and histopathological examination of hysterectomy specimens. Material and Method: Medical records and histopathological findings were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively, in 422 consecutive women who underwent hysterectomy over a two-year period from 2011 to 2014. Those with confirmed malignancy before operation were excluded. Cohen kappa statistics were used to measure agreement between preoperative clinical and postoperative histopathological diagnosis which was found to be fair with %u043A value being 0.4. Results: The mean age of our patients was 51.5 ± 8 years. The abdominal route was used in 378 cases (85.5%, the vaginal route in 55 patients (12.4% and the laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy in 9 cases (2%. Abnormal uterine bleeding (28.9 % was the most common indication for hysterectomy. The histopathology of the endometrium prior to hysterectomy was reported in 75% of the cases and the most common finding was a secretory or proliferative endometrium. Leiomyomatous uterus was the most frequently encountered pathology (43.7% followed by coexistence of leiomyoma and adenomyosis (17.4% in hysterectomy specimens. Hysterectomy specimens may be unremarkable histopathologically, most of which are vaginal hysterectomies done for uterine prolapsed (kappa=0,407. Discussion: The correlation between the preoperative clinical and the pathological diagnosis were poor in cases with abdominal pain, abnormal uterine bleeding and fibroids. But there was a high correlation in cases with adnexial mass.

  2. Vitamin B12 deficiency and gastric histopathology in older patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KR Dholakia; TS Dharmarajan; D Yadav; S Oiseth; EP Norkus; CS Pitchumoni

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare upper gastric endoscopic and histopathologic findings in older adults in the presence and absence of B12 deficiency.METHODS: A prospective analysis of upper gastric endoscopic and gastric histopathologic findings from 30 newly identified B12-deficient patients (11 males,19 females) and 16 controls with normal B12 status (6males, 10 females) was performed. For all subjects, the indication for upper endoscopy and gastric biopsy were unrelated to B12 status. A single pathologist, blinded to B12 status, processed and interpreted the biopsy samples. Endoscopic and histopathologic findings were correlated with age, gender, hematocrit (Hct), MCV and B12 status.RESULTS: The B12-deficient group had significantly lower mean serum B12 levels compared to the controls (P<0.00005) while their mean Hct, MCV and serum albumin levels were similar. Iron deficiency (ferritinbased) was present in 21% of B12-deficient patients and intrinsic factor antibodies were present in29% (5/17) of B12-deficient patients. The endoscopic findings revealed significantly different rates of gastritis and atrophy between the B12-deficient and control groups (P= 0.017).B12-deficient patients had significantly less superficial gastritis (62% vs 94%) and significantly more atrophic gastritis (28% vs 0%) as compared to the controls (P= 0.039). Intestinal metaplasia was similar in both groups. Helicobacter pyloriinfection rates were similar in the B12-deficient patients and controls (40% vs31%).CONCLUSION: Significantly different endoscopic findings and types of gastritis could often be observed in the presence and absence of B12 deficiency. Atrophy,based on endoscopy, and atrophic gastritis, based on histopathology, suggest the presence of B12 deficiency.Gastric histopathology is not influenced by the age,gender, Hct or MCV of the patients.

  3. Hydrological Classification, a Practical Tool for Mangrove Restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne F Van Loon

    Full Text Available Mangrove restoration projects, aimed at restoring important values of mangrove forests after degradation, often fail because hydrological conditions are disregarded. We present a simple, but robust methodology to determine hydrological suitability for mangrove species, which can guide restoration practice. In 15 natural and 8 disturbed sites (i.e. disused shrimp ponds in three case study regions in south-east Asia, water levels were measured and vegetation species composition was determined. Using an existing hydrological classification for mangroves, sites were classified into hydrological classes, based on duration of inundation, and vegetation classes, based on occurrence of mangrove species. For the natural sites hydrological and vegetation classes were similar, showing clear distribution of mangrove species from wet to dry sites. Application of the classification to disturbed sites showed that in some locations hydrological conditions had been restored enough for mangrove vegetation to establish, in some locations hydrological conditions were suitable for various mangrove species but vegetation had not established naturally, and in some locations hydrological conditions were too wet for any mangrove species (natural or planted to grow. We quantified the effect that removal of obstructions such as dams would have on the hydrology and found that failure of planting at one site could have been prevented. The hydrological classification needs relatively little data, i.e. water levels for a period of only one lunar tidal cycle without additional measurements, and uncertainties in the measurements and analysis are relatively small. For the study locations, the application of the hydrological classification gave important information about how to restore the hydrology to suitable conditions to improve natural regeneration or to plant mangrove species, which could not have been obtained by estimating elevation only. Based on this research a number

  4. Security classification of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quist, A.S.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

  5. Security classification of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quist, A.S.

    1989-09-01

    Certain governmental information must be classified for national security reasons. However, the national security benefits from classifying information are usually accompanied by significant costs -- those due to a citizenry not fully informed on governmental activities, the extra costs of operating classified programs and procuring classified materials (e.g., weapons), the losses to our nation when advances made in classified programs cannot be utilized in unclassified programs. The goal of a classification system should be to clearly identify that information which must be protected for national security reasons and to ensure that information not needing such protection is not classified. This document was prepared to help attain that goal. This document is the first of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. Volume 1 broadly describes the need for classification, the basis for classification, and the history of classification in the United States from colonial times until World War 2. Classification of information since World War 2, under Executive Orders and the Atomic Energy Acts of 1946 and 1954, is discussed in more detail, with particular emphasis on the classification of atomic energy information. Adverse impacts of classification are also described. Subsequent volumes will discuss classification principles, classification management, and the control of certain unclassified scientific and technical information. 340 refs., 6 tabs.

  6. Ontologies vs. Classification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    What is an ontology compared to a classification system? Is a taxonomy a kind of classification system or a kind of ontology? These are questions that we meet when working with people from industry and public authorities, who need methods and tools for concept clarification, for developing meta d...... classification systems and meta data taxonomies, should be based on ontologies.......What is an ontology compared to a classification system? Is a taxonomy a kind of classification system or a kind of ontology? These are questions that we meet when working with people from industry and public authorities, who need methods and tools for concept clarification, for developing meta...... data sets or for obtaining advanced search facilities. In this paper we will present an attempt at answering these questions. We will give a presentation of various types of ontologies and briefly introduce terminological ontologies. Furthermore we will argue that classification systems, e.g. product...

  7. Automated oral cancer identification using histopathological images: a hybrid feature extraction paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, M Muthu Rama; Venkatraghavan, Vikram; Acharya, U Rajendra; Pal, Mousumi; Paul, Ranjan Rashmi; Min, Lim Choo; Ray, Ajoy Kumar; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2012-02-01

    Oral cancer (OC) is the sixth most common cancer in the world. In India it is the most common malignant neoplasm. Histopathological images have widely been used in the differential diagnosis of normal, oral precancerous (oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSF)) and cancer lesions. However, this technique is limited by subjective interpretations and less accurate diagnosis. The objective of this work is to improve the classification accuracy based on textural features in the development of a computer assisted screening of OSF. The approach introduced here is to grade the histopathological tissue sections into normal, OSF without Dysplasia (OSFWD) and OSF with Dysplasia (OSFD), which would help the oral onco-pathologists to screen the subjects rapidly. The biopsy sections are stained with H&E. The optical density of the pixels in the light microscopic images is recorded and represented as matrix quantized as integers from 0 to 255 for each fundamental color (Red, Green, Blue), resulting in a M×N×3 matrix of integers. Depending on either normal or OSF condition, the image has various granular structures which are self similar patterns at different scales termed "texture". We have extracted these textural changes using Higher Order Spectra (HOS), Local Binary Pattern (LBP), and Laws Texture Energy (LTE) from the histopathological images (normal, OSFWD and OSFD). These feature vectors were fed to five different classifiers: Decision Tree (DT), Sugeno Fuzzy, Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN), Radial Basis Probabilistic Neural Network (RBPNN) to select the best classifier. Our results show that combination of texture and HOS features coupled with Fuzzy classifier resulted in 95.7% accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 94.5% and 98.8% respectively. Finally, we have proposed a novel integrated index called Oral Malignancy Index (OMI) using the HOS, LBP, LTE features, to diagnose benign or malignant tissues using just one number. We hope that this OMI can

  8. Classification of Spreadsheet Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Rajalingham, Kamalasen; Chadwick, David R.; Knight, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for a systematic classification of spreadsheet errors. This classification or taxonomy of errors is aimed at facilitating analysis and comprehension of the different types of spreadsheet errors. The taxonomy is an outcome of an investigation of the widespread problem of spreadsheet errors and an analysis of specific types of these errors. This paper contains a description of the various elements and categories of the classification and is supported by appropri...

  9. Information gathering for CLP classification

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Marcello; Felice Giordano; Francesca Marina Costamagna

    2011-01-01

    Regulation 1272/2008 includes provisions for two types of classification: harmonised classification and self-classification. The harmonised classification of substances is decided at Community level and a list of harmonised classifications is included in the Annex VI of the classification, labelling and packaging Regulation (CLP). If a chemical substance is not included in the harmonised classification list it must be self-classified, based on available information, according to the requireme...

  10. Review of Histopathological and Molecular Prognostic Features in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Schofield

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of prognosis in colorectal cancer is vital for the choice of therapeutic options. Histopathological factors remain paramount in this respect. Factors such as tumor size, histological type and subtype, presence of signet ring morphology and the degree of differentiation as well as the presence of lymphovascular invasion and lymph node involvement are well known factors that influence outcome. Our understanding of these factors has improved in the past few years with factors such as tumor budding, lymphocytic infiltration being recognized as important. Likewise the prognostic significance of resection margins, particularly circumferential margins has been appreciated in the last two decades. A number of molecular and genetic markers such as KRAS, BRAF and microsatellite instability are also important and correlate with histological features in some patients. This review summarizes our current understanding of the main histopathological factors that affect prognosis of colorectal cancer.

  11. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on pancreas in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological side effects of doxorubicin on pancreas tissue in male albino rats Rattus norvegicus. This study were used 55 adult rats (2.5-3.5 month of age. The rats divided into two groups, the first group include (35 rats. The second group were (20 rats. Microscopial examination of pancreas lesion demonstrated oedema around the acini, swelling of the epithelial cells of acini, occurance of cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis at the concentration of (4,5 mg/kg of body weight ,occurrence of small islets that form of few cells and exocrine-endocrine transformation. There were thickness in the walls of blood vessels, thrombus, congestion of blood vessels, we conclude, that doxorubicin had histopathological effect on pancreas in sub-acute doses more than chronic doses.

  12. Review of Histopathological and Molecular Prognostic Features in Colorectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzouk, Ola; Schofield, John, E-mail: john.schofield@nhs.net [Department of Cellular Pathology, Maidstone Hospital, Hermitage Lane, Maidstone, Kent ME16 9QQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    Prediction of prognosis in colorectal cancer is vital for the choice of therapeutic options. Histopathological factors remain paramount in this respect. Factors such as tumor size, histological type and subtype, presence of signet ring morphology and the degree of differentiation as well as the presence of lymphovascular invasion and lymph node involvement are well known factors that influence outcome. Our understanding of these factors has improved in the past few years with factors such as tumor budding, lymphocytic infiltration being recognized as important. Likewise the prognostic significance of resection margins, particularly circumferential margins has been appreciated in the last two decades. A number of molecular and genetic markers such as KRAS, BRAF and microsatellite instability are also important and correlate with histological features in some patients. This review summarizes our current understanding of the main histopathological factors that affect prognosis of colorectal cancer.

  13. Giant solitary trichoepithelioma with desmoplasia on histopathology: An unusual finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundeep Chowdhry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Trichoepithelioma is a well-recognized hamartoma of hair germ clinically presenting as solitary or multiple papules. Uncommonly, it may present as a large solitary lesion, termed as giant solitary trichoepithelioma (GST. A 50-year old man presented with a large, pedunculated mass over the root of nose obstructing visual field. It was excised and sent for histopathological examination. H&E staining revealed in addition to characteristic features of trichoepithelioma, a desmoplastic hypocellular stroma. After taking into account the clinical and histopathological features, a diagnosis of GST was made. This case is the first case to the best of authors’ knowledge describing desmoplastic stroma in a case of GST. It is also noteworthy because it reports the largest GST described so far over the nose.

  14. Prognostic, quantitative histopathologic variables in lobular carcinoma of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladekarl, M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A retrospective investigation of 53 consecutively treated patients with operable lobular carcinoma of the breast, with a median follow-up of 6.6 years, was performed to examine the prognostic value of quantitative histopathologic parameters. METHODS: The measurements were performed...... in routinely processed histologic sections using a simple, unbiased technique for the estimation of the three-dimensional mean nuclear volume (vv(nuc)). In addition, quantitative estimates were obtained of the mitotic index (MI), the nuclear index (NI), the nuclear volume fraction (Vv(nuc/tis)), and the mean...... of disease, vv(nuc), MI, and NI were of significant independent, prognostic value. On the basis of the multivariate analyses, a prognostic index with highly distinguishing capacity between prognostically poor and favorable cases was constructed. CONCLUSION: Quantitative histopathologic variables are of value...

  15. A statistical model for characterization of histopathology images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Pablo; Castro, Guatizalema; Corredor, Germán.; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Accessing information of interest in collections of histopathology images is a challenging task. To address such issue, previous works have designed searching strategies based on the use of keywords and low-level features. However, those methods have demonstrated to not be enough or practical for this purpose. Alternative low-level features such as cell area, distance among cells and cell density are directly associated to simple histological concepts and could serve as good descriptors for this purpose. In this paper, a statistical model is adapted to represent the distribution of the areas occupied by cells for its use in whole histopathology image characterization. This novel descriptor facilitates the design of metrics based on distribution parameters and also provides new elements for a better image understanding. The proposed model was validated using image processing and statistical techniques. Results showed low error rates, demonstrating the accuracy of the model.

  16. Histopathology confirms white-nose syndrome in bats in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikula, J.; Bandouchova, H.; Novotny, L.; Meteyer, C.U.; Zukal, J.; Irwin, N.R.; Zima, J.; Martinkova, N.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome, associated with the fungal skin infection geomycosis, caused regional population collapse in bats in North America. Our results, based on histopathology, show the presence of white-nose syndrome in Europe. Dermatohistopathology on two bats (Myotis myotis) found dead in March 2010 with geomycosis in the Czech Republic had characteristics resembling Geomyces destructans infection in bats confirmed with white-nose syndrome in US hibernacula. In addition, a live M. myotis, biopsied for histopathology during hibernation in April 2011, had typical fungal infection with cupping erosion and invasion of muzzle skin diagnostic for white-nose syndrome and conidiospores identical to G. destructans that were genetically confirmed as G. destructans. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2012.

  17. Primary adenocarcinoma of ureter: A rare histopathological variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prekshi Chaudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary carcinoma of ureter is an uncommon malignancy. Of which, mostly are transitional cell carcinomas followed by squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas being the rarest histopathology encountered. We report a case of adenocarcinoma ureter in a middle-aged male along with its clinical scenario. A 62-year-old male, presented with complaints of lower urinary tract symptoms. Computerized tomography urogram showed a soft tissue lesion at the right ureterovesical junction. Cystoscopic biopsy reported villous adenoma. Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid scan reported nonfunctioning right kidney. He underwent laparoscopic right nephroureterectomy, and histopathology reported adenocarcinoma of the right lower third of ureter, with positive distal and close radial margins. The patient received external beam radiation to the postoperative bed and lymph nodes, and he is disease-free till date.

  18. Basic Histopathological Methods and Breast Lesion Types for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Nengtai; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The in situ observation on the tissues, such as histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), and in situ hybridization (ISH), is one of the most important methods in the biomedical scientific research. In this chapter we introduce the most often used methods-hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and double IF staining. H&E staining is used for general morphology by which the different pathological types of breast lesions are identified. The double IF staining is often used to study the protein-protein interaction on tissues for signaling mechanisms. This chapter also includes the histopathology of primary or simplified breast lesion types that is essential for applying the above methods and the reclassification of breast cancers by molecular markers.

  19. [Histopathology of strobilocercosis found in the livers of white mouse.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Nasuhi Engin; Miman, Ozlem; Gül, Mehmet; Daldal, Nilgün

    2010-01-01

    The adult form of Taenia taeniaeformis is found in the intestine of the cat and cheetah. The larva form is called Strobilocercus fasciolaris and is found in rodents such as mice and rats. Our objective was to draw attention to that rare zoonosis, since it has already been reported in the literature as strobilocercosis in humans. During an experimental animal study conducted at Inonu University, some unexpected cystic formations were found in the livers of nine 6-8-month-old healthy white mice, which affected the conducted study negatively. These cystic formations were examined histopathologically. Prepared sections were stained with haemotoxylin eosin, periodic acid-Schiff and Masson trichrome stains, and examined by light microscopy. Strobilocercus fasciolaris larvae that curled towards cyst cavity and their hooks were seen. Plasma cells, macrophage, focus of eosinophilic infiltration and fibroblastic connective tissue were simultaneous found. In this paper, histopathological changes in intermediate hosts caused by Strobilocercus fasciolaris and other cestod larvae have been discussed.

  20. Histopathological changes in relation to cadmium concentration in horse kidneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G.; Jonsson, L.; Piscator, M.; Rahnster, B.

    1981-10-01

    Histopathological changes in kidney cortex, as observed by light microscopy, are related to cadmium concentration in kidney cortex from 69 normal Swedish horses. Cadmium concentrations in kidney ranged from 11 to 186 ..mu..g Cd/g wet wt with an average of 60 ..mu..g Cd/g, which is considerably higher than those normally found in humans. The microscopical changes were rated and related to cadmium concentrations in kidneys by dose-response curves. A relationship existed between frequency of morphological changes and cadmium concentration in the renal cortex. There was no obvious relationship between age and frequency of histopathological changes. This indicates that in horse kidneys morphological changes occur at cadmium concentrations which are lower than the tentative critical level for humans of 200 ..mu..g Cd/g. It is concluded that horses constitute a population at risk for environmental cadmium contamination.

  1. Histopathological finding as a prognostic factor of the surgical treatment outcome in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sečen Svetozar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Adenocarcinomas of the colon are the most common malignant colorectal tumors. Macroscopic and histopahtological features of colorectal cancer significantly affect its outcome. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of histopahological finding as a prognostic factor on the surgical treatment outcome and the course of the disease. Methods. In the first part of this study the distribution (numerical and proportional of certain histopathological parameters in the examined groups of patients were reviewed; in the second part of the study the statistical significance of the impact of the certain elements of a histopahtological finding on the surgical treratment outcome was analyzed. The histopathological elements analyzed included: the hsitological tumor type grading according to Duke, ie Astler-Coller, and tumor, nodes, metastases (TNM staging in the examined sample of 100 patients. Results. Statistically significant prognostic factors of the outcome of surgical treatment were selected after multivariant analysis. These factors comprise Astler-Coller-Dukes stage D (revealed in 77.78% patients died, stage IV according TNM classification (T1-4, N0-2, M1, histological structure (poorly diferentiated adenocarcinoma in 85.2% patents died and type of tumor (mucynous adenocarcinoma was more often present in died, 77.78%. Since φ = 0.000 for four risk factors were formed using discriminant analysus, it was proved their significant influence on the outcome of surgical treatment. Discriminant coefficient showed that the greatest influence on surgical treatment were registred in patients with tumor of Astler-Coller-Dukes stage D (0.255, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (histological structure (0.139, mucynous adenocarcinoma (type of tumor (0.074 and stage IV according to the TNM elassification (T1-4, N0-2, M1 (0.39. Conclusion. The prognostic factors influencing the outcome of surgery for colorectal carcinoma were defined. Patients

  2. Pediatric Gastrointestinal Diseases in Nigeria: Histopathologic Analysis of 74 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Abudu; Emmanuel Kunle; Oyebadeyo; Tope Yinka; Inyang-Etoh; Emmanuel Columba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children are vulnerable to a vast number of diseases including gastrointestinal disorders, which may be associated with life threatening complications that sometimes result in mortality especially if left untreated. OBJECTIVE: To establish the age and sex distribution of children in the study population as well as the histopathological characteristics of gastrointestinal diseases that occurred in those children who were aged 14years and below in Sagamu, Southwestern Nigeria. MATER...

  3. Comparative histopathology of Pityriasis versicolor and Pityrosporum folliculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty five cases each of pityriasis versicolor (PV and pityrosporum folliculitis (PF were selected for this study. Histopathologically in PV, spores and hyphae in spaghetti and meatball appearance in stratum corneum, and perivascular mononuclear infiltrate were seen. In PF, spores were inside the dilated hair follicles filled with keratin, perifollicular and perivascular mononuclear infiltration were seen. Basket weave hyperkeratosis, edema and disruption of collagen were seen in 88% cases of PF and have not been reported earlier.

  4. Small renal tumor with lymph nodal enlargement: A histopathological surprise

    OpenAIRE

    Mujeeburahiman Thottathil; Ashish Verma; Nischith D′souza; Altaf Khan

    2016-01-01

    Renal cancer with lymph nodal mass on the investigation is clinically suggestive of an advanced tumor. Small renal cancers are not commonly associated with lymph nodal metastasis. Association of renal cell carcinoma with renal tuberculosis (TB) in the same kidney is also rare. We report here a case of small renal cancer with multiple hilar and paraaortic lymph nodes who underwent radical nephrectomy, and histopathology report showed renal and lymph nodal TB too.

  5. Gene Expression Patterns Associated With Histopathology in Toxic Liver Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-09

    coverage. Mass spectral data was proc- essed using Thermo Proteome Discoverer 1.4. These peak lists were searched by Sequest against a rat database...of average linkage. Random forest classifier . Random forest analysis was used to identify the top genes that contribute most to the classifier per...both the Bioplex and the microar- ray data were used to build the classifier . Histopathology was used to categorize the animals as true positives or

  6. Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia: An unusual histopathological entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Qury S; Sahai, Kavita; Malik, Ajay; Mani, N S

    2015-01-01

    Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (Masson's tumor) is a benign lesion of the skin and subcutaneous tissue consisting of a reactive proliferation of endothelial cells with papillary formations related to a thrombus. It poses a diagnostic challenge as the clinical signs and symptoms are nonspecific and may mimic a soft tissue sarcoma. The diagnosis is based on histopathology. Here we report two cases of Masson's hemangioma occurring on the upper lip and on the left hand.

  7. Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia: An unusual histopathological entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qury S Mahapatra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (Masson′s tumor is a benign lesion of the skin and subcutaneous tissue consisting of a reactive proliferation of endothelial cells with papillary formations related to a thrombus. It poses a diagnostic challenge as the clinical signs and symptoms are nonspecific and may mimic a soft tissue sarcoma. The diagnosis is based on histopathology. Here we report two cases of Masson′s hemangioma occurring on the upper lip and on the left hand.

  8. Effect of Hedera helix on lung histopathology in chronic asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Babayigit Hocaoglu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hedera helix  is widely used to treat bronchial asthma for many years. However, effects of this herb on lung histopathology is still far from clear. We aimed to determine the effect of oral administration of Hedera helix on lung histopathology in a murine model of chronic asthma.BALB/c  mice  were  divided  into  four  groups;   I  (Placebo,  II  (Hedera  helix, III (Dexamethasone and IV (Control. All mice except controls were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Then, mice in group I received saline, group II 100 mg/kg Hedera helix and group III 1 mg/kg  dexamethasone via orogastic gavage once daily for one week. Airway histopathology was evaluated by using light and electron microscopy in all groups.Goblet  cell numbers and thicknesses of basement membrane were found  significantly lower in group II, but there was no statistically significant difference in terms of number of mast cells, thicknesses of epithelium and subepithelial smooth muscle layers between group I and II. When Hedera helix and dexamethasone groups were compared with each other, thickness of epithelium, subepithelial muscle layers, number of mast cells and goblet cells of group III were significantly ameliorated when compared with the group II.Although Hedera helix administration reduced only goblet cell counts and the thicknesses of basement membrane  in the  asthmatic airways, dexamethasone ameliorated all histopathologic parameters except thickness of  basement  membrane  better  than  Hedera helix.

  9. The relation between dermoscopy and histopathology of basal cell carcinoma*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent cancer in fair-skinned populations and dermoscopy is an important, non-invasive technique that aids in the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinoma. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between histopathological subtypes and dermoscopic features of Basal cell carcinoma. METHODS: This study included 98 patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed Basal cell carcinomas. The dermoscopic features of the lesions from each patient were analyzed before the histopathological findings were evaluated. RESULTS: Dermoscopic structures were observed in all 98 patients and irregular vascularity was identified in 78 patients (79.6%). The most common vascular pattern was the presence of arborizing vessels (42 patients, 42.9%) followed by arborizing microvessels (21 patients, 21.4%) and short fine telangiectasias (SFTs; 15 patients, 15.3%). White streaks (38 patients, 38.8%), translucency (31 patients, 31.6%), a milky-pink to red background (42 patients, 42.9%), and erosion/ulceration (29 patients, 29.6%) were also observed. Pigmented islands were seen as blue-gray globules (7 patients, 7.1%) and blue-gray ovoid nests (42 patients, 42.9%). The pigment distribution pattern was maple leaf-like areas in 9 patients (9.2 %) and spoke wheel-like areas in 6 patients (6.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Basal cell carcinomas show a wide spectrum of dermoscopic features. Arborizing vessels were the most common dermoscopic findings in Basal cell carcinomas, while superficial Basal cell carcinomas displayed mainly milky-pink to red areas, and arborizing microvessels. The most common dermoscopic features of pigmented types were islands of pigment (blue-gray globules, blue-gray ovoid nests). In conclusion, dermoscopy can be used as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinomas and prediction of their histopathological subtypes. PMID:26131865

  10. A Histopathological Study of the so-called Buruli ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    山下, 裕人; 千馬, 正敬; 板倉, 英世

    1980-01-01

    A histopathological study of the so-called "Buruli ulcer" was reported. The patient was a 10-year-old African boy in Kenya suffering from ulcer formation. The ulcer was 10cm in diameter and located over the left hip. It was undermined and covered by overhanged epithelia at the ulcer edge. There was edema or lytic change in the dermis which formed gaps between the epidermis and dermis in adjacent regions. Microscopically, inflammatory cells infiltration, granulation tissue, fibrosis, and sever...

  11. A histopathological and electron microscopical observation of urticaria pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-jian Zhu

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In a case of urticaria pigmentosa, histopathological and electron microscopical observation of skin lesions before and after dermatographism were compared. The results showed that the shape, membranes, nuclei and granules of mast cells in the lesions before and after dermatographism are different. The prognosis, the clinical significance of dermato-graphism test and the pattern of degranulation in urticaria pigmentosa are discussed.

  12. Concepts of Classification and Taxonomy. Phylogenetic Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Fraix-Burnet, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic approaches to classification have been heavily developed in biology by bioinformaticians. But these techniques have applications in other fields, in particular in linguistics. Their main characteristics is to search for relationships between the objects or species in study, instead of grouping them by similarity. They are thus rather well suited for any kind of evolutionary objects. For nearly fifteen years, astrocladistics has explored the use of Maximum Parsimony (or cladistics) for astronomical objects like galaxies or globular clusters. In this lesson we will learn how it works. 1 Why phylogenetic tools in astrophysics? 1.1 History of classification The need for classifying living organisms is very ancient, and the first classification system can be dated back to the Greeks. The goal was very practical since it was intended to distinguish between eatable and toxic aliments, or kind and dangerous animals. Simple resemblance was used and has been used for centuries. Basically, until the XVIIIth...

  13. Histopathology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Fukusato, Toshio

    2014-11-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, is the most common chronic liver disease, and the prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the severe form of NAFLD, can progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although noninvasive clinical scores and image-based diagnosis for NAFLD have improved, histopathological evaluation of biopsy specimens remains the gold standard for diagnosing NAFLD/NASH. Steatosis, lobular inflammation, and hepatocellular ballooning are all necessary components for the diagnosis of NASH; fibrosis is also typically observed. Other histopathological abnormalities commonly observed in NASH include hepatocellular glycogenated nuclei, lipogranulomas, and acidophil bodies. The characteristics of pediatric NAFLD/NASH differ from adult NAFLD/NASH. Specifically, steatosis and portal inflammation are more severe in pediatric NAFLD, while intralobular inflammation and perisinusoidal fibrosis are milder. Although interobserver agreement for evaluating the extent of steatosis and fibrosis is high, agreement is low for intralobular and portal inflammation. A recently reported histological variant of HCC, steatohepatitic HCC (SH-HCC), shows features that resemble non-neoplastic steatohepatitis, and is thought to be strongly associated with underlying NASH. In this report, we review the histopathological features of NAFLD/NASH.

  14. Histopathological pattern of abnormal uterine bleeding in endometrial biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, S; Lakhey, M; Vaidya, S; Sharma, P K; Hirachand, S; Lama, S; KC, S

    2013-03-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presenting complaint in gyanecology out patient department. Histopathological evaluation of the endometrial samples plays a significant role in the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding. This study was carried out to determine the histopathological pattern of the endometrium in women of various age groups presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding. Endometrial biopsies and curettings of patients presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding was retrospectively studied. A total of 403 endometrial biopsies and curettings were analyzed. The age of the patients ranged from 18 to 70 years. Normal cyclical endometrium was seen in 165 (40.94%) cases, followed by 54 (13.40%) cases of disordered proliferative endometrium and 44 (10.92%) cases of hyperplasia. Malignancy was seen in 10 (2.48%) cases. Hyperplasia and malignancy were more common in the perimenopausal and postmenopausal age groups. Histopathological examination of endometrial biopsies and curettings in patients presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding showed a wide spectrum of changes ranging from normal endometrium to malignancy. Endometrial evaluation is specially recommended in women of perimenopausal and postmenopausal age groups presenting with AUB, to rule out a possibility of any preneoplastic condition or malignancy.

  15. Graph run-length matrices for histopathological image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Akif Burak; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2011-03-01

    The histopathological examination of tissue specimens is essential for cancer diagnosis and grading. However, this examination is subject to a considerable amount of observer variability as it mainly relies on visual interpretation of pathologists. To alleviate this problem, it is very important to develop computational quantitative tools, for which image segmentation constitutes the core step. In this paper, we introduce an effective and robust algorithm for the segmentation of histopathological tissue images. This algorithm incorporates the background knowledge of the tissue organization into segmentation. For this purpose, it quantifies spatial relations of cytological tissue components by constructing a graph and uses this graph to define new texture features for image segmentation. This new texture definition makes use of the idea of gray-level run-length matrices. However, it considers the runs of cytological components on a graph to form a matrix, instead of considering the runs of pixel intensities. Working with colon tissue images, our experiments demonstrate that the texture features extracted from "graph run-length matrices" lead to high segmentation accuracies, also providing a reasonable number of segmented regions. Compared with four other segmentation algorithms, the results show that the proposed algorithm is more effective in histopathological image segmentation.

  16. Equine pastern vasculitis: a clinical and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psalla, Dimitra; Rüfenacht, Silvia; Stoffel, Michael H; Chiers, Koen; Gaschen, Véronique; Doherr, Marcus G; Gerber, Vincent; Welle, Monika M

    2013-11-01

    Equine pastern vasculitis is clinically challenging and the underlying aetiopathogenesis is unclear. The aims of this retrospective study were to establish histopathological criteria for pastern vasculitis, to look for an underlying cause, to investigate whether the histopathological lesions are associated with a distinct clinical picture, to assess if and how the clinical picture varies, and to determine the treatment response. Skin biopsies and clinical data from 20 horses with a diagnosis of vasculitis of the distal extremities were investigated and histology was compared to biopsies from healthy horses. It was concluded that intramural inflammatory cells, leukocytoclasia with nuclear dust, thickening and oedema of the vessel walls, and microhaemorrhages are highly specific histological findings in equine pastern vasculitis. Based on the feedback from the clinicians, the lesions were mostly seen on the lateral and medial aspects of un-pigmented legs. Lesions in white skin were characterised by exudation and crusts, whereas those in pigmented skin were alopecic and characterised by scaling. The response to treatment was poor and the prognosis guarded. No association was found between any of the histopathological findings and a distinct clinical picture. An underlying cause of equine pastern vasculitis could not be identified. Considering the large number of confounding factors, the causative agents are difficult to identify, but may involve drugs or a hypersensitivity reactions to yet unknown antigens.

  17. Histopathological audit of 373 nononcological hysterectomies in a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwana, Kanwardeep Kaur; Nibhoria, Sarita; Monga, Tanvi; Phutela, Richa

    2014-01-01

    Hysterectomy, the most common gynecological surgery, provides a definitive cure to various diseases like DUB (dysfunctional uterine bleeding), leiomyoma, adenomyosis, chronic pelvic pain, prolapse, and malignancy. However, with advent of effective medical and conservative treatment modalities for nononcological causes it is now posing question mark on justification of hysterectomy. Therefore, an audit is required to assess the correlation between preoperative diagnosis and histopathological examination of specimen for justification of the procedure. In this study over period of one year (April 2013 to March 2014) 373 hysterectomies specimens were received in the department of pathology for nononcological causes. The age of patients ranged from 22 to 85 years with mean 45 ± 9.2 years. All cases were divided into five categories on the basis of age and audit was done. In this study the most common finding was leiomyoma (43.7%) followed by adenomyosis (19.3%). Almost 50% of hysterectomies causes were justified as preoperative diagnosis matched with histopathology. Cohen kappa statistics were used to measure agreement between preoperative and postoperative histopathological diagnosis which was found to be fair with κ value being 0.36. This study highlights that regular audit of surgeries can help improve quality of health care services and provide safe conservative option to patients.

  18. Histopathology of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) exposed to hydroxylated fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Boris; Whitley, Elizabeth M; Palić, Dušan

    2014-11-01

    Hydroxylated fullerenes are reported to be very strong antioxidants, acting to quench reactive oxygen species, thus having strong potential for important and widespread applications in innovative therapies for a variety of disease processes. However, their potential for toxicological side effects is still largely controversial and unknown. Effects of hydroxylated fullerenes C60(OH)24 on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were investigated microscopically after a 72-hour (acute) exposure by intraperitoneal injection of 20 ppm of hydroxylated fullerenes per gram of body mass. Cumulative, semi-quantitative histopathologic evaluation of brain, liver, anterior kidney, posterior kidney, skin, coelom, gills and the vestibuloauditory system revealed significant differences between control and hydroxylated fullerene-treated fish. Fullerene-treated fish had much higher cumulative histopathology scores. Histopathologic changes included loss of cellularity in the interstitium of the kidney, a primary site of haematopoiesis in fish, and loss of intracytoplasmic glycogen in liver. In the coelom, variable numbers of leukocytes, including many macrophages and fewer heterophils and rodlet cells, were admixed with the nanomaterial. These findings raise concern about in vivo administration of hydroxylated fullerenes in experimental drugs and procedures in human medicine, and should be investigated in more detail.

  19. Conjunctival tumors in children: histopathologic diagnosis in 165 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Zimmermann-Paiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: Conjunctival tissue tumors have a varied presentation, and few series studies on pediatric patients have been published. The objective of this paper is to report the histopathologic diagnoses (spanning over 1988-2013 of conjunctival tumors in children younger than 14 years. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive, and observational study by reviewing the database of all children in whom a conjunctival tumor was surgically removed at Hospital de Ojos y Oídos "Dr. Rodolfo Robles V.," Benemérito Comité Pro Ciegos y Sordos de Guatemala. The data pertaining to gender, age, and histopathologic diagnosis of all cases was collected. The same ocular pathologist made all diagnoses. Results: One hundred sixty-five cases were found, with a mean age of 7.88 years, being 91 (55.15% male subjects. Melanocytic lesions were the most common tumors found (30.91% of cases, with only one case (0.60% being malignant. Conclusions: Melanocytic lesions were the most common tumors found, and of all the cases, only one was malignant; this was in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum. These findings are consistent with those reported in other studies regarding the frequencies of the histopathology of conjunctival tumors in the pediatric population.

  20. Histopathological Audit of 373 Nononcological Hysterectomies in a Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwardeep Kaur Tiwana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hysterectomy, the most common gynecological surgery, provides a definitive cure to various diseases like DUB (dysfunctional uterine bleeding, leiomyoma, adenomyosis, chronic pelvic pain, prolapse, and malignancy. However, with advent of effective medical and conservative treatment modalities for nononcological causes it is now posing question mark on justification of hysterectomy. Therefore, an audit is required to assess the correlation between preoperative diagnosis and histopathological examination of specimen for justification of the procedure. In this study over period of one year (April 2013 to March 2014 373 hysterectomies specimens were received in the department of pathology for nononcological causes. The age of patients ranged from 22 to 85 years with mean 45±9.2 years. All cases were divided into five categories on the basis of age and audit was done. In this study the most common finding was leiomyoma (43.7% followed by adenomyosis (19.3%. Almost 50% of hysterectomies causes were justified as preoperative diagnosis matched with histopathology. Cohen kappa statistics were used to measure agreement between preoperative and postoperative histopathological diagnosis which was found to be fair with κ value being 0.36. This study highlights that regular audit of surgeries can help improve quality of health care services and provide safe conservative option to patients.

  1. The Histopathological Spectrum of Pyogenic Granuloma: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Marla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pyogenic granuloma is a reactive tumor-like lesion commonly affecting the oral cavity. These lesions usually appear as localized solitary nodule with a sessile or pedunculated base and colour varying from red, purplish, or pink, depending on the vascularity of the lesion. Pyogenic granuloma shows predilection for gingiva and is usually slow growing, but at times it shows rapid growth. The natural course of this lesion can be categorized into three distinct phases, namely, (i cellular phase, (ii capillary phase/vascular phase, and (iii involutionary phase. Histopathologically, pyogenic granuloma is classified into lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH and non-lobular capillary hemangioma (non-LCH. Case Presentation. In this series, four cases (varied age groups and both genders of pyogenic granuloma showing varying histopathological presentation in relation to its clinical course have been described. The lesion in its early phase reveals diffuse endothelial cells, with few budding into capillaries. Among the capillary phase, the LCH type shows numerous blood vessels organized into lobular aggregates whereas the non-LCH type does not show any such organization and resembles granulation tissue. The involutionary phase shows healing of the lesion and is characterized by extensive fibrosis in the connective tissue. Conclusion. In conclusion, knowledge of the various histopathological presentation of this lesion is necessary for proper identification.

  2. Library Classification 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author explores how a new library classification system might be designed using some aspects of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and ideas from other systems to create something that works for school libraries in the year 2020. By examining what works well with the Dewey Decimal System, what features should be carried…

  3. Multiple sparse representations classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Plenge (Esben); S.K. Klein (Stefan); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); E. Meijering (Erik)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In t

  4. Library Classification 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author explores how a new library classification system might be designed using some aspects of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and ideas from other systems to create something that works for school libraries in the year 2020. By examining what works well with the Dewey Decimal System, what features should be carried…

  5. Classifier in Age classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santhi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Face is the important feature of the human beings. We can derive various properties of a human by analyzing the face. The objective of the study is to design a classifier for age using facial images. Age classification is essential in many applications like crime detection, employment and face detection. The proposed algorithm contains four phases: preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection and classification. The classification employs two class labels namely child and Old. This study addresses the limitations in the existing classifiers, as it uses the Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM for feature extraction and Support Vector Machine (SVM for classification. This improves the accuracy of the classification as it outperforms the existing methods.

  6. Histopathological and Radiographic Analysis of Dental Follicle of Impacted Teeth Using Modified Gallego’s Stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheesan, Evie; Tamgadge, Avinash; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Periera, Treville

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the WHO classification of odontogenic tumours, hard tissue formation has been considered as a sub-classification however, this parameter has not been much explored in dental follicle in literature. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions play an important role in odontogenesis and its associated pathologies; therefore research on dental follicle should also include mesenchymal components along with epithelial components. Additionally, special stains to identify the nature of such depositions in dental follicle have been less explored. Modified Gallego’s stain is such an example which has not been tried in odontogenic lesions which makes this study unique. Aim Aim of this study was to study histopathological variations in dental follicle, the nature of calcification and depositions using Modified Gallego’s stain and to correlate histological features of dental follicle with pericoronal width radiographically. Materials and Methods A prospective histological study of the dental follicles of 50 impacted teeth was carried out to microscopically evaluate the dental follicular tissues for pathological changes, and to correlate it with pericoronal radiolucency. Impacted teeth with pericoronal radiographic width less than 3mm were included in the study and symptomatic teeth were excluded. Further Modified Gallego stain was used to differentiate the nature of hard tissue formation in dental follicle tissues. Results Dental follicle histologically showed pathological changes resembling dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, odontogenic fibroma (Simple and WHO Type), clear cell odontogenic tumour, neurofibroma, neurilemmoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Conclusion The dental follicle surrounding an impacted tooth has the potential to differentiate into a wide variety of tissue types, and thus shows the potential for cyst and tumour development which was observed in this study in most of the specimens with normal follicular width radiographically. PMID:27437341

  7. Kappa Coefficients for Circular Classifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrens, Matthijs J.; Pratiwi, Bunga C.

    2016-01-01

    Circular classifications are classification scales with categories that exhibit a certain periodicity. Since linear scales have endpoints, the standard weighted kappas used for linear scales are not appropriate for analyzing agreement between two circular classifications. A family of kappa coefficie

  8. Adult bronchiolitis--a clinical and pathological interpretative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madama, D; Matos, P; Franco, A; Matos, M J; Carvalho, L

    2016-01-01

    Bronchiolitis is a heterogeneous group of diseases of an inflammatory nature, centered on small conducting airways and often associated with other pulmonary disorders. No single classification scheme for bronchiolar diseases has been widely accepted. In this retrospective study, it was decided to apply a new clinical and pathological interpretative classification. To propose a new clinical and pathological interpretative classification for adult bronchiolitis, based on statistical analysis of a population of 193 patients with histopathological diagnosis of bronchiolitis. A retrospective study analyzed the epidemiological characteristics, co-morbidities and radiological findings present in a group of patients with histopathological diagnosis of bronchiolitis. This trial involved 193 cases collected over a period of eleven years; 48 (24.9%) patients had simultaneous pulmonary disease; non-pulmonary diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, type II Diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia were present in 57 cases. The image study was extremely important in order to integrate clinical and pathological aspects. In this study respiratory bronchiolitis related to smoking dominated. The radiological findings confirmed the secondary nature of the histopathological features, with prevalence of ground-glass patterns, pneumothorax and patterns of interstitial involvement, as described in the literature. It was also verified that clinical behavior of different forms of bronchiolitis was important to distinguish the various types, since they could progress without typical anatomopathological aspects. This trial showed that the vast majority of diagnosis obtained corresponded to bronchiolitis as secondary to pulmonary pathology. In most cases, morphological findings had to be complemented with clinical and radiological characteristics, in order to obtain the final diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights

  9. Multi-channels statistical and morphological features based mitosis detection in breast cancer histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Humayun; Roux, Ludovic; Racoceanu, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Accurate counting of mitosis in breast cancer histopathology plays a critical role in the grading process. Manual counting of mitosis is tedious and subject to considerable inter- and intra-reader variations. This work aims at improving the accuracy of mitosis detection by selecting the color channels that better capture the statistical and morphological features having mitosis discrimination from other objects. The proposed framework includes comprehensive analysis of first and second order statistical features together with morphological features in selected color channels and a study on balancing the skewed dataset using SMOTE method for increasing the predictive accuracy of mitosis classification. The proposed framework has been evaluated on MITOS data set during an ICPR 2012 contest and ranked second from 17 finalists. The proposed framework achieved 74% detection rate, 70% precision and 72% F-Measure. In future work, we plan to apply our mitosis detection tool to images produced by different types of slide scanners, including multi-spectral and multi-focal microscopy.

  10. Histopathological analysis of unilateral condylar hyperplasia: difficulties in diagnosis and characterization of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, B; Olate, S; Cantín, M; Sandoval, C; Fariña, R; Del Sol, M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a histological analysis of the conditions in patients undergoing surgery for unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH) using different histopathological analytical techniques and to describe the complications and existing controversy in order to better define the disease. A partial condylectomy was performed in five patients who had been diagnosed with UCH using clinical and imaging methods. The samples obtained were analyzed using routine histological techniques including haematoxylin-eosin, Van Gieson, picrosirius, alcian blue/haematoxylin-eosin, and AgNOR staining. The analyses were performed by an observer who was blinded to the clinical parameters of the disease. The cellularity, tissue layers, size of the anatomical structures, and the relationships between them were assessed. The analysis of these patients was complemented by a review of the scientific literature. Variability was observed in the analysis of the cases. The presence of connective tissue was detected at the bone level, with cartilage formation at different levels. Each island presented levels of involvement that could indicate various degrees of aggressiveness. Type I collagen was observed in most cases, although type III was also identified. The development of histological diagnostic methods to determine the aggressiveness or level of involvement in UCH is not currently possible. Further studies are needed to establish new histological classifications.

  11. Age-related changes in the macula. A histopathological study of fifty Indian donor eyes

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    Biswas Jyotirmay

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD is clinically less common in India compared to the West. Therefore, clinicians are unfamiliar with histopathologic evidence of age-related macular changes in the Indian population. METHODS: Fifty consecutive human donor eyes removed for corneal grafting were studied for gross, microscopic and histochemical features of age-related changes in the macula in the Indian population. A horizontal block was cut from the globe including the optic disc, and the macula. Six sections, 6 microns thick, were cut from three levels in the macula at a distance of 140 microns. These were stained with haemotoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Mallory, Masson trichrome, alcian blue and von Kossa stains. The presence of basal laminar deposits, drusen and thickening and calcification of Bruch′s membrane in the macula were assessed at 400 x magnification using a modified version of Sark′s classification. RESULTS: Twenty-four donor eyes (48% had some form of age-related macular change. These included basal laminar deposits, hard drusen, soft drusen, extensive retinal pigment epithelium atrophy of the macula, and disciform degeneration of macula. A combination of changes was often seen. Age-related changes were more common in the seventh and eighth decade. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that histological changes characteristic of the early stages of age-related macular degeneration are fairly common in the Indian population. However, advanced macular changes are significantly rare.

  12. Novel Histopathological Patterns in Cortical Tubers of Epilepsy Surgery Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Hanna M.; Scholl, Theresa; Iyer, Anand M.; Anink, Jasper J.; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Nellist, Mark D.; Jansen, Floor E.; Spliet, Wim G. M.; Krsek, Pavel; Benova, Barbora; Zamecnik, Josef; Crino, Peter B.; Prayer, Daniela; Czech, Thomas; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Rahimi, Jasmin; Höftberger, Romana; Hainfellner, Johannes A.; Feucht, Martha; Aronica, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a genetic hamartoma syndrome frequently associated with severe intractable epilepsy. In some TSC patients epilepsy surgery is a promising treatment option provided that the epileptogenic zone can be precisely delineated. TSC brain lesions (cortical tubers) contain dysmorphic neurons, brightly eosinophilic giant cells and white matter alterations in various proportions. However, a histological classification system has not been established for tubers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define distinct histological patterns within tubers based on semi-automated histological quantification and to find clinically significant correlations. In total, we studied 28 cortical tubers and seven samples of perituberal cortex from 28 TSC patients who had undergone epilepsy surgery. We assessed mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation, the numbers of giant cells, dysmorphic neurons, neurons, and oligodendrocytes, and calcification, gliosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, and myelin content. Three distinct histological profiles emerged based on the proportion of calcifications, dysmorphic neurons and giant cells designated types A, B, and C. In the latter two types we were able to subsequently associate them with specific features on presurgical MRI. Therefore, these histopathological patterns provide consistent criteria for improved definition of the clinico-pathological features of cortical tubers identified by MRI and provide a basis for further exploration of the functional and molecular features of cortical tubers in TSC. PMID:27295297

  13. Graph-based pancreatic islet segmentation for early type 2 diabetes mellitus on histopathological tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floros, Xenofon; Fuchs, Thomas J; Rechsteiner, Markus P; Spinas, Giatgen; Moch, Holger; Buhmann, Joachim M

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that in 2010 more than 220 million people will be affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Early evidence indicates that specific markers for alpha and beta cells in pancreatic islets of Langerhans can be used for early T2DM diagnosis. Currently, the analysis of such histological tissues is manually performed by trained pathologists using a light microscope. To objectify classification results and to reduce the processing time of histological tissues, an automated computational pathology framework for segmentation of pancreatic islets from histopathological fluorescence images is proposed. Due to high variability in the staining intensities for alpha and beta cells, classical medical imaging approaches fail in this scenario. The main contribution of this paper consists of a novel graph-based segmentation approach based on cell nuclei detection with randomized tree ensembles. The algorithm is trained via a cross validation scheme on a ground truth set of islet images manually segmented by 4 expert pathologists. Test errors obtained from the cross validation procedure demonstrate that the graph-based computational pathology analysis proposed is performing competitively to the expert pathologists while outperforming a baseline morphological approach.

  14. Spinal meningiomas in dogs: Description of 8 cases including a novel radiological and histopathological presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    José-López, Roberto; de la Fuente, Cristian; Pumarola, Martí; Añor, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Clinical, imaging, and histological features of 8 canine spinal meningiomas, including a cervical cystic meningioma with imaging and intraoperative features of an arachnoid cyst, are described. All meningiomas were histologically classified and graded following the international World Health Organization human classification for tumors. Six meningiomas were located in the cervical spinal cord. Myelography showed intradural/ extramedullary lesions in 3/4 cases. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperintense intradural/extramedullary masses on pre-contrast T1-weighted and T2-weighted images with homogeneous contrast enhancement in 7/8 cases. One dog had a cerebrospinal fluid-filled subarachnoid cavity dorsal to the cervical spinal cord. A spinal arachnoid cyst was diagnosed on imaging, but the histopathological study of the resected tissue revealed a grade I meningothelial cystic meningioma. There were no differences in outcome associated with tumor grade and surgical treatment (6/8). Cystic meningioma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intraspinal cystic lesions, and biopsy is necessary for definitive diagnosis. PMID:24155414

  15. Combined Scintigraphy and Tumor Marker Analysis Predicts Unfavorable Histopathology of Neuroblastic Tumors with High Accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Peter Fendler

    Full Text Available Our aim was to improve the prediction of unfavorable histopathology (UH in neuroblastic tumors through combined imaging and biochemical parameters.123I-MIBG SPECT and MRI was performed before surgical resection or biopsy in 47 consecutive pediatric patients with neuroblastic tumor. Semi-quantitative tumor-to-liver count-rate ratio (TLCRR, MRI tumor size and margins, urine catecholamine and NSE blood levels of neuron specific enolase (NSE were recorded. Accuracy of single and combined variables for prediction of UH was tested by ROC analysis with Bonferroni correction.34 of 47 patients had UH based on the International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification (INPC. TLCRR and serum NSE both predicted UH with moderate accuracy. Optimal cut-off for TLCRR was 2.0, resulting in 68% sensitivity and 100% specificity (AUC-ROC 0.86, p < 0.001. Optimal cut-off for NSE was 25.8 ng/ml, resulting in 74% sensitivity and 85% specificity (AUC-ROC 0.81, p = 0.001. Combination of TLCRR/NSE criteria reduced false negative findings from 11/9 to only five, with improved sensitivity and specificity of 85% (AUC-ROC 0.85, p < 0.001.Strong 123I-MIBG uptake and high serum level of NSE were each predictive of UH. Combined analysis of both parameters improved the prediction of UH in patients with neuroblastic tumor. MRI parameters and urine catecholamine levels did not predict UH.

  16. Novel Histopathological Patterns in Cortical Tubers of Epilepsy Surgery Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Mühlebner

    Full Text Available Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC is a genetic hamartoma syndrome frequently associated with severe intractable epilepsy. In some TSC patients epilepsy surgery is a promising treatment option provided that the epileptogenic zone can be precisely delineated. TSC brain lesions (cortical tubers contain dysmorphic neurons, brightly eosinophilic giant cells and white matter alterations in various proportions. However, a histological classification system has not been established for tubers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define distinct histological patterns within tubers based on semi-automated histological quantification and to find clinically significant correlations. In total, we studied 28 cortical tubers and seven samples of perituberal cortex from 28 TSC patients who had undergone epilepsy surgery. We assessed mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 activation, the numbers of giant cells, dysmorphic neurons, neurons, and oligodendrocytes, and calcification, gliosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, and myelin content. Three distinct histological profiles emerged based on the proportion of calcifications, dysmorphic neurons and giant cells designated types A, B, and C. In the latter two types we were able to subsequently associate them with specific features on presurgical MRI. Therefore, these histopathological patterns provide consistent criteria for improved definition of the clinico-pathological features of cortical tubers identified by MRI and provide a basis for further exploration of the functional and molecular features of cortical tubers in TSC.

  17. Prognostic implications of cell kinetics, histopathology and pathologic stage in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrini, R; Costa, A; Giardini, R; Boracchi, P; Del Bino, G; Marubini, E; Rilke, F

    1989-01-01

    Cell kinetics ([3H]-thymidine labelling index, [3H]-Thy LI) were determined on pathologic lymph nodes from 175 untreated adult patients. [3H]-Thy LI significantly differed in low-grade and high-grade malignancy groups according to the Kiel classification (median values, 1.8 per cent and 10.4 per cent, respectively) and in low, intermediate, high grade according to the Working Formulation (median values: 1.7 per cent, 4.8 per cent and 14.2 per cent, respectively) but was unrelated to pathologic stage or patient's age. Cell kinetics, histopathology, pathologic stage and patient's age were significant discriminants of 6-year survival. Multivariate analysis was performed by Cox's proportional hazard model to investigate the role of [3H]-Thy LI after making allowance for the other prognostic factors. When [3H]-Thy LI was added to the model, a large increase (chi square = 29.94) contributed by the cell kinetic variable in identifying patients at different risk was revealed.

  18. Lymphoma diagnosis in histopathology using a multi-stage visual learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codella, Noel; Moradi, Mehdi; Matasar, Matt; Sveda-Mahmood, Tanveer; Smith, John R.

    2016-03-01

    This work evaluates the performance of a multi-stage image enhancement, segmentation, and classification approach for lymphoma recognition in hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained histopathology slides of excised human lymph node tissue. In the first stage, the original histology slide undergoes various image enhancement and segmentation operations, creating an additional 5 images for every slide. These new images emphasize unique aspects of the original slide, including dominant staining, staining segmentations, non-cellular groupings, and cellular groupings. For the resulting 6 total images, a collection of visual features are extracted from 3 different spatial configurations. Visual features include the first fully connected layer (4096 dimensions) of the Caffe convolutional neural network trained from ImageNet data. In total, over 200 resultant visual descriptors are extracted for each slide. Non-linear SVMs are trained over each of the over 200 descriptors, which are then input to a forward stepwise ensemble selection that optimizes a late fusion sum of logistically normalized model outputs using local hill climbing. The approach is evaluated on a public NIH dataset containing 374 images representing 3 lymphoma conditions: chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Results demonstrate a 38.4% reduction in residual error over the current state-of-art on this dataset.

  19. Fulminant hepatic failure in children: Etiology, histopathology and MDCT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakir, Banu [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: banutopcu@yahoo.com; Kirbas, Ismail [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: drismailk@yahoo.com; Demirhan, Beyhan [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Pathology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: beyhand@baskent-ank.edu.tr; Tarhan, Nefise Cagla [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: caglat@gmail.com; Bozkurt, Alper [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: abozkurt78@hotmail.com; Ozcay, Figen [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: fozcay@baskent.edu.tr; Coskun, Mehmet [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: mcoskun@baskent-ank.edu.tr

    2009-11-15

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to determine the etiologies, histopathology and MDCT findings of children with fulminant hepatic failure admitted to our institution. Materials and methods: Between June 2004 and November 2006, 15 children with fulminant hepatic failure who underwent MDCT were included retrospectively in this study. Twelve patients had liver biopsies. The patients were divided into three groups as hyperacute (Group I), acute (Group II) and subacute (Group III) depending on onset of hepatic encephalopathy. Results: Hepatitis A in 4 patients, non-A, non-E hepatitis in 4; mushroom poisoning in 3; fulminant Wilson's disease in 2; autoimmune hepatitis in 1; and both hepatitis B and toxic hepatitis (with leflunomide treatment) in 1 patient were detected. MDCT of all three groups revealed diffuse reduction in hepatic attenuation in 11 patients; ascites in 9; periportal edema in 6; edema of gallbladder wall in 6; splenomegaly in 6; heterogeneous hepatic parenchyma in 6; hepatomegaly in 3; irregular contours of liver in 2; multiple micronodules in 1 and necrotic areas and regeneration in liver parenchyma in 2 patients. Histopathologic evaluation of liver biopsies showed massive hepatic necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration and ductular proliferation in 8 patients, periportal edema in 6, edema of gallbladder wall in 5, regenerating nodules and fibrous septa consistent with cirrhotic pattern in 2, and regenerating nodules and necrotic areas in 2 patients. Conclusion: The most common MDCT findings in fulminant hepatic failure were diffuse reduction in hepatic attenuation and ascites. Massive hepatic necrosis was the most common histopathologic finding.

  20. Applying perceptual and adaptive learning techniques for teaching introductory histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Krasne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical students are expected to master the ability to interpret histopathologic images, a difficult and time-consuming process. A major problem is the issue of transferring information learned from one example of a particular pathology to a new example. Recent advances in cognitive science have identified new approaches to address this problem. Methods: We adapted a new approach for enhancing pattern recognition of basic pathologic processes in skin histopathology images that utilizes perceptual learning techniques, allowing learners to see relevant structure in novel cases along with adaptive learning algorithms that space and sequence different categories (e.g. diagnoses that appear during a learning session based on each learner′s accuracy and response time (RT. We developed a perceptual and adaptive learning module (PALM that utilized 261 unique images of cell injury, inflammation, neoplasia, or normal histology at low and high magnification. Accuracy and RT were tracked and integrated into a "Score" that reflected students rapid recognition of the pathologies and pre- and post-tests were given to assess the effectiveness. Results: Accuracy, RT and Scores significantly improved from the pre- to post-test with Scores showing much greater improvement than accuracy alone. Delayed post-tests with previously unseen cases, given after 6-7 weeks, showed a decline in accuracy relative to the post-test for 1 st -year students, but not significantly so for 2 nd -year students. However, the delayed post-test scores maintained a significant and large improvement relative to those of the pre-test for both 1 st and 2 nd year students suggesting good retention of pattern recognition. Student evaluations were very favorable. Conclusion: A web-based learning module based on the principles of cognitive science showed an evidence for improved recognition of histopathology patterns by medical students.

  1. Quantitative and semi-quantitative histopathological examination of renal biopsies in healthy individuals, and associations with kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Yael; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Wallin, Maria; Mölne, Johan

    2016-05-01

    This study assesed the prevalence of histopathological changes in renal biopsies from healthy individuals, and the association with age, sex and smoking. Donor biopsies from 109 subjects were obtained from living kidney donors, and blood and urine samples were collected together with medical history. All biopsies were scored according to the Banff '97 classification with some modifications. The parameters included in this study were tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, arteriolohyalinosis and a sclerosis score. An alternative scoring system for tubular atrophy was examined (using ≤5% rather than kidney donors around 50 years of age with normal kidney function. We propose that a cut-off of ≤5% yields a better definition of grade 0 tubular atrophy compared with the established cut-off of >0%.

  2. GRANULAR CELL TUMOR OF BREAST (CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS CONFIRMED BY HISTOPATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divvya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumor is a tumor derived from Schwann cells of peripheral nerves and it can occur throughout the body. About 5% of granular cell tumors occur in breast and are mostly benign in nature. We report a case of 30 year old female who presented with a swelling in right breast which on histo pathological examination revealed features consistent with granular cell tumor. This case is highlighted to reveal the importance of histopathology in differentiating granular cell tumor from carcinoma breast which is difficult based on clinical, radiological and cytological examination alone.

  3. Optic nerve histopathology in a case of Wolfram Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; Pan, Billy X; Silva, Ruwan A

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in Wolfram Syndrome (WS) is controversial and optic neuropathy, a cardinal clinical manifestation, is poorly characterized. We here describe the histopathological features in postmortem retinas and optic nerves (ONs) from one patient with WS, testing the hypothesis...... that mitochondrial dysfunction underlies the pathology. Eyes and retrobulbar ONs were obtained at autopsy from a WS patient, and compared with those of a Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) patient and one healthy control. Retinas were stained with hematoxylin & eosin for general morphology and ONs were...... of axonal degeneration, involving primarily the papillomacular bundle, closely resembled LHON and other mitochondrial optic neuropathies, supporting that mitochondrial dysfunction underlies its pathogenesis....

  4. Histopathological diagnosis of acral lentiginous melanoma in early stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Cassarino, David S

    2017-02-01

    Acral lentiginous melanoma is a rare variant of melanoma that is associated with a relatively low survival rate. The latter is partly due to the advanced stage in which the tumor is usually diagnosed. The diagnostic delay is mainly due to difficulties in identifying the very early histopathological signs of acral melanoma. The current article is a review of diagnostic clues, concepts, and definitions from the literature, as well as illustrating examples from our own archives. We have sought to provide an article that can be easily consulted in difficult cases of acral lentiginous melanoma.

  5. Histopathology of mallards dosed with lead and selected substitute shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Irby, H.D.; Bagley, G.E.

    1967-01-01

    The histopathological response of male game farm mallards fed lead, three types of plastic-coated lead, two lead-magnesium alloys, iron, copper, zinc-coated iron, and molybdenum-coated iron shot was studied. Mallards fed lead, plastic-coated lead, or lead-magnesium alloy shot developed a similar pathological response, including the formation of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in the kidneys. Birds fed iron or molybdenum-coated iron shot developed hemosiderosis of the liver. Two of four mallards fed zinc-coated iron shot also developed hemosiderosis of the liver. No lesions were found in mallards fed copper shot.

  6. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  7. Elastoma: clinical and histopathological aspects of a rare disease*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Marina Gagheggi; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva; Seize, Maria Bandeira de Melo Paiva; Marcassi, Aline Pantano; Piazza, Christiane Affonso De Donato; Cestari, Silmara da Costa Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Elastoma is a connective tissue nevus characterized by changes in elastic fibers. It can be congenital or acquired, and is usually diagnosed before puberty. Associated with osteopoikilosis, it is known as Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome. Histopathology with specific staining for elastic fibers is critical for a diagnostic conclusion. This report describes the case of a 7-year-old male patient with lesions diagnosed as elastoma, with absence of bone changes in the radiological imaging. This study aims to report the clinical presentation and histological examination of such unusual disease.

  8. Histopathological spectrum of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Surya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas (PLGA are distinctive salivary gland neoplasms, with an almost exclusive propensity to arise from the minor salivary glands. PLGA frequently manifests as an asymptomatic, slow-growing mass within the oral cavity, which must be separated from adenoid cystic carcinoma and benign mixed tumor for therapeutic and prognostic considerations. We report a case of a 67-year-old male, who presented with a long-standing mass in the palate. This lesion was diagnosed as PLGA based on histopathological findings, which was further confirmed by the immunohistochemical marker.

  9. Histopathological insight of complex odontoma associated with a dentigerous cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astekar, Madhusudan; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha; Kaur, Prabhpreet; Singh, Jappreet

    2014-01-31

    Odontomas and dentigerous cysts are common findings for practicing dental professionals. However, simultaneous occurrence of pathologies like odontoma and dentigerous cyst are uncommon and their diagnosis based on the radiographic appearance alone is a challenge to overcome. They together are a potential for complications like attaining large size, root resorption, destruction of the jaw bones and sometimes neoplastic changes like ameloblastoma. This paper presents a case of complex odontoma associated with dentigerous cyst in relation to a retained deciduous tooth in the maxillary anterior region and confirming its diagnosis histopathologically.

  10. Histopathological study of congenital aortic valve malformations in 32 children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ping; WANG Hongwei; LI Yanping; CHENG Peixuan; LIU Qingjun; ZHANG Zhenlu; LIU Jianying

    2007-01-01

    The histopathological characteristics of congenital aortic valve malformations in children were investigated.All the native surgically excised aortic valves from 32 pediatric patients suffering from symptomatic aortic valve dysfunction due to congenital aortic valve malformations between January 2003 and December 2005 were studied macroscopically and microscopically.The patients' medical records were reviewed and the clinical information was extracted.The diagnosis was made by the clinical presentation,preoperative echocardiography,intraoperative examination,and postoperative histopathological study,excluding rheumatic ot degenerative aortic valve diseases,infective endocarditis and primary connective tissue disorders,e.g.Marfan syndrome.Among 32 children with congenital aortic valve malformations,the age was ranged from six to 18 years,with a mean of 14.9 years,and there were 27 boys and five girls (male:female = 5.4:1).There were five cases of aortic stenosis (AS,15.62%),25 cases of aortic insufficiency (AI,78.13 %)and two cases of AS-AI (6.25%),without other valve diseases.Twenty cases still had other congenital heart diseases:ventricular septal defect (19 cases),patent ductus arteriosus (two cases),double-chambered right ventricle (one case),aneurysm of the right anterior aortic sinus of valsalva (three cases).Histopathological examination indicated that the cusps became thickening with unequal size,irregular shape (coiling and prolapse edge),enhanced hardness,and partly calcification.Microscopic investigation revealed the unsharp structure of valve tissue,fibrosis,myxomatous,reduced collagen fiber,rupture of elastic fibers,different degrees of infiltration of inflammatory cells,secondary calcareous and lipid deposit,and secondary fibrosis.Congenital aortic valve malformations in children involve males more than females,mostly associated with other congenital heart diseases.Aortic insufficiency is more common in children with congenital aortic valve

  11. Clinico- histopathological study of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen cases of sub acute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE were selected from Dermato- Venereology outpatients during the last 2½ years. Clinically all patients revealed photosensitivity and annular plaques either covered with peripheral collarette of scale or EM - like or DLE - like lesions. Systemic associations were arthralgia in 4, hypertension in I. rheumatoid arthritis in I and pulmonary tuberculosis in L Histopathologically epidermal atrophy, interface dermatitis, basal cell degeneration, colloid bodies and mononuclear infiltrate of dermis were salient features. Good response to 15 mg prednisolonc, medium potency topical steroids and sunscreens was seen in all cases.

  12. Ovarian Steroid Cell Tumour: Correlation of Histopathology with Clinicopathologic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazala Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian steroid cell tumours (not otherwise specified are rare neoplasms of the ovary and are classified under lipid cell tumours. Their diagnosis can be considered as one of exclusion. Histopathologically, the tumour should carefully be evaluated for microscopic features of malignancy, but it is essential for the clinician and the pathologist to remember that in these tumours, pathologically benign histomorphology does not exclude the possibility of clinically malignant behaviour. Our case study focuses on the comparative findings in a postmenopausal female diagnosed with an ovarian steroid tumour (not otherwise specified. A careful correlation between clinical and surgical evaluation and microscopic analysis is necessary, as is a regular followup.

  13. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF OVARIAN TUMORS IN PAEDIATRIC AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Ovarian tumors are r are in children and constitute 1% of all childhood malignancies and 8% of abdominal tumors. Large cysts and those complicated by torsion make their presence clear by their symptomatology. However, ovarian pathology is still mostly discovered at laparotomy for presumptive appendicitis. Accurate diagnosis of these tumors at such a young age is a great challenge to surgeons and pathologists. This article reviews the clinical presentation, radiological imaging, gross and histopathological findings at the Pathol ogy Department of a Paediatric Referral centre in Hyderabad

  14. Emerging aspects of oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal junction cancer histopathology – an update for the surgical oncologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mapstone Nicholas P

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and gastro-oesophageal junction are rapidly increasing in incidence and have a well described sequence of carcinogenesis: the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. During recent years there have been changes in the knowledge surrounding disease progression, cancer management and histopathology specimen reporting. Tumours around the gastro-oesophageal junction (GOJ pose several specific challenges. Numerous difficulties arise when the existing TNM staging systems for gastric and oesophageal cancers are applied to GOJ tumours. The issues facing the current TNM staging and GOJ tumour classification systems are reviewed in this article. Recent evidence regarding the importance of several histopathologically derived prognostic factors, such as circumferential resection margin status and lymph node metastases, have implications for specimen reporting. With the rising use of multimodal treatments for oesophageal cancer it is important that the response of the tumour to this therapy is carefully documented pathologically. In addition, several controversial and novel areas such as endoscopic mucosal resection, lymph node micrometastases and the sentinel node concept are being studied. We aim to review these aspects, with special relevance to oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal cancer specimen reporting, to update the surgical oncologist with an interest in upper gastrointestinal cancer.

  15. Classification system for oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramani Bhagvan More

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a potentially malignant disorder (PMD and crippling condition of oral mucosa. It is a chronic insidious scarring disease of oral cavity, pharynx and upper digestive tract, characterized by progressive inability to open the mouth due to loss of elasticity and development of vertical fibrous bands in labial and buccal tissues. OSMF is a debilitating but preventable oral disease. It predominantly affects people of Southeast Asia and Indian subcontinent, where chewing of arecanut and its commercial preparation is high. Presence of fibrous bands is the main characteristic feature of OSMF. The present literature review provides the compilation of various classification system based on clinical and/or histopathological features of OSMF from several databases. The advantages and drawbacks of these classifications supersede each other, leading to perplexity. An attempt is made to provide and update the knowledge about this potentially malignant disorder to health care providers in order to help in early detection and treatment, thus reducing the mortality of oral cancer.

  16. 78 FR 54970 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... process in March 2012 (77 FR 5379). When verified by a futures classification, Smith-Doxey data serves as... Classification: Optional Classification Procedure AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed... for the addition of an optional cotton futures classification procedure--identified and known...

  17. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  18. Learning Apache Mahout classification

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist who has some experience with the Hadoop ecosystem and machine learning methods and want to try out classification on large datasets using Mahout, this book is ideal for you. Knowledge of Java is essential.

  19. Update on diabetes classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Celeste C; Philipson, Louis H

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the difficulties in creating a definitive classification of diabetes mellitus in the absence of a complete understanding of the pathogenesis of the major forms. This brief review shows the evolving nature of the classification of diabetes mellitus. No classification scheme is ideal, and all have some overlap and inconsistencies. The only diabetes in which it is possible to accurately diagnose by DNA sequencing, monogenic diabetes, remains undiagnosed in more than 90% of the individuals who have diabetes caused by one of the known gene mutations. The point of classification, or taxonomy, of disease, should be to give insight into both pathogenesis and treatment. It remains a source of frustration that all schemes of diabetes mellitus continue to fall short of this goal.

  20. [Classification of cardiomyopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Masanori; Kitakaze, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a group of cardiovascular diseases with poor prognosis. Some patients with dilated cardiomyopathy need heart transplantations due to severe heart failure. Some patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy die unexpectedly due to malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Various phenotypes of cardiomyopathies are due to the heterogeneous group of diseases. The classification of cardiomyopathies is important and indispensable in the clinical situation. However, their classification has not been established, because the causes of cardiomyopathies have not been fully elucidated. We usually use definition and classification offered by WHO/ISFC task force in 1995. Recently, several new definitions and classifications of the cardiomyopathies have been published by American Heart Association, European Society of Cardiology and Japanese Circulation Society.

  1. Carbohydrate terminology and classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cummings, J H; Stephen, A M

    2007-01-01

    ...) and polysaccharides (DP> or =10). Within this classification, a number of terms are used such as mono- and disaccharides, polyols, oligosaccharides, starch, modified starch, non-starch polysaccharides, total carbohydrate, sugars, etc...

  2. Expected Classification Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence M. Rudner

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Every time we make a classification based on a test score, we should expect some number..of misclassifications. Some examinees whose true ability is within a score range will have..observed scores outside of that range. A procedure for providing a classification table of..true and expected scores is developed for polytomously scored items under item response..theory and applied to state assessment data. A simplified procedure for estimating the..table entries is also presented.

  3. Completion of the classification

    CERN Document Server

    Strade, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    This is the last of three volumes about ""Simple Lie Algebras over Fields of Positive Characteristic""by Helmut Strade, presenting the state of the art of the structure and classification of Lie algebras over fields of positive characteristic. In this monograph the proof of the Classification Theorem presented in the first volumeis concluded.Itcollects all the important results on the topic whichcan be found only in scatteredscientific literaturso far.

  4. Twitter content classification

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper delivers a new Twitter content classification framework based sixteen existing Twitter studies and a grounded theory analysis of a personal Twitter history. It expands the existing understanding of Twitter as a multifunction tool for personal, profession, commercial and phatic communications with a split level classification scheme that offers broad categorization and specific sub categories for deeper insight into the real world application of the service.

  5. Practical molecular pathology and histopathology of embryonal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Joanna; Tihan, Tarik; Fuller, Gregory

    2015-03-01

    There have been significant improvements in understanding of embryonal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) in recent years. These advances are most likely to influence the diagnostic algorithms and methodology currently proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) classification scheme. Molecular evidence suggests that the tumors presumed to be specific entities within the CNS/primitive neuroectodermal tumors spectrum are likely to be reclassified. All these developments compel reassessing current status and expectations from the upcoming WHO classification efforts. This review provides a synopsis of current developments and a practical algorithm for the work-up of these tumors in practice.

  6. [Clinicopathological study of the 1973 who classification and the WHO/ISUP classification in pTa bladder carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Ryo; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Yoshida, Shinri; Shiota, Takako; Nisikimi, Toshinori; Yamada, Hiroshi; Yokoi, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Hiroaki

    2010-05-01

    To compare the usefulness of the World Health Organization (WHO) 1973 classification with the WHO/International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) classification in pTa bladder tumors. A retrospective analysis was performed on 132 patients (107 men and 25 women; mean age 69 years) with a initial diagnosis of pTa bladder carcinoma. Median follow-up were 67 months. On the WHO 1973 classification, histopathological evaluation of initial diagnostic specimens revealed 51 cases with grade1, 68 cases with grade 2, 13 cases with grade3. All histological slides were examined by one genitourinary pathologist blinded with respect to clinical outcome and were classified according to the WHO/ISUP classification. Disease progression was defined as up stage (> or = pT1). Actual probability of progression-free and recurrence-free survival rate were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Log rank test was used to determine statistical difference between actual curves. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done using Cox regression analysis. The independent variables were multiplicity, histopathological grade, and adjuvant intravesical therapy. The dependent variable was disease progression and recurrence. The tumors were reclassified as low grade carcinoma in 77 and high grade carcinoma in 55. During the follow-up, 68 patients experience recurrence, 14 patients experienced disease progression. On the WHO 1973 classification, the risk of recurrence was significantly lower in patients with grade 1 compared to those with grade3 (p = 0.007). On the WHO/ISUP classification, the risk of recurrence and disease progression were significantly lower in patients with low grade compared to those with high grade (p = 0.003, P = 0.01). After adjustment for tumor multiplicity and adjuvant therapy, the relative risks of recurrence and progression in the low grade carcinoma versus the high grade carcinoma was 2.0 (95% confidence intervals 1.26-3.31), 5.6 (95% confidence intervals 1

  7. Histopathological study of endometrium in cases of abnormal uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj A. Bolde

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest complaints in women and when it occurs without organic lesions like tumor, inflammation, it is called as dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Aim of current study was to find out the histopathological pattern of endometrium in Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB also to study organic causes of AUB. Methods: Specimens received as endometrial curettage and hysterectomy specimens were studied followed by correlation of histopathology with age and clinical presentation. Results: The patients were mainly from the age group of 30-49 years (74.24%. The most common menstrual disorder was menorrhagia (46.86%. In dysfunctional uterine bleeding the most common histological pattern of endometrium includes proliferative endometrium (22.8% followed by endometrial hyperplasia (19.40%, atrophic endometrium (7.16%, secretory endometrium (5.97%, irregular shedding [1.80%], irregular ripening (1.20% and anovulatory endometrium (0.59%. Organic lesions encountered in AUB cases were leiomyoma (17.92%, endometrial polyp (1.79%, endometrial carcinoma (1.50%, endometriosis (0.59% and choriocarcinoma (0.29%. Conclusion: It is important to know the histological pattern of the endometrium like proliferative endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia, atrophic endometrium, secretory endometrium, irregular ripening and shredding and organic lesions in patients diagnosed as AUB in different age groups since recognition of these conditions will help and will avoid further complications. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1378-1381

  8. Vascular leg ulcers: histopathologic study of 293 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misciali, Cosimo; Dika, Emi; Baraldi, Carlotta; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Mirelli, Michele; Stella, Andrea; Bertoncelli, Marco; Patrizi, Annalisa

    2014-12-01

    Vascular leg ulcers remain a challenge for the modern health care, and a systematic pathological study on this kind of lesions has not been reported so far. A total of 293 consecutive white patients with chronic leg ulcers (present for a minimum of 6 months and up to several years) referred to the Wound Care Unit (Dermatology, University of Bologna) between March 2008 and June 2011. Thirty-four patients affected by other than vascular ulcers, neoplastic or inflammatory conditions, were excluded. The remaining 259 patients affected by vascular leg ulcers were enrolled in this study. Assessment of the patients general health, skin biopsy, and vascular Doppler of the lower limbs were performed to determine the etiology and to formulate an appropriate management plan, whereas 2 punch biopsies of 3 mm were performed on the border and on the bed of each ulcer. Doppler evaluation showed the presence of vascular hemodynamic impairment in 259 patients. Of these, 181 (69.9%) patients were affected by venous insufficiency, 58 (22.4%) by venous and arterial insufficiency, and 20 (7.7%) by arterial insufficiency. Histopathologic features revealed significant differences, thus, reflecting the clinicopathologic correlation with the underlying hemodynamic impairments. In conclusion, histopathologic and hemodynamic data correlation could provide the basis for future analysis of leg ulcers pathogenesis and may improve treatment protocols. We should underline that this observational study represents a single-institute experience and that larger series are needed to confirm our observations.

  9. Histopathology of explanted AlphaCor due to keratoprosthesis extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporossi, Aldo; Mazzotta, Cosimo; Balestrazzi, Angelo; Occhini, Rossella; Toti, Paolo; Traversi, Claudio

    2006-07-01

    AlphaCor keratoprosthesis (KPro) is a new-concept poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) one-piece KPro that makes possible a two-step implantation technique easy to perform with a short learning curve. In literature an 18% incidence of AlphaCor removal due to melting complications is reported. The histopathology of corneal tissue removed during a re-operation while bearing an AlphaCor KPro has previously been described in the literature only in one report. Herein, the first histological features of an AlphaCor-corneal complex explanted because of KPro extrusion is described. The histopathology of the AlphaCor-corneal complex is characterized by mild inflammation in the corneal tissues, limited to the region surrounding the anteriorized and extruded part of the KPro. It is not possible to fully understand the mechanisms that trigger the device extrusion. One possible explanation could be a dislocation of the prosthesis in the corneal pocket due to the untied fixation stitch. Another explanation could be a foreign body reaction induced by KPro.

  10. Rapid growth of an orbital hemangiopericytoma with atypical histopathological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco LF

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Luiz Frederico Pacheco,1,2 Bruno F Fernandes,1 Cristina Miyamoto,1,3 Shawn C Maloney,1 Bryan Arthurs,1 Miguel N Burnier Jr1,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Hemangiopericytoma is a rare vascular tumor that originates from pericytes. The orbit is a rare location for this particular tumor, and corresponds to 0.8% to 3% of all primary orbital tumors. We report a case of a hemangiopericytoma in a 45-year-old man that had an unusual presentation, as a rapidly growing mass in the anterior right inferior orbit. Given that there are no clinical or radiological signs pathognomonic of this tumor, a careful histopathological examination is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. In our case, it presented also with unusual histopathological findings. The clinical features, radiological findings, differential diagnosis and treatment of this challenging entity are reviewed in this case report. Keywords: hemangiopericytoma, orbit, tumor

  11. Clinical-histopathological correlation in a case of Coats' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zajdenweber Moyses E

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coats' disease is a non-hereditary ocular disease, with no systemic manifestation, first described by Coats in 1908. It occurs more commonly in children and has a clear male predominance. Most patients present clinically with unilateral decreased vision, strabismus or leukocoria. The most important differential diagnosis is unilateral retinoblastoma, which occurs in the same age group and has some overlapping clinical manifestations. Case presentation A 4 year-old girl presented with a blind and painful right eye. Ocular examination revealed neovascular glaucoma, cataract and posterior synechiae. Although viewing of the fundus was impossible, computed tomography disclosed total exsudative retinal detachment in the affected eye. The eye was enucleated and subsequent histopathological evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of Coats' disease. Conclusion General pathologists usually do not have the opportunity to receive and study specimens from patients with Coats' disease. Coats' disease is one of the most important differential diagnoses of retinoblastoma. Therefore, It is crucial for the pathologist to be familiar with the histopathological features of the former, and distinguish it from the latter.

  12. Histopathologic ear findings of syphilis: a temporal bone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hızlı, Ömer; Hızlı, Pelin; Kaya, Serdar; Monsanto, Rafael da Costa; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2016-09-01

    To the best of our knowledge, histopathologic studies of syphilitic ears have generally focused on hydropic changes; so far, no such studies have investigated peripheral vestibular otopathology using differential interference contrast microscopy, in patients with syphilis. For this study, we examined 13 human temporal bone samples from 8 patients with a history of syphilis. Using conventional light microscopy, we performed qualitative histopathologic assessment. In addition, using differential interference contrast microscopy, we performed type I and type II vestibular hair cell counts on each vestibular sense organ with minimal autolysis; in which the neuroepithelium was oriented perpendicular to the plane of section. We then compared vestibular hair cell densities (cells per 0.01 mm² surface area) in the syphilis group vs. the control group. In the syphilis group, we observed precipitate in the endolymphatic or perilymphatic spaces in 1 (7.7 %) of the samples and endolymphatic hydrops in eight (61.5 %) of the samples. Hydrops involved the cochlea (four samples) and/or saccule (four samples). In addition, the syphilis group experienced a significant loss of type II vestibular hair cells in the maculae of the utricle and saccule, and in the cristae of the lateral and posterior semicircular canals, as compared with the control group (P < 0.05).

  13. Primary mucinous carcinoma with direct histopathologic evidence of lymphatic invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warycha, Melanie; Kamino, Hideko; Mobini, Narciss; Hale, Elizabeth K

    2006-01-01

    Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin is a rare sweat gland neoplasm which occurs most commonly in the periorbital region. Although the tumor has a propensity for local recurrence and regional spread, distant metastases are rare. The standard treatment of primary mucinous carcinoma is wide local excision. Mohs micrographic surgery may also be utilized in cases where tissue conservation is of utmost concern. We present a case of primary mucinous carcinoma arising in the scalp, which was treated with wide local excision. A case report and literature review are presented. Histopathologic evaluation revealed a well-circumscribed neoplasm characterized by lobules and aggregates of epithelial cells embedded in abundant pools of mucin. In addition, small aggregates of neoplastic cells were found at a distance from the primary nodule, indicative of lymphatic invasion. Primary mucinous carcinoma has a high propensity for locoregional metastases and recurrence. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating direct histopathologic evidence of lymphatic invasion which correlates with this tumor's biologic behavior.

  14. Acute radiation proctitis. A clinical, histopathological and histochemical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovdenak, Nils

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the study is: 1) A sequential description of the clinical course of acute radiation proctitis during pelvic RT. 2) A sequential description of the rectal mucosal histopathology during pelvic RT as a possible substrate for clinical toxicity. 3) To assess the mucosal protease activity during RT as a possible explanation of the observed tissue changes. 4) To assess the efficacy of prophylactic sucralfate in acute radiation proctitis a randomised study was initiated and carried out together with a meta-analysis of previously available data. 5) Most studies on clinical acute toxicity in pelvic RT use either the RTOG/EORTC score system or focus on diarrhoea/stool frequency. A more differentiated and sensitive recording was developed and tested to pick up symptoms escaping the commonly used scores. 6) Study the relation between histopathological findings and the clinical picture. 4 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) Acute radiation proctitis: a sequential clinicopathologic study during pelvic radiotherapy. 2) Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer. 3) Profiles and time course of acute radiation toxicity symptoms during conformal radiotherapy for cancer of the prostate. 4) Sucralfate does not ameliorate acute radiation proctitis. Some future prospects are discussed.

  15. Awards: A Disregarded Source of Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno S. Frey

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Awards are prevalent in all societies and at all times. So far, however, they have escaped the attention of economists. This paper presents a first analysis of awards, distinguishing them from purely monetary forms of rewards. Additionally, popular notions about the use and prevalence of awards are addressed with descriptive statistics from the International Who's Who.

  16. [Interaction between NSAIDs and acetylsalicylic acid disregarded

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, E.J.; Kramers, C.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013 the European Medicines Agency declared that diclofenac is contraindicated in patients with arterial thrombotic complications, based on a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials on the adverse reactions of NSAIDs. The same decision was taken for coxibs some years earlier. The Dutch auth

  17. [Interaction between NSAIDs and acetylsalicylic acid disregarded].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollaard, E J; Kramers, C; Brouwers, J R B J

    2014-01-01

    In 2013 the European Medicines Agency declared that diclofenac is contraindicated in patients with arterial thrombotic complications, based on a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials on the adverse reactions of NSAIDs. The same decision was taken for coxibs some years earlier. The Dutch authorities (CBG/MEB) informed physicians and pharmacists about this decision without taking into account whether these patients were using prophylactic acetylsalicylic acid or not. It has been shown that NSAIDs with high COX-1 affinity like ibuprofen and naproxen cause a pharmacodynamic interaction with the inhibition of thromboxane synthesis by acetylsalicylic acid. This interaction does not occur with relatively COX-2-selective NSAIDs such as coxibs and diclofenac. Therefore, in patients who use acetylsalicylic acid for thromboprophylaxis, contraindicating coxibs or diclofenac is not justified, on the contrary: they are preferable.

  18. Disregarding Graduated Treatment: Why Transfer Aggravates Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kristin; Lanza-Kaduce, Lonn; Woolard, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    These data merge correctional histories with official state and courthouse information for a sample of teenage offenders, some of whom had been transferred to the adult system. Previous research indicated that transfer aggravates recidivism after the age of 18. The correctional data allow the examination of the relationship between sanctions and…

  19. Concepts of Classification and Taxonomy Phylogenetic Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraix-Burnet, D.

    2016-05-01

    Phylogenetic approaches to classification have been heavily developed in biology by bioinformaticians. But these techniques have applications in other fields, in particular in linguistics. Their main characteristics is to search for relationships between the objects or species in study, instead of grouping them by similarity. They are thus rather well suited for any kind of evolutionary objects. For nearly fifteen years, astrocladistics has explored the use of Maximum Parsimony (or cladistics) for astronomical objects like galaxies or globular clusters. In this lesson we will learn how it works.

  20. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Moreira Gomes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD - syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum and other non-STD disorders (NSTD - Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53. Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female

  1. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Christiane Maria Moreira; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gomes, Francis de Assis Moraes; Amaral, Rose; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira

    2007-04-01

    Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD)--syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum; and other non-STD disorders (NSTD)--Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53). Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female genital ulcers. The

  2. PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF CYTO HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION OF BREAST LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayabharathi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cancer of breast is the second most common cause of cancer in women. In the present era, late marriage, late child birth, shorter period of breast feeding and nulliparity or low parity have contributed to increase in the number of cases. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC is a useful method for initial evaluation and diagnosis of breast cancers and it has the ability of providing necessary prognostic predictive information. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to evaluate t he accuracy of FNAC of breast lesions with histopathological correlation. To study the cytomorphological features of palpable breast lumps. To study the various cytological patterns in aspirates from breast lesions and to classify them into non - neoplastic, benign and malignant lesions. To correlate the cytology findings with subsequent histopathological diagnosis wherever possible. To establish accuracy and efficacy of aspiration cytology as an early and preoperative diagnostic aid. To compare the statistic al analysis of present study with other contemporary studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study includes the study of aspiration smears of all cases referred to the Department of Pathology, Andhra medical college, Visakhapatnam from various outpatient departments from King George Hospital, with a palpable breast lesion. True cut Biopsy and Mastectomy specimens for Histopathological correlation RESULTS: Out of 952 analyzed cases benign lesions were 691 (72.58%, malignant lesions were 146 (15. 33%,non - neoplastic lesions were common in the age group of 21 - 30 years, benign lesions in 21 - 30 years, and malignant lesions were common in the age group of 41 - 50 years. Majority of the patients were female with 913 (95.90% and male patents are 39 (4 .09%.The results of sensitivity (97.18%, specificity (98.74%, positive predictive value (97.18% and negative predictive value (98.74% with diagnostic accuracy of 98.26%. CONCLUSION: FNAC

  3. Practical Aspects Regarding the Histopathological Diagnosis of Early Mycosis Fungoides

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    Tebeică T.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycosis fungoides is the most common primary T-cell lymphoma of skin. The disease has a protean clinical and histological presentation in its early patch and plaque stages, when distinction from mimicking inflammatory dermatoses is difficult. Since no single criterion is specific enough, a reliable diagnosis in early stages requires integration of clinical, histopathological and molecular findings. In skin biopsies, the most helpful histologic features are the detection of atypical lymphocytes in the epidermis with minimal epidermal changes, basal alignment of lymphocytes along dermal-epidermal junction and formation of Pautrier microabscesses. An aberrant immunophenotype of T cells and molecular detection of a clonal T-cell population are factors that could allow a more specific diagnosis. This work recapitulates and discusses these features from a practical perspective.

  4. Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease: Antenatal Diagnosis and Histopathological Correlation

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    Dayananda Kumar Rajanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD is one of the most common inheritable disease manifesting in infancy and childhood with a frequency of 1:6,000 to 1:55,000 births. The patient in her second trimester presented with a history of amenorrhea. Ultrasound examination revealed bilateral, enlarged, hyperechogenic kidneys, placentomegaly, and severe oligohydramnios. The pregnancy was terminated. An autopsy was performed on the fetus. Both the kidneys were found to be enlarged and the cut surface showed numerous cysts. The liver sections showed changes due to fibrosis. The final diagnosis of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease was made based on these findings. In this article, we correlate the ante-natal ultrasound and histopathological findings in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

  5. Histopathological study of spinal meningioma originating from the arachnoid villi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Yu-ichiro; Iwatsuki, Koichi; Morii, Eiichi; Kobayashi, Maki; Hori, Yumiko; Moriwaki, Takashi; Ishihara, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kazunori; Umegaki, Masao; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2011-02-01

    Although the histogenesis of meningiomas remains unclear, it is believed that arachnoid cells are the most likely origin of this type of neoplasm. Further, little attention has been paid to the histopathology of spinal meningiomas arising from the arachnoid villi. We came across a case of spinal meningioma that was locally attached to the arachnoid membrane. The associated arachnoid villi were investigated by light microscopy and immunohistochemical analysis. We confirmed the presence of tumor cells under the fibrous capsule that forms the outer component of the arachnoid villi. Tumor cells grew out from the apical portion of the arachnoid villi. Furthermore, immunohistochemical study suggested that arachnoid cells made the transition to tumor cells on the arachnoid cell layer.

  6. Molecular Histopathology by Spectrally Reconstructed Nonlinear Interferometric Vibrational Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdary, Praveen D.; Jiang, Zhi; Chaney, Eric J.; Benalcazar, Wladimir A.; Marks, Daniel L.; Gruebele, Martin; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Sensitive assays for rapid quantitative analysis of histologic sections, resected tissue specimens, or in situ tissue are highly desired for early disease diagnosis. Stained histopathology is the gold standard but remains a subjective practice on processed tissue taking from hours to days. We describe a microscopy technique that obtains a sensitive and accurate color-coded image from intrinsic molecular markers. Spectrally reconstructed nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging can differentiate cancer versus normal tissue sections with greater than 99% confidence interval in a preclinical rat breast cancer model and define cancer boundaries to ±100 μm with greater than 99% confidence interval, using fresh unstained tissue sections imaged in less than 5 minutes. By optimizing optical sources and beam delivery, this technique can potentially enable real-time point-of-care optical molecular imaging and diagnosis. PMID:21098699

  7. Teaching Veterinary Histopathology: A Comparison of Microscopy and Digital Slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter J; Fews, Debra; Bell, Nick J

    2016-01-01

    Virtual microscopy using digitized slides has become more widespread in teaching in recent years. There have been no direct comparisons of the use of virtual microscopy and the use of microscopes and glass slides. Third-year veterinary students from two different schools completed a simple objective test, covering aspects of histology and histopathology, before and after a practical class covering relevant material presented as either glass slides viewed with a microscope or as digital slides. There was an overall improvement in performance by students at both veterinary schools using both practical formats. Neither format was consistently better than the other, and neither school consistently outperformed the other. In a comparison of student appraisal of use of digital slides and microscopes, the digital technology was identified as having many advantages.

  8. A histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of ameloblastic fibrodentinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bologna-Molina, Ronell; Salazar-Rodríguez, Sirced; Bedoya-Borella, Ana María; Carreón-Burciaga, Ramón Gil; Tapia-Repetto, Gabriel; Molina-Frechero, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibrodentinoma (AFD) is considered a mixed odontogenic tumor that is characterized by conserved epithelial and ectomesenchymal neoplastic components. AFD is composed of long narrow cords and islands of odontogenic epithelium; the epithelial strands lie in a myxoid cell-rich ectomesenchymal tissue with stellate-shaped fibroblasts that exhibit long slender cytoplasmic extensions that resemble dental papilla. The lesions show the presence of dysplastic dentin. Although AFD is a rare entity and its very existence is not completely accepted, based on the extent of histodifferentiation, it is considered to represent a stage between ameloblastic fibroma and ameloblastic fibroodontoma. This study aimed to provide a histopathological and immunohistochemical characterization of this infrequent tumor. A large panel of antibodies including amelogenin, Ck 19, calretinin, syndecan-1, E-cadherin, MSH2, histone H3, and Ki-67 was used to illustrate the nature of the tumor.

  9. A Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Analysis of Ameloblastic Fibrodentinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronell Bologna-Molina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastic fibrodentinoma (AFD is considered a mixed odontogenic tumor that is characterized by conserved epithelial and ectomesenchymal neoplastic components. AFD is composed of long narrow cords and islands of odontogenic epithelium; the epithelial strands lie in a myxoid cell-rich ectomesenchymal tissue with stellate-shaped fibroblasts that exhibit long slender cytoplasmic extensions that resemble dental papilla. The lesions show the presence of dysplastic dentin. Although AFD is a rare entity and its very existence is not completely accepted, based on the extent of histodifferentiation, it is considered to represent a stage between ameloblastic fibroma and ameloblastic fibroodontoma. This study aimed to provide a histopathological and immunohistochemical characterization of this infrequent tumor. A large panel of antibodies including amelogenin, Ck 19, calretinin, syndecan-1, E-cadherin, MSH2, histone H3, and Ki-67 was used to illustrate the nature of the tumor.

  10. Histopathology of cutaneous and mucosal lesions in human paracoccidioidomycosis

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    Fabio Uribe

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Biopsies from cutaneous and mucosal lesions from 40 patients with active paracoccidioidomycosis, were studied histopathologically. All cases exhibited chronic granulomatous inflammation and 38 also presented suppuration; this picture corresponded to the mixed mycotic granuloma (MMG. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and the transepidermic (or epithelial elimination of the parasite, were observed in all cases. In paracoccidioidomycosis elimination takes place through formation of progressive edema, accompained by exocytosis. The edema gives rise to spongiosis, microvesicles and microabscesses which not only contain the fungus but also, various cellular elements. Cells in charge of the phagocytic process were essentialy Langhans giant cells; PMN's, epithelioid and foreign body giant cells were poor phagocytes. An additional finding was the presence of fibrosis in most biopsies.

  11. Clinical and histopathological study of primary cutaneous macular amyloidosis

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    Fatima Razvi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary cutaneous amyloidosis often presents with pigmentary dystonias of the skin in the form of asymptomatic reticulate hyper-pigmentation or pruritic lichenoid papular lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of primary cutaneous macular amyloidosis and also to find out the possible etiological agents, to correlate their clinical disease with histopathological positivity for amyloid deposition, and to find out the percentage of positive cas-es by special stains. A total of 24 patients attending dermatology out-patient clinic of Princess Esra Hospital, Hyderabad over a pe-riod of 1 year presenting with hyperpigmented skin lesions and clinically diagnosed as macular amyloidosis were taken up for this study.

  12. Lesion of Dual Nature - Carcinoma or Sarcoma: A Histopathologic Dilemma

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    Minal Chaudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcomatoid carcinomas are biphasic tumors proven to be monoclonal dedifferentiated forms of conventional squamous carcinomas. It is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC which has spindled tumor cells, which simulate a true sarcoma, but are epithelial in origin. They are extremely uncommon in the head and neck region. Only 10 cases have been discussed in the literature. When compared to SCC of maxilla, this variant is associated with poor diagnosis and advanced disease at presentation as is demonstrated in the case presented. Diagnosis of sarcomatoid squamous carcinoma is challenging because of overlapping histopathological features with other spindle-cell tumors. Understanding their clinicopathologic characteristics facilitates their diagnosis and appropriate clinical management. Surgery and radiotherapy form the mainstays of treatment. We report a rare case of spindle-cell carcinoma involving the mandible.

  13. Retrieval and Amplification of DNA from Unstained Histopathological Sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DonnaC.MONTAGUE; BeverlyD.LYN-COOK; 等

    1993-01-01

    Testing of compounds for carcinogenic potential in vivo involves various experimental designs.A few of these techniques are directed to demonstrate the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of the compound by histopathology.These changes shown by histochemical means include monoclonal antibody directed cellular markers.Development of the polymerase chain reaction technique(PCR)for amplification of DNA has facilitated the investigation of molecular events related to the formation of malignant neoplasms.We describe here a method for screening tissues for mutations of the H-ras gene using monoclonal antibodies directed toward normal and mutant p21 proteins.Formalin-fixed,paraffinembedded tissue sections are used to subsequently confirm the gene mutation by PCR amplification of the H-ras gene.The results indicated a successful application of this technique to demonstrate the presence of p21 oncoprotein in the tissues tested.

  14. Stain-free histopathology by programmable supercontinuum pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Marjanovic, Marina; Lyngsø, Jens K.; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Chaney, Eric J.; Zhao, Youbo; You, Sixian; Wilson, William L.; Xu, Bingwei; Dantus, Marcos; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-08-01

    The preparation, staining, visualization and interpretation of histological images of tissue is well accepted as the gold standard process for the diagnosis of disease. These methods have a long history of development, and are used ubiquitously in pathology, despite being highly time- and labour-intensive. Here, we introduce a unique optical imaging platform and methodology for label-free multimodal multiphoton microscopy that uses a novel photonic-crystal fibre source to generate tailored chemical contrast based on programmable supercontinuum pulses. We demonstrate the collection of optical signatures of the tumour microenvironment, including evidence of mesoscopic biological organization, tumour cell migration and (lymph-) angiogenesis collected directly from fresh ex vivo mammary tissue. Acquisition of these optical signatures and other cellular or extracellular features, which are largely absent from histologically processed and stained tissue, combined with an adaptable platform for optical alignment-free programmable-contrast imaging, offers the potential to translate stain-free molecular histopathology into routine clinical use.

  15. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and influence of age and gender on histopathologic findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nargess; Ebrahimi; Daryani; Nasser; Ebrahimi; Daryani; Seyed; Moayed; Alavian; Ali; Zare; Seyed-Mohammad; Fereshtehnejad; Mohammad; Reza; Keramati; Mohammad; Reza; Pashaei; Peiman; Habibollahi

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To characterize the histopathologic specifications of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH)according to age and gender.METHODS:An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in two private gastroenterology clinics on biopsy proven patients suffering from NASH.Biopsy histopathologic findings as well as demographic and laboratory data of the patients at the time of biopsy were gathered retrospectively from clinical records.The grading and staging of histopathologic findings were performed according to th...

  16. Histopathological and Serological Studies on Paratuberculosis in Cattle and Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbab Sikandar*, AH Cheema1, M Younus2, A Aslam1, MA Zaman2 and T Rehman3

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Paratuberculosis (Johne’s diseases is responsible for massive economic losses to dairy industry, both in the industrially advanced as well as in the developing countries. To detect its occurrence in cattle and buffaloes locally, blood and tissue samples from clinically weak and grossly suspected slaughtered animals were collected from two abattoirs of Jhang, municipal area, Pakistan. Acid-fast smear staining, gross/histopathology and indirect ELISA were done for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. Total 134 samples illustrating gross pathological lesions were collected, only 11.19% (cattle: 6.67%, buffaloes: 12.5% showed acid fast bacilli through smear staining and were taken as confirmed cases. Thickening of intestines alone was not a reliable indicator of Johne’s disease. Tissue sections from intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes from these acid fast positive animals were stained with hematoxylin & eosin (H&E and Ziehl Neelsen (ZN methods. Sum of (15/134 impression smear staining as well as (15/15 tissue sections of the intestines were found ZN positive, and only 6.7% of impression smears and 100% of tissue sections of mesenteric lymph nodes showed acid fast bacilli. Through ELISA, two cattle and five buffaloes (07/134 gave positive optical densities, while one cattle and seven buffaloes (08/134 were judged as doubtful. It is concluded that infection of MAP can be identified by histopathology and ELISA. The present study was the first record of paratuberculosis among the dairy animals slaughtered at Jhang abattoirs. The objective was to compare different methods for the diagnosis of Johne’s disease.

  17. Gene Expression Patterns Associated With Histopathology in Toxic Liver Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Danielle L; AbdulHameed, Mohamed Diwan M; Tawa, Gregory J; Baer, Christine E; Permenter, Matthew G; McDyre, Bonna C; Dennis, William E; Boyle, Molly H; Hobbs, Cheryl A; Streicker, Michael A; Snowden, Bobbi S; Lewis, John A; Wallqvist, Anders; Stallings, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    Toxic industrial chemicals induce liver injury, which is difficult to diagnose without invasive procedures. Identifying indicators of end organ injury can complement exposure-based assays and improve predictive power. A multiplexed approach was used to experimentally evaluate a panel of 67 genes predicted to be associated with the fibrosis pathology by computationally mining DrugMatrix, a publicly available repository of gene microarray data. Five-day oral gavage studies in male Sprague Dawley rats dosed with varying concentrations of 3 fibrogenic compounds (allyl alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, and 4,4'-methylenedianiline) and 2 nonfibrogenic compounds (bromobenzene and dexamethasone) were conducted. Fibrosis was definitively diagnosed by histopathology. The 67-plex gene panel accurately diagnosed fibrosis in both microarray and multiplexed-gene expression assays. Necrosis and inflammatory infiltration were comorbid with fibrosis. ANOVA with contrasts identified that 51 of the 67 predicted genes were significantly associated with the fibrosis phenotype, with 24 of these specific to fibrosis alone. The protein product of the gene most strongly correlated with the fibrosis phenotype PCOLCE (Procollagen C-Endopeptidase Enhancer) was dose-dependently elevated in plasma from animals administered fibrogenic chemicals (P < .05). Semiquantitative global mass spectrometry analysis of the plasma identified an additional 5 protein products of the gene panel which increased after fibrogenic toxicant administration: fibronectin, ceruloplasmin, vitronectin, insulin-like growth factor binding protein, and α2-macroglobulin. These results support the data mining approach for identifying gene and/or protein panels for assessing liver injury and may suggest bridging biomarkers for molecular mediators linked to histopathology.

  18. Visually Meaningful Histopathological Features for Automatic Grading of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, M Khalid Khan; Keluo Yao; Zynger, Debra L; Clinton, Steven K; Chen, James; Koyuturk, Mehmet; LaFramboise, Thomas; Gurcan, Metin

    2017-07-01

    Histopathologic features, particularly Gleason grading system, have contributed significantly to the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of prostate cancer for decades. However, prostate cancer demonstrates enormous heterogeneity in biological behavior, thus establishing improved prognostic and predictive markers is particularly important to personalize therapy of men with clinically localized and newly diagnosed malignancy. Many automated grading systems have been developed for Gleason grading but acceptance in the medical community has been lacking due to poor interpretability. To overcome this problem, we developed a set of visually meaningful features to differentiate between low- and high-grade prostate cancer. The visually meaningful feature set consists of luminal and architectural features. For luminal features, we compute: 1) the shortest path from the nuclei to their closest luminal spaces; 2) ratio of the epithelial nuclei to the total number of nuclei. A nucleus is considered an epithelial nucleus if the shortest path between it and the luminal space does not contain any other nucleus; 3) average shortest distance of all nuclei to their closest luminal spaces. For architectural features, we compute directional changes in stroma and nuclei using directional filter banks. These features are utilized to create two subspaces; one for prostate images histopathologically assessed as low grade and the other for high grade. The grade associated with a subspace, which results in the minimum reconstruction error is considered as the prediction for the test image. For training, we utilized 43 regions of interest (ROI) images, which were extracted from 25 prostate whole slide images of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. For testing, we utilized an independent dataset of 88 ROIs extracted from 30 prostate whole slide images. The method resulted in 93.0% and 97.6% training and testing accuracies, respectively, for the spectrum of cases considered. The

  19. A retrospective autopsy study of histopathologic spectrum and etiologic trend of fulminant hepatic failure from north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Deepali

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF is rapidly fatal and liver transplant is the treatment of choice. The condition is known for its heterogeneity of defining criteria, clinical presentation, histologic spectrum and etiologic factors. The etiology of FHF varies widely, some of which includes viral hepatitis, drug overdose and idiosyncratic drug reactions. The identification of the etiology of FHF is critically important, because it influences the management. A histopathological classification of FHF has not been reported earlier in the literature. Methods The current study was conducted retrospectively on 224 autopsies at a tertiary care hospital in India. In all of these cases the liver was examined grossly and microscopically. Clinical findings, serological data and immunohistochemical findings were correlated with the morphological subtypes and a consensus morphological classification was formulated. Results Young females, especially those in the reproductive age group were most susceptible to the disease. Hepatotropic viruses and drugs were the likely causes in most of the patients. Clinical presentation is important, as delayed onset of encephalopathy or the subacute FHFs lead to maximum mortality. After careful gross and microscopic examination the morphological findings of FHF were divided into four distinct categories. Histologic typing can sometimes be misleading if solely made on H & E slides without application of special stains. Conclusion Fulminant hepatic failure is a medical emergency, proper histological categorization can help in deciding the treatment modalities.

  20. Extracranial metastasizing solitary fibrous tumors (SFT) of meninges: histopathological features of a case with long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessi, Marco; Gielen, Gerrit H; Roeder-Geyer, Eva-Dorette; Sommer, Clemens; Vieth, Michael; Braun, Veit; Kuchelmeister, Klaus; Pietsch, Torsten

    2013-02-01

    Extrapleural solitary fibrous tumors are uncommon mesenchymal neoplasms frequently observed in middle-aged adults and are classified, according to the WHO classification of soft tissue tumors, as part of the hemangiopericytoma tumor group. However, these two entities remain separated in the WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system. In fact, meningeal solitary fibrous tumors are believed to be benign lesion and only in a minority of cases local relapses have been described, although detailed survival clinical studies on solitary fibrous tumors of meninges are rare. In contrast to hemangiopericytoma, which frequently shows distant extracranial metastases, such an event is exceptional in patients with meningeal solitary fibrous tumors and has been clinically reported in a handful of cases only and their histopathological features have not been investigated in detail. In this report, we describe the detailed clinico-pathological features of a meningeal solitary fibrous tumor presenting during a 17-year follow-up period, multiple intra-, extracranial relapses and lung metastases.

  1. Concordância entre citologia, colposcopia e histopatologia cervical Agreement between cytology, colposcopy and cervical histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Maria Correia Katz

    2010-08-01

    . The nomenclature used for cytology was the 2001 Bethesda system terminology, while that used for histology was the World Health Organization 1994 classification. Cytology performed at the time of colposcopy was compared with colposcopy and with histopathology obtained by colposcopy-directed biopsy. The Kappa coefficient was used to evaluate the agreement between methods, as well as the χ2 test, with the level of significance set at 5%. RESULTS: poor agreement was found between cytology performed at the time of colposcopy and colposcopic findings (K=0.33; 95%CI=0.21-0.45 and between colposcopy and histopathology (K=0.35; 95%CI=0.39-0.51. Cytology performed at the time of colposcopy compared with histopathology revealed a Kappa of 0.41 (95%CI=0.29-0.530, which was considered to reflect moderate agreement. CONCLUSIONS: agreement was better between cytology and histopathology than between colposcopy and cytology or between colposcopy and histopathology.

  2. Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Kessler, Richard; Jha, Saurabh; Kuhlmann, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    We have publicly released a blinded mix of simulated SNe, with types (Ia, Ib, Ic, II) selected in proportion to their expected rate. The simulation is realized in the griz filters of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) with realistic observing conditions (sky noise, point spread function and atmospheric transparency) based on years of recorded conditions at the DES site. Simulations of non-Ia type SNe are based on spectroscopically confirmed light curves that include unpublished non-Ia samples donated from the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP), the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS), and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II). We challenge scientists to run their classification algorithms and report a type for each SN. A spectroscopically confirmed subset is provided for training. The goals of this challenge are to (1) learn the relative strengths and weaknesses of the different classification algorithms, (2) use the results to improve classification algorithms, and (3) understand what spectroscopically confirmed sub-...

  3. Classification in Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen

    Classification is extensively used in the context of medical image analysis for the purpose of diagnosis or prognosis. In order to classify image content correctly, one needs to extract efficient features with discriminative properties and build classifiers based on these features. In addition......, a good metric is required to measure distance or similarity between feature points so that the classification becomes feasible. Furthermore, in order to build a successful classifier, one needs to deeply understand how classifiers work. This thesis focuses on these three aspects of classification...... to segment breast tissue and pectoral muscle area from the background in mammogram. The second focus is the choices of metric and its influence to the feasibility of a classifier, especially on k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) algorithm, with medical applications on breast cancer prediction and calcification...

  4. Classification of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Aalto-Korte, K; Andersen, K E;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classification of hand eczema (HE) is mandatory in epidemiological and clinical studies, and also important in clinical work. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to test a recently proposed classification system of HE in clinical practice in a prospective multicentre study. METHODS: Patients were...... HE, protein contact dermatitis/contact urticaria, hyperkeratotic endogenous eczema and vesicular endogenous eczema, respectively. An additional diagnosis was given if symptoms indicated that factors additional to the main diagnosis were of importance for the disease. RESULTS: Four hundred and twenty......%) could not be classified. 38% had one additional diagnosis and 26% had two or more additional diagnoses. Eczema on feet was found in 30% of the patients, statistically significantly more frequently associated with hyperkeratotic and vesicular endogenous eczema. CONCLUSION: We find that the classification...

  5. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on soun...... exchanging experiences about constructions fulfilling different classes, reducing trade barriers, and finally increasing the sound insulation of dwellings.......Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on sound...... insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms...

  6. Classification problem in CBIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Jaworska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present a great deal of research is being done in different aspects of Content-Based Im-age Retrieval (CBIR. Image classification is one of the most important tasks in image re-trieval that must be dealt with. The primary issue we have addressed is: how can the fuzzy set theory be used to handle crisp image data. We propose fuzzy rule-based classification of image objects. To achieve this goal we have built fuzzy rule-based classifiers for crisp data. In this paper we present the results of fuzzy rule-based classification in our CBIR. Further-more, these results are used to construct a search engine taking into account data mining.

  7. Cellular image classification

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xiang; Lin, Feng

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces new techniques for cellular image feature extraction, pattern recognition and classification. The authors use the antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in patient serum as the subjects and the Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) technique as the imaging protocol to illustrate the applications of the described methods. Throughout the book, the authors provide evaluations for the proposed methods on two publicly available human epithelial (HEp-2) cell datasets: ICPR2012 dataset from the ICPR'12 HEp-2 cell classification contest and ICIP2013 training dataset from the ICIP'13 Competition on cells classification by fluorescent image analysis. First, the reading of imaging results is significantly influenced by one’s qualification and reading systems, causing high intra- and inter-laboratory variance. The authors present a low-order LP21 fiber mode for optical single cell manipulation and imaging staining patterns of HEp-2 cells. A focused four-lobed mode distribution is stable and effective in optical...

  8. The paradox of atheoretical classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2016-01-01

    A distinction can be made between “artificial classifications” and “natural classifications,” where artificial classifications may adequately serve some limited purposes, but natural classifications are overall most fruitful by allowing inference and thus many different purposes. There is strong...... support for the view that a natural classification should be based on a theory (and, of course, that the most fruitful theory provides the most fruitful classification). Nevertheless, atheoretical (or “descriptive”) classifications are often produced. Paradoxically, atheoretical classifications may...... be very successful. The best example of a successful “atheoretical” classification is probably the prestigious Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) since its third edition from 1980. Based on such successes one may ask: Should the claim that classifications ideally are natural...

  9. Information gathering for CLP classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcello, Ida; Giordano, Felice; Costamagna, Francesca Marina

    2011-01-01

    Regulation 1272/2008 includes provisions for two types of classification: harmonised classification and self-classification. The harmonised classification of substances is decided at Community level and a list of harmonised classifications is included in the Annex VI of the classification, labelling and packaging Regulation (CLP). If a chemical substance is not included in the harmonised classification list it must be self-classified, based on available information, according to the requirements of Annex I of the CLP Regulation. CLP appoints that the harmonised classification will be performed for carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction substances (CMR substances) and for respiratory sensitisers category 1 and for other hazard classes on a case-by-case basis. The first step of classification is the gathering of available and relevant information. This paper presents the procedure for gathering information and to obtain data. The data quality is also discussed.

  10. Information gathering for CLP classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Marcello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation 1272/2008 includes provisions for two types of classification: harmonised classification and self-classification. The harmonised classification of substances is decided at Community level and a list of harmonised classifications is included in the Annex VI of the classification, labelling and packaging Regulation (CLP. If a chemical substance is not included in the harmonised classification list it must be self-classified, based on available information, according to the requirements of Annex I of the CLP Regulation. CLP appoints that the harmonised classification will be performed for carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction substances (CMR substances and for respiratory sensitisers category 1 and for other hazard classes on a case-by-case basis. The first step of classification is the gathering of available and relevant information. This paper presents the procedure for gathering information and to obtain data. The data quality is also discussed.

  11. Current Trends in the Molecular Classification of Renal Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew N. Young

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most common form of kidney cancer in adults. RCC is a significant challenge for pathologic diagnosis and clinical management. The primary approach to diagnosis is by light microscopy, using the World Health Organization (WHO classification system, which defines histopathologic tumor subtypes with distinct clinical behavior and underlying genetic mutations. However, light microscopic diagnosis of RCC subtypes is often difficult due to variable histology. In addition, the clinical behavior of RCC is highly variable and therapeutic response rates are poor. Few clinical assays are available to predict outcome in RCC or correlate behavior with histology. Therefore, novel RCC classification systems based on gene expression should be useful for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Recent microarray studies have shown that renal tumors are characterized by distinct gene expression profiles, which can be used to discover novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Here, we review clinical features of kidney cancer, the WHO classification system, and the growing role of molecular classification for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of this disease.

  12. Bosniak Classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Karstoft, Jens;

    2014-01-01

    . Purpose: To investigate the inter- and intra-observer agreement among experienced uroradiologists when categorizing complex renal cysts according to the Bosniak classification. Material and Methods: The original categories of 100 cystic renal masses were chosen as “Gold Standard” (GS), established...... to the calculated weighted κ all readers performed “very good” for both inter-observer and intra-observer variation. Most variation was seen in cysts catagorized as Bosniak II, IIF, and III. These results show that radiologists who evaluate complex renal cysts routinely may apply the Bosniak classification...

  13. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms...... of descriptors, number of classes, and class intervals occurred between national schemes. However, a proposal “acoustic classification scheme for dwellings” has been developed recently in the European COST Action TU0901 with 32 member countries. This proposal has been accepted as an ISO work item. This paper...

  14. Classification of iconic images

    OpenAIRE

    Zrianina, Mariia; Kopf, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Iconic images represent an abstract topic and use a presentation that is intuitively understood within a certain cultural context. For example, the abstract topic “global warming” may be represented by a polar bear standing alone on an ice floe. Such images are widely used in media and their automatic classification can help to identify high-level semantic concepts. This paper presents a system for the classification of iconic images. It uses a variation of the Bag of Visual Words approach wi...

  15. Classification problem in CBIR

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Jaworska

    2013-01-01

    At present a great deal of research is being done in different aspects of Content-Based Im-age Retrieval (CBIR). Image classification is one of the most important tasks in image re-trieval that must be dealt with. The primary issue we have addressed is: how can the fuzzy set theory be used to handle crisp image data. We propose fuzzy rule-based classification of image objects. To achieve this goal we have built fuzzy rule-based classifiers for crisp data. In this paper we present the results ...

  16. Latent classification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2005-01-01

    One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing setof classifiers is the \\NB models. These models rely on twoassumptions: $(i)$ All the attributes used to describe an instanceare conditionally independent given the class of that instance,and $(ii)$ all attributes follow a specific...... parametric family ofdistributions.  In this paper we propose a new set of models forclassification in continuous domains, termed latent classificationmodels. The latent classification model can roughly be seen ascombining the \\NB model with a mixture of factor analyzers,thereby relaxing the assumptions...... classification model, and wedemonstrate empirically that the accuracy of the proposed model issignificantly higher than the accuracy of other probabilisticclassifiers....

  17. Minimum Error Entropy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Marques de Sá, Joaquim P; Santos, Jorge M F; Alexandre, Luís A

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the minimum error entropy (MEE) concept applied to data classification machines. Theoretical results on the inner workings of the MEE concept, in its application to solving a variety of classification problems, are presented in the wider realm of risk functionals. Researchers and practitioners also find in the book a detailed presentation of practical data classifiers using MEE. These include multi‐layer perceptrons, recurrent neural networks, complexvalued neural networks, modular neural networks, and decision trees. A clustering algorithm using a MEE‐like concept is also presented. Examples, tests, evaluation experiments and comparison with similar machines using classic approaches, complement the descriptions.

  18. Constructing criticality by classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machacek, Erika

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the role of expertise, the nature of criticality, and their relationship to securitisation as mineral raw materials are classified. It works with the construction of risk along the liberal logic of security to explore how "key materials" are turned into "critical materials......, legitimizing a criticality discourse.Specifically, the paper introduces a typology delineating the inferences made by the experts from their produced recommendations in the classification of rare earth element criticality. The paper argues that the classification is a specific process of constructing risk...

  19. Attenuation-based characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaque: Comparison of dual source and dual energy CT with single-source CT and histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzler, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Henzler@umm.de [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Porubsky, Stefan [Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Kayed, Hany [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Harder, Nils [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Krissak, U. Radko; Meyer, Mathias [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Sueselbeck, Tim [1st Department of Medicine University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Marx, Alexander [Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Michaely, Henrik [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Schoepf, U. Joseph [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, 169 Ashley Avenue, Charleston (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Objective: To compare different CT acquisition techniques regarding for attenuation-based characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques using histopathology as the standard of reference. Materials and methods: In a post mortem study 17 human hearts were studied with dual-source CT (DSCT) and dual energy CT (DECT) mode on a DSCT as well as with 16-slice single-source CT (SSCT). At autopsy, atherosclerotic lesions were cut at 5 {mu}m sections. Histopathologic classification of the plaques according to the American Heart Association (AHA) criteria was performed by two pathologists. Attenuation values of all plaques were measured in DSCT, DECT and SSCT studies, respectively and classified based on attenuation according to modified AHA criteria. Results: 58 coronary plaques were identified at autopsy. Regardless of the CT technique only 52/58 plaques were found at CT (sensitivity = 89.6%). There was no significant difference between the mean attenuation values of different plaque types between DSCT, DECT, and SSCT: type IV: 11 HU/8 HU/19 HU; type Va: 44 HU/45 HU/52 HU; type Vb: 1088 HU/966 HU/1079 HU). The sensitivity for correct classification varied depending on the plaque type (type II = 0%, type III = 0%, type IV = 43%, type Va = 58%, Vb = 97%). Conclusion: Independent of the used acquisition technique, SSCT, DSCT and DECT show similar results for attenuation-based characterization of atherosclerotic coronary plaques.

  20. Histopathological correlation of oral squamous cell carcinoma among younger and older patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mukith Ur Rahaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC is commonly noted in elder men, when occurring in younger individuals, its aggression and prognosis is questioned due to biased data in literature. Traditionally, various histopathological grading systems have been used for assessing aggression and prognosis of OSCC. However, multifactorial grading of Anneroth et al., is considered effective. Materials and Methods: In this retro-prospective study, files of 75 OSCC patients were retrieved from Oral Pathology Department; among this 50 patients were >40 years and 25 patients were ≤40 years of age. Archival formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks of these patients were used to prepare hematoxylin and eosin (H and E stained sections for grading OSCC based on Broder′s and Anneroth et al., criteria. Further, recurrence of OSCC among study subjects within 5 years of treatment was evaluated. Chi-square test was used to compare the disease in patients who were >40 years with ≤40 years. Results: Comparison according to Broder′s classification didn′t show any relevant variation. Three of the six parameters and overall grading according to Anneroth et al., criteria showed statistically higher grades of OSCC in the younger age-group; however, there was no significant difference in 5-year recurrence rate. Interpretation and Conclusion: Results of the study are suggestive of aggressive OSCC among young patients when compared to older. Conversely, this aggression didn′t affect the recurrence in younger patients. Further studies on genetics, diet and demographics of patients below 40 years of age affected by OSCC will be of greater value.

  1. Cancer classification using the Immunoscore: a worldwide task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galon, Jérôme; Pagès, Franck; Marincola, Francesco M; Angell, Helen K; Thurin, Magdalena; Lugli, Alessandro; Zlobec, Inti; Berger, Anne; Bifulco, Carlo; Botti, Gerardo; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Britten, Cedrik M; Kreiter, Sebastian; Chouchane, Lotfi; Delrio, Paolo; Arndt, Hartmann; Asslaber, Martin; Maio, Michele; Masucci, Giuseppe V; Mihm, Martin; Vidal-Vanaclocha, Fernando; Allison, James P; Gnjatic, Sacha; Hakansson, Leif; Huber, Christoph; Singh-Jasuja, Harpreet; Ottensmeier, Christian; Zwierzina, Heinz; Laghi, Luigi; Grizzi, Fabio; Ohashi, Pamela S; Shaw, Patricia A; Clarke, Blaise A; Wouters, Bradly G; Kawakami, Yutaka; Hazama, Shoichi; Okuno, Kiyotaka; Wang, Ena; O'Donnell-Tormey, Jill; Lagorce, Christine; Pawelec, Graham; Nishimura, Michael I; Hawkins, Robert; Lapointe, Réjean; Lundqvist, Andreas; Khleif, Samir N; Ogino, Shuji; Gibbs, Peter; Waring, Paul; Sato, Noriyuki; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Itoh, Kyogo; Patel, Prabhu S; Shukla, Shilin N; Palmqvist, Richard; Nagtegaal, Iris D; Wang, Yili; D'Arrigo, Corrado; Kopetz, Scott; Sinicrope, Frank A; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Gajewski, Thomas F; Ascierto, Paolo A; Fox, Bernard A

    2012-10-03

    Prediction of clinical outcome in cancer is usually achieved by histopathological evaluation of tissue samples obtained during surgical resection of the primary tumor. Traditional tumor staging (AJCC/UICC-TNM classification) summarizes data on tumor burden (T), presence of cancer cells in draining and regional lymph nodes (N) and evidence for metastases (M). However, it is now recognized that clinical outcome can significantly vary among patients within the same stage. The current classification provides limited prognostic information, and does not predict response to therapy. Recent literature has alluded to the importance of the host immune system in controlling tumor progression. Thus, evidence supports the notion to include immunological biomarkers, implemented as a tool for the prediction of prognosis and response to therapy. Accumulating data, collected from large cohorts of human cancers, has demonstrated the impact of immune-classification, which has a prognostic value that may add to the significance of the AJCC/UICC TNM-classification. It is therefore imperative to begin to incorporate the 'Immunoscore' into traditional classification, thus providing an essential prognostic and potentially predictive tool. Introduction of this parameter as a biomarker to classify cancers, as part of routine diagnostic and prognostic assessment of tumors, will facilitate clinical decision-making including rational stratification of patient treatment. Equally, the inherent complexity of quantitative immunohistochemistry, in conjunction with protocol variation across laboratories, analysis of different immune cell types, inconsistent region selection criteria, and variable ways to quantify immune infiltration, all underline the urgent requirement to reach assay harmonization. In an effort to promote the Immunoscore in routine clinical settings, an international task force was initiated. This review represents a follow-up of the announcement of this initiative, and of the J

  2. Shark Teeth Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tom; Creel, Sally; Lee, Velda

    2009-01-01

    On a recent autumn afternoon at Harmony Leland Elementary in Mableton, Georgia, students in a fifth-grade science class investigated the essential process of classification--the act of putting things into groups according to some common characteristics or attributes. While they may have honed these skills earlier in the week by grouping their own…

  3. Sandwich classification theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Stepanov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present note arises from the author's talk at the conference ``Ischia Group Theory 2014''. For subgroups FleN of a group G denote by Lat(F,N the set of all subgroups of N , containing F . Let D be a subgroup of G . In this note we study the lattice LL=Lat(D,G and the lattice LL ′ of subgroups of G , normalized by D . We say that LL satisfies sandwich classification theorem if LL splits into a disjoint union of sandwiches Lat(F,N G (F over all subgroups F such that the normal closure of D in F coincides with F . Here N G (F denotes the normalizer of F in G . A similar notion of sandwich classification is introduced for the lattice LL ′ . If D is perfect, i.,e. coincides with its commutator subgroup, then it turns out that sandwich classification theorem for LL and LL ′ are equivalent. We also show how to find basic subroup F of sandwiches for LL ′ and review sandwich classification theorems in algebraic groups over rings.

  4. Dynamic Latent Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhong, Shengtong; Martínez, Ana M.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    as possible. Motivated by this problem setting, we propose a generative model for dynamic classification in continuous domains. At each time point the model can be seen as combining a naive Bayes model with a mixture of factor analyzers (FA). The latent variables of the FA are used to capture the dynamics...... in the process as well as modeling dependences between attributes....

  5. An automated cirrus classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryspeerdt, Edward; Quaas, Johannes; Sourdeval, Odran; Goren, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Cirrus clouds play an important role in determining the radiation budget of the earth, but our understanding of the lifecycle and controls on cirrus clouds remains incomplete. Cirrus clouds can have very different properties and development depending on their environment, particularly during their formation. However, the relevant factors often cannot be distinguished using commonly retrieved satellite data products (such as cloud optical depth). In particular, the initial cloud phase has been identified as an important factor in cloud development, but although back-trajectory based methods can provide information on the initial cloud phase, they are computationally expensive and depend on the cloud parametrisations used in re-analysis products. In this work, a classification system (Identification and Classification of Cirrus, IC-CIR) is introduced. Using re-analysis and satellite data, cirrus clouds are separated in four main types: frontal, convective, orographic and in-situ. The properties of these classes show that this classification is able to provide useful information on the properties and initial phase of cirrus clouds, information that could not be provided by instantaneous satellite retrieved cloud properties alone. This classification is designed to be easily implemented in global climate models, helping to improve future comparisons between observations and models and reducing the uncertainty in cirrus clouds properties, leading to improved cloud parametrisations.

  6. Classifications in popular music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, A.; Schmutz, V.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    The categorical system of popular music, such as genre categories, is a highly differentiated and dynamic classification system. In this article we present work that studies different aspects of these categorical systems in popular music. Following the work of Paul DiMaggio, we focus on four questio

  7. Nearest convex hull classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I. Nalbantov (Georgi); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); J.C. Bioch (Cor)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractConsider the classification task of assigning a test object to one of two or more possible groups, or classes. An intuitive way to proceed is to assign the object to that class, to which the distance is minimal. As a distance measure to a class, we propose here to use the distance to the

  8. Principles for ecological classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis H. Grossman; Patrick Bourgeron; Wolf-Dieter N. Busch; David T. Cleland; William Platts; G. Ray; C. Robins; Gary Roloff

    1999-01-01

    The principal purpose of any classification is to relate common properties among different entities to facilitate understanding of evolutionary and adaptive processes. In the context of this volume, it is to facilitate ecosystem stewardship, i.e., to help support ecosystem conservation and management objectives.

  9. Improving Student Question Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  10. Classification of waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H.P.; Sauer, M.; Rojahn, T. [Versuchsatomkraftwerk GmbH, Kahl am Main (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    A barrel gamma scanning unit has been in use at the VAK for the classification of radioactive waste materials since 1998. The unit provides the facility operator with the data required for classification of waste barrels. Once these data have been entered into the AVK data processing system, the radiological status of raw waste as well as pre-treated and processed waste can be tracked from the point of origin to the point at which the waste is delivered to a final storage. Since the barrel gamma scanning unit was commissioned in 1998, approximately 900 barrels have been measured and the relevant data required for classification collected and analyzed. Based on the positive results of experience in the use of the mobile barrel gamma scanning unit, the VAK now offers the classification of barrels as a service to external users. Depending upon waste quantity accumulation, this measurement unit offers facility operators a reliable and time-saving and cost-effective means of identifying and documenting the radioactivity inventory of barrels scheduled for final storage. (orig.)

  11. Event Classification using Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.H.T. de; Schutte, K.; Kraaij, W.

    2013-01-01

    The semantic gap is one of the challenges in the GOOSE project. In this paper a Semantic Event Classification (SEC) system is proposed as an initial step in tackling the semantic gap challenge in the GOOSE project. This system uses semantic text analysis, multiple feature detectors using the BoW

  12. Munitions Classification Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    the MM and TEMTADS 2x2 systems , with dynamic data handling for these systems on the horizon. Using UX-Analyze, a data processor can apply physics ... classification libraries. DRAFT 4 2.0 TECHNOLOGY Three different sensor systems were used during the initial phase of the data collection: a modified...

  13. Recurrent neural collective classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monner, Derek D; Reggia, James A

    2013-12-01

    With the recent surge in availability of data sets containing not only individual attributes but also relationships, classification techniques that take advantage of predictive relationship information have gained in popularity. The most popular existing collective classification techniques have a number of limitations-some of them generate arbitrary and potentially lossy summaries of the relationship data, whereas others ignore directionality and strength of relationships. Popular existing techniques make use of only direct neighbor relationships when classifying a given entity, ignoring potentially useful information contained in expanded neighborhoods of radius greater than one. We present a new technique that we call recurrent neural collective classification (RNCC), which avoids arbitrary summarization, uses information about relationship directionality and strength, and through recursive encoding, learns to leverage larger relational neighborhoods around each entity. Experiments with synthetic data sets show that RNCC can make effective use of relationship data for both direct and expanded neighborhoods. Further experiments demonstrate that our technique outperforms previously published results of several collective classification methods on a number of real-world data sets.

  14. Event Classification using Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.H.T. de; Schutte, K.; Kraaij, W.

    2013-01-01

    The semantic gap is one of the challenges in the GOOSE project. In this paper a Semantic Event Classification (SEC) system is proposed as an initial step in tackling the semantic gap challenge in the GOOSE project. This system uses semantic text analysis, multiple feature detectors using the BoW mod

  15. Software for automated classification of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy videos of colorectal polyps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara André; Tom Vercauteren; Anna M Buchner; Murli Krishna; Nicholas Ayache; Michael B Wallace

    2012-01-01

    To support probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) diagnosis by designing software for the automated classification of colonic polyps.METHODS:Intravenous fluorescein pCLE imaging of colorectal lesions was performed on patients undergoing screening and surveillance colonoscopies,followed by polypectomies.All resected specimens were reviewed by a reference gastrointestinal pathologist blinded to pCLE information.Histopathology was used as the criterion standard for the differentiation between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions.The pCLE video sequences,recorded for each polyp,were analyzed offline by 2 expert endoscopists who were blinded to the endoscopic characteristics and histopathology.These pCLE videos,along with their histopathology diagnosis,were used to train the automated classification software which is a content-based image retrieval technique followed by k-nearest neighbor classification.The performance of the off-line diagnosis of pCLE videos established by the 2 expert endoscopists was compared with that of automated pCLE software classification.All evaluations were performed using leave-one-patient-out cross-validation to avoid bias.RESULTS:Colorectal lesions (135) were imaged in 71 patients.Based on histopathology,93 of these 135lesions were neoplastic and 42 were non-neoplastic.The study found no statistical significance for the difference between the performance of automated pCLE software classification (accuracy 89.6%,sensitivity 92.5%,specificity 83.3%,using leave-one-patient-outcross-validation) and the performance of the off-line diagnosis of pCLE videos established by the 2 expert endoscopists (accuracy 89.6%,sensitivity 91.4%,specificity 85.7%).There was very low power (< 6%)to detect the observed differences.The 95% confidence intervals for equivalence testing were:-0.073 to 0.073 for accuracy,-0.068 to 0.089 for sensitivity and -0.18 to 0.13 for specificity.The classification software proposed in this study is

  16. Efficient Fingercode Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Wei; Law, Kwok-Yan; Gollmann, Dieter; Chung, Siu-Leung; Li, Jian-Bin; Sun, Jia-Guang

    In this paper, we present an efficient fingerprint classification algorithm which is an essential component in many critical security application systems e. g. systems in the e-government and e-finance domains. Fingerprint identification is one of the most important security requirements in homeland security systems such as personnel screening and anti-money laundering. The problem of fingerprint identification involves searching (matching) the fingerprint of a person against each of the fingerprints of all registered persons. To enhance performance and reliability, a common approach is to reduce the search space by firstly classifying the fingerprints and then performing the search in the respective class. Jain et al. proposed a fingerprint classification algorithm based on a two-stage classifier, which uses a K-nearest neighbor classifier in its first stage. The fingerprint classification algorithm is based on the fingercode representation which is an encoding of fingerprints that has been demonstrated to be an effective fingerprint biometric scheme because of its ability to capture both local and global details in a fingerprint image. We enhance this approach by improving the efficiency of the K-nearest neighbor classifier for fingercode-based fingerprint classification. Our research firstly investigates the various fast search algorithms in vector quantization (VQ) and the potential application in fingerprint classification, and then proposes two efficient algorithms based on the pyramid-based search algorithms in VQ. Experimental results on DB1 of FVC 2004 demonstrate that our algorithms can outperform the full search algorithm and the original pyramid-based search algorithms in terms of computational efficiency without sacrificing accuracy.

  17. Primary retroperitoneal seminoma - embryology, histopathology and treatment particularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gîngu, Constantin Virgil; Mihai, Mihaela; Baston, Cătălin; Crăsneanu, Mugurel Alexandru; Dick, Alexandru Vladimir; Olaru, Vlad; Sinescu, Ioanel

    2016-01-01

    Retroperitoneal seminoma is a very rare form of cancer, with embryological origin represented by primordial germ cells from the urogenital ridges left behind during the fetal development. Extragenital germ cell tumors can also occur in the mediastinum or the pineal gland. The aim of this paper is to outline the particularities and draw embryological, histopatological and treatment conclusions regarding extragonadal germ cell tumors. A 43-year-old patient without any additional pathology was admitted for anemia of unknown etiology. The clinical examination revealed through deep abdominal palpation a mass in the left flank, and normal testes. Thoraco-abdomino-pelvic computed tomography (CT) scan showed a large retroperitoneal tumor adjacent to the great vessels in the left lumbo-iliac region. The blood work revealed just a low hemoglobin and hematocrit. With the established diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumor, radical surgical removal was decided. During the surgery, we were required to dissect a large solid encapsulated tumor mass from the aorta and the common iliac artery, starting at the renal pedicle all the way to the left iliac bifurcation. The surgical access was obtained through a transperitoneal left subcostal incision prolonged pararectally. Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies revealed a seminoma of the usual type. After the histological findings, the patient's tumor markers were investigated (LDH - lactate dehydrogenase, βHCG - beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, αFP - alpha-fetoprotein), all values being within normal ranges. In addition, the left testicle was thoroughly reexamined, clinically, through ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and no abnormalities were observed. After the surgery, the patient followed three courses of chemotherapy (BEP - Bleomycin, Etoposide and Cisplatin). The CT scan done 24 months after surgery found no signs of local or distant tumor recurrence. The patient entered a follow-up schedule

  18. Pediatric Gastrointestinal Diseases in Nigeria: Histopathologic Analysis of 74 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abudu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Children are vulnerable to a vast number of diseases including gastrointestinal disorders, which may be associated with life threatening complications that sometimes result in mortality especially if left untreated. OBJECTIVE: To establish the age and sex distribution of children in the study population as well as the histopathological characteristics of gastrointestinal diseases that occurred in those children who were aged 14years and below in Sagamu, Southwestern Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic data such as age, sex, and clinical summary of children in the study population were extracted from the medical records of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Ogun State from January 2003 to December 2009. Based on this information, a review of paraffin embedded blocks and slides as well as histopathological reports of gastrointestinal diseases that occurred in those children aged 14years and below was undertaken at the Morbid Anatomy Department of the hospital. RESULTS: Seventy–four cases of gastrointestinal diseases were seen in children aged 14years and below. The majority (39.2% of gastrointestinal diseases were accounted for by appendiceal lesions. Hirschsprung’s disease, intussusceptions, enterocolitis and jejunal atresia accounted for 29.7%, 10.8%, 6.8% and 4.1% of cases respectively. Adenocarcinoma of the intestine was the predominant gastrointestinal tumour, occurring in 5 out of 7 children. Two cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were also seen. The ages of the children ranged from 2 to 14 years, with a mean age of 8.6years and a peak age incidence of gastrointestinal disease in the 10-14year age group. Male children were more commonly affected with the exception of appendiceal lesions, which occurred more in females (M:F ratio= 1.6:1.0. Acute suppurative appendicitis was the most prevalent lesion of the appendix, occurring in 13 out of 29 appendiceal lesions. Moderately differentiated to poorly

  19. Physiological and Histopathological studies on Bisphenol-A compound as

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G.E.Helal *; Mohamed M.M. Badawi **; Maha G. Soliman *; Nadia A. Abdel-Kawi *; Hewaida A. E. Fadel ***; Nashwa M. G. Abozaid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Xenoestrogens are compounds like estrogens in effect but not in structure which are mimicking the action of endogenous estrogen and activate estrogen receptor. Xenoestrogens are chemically distinct industrial products potentially able to disrupt the endocrine system by mimicking the action of endogenous steroid hormones. Among such compounds, the ubiquitous environmental contaminants bisphenol-A (BPA may promote adverse effects in humans triggering estrogenic signals in target tissues. Bisphenol- A is widely used in food and drinks packaging. Aim of the work: The present study is carrying out to evaluate the effect of bisphenol-A on sexual hormonal pattern in male albino rats. Material and Methods: 64adult male Sprague – Dawley rats (100-120 g were divided to four groups (16 rats/group.Group (1: control group without any treatment. Group(2: positive control group was injected subcutaneously (s.c with sesame oil daily. Group (3: received BPA daily with low dose (10 mg/kg/day s.c. Group (4: received BPA daily with high dose (30 mg/kg/day s.c. The experiment durated 30 days, half rats of each group were sacrificed after 15 days of treatment and the other half of groups after 30 days. The blood was collected, serum was separated and used for estimation of (hormonal levels, prolactin, gonadotrophin and testosterone and some biochemical parameters (liver enzymes, kidney function, protein and lipid profile. Testis, liver and kidney were taken for the histopathological examination. Results: Biochemical results showed significant elevation in prolactin and FSH levels and significant reduction in LH and testosterone levels in all groups compared to the control group. Increased serum enzymes (ASAT, ALAT& ALP levels with increased concentration of urea and creatinine were detected in all the treated groups compared to the control group. Decline in protein profile and elevation in the concentration of lipid profile, while HDL was decreased in

  20. Predicting turnaround time reductions of the diagnostic track in the histopathology laboratory using mathematical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeftink, A G; Boucherie, R J; Hans, E W; Verdaasdonk, M A M; Vliegen, I M H; van Diest, P J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pathology departments face a growing volume of more and more complex testing in an era where healthcare costs tend to explode and short turnaround times (TATs) are expected. In contrast, the histopathology workforce tends to shrink, so histopathology employees experience high workload du

  1. Predicting turnaround time reductions of the diagnostic track in the histopathology laboratory using mathematical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeftink, A G; Boucherie, R J; Hans, E W; Verdaasdonk, M A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304810851; Vliegen, I M H; van Diest, P J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075281775

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pathology departments face a growing volume of more and more complex testing in an era where healthcare costs tend to explode and short turnaround times (TATs) are expected. In contrast, the histopathology workforce tends to shrink, so histopathology employees experience high workload du

  2. Predicting turnaround time reductions of the diagnostic track in the histopathology laboratory using mathematical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeftink, Anne Greetje; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Hans, Elias W.; Verdaasdonk, M.A.M.; Vliegen, Ingrid; Van Diest, P.J

    2016-01-01

    Background Pathology departments face a growing volume of more and more complex testing in an era where healthcare costs tend to explode and short turnaround times (TATs) are expected. In contrast, the histopathology workforce tends to shrink, so histopathology employees experience high workload dur

  3. Histopathological examination of the placenta : key issues for pathologists and obstetricians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, S. J.; Dahlstrom, J. E.; Khong, T. Y.; Ellwood, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    The placenta is often not submitted for histopathological examination and obstetricians may be sceptical of the value of the examination. This article looks at the reasons for histopathological assessment of the placenta, examines what clinical information should be provided to pathologists and

  4. Refined histopathological predictors of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spurdle, Amanda B; Couch, Fergus J; Parsons, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The distribution of histopathological features of invasive breast tumors in BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation carriers differs from that of individuals with no known mutation. Histopathological features thus have utility for mutation prediction, including statistical modeling to asse...

  5. Comparison of histopathology and PCR based assay for detection of experimentally induced toxoplasmosis in murine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vikrant Sudan; A K Tewari; R Singh; Harkirat Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare histopathology and PCR based detection in diagnosis of experimentally induced toxoplasmosis of RH human strain of the parasite in murine models. Methods:A comparison of histopathology and PCR based detection was done to diagnose experimentally induced toxoplasmosis in ten inbred swiss albino mice after intraperitoneal inoculation of 100 tachyzoites of laboratory mantained human RH strain of the parasite. Tissue samples from lung, liver, spleen, brain, heart and kidney were taken and processed for histopathological examination while all the samples also were subjected to PCR, using primers directed to the multicopy of SAG 3 gene, in dublicates. Results: Histopathology revealed presence of tachyzoites only in liver while along with lung, liver, spleen and brain tissue yielded desired positive PCR amplicons. Conclusions:The SAG 3 based PCR is able to diagnose toxoplasmosis in those tissues which are declared negative by histopathological assay.

  6. American tegumentary leishmaniasis: correlations among immunological, histopathological and clinical parameters*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana Luiza Grizzo Peres; Barreto, Jaison Antonio; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Martins, Ana Claudia Grizzo Peres

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND American tegumentary leishmaniasis has an annual incidence of 1 to 1.5 million cases. In some cases, the patient's immune response can eliminate the parasite, and the lesion spontaneously resolves. However, when this does not occur, patients develop the disseminated form of the disease. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. METHODS A retrospective study of the medical records of 47 patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data were collected, and semi-quantitative histopathological analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation coefficient (p Montenegro reaction, degree of granulomatous transformation and epithelioid cell count; duration of disease, Montenegro reaction and number of lymphocytes; epithelial hyperplasia and edema, hemorrhaging, and epithelial aggression; number of plasmocytes and number of parasites. The main negative correlations found were as follows: age and serology; time and parasite load; epithelial hyperplasia and degree of granulomatous transformation. CONCLUSION The long duration of the disease could be explained by the fact that lesions were relatively asymptomatic, and therefore ignored by patients with low literacy levels. Individuals may have simply waited for spontaneous healing, which proved to be dependent on the activation of hypersensitivity mechanisms. PMID:24626648

  7. Liver biopsy histopathology for diagnosis of Johne's disease in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S L; Wilson, P R; Collett, M G; Heuer, C; West, D M; Stevenson, M; Chambers, J P

    2014-09-01

    Sheep with Johne's disease develop epithelioid macrophage microgranulomas, specific to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection, in the terminal ileum, mesenteric lymph nodes, and organs distant to the alimentary tract such as the liver. The objectives of this study were to determine whether liver pathology was present in ewes affected by Map and whether liver cores provide adequate tissue for this potential diagnostic marker. One hundred and twenty-six adult, low body condition ewes were euthanized, necropsied, and underwent simulated liver biopsy. Ileal lesions typical of Map were found in 60 ewes. Hepatic epithelioid microgranulomas were observed in all ewes with Type 3b (n = 40) and 82% (n = 11) with Type 3c ileal lesions. None were found in ewes unaffected by Map or with Type 1, 2, or 3a ileal lesions. Liver biopsy core samples provided adequate tissue for histopathology with a sensitivity and specificity of 96% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87-0.99) and 100% (95% CI, 0.95-1), respectively for detection of types 3b and 3c ileal lesions.

  8. Yorkshire Regional Lymphoma Histopathology panel: analysis of five years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, C C; Lauder, I; Kellett, H S; Chorlton, I; Barnes, N; Darwin, C; Cartwright, R A; Boyko, R

    1984-08-01

    Five years' experience of operating a Regional Lymphoma Histopathology Panel is described. During this period, approximately 1400 cases were registered of which nearly 1200 were confirmed as malignant lymphoma. Complete concordance of diagnosis was achieved between submitting pathologists and the Panel in two-thirds of cases of Hodgkin's disease and just over half of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Most discrepancies in diagnosis were found to be of clinical importance in terms of prognosis and/or therapeutic management of patients. In approximately two-thirds of such instances disagreement arose because of wrong assignment of tumour grade within the main lymphoma class but in one-third of cases the main class of lymphoma was wrongly designated. Panel members experienced similar diagnostic problems as submitting pathologists although to a lesser extent. The existence of the panel has not reduced the proportion of cases causing diagnostic difficulty for submitting pathologists or panel members during the 5 year study period. The principal cause of death was ascertained from death certificates and autopsy findings in nearly half the cases dying during the study period. In approximately half of these infection (largely pulmonary) played a major role while most of the remainder died of various cardiovascular, pulmonary or renal disorders. There was no specific pattern relating to the main lymphoma class. It is concluded that whilst the panel fulfils a useful function in resolving diagnostic difficulties and standardizing lymphoma diagnosis its role is restricted somewhat by the limitations imposed by conventional morphological assessments.

  9. Histopathological study on changes of bronchial epithelium among chromate workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikami, H.

    1982-09-01

    There have been many reports on lung cancer among chromate workers. Chromate compounds are thought to be a carcinogen and lung cancer among chromate workers is considered one of the occupational lung cancers. Recently, it is debated that metaplastic and hyperplastic changes of bronchial epithelium are revealed or not to the development of bronchogenic carcinoma. Histopathological study on changes of bronchial epithelium among chromate workers was performed in order to clarify the effect of chromate compounds to bronchial epithelium. The subjects were 14 cases of lung cancer among chromate workers. As a control, 18 cases of non cancer among chromate workers. Lung tissue which was obtained at necropsy or surgery was fixed by formalin and was produced cross-sections and was stained on Haematoxylin-Eosin. The results were as follows. Of examined 235 cross-sections, basal cell hyperplasia of bronchial epithelium was found in 13 percent. Squamous metaplasia was found in 29 percent, on the contrary, atypical metaplastic changes were observed in 34 percent. Of four cases of carcinoma in situ and two cases of small invasive carcinoma, four cases revealed development from atypical squamous metaplasia to precancerous changes. These cases developed invasive carcinoma from atypical squamous metaplasia for a long period, of which were found by successive exfoliative cytology of sputum. From these findings, it was concluded that inhalation of chromate dust affected bronchial epithelium and caused highly atypical squamous metaplasia which developed to carcinoma in situ and finally to invasive carcinoma.

  10. Histopathological study on changes of bronchial epithelium among chromate workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikami, H.

    1982-09-01

    There have been many reports on lung cancer among chromate workers. Chromate compounds are thought to be a carcinogen and lung cancer among chromate workers is considered one of the occupational lung cancers. Recently, it is debated that metaplastic and hyperplastic changes of bronchial epithelium are revealed or not to the development of bronchogenic carcinoma. Histopathological study on changes of bronchial epithelium among chromate workers was performed in order to clarify the effect of chromate compounds to bronchial epithelium. The subjects were 14 cases of lung cancer among chromate workers. As a control, 18 cases of non cancer among chromate workers. Lung tissue which was obtained at necropsy or surgery was fixed by formalin and was produced cross-sections and was stained on Haematoxylin-Eosin. The results were as follows. 1. Of examined 235 cross-sections, basal cell hyperplasia of bronchial epithelium was found in 13 per cent. Squamous metaplasia was found in 29 per cent, on the contrary, atypical metaplastic changes were observed in 34 per cent. 2. Of four cases of carcinoma in situ and two cases of small invasive carcinoma, four cases revealed development from atypical squamous metaplasia to precancerous changes. 3. These cases developed invasive carcinoma from atypical squamous metaplasia for a long period, of which were found by successive exfoliative cytology of sputum. From these findings, it was concluded that inhalation of chromate dust affected bronchial epithelium and caused highly atypical squamous metaplasia which developed to carcinoma in situ and finally to invasive carcinoma.

  11. Integrating molecular diagnostics into histopathology training: the Belfast model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, C; James, J; Maxwell, P; McQuaid, S; Ervine, A; Catherwood, M; Loughrey, M B; McGibben, D; Somerville, J; McManus, D T; Gray, M; Herron, B; Salto-Tellez, M

    2014-07-01

    Molecular medicine is transforming modern clinical practice, from diagnostics to therapeutics. Discoveries in research are being incorporated into the clinical setting with increasing rapidity. This transformation is also deeply changing the way we practise pathology. The great advances in cell and molecular biology which have accelerated our understanding of the pathogenesis of solid tumours have been embraced with variable degrees of enthusiasm by diverse medical professional specialties. While histopathologists have not been prompt to adopt molecular diagnostics to date, the need to incorporate molecular pathology into the training of future histopathologists is imperative. Our goal is to create, within an existing 5-year histopathology training curriculum, the structure for formal substantial teaching of molecular diagnostics. This specialist training has two main goals: (1) to equip future practising histopathologists with basic knowledge of molecular diagnostics and (2) to create the option for those interested in a subspecialty experience in tissue molecular diagnostics to pursue this training. It is our belief that this training will help to maintain in future the role of the pathologist at the centre of patient care as the integrator of clinical, morphological and molecular information.

  12. The Evaluation Of Histopathological Diagnosis In Hysterectomy Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Kunt isguder

    2016-06-01

    Results: The mean age of the patients was 50.48+/-7.50 (min:38, max:74. Leiomyoma with 77 case (%45.3 was the most hysterectomy indicated disease. Thereafter, dysfunctional uterine bleeding in 50 (%29.49, and endometrial hyperplasia 22 (%12.9 were detected. The other clinical indications were uterine prolapse in 17 patients (%10, chronic pelvic pain in 2 (%1.2 and adenomyosis in 2 (%1.2. The results of histopathological reports belong to hysterectomy materials indicated that leiomyoma was the most common pathological finding with 87 cases (%51.2, subsequently adenomyosis in 35 cases (% 20.5 and endometrial hyperplasia in 31 (18.3 was detected. Endometrial polyp was found in 10 cases (%5.9 and atrophic endometrium in 7 cases (%4.1. Combined pathology was defined in 44 hysteterctomy materials. Leiomyoma and endometrial hyperplasia were detected as the most common combination with a ratio of %50. In addition, chronic cervicitis was seen in %64.7 of cervical examinations of hysterectomy materials. Conclusion: Adenomyosis should be kept in mind while planning the diagnosis and treatment of patients whose admitted with compliants of menometrorrhagia, seconder dysmenorrhea and chronic pelvic pain in 4th and 5th decade. Endometrial sampling caused by the co-existence of leiomyoma and endometrial hyperplasia must be necessary in hysterectomy planned cases for leiomyoma those already have menometrorrhagia. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(2.000: 87-91

  13. Histopathologic findings in children diagnosed with cow's milk protein allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Bustamante, R; Pedrero-Olivares, I; Toro-Monjaraz, E M; Murillo-Márquez, P; Ramírez-Mayans, J A; Montijo-Barrios, E; Zárate-Mondragón, F; Cadena-León, J; Cazares-Méndez, M; López-Ugalde, M

    2015-01-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy is the most common cause of food allergy. The challenge test, either open or doubled-blind with a placebo control, is regarded as the criterion standard. Endoscopy and histologic findings are considered a method that can aid in the diagnosis of this entity. The aim of this study was to describe the histopathologic findings in children suspected of cow's milk protein allergy that were seen at our hospital. A descriptive, observational study was conducted on 116 children clinically suspected of presenting with cow's milk protein allergy that were seen at the Department of Gastroenterology and Nutrition of the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría. Upper endoscopy and rectosigmoidoscopy with biopsies were performed and the findings were described. Of the 116 patients, 64 (55.17%) were girls and 52 (44.83%) were boys. The rectum was the site with the greatest presence of eosinophils per field in both groups, followed by the duodenum. In general, more than 15 eosinophils were found in 46% of the patients. Between 40 and 45% of the cases had the histologic criterion of more than 15 to 20 eosinophils per field and the rectosigmoid colon was the most affected site. Therefore, panendoscopy and rectosigmoidoscopy with biopsy and eosinophil count are suggested. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. [Endoscopic and histopathological studies of experimental esophageal cancer in beagles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, K; Sunagawa, M; Nakajima, A; Ochi, K; Habu, H; Hoshi, K

    1985-02-01

    In order to obtain a reliable experimental model simulating human esophageal cancer, endoscopic and histopathological studies were undertaken in the esophageal cancer produced in the beagle dog. Thirty-seven dogs had been given a solution of N-Ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (ENNG) at a concentration of 150 micrograms/ml for 3-9 months. Follow-up studies included serial endoscopy and biopsy, and almost all animals were eventually sacrificed for histological examination. The results were as follows: Squamous cell carcinoma was observed in 5 out of 22 female dogs, while none in male dogs at all. For the induction of squamous cell carcinoma in the esophagus, administration in the condition of 150 micrograms/ml (75mg/day) for 6-9 months was most suitable. Almost all of esophageal lesions were protruding and well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with invasion of the submucosa. The stages of hyperplasia, dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma in the esophagus were chronologically followed. Carcinoma had been observed in the stomach about 4 months prior to the appearance of esophageal carcinoma. This experimental model was proved to be useful for studies on histogenesis of human esophageal cancer both light and electron microscopically.

  15. Histopathological and clinical traps in lichen sclerosus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brănişteanu, Daciana Elena; Brănişteanu, Daniel Constantin; Stoleriu, Gabriela; Ferariu, Dan; Voicu, Cătălina Maria; Stoica, Loredana Elena; Căruntu, Constantin; Boda, Daniel; Filip-Ciubotaru, Florina Mihaela; Dimitriu, Andreea; Radu, Cezar Doru

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and limited systemic scleroderma (acrosclerosis) are inflammatory skin diseases that ultimately evolve into two distinct modes of atrophic scar formation, but which can easily be confused clinically. They are very rarely associated. The literature has reported cases in which lichen sclerosus was associated with various forms of scleroderma, but often with localized morphea. The characteristic histopathological picture of lichen sclerosus includes a thin epidermis, with orthohyperkeratosis and vascular degeneration in the basal layer, loss of elastic fibers, and band-like inflammatory infiltrate in the papillary dermis, while systemic sclerosis is characterized by excessive deposition of collagen in the dermis, accompanied by reduction in adnexal structures and their entrapment in collagen, and the presence of perivascular lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate. We present the case of a 40-year-old female patient clinically diagnosed with systemic scleroderma and lichen sclerosus involving the genital mucosa. Physical examination in conjunction with laboratory findings (elevated antinuclear, anti-Scl-70, anti-SSA antibodies and immunogram) induced the supposition of the coexistence of lichen sclerosus and systemic scleroderma, fact confirmed by pathological examination. Systemic therapy with corticosteroids, immunosuppressive and phlebotropic drugs, peripheral vasodilators and other tropic adjuvants and topically potent topical corticosteroids was initiated. The course was favorable under therapy, the hardened skin slightly regaining elasticity, relief of itching and disappearance of lichen sclerosus lesions. Our case reaffirms the uncommon association of these two disorders. The importance of history, physical and laboratory examinations in making a diagnosis of certainty in emphasized.

  16. Contrast-enhanced breast ultrasonography: imaging features with histopathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Liu, Ji-Bin; Zhu, Qing-Li; Sun, Qiang; Chang, Xiao-Yan

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify histopathologic correlates for the varied appearances of breast masses on contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was performed in 104 patients (age range, 19-86 years) after administration of a sulfur hexafluoride microbubble contrast agent, and enhancement patterns were classified as no enhancement, peripheral enhancement, homogeneous enhancement, regional enhancement, and heterogeneous enhancement. All patients' histologic slides were reviewed and correlated with CEUS findings. In malignant masses, heterogeneous enhancement corresponded to tumor cell cords or clusters in a variable amount of desmoplastic stroma. Homogeneous enhancement corresponded to hypercellularity in the whole mass, or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was predominant. Regional enhancement corresponded to a DCIS component. Peripheral enhancement corresponded to a DCIS component, hypercellularity or adenosis at the periphery, and low-degree cellularity, degeneration, fibrosis, or necrosis in the center. No enhancement was present in 1 case of low-grade DCIS. In benign masses, heterogeneous enhancement corresponded to loose cell proliferation in a more sclerotic stroma. Homogeneous enhancement corresponded to diffuse hypercellularity, an inflammatory cell infiltrate, or intraductal papilloma. Regional enhancement corresponded to focal hypercellularity or intraductal papilloma within a dilated duct. No enhancement corresponded to desmoplastic stroma. Peripheral enhancement was shown in 1 case of granulomatous mastitis with an inflammatory infiltrate at the periphery and necrosis in the center. Breast mass CEUS findings correlated with histologic features.

  17. Periodontal disease in diabetic patients - clinical and histopathological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlan Puşcu, Dorina; Ciuluvică, Radu Constantin; Anghel, Andreea; Mălăescu, Gheorghe Dan; Ciursaş, Adina Nicoleta; Popa, Gabriel Valeriu; Agop Forna, Doriana; Busuioc, Cristina Jana; Siloşi, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is one of the most frequent diseases affecting people all over the world. The relation between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus raised the interest both of dentists and doctors treating metabolic diseases, as the two conditions influence one another. In our study, we analyzed a number of 75 patients with diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease that presented to the medical consultory for conditions of the dental maxillary system. The clinical study showed that periodontal disease and diabetes may affect young adults as well, still this pathological association more frequently appears after the age of 50. The disease was identified especially in the women living in urban area. The clinical examination of the dental maxillary system identified the presence of gingival ulcerations, dental calculus, gingival bleeding, radicular leftovers with anfractuous margins, fixed prostheses with an inappropriate cervical adjustment. Of the systemic diseases associated to periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus, there was observed that 66.66% of the patients also suffered from cardiovascular diseases (high blood pressure, ischemic cardiopathy, heart failure), and 37.33% suffered from obesity. The histopathological and immunohistochemical tests highlighted the presence of an inflammatory chronic, intense reaction, mainly formed of lymphocytes, plasmocytes, macrophages and granulocytes, heterogeneously disseminated and alteration of the structure of marginal and superficial periodontium. The inflammatory reaction in the patients with periodontal disease and diabetes was more intense than in the patients with periodontal disease without diabetes.

  18. Mandibular condylar hyperplasia: clinical, histopathological, and treatment considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiero, Francesca; Farronato, Giampietro; Benedicenti, Stefano; Vinci, Raffaele; Farronato, Davide; Magistro, Sarah; Stefani, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is a rare disorder characterized by an increased volume of the condyle, ramus, and mandibular body leading to facial asymmetry. We present three cases of condylar hyperplasia: two women and one man, age range 27 to 34. Clinically, all three patients showed a deviation of the mandible to the opposite side and a protruded position of the chin, hypertrophy of the lower border of the mandible, combined with an elongation of the mandibular ramus, open-bite on the deformed side, and cross-bite on the opposite side. In all three cases, scintigraphy showed an increased uptake. Radiography and CT scanning confirmed the clinical diagnosis and patients were subjected to surgery, comprising high condylectomy on the affected side with access in the pre-tragus area. The surgical piece sent to the Institute of Pathological Anatomy for histological examination revealed a nonuniform picture, in terms of both the depth of cartilage islands and the thickness of the fibrous layer covering the joint surface. Common to all three cases, however, was the apparent evolution of fibrous tissue to cartilage, and of this to compact bone tissue. At two-four years, all cases have maintained a good occlusal response. The asymmetric deformity of the mandible resulting from the rare condition of hemimandibular hyperplasia is presented and the clinical, histopathological and therapeutic aspects discussed.

  19. Histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic conditions in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, Jennifer M; Genta, Robert M; Melton, Shelby D

    2011-09-01

    Eosinophils, a constitutive component of the columnar-lined gastrointestinal tract, play an essential role in allergic responses and parasitic infections. The tissue density of these cells also increases in a variety of conditions of uncertain etiology. With the exception of the esophageal squamous epithelium, in which no eosinophils are normally present, the population of normal eosinophils in the remainder of the luminal gut is poorly defined. Therefore, histopathologists must rely on their subjective judgment to determine when a diagnosis of eosinophilic gastritis, enteritis, or colitis should be rendered. Eosinophilic esophagitis is currently the best defined and most studied eosinophilic condition of the digestive tract; therefore, the confidence in accurate diagnosis is increasing. In contrast, the characteristic clinicopathologic features of eosinophilic conditions affecting other parts of the digestive tract remain somewhat elusive. This review was designed to present pathologists with simple and practical information for the biopsy-based histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis, gastritis, enteritis, and colitis. It was prepared by critically reviewing more than 200 articles on the topic, along with incorporating evidence accumulated through our own collective experience. We anticipate that by increasing pathologists' confidence in reporting these abnormal but often nameless eosinophilic infiltrates, we can help better define and characterize their significance.

  20. Nephrotoxicity of Kalach 360 SL: biochemical and histopathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdaoui, Latifa; Naifar, Manel; Mzid, Massara; Ben Salem, Mariem; Chtourou, Amel; Makni-Ayadi, Fatma; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Rebai, Tarek

    2016-11-01

    Kalach 360 SL (KL) is a commercial herbicide which contains 360 g/l of glyphosate used in both agricultural and urban areas throughout the world including Tunisia. We aimed to evaluate the effects of KL on rats' renal system. Female Wistar rats were divided into three groups: group 1 (n = 6) received a standard diet and served as control, groups 2 and 3 (n = 12 each) received 0.07 ml (D1: 126 mg/kg), and 0.175 ml (D2: 315 mg/kg) of KL, respectively, for 60 d. The chronic exposure to KL induced a significant increase in plasma creatinine, urea, and uric acid levels. Creatinine clearance decreased in KL-treated groups, compared with controls. Several urine parameters, such as urine-specific gravity and urine osmolality, significantly decreased, while dieresis and urinary Na/K + ratio increased in KL-treated groups. These findings suggested a distal tubular damage caused by tubular necrosis. Moreover, the chronic exposure to KL induced an increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and a decrease in antioxidant status, enzymatic activities (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and non-enzymatic levels (vitamin C), which led to an oxidative stress. Histopathological studies showed a peritubular inflammatory reaction, nephrose, fragmented glomeruli, necrotic epithelial cells, and tubular dilatation. These results could have significant health implications for animal and human populations. Further data are necessary to investigate the potential consequences of chronic dose exposure during life.

  1. Histopathological features of Capillaria hepatica infection in laboratory rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowat, Vasanthi; Turton, John; Stewart, Jacqui; Lui, Kai Chiu; Pilling, Andrew M

    2009-08-01

    Capillaria hepatica is a nematode parasite of wild rodents and other mammals. Adult worms inhabit the liver. Recently, during the necropsy examination of a group of 160 rabbits from a commercial supplier, firm pale or cystic areas (1-5 mm) were noted on the liver in thirteen animals. On further investigation, these animals were found to be infected with C. hepatica. The histopathological features of the infection in the rabbit are described for the first time and diagnostic features recorded. Lesions were identified predominantly in portal tracts consisting of dilated bile ducts with luminal debris, peribiliary inflammatory cell infiltrates, and fibrosis. Large granulomas (macrogranulomas) were evident in portal areas and involved the bile ducts. Macrogranulomas contained collections of characteristic C. hepatica eggs, macrophages, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. Small granulomas (microgranulomas), characterized by epithelioid macrophages surrounded by lymphocytes and eosinophils, were also identified. C. hepatica eggs were also observed in the lumina of the bile ducts and gall bladder. No adult C. hepatica worms were identified. Oocysts of Eimeria stiedae were also evident in the biliary epithelium in some animals. The unique characteristics of the C. hepatica life cycle are described, and the differential diagnosis of hepatic capillariasis is discussed.

  2. Renal histopathology of a baboon model with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincon-Choles, Hernan; Abboud, Hanna E; Lee, Shuko; Shade, Robert E; Rice, Karen S; Carey, K Dee; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Barnes, Jeffrey L

    2012-10-01

    Naturally occurring type 2 diabetes has been found in a colony of baboons. Ongoing characterization of the baboon colony maintained at the Southwest National Primate Research Center has revealed a significant range of glucose sensitivity with some animals clearly diabetic.   Seven baboons, four with diabetes and three without diabetes, underwent histopathological investigation. Three diabetic animals were diagnosed using fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1C, and intravenous glucose tolerance test, and a fourth one was known to have hyperglycemia. One control baboon and three baboons with diabetes had microalbuminuria. On kidney biopsy, diabetic baboons had thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and mesangial matrix expansion compared to controls. Immunohistochemistry showed the diabetic animals had increased mesangial expression of cellular fibronectin ED-A. Two diabetic animals with microalbuminuria had evidence of mesangiolysis with the formation of an early nodule. One diabetic animal had a Kimmestiel-Wilson nodule. We conclude that the baboon represents a useful primate model of diabetes and nephropathy that resembles the nephropathy associated with type 2 diabetes in humans.

  3. Ocular histopathological changes after eyeball enucleation induced by corneal trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the ocular histopathological changes aftereyeball enucleation induced by corneal trauma.Methods: Light microscopic examination was done on 117 eyeball specimens enucleated after corneal trauma (18 with corneal fissure and 99 with corneal perforating trauma).Results: Acute, subacute or chronic inflammatory changes, and fibrous membrane formation were observed in well-closed corneal wounds, whereas inflammation, atrophy and scar were observed in the focal tissues. But at the late period, secondary glaucoma, retinal detachment, endophthalmitis and eyeball atrophy resulted in blindness. Corneal fistula was observed in those with inadequate cure of wounds caused by ingrowth of corneal epithelium, embedment of iris and vitreous body, and large area of centrally located tissue deficiency of the corneal. A high incidence of endophthalmitis was noted due to the presence of corneal fistula. Severe inflammation was observed in the anterior segmental tissues with fibrous infiltration in the anterior chamber, which might result in rapid destruction of the eyeballs.Conclusions: Ocular pathology varies with the difference of the position, form, size and closing conditions of the corneal laceration after trauma.

  4. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON LAPAROSCOPIC AND HISTOPATHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Mukherjee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Endometriosis is a common benign gynaecological disorder. The true prevalence is difficult to quantify as women with disease are often asymptomatic and imaging modalities have low sensitivities for diagnosis. The primary method of diagnosis is Laparoscopy with or without biopsy for histologic diagnosis. Strict histologic criteria will confirm the surgical diagnosis in approximately 50-65% of cases. DESIGN, SETTING AND METHODS This is a prospective observational institution based study. A total of 50 patients undergoing laparoscopy were included in the study in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results were tabulated for comparison and standard statistical software were used for data presentation. RESULTS In this study, we observed that laparoscopy although adequately sensitive to diagnose endometriosis lacks the specificity except in the case of ovarian endometriosis. So laparoscopy without histological confirmation may give rise to false positive results, which may lead to overtreatment of patients. Due to the high negative predictive value of laparoscopy, absence of lesion anywhere on laparoscopy can virtually exclude the diagnosis of endometriosis, saving both time and expertise. CONCLUSION We conclude that laparoscopy should always be combined with histopathology for accurate diagnosis in presence of any suggestive or doubtful lesion, but is not mandatory in absence of lesion anywhere in the pelvis. The laparoscopic staging of endometriosis has a positive correlation with histologic diagnosis of endometriosis.

  5. Retrospective evaluation of the echinococcosis cases regarding histopathological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tümay Özgür

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Retrospective evaluation of 28 cases, diagnosedas hydatid cyst pathologically in our centre pathologylaboratory, from surgical departments was the objectiveof the study.Methods: 28 cases diagnosed as hydatid cyst in ourhospital have been reviewed retrospectively and patients’age, gender and localizations of disease have been determined.Results: Based on histopathologic evaluation hydatidcyst cases were localized mostly on liver 19 (68%,followed by lung 7 (24%, glutea 1 (3.5% and axilla 1(3.5%. 15 (54% of the patients were male and 13 (46%were female. The age range of the cases were 7-73, whilethe median age of males were 30.2±19.5 years, the medianage of females were 35.9±19.2. Necrosis has beendetermined in 2 (7.1% of cases in pathologic evaluationof hydatid cyst.Conclusion: The pathologic evaluation of all cystic surgicalspecimens should include the careful examinationof the elements of this parasite especially where hydatidcyst is endemic.Key words; Hydatid cyst, pathologic findings, echinococcosis

  6. Kidney Biopsy in Jordan: Complications and Histopathological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghnaimat Mohamad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this retrospective study, we reviewed the medical records, and histopathology findings of 191 patients who underwent renal biopsies at King Hussein Medical Center (KHMC during a four-year period (1993-97. All were performed using Tru-Cut needles under ultrasound guidance. There were 119 males (62.3% and 72 females (37.7%; the mean age was 29.1 years (range 5-76 years. Side effects of the renal biopsies included pain at the site of he biopsy in 17 (8.9%, gross hematuria in six (3.1% and hematuria requiring blood transfusion in one (0.5% patient. Nephrotic syndrome was the most common indication for biopsy followed by acute renal failure of unknown etiology. Among the nephritic patients, minimal change disease and post-infectious glomerulonephritis (GN were the commonest findings in children below the age of 15 years, membrano-proliferative GN ranked first in adults whole membranous GN and amyloidosis were more common in the elderly. WE conclude that renal biopsy was associated with a n acceptably low rate of complications in our practice, and that the patterns of renal histology vary slightly from those reported from other countries.

  7. Occurrence of trichoepithelioma in a cat: Histopathologic and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavasoli, Abbas; Golshahi, Hannaneh; Rad, Maryam Nobakht; Taymouri, Afra

    2013-05-01

    Trichoepitheliomas are benign follicular appendage tumors with differentiation to all three segments of the hair follicle. A 2 years old female domestic short hair cat presented with a mass on the tail. The mass was surgically excised and for histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies, was sent to Department of Pathology. Histologically, the tumor was encapsulated and consisted of many islands of follicular epithelium and also cysts structures which varied in size and shape. The cells of epithelium islands were round to oval and had variable amounts of slightly, eosinophilic cytoplasm and euchromatic nuclei. The cystic structures were lined by a complex layer of squamous epithelium. Often, cells under went an abrupt transition between basal layers and keratinization without the development of a granular cell layer. No tendency of malignancy was seen in this case. According to mentioned characteristics, trichoepithelioma was diagnosed. By immunohistochemical study it was confirmed that this tumor had epithelial origin because squamous tumor cells reacted with the pan-cytokeratin antibody. The expression of β-catenin was predominately cytoplasmic and also together with numerous positive nuclei but membranous expression was inconsistenet. Distribution of neoplastic cells with β-catenin expression was more than 75% and labeling intensity was strong in both cytoplasm and nuclei. According to author's knowledge, this is the first report of trichoepithelioma in cat in Iran and also investigation of β-catenin expression in feline trichoepithelioma in veterinary literature.

  8. Acute arsenic poisoning: clinical, toxicological, histopathological, and forensic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournel, Gilles; Houssaye, Cédric; Humbert, Luc; Dhorne, Christine; Gnemmi, Viviane; Bécart-Robert, Anne; Nisse, Patrick; Hédouin, Valéry; Gosset, Didier; Lhermitte, Michel

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a suicide case by acute arsenic intoxication via intravenous injection. A 30-year-old woman injected arsenic As (V) (sodium arseniate disodique: Disodium Hydrogena Arsenik RP) in a successful suicide attempt. Three hours following administration, the woman developed severe digestive symptoms. She was admitted to a hospital and transferred to the intensive care unit within 12 h of the massive administration of arsenic. Despite therapeutic efforts, over the next 2 h she developed multiorgan failure and died. A postmortem examination was performed. Pulmonary edema and congestion of liver were apparent. As (V) and As (III) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after mineralization of samples by concentrated nitric acid. Toxicological analysis revealed high concentrations of arsenic in biological fluids as well as in organs. Histopathological examination showed a typical indication of myocarditis. These findings were in agreement with acute arsenic poisoning. The symptoms developed by this young woman (intoxication by intravenous administration) were comparable to oral intoxication. The clinical signs, survival time, and administration type are discussed in light of the literature on acute and chronic arsenic poisoning. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Equine Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis: Histopathologic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, R C; Earley, E T; Galloway, S S; Baratt, R M; Rawlinson, J E

    2015-09-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) is a painful progressive condition of older horses that involves multiple teeth, including canines and incisors. EOTRH is uncommonly recognized by veterinary pathologists and in some cases may be misdiagnosed as cementoblastoma. The cause is unknown. The goals of this study were to describe the histopathologic features of EOTRH in 17 affected horses from the United States and to increase awareness of this condition. Samples ranged from affected tooth to the entire rostral mandible and maxilla. Affected teeth exhibited cemental hyperplasia and lysis. The marked proliferation of cementum in severe cases caused bulbous enlargement of the intra-alveolar portions of affected teeth. Several teeth contained necrotic debris, bacteria, and plant material in the regions of cemental lysis. All horses exhibited dentinal lysis in at least affected tooth, and several contained necrotic debris in these regions. Endodontic disease was often present with inflammation, lysis, necrotic debris, fibrosis, and/or a thin rim of atubular mineralized tissue in the pulp cavity. Periodontal disease was a common feature that was primarily characterized by moderate lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Resorption with secondary hypercementosis appears to begin on the external surface of the teeth rather than within the pulp cavity. Distinguishing EOTRH from other diseases requires a complete history that includes the number and location of affected teeth, a gross description of regional hard/soft tissue health, and radiographic findings.

  10. Histopathological Study of Trabeculum after Excimer Laser Trabeculectomy ab Interno

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengsong Huang; Minbin Yu; Guangqiang Feng; Ping Zhang; Changyu Qiu

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To study the clinical manifestations and histopathologic changes of trabeculum after excimer laser trabeculectomy ab interno (ELT), and to investigate the mechanisms of ELT in reducing intraocular pressure. Methods : ELT was performed on ten rabbit eves and postoperative responses were documented. Comeoscleral tissue samples were harvested consecutively each week until the 5th postoperative week and these samples were examined under light and electrical microscopy. Results: Mild stimulation signs were present postoperatix'ely in nine of ten eyes, but no serious complications were experienced. Obvious inflammation was observed in one rabbit eye as a result of iris damage during the surgical manipulations. Local kactures on the trabecular meshwork and openings into Schlemm' s canal were detected in all tissue samples under light microscope. Mitochondria were found to be turgescent and dilated like vacuoles and endoplasmic reticula were found to be dilated under electrical microscope in the early postoperative period. Later, all trabecular cells returned normal and no fihroblast cells were ever detected. Conclusions: Permanent openings through trabecular meshwork into the inner wall of Schlemm's canal can be created with ELT. The outflow resistance of aqueous humor can be reduced with these openings and intraocular pressure can be controlled thereafter. Eye Science 2001; 17:11 ~ 15.

  11. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LYMPH NODE SINUS CONTAINING BLOOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Tong; JI Xiao-long

    2001-01-01

    This study is to find out the histopathological characteristics of lymph node sinus containing blood. Routine autopsy was carried out in the randomly selected 102 patients(among them,100 patients died of various diseases, and 2 of non-diseased causes),their superficial lymph nodes locating in the bilateral neck, axilla, inguina, thorax and abdomen were sampled. Haematoxylin-eosin staining was performed on 10% formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded lymph node tissue sections(5μm).The histological characteristics of the lymph node sinuses containing blood were observed under light microscope. Among the 1362 lymph nodes sampled from the 100 autopsies, lymph sinuses containing blood were found in 809 lymph nodes sampled from 91 cases, but couldn't be seen in the lymph nodes sampled from the non-diseased cases. According to histology, five kinds of lymph sinuses containing blood were found:vascular-opening sinus, blood-deficient sinus, erythrophago-sinus, blood-abundant sinus, and vascular-formative sinus. It is concluded that in the state of disease, the phenomenon of blood in the lymph sinus is not uncommon. Blood could possibly enter into lymph sinus through lymphatic-venous communications between the veins and sinuses in the node. Lymph circulation and blood circulation could communicate with each other in the lymph sinus.

  12. Histopathological effects of radiosurgery on a human trigeminal nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Faisal; Alhindi, Hindi; Alhebshi, Adnan; Albloushi, Monirah; Baeesa, Saleh; Hodaie, Mojgan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Radiosurgery is a well-established treatment modality for medically refractory trigeminal neuralgia. The exact mechanism of pain relief after radiosurgery is not clearly understood. Histopathology examination of the trigeminal nerve in humans after radiosurgery is rarely performed and has produced controversial results. Case Description: We report on a 45-year-old female who received radiosurgery treatment for trigeminal neuralgia by Cyberknife. A 6-mm portion of the cisternal segment of trigeminal nerve received a dose of 60 Gy. The clinical benefit started 10 days after therapy and continued for 8 months prior to a recurrence of her previous symptoms associated with mild background pain. She underwent microvascular decompression and partial sensory root sectioning. Atrophied trigeminal nerve rootlets were grossly noted intraoperatively under surgical microscope associated with changes in trigeminal nerve color to gray. A biopsy from the inferolateral surface of the nerve proximal to the midcisternal segment showed histological changes in the form of fibrosis and axonal degeneration. Conclusion: This case study supports the evidence of histological damage of the trigeminal nerve fibers after radiosurgery therapy. Whether or not the presence and degree of nerve damage correlate with the degree of clinical benefit and side effects are not revealed by this study and need to be explored in future studies. PMID:24605252

  13. GASTRIC AND JEJUNAL HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    RODRIGUES, Rosemary Simões Nomelini; ALMEIDA, Élia Cláudia de Souza; CAMILO, Silvia Maria Perrone; TERRA-JÚNIOR, Júverson Alves; GUIMARÃES, Lucinda Calheiros; DUQUE, Ana Cristina da Rocha; ETCHEBEHERE, Renata Margarida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Morbid obesity is a multifactorial disease that increasingly is being treated by surgery. Aim: To evaluate gastric histopathological changes in obese, and to compare with patients who underwent gastrojejunal bypass and the jejunal mucosa after the surgery. Methods: This is an observational study performed at a tertiary public hospital, evaluating endoscopic biopsies from 36 preoperative patients and 35 postoperative. Results: In the preoperative group, 80.6% had chronic gastritis, which was active in 38.9% (77.1% and 20.1%, respectively, in the postoperative). The postoperative group had a significant reduction in H. pylori infection (p=0.0001). A longer length of the gastric stump and a time since surgery of more than two years were associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The jejunal mucosa was normal in 91.4% and showed slight nonspecific chronic inflammation in 8.6%. Conclusion: There was a reduction in the incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in the postoperative group. A longer length of the gastric stump and longer time elapsed since surgery were associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The jejunal mucosa was considered normal in an absolute majority of patients. PMID:27683773

  14. Relationship Between Histopathology and Clinical Prognosis of Invasive Pituitary Adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYong; SHUKai; DONGFangyong; WANFeng; LEITing; LILing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between histopathology and clinical prognosis of invasive pituitary adenoma subjected to transsphenoidal surgery. Methods: The enrolled were 82 patients with invasive pituitary adenomas undergoing transsphenoidal surgery during Jan. 2000 May 2003 in our department with full MR imaging findings, pathology data and follow-up information. The follow-up duration was 5-30 months. Results: MR imaging findings of invasive pituitary adenoma included: depression of the sellar floor, involvement of sphenoid sinus and cavernous sinus, breakthrough of diaphragma sellae,encasement of internal carotid artery, etc. Pathological examination revealed that the invasion rate of dura in sella turcica was the highest among the structures around tumor. Pituitary adenoma apoplexy was found in 20 cases (24.4%). The total removal rate for PRL-secreting adenomas was significantly lower than that for non-secreting adenomas (P<0.01), but non-, GH-, ACTH-secreting adenomas had no significant differences. The recurrence rate of PRL-secreting adenornas was higher than that of non- and GH-secreting adenomas (P<0.05). Conclusion: Among invasive pituitary adenomas, the therapeutic effects of nonand GH-secreting pituitary adenomas are better than that of PRL-secreting adenomas. Invasive biological behaviors of invasive pituitary adenomas result in radical operation failure and postoperative recurrence.

  15. Lichenoid sarcoidosis: a case with clinical and histopathological lichenoid features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Ruiz, Maria C; Enguita-Valls, Ana B; de Arriba, Marta González; Vanaclocha, Francisco; Peralto, Jose Luis Rodriguez

    2008-06-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology, characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas in the involved organs. Cutaneous involvement is about 25% with different clinical expressions, the lichenoid pattern being one of the rarest types of cutaneous sarcoidosis. Lichenoid sarcoidosis clinically manifests with multiple scale papules involving extensive skin areas, especially the trunk, limbs, and face mimicking a lichen planus. Although diverse histologic patterns have been previously related, a lichenoid granulomatous infiltrate involving the dermo-epidermal junction has never been reported in lichenoid sarcoidosis. We report a case of a 43-year-old woman presenting with skin-colored pruritic papules, slightly scaling in trunk, extremities, and ears. These symptoms condition continued to expand and worsen for several years. The patient was otherwise in good health with no lymphadenopathies. Histopathologic examination of a skin biopsy showed an upper dermal granulomatous infiltrate of epithelioid cells, without necrosis, distributed in a lichenoid pattern with many cytoid bodies. We consider this may be the first case presenting a characteristic microscopic granulomatous lichen-like pattern in the setting of a clinically lichenoid type of sarcoidosis.

  16. The mandate for a proper preservation in histopathological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comănescu, Maria; Arsene, D; Ardeleanu, Carmen; Bussolati, G

    2012-01-01

    A sequence of technically reproducible procedures is mandatory to guarantee a proper preservation of tissues and to build up the basis for sound diagnoses. However, while the goal of these procedures was, until recently, to assure only structural (histological and cytological) preservation, an appropriate preservation of antigenic properties and of nucleic acid integrity is now additionally requested, in order to permit pathologists to provide the biological information necessary for the adoption of personalized therapies. The present review analyses the sequence of technical steps open to critical variations. Passages such as dehydration, paraffin embedding, sectioning and staining are relatively well standardized and allow adoption of dedicated (automatic) apparatuses, while other pre-analytical steps, i.e. time and modalities of transfer of surgical specimens from the surgical theatre to the pathology laboratory (s.c. "ischemia time") and the type and length of fixation are not standardized and are a potential cause of discrepancies in diagnostic results. Our group is involved in European-funded projects tackling these problems with the concrete objective of implementing a model of effective tumors investigations by high performance genetic and molecular methodologies. The problem of the discrepant quality level of histopathological and cytological preparations involved five European countries and exploiting the potential of "virtual slide technology". Concrete issues, techniques and pitfalls, as well as proposed guidelines for processing the tissues are shown in this presentation.

  17. Quantification of coronary artery stenosis with high-resolution CT in comparison with histopathology in an ex vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettmer, Matthias, E-mail: dettmerms@upmc.edu [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, S-417 BST 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Glaser-Gallion, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.glaser-gallion@kssg.ch [Institute of Radiology, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, Rorschacherstrasse 95, 9007 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Stolzmann, Paul, E-mail: paul.stolzmann@usz.ch [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Rämistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Glaser-Gallion, Florian, E-mail: florian.glaser-gallion@kssg.ch [Institute of Radiology, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, Rorschacherstrasse 95, 9007 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Fornaro, Juergen, E-mail: juergen.fornaro@kssg.ch [Institute of Radiology, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, Rorschacherstrasse 95, 9007 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Feuchtner, Gudrun, E-mail: Gudrun.Feuchtner@i-med.ac.at [Department of Radiology II, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstr. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Jochum, Wolfram, E-mail: wolfram.jochum@kssg.ch [Institute of Pathology, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, Rorschacherstrasse 95, 9007 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem, E-mail: hatem.alkadhi@usz.ch [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Rämistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Wildermuth, Simon, E-mail: simon.wildermuth@kssg.ch [Institute of Radiology, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, Rorschacherstrasse 95, 9007 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Leschka, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.leschka@kssg.ch [Institute of Radiology, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, Rorschacherstrasse 95, 9007 St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To investigate the ex vivo performance of high-resolution computed tomography (CT) for quantitative assessment of percentage diameter stenosis in coronary arteries compared to histopathology. Materials and methods: High-resolution CT was performed in 26 human heart specimens after the injection of iodinated contrast media into the coronary arteries. Coronary artery plaques were visually identified on CT images and the grade of stenosis for each plaque was measured with electronic calipers. All coronary plaques were characterized by histopathology according to the Stary classification, and the percentage of stenosis was measured. Results: CT depicted 84% (274/326) of all coronary plaques identified by histology. Missed plaques by CT were of Stary type I (n = 31), type II (n = 16), and type III (n = 5). The stenosis degree significantly correlated between CT and histology (r = 0.81, p < 0.001). CT systematically overestimated the stenosis of calcified plaques (mean difference - 11.0 ± 9.5%, p < 0.01) and systematically underestimated the stenosis of non-calcified plaques (mean difference −6.8 ± 10.4%, p < 0.05), while there was no significant difference for mixed-type plaques (mean difference −0.4 ± 11.7%, p = 0.85). There was a significant underestimation of stenosis degree as measured by CT for Stary II plaques (mean difference −14 ± 9%, p < 0.01) and a significant overestimation for Stary VII plaques (mean difference 9 ± 10%, p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in stenosis degree between both modalities for other plaque types. Conclusions: High-resolution CT reliably depicts advanced stage coronary plaques with an overall good correlation of stenosis degree compared to histology, however, the degree of stenosis is systematically overestimated in calcified and underestimated in non-calcified plaques.

  18. Bosniak classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Karstoft, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    at MR and CEUS imaging and those at CT. PURPOSE: To compare diagnostic accuracy of MR, CEUS, and CT when categorizing complex renal cystic masses according to the Bosniak classification. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From February 2011 to June 2012, 46 complex renal cysts were prospectively evaluated by three...... readers. Each mass was categorized according to the Bosniak classification and CT was chosen as gold standard. Kappa was calculated for diagnostic accuracy and data was compared with pathological results. RESULTS: CT images found 27 BII, six BIIF, seven BIII, and six BIV. Forty-three cysts could...... one category lower. Pathologic correlation in six lesions revealed four malignant and two benign lesions. CONCLUSION: CEUS and MR both up- and downgraded renal cysts compared to CT, and until these non-radiation modalities have been refined and adjusted, CT should remain the gold standard...

  19. BIRADS classification in mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balleyguier, Corinne; Ayadi, Salma; Van Nguyen, Kim; Vanel, Daniel; Dromain, Clarisse; Sigal, Robert

    2007-02-01

    The Breast Imaging Report and Data System (BIRADS) of the American College of Radiology (ACR) is today largely used in most of the countries where breast cancer screening is implemented. It is a tool defined to reduce variability between radiologists when creating the reports in mammography, ultrasonography or MRI. Some changes in the last version of the BIRADStrade mark have been included to reduce the inaccuracy of some categories, especially for category 4. The BIRADStrade mark includes a lexicon and descriptive diagrams of the anomalies, recommendations for the mammographic report as well as councils and examples of mammographic cases. This review describes the mammographic items of the BIRADS classification with its more recent developments, while detailing the advantages and limits of this classification.

  20. [New classification of vasculitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anić, Branimir

    2014-01-01

    Vasculitis syndrome comprises a heterogenic group of inflammatory rheumatic diseases whose common feature is inflammation in the blood vessel wall. Establishing the diagnosis of vasculitis is one of the greatest challenges in medicine. Clinical presentation of vasculitis depends on the extent of an organ system affection, as well as on the total number of affected organs. A great range of clinical presentations of vasculitis and the low incidence of the disease impede systematic clinical investigation of vasculitis. The needs of clinical routine and the need for conducting systemic clinical investigations require a clear distinction of individual clinical entities. Different classifications of vasculitis syndrome have been proposed: according to etiology, pathogenesis, histological finding in the affected vessels, affection of individual organs and organ systems. This paper presents and comments news and recent classifications and nomenclature of vasculitic entities proposed at the second conference in Chapel Hill.

  1. Hand eczema classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diepgen, T L; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Brandao, F M;

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Hand eczema is a long-lasting disease with a high prevalence in the background population. The disease has severe, negative effects on quality of life and sometimes on social status. Epidemiological studies have identified risk factors for onset and prognosis, but treatment...... of the disease is rarely evidence based, and a classification system for different subdiagnoses of hand eczema is not agreed upon. Randomized controlled trials investigating the treatment of hand eczema are called for. For this, as well as for clinical purposes, a generally accepted classification system...... for hand eczema is needed. Objectives The present study attempts to characterize subdiagnoses of hand eczema with respect to basic demographics, medical history and morphology. Methods Clinical data from 416 patients with hand eczema from 10 European patch test clinics were assessed. Results...

  2. Multilingual documentation and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Health care providers around the world have used classification systems for decades as a basis for documentation, communications, statistical reporting, reimbursement and research. In more recent years machine-readable medical terminologies have taken on greater importance with the adoption of electronic health records and the need for greater granularity of data in clinical systems. Use of a clinical terminology harmonised with classifications, implemented within a clinical information system, will enable the delivery of many patient health benefits including electronic clinical decision support, disease screening and enhanced patient safety. In order to be usable these systems must be translated into the language of use, without losing meaning. It is evident that today one system cannot meet all requirements which call for collaboration and harmonisation in order to achieve true interoperability on a multilingual basis.

  3. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity....... Descriptors, range of quality levels, number of quality classes, class intervals, denotations and descriptions vary across Europe. The diversity is an obstacle for exchange of experience about constructions fulfilling different classes, implying also trade barriers. Thus, a harmonized classification scheme...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  4. Classification and regression trees

    CERN Document Server

    Breiman, Leo; Olshen, Richard A; Stone, Charles J

    1984-01-01

    The methodology used to construct tree structured rules is the focus of this monograph. Unlike many other statistical procedures, which moved from pencil and paper to calculators, this text's use of trees was unthinkable before computers. Both the practical and theoretical sides have been developed in the authors' study of tree methods. Classification and Regression Trees reflects these two sides, covering the use of trees as a data analysis method, and in a more mathematical framework, proving some of their fundamental properties.

  5. Robust Vertex Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li; Shen, Cencheng; Vogelstein, Joshua; Priebe, Carey

    2013-01-01

    For random graphs distributed according to stochastic blockmodels, a special case of latent position graphs, adjacency spectral embedding followed by appropriate vertex classification is asymptotically Bayes optimal; but this approach requires knowledge of and critically depends on the model dimension. In this paper, we propose a sparse representation vertex classifier which does not require information about the model dimension. This classifier represents a test vertex as a sparse combinatio...

  6. Evolvement of Classification Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hua

    2011-01-01

    As an independent industry, the emergence of the classification society was perhaps the demand of beneficial interests between shipowners, cargo owners and insurers at the earliest time. Today, as an indispensable link of the international maritime industry, class role has changed fundamentally. Start off from the demand of the insurersSeaborne trade, transport and insurance industries began to emerge successively in the 17th century. The massive risk and benefit brought by seaborne transport provided a difficult problem to insurers.

  7. Towards secondary fingerprint classification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msiza, IS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available . INTRODUCTION The classification of samples in an automated recognition system is primarily important because of the need to virtually divide the template database into smaller, manageable parti- tions. This virtual division is done before executing a... database search procedure, and it is done in order to avoid having to search the entire template database and, for this reason, minimize the database search time and improve the overall performance of an automated recognition system. Sample...

  8. Semiparametric Gaussian copula classification

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yue; Wegkamp, Marten

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the binary classification of two distributions with the same Gaussian copula in high dimensions. Under this semiparametric Gaussian copula setting, we derive an accurate semiparametric estimator of the log density ratio, which leads to our empirical decision rule and a bound on its associated excess risk. Our estimation procedure takes advantage of the potential sparsity as well as the low noise condition in the problem, which allows us to achieve faster convergence rate of...

  9. Classification of nanopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larena, A; Tur, A [Department of Chemical Industrial Engineering and Environment, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, Madrid (Spain); Baranauskas, V [Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotonica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N.400, 13 083-852 Campinas SP Brasil (Brazil)], E-mail: alarena@etsii.upm.es

    2008-03-15

    Nanopolymers with different structures, shapes, and functional forms have recently been prepared using several techniques. Nanopolymers are the most promising basic building blocks for mounting complex and simple hierarchical nanosystems. The applications of nanopolymers are extremely broad and polymer-based nanotechnologies are fast emerging. We propose a nanopolymer classification scheme based on self-assembled structures, non self-assembled structures, and on the number of dimensions in the nanometer range (nD)

  10. Classification of myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Hosbond, Susanne Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The classification of myocardial infarction into 5 types was introduced in 2007 as an important component of the universal definition. In contrast to the plaque rupture-related type 1 myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction is considered to be caused by an imbalance between demand...... and supply of oxygen in the myocardium. However, no specific criteria for type 2 myocardial infarction have been established....

  11. Decimal Classification Editions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenovia Niculescu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study approaches the evolution of Dewey Decimal Classification editions from the perspective of updating the terminology, reallocating and expanding the main and auxilary structure of Dewey indexing language. The comparative analysis of DDC editions emphasizes the efficiency of Dewey scheme from the point of view of improving the informational offer, through basic index terms, revised and developed, as well as valuing the auxilary notations.

  12. The paradox of atheoretical classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2016-01-01

    A distinction can be made between “artificial classifications” and “natural classifications,” where artificial classifications may adequately serve some limited purposes, but natural classifications are overall most fruitful by allowing inference and thus many different purposes. There is strong...... be very successful. The best example of a successful “atheoretical” classification is probably the prestigious Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) since its third edition from 1980. Based on such successes one may ask: Should the claim that classifications ideally are natural...

  13. Classification of Meteorological Drought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiang; Zou Xukai; Xiao Fengjin; Lu Houquan; Liu Haibo; Zhu Changhan; An Shunqing

    2011-01-01

    Background The national standard of the Classification of Meteorological Drought (GB/T 20481-2006) was developed by the National Climate Center in cooperation with Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences,National Meteorological Centre and Department of Forecasting and Disaster Mitigation under the China Meteorological Administration (CMA),and was formally released and implemented in November 2006.In 2008,this Standard won the second prize of the China Standard Innovation and Contribution Awards issued by SAC.Developed through independent innovation,it is the first national standard published to monitor meteorological drought disaster and the first standard in China and around the world specifying the classification of drought.Since its release in 2006,the national standard of Classification of Meteorological Drought has been used by CMA as the operational index to monitor and drought assess,and gradually used by provincial meteorological sureaus,and applied to the drought early warning release standard in the Methods of Release and Propagation of Meteorological Disaster Early Warning Signal.

  14. Neuromuscular disease classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M.; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns.

  15. Hydrological classification, a practical tool for mangrove restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van Anne F.; Brake, te Bram; Huijgevoort, Van Marjolein H.J.; Dijksma, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove restoration projects, aimed at restoring important values of mangrove forests after degradation, often fail because hydrological conditions are disregarded. We present a simple, but robust methodology to determine hydrological suitability for mangrove species, which can guide restoration

  16. Short Text Classification: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Song

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the recent explosive growth of e-commerce and online communication, a new genre of text, short text, has been extensively applied in many areas. So many researches focus on short text mining. It is a challenge to classify the short text owing to its natural characters, such as sparseness, large-scale, immediacy, non-standardization. It is difficult for traditional methods to deal with short text classification mainly because too limited words in short text cannot represent the feature space and the relationship between words and documents. Several researches and reviews on text classification are shown in recent times. However, only a few of researches focus on short text classification. This paper discusses the characters of short text and the difficulty of short text classification. Then we introduce the existing popular works on short text classifiers and models, including short text classification using sematic analysis, semi-supervised short text classification, ensemble short text classification, and real-time classification. The evaluations of short text classification are analyzed in our paper. Finally we summarize the existing classification technology and prospect for development trend of short text classification

  17. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  18. Histopathologic criteria to confirm white-nose syndrome in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, C.U.; Buckles, E.L.; Blehert, D.S.; Hicks, A.C.; Green, D.E.; Shearn-Bochsler, V.; Thomas, N.J.; Gargas, A.; Behr, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a cutaneous fungal disease of hibernating bats associated with a novel Geomyces sp. fungus. Currently, confirmation of WNS requires histopathologic examination. Invasion of living tissue distinguishes this fungal infection from those caused by conventional transmissible dermatophytes. Although fungal hyphae penetrate the connective tissue of glabrous skin and muzzle, there is typically no cellular inflammatory response in hibernating bats. Preferred tissue samples to diagnose this fungal infection are rostral muzzle with nose and wing membrane fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. To optimize detection, the muzzle is trimmed longitudinally, the wing membrane is rolled, and multiple cross-sections are embedded to increase the surface area examined. Periodic acid-Schiff stain is essential to discriminate the nonpigmented fungal hyphae and conidia. Fungal hyphae form cup-like epidermal erosions and ulcers in the wing membrane and pinna with involvement of underlying connective tissue. In addition, fungal hyphae are present in hair follicles and in sebaceous and apocrine glands of the muzzle with invasion of tissue surrounding adnexa. Fungal hyphae in tissues are branching and septate, but the diameter and shape of the hyphae may vary from parallel walls measuring 2 ??m in diameter to irregular walls measuring 3-5 ??m in diameter. When present on short aerial hyphae, curved conidia are approximately 2.5 ??m wide and 7.5 ??m in curved length. Conidia have a more deeply basophilic center, and one or both ends are usually blunt. Although WNS is a disease of hibernating bats, severe wing damage due to fungal hyphae may be seen in bats that have recently emerged from hibernation. These recently emerged bats also have a robust suppurative inflammatory response.

  19. Histopathological findings in the oral mucosa of celiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bardellini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Celiac disease (CD is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible subjects. Although the small intestinal mucosa is the main site of the gut's involvement in CD, other mucosal surfaces belonging to the gastrointestinal tract and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue are known to be affected. Aim: Assuming that the oral mucosa could reflect the histopathological inflammatory alterations of the intestine in CD patients, this study wishes to assess the pattern of T-cell subsets in the oral mucosa of young adults with CD. Methods: A group of 37 patients (age range 20-38 years; female: male ratio 28:9 with CD were enrolled. Out of 37 patients, 19 patients (group A followed a gluten free diet (GFD -2 patients from less than one year; 6 patients between 1 and 5 years; 11 patients more than 5 years- while 18 patients (group B were still untreated. Fifteen healthy volunteers (age range 18-35 years, female: Male ratio 11:4 served as controls for the CD patients. Ethical approval for the research was granted by the Ethics Committee. Biopsy specimens were taken from normal looking oral mucosa. The immunohistochemical investigation was performed with monoclonal antibodies to CD3, CD4, CD8, and γδ-chains T cell receptor (TCR. Results: The T-lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate was significantly (p < 0.0001 increased in group B (both compared with group A and with the control group. Conclusion: This study confirms the oral cavity to be a site of involvement of CD and its possible diagnostic potentiality in this disease.

  20. Mesenchymal hamartoma of liver: Magnetic resonance imaging and histopathologic correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin-Bin Ye; Bing Hu; Li-Jun Wang; Hong-Sheng Liu; Yan Zou; Yu-Bin Zhou; Zhuang Kang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe the imaging features of hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared to histopathologic results.METHODS: Spin-echo sequence(SE),fast spin-echo sequence(FSE) were detected in 12 children (7 males, 5 females) with mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver (MHL), aged 1.2 months to 12 years,( mean age, 6.3 years) by axial, saggital, coronary plain imaging with an Elscint 2.0T MR equipment. Their main symptoms were abdominal mass (5 cases), enlarged liver (8 cases), abdominal pain (1 case) and anemia (2 cases),and negative alpha-fetoprotein. Dynamic enhancement examination was added in 2 cases.RESULTS: Six cases had single mass type of MHL, in which 3 cases had solid masses showing slight low-signal-intensity in T1WI, and irregular high-signal-intensity in T2WI, 1 case had a cystic-solid mixed mass showing several border-clear cysts in a solid mass, 2 cases had cystic masses with multi-septa. Five cases had diffuse and multifocal lesions type of MHL with its signal intensity being similar to that of the solid mass. One case had a combined diffuse and single cystic mass. In the early dynamic enhancement examination, the lesions were slightly circum-enhanced, and the center was enhanced in the later scan images. Inner hepatic vessels were compressed in 5 cases, vena cava and abdominal aortae were compressed in 3 cases. Pathological findings included fiber hyperplasia, hyaline degeneration, biliary duct hyperplasia, lobule-like array.CONCLUSION: MR imaging is a better way to differentiate and diagnose MHL. MHL may be recognized by its characteristic occurrence in infancy and MR imaging features.

  1. Validation of diagnostic accuracy using digital slides in routine histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fónyad László

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robust hardware and software tools have been developed in digital microscopy during the past years for pathologists. Reports have been advocated the reliability of digital slides in routine diagnostics. We have designed a retrospective, comparative study to evaluate the scanning properties and digital slide based diagnostic accuracy. Methods 8 pathologists reevaluated 306 randomly selected cases from our archives. The slides were scanned with a 20× Plan-Apochromat objective, using a 3-chip Hitachi camera, resulting 0.465 μm/pixel resolution. Slide management was supported with dedicated Data Base and Viewer software tools. Pathologists used their office PCs for evaluation and reached the digital slides via intranet connection. The diagnostic coherency and uncertainty related to digital slides and scanning quality were analyzed. Results Good to excellent image quality of slides was recorded in 96%. In half of the critical 61 digital slides, poor image quality was related to section folds or floatings. In 88.2% of the studied cases the digital diagnoses were in full agreement with the consensus. Out of the overall 36 incoherent cases, 7 (2.3% were graded relevant without any recorded uncertainty by the pathologist. Excluding the non-field specific cases from each pathologist's record this ratio was 1.76% of all cases. Conclusions Our results revealed that: 1 digital slide based histopathological diagnoses can be highly coherent with those using optical microscopy; 2 the competency of pathologists is a factor more important than the quality of digital slide; 3 poor digital slide quality do not endanger patient safety as these errors are recognizable by the pathologist and further actions for correction could be taken. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1913324336747310.

  2. Histopathological Effect of Advanced Periodontal Disease on the Dental Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedmajidi M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Many authors have claimed that pulpal inflammation may occur following periodontal diseases. Appropriate diagnosis of different lesions that have affected the dental pulp or periodontium is critical for prevention of unnecessary or harmful treatments; this must be taken into account before treatment.Purpose: The purpose of this study was histological evaluation of the pulp in the teeth with advanced periodontitis.Materials and Method: 30 permanent single teeth root that had advanced periodontitis with attachment loss ≥ 5 mm at least in one surface were used. The teeth were not maintainable and did not have caries, restoration and any sign of primary trauma from occlusion and did not receive any periodontal professional treatment in the past 6 months with no background of trauma. After clinical and radiographical examination and confirmation of the existence of advanced periodontitis, the teeth were extracted. Then cracks were created in the teeth by special clips. After fixation of the teeth in 10% formalin solution and decalcification by 10% nitric acid, the sections were prepared and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and then evaluated from histological perspectives. The data were analyzed by Spearman correlation coefficient ANOVA, t-test and Kruskal wallis tests.Results: In this survey, we did not find any significant correlation between clinical findings and histopathological situation. The relationship between clinical attachment loss and pulp diagnosis was statistically significant ( p =0.043. Also there was a statistically significant relationship between clinical attachment loss and calcification in the pulp ( p =0.014.Conclusion: According to the result of this research, it seems that periodontal condition affects the pulpal condition and it should be considered in future treatments on these teeth.

  3. Validation of diagnostic accuracy using digital slides in routine histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fónyad, László; Krenács, Tibor; Nagy, Péter; Zalatnai, Attila; Csomor, Judit; Sápi, Zoltán; Pápay, Judit; Schönléber, Júlia; Diczházi, Csaba; Molnár, Béla

    2012-03-31

    Robust hardware and software tools have been developed in digital microscopy during the past years for pathologists. Reports have been advocated the reliability of digital slides in routine diagnostics. We have designed a retrospective, comparative study to evaluate the scanning properties and digital slide based diagnostic accuracy. 8 pathologists reevaluated 306 randomly selected cases from our archives. The slides were scanned with a 20× Plan-Apochromat objective, using a 3-chip Hitachi camera, resulting 0.465 μm/pixel resolution. Slide management was supported with dedicated Data Base and Viewer software tools. Pathologists used their office PCs for evaluation and reached the digital slides via intranet connection. The diagnostic coherency and uncertainty related to digital slides and scanning quality were analyzed. Good to excellent image quality of slides was recorded in 96%. In half of the critical 61 digital slides, poor image quality was related to section folds or floatings. In 88.2% of the studied cases the digital diagnoses were in full agreement with the consensus. Out of the overall 36 incoherent cases, 7 (2.3%) were graded relevant without any recorded uncertainty by the pathologist. Excluding the non-field specific cases from each pathologist's record this ratio was 1.76% of all cases. Our results revealed that: 1) digital slide based histopathological diagnoses can be highly coherent with those using optical microscopy; 2) the competency of pathologists is a factor more important than the quality of digital slide; 3) poor digital slide quality do not endanger patient safety as these errors are recognizable by the pathologist and further actions for correction could be taken. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1913324336747310.

  4. Clinical and histopathological review of 229 cases of ranula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yulin; Zhao, Yifang; Chen, Xinming

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the relationship between the thrombosis and secretory duct dilation, lesion size, clinical types, nature (primary or recurrent) and duration of illness in the development of ranula. A total of 229 cases of sublingual gland cysts were treated with surgical resection from Jan. 1990 to Feb. 2010. The patients' data were investigated on histopathological findings, size of ranula, the clinical types, nature of ranula (primary or recurrent) and duration of illness. Sections from the paraffin-embedded blocks were HE-stained. CK expression was immunohistochemically detected. Among 229 cases the incidence of venous thrombosis was 58.52%. The incidence of venous thrombosis with or without duct dilation was 73.25% and 26.39% respectively, with a significant difference between the two groups (Pranulas with diameter larger or less than 3 cm was 72.22% and 46.28% (Pranula, plunging ranula and mixed ranula was 49.37%, 77.19% and 85.71% respectively, with a significant difference found between oral and plunging or mixed ranula (Pranula patients with duration of illness longer or less than 3 months was 69.77% and 51.75% (Pranulas was 51.85% and 64.85%, without a significant difference noted between them (P>0.05). It is concluded that the formation of venous thrombosis was related to the dilation of secretory duct, lesion size, clinical types, duration of lesion but formation of venous thrombosis was not related to the nature (primary or recurrent) of ranulas.

  5. Hemangiopericytoma in a young dog: Evaluation of histopathological and immunohistochemical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Namazi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we describe a subcutaneous mass between the left flank and hip in a 2-year-old male Great Dane dog. Histopathologically, cells appeared to be spindle shaped around a central capillary together with a fingerprint pattern. Immunohistochemical analysis presented that the neoplastic cells expressed vimentin, but did not stain for S-100 protein. On the basis of histopathology and immunohistochemical findings, the present tumor was diagnosed as canine hemangiopericytoma. Hemangiopericytoma could be considered in differential diagnosis list of any mass in the skin (even in young dogs and must be identified histopathologically.

  6. Bone marrow histopathology in the diagnostic evaluation of splenic marginal-zone and splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma: a reliable substitute for spleen histopathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, Maurilio; Kanellis, George; Pouliou, Evi; Baliakas, Panagiotis; Scarfò, Lydia; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Doglioni, Claudio; Bikos, Vasilis; Dagklis, Antonis; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Ghia, Paolo; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Papadaki, Theodora

    2012-11-01

    Primary splenic small B-cell lymphomas mostly comprise the distinct entity of splenic marginal-zone lymphoma (SMZL) and the provisional category of splenic lymphoma/leukemia unclassifiable, mainly represented by the hairy cell leukemia variant and splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma (SDRL). Until recently, histopathologic examination of splenectomy specimens was considered mandatory for the diagnosis of SMZL. However, nowadays, mainly because of advances in chemoimmunotherapy, splenectomy is performed much less frequently. We evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of bone marrow biopsy (BMB) histopathology in the diagnostic approach toward SMZL and SDRL and tested whether it may serve as a substitute for spleen histopathology in the differential diagnosis between these 2 entities. To this end, we conducted a paired assessment of BMB and spleen diagnostic samples from 46 cases with a diagnosis of SMZL (n=32) or SDRL (n=14) based on spleen histopathology. We demonstrate that detailed immunohistopathologic BMB evaluation offers adequate evidence for the confirmation of these entities and their differential diagnosis from other small B-cell lymphoma histotypes. Notably, the immunophenotypical profile of SMZL and SDRL was identical in both BMB and spleen specimens for 21 evaluated markers. Paired assessment of BMB and spleen specimens did not identify discriminating patterns of BMB infiltration, cytology, and/or immunohistology between SMZL and SDRL. Accordingly, bone marrow histopathology contributes significantly in confirming the diagnosis of SMZL and SDRL. However, presently it is not possible to distinguish SMZL from SDRL on the basis of BMB evaluation alone; hence, histopathologic examination of the spleen remains the "gold standard" approach.

  7. [Classification of headache disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, A; Heinze-Kuhn, K; Göbel, H

    2007-06-01

    In 2003 the International Headache Society (IHS) published the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Diagnostic criteria for no less than 206 separate headache diagnoses are presented in the parts (I) primary headaches, (II) secondary headaches and (III) cranial neuralgia, central and primary facial pain. The headaches are classified according to the etiology in case of the secondary headaches and according to the phenomenology in case of the primary headaches. It is the task of the headache specialist to identify the correct headache diagnose with the smallest effort possible. Both, the differentiation between secondary and primary headaches and the differentiation between the various primary headaches are of equal importance.

  8. Latent classification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2005-01-01

    parametric family ofdistributions.  In this paper we propose a new set of models forclassification in continuous domains, termed latent classificationmodels. The latent classification model can roughly be seen ascombining the \\NB model with a mixture of factor analyzers,thereby relaxing the assumptions...... of the \\NB classifier. In theproposed model the continuous attributes are described by amixture of multivariate Gaussians, where the conditionaldependencies among the attributes are encoded using latentvariables. We present algorithms for learning both the parametersand the structure of a latent...

  9. Classification in Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen

    Classification is extensively used in the context of medical image analysis for the purpose of diagnosis or prognosis. In order to classify image content correctly, one needs to extract efficient features with discriminative properties and build classifiers based on these features. In addition...... to segment breast tissue and pectoral muscle area from the background in mammogram. The second focus is the choices of metric and its influence to the feasibility of a classifier, especially on k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) algorithm, with medical applications on breast cancer prediction and calcification...

  10. SPORT FOOD ADDITIVE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Prokopenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Correctly organized nutritive and pharmacological support is an important component of an athlete's preparation for competitions, an optimal shape maintenance, fast recovery and rehabilitation after traumas and defatigation. Special products of enhanced biological value (BAS for athletes nutrition are used with this purpose. Easy-to-use energy sources are administered into athlete's organism, yielded materials and biologically active substances which regulate and activate exchange reactions which proceed with difficulties during certain physical trainings. The article presents sport supplements classification which can be used before warm-up and trainings, after trainings and in competitions breaks.

  11. DNA qualification workflow for next generation sequencing of histopathological samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Simbolo

    Full Text Available Histopathological samples are a treasure-trove of DNA for clinical research. However, the quality of DNA can vary depending on the source or extraction method applied. Thus a standardized and cost-effective workflow for the qualification of DNA preparations is essential to guarantee interlaboratory reproducible results. The qualification process consists of the quantification of double strand DNA (dsDNA and the assessment of its suitability for downstream applications, such as high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We tested the two most frequently used instrumentations to define their role in this process: NanoDrop, based on UV spectroscopy, and Qubit 2.0, which uses fluorochromes specifically binding dsDNA. Quantitative PCR (qPCR was used as the reference technique as it simultaneously assesses DNA concentration and suitability for PCR amplification. We used 17 genomic DNAs from 6 fresh-frozen (FF tissues, 6 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues, 3 cell lines, and 2 commercial preparations. Intra- and inter-operator variability was negligible, and intra-methodology variability was minimal, while consistent inter-methodology divergences were observed. In fact, NanoDrop measured DNA concentrations higher than Qubit and its consistency with dsDNA quantification by qPCR was limited to high molecular weight DNA from FF samples and cell lines, where total DNA and dsDNA quantity virtually coincide. In partially degraded DNA from FFPE samples, only Qubit proved highly reproducible and consistent with qPCR measurements. Multiplex PCR amplifying 191 regions of 46 cancer-related genes was designated the downstream application, using 40 ng dsDNA from FFPE samples calculated by Qubit. All but one sample produced amplicon libraries suitable for next-generation sequencing. NanoDrop UV-spectrum verified contamination of the unsuccessful sample. In conclusion, as qPCR has high costs and is labor intensive, an alternative effective standard

  12. DNA qualification workflow for next generation sequencing of histopathological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbolo, Michele; Gottardi, Marisa; Corbo, Vincenzo; Fassan, Matteo; Mafficini, Andrea; Malpeli, Giorgio; Lawlor, Rita T; Scarpa, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Histopathological samples are a treasure-trove of DNA for clinical research. However, the quality of DNA can vary depending on the source or extraction method applied. Thus a standardized and cost-effective workflow for the qualification of DNA preparations is essential to guarantee interlaboratory reproducible results. The qualification process consists of the quantification of double strand DNA (dsDNA) and the assessment of its suitability for downstream applications, such as high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We tested the two most frequently used instrumentations to define their role in this process: NanoDrop, based on UV spectroscopy, and Qubit 2.0, which uses fluorochromes specifically binding dsDNA. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used as the reference technique as it simultaneously assesses DNA concentration and suitability for PCR amplification. We used 17 genomic DNAs from 6 fresh-frozen (FF) tissues, 6 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, 3 cell lines, and 2 commercial preparations. Intra- and inter-operator variability was negligible, and intra-methodology variability was minimal, while consistent inter-methodology divergences were observed. In fact, NanoDrop measured DNA concentrations higher than Qubit and its consistency with dsDNA quantification by qPCR was limited to high molecular weight DNA from FF samples and cell lines, where total DNA and dsDNA quantity virtually coincide. In partially degraded DNA from FFPE samples, only Qubit proved highly reproducible and consistent with qPCR measurements. Multiplex PCR amplifying 191 regions of 46 cancer-related genes was designated the downstream application, using 40 ng dsDNA from FFPE samples calculated by Qubit. All but one sample produced amplicon libraries suitable for next-generation sequencing. NanoDrop UV-spectrum verified contamination of the unsuccessful sample. In conclusion, as qPCR has high costs and is labor intensive, an alternative effective standard workflow for

  13. Piroxicam-Induced hepatic and renal Histopathological changes in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany Tohamy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely used in rheumatic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate Piroxicam-induced histopathological changes in livers and kidneys of male albino mice. Methods: Animals were classified into a control group and 4 treated groups. Piroxicam was injected intraperitoneally using 0.3 mg/kg every day for four weeks. Each week a group of mice was sacrificed. Liver and kidneys were obtained for histological and histochemical examination.Animals were classified into a control group and 4 treated groups. Piroxicam was injected intraperitoneally using 0.3 mg/kg every day for four weeks. Each week a group of mice was sacrificed. Liver and kidneys were obtained for histological and histochemical examination.Results: Liver sections appeared with inflammatory cellular infiltration, vacuolated hepatocytes, dilated sinusoids, and increased number of Kupffer cells. Kidney sections appeared with some cellular inflammations. The glomeruli were shrunk resulting in widening of the urinary space. Oedema and vacuolations were noticed in the tubular cells. There was a positive correlation between these pathological changes and the increased treatment periods. Histochemical staining revealed that glycogen and protein contents had decreased in the hepatocytes. This depletion worsened gradually in liver cells after two, three, and four weeks. Similar depletion of the glycogen content was observed in kidney tissue. However, protein content appeared to be slightly decreased in the kidney tubules and glomeruli. Incensement of coarse chromatin in the nuclei of hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and most inflammatory cells were detected by Fuelgen method. Kidney tissues appeared with a severe decrease in coarse chromatin in the nuclei.Liver sections appeared with inflammatory cellular infiltration, vacuolated hepatocytes, dilated sinusoids, and increased number of Kupffer cells. Kidney sections appeared with some cellular

  14. Telepathology and imaging spectroscopy as a new modality in histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vari, S G; Müller, G; Lerner, J M; Naber, R D

    1999-01-01

    future commercial viability. The Interactive Histopathology Consultation Network INTERPATH (PL961121) project integrated of remote control imaging microscopy system, imaging spectroscopy, and communication networks called SPECTROMIC. This telepethology unit will be a useful tool in the Regional and International Integrated Telemedicine Network for Medical Assistance in End Stage Diseases and Organ Transplant, RETRANSPLANT HC 4028 (HC) & IN 4028 (HC).

  15. Clinical, epidemiologic, histopathologic and molecular features of an unexplained dermopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Michele L; Selby, Joseph V; Katz, Kenneth A; Cantrell, Virginia; Braden, Christopher R; Parise, Monica E; Paddock, Christopher D; Lewin-Smith, Michael R; Kalasinsky, Victor F; Goldstein, Felicia C; Hightower, Allen W; Papier, Arthur; Lewis, Brian; Motipara, Sarita; Eberhard, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    Morgellons is a poorly characterized constellation of symptoms, with the primary manifestations involving the skin. We conducted an investigation of this unexplained dermopathy to characterize the clinical and epidemiologic features and explore potential etiologies. A descriptive study was conducted among persons at least 13 years of age and enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) during 2006-2008. A case was defined as the self-reported emergence of fibers or materials from the skin accompanied by skin lesions and/or disturbing skin sensations. We collected detailed epidemiologic data, performed clinical evaluations and geospatial analyses and analyzed materials collected from participants' skin. We identified 115 case-patients. The prevalence was 3.65 (95% CI = 2.98, 4.40) cases per 100,000 enrollees. There was no clustering of cases within the 13-county KPNC catchment area (p = .113). Case-patients had a median age of 52 years (range: 17-93) and were primarily female (77%) and Caucasian (77%). Multi-system complaints were common; 70% reported chronic fatigue and 54% rated their overall health as fair or poor with mean Physical Component Scores and Mental Component Scores of 36.63 (SD = 12.9) and 35.45 (SD = 12.89), respectively. Cognitive deficits were detected in 59% of case-patients and 63% had evidence of clinically significant somatic complaints; 50% had drugs detected in hair samples and 78% reported exposure to solvents. Solar elastosis was the most common histopathologic abnormality (51% of biopsies); skin lesions were most consistent with arthropod bites or chronic excoriations. No parasites or mycobacteria were detected. Most materials collected from participants' skin were composed of cellulose, likely of cotton origin. This unexplained dermopathy was rare among this population of Northern California residents, but associated with significantly reduced health-related quality of life. No common underlying medical

  16. Intracerebral metastasis showing restricted diffusion: Correlation with histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duygulu, G. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Ovali, G. Yilmaz [Radiology Department, Celal Bayar University Medicine School, Manisa (Turkey)], E-mail: gulgun.yilmaz@bayar.edu.tr; Calli, C.; Kitis, O.; Yuenten, N. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Akalin, T. [Pathology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Islekel, S. [Neurosurgery Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    cancer. However we found that there is no correlation between the metastasis showing restricted diffusion and primary pathology. Prospective studies with larger groups and more information are necessary regarding the correlation between the primary tumor histopathology and the ADC values of metastasis with restricted diffusion.

  17. Clinical, epidemiologic, histopathologic and molecular features of an unexplained dermopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele L Pearson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Morgellons is a poorly characterized constellation of symptoms, with the primary manifestations involving the skin. We conducted an investigation of this unexplained dermopathy to characterize the clinical and epidemiologic features and explore potential etiologies. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted among persons at least 13 years of age and enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC during 2006-2008. A case was defined as the self-reported emergence of fibers or materials from the skin accompanied by skin lesions and/or disturbing skin sensations. We collected detailed epidemiologic data, performed clinical evaluations and geospatial analyses and analyzed materials collected from participants' skin. RESULTS: We identified 115 case-patients. The prevalence was 3.65 (95% CI = 2.98, 4.40 cases per 100,000 enrollees. There was no clustering of cases within the 13-county KPNC catchment area (p = .113. Case-patients had a median age of 52 years (range: 17-93 and were primarily female (77% and Caucasian (77%. Multi-system complaints were common; 70% reported chronic fatigue and 54% rated their overall health as fair or poor with mean Physical Component Scores and Mental Component Scores of 36.63 (SD = 12.9 and 35.45 (SD = 12.89, respectively. Cognitive deficits were detected in 59% of case-patients and 63% had evidence of clinically significant somatic complaints; 50% had drugs detected in hair samples and 78% reported exposure to solvents. Solar elastosis was the most common histopathologic abnormality (51% of biopsies; skin lesions were most consistent with arthropod bites or chronic excoriations. No parasites or mycobacteria were detected. Most materials collected from participants' skin were composed of cellulose, likely of cotton origin. CONCLUSIONS: This unexplained dermopathy was rare among this population of Northern California residents, but associated with significantly reduced health

  18. Classification of smooth Fano polytopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Mikkel

    Fano polytopes up to isomorphism. A smooth Fano -polytope can have at most vertices. In case of vertices an explicit classification is known. The thesis contains the classification in case of vertices. Classifications of smooth Fano -polytopes for fixed exist only for . In the thesis an algorithm...... for the classification of smooth Fano -polytopes for any given is presented. The algorithm has been implemented and used to obtain the complete classification for .......A simplicial lattice polytope containing the origin in the interior is called a smooth Fano polytope, if the vertices of every facet is a basis of the lattice. The study of smooth Fano polytopes is motivated by their connection to toric varieties. The thesis concerns the classification of smooth...

  19. The future of general classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2013-01-01

    Discusses problems related to accessing multiple collections using a single retrieval language. Surveys the concepts of interoperability and switching language. Finds that mapping between more indexing languages always will be an approximation. Surveys the issues related to general classification...... and contrasts that to special classifications. Argues for the use of general classifications to provide access to collections nationally and internationally. © 2003 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved....

  20. Combinatorial Approach of Associative Classification

    OpenAIRE

    P. R. Pal; R.C. Jain

    2010-01-01

    Association rule mining and classification are two important techniques of data mining in knowledge discovery process. Integration of these two has produced class association rule mining or associative classification techniques, which in many cases have shown better classification accuracy than conventional classifiers. Motivated by this study we have explored and applied the combinatorial mathematics in class association rule mining in this paper. Our algorithm is based on producing co...

  1. A Classification Leveraged Object Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Miao; Han, Tony X.; He, Zhihai

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the state-of-the-art image classification algorithms outperform the best available object detector by a big margin in terms of average precision. We, therefore, propose a simple yet principled approach that allows us to leverage object detection through image classification on supporting regions specified by a preliminary object detector. Using a simple bag-of- words model based image classification algorithm, we leveraged the performance of the deformable model objector from 35.9%...

  2. A new classification of glaucomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordeianu CD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Constantin-Dan Bordeianu Private Practice, Ploiesti, Prahova, Romania Purpose: To suggest a new glaucoma classification that is pathogenic, etiologic, and clinical.Methods: After discussing the logical pathway used in criteria selection, the paper presents the new classification and compares it with the classification currently in use, that is, the one issued by the European Glaucoma Society in 2008.Results: The paper proves that the new classification is clear (being based on a coherent and consistently followed set of criteria, is comprehensive (framing all forms of glaucoma, and helps in understanding the sickness understanding (in that it uses a logical framing system. The great advantage is that it facilitates therapeutic decision making in that it offers direct therapeutic suggestions and avoids errors leading to disasters. Moreover, the scheme remains open to any new development.Conclusion: The suggested classification is a pathogenic, etiologic, and clinical classification that fulfills the conditions of an ideal classification. The suggested classification is the first classification in which the main criterion is consistently used for the first 5 to 7 crossings until its differentiation capabilities are exhausted. Then, secondary criteria (etiologic and clinical pick up the relay until each form finds its logical place in the scheme. In order to avoid unclear aspects, the genetic criterion is no longer used, being replaced by age, one of the clinical criteria. The suggested classification brings only benefits to all categories of ophthalmologists: the beginners will have a tool to better understand the sickness and to ease their decision making, whereas the experienced doctors will have their practice simplified. For all doctors, errors leading to therapeutic disasters will be less likely to happen. Finally, researchers will have the object of their work gathered in the group of glaucoma with unknown or uncertain pathogenesis, whereas

  3. Open Source Fundamental Industry Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Kakushadze, Zura; Yu, Willie

    2017-01-01

    We provide complete source code for building a fundamental industry classification based on publically available and freely downloadable data. We compare various fundamental industry classifications by running a horserace of short-horizon trading signals (alphas) utilizing open source heterotic risk models (https://ssrn.com/abstract=2600798) built using such industry classifications. Our source code includes various stand-alone and portable modules, e.g., for downloading/parsing web data, etc.

  4. PSC: protein surface classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yan Yuan; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2012-07-01

    We recently proposed to classify proteins by their functional surfaces. Using the structural attributes of functional surfaces, we inferred the pairwise relationships of proteins and constructed an expandable database of protein surface classification (PSC). As the functional surface(s) of a protein is the local region where the protein performs its function, our classification may reflect the functional relationships among proteins. Currently, PSC contains a library of 1974 surface types that include 25,857 functional surfaces identified from 24,170 bound structures. The search tool in PSC empowers users to explore related surfaces that share similar local structures and core functions. Each functional surface is characterized by structural attributes, which are geometric, physicochemical or evolutionary features. The attributes have been normalized as descriptors and integrated to produce a profile for each functional surface in PSC. In addition, binding ligands are recorded for comparisons among homologs. PSC allows users to exploit related binding surfaces to reveal the changes in functionally important residues on homologs that have led to functional divergence during evolution. The substitutions at the key residues of a spatial pattern may determine the functional evolution of a protein. In PSC (http://pocket.uchicago.edu/psc/), a pool of changes in residues on similar functional surfaces is provided.

  5. Supply chain planning classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans

    2001-10-01

    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  6. Holistic facial expression classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, John; McDonald, J.

    2005-06-01

    This paper details a procedure for classifying facial expressions. This is a growing and relatively new type of problem within computer vision. One of the fundamental problems when classifying facial expressions in previous approaches is the lack of a consistent method of measuring expression. This paper solves this problem by the computation of the Facial Expression Shape Model (FESM). This statistical model of facial expression is based on an anatomical analysis of facial expression called the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). We use the term Action Unit (AU) to describe a movement of one or more muscles of the face and all expressions can be described using the AU's described by FACS. The shape model is calculated by marking the face with 122 landmark points. We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to analyse how the landmark points move with respect to each other and to lower the dimensionality of the problem. Using the FESM in conjunction with Support Vector Machines (SVM) we classify facial expressions. SVMs are a powerful machine learning technique based on optimisation theory. This project is largely concerned with statistical models, machine learning techniques and psychological tools used in the classification of facial expression. This holistic approach to expression classification provides a means for a level of interaction with a computer that is a significant step forward in human-computer interaction.

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMINAL GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Romanova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available New types of criminal groups are emerging in modern society.  These types have their special criminal subculture. The research objective is to develop new parameters of classification of modern criminal groups, create a new typology of criminal groups and identify some features of their subculture. Research methodology is based on the system approach that includes using the method of analysis of documentary sources (materials of a criminal case, method of conversations with themembers of the criminal group, method of testing the members of the criminal group and method of observation. As a result of the conducted research, we have created a new classification of criminal groups. The first type is a lawful group in its form and criminal according to its content (i.e., its target is criminal enrichment. The second type is a criminal organization which is run by so-called "white-collars" that "remain in the shadow". The third type is traditional criminal groups.  The fourth type is the criminal group, which openly demonstrates its criminal activity.

  8. The histopathological spectrum of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and its differentiation from generalized pustular psoriasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardaun, Sylvia H.; Kuiper, Hilde; Fidler, Vaclav; Jonkman, Marcel F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) represents a severe, acute, pustular skin reaction that is most often induced by drugs. AGEP can be difficult to differentiate from generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) both clinically and histopathologically. We present a systematic

  9. Craniocaudal tumour extension in uterine cervical cancer on MRI compared to histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter de Boer

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: MRI represents the histopathological craniocaudal tumour extension in the majority of patients with early stage uterine cervical cancer, but with a systematic small underestimation of the real craniocaudal tumour extension.

  10. Neuroprotective effects of crocin on the histopathological alterations following brain ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Raouf Sarshoori

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion:Our findings indicated that crocin effectively reduces brain ischemia-induced injury and improves neurological outcomes. Crocin also is a potent neuroprotective factor that can be able to prevent histopathological alterations following brain ischemia.

  11. Transcriptomic and histopathological analysis of cholangiolocellular differentiation trait in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Hyungjin; Ko, Jung Eun; Chung, Taek

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is a heterogeneous entity with diverse etiologies, morphologies, and clinical outcomes. Recently, histopathological distinction of cholangiolocellular differentiation (CD) of iCCA has been suggested. However, its genome-wide molecular feat...

  12. Co-existence of various clinical and histopathological features of mycosis fungoides in a young female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeini, Farahnaz Fatemi; Soghrati, Mehrnaz; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Najafian, Jamshid; Rajabi, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides is the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and a rare disorder that typically affects older adults with erythematous scaling patches and plaques. Hypopigmented patches are a rare clinical variant of the disease. Granulomatous mycosis fungoides (GMF) is also a rare type of CTCL. No particular clinical criteria are available for the diagnosis of GMF, because of its variable presentations, and so the detection of GMF is primarily considered as a histopathological diagnosis. Rarely, a co-existence of more than one clinical or histopathological feature of mycosis fungoides may be present. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of MF that shows the simultaneous co-existence of more than one clinical and histopathological variant of MF. We present a 29-year-old female with clinical presentations of both classic and hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (MF), and also the histopathological features of the classic and granulomatous types of the disease.

  13. Overview of EDSP Tier II Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay histopathology and statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    These presentations are meant to provide expert pathologists and statisticians with background information on the Tier II LAGDA design. Expert pathologists at this workshop are charged with providing guidance on histopathology considerations unique to the LAGDA. Expert statisti...

  14. Masses in the Neck: A Histopathological Analysis of 213 Cases In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Masses in the Neck: A Histopathological Analysis of 213 Cases In South ... of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria are caused by lymphoid tissues. ... The reason for this unusual presentation in an area of high prevalence rate of ...

  15. National Status and Trends: Contaminant body burdens and histopathology of fish and shellfish from Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In response to the growing concerns among Chugach communities, contaminant body burden and histopathological condition of chum and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus keta...

  16. Morphological and Histopathological Changes in Orofacial Structures of Experimentally Developed Acromegaly-Like Rats: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Iikubo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue enlargement and mandibular prognathism are clinically recognized in almost all patients with acromegaly. An acromegaly-like rat model recently developed by exogenous administration of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I was used to investigate morphological and histopathological changes in orofacial structures and to clarify whether these changes were reversible. Exogenous administration of IGF-I evoked specific enlargement of the tongue with identifiable histopathological changes (increased muscle bundle width, increased space between muscle bundles, and increased epithelial thickness, elongation of the mandibular alveolar bone and ascending ramus, and lateral expansion of the mandibular dental arch. Regarding histopathological changes in the mandibular condyle, the cartilaginous layer width, bone matrix ratio, and number of osteoblasts were all significantly greater in this rat model. After normalization of the circulating IGF-I level, tongue enlargement and histopathological changes in the tongue and mandibular condyle were reversible, whereas morphological skeletal changes in the mandible remained.

  17. Morphological and histopathological changes in orofacial structures of experimentally developed acromegaly-like rats: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iikubo, Masahiro; Kojima, Ikuho; Sakamoto, Maya; Kobayashi, Akane; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Sasano, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Tongue enlargement and mandibular prognathism are clinically recognized in almost all patients with acromegaly. An acromegaly-like rat model recently developed by exogenous administration of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was used to investigate morphological and histopathological changes in orofacial structures and to clarify whether these changes were reversible. Exogenous administration of IGF-I evoked specific enlargement of the tongue with identifiable histopathological changes (increased muscle bundle width, increased space between muscle bundles, and increased epithelial thickness), elongation of the mandibular alveolar bone and ascending ramus, and lateral expansion of the mandibular dental arch. Regarding histopathological changes in the mandibular condyle, the cartilaginous layer width, bone matrix ratio, and number of osteoblasts were all significantly greater in this rat model. After normalization of the circulating IGF-I level, tongue enlargement and histopathological changes in the tongue and mandibular condyle were reversible, whereas morphological skeletal changes in the mandible remained.

  18. IMPLANT-ASSOCIATED PATHOLOGY: AN ALGORITHM FOR IDENTIFYING PARTICLES IN HISTOPATHOLOGIC SYNOVIALIS/SLIM DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Krenn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In histopathologic SLIM diagnostic (synovial-like interface membrane, SLIM apart from diagnosing periprosthetic infection particle identification has an important role to play. The differences in particle pathogenesis and variability of materials in endoprosthetics explain the particle heterogeneity that hampers the diagnostic identification of particles. For this reason, a histopathological particle algorithm has been developed. With minimal methodical complexity this histopathological particle algorithm offers a guide to prosthesis material-particle identification. Light microscopic-morphological as well as enzyme-histochemical characteristics and polarization-optical proporties have set and particles are defined by size (microparticles, macroparticles and supra- macroparticles and definitely characterized in accordance with a dichotomous principle. Based on these criteria, identification and validation of the particles was carried out in 120 joint endoprosthesis pathological cases. A histopathological particle score (HPS is proposed that summarizes the most important information for the orthopedist, material scientist and histopathologist concerning particle identification in the SLIM.

  19. Homotopy Classification of Multiaxial Actions

    CERN Document Server

    Cappell, Sylvain; Yan, Min

    2011-01-01

    A U(n)-manifold is multiaxial if the isotropy groups are always conjugate to unitary subgroups. The classification and the concordance of such manifolds have been studied by Davis, Hsiang and Morgan under much more strict conditions. We show that in general, without much extra condition, the homotopy classification of multiaxial manifolds can be split into a direct sum of the classification of pairs of adjacent strata, which can be computed by the classical surgery theory. Moreover, we also compute the homotopy classification for the case of the standard representation sphere. We also present the result for the similar multiaxial Sp(n)-manifolds.

  20. Clinical, endoscopic and histopathological profiles of parasitic duodenitis cases diagnosed by upper digestive endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    p.225-230 Context - Intestinal parasites induce detectable histopathological changes, which have been studied in groups with known diagnosis of parasitic disease. There is no available study with a larger base without previous diagnosis. Objective - To describe clinical and histopathological findings of parasitosis diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy in patients submitted to upper digestive endoscopy. Methods - Recorded biopsies archive at “Complexo Hospitalar Professor Edgar Santos”, a general...

  1. Histopathologic Alterations Associated with Syphacia sp. (Nematode) in the Intestine of Nesokia indica

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The present work was undertaken to study the histopathological changes in the intestine of male rat Nesokia indica. Histopathological sections of infected intestine were prepared by fixing small pieces of intestine in buffer formalin for 24 h. The fixed material was washed with 70% alcohol and dehydrated and cleared for paraffin block making by the usual procedure. Sections of 5 to 7 µ thickness were used for the present study. E & H stained serial sections were mounted permanently in DPX...

  2. Histopathological alterations in liver anatomy after exposure to chlorpyrifos in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    OpenAIRE

    Bangeppagari, Manjunatha

    2015-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate pesticide widely used in agriculture and aquaculture. This study investigated its effects on histopathology of zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver. For this six adult male and six adult female zebrafish were exposed to 200 ?g/L of chlorpyrifos for 24h, 48h, 72h and 96hrs. Chlorpyrifos toxicity on liver histopathological changes were examined by light microscopy. Structural damage spotted in the liver were vacuolization and presence of sinusoid spaces were observed...

  3. Template reporting matters--a nationwide study on histopathology reporting on colorectal carcinoma resections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Hans Kristian; Casati, Bettina; Dørum, Liv Marit; Bjugn, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Complete and accurate histopathology reports are fundamental in providing quality cancer care. The Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Society of Pathology have previously developed a national electronic template for histopathology reporting on colorectal carcinoma resection specimens. The present study was undertaken to investigate (1) whether quality routines in Norwegian pathology laboratories might affect completeness of such histopathology reports and (2) whether the national electronic template improves completeness of histopathology reports compared with other modes of reporting. A questionnaire on quality routines was sent to the 21 pathology laboratories in Norway. All histopathology reports on colorectal cancer submitted to the Cancer Registry for a 3-month period in the autumn of 2007 were then evaluated on the mode of reporting and the presence of 11 key parameters. Of the 20 laboratories that handled resection specimens, 16 had written guidelines on histopathology reporting. Of these, 4 used the national electronic template, 5 used checklists, 3 used locally developed electronic templates, whereas the remaining 4 had neither obligatory checklists nor templates. Of the 650 histopathology reports submitted to the Cancer Registry in the 3-month period, the national template had been used in 170 cases (26.2%), checklists/locally developed templates in 112 cases (17.2%), and free text in 368 cases (56.6%). Quality routines in the pathology laboratories clearly governed reporting practice and the completeness of the histopathology reports. Use of the national electronic template significantly improved (P < .05) the presence of the 11 key parameters compared with reporting by checklists, locally developed electronic templates, or free text.

  4. Impact of experimental duel infections with Schistosoma mansoni and Echinoccocus granulosus on hepatic histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwakil, Hala S; Ali, Nehad M; Talaat, Roba M; Osman, Wesam M

    2007-12-01

    Experimental duel infection with S. mansoni and E. granulosus was induced in mice to determine their effect on serum nitric oxide (NO) level and accordingly on the sequences of histopathological lesions affecting the liver. The results showed that serum NO level was significantly increased (pdeath of hydatid cyst in mice (GI) compared to E. granulosus (GV). So, the duel infection with the two parasites affected serum NO level and hepatic histopathology, by ameliorative or deteriorative effects, according to duration of infection with either.

  5. Clinical and histopathological features and relationship of Barrett esophagus and its related adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical and histopathological features of Barrett esophagus and its related adenocarcinoma as well as the relationship between them.Methods From ajanuary 2002 to January 2012,the clinical data of 35 patients with Barrett esophagus,850 patients with esophagus cancer and 218 patients with esophageal-gastric junction cancer were collected,and the histopathological features of all the patients and the followup in patients with Barrett esophagus were retrospectively

  6. Histopathological examination of the prepuce after circumcision: Is it a waste of resources?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this article is to evaluate the histopathological findings of foreskin after circumcision for medical indications and to find out if analyzing the biopsy is a waste of resources. Material and Methods: This retrospective analysis was carried out of the medical records and histopathological findings of 112 boys who underwent circumcision from June 2002 to June 2005. The study group consisted of 52 boys that were circumcised for medical indications, while the control group...

  7. Tnterobserver variation in histopathological assessment of Helicobacter pylori gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ozlem Aydin; Reyhan Egilmez; Tuba Karabacak; Arzu Kanik

    2003-01-01

    Because the presence or absence of H pylori infection has important implications for therapeutic decisions based on histological assessment, the reproducibility of Sydney system is important. The study was designed to test the reproducibility of features of Helicobacter pylori gastritis,using the updated Sydney classification.METHODS: Gastric biopsies of 40 randomly selected cases of Hpylori gastritis were scored semiquantitatively by three pathologists. Variables analysed included chronic inflammation,inflammatory activity, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, H pylori,surface epithelial damage. Κ values below 0.5 represented poor, those between 0.5 and 0.75 good and values over 0.75excellent interobserver agreement.RESULTS: The best interobserver agreement (κ=0.62) was present for intestinal metaplasia. The agreement was the poorest for evaluating atrophy (κ=0.31).CONCLUSION: Although the results of this study were in accordance with some previous studies, an excellent agreement could not be reached for any features of H pylori gastritis. This low degree of concordance is assumed to be due to the personal evaluation differences in grading the features, the lack of standardized diagnostic criteria, and the ignorance to reach a consensus about the methods to be used in grading the features of H pylori gastritis before initiating the study.

  8. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

  9. Olmesartan-associated sprue-like enteropathy: a systematic review with emphasis on histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbure, Nina; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Arguelles-Grande, Carolina; Green, Peter H R; Bhagat, Govind; Lagana, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Sprue-like enteropathy associated with the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) olmesartan was first described in 2012, and a number of cases have since been reported. This syndrome is characterized by severe diarrhea and sprue-like histopathologic findings in the intestine, often with increased subepithelial collagen. The incidence of this adverse drug reaction is not entirely clear, although it is thought to be rare. It is also not well established if other ARBs cause such a syndrome, although case reports suggest they can. The histopathologic features of olmesartan-related injury have only been described in a limited number of cases, and there are no guidelines regarding the histopathologic distinction of olmesartan-associated enteropathy from other causes of sprue (eg, celiac disease, tropical sprue). Herein, we review the histopathologic changes and clinical observations described in recent reports of olmesartan-associated sprue-like enteropathy comprising case series and isolated reports, other relevant literature, and our experience at a referral center specializing in small intestinal disorders. We will review recent literature suggesting other ARBs can be associated with a similar phenotype. Lastly, we will discuss the histopathologic differential diagnosis and provide clues to distinguish this entity from other entities which can cause sprue-like histopathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Histopathology reveals correlative and unique phenotypes in a high-throughput mouse phenotyping screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hibret A. Adissu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mouse Genetics Project (MGP at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute aims to generate and phenotype over 800 genetically modified mouse lines over the next 5 years to gain a better understanding of mammalian gene function and provide an invaluable resource to the scientific community for follow-up studies. Phenotyping includes the generation of a standardized biobank of paraffin-embedded tissues for each mouse line, but histopathology is not routinely performed. In collaboration with the Pathology Core of the Centre for Modeling Human Disease (CMHD we report the utility of histopathology in a high-throughput primary phenotyping screen. Histopathology was assessed in an unbiased selection of 50 mouse lines with (n=30 or without (n=20 clinical phenotypes detected by the standard MGP primary phenotyping screen. Our findings revealed that histopathology added correlating morphological data in 19 of 30 lines (63.3% in which the primary screen detected a phenotype. In addition, seven of the 50 lines (14% presented significant histopathology findings that were not associated with or predicted by the standard primary screen. Three of these seven lines had no clinical phenotype detected by the standard primary screen. Incidental and strain-associated background lesions were present in all mutant lines with good concordance to wild-type controls. These findings demonstrate the complementary and unique contribution of histopathology to high-throughput primary phenotyping of mutant mice.

  11. Accuracy and reliability of Tzanck test compared to histopathology for diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Dey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histopathology is considered the gold standard for diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC but is time consuming and needs expertise to make a correct diagnosis. On the other hand, Tzanck test is a simple, easy, inexpensive and rapid test which uses exfoliative cytology to make a diagnosis. Objective: To compare the results of Tzanck test with histopathology in the diagnosis of BCC and to evaluate the diagnostic reliability and accuracy of Tzanck test in BCC. Materials and Method: Twenty-six patients with clinical suspicion of BCC were recruited. Samples for Tzanck test and histopathology were taken and diagnoses made independently. Results of Tzanck test were compared with histopathology. Results: Twenty-three cases were histopathologically proved to be BCC. Tzanck test correlated in 12 cases of BCC and could exclude all three non-BCC lesions. In 11 cases it failed to diagnose BCC. The sensitivity and specificity of Tzanck test were 52.2% and 100%, respectively, and positive and negative predictive values were 100% and 21.4%. Conclusion: Tzanck test can be recommended for initial, rapid evaluation of a clinically diagnosed case of BCC. Under experienced hands, it reliably confirms BCC. The limitation is low negative predictive value. Since it does not give information about subtypes of BCC which is of great value in therapeutic planning, histopathological confirmation is mandatory.

  12. Value of histopathologic examination of uterine products after first-trimester miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsibiani, Sharifa Ali

    2014-01-01

    The main rationale of routine histopathologic examination of products after first-trimester miscarriages is to detect an ectopic pregnancy or a molar pregnancy, which require further management. An alternative approach is to examine the products only when there is a definite indication. As there is no agreement, we aimed to study whether routine histopathological examination of tissues obtained after first-trimester miscarriage is of any clinical value in our populations. Medical records of all (558) patients with a diagnosis of first-trimester miscarriage over 4 years (2007-2010) at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were reviewed. Histopathologic examination confirmed products of conception in 537 (96.2%) patients, no products of conception in 17 (3%) patients, molar pregnancy in 2 (0.4%) patients, and decidual tissues without chorionic villi (Arias-Stella reaction) in 2 (0.4%) patients. After clinical correlation, only one unsuspected partial molar pregnancy was diagnosed by histopathology examination. Conclusion is that it does not appear reasonable to perform histopathological examination routinely after all first-trimester miscarriages in our studied population. We recommend that histopathological examination be performed in select instances: when the diagnosis is uncertain, when fewer tissues have been obtained during surgery, when unexpected pathology was seen, when ultrasound suggests a molar pregnancy, or when patients are considered at high risk for trophoblastic disease.

  13. The Influence of Clinical Information in the Histopathologic Diagnosis of Melanocytic Skin Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Gerardo; Argenyi, Zsolt; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Cerio, Rino; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Di Blasi, Arturo; Feudale, Elisa A. A.; Giorgio, Caterina M.; Massone, Cesare; Nappi, Oscar; Tomasini, Carlo; Urso, Carmelo; Zalaudek, Iris; Kittler, Harald; Soyer, H. Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background We tested the relevance of clinical information in the histopathologic evaluation of melanocytic skin neoplasm (MSN). Methods Histopathologic specimens from 99 clinically atypical MSN were circulated among ten histopathologists; each case had clinical information available in a database with a five-step procedure (no information; age/sex/location; clinical diagnosis; clinical image; dermoscopic image); each step had a histopathologic diagnosis (D1 through D5); each diagnostic step had a level of diagnostic confidence (LDC) ranging from 1 (no diagnostic certainty) to 5 (absolute diagnostic certainty). The comparison of the LDC was employed with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures. Findings In D1 (no information), 36/99 cases (36.3%) had unanimous diagnosis; in D5 (full information available), 51/99 cases (51.5%) had unanimous diagnosis (p for difference between proportions <0.001). The observer agreement expressed as kappa increased significantly from D1 to D5. The mean LDC linearly increased for each observer from D1 through D5 (p for linear trend <0.001). On average, each histopathologist changed his initial diagnosis in 7 cases (range: 2–23). Most diagnostic changes were in D2 (age/sex/location). Interpretation The histopathologic criteria for the diagnosis of MSN can work as such, but the final histopathologic diagnosis is a clinically-aided interpretation. Clinical data sometimes reverse the initial histopathologic evaluation. PMID:19404399

  14. Histopathology reveals correlative and unique phenotypes in a high-throughput mouse phenotyping screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adissu, Hibret A; Estabel, Jeanne; Sunter, David; Tuck, Elizabeth; Hooks, Yvette; Carragher, Damian M; Clarke, Kay; Karp, Natasha A; Newbigging, Susan; Jones, Nora; Morikawa, Lily; White, Jacqueline K; McKerlie, Colin

    2014-05-01

    The Mouse Genetics Project (MGP) at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute aims to generate and phenotype over 800 genetically modified mouse lines over the next 5 years to gain a better understanding of mammalian gene function and provide an invaluable resource to the scientific community for follow-up studies. Phenotyping includes the generation of a standardized biobank of paraffin-embedded tissues for each mouse line, but histopathology is not routinely performed. In collaboration with the Pathology Core of the Centre for Modeling Human Disease (CMHD) we report the utility of histopathology in a high-throughput primary phenotyping screen. Histopathology was assessed in an unbiased selection of 50 mouse lines with (n=30) or without (n=20) clinical phenotypes detected by the standard MGP primary phenotyping screen. Our findings revealed that histopathology added correlating morphological data in 19 of 30 lines (63.3%) in which the primary screen detected a phenotype. In addition, seven of the 50 lines (14%) presented significant histopathology findings that were not associated with or predicted by the standard primary screen. Three of these seven lines had no clinical phenotype detected by the standard primary screen. Incidental and strain-associated background lesions were present in all mutant lines with good concordance to wild-type controls. These findings demonstrate the complementary and unique contribution of histopathology to high-throughput primary phenotyping of mutant mice.

  15. A study of Raman spectroscopy for the early detection and classification of malignancy in oesophageal tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Kendall, C A

    2002-01-01

    Raman Spectroscopy for the identification and classification of malignancy in the oesophagus has been demonstrated in this thesis. The potential of Raman spectroscopy in this field is twofold; as an adjunct for the pathologist and as a biopsy targeting tool at endoscopy. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of these potential applications in vitro. Spectral diagnostic models have been developed by correlating spectral information with histopathology. This is the current 'gold standard' diagnostic method for the identification of dysplasia, the established risk factor for the development of oesophageal cancer. Histopathology is a subjective assessment and widely acknowledged to have limitations. A more rigorous gold standard was therefore developed, as part of this study, using the consensus opinion of three independent expert pathologists to train the diagnostic models. Raman spectra have been measured from oesophageal tissue covering the full spectrum of malignant disease in the oesophagus, using a ne...

  16. Achados histopatológicos em retinoblastoma Histopathologic findings in retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pessoa de Souza Filho

    2005-06-01

    observados. A invasão do nervo óptico e coróide foram os dois fatores prognósticos mais importantes, encontrados em 28,5% e 64,2% dos casos respectivamente. Os casos tratados com enucleação primária apresentavam maior comprometimento ocular.OBJETIVO: To study histopathological findings of enucleated eyes with retinoblastoma. METHODS: Twenty-eight cases of retinoblastoma treated by enucleation at the Federal University of São Paulo from December 2000 to October 2002 were histopathologically reviewed. Clinical data included age, gender, race, unilateral or bilateral involvement and previous treatment. The histopathological review evaluated the presence of iris and/or angle neovascularization, tumor differentiation and optic nerve and choroidal invasion according to Khelfaoui's classification. RESULTS: Of 27 patients, 13 (48.5% were boys and 14 (59.3% were girls, 16 were white, 6 were black and 5 were asiatic, age ranging from 2 to 96 months (mean, 22.7 months. 13 cases were bilateral and 14 cases were unilateral. All tumors were histologically characterized by a proliferation of small cells with high nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratios and 20 (71.4% of them were well differentiated. Choroidal involvement was observed in 18 (64.2% cases (degree II, III and optic nerve invasion in 8 (28.5% cases (degree III, IV, V. CONCLUSION: Neovascularization, necrosis and calcification were the most commonly observed feature. The invasion into the optic nerve and choroid, which are the two most important predictors of patient outcome were found in 28.5% and 64.2% of the cases, respectively.

  17. Nonlinear estimation and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Mark; Holmes, Christopher; Mallick, Bani; Yu, Bin

    2003-01-01

    Researchers in many disciplines face the formidable task of analyzing massive amounts of high-dimensional and highly-structured data This is due in part to recent advances in data collection and computing technologies As a result, fundamental statistical research is being undertaken in a variety of different fields Driven by the complexity of these new problems, and fueled by the explosion of available computer power, highly adaptive, non-linear procedures are now essential components of modern "data analysis," a term that we liberally interpret to include speech and pattern recognition, classification, data compression and signal processing The development of new, flexible methods combines advances from many sources, including approximation theory, numerical analysis, machine learning, signal processing and statistics The proposed workshop intends to bring together eminent experts from these fields in order to exchange ideas and forge directions for the future

  18. Transient Detection and Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Andrew C

    2008-01-01

    I provide an incomplete inventory of the astronomical variability that will be found by next-generation time-domain astronomical surveys. These phenomena span the distance range from near-Earth satellites to the farthest Gamma Ray Bursts. The surveys that detect these transients will issue alerts to the greater astronomical community; this decision process must be extremely robust to avoid a slew of ``false'' alerts, and to maintain the community's trust in the surveys. I review the functionality required of both the surveys and the telescope networks that will be following them up, and the role of VOEvents in this process. Finally, I offer some ideas about object and event classification, which will be explored more thoroughly by other articles in these proceedings.

  19. Spectral Classification Beyond M

    CERN Document Server

    Leggett, S K; Burgasser, A J; Jones, H R A; Marley, M S; Tsuji, T

    2004-01-01

    Significant populations of field L and T dwarfs are now known, and we anticipate the discovery of even cooler dwarfs by Spitzer and ground-based infrared surveys. However, as the number of known L and T dwarfs increases so does the range in their observational properties, and difficulties have arisen in interpreting the observations. Although modellers have made significant advances, the complexity of the very low temperature, high pressure, photospheres means that problems remain such as the treatment of grain condensation as well as incomplete and non-equilibrium molecular chemistry. Also, there are several parameters which control the observed spectral energy distribution - effective temperature, grain sedimentation efficiency, metallicity and gravity - and their effects are not well understood. In this paper, based on a splinter session, we discuss classification schemes for L and T dwarfs, their dependency on wavelength, and the effects of the parameters T_eff, f_sed, [m/H] and log g on optical and infra...

  20. Estuary Classification Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Guha, Anirban

    2012-01-01

    The governing equations of a tidally averaged, width averaged, rectangular estuary has been investigated. It's theoretically shown that the dynamics of an estuary is entirely controlled by three parameters: (i) the Estuarine Froude number, (ii) the Tidal Froude number and (iii) the Estuarine Aspect ratio. The momentum, salinity and integral salt balance equations can be completely expressed in terms of these control variables. The estuary classification problem has also been reinvestigated. It's found that these three control variables can completely specify the estuary type. Comparison with real estuary data shows very good match. Additionally, we show that the well accepted leading order estuarine integral salt balance equation is inconsitent with the leading order salinity equation in an order of magnitude sense.