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Sample records for displayed increased plasma

  1. Properties of excited xenon atoms in a plasma display panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Hong, Byoung H.; Oh, Phil Y.; Choi, Eun H.

    2009-01-01

    The luminance efficiency of a plasma display panel is directly related to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light that is emitted from excited xenon (Xe) atoms and molecules. It is therefore necessary to investigate the properties of excited xenon atoms. This study presents experimental data associated with the behavior of excited xenon atoms in a PDP discharge cell and compares the data with the theoretical results obtained using an analytical model. The properties of excited xenon atoms in the discharge cells of a plasma display panel are investigated by measuring the excited atom density through the use of laser absorption spectroscopy. The density of the excited xenon atoms increases from zero, reaches its peak, and decreases with time in the discharge cells. The profile of the excited xenon atoms is also studied in terms of the xenon mole fraction. The typical density of the excited xenon atoms in the metastable state is on the order of 10 13 atoms per cubic cm.

  2. Discharge efficiency in high-Xe-content plasma display panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, D.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Hagelaar, G.J.M.; Heusler, G.

    2004-01-01

    We study theoretically the overall output performance and the dominating reaction processes of the vacuum ultraviolet (UV) radiation production in high-Xe partial pressures in plasma display panels (PDPs) with Ne-Xe gas mixtures. A two-dimensional self-consistent fluid model is applied for the

  3. Spectral investigation of an a.c. plasma display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa, G.; Nastase, L.; Trache, M.

    1981-01-01

    The work presents the spectral investigations on an a.c. plasma display, in order of a better understanding of the physical phenomena taking place in such a device. The spectral characteristics of the panel filled with a Penning mixture Ne + 0.1% Ar are presented and the influence of the nitrogen addition on these characteristics was evidentiated. The presence of the trace of nitrogen in the device may be used in order to evidentiate small leaks or imperfections in pumping and outgasing processing of the display. (author)

  4. Displaying DIII-D plasma data using DEC's X window system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, K.L.

    1991-11-01

    The D3-D tokamak program, funded by the Department of Energy, carries out plasma physics and fusion energy research experiments. The machine began operation in February 1986; at that time, approximately 7 Mbytes of data was collected for shot. Since that time, the shot size has steadily increased to over 50 Mbytes with the average shot size between 35 and 45 Mbytes. Shots are fired every 12 to 15 minutes and last approximately 5 to 10 seconds. Between 30 and 40 shots are fired each day when plasma experiments are scheduled. In 1987 MFITD and MFITPLAY were written/modified. These two programs provide graphical output that allows the users to see, before the next shot, the plasma shape and the locations of the plasma and magnetic flux lines within the tokamak. MFITD performs the computations which calculate the shape and location of the plasma; it also graphically displays a small subset of timeslice data. MFITPLAY graphically displays the full set of timeslice data. Through interactive commands, MFITPLAY also allows the user to control the various aspects of how the data is displayed. In 1990, both programs were converted from User Interface Services (UIS) routines, which are part of the MicroVMS workstation graphics software, to DEC's X Window System using the DECWindows window manager. These modifications were required because of a move by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) to support X windows and phase out UIS. Due to the nature and purpose of each program, MFITD needed only simple graphics conversion while MFITPLAY was completely rewritten. The DECWindows version of MFITPLAY offers a number of improvements, such as a more intuitive user interface

  5. Platelet-Rich Plasma Increases Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Cagri A; Ertas, Nilgun Markal

    2017-11-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous solution of plasma containing 4 to 7 times the baseline concentration of human platelets. Platelet-rich plasma has been widely popular in facial rejuvenation to attenuate wrinkles and has been practically used. The authors have been encountering various patients of increased hiperpigmentation following PRP applications that were performed to attenuate the postinflammatory hiperpigmentation especially after laser treatment. The authors have been using PRP for facial rejuvenation in selected patients and in 1 patient the authors have encountered increased pigmentation over the pigmented skin lesions that were present before the application. The authors recommend that the PRP might increase pigmentation especially in the face region and precautions might be taken before and after the application. Platelet-rich plasma should not be used for the treatment of post inflammatory hiperpigmentation.

  6. Increase in beta limit in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Yutaka

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews recent studies of tokamak MHD stability towards the achievement of a high beta steady-state, where the profile control of current, pressure, and rotation, and the optimization of the plasma shape play fundamental roles. The key instabilities include the neoclassical tearing mode, the resistive wall mode, the edge localized mode, etc. In order to demonstrate an economically attractive tokamak reactor, it is necessary to increase the beta value simultaneously with a sufficiently high integrated plasma performance. Towards this goal, studies of stability control in self-regulating plasma systems are essential. (author)

  7. Increased plasma zonulin in patients with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Daniel A; Motal, Michael C; Burger-Klepp, Ursula; Marschalek, Corinna; Schmidt, Elisabeth M; Lebherz-Eichinger, Diana; Krenn, Claus G; Roth, Georg A

    2013-01-01

    Zonulin is a eukaryotic protein structurally similar to Vibrio cholerae's zonula occludens toxin. It plays an important role in the opening of small intestine tight junctions. The loss of gut wall integrity during sepsis might be pivotal and has been described in various experimental as well as human studies. Increased levels of zonulin could be demonstrated in diseases associated with increased intestinal inflammation, such as celiac disease and type 1 diabetes. We therefore investigated the role of plasma levels of zonulin in patients with sepsis as a non-invasive marker of gut wall integrity. Plasma level of zonulin was measured in 25 patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock according to ACCP/SCCM criteria at the first day of diagnosed sepsis. 18 non-septic post-surgical ICU-patients and 20 healthy volunteers served as control. Plasma levels were determined by using commercially available ELISA kit. Data are given as median and interquartile range (IQR). Significantly higher plasma concentration of zonulin were found in the sepsis group: 6.61 ng/mL (IQR 3.51-9.46), as compared to the to the post-surgical control group: 3.40 ng/mL (IQR 2.14-5.70) (P = 0.025), as well as to the healthy group: 3.55 ng/mL (IQR 3.14-4.14) (P = 0.008). We were able demonstrate elevated levels of plasma zonulin, a potential marker of intestinal permeability in septic patients. Increased zonulin may serve as an additional mechanism for the observed increased intestinal permeability during sepsis and SIRS.

  8. Optical studies of E-beam evaporated MgO films for plasma display panels

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, S I; Oh, S G

    1999-01-01

    Variable-incident-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used for non-destructive depth profiling of MgO thin films, one of the key elements of plasma display panels. We have found that all the examined MgO films have a three-layer structure with a dense interface layer , a void-included middle layer, and a surface layer. We have also found that the void fraction is increased with the oxygen-flow rate at a fixed substrate temperature and decreased with the substrate temperature at a fixed oxygen-flow rate. Moreover, discuss the close correlation between the water adsorption and the void fraction and show a general agreement between the surface layer thickness and the mean height determined by using a atomic force microscopy.

  9. CF4 plasma treatment-assisted inkjet printing for color pixel flexible display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortissier, G; Daunay, B; Jalabert, L; Lambert, P; Kim, B; Fujita, H; Toshiyoshi, H; Ginet, P

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report a MEMS flexible display device based on the color filter Fabry–Perot interferometer and fabricated on a transparent and flexible polyethylene naphthalate substrate. Targeting easy processing, fast evolution and reduced fabrication steps, inkjet printing is selected as a promising technology. CF 4 plasma surface treatment parameters' influence has been investigated through a design of experiment protocol. Important contact angle increase has led to pattern resolution between 50 and 100 µm depending on solutions and substrate nature. Finally, the designed device presents three primary color pixels with satisfying color purity (CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram—red: x = 0.52, y = 0.36; blue: x = 0.13, y = 0.20; green: x = 0.25, y = 0.57).

  10. Simulation of photons from plasmas for the applications to display devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae June; Yoon, Hyun Jin; Lee, Jae Koo

    2007-07-01

    Numerical modeling of the photon transport of the ultraviolet (UV) and the visible lights are presented for plasma based display devices. The transport of UV lights which undergo resonance trapping by ground state atoms is solved by using the Holstein equation. After the UV lights are transformed to visible lights at the phosphor surfaces, the visible lights experience complicated traces inside the cell and finally are emitted toward the viewing window after having some power loss within the cell. A three-dimensional ray trace of the visible lights is calculated with a radiosity model. These simulations for the photons strengthen plasma discharge modeling for the application to display devices.

  11. Plasma control system upgrade and increased plasma stability in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrovito, D., E-mail: dmastrovito@pppl.go [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451 Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Gates, D.; Gerhard, S.; Lawson, J.; Ludescher-Furth, C.; Marsala, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451 Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Plasma control on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) was previously accomplished using eight 333 MHz G4 processors built by Sky computers. Several planned improvements and additional control algorithms required significant upgrades to our real-time control computers and real-time data acquisition infrastructure. Several in-house modules have been designed and implemented including: the digital time stamp module (DITS) and for digital/analog front panel data port (FPDP) output, the FPDP output module digital/analog (FOMD/A). Standard Linux based Intel computers perform the real-time control tasks and InfiniBand as been employed for communication between a user-accessible 'host' server and the real-time computer. In addition to several independent real-time processes the General Atomics developed PCS (Bell (2006) ) system infrastructure continues to be used on NSTX. While maintaining previous functionality, improvements in the control system software include: an RWM feedback algorithm, beta feedback NBI control, more comprehensive error logging and trapping, more user-friendly interface, more complete archiving and restoring functionality, and better status reporting and diagnostic tools. Once completed, we succeeded in increasing overall plasma stability and decreasing control system latency by several times.

  12. Increased plasma fibronectin concentrations in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Dejgaard, A; Astrup, A

    1987-01-01

    In 23 morbidly obese patients we investigated the influence of a large weight loss (30.6 kg, range 17.5-90.8) on the plasma fibronectin concentrations. Further, changes in plasma fibronectin were related to serum insulin levels and to liver biochemistry. Between the measurements patients had been...... treated with an intermittent very-low-calorie formula diet sufficient in respect to protein, minerals and vitamins. They were investigated in weight-stable states. Before weight reduction, 14 patients (61%, 95% confidence limits 39-80%) had elevated plasma fibronectin levels. Plasma fibronectin decreased...... (medians 1.22 and 0.59 mumol/l before and after weight loss, p less than 0.01) and was after weight loss within the normal range in 14 patients. The change in plasma fibronectin was unassociated with the magnitude of the weight loss as well as with the reduction of overweight. The resulting plasma...

  13. Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased plasma concentrations of the neurotoxin 3-hydroxykynurenine are associated with nodding syndrome: a case control study in Gulu and Amuru districts, Northern Uganda.

  14. Does a video displaying a stair climbing model increase stair use in a worksite setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Calster, L; Van Hoecke, A-S; Octaef, A; Boen, F

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of improving the visibility of the stairwell and of displaying a video with a stair climbing model on climbing and descending stair use in a worksite setting. Intervention study. Three consecutive one-week intervention phases were implemented: (1) the visibility of the stairs was improved by the attachment of pictograms that indicated the stairwell; (2) a video showing a stair climbing model was sent to the employees by email; and (3) the same video was displayed on a television screen at the point-of-choice (POC) between the stairs and the elevator. The interventions took place in two buildings. The implementation of the interventions varied between these buildings and the sequence was reversed. Improving the visibility of the stairs increased both stair climbing (+6%) and descending stair use (+7%) compared with baseline. Sending the video by email yielded no additional effect on stair use. By contrast, displaying the video at the POC increased stair climbing in both buildings by 12.5% on average. One week after the intervention, the positive effects on stair climbing remained in one of the buildings, but not in the other. These findings suggest that improving the visibility of the stairwell and displaying a stair climbing model on a screen at the POC can result in a short-term increase in both climbing and descending stair use. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Xe Gas Content and Total Gas Pressure on the Discharge Characteristics of Colour Plasma Display Panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Wenbo; Han Mengju; Liang Zhihu

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the Xe gas content and total gas pressure on the discharge characteristics of colour plasma display panels including the sustaining voltage margin, white-field chromaticity, discharge time lag (DTL), discharge current peak, and full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of the discharge current pulse, are experimentally studied. The results indicate that as the Xe gas content in the He-Ne-Xe gas mixture or total pressure increases, the sustaining voltage margin increases, the white-field chromaticity improves, and the discharge current peak has a maximum value, while DTL and FWHM have a minimum value. The mean electron energy in the gas mixture discharge is also calculated through a numerical solution of Boltzmann equation. The experimental results are explained from a view of the mean electron energy variations with the Xe gas content and total gas pressure

  16. Effects of ramp reset pulses on the address discharge in a shadow mask plasma display panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lanlan; Tu Yan; Zhang Xiong; Jiang Youyan; Zhang Jian; Wang Baoping

    2007-01-01

    A two-dimensional self-consistent numerical simulation model is used to analyse the effects of the ramp reset pulses on the address discharge in a shadow mask plasma display panel (SM-PDP). Some basic parameters such as the slope of the ramp pulse and the terminal voltage of the ramp reset period are varied to investigate their effects. The simulation results illustrate that the wall voltage is mainly decided by the terminal voltage and the firing voltage at the end of the ramp reset period. Moreover, the variation of the ramp slope will also bring a few modifications to the wall voltage. The priming particles in the beginning of the addressing period are related to the slope of the ramping down voltage pulse. The simulation results can help us optimize the driving scheme of the SM-PDP

  17. Effect of Acid Dissolution Conditions on Recovery of Valuable Metals from Used Plasma Display Panel Scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chan-Mi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this particular study was to recover valuable metals from waste plasma display panels using high energy ball milling with subsequent acid dissolution. Dissolution of milled (PDP powder was studied in HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4 acidic solutions. The effects of dissolution acid, temperature, time, and PDP scrap powder to acid ratio on the leaching process were investigated and the most favorable conditions were found: (1 valuable metals (In, Ag, Mg were recovered from PDP powder in a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl:H2O = 50:50; (2 the optimal dissolution temperature and time for the valuable metals were found to be 60°C and 30 min, respectively; (3 the ideal PDP scrap powder to acid solution ratio was found to be 1:10. The proposed method was applied to the recovery of magnesium, silver, and indium with satisfactory results.

  18. A mechanistic study to increase understanding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-increased plasma glucose in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hailong; Li, Li; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) is an authorized food additive. Previous studies determined oral administration of TiO2 NPs increases plasma glucose in mice via inducing insulin resistance. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered the possible mechanism of increasing plasma glucose. However, persistently high plasma glucose is also a mechanism of increasing ROS. This study aims to explore whether TiO2 NPs increase plasma glucose via ROS. We found after oral administration of TiO2 NPs, an increase in ROS preceded an increase in plasma glucose. Subsequently, mice were treated with two antioxidants (resveratrol and vitamin E) at the same time as oral administration of TiO2 NPs. Results showed resveratrol and vitamin E reduced TiO2 NPs-increased ROS. An increase in plasma glucose was also inhibited. Further research showed resveratrol and vitamin E inhibited the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, resulting in improved insulin resistance. These results suggest TiO2 NPs increased ROS levels, and then ROS activated inflammatory cytokines and phosphokinases, and thus induced insulin resistance, resulting in an increase in plasma glucose. Resveratrol and vitamin E can reduce TiO2 NPs-increased ROS and thereby inhibit an increase in plasma glucose in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dry etching of ITO by magnetic pole enhanced inductively coupled plasma for display and biosensing devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meziani, T. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, 21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)]. E-mail: tarik.meziani@jrc.it; Colpo, P. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, 21020 Ispra (Va) (Italy)]. E-mail: pascal.colpo@jrc.it; Lambertini, V. [Centro Ricerche Fiat, Strada Torino 50, 10043 Orbassano (TO) (Italy); Ceccone, G. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, 21020 Ispra (Va) (Italy); Rossi, F. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, 21020 Ispra (Va) (Italy)

    2006-03-15

    The dry etching of indium tin oxide (ITO) layers deposited on glass substrates was investigated in a high density inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source. This innovative low pressure plasma source uses a magnetic core in order to concentrate the electromagnetic energy on the plasma and thus provides for higher plasma density and better uniformity. Different gas mixtures were tested containing mainly hydrogen, argon and methane. In Ar/H{sub 2} mixtures and at constant bias voltage (-100 V), the etch rate shows a linear dependence with input power varying the same way as the ion density, which confirms the hypothesis that the etching process is mainly physical. In CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} mixtures, the etch rate goes through a maximum for 10% CH{sub 4} indicating a participation of the radicals to the etching process. However, the etch rate remains quite low with this type of gas mixture (around 10 nm/min) because the etching mechanism appears to be competing with a deposition process. With CH{sub 4}/Ar mixtures, a similar feature appeared but the etch rate was much higher, reaching 130 nm/min at 10% of CH{sub 4} in Ar. The increase in etch rate with the addition of a small quantity of methane indicates that the physical etching process is enhanced by a chemical mechanism. The etching process was monitored by optical emission spectroscopy that appeared to be a valuable tool for endpoint detection.

  20. The 82-plex plasma protein signature that predicts increasing inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; Beck, Hans C; Tan, Qihua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to define the specific plasma protein signature that predicts the increase of the inflammation marker C-reactive protein from index day to next-day using proteome analysis and novel bioinformatics tools. We performed a prospective study of 91 incident kidney....... The prediction model selected and validated 82 plasma proteins which determined increased next-day C-reactive protein (area under receiver-operator-characteristics curve, 0.772; 95% confidence interval, 0.669 to 0.876; P signature (P ....001) was associated with observed increased next-day C-reactive protein. The 82-plex protein signature outperformed routine clinical procedures. The category-free net reclassification index improved with 82-plex plasma protein signature (total net reclassification index, 88.3%). Using the 82-plex plasma protein...

  1. Exposure to automotive pollution increases plasma susceptibility to oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, James E; Coombes, Jeff S; Geraghty, Dominic P; Fraser, David I

    2002-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein oxidation is implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. Plasma susceptibility to oxidation may be used as a marker of low-density lipoprotein oxidation and thus predict atherosclerotic risk. In this study the authors investigated the relationship between plasma susceptibility to oxidation and exposure to automotive pollution in a group of automobile mechanics (n = 16) exposed to high levels of automotive pollution, vs. matched controls (n = 13). The authors induced plasma oxidation by a free radical initiator and they determined susceptibility to oxidation by (1) change in absorbance at 234 nm, (2) lag time to conjugated diene formation, and (3) linear slope of the oxidation curve. Mechanics had significantly higher values (mean +/- standard error) for change in absorbance (1.60 +/- 0.05 vs. 1.36 +/- 0.05; p automotive pollutants increases plasma susceptibility to oxidation and may, in the long-term, increase the risk of developing atherosclerosis.

  2. Effect of high Xe-concentration in a plasma display panel with a SrCaO cold cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Giichiro; Kajiyama, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Tsutae; Uchida, Satoshi; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    We present here measurements of high Xe-contents plasma display panel (PDP) with SrCaO cold cathode. Luminous efficacy (η) shows a two-step increase with Xe-concentration in Ne/Xe gas mixture: η drastically increases up to Xe-concentration of 30% (Xe: 30%), and then attains 5 lm/W at the highest Xe-concentration of Xe: 100%. The high performance PDP with Xe: 100% can be operated at low applied voltage between 230 and 377 V due to the high secondary electron emission from the SrCaO cathode. Emission measurements clearly show the change in discharge characteristics at Xe: 30%, where the discharge changes from a Ne/Xe mixture discharge to an almost pure Xe discharge, and the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation from the combination of resonance and excimer radiations to only excimer radiation. Theoretical analysis solving Boltzmann equation for electron demonstrates that increasing Xe-concentration enhances the collision frequency for electron impact excitation directly from ground state to lower levels concerned with the VUV radiation, resulting in a drastic increase in luminous efficacy up to Xe: 30%. Also, one-dimensional fluid simulation of a Ne/Xe dielectric barrier discharge clearly shows that a combination of high secondary electron emission cathode and high Xe-concentration is quite effective for high VUV radiation efficiency because it induces a drastic increase in electron-heating efficiency.

  3. Niacin treatment increases plasma homocyst(e)ine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R; Malinow, M; Pettinger, M; Upson, B; Hunninghake, D

    1999-12-01

    Studies have reported high levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine as an independent risk factor for arterial occlusive disease. The Cholesterol Lowering Atherosclerosis Study reported an increase in plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in patients receiving both colestipol and niacin compared with placebo. Thus the objective of this study was to examine the effect of niacin treatment on plasma homocyst(e)ine levels. The Arterial Disease Multiple Intervention Trial, a multicenter randomized, placebo-controlled trial, examined the effect of niacin compared with placebo on homocyst(e)ine in a subset of 52 participants with peripheral arterial disease. During the screening phase, titration of niacin dose from 100 mg to 1000 mg daily resulted in a 17% increase in mean plasma homocyst(e)ine level from 13.1 +/- 4.4 micromol/L to 15.3 +/- 5.6 micromol/L (P ine levels in the niacin group and a 7% decrease in the placebo group (P =.0001). This difference remained statistically significant at the end of follow-up at 48 weeks. Niacin substantially increased plasma homocyst(e)ine levels, which could potentially reduce the expected benefits of niacin associated with lipoprotein modification. However, plasma homocyst(e)ine levels can be decreased by folic acid supplementation. Thus further studies are needed to determine whether B vitamin supplementation to patients undergoing long-term niacin treatment would be beneficial.

  4. Sixteen-Day Bedrest Significantly Increases Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Hsieh, S. T.; Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Convertino, V. A.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Upon exposure to microgravity, astronauts lose up to 10% of their total plasma volume, which may contribute to orthostatic intolerance after space flight. Because plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) is a primary factor maintaining plasma volume, our objective was to measure time course changes in COP during microgravity simulated by 6 deg. head-down tilt (HDT). Seven healthy male subjects (30-55 years of age) were placed in HDT for 16 days. For the purpose of another study, three of the seven subjects were chosen to exercise on a cycle ergometer on day 16. Blood samples were drawn immediately before bedrest on day 14 of bedrest, 18-24 hours following exercise while all subjects were still in HDT and 1 hour following bedrest termination. Plasma COP was measured in all 20 microliter EDTA-treated samples using an osmometer fitted with a PM 30 membrane. Data were analyzed with paired and unpaired t-tests. Plasma COP on day 14 of bedrest (29.9 +/- 0.69 mmHg) was significantly higher (p less than 0.005) than the control, pre-bedrest value (23.1 +/- 0.76 mmHg). At one hour of upright recovery after HDT, plasma COP remained significantly elevated (exercise: 26.9 +/- 0.87 mmHg; no exercise: 26.3 +/- 0.85 mmHg). Additionally, exercise had no significant effect on plasma COP 18-24 hours following exercise (exercise: 27.8 +/- 1.09 mmHg; no exercise: 27.1 +/- 0.78 mmHg). Our results demonstrate that plasma COP increases significantly with microgravity simulated by HDT. However, preliminary results indicate exercise during HDT does not significantly affect plasma COP.

  5. Increasing reconstruction quality of diffractive optical elements displayed with LC SLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Sergey N.

    2015-03-01

    Phase liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulators (SLM) are actively used in various applications. However, majority of scientific applications require stable phase modulation which might be hard to achieve with commercially available SLM due to its consumer origin. The use of digital voltage addressing scheme leads to phase temporal fluctuations, which results in lower diffraction efficiency and reconstruction quality of displayed diffractive optical elements (DOE). Due to high periodicity of fluctuations it should be possible to use knowledge of these fluctuations during DOE synthesis to minimize negative effect. We synthesized DOE using accurately measured phase fluctuations of phase LC SLM "HoloEye PLUTO VIS" to minimize its negative impact on displayed DOE reconstruction. Synthesis was conducted with versatile direct search with random trajectory (DSRT) method in the following way. Before DOE synthesis begun, two-dimensional dependency of SLM phase shift on addressed signal level and time from frame start was obtained. Then synthesis begins. First, initial phase distribution is created. Second, random trajectory of consecutive processing of all DOE elements is generated. Then iterative process begins. Each DOE element sequentially has its value changed to one that provides better value of objective criterion, e.g. lower deviation of reconstructed image from original one. If current element value provides best objective criterion value then it left unchanged. After all elements are processed, iteration repeats until stagnation is reached. It is demonstrated that application of SLM phase fluctuations knowledge in DOE synthesis with DSRT method leads to noticeable increase of DOE reconstruction quality.

  6. Increased Plasma Levels of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Human Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Yu-Xue; Fu, Dong-Wei; Gao, Qing-Feng; Ge, Feng-Xia; Liu, Wei-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Brucellosis is associated with inflammation and the oxidative stress response. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective stress-responsive enzyme that has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Nevertheless, the role of HO-1 in human brucellosis has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to examine the plasma levels of HO-1 in patients with brucellosis and to evaluate the ability of plasma HO-1 levels as an auxiliary diagnosis, a severity predictor, and a monitor for brucellosis treatments. A total of 75 patients with brucellosis were divided into the acute, subacute, chronic active, and chronic stable groups. An additional 20 volunteers were included as the healthy control group. The plasma HO-1 levels and other laboratory parameters were measured in all groups. Furthermore, the plasma levels of HO-1 in the acute group were compared before and after treatment. The plasma HO-1 levels were considerably increased in the acute (4.97 ± 3.55), subacute (4.98 ± 3.23), and chronic active groups (4.43 ± 3.00) with brucellosis compared to the healthy control group (1.03 ± 0.63) (p brucellosis (r = 0.707, p brucellosis status and may be used as a supplementary plasma marker for diagnosing brucellosis and monitoring its treatment.

  7. Displaying DIII-D plasma data using DEC's X window system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the DIII-D tokamak program funded by the Department of Energy, which carries out plasma physics and fusion energy research experiments. The machine began operation in February 1986; at that time, approximately 7 Mbytes of data was collected for each shot. Since that time, the shot size has steadily increased to over 50 Mbytes with the average shot size between 35 and 45 Mbytes. Shots are fired every 12 to 15 minutes and last approximately 5 to 10 seconds. Between 30 and 40 shots are fired each day when plasma experiments are scheduled. In 1990, both programs were converted from User Interface Services (UIS) routines, which are part of the MicroVMS workstation graphics software, to DEC's X Window System using the DECWindows window manager. These modifications were required because of a move by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) to support Xwindows and phase out UIS. Due to the nature and purpose of each program, MFITD needed only simple graphics conversion while MFITPLAY was completely rewritten. The DECWindows version of MFITPLAY offers a number of improvements, such as a more intuitive user interface

  8. Mice deficient in transmembrane prostatic acid phosphatase display increased GABAergic transmission and neurological alterations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi O Nousiainen

    Full Text Available Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, the first diagnostic marker and present therapeutic target for prostate cancer, modulates nociception at the dorsal root ganglia (DRG, but its function in the central nervous system has remained unknown. We studied expression and function of TMPAP (the transmembrane isoform of PAP in the brain by utilizing mice deficient in TMPAP (PAP-/- mice. Here we report that TMPAP is expressed in a subpopulation of cerebral GABAergic neurons, and mice deficient in TMPAP show multiple behavioral and neurochemical features linked to hyperdopaminergic dysregulation and altered GABAergic transmission. In addition to increased anxiety, disturbed prepulse inhibition, increased synthesis of striatal dopamine, and augmented response to amphetamine, PAP-deficient mice have enlarged lateral ventricles, reduced diazepam-induced loss of righting reflex, and increased GABAergic tone in the hippocampus. TMPAP in the mouse brain is localized presynaptically, and colocalized with SNARE-associated protein snapin, a protein involved in synaptic vesicle docking and fusion, and PAP-deficient mice display altered subcellular distribution of snapin. We have previously shown TMPAP to reside in prostatic exosomes and we propose that TMPAP is involved in the control of GABAergic tone in the brain also through exocytosis, and that PAP deficiency produces a distinct neurological phenotype.

  9. Plasma viscosity increase with progression of peripheral arterial atherosclerotic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poredos, P; Zizek, B

    1996-03-01

    Increased blood and plasma viscosity has been described in patients with coronary and peripheral arterial disease. However, the relation of viscosity to the extent of arterial wall deterioration--the most important determinant of clinical manifestation and prognosis of the disease--is not well known. Therefore, the authors studied plasma viscosity as one of the major determinants of blood viscosity in patients with different stages of arterial disease of lower limbs (according to Fontaine) and its relation to the presence of some risk factors of atherosclerosis. The study encompassed four groups of subjects: 19 healthy volunteers (group A), 18 patients with intermittent claudication up to 200 m (stage II; group B), 15 patients with critical ischemia of lower limbs (stage III and IV; group C), and 16 patients with recanalization procedures on peripheral arteries. Venous blood samples were collected from an antecubital vein without stasis for the determination of plasma viscosity (with a rotational capillary microviscometer, PAAR), fibrinogen, total cholesterol, alpha-2-macroglobulin, and glucose concentrations. In patients with recanalization procedure local plasma viscosity was also determined from blood samples taken from a vein on the dorsum of the foot. Plasma viscosity was most significantly elevated in the patients with critical ischemia (1.78 mPa.sec) and was significantly higher than in the claudicants (1.68 mPa.sec), and the claudicants also had significantly higher viscosity than the controls (1.58 mPa.sec). In patients in whom a recanalization procedure was performed, no differences in systemic and local plasma viscosity were detected, neither before nor after recanalization of the diseased artery. In all groups plasma viscosity was correlated with fibrinogen concentration (r=0.70, P < 0.01) and total cholesterol concentration (r=0.24, P < 0.05), but in group C (critical ischemia) plasma viscosity was most closely linked to the concentration of alpha-2

  10. Remote and direct plasma regions for low-temperature growth of carbon nanotubes on glass substrates for display applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatabaei, M K; Ghafouri fard, H; Koohsorkhi, J; Khatami, S; Mohajerzadeh, S

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on glass substrates is introduced in this study. A two-stage plasma was used to achieve low-temperature and vertically aligned CNTs. Ni deposited on indium tin oxide/glass substrate was used as the catalyst and hydrogen and acetylene were used as gas feeds. In this investigation a new technique was developed to grow vertically aligned CNTs at temperatures below 400 deg. C while CNT growth by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition required high temperatures. Low-temperature growth of vertically aligned CNTs was suitable for the fabrication of micro-lens and self-oriented displays on glass substrates. Also, we have reported a new configuration for CNT-based display by means of controlling the refractive index of liquid crystal around the CNT by applying a proper voltage to the top and bottom array.

  11. Increased plasma agmatine levels in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzbay, Tayfun; Goktalay, Gokhan; Kayir, Hakan; Eker, Salih S; Sarandol, Asli; Oral, Sema; Buyukuysal, Levent; Ulusoy, Gokhan; Kirli, Selcuk

    2013-08-01

    Agmatine is an endogenous substance, synthesized from l-arginine, and it is proposed to be a new neurotransmitter. Preclinical studies indicated that agmatine may have an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This study was organized to investigate plasma agmatine in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. Eighteen patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy individuals constituted the subjects. Agmatine levels in the plasma were measured using the HPLC method. The S100B protein level, which is a peripheral biomarker for brain damage, was also measured using the ELISA method. While plasma levels of agmatine in patients with schizophrenia were significantly increased (p agmatine levels as a clinical diagnostic test would significantly differentiate between patients with schizophrenia and those in the control group (predictive value: 0.969; p  0.05). A multiple regression analysis revealed that the age of the patient and the severity of the illness, as indicated by the PANSS score, significantly contributed the plasma agmatine levels in patients with schizophrenia. These results support the hypothesis that an excess agmatine release is important in the development of schizophrenia. The findings also imply that the plasma agmatine level may be a potential biomarker of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Metformin increases plasma ghrelin in Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doogue, Matthew P; Begg, Evan J; Moore, M Peter; Lunt, Helen; Pemberton, Chris J; Zhang, Mei

    2009-12-01

    * Metformin, unlike the other major antihyperglycaemic drugs, is not associated with weight gain. * Ghrelin is an appetite-stimulating hormone whose concentrations vary in relation to food, obesity and diabetes control. * Reports are conflicting about how metformin affects ghrelin concentrations, and this study was aimed at resolving this issue in patients with Type 2 diabetes. * In this study an increase in ghrelin concentrations was seen in response to metformin treatment in patients with Type 2 diabetes. * This effect was opposite to what might be expected if the effect of metformin on weight control was mediated via suppression of ghrelin. * It is likely that the ghrelin response was secondary to improved glycaemic control. * Meal time changes in appetite and satiety did not correlate with changes in ghrelin, which suggests ghrelin may not be important in meal initiation. Metformin treatment of Type 2 diabetes is not usually associated with weight gain, and may assist with weight reduction. Plasma ghrelin concentrations are inversely associated with obesity and food intake. Metformin might therefore affect ghrelin concentrations, although previous studies have shown variable results in this regard. The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of metformin on plasma ghrelin, appetite and satiety in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Eighteen patients with Type 2 diabetes were studied before and after 6 weeks of metformin treatment, which was titrated to 1 g b.d. On the study days patients were fed standard meals of 390 kcal at 08.00 and 12.30 h, plasma samples were collected at 15- and 30-min intervals, and appetite and satiety were measured on visual analogue scales. Changes in the area under the concentration-time curves (AUCs) of plasma ghrelin, insulin, glucose, appetite and satiety were assessed and examined for correlations with metformin AUCs. Changes in fasting adiponectin and leptin were also measured. Treatment with metformin increased the

  13. Shape Memory Polymers Containing Higher Acrylate Content Display Increased Endothelial Cell Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Tina; Shandas, Robin

    2018-01-01

    Shape Memory Polymers (SMPs) are smart materials that can recall their shape upon the application of a stimulus, which makes them appealing materials for a variety of applications, especially in biomedical devices. Most prior SMP research has focused on tuning bulk properties; studying surface effects of SMPs may extend the use of these materials to blood-contacting applications, such as cardiovascular stents, where surfaces that support rapid endothelialization have been correlated to stent success. Here, we evaluate endothelial attachment onto the surfaces of a family of SMPs previously developed in our group that have shown promise for biomedical devices. Nine SMP formulations containing varying amounts of tert-Butyl acrylate (tBA) and Poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) were analyzed for endothelial cell attachment. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), contact angle studies, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to verify bulk and surface properties of the SMPs. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) attachment and viability was verified using fluorescent methods. Endothelial cells preferentially attached to SMPs with higher tBA content, which have rougher, more hydrophobic surfaces. HUVECs also displayed an increased metabolic activity on these high tBA SMPs over the course of the study. This class of SMPs may be promising candidates for next generation blood-contacting devices. PMID:29707382

  14. Shape Memory Polymers Containing Higher Acrylate Content Display Increased Endothelial Cell Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Govindarajan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Shape Memory Polymers (SMPs are smart materials that can recall their shape upon the application of a stimulus, which makes them appealing materials for a variety of applications, especially in biomedical devices. Most prior SMP research has focused on tuning bulk properties; studying surface effects of SMPs may extend the use of these materials to blood-contacting applications, such as cardiovascular stents, where surfaces that support rapid endothelialization have been correlated to stent success. Here, we evaluate endothelial attachment onto the surfaces of a family of SMPs previously developed in our group that have shown promise for biomedical devices. Nine SMP formulations containing varying amounts of tert-Butyl acrylate (tBA and Poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEGDMA were analyzed for endothelial cell attachment. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, contact angle studies, and atomic force microscopy (AFM were used to verify bulk and surface properties of the SMPs. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC attachment and viability was verified using fluorescent methods. Endothelial cells preferentially attached to SMPs with higher tBA content, which have rougher, more hydrophobic surfaces. HUVECs also displayed an increased metabolic activity on these high tBA SMPs over the course of the study. This class of SMPs may be promising candidates for next generation blood-contacting devices.

  15. Wheat aleurone polyphenols increase plasma eicosapentaenoic acid in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayçal Ounnas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods: These studies were designed to assess whether wheat polyphenols (mainly ferulic acid [FA] increased the very-long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (VLC n-3 [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA] in rats. Wheat aleurone (WA was used as a dietary source of wheat polyphenols. Two experiments were performed; in the first one, the rats were fed WA or control pellets (CP in presence of linseed oil (LO to provide alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, the precursor of VLC n-3. In the second one, the rats were fed WA or CP in presence of control oil (CO without ALA. The concentrations of phenolic acid metabolites in urine were also investigated. Results: The urinary concentration of conjugated FA increased with WA ingestion (p<0.05. Plasma EPA increased by 25% (p<0.05 with WA in the CO group but not in the LO group. In contrast, there was no effect of WA on plasma DHA and omega-6 fatty acids (n-6. Finally, both n-3 and n-6 in the liver remained unchanged by the WA. Conclusion: These results suggest that WA consumption has a significant effect on EPA in plasma without affecting n-6. Subsequent studies are required to examine whether these effects may explain partly the health benefits associated with whole wheat consumption.

  16. Plasma procalcitonin concentrations are increased in dogs with sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggs, Robert; Milloway, Matthew; Troia, Roberta; Giunti, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Sepsis, the life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, is difficult to identify and to prognosticate for. In people with sepsis, procalcitonin (PCT) measurement aids diagnosis, enables therapeutic monitoring and improves prognostic accuracy. This study used a commercial canine PCT assay to measure plasma PCT concentrations in dogs with gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) syndrome and in dogs with sepsis. It was hypothesised that dogs with GDV syndrome and with sepsis have greater plasma PCT concentrations than healthy dogs and that dogs with sepsis have greater PCT concentrations than dogs with GDV syndrome. Before analysing canine plasma samples, the ability of the assay to identify canine PCT, in addition to assay imprecision and the lower limit of detection were established. The assay had low imprecision with coefficients of variation ≤4.5 per cent. The lower limit of detection was 3.4 pg/ml. Plasma PCT concentrations were measured in 20 dogs with sepsis, in 32 dogs with GDV syndrome and in 52 healthy dogs. Median (IQR) PCT concentration in dogs with sepsis 78.7 pg/ml (39.1–164.7) was significantly greater than in healthy dogs 49.8 pg/ml (36.2–63.7) (P=0.019), but there were no significant differences between PCT concentrations in dogs with GDV syndrome and controls (P=0.072) or between dogs with sepsis and GDV syndrome (P=1.000). Dogs with sepsis have significantly increased plasma PCT concentrations compared with healthy dogs, although considerable overlap between these populations was identified. Future investigations should confirm this finding in other populations and evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of PCT in dogs with sepsis. PMID:29682292

  17. Triple-probe method applied to the direct display of plasma parameters in a supersonic flowing continuum plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogram, G.L.; Chang, J.; Hobson, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The calibration of electrostatic triple-probe voltage and current response in a supersonic continuum plasma has been carried out using a low-pressure shock tube. The electron temperature T/sub e/ and charge number density N/sub e/ are compared to probe voltage and current response, respectively, for a useful range of plasma parameters (1 13 13 is the nondimensional probe voltage). The dependence of probe response on Debye ratio R/sub p//lambda/sub D/ and various flow parameters was investigated. The probe voltage response was found to depend significantly on the Debye ratio. Expressions for electron temperature determination by triple probe are presented

  18. Low-impedance internal linear inductive antenna for large-area flat panel display plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.N.; Jung, S.J.; Lee, Y.J.; Yeom, G.Y.; Lee, S.H.; Lee, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    An internal-type linear inductive antenna, that is, a double-comb-type antenna, was developed for a large-area plasma source having the size of 1020 mmx830 mm, and high density plasmas on the order of 2.3x10 11 cm -3 were obtained with 15 mTorr Ar at 5000 W of inductive power with good plasma stability. This is higher than that for the conventional serpentine-type antenna, possibly due to the low impedance, resulting in high efficiency of power transfer for the double-comb antenna type. In addition, due to the remarkable reduction of the antenna length, a plasma uniformity of less than 8% was obtained within the substrate area of 880 mmx660 mm at 5000 W without having a standing-wave effect

  19. Discharge characteristics of He-Ne-Xe gas mixture with varying Xe contents and at varying sustain electrode gap lengths in the plasma display panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Ohyung; Whang, Ki-Woong; Bae, Hyun Sook

    2009-01-01

    The discharge characteristics of He-Ne-Xe gas mixture in the plasma display panel were investigated using a two-dimensional numerical simulation to understand the effects of adding He and varying the Xe contents in the gas mixture, and also varying sustain electrode gap. With 5% Xe content and 60 μm sustain electrode gap, decreased ionization led to the improvement of the vacuum ultraviolet (vuv) efficacy at increasing He mixing ratios. However, at 20% Xe content and 60 μm sustain electrode gap, increased electron heating improved the vuv efficacy until the He mixing ratio reached 0.7, but the efficacy decreased beyond the ratio of 0.7 due to the increased ionization of Xe atoms. At 5% Xe content and 200 μm sustain electrode gap, the vuv efficacy increased as a result of increased electron heating at the gap space at increasing He mixing ratios.

  20. Diagnostics of microdischarge-integrated plasma sources for display and materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, K; Kishimoto, Y; Kawai, S; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, O

    2005-01-01

    Two different types of microdischarge-integrated plasma sources have been operated at around the atmospheric pressure range. The discharge characteristics were diagnosed by optical emission spectroscopy (OES), laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) and microwave transmission (MT) techniques. The dynamic spatiotemporal behaviour of excited atoms was analysed using OES and LAS and the temporal behaviour of the electron density was estimated using the MT method. In Ar and Xe/Ne gases, waveforms of the MT signal followed the current waveform in the rise period and lasted longer according to the recombination losses. However, in He the waveform followed the density of metastable atoms, reflecting the production of a large amount of electrons by the Penning ionization process with impurities. The estimated peak electron density in those plasma sources is of the order of 10 12 cm -3 , and the metastable atom density can reach 10 13 cm -3 . Thus, it is suggested that these sources can be potentially applied to convenient material processing tools of large area operated stably at atmospheric pressure

  1. Increased plasma lipid levels exacerbate muscle pathology in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milad, Nadia; White, Zoe; Tehrani, Arash Y; Sellers, Stephanie; Rossi, Fabio M V; Bernatchez, Pascal

    2017-09-12

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by loss of dystrophin expression and leads to severe ambulatory and cardiac function decline. However, the dystrophin-deficient mdx murine model of DMD only develops a very mild form of the disease. Our group and others have shown vascular abnormalities in animal models of MD, a likely consequence of the fact that blood vessels express the same dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC) proteins as skeletal muscles. To test the blood vessel contribution to muscle damage in DMD, mdx 4cv mice were given elevated lipid levels via apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene knockout combined with normal chow or lipid-rich Western diets. Ambulatory function and heart function (via echocardiogram) were assessed at 4 and 7 months of age. After sacrifice, muscle histology and aortic staining were used to assess muscle pathology and atherosclerosis development, respectively. Plasma levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, and creatine kinase (CK) were also measured. Although there was an increase in left ventricular heart volume in mdx-ApoE mice compared to that in mdx mice, parameters of heart function were not affected. Compared with wild-type and ApoE-null, only mdx-ApoE KO mice showed significant ambulatory dysfunction. Despite no significant difference in plasma CK, histological analyses revealed that elevated plasma lipids in chow- and Western diet-fed mdx-ApoE mice was associated with severe exacerbation of muscle pathology compared to mdx mice: significant increase in myofiber damage and fibrofatty replacement in the gastrocnemius and triceps brachii muscles, more reminiscent of human DMD pathology. Finally, although both ApoE and mdx-ApoE groups displayed increased plasma lipids, mdx-ApoE exhibited atherosclerotic plaque deposition equal to or less than that of ApoE mice. Since others have shown that lipid abnormalities correlate with DMD severity, our data suggest that plasma lipids could be

  2. Dual-functioning peptides discovered by phage display increase the magnitude and specificity of BMSC attachment to mineralized biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaraju, Harsha; Miller, Sharon J; Kohn, David H

    2017-07-01

    Design of biomaterials for cell-based therapies requires presentation of specific physical and chemical cues to cells, analogous to cues provided by native extracellular matrices (ECM). We previously identified a peptide sequence with high affinity towards apatite (VTKHLNQISQSY, VTK) using phage display. The aims of this study were to identify a human MSC-specific peptide sequence through phage display, combine it with the apatite-specific sequence, and verify the specificity of the combined dual-functioning peptide to both apatite and human bone marrow stromal cells. In this study, a combinatorial phage display identified the cell binding sequence (DPIYALSWSGMA, DPI) which was combined with the mineral binding sequence to generate the dual peptide DPI-VTK. DPI-VTK demonstrated significantly greater binding affinity (1/K D ) to apatite surfaces compared to VTK, phosphorylated VTK (VTK phos ), DPI-VTK phos , RGD-VTK, and peptide-free apatite surfaces (p biomaterial surfaces and subsequently increase cell proliferation and differentiation. These new peptides expand biomaterial design methodology for cell-based regeneration of bone defects. This strategy of combining cell and material binding phage display derived peptides is broadly applicable to a variety of systems requiring targeted adhesion of specific cell populations, and may be generalized to the engineering of any adhesion surface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Three-dimensional self-consistent radiation transport model for the fluid simulation of plasma display panel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.C.; Yang, S.S.; Lee, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    In plasma display panels (PDPs), the resonance radiation trapping is one of the important processes. In order to incorporate this effect in a PDP cell, a three-dimensional radiation transport model is self-consistently coupled with a fluid simulation. This model is compared with the conventional trapping factor method in gas mixtures of neon and xenon. It shows the differences in the time evolutions of spatial profile and the total number of resonant excited states, especially in the afterglow. The generation rates of UV light are also compared for the two methods. The visible photon flux reaching the output window from the phosphor layers as well as the total UV photon flux arriving at the phosphor layer from the plasma region are calculated for resonant and nonresonant excited species. From these calculations, the time-averaged spatial profiles of the UV flux on the phosphor layers and the visible photon flux through the output window are obtained. Finally, the diagram of the energy efficiency and the contribution of each UV light are shown

  4. Mechanisms Underpinning Increased Plasma Creatinine Levels in Patients Receiving Vemurafenib for Advanced Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurabielle, Charlotte; Pillebout, Evangéline; Stehlé, Thomas; Pagès, Cécile; Roux, Jennifer; Schneider, Pierre; Chevret, Sylvie; Chaffaut, Cendrine; Boutten, Anne; Mourah, Samia; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Vidal-Petiot, Emmanuelle; Lebbé, Céleste; Flamant, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Context Serum creatinine has been reported to increase in patients receiving Vemurafenib, yet neither the prevalence nor the mechanism of this adverse event are known. Objective We aimed to evaluate the frequency and the mechanisms of increases in plasma creatinine level in patients receiving Vemurafenib for advanced melanoma. Methods We performed a retrospective monocentric study including consecutive patients treated with Vemurafenib for an advanced melanoma. We collected clinical and biological data concerning renal function before introduction of Vemurafenib and in the course of monthly follow-up visits from March 2013 to December 2014. Cystatin C-derived glomerular filtration rate was evaluated before and after Vemurafenib initiation, as increase in serum cystatin C is specific to a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. We also performed thorough renal explorations in 3 patients, with measurement of tubular secretion of creatinine before and after Vemurafenib initiation and a renal biopsy in 2 patients. Results 70 patients were included: 97% of them displayed an immediate, and thereafter stable, increase in creatinine (+22.8%) after Vemurafenib initiation. In 44/52 patients in whom Vemurafenib was discontinued, creatinine levels returned to baseline. Serum cystatin C increased, although proportionally less than serum creatinine, showing that creatinine increase under vemurafenib was indeed partly due to a renal function impairment. In addition, renal explorations demonstrated that Vemurafenib induced an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion. Conclusion Thus, Vemurafenib induces a dual mechanism of increase in plasma creatinine with both an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion and slight renal function impairment. However, this side effect is mostly reversible when Vemurafenib is discontinued, and should not lead physicians to discontinue the treatment if it is effective. PMID:26930506

  5. Vitamin B6 deficient plants display increased sensitivity to high light and photo-oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumeau Dominique

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin B6 is a collective term for a group of six interconvertible compounds: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine and their phosphorylated derivatives. Vitamin B6 plays essential roles as a cofactor in a range of biochemical reactions. In addition, vitamin B6 is able to quench reactive oxygen species in vitro, and exogenously applied vitamin B6 protects plant cells against cell death induced by singlet oxygen (1O2. These results raise the important question as to whether plants employ vitamin B6 as an antioxidant to protect themselves against reactive oxygen species. Results The pdx1.3 mutation affects the vitamin B6 biosynthesis enzyme, pyridoxal synthase (PDX1, and leads to a reduction of the vitamin B6 concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. Although leaves of the pdx1.3 Arabidopsis mutant contained less chlorophyll than wild-type leaves, we found that vitamin B6 deficiency did not significantly impact photosynthetic performance or shoot and root growth. Chlorophyll loss was associated with an increase in the chlorophyll a/b ratio and a selective decrease in the abundance of several PSII antenna proteins (Lhcb1/2, Lhcb6. These changes were strongly dependent on light intensity, with high light amplifying the difference between pdx1.3 and the wild type. When leaf discs were exposed to exogenous 1O2, lipid peroxidation in pdx1.3 was increased relative to the wild type; this effect was not observed with superoxide or hydrogen peroxide. When leaf discs or whole plants were exposed to excess light energy, 1O2-mediated lipid peroxidation was enhanced in leaves of the pdx1.3 mutant relative to the wild type. High light also caused an increased level of 1O2 in vitamin B6-deficient leaves. Combining the pdx1.3 mutation with mutations affecting the level of 'classical' quenchers of 1O2 (zeaxanthin, tocopherols resulted in a highly photosensitive phenotype. Conclusion This study demonstrates that vitamin B6 has a function in

  6. Cells Lacking mtDNA Display Increased dNTP Pools upon DNA Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Tine; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte

    Imbalanced dNTP pools are highly mutagenic due to a deleterious effect on DNA polymerase fidelity. Mitochondrial DNA defects, including mutations and deletions, are commonly found in a wide variety of different cancer types. In order to further study the interconnection between dNTP pools...... and mitochondrial function we have examined the effect of DNA damage on dNTP pools in cells deficient of mtDNA. We show that DNA damage induced by UV irradiation, in a dose corresponding to LD50, induces an S phase delay in different human osteosarcoma cell lines. The UV pulse also has a destabilizing effect...... shows that normal mitochondrial function is prerequisite for retaining stable dNTP pools upon DNA damage. Therefore it is likely that mitochondrial deficiency defects may cause an increase in DNA mutations by disrupting dNTP pool balance....

  7. Wfs1-deficient mice display altered function of serotonergic system and increased behavioural response to antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanel eVisnapuu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that mutations in the WFS1 gene make humans more susceptible to mood disorders. Besides that, mood disorders are associated with alterations in the activity of serotonergic and noradrenergic systems. Therefore, in this study, the effects of imipramine, an inhibitor of serotonin (5-HT and noradrenaline (NA reuptake, and paroxetine, a selective inhibitor of 5-HT reuptake, were studied in tests of behavioural despair. The tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST were performed in Wfs1-deficient mice. Simultaneously, gene expression and monoamine metabolism studies were conducted to evaluate changes in 5-HT- and NA-ergic systems of Wfs1-deficient mice. The basal immobility time of Wfs1-deficient mice in TST and FST did not differ from that of their wild-type littermates. However, a significant reduction of immobility time in response to lower doses of imipramine and paroxetine was observed in homozygous Wfs1-deficient mice, but not in their wild-type littermates. In gene expression studies, the levels of 5-HT transporter (SERT were significantly reduced in the pons of homozygous animals. Monoamine metabolism was assayed separately in the dorsal and ventral striatum of naive mice and mice exposed for 30 minutes tobrightly lit motility boxes. We found that this aversive challenge caused a significant increase in the levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA, a metabolite of 5-HT, in the ventral and dorsal striatum of wild-type mice, but not in their homozygous littermates. Taken together, the blunted 5-HT metabolism and reduced levels of SERT are a likely reason for the elevated sensitivity of these mice to the action of imipramine and paroxetine. These changes in the pharmacological and neurochemical phenotype of Wfs1-deficient mice may help to explain the increased susceptibility of Wolfram syndrome patients to depressive states.

  8. Nutrient Restriction Increases Circulating and Hepatic Ceramide in Dairy Cows Displaying Impaired Insulin Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amanda N; Clegg, J L; Perry, C A; McFadden, J W

    2017-09-01

    The progression of insulin resistance in dairy cows represents a maternal adaptation to support milk production during heightened energy demand; however, excessive adipose tissue lipolysis can develop. In diabetic non-ruminants, the mechanisms that mediate insulin resistance involve the sphingolipid ceramide. We tested the hypothesis that ceramide accumulates in dairy cows experiencing lipolysis and insulin resistance. Nine dairy cows were utilized in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Cows were ad libitum fed, nutrient-restricted (NR), or NR with nicotinic acid (NA; 5 mg of NA/h per kg BW; delivered i.v.) for 34 h. When provided access, cows were ad libitum fed a mixed ration of grass hay and ground corn to meet requirements. Intake for NR cows was limited to vitamins and minerals. Nicotinic acid was administered to suppress lipolysis. Saline was infused in cows not provided NA. At 32 and 33 h of treatment, a liver biopsy and insulin tolerance test were performed, respectively. Samples were analyzed using colorimetry, immunoassay, and mass spectrometry. Nutrient restriction increased serum fatty acids and ceramide levels, and impaired insulin sensitivity; however, NA infusion was unable to prevent these responses. We also show that NR increases hepatic ceramide accumulation, a response that was positively associated with serum ceramide supply. Our data demonstrate that circulating and hepatic 24:0-Cer are inversely associated with systemic insulin tolerance, an effect not observed for the 16:0 moiety. In conclusion, our results suggest that ceramide accrual represents a metabolic adaptation to nutrient restriction and impaired insulin action in dairy cows.

  9. Tocopherol-deficient rice plants display increased sensitivity to photooxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Defu; Chen, Haiwei; Zhang, Luhua; Shi, Xiaoli; Chen, Xiwen

    2014-06-01

    Tocopherols are lipophilic antioxidants that are synthesized exclusively in photosynthetic organisms. Despite extensive in vivo characterization of tocopherol functions in plants, their functions in the monocot model plant, rice, remain to be determined. In this study, transgenic rice plants constitutively silenced for homogentisate phytyltransferase (HPT) and tocopherol cyclase (TC) activity were generated. Silencing of HPT and TC resulted in up to a 98 % reduction in foliar tocopherol content relative to the control plants, which was also confirmed by transcript level analysis. When grown under normal conditions, HPT and TC transgenics showed no distinctive phenotype relative to the control plants, except a slight reduction in plant height and a slight decrease in the first leaf length. However, when exposed to high light at low temperatures, HPT and TC transgenics had a significantly higher leaf yellowing index than the control plants. The tocopherol-deficient plants decreased their total individual chlorophyll levels, their chlorophyll a/b ratio, and the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, whereas increased lipid peroxidation levels relative to the control plants. Tocopherol deficiency had no effect on ascorbate biosynthesis, but induced glutathione, antheraxanthin, and particularly zeaxanthin biosynthesis for compensation under stressful conditions. However, despite these compensation mechanisms, HPT and TC transgenics still exhibited altered phenotypes under high light at low temperatures. Therefore, it is suggested that tocopherols cannot be replaced and play an indispensable role in photoprotection in rice.

  10. Increased plasma citrulline in mice marks diet-induced obesity and may predict the development of the metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Sailer

    Full Text Available In humans, plasma amino acid concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA and aromatic amino acids (AAA increase in states of obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. We here assessed whether these putative biomarkers can also be identified in two different obesity and diabetic mouse models. C57BL/6 mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO mimic the metabolic impairments of obesity in humans characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ to induce insulin deficiency were used as a type 1 diabetes model. Plasma amino acid profiling of two high fat (HF feeding trials revealed that citrulline and ornithine concentrations are elevated in obese mice, while systemic arginine bioavailability (ratio of plasma arginine to ornithine + citrulline is reduced. In skeletal muscle, HF feeding induced a reduction of arginine levels while citrulline levels were elevated. However, arginine or citrulline remained unchanged in their key metabolic organs, intestine and kidney. Moreover, the intestinal conversion of labeled arginine to ornithine and citrulline in vitro remained unaffected by HF feeding excluding the intestine as prime site of these alterations. In liver, citrulline is mainly derived from ornithine in the urea cycle and DIO mice displayed reduced hepatic ornithine levels. Since both amino acids share an antiport mechanism for mitochondrial import and export, elevated plasma citrulline may indicate impaired hepatic amino acid handling in DIO mice. In the insulin deficient mice, plasma citrulline and ornithine levels also increased and additionally these animals displayed elevated BCAA and AAA levels like insulin resistant and diabetic patients. Therefore, type 1 diabetic mice but not DIO mice show the "diabetic fingerprint" of plasma amino acid changes observed in humans. Additionally, citrulline may serve as an early indicator of the obesity-dependent metabolic

  11. Dopamine plasma clearance is increased in piglets compared to neonates during continuous dopamine infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin B; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert; Eriksen, Vibeke Ramsgaard

    2018-01-01

    pharmacokinetics. METHODS: Arterial blood samples were drawn from six neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Copenhagen University Hospital and 20 newborn piglets during continuous dopamine infusion. Furthermore, to estimate the piglet plasma dopamine half-life, blood samples were drawn at 2.......5-minute intervals after the dopamine infusion was discontinued. The plasma dopamine content was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. RESULTS: The dopamine displayed first-order kinetics in piglets and had a half-life of 2.5 minutes, while the median plasma...

  12. Staging laser plasma accelerators for increased beam energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shu, Anthony; Schroeder, Carl; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Matlis, Nicholas; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Plateau, Guillaume; Lin, Chen; Toth, Csaba; Geddes, Cameron; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Staging laser plasma accelerators is an efficient way of mitigating laser pump depletion in laser driven accelerators and necessary for reaching high energies with compact laser systems. The concept of staging includes coupling of additional laser energy and transporting the electron beam from one accelerating module to another. Due to laser damage threshold constraints, in-coupling laser energy with conventional optics requires distances between the accelerating modules of the order of 10m, resulting in decreased average accelerating gradient and complicated e-beam transport. In this paper we use basic scaling laws to show that the total length of future laser plasma accelerators will be determined by staging technology. We also propose using a liquid jet plasma mirror for in-coupling the laser beam and show that it has the potential to reduce distance between stages to the cm-scale.

  13. Pavlovian autoshaping procedures increase plasma corticosterone levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Silberman, Yuval; Williams, Kayon; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2002-06-01

    Pavlovian autoshaping conditioned responses (CRs) are complex sequences of conditioned stimulus (CS)-directed skeletal-motor responses that are elicited by CS objects predictive of food unconditioned stimulus (US). Autoshaping CRs are observed under conditions known to be conducive to elevations in plasma corticosterone levels, as, for example, in response to the eating of food as well as in response to signals predictive of food. Two experiments investigated the relationships between Pavlovian autoshaping procedures, the performance of Pavlovian autoshaping CRs, and plasma corticosterone levels in male Long-Evans rats. In Experiment 1, rats in the CS-US paired group (n=30) were given 20 daily sessions of Pavlovian autoshaping training wherein the insertion of a retractable lever CS was followed by the response-independent presentation of the food US. Tail blood samples obtained after the 20th autoshaping session revealed higher plasma corticosterone levels in the CS-US paired group than in the CS-US random control group (n=10). In Experiment 2, rats (n=35) were assessed for basal plasma corticosterone levels 2 weeks prior to autoshaping training. Plasma samples obtained immediately following the first autoshaping session, and prior to the acquisition of lever-press autoshaping CR performance, revealed higher plasma corticosterone levels in the CS-US paired group (n=24) relative to basal levels. This effect was not observed in the CS-US random control group (n=11). Data suggest that corticosterone release is a physiological endocrine Pavlovian CR induced by lever CS-food US pairings during Pavlovian autoshaping procedures, rather than a by-product of autoshaping CR performance. Implications of the link between autoshaping procedures and corticosterone release are discussed.

  14. Increases In Plasma Urea And Creatinine In Experimental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alterations in both plasma urea and creatinine levels were monitored over a period of twenty eight (28) days in experimentally infected rabbits. A total of 15 animals were randomly divided into three groups of n=5. The groups were control (group I), infected and treated (group II) and infected but untreated (group III) ...

  15. Increased androgenic sensitivity in the hind limb muscular system marks the evolution of a derived gestural display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiamele, Lisa A; Fuxjager, Matthew J; Schuppe, Eric R; Taylor, Rebecca S; Hödl, Walter; Preininger, Doris

    2016-05-17

    Physical gestures are prominent features of many species' multimodal displays, yet how evolution incorporates body and leg movements into animal signaling repertoires is unclear. Androgenic hormones modulate the production of reproductive signals and sexual motor skills in many vertebrates; therefore, one possibility is that selection for physical signals drives the evolution of androgenic sensitivity in select neuromotor pathways. We examined this issue in the Bornean rock frog (Staurois parvus, family: Ranidae). Males court females and compete with rivals by performing both vocalizations and hind limb gestural signals, called "foot flags." Foot flagging is a derived display that emerged in the ranids after vocal signaling. Here, we show that administration of testosterone (T) increases foot flagging behavior under seminatural conditions. Moreover, using quantitative PCR, we also find that adult male S. parvus maintain a unique androgenic phenotype, in which androgen receptor (AR) in the hind limb musculature is expressed at levels ∼10× greater than in two other anuran species, which do not produce foot flags (Rana pipiens and Xenopus laevis). Finally, because males of all three of these species solicit mates with calls, we accordingly detect no differences in AR expression in the vocal apparatus (larynx) among taxa. The results show that foot flagging is an androgen-dependent gestural signal, and its emergence is associated with increased androgenic sensitivity within the hind limb musculature. Selection for this novel gestural signal may therefore drive the evolution of increased AR expression in key muscles that control signal production to support adaptive motor performance.

  16. A data input controller for an alphanumeric and function keyboard with ports to the CAMAC-dataway or the serial plasma display controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, J.; Komor, Z.; Geldmeyer, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    A data input controller has been developed to allow the data transfer from an alphanumeric and function keyboard to the CAMAC-dataway or via the plasma display controller SIG-8AS/S and a serial transmission line to the TTY-/V.24-port of a computer. (orig.) [de

  17. Obesity and Low-Grade Inflammation Increase Plasma Follistatin-Like 3 in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Claus; Pedersen, Maria; Rinnov, Anders

    2014-01-01

    , plasma leptin, fasting insulin, and HOMA B and negatively with HOMA S. Furthermore plasma fstl3 correlated positively with plasma TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Infusion of LPS and TNF-α, but not IL-6 and insulin, increased plasma fstl3 in humans. CONCLUSION: Plasma fstl3 is increased in obese subjects......BACKGROUND: Rodent models suggest that follistatin-like 3 (fstl3) is associated with diabetes and obesity. In humans, plasma fstl3 is reduced with gestational diabetes. In vitro, TNF-α induces fstl3 secretion, which suggests a link to inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the association between...... plasma fstl3 and obesity, insulin resistance, and low-grade inflammation in humans. STUDY DESIGN: Plasma fstl3 levels were determined in a cross-sectional study including three groups: patients with type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and healthy controls. In addition, lipopolysaccharide (LPS...

  18. Ozone synthesis improves by increasing number density of plasma channels and lower voltage in a nonthermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif Malik, Muhammad; Hughes, David

    2016-04-01

    Improvements in ozone synthesis from air and oxygen by increasing the number density of plasma channels and lower voltage for the same specific input energy (SIE) were explored in a nonthermal plasma based on a sliding discharge. The number of plasma channels and energy per pulse increased in direct proportion to the increase in the effective length of the anode (the high voltage electrode). Decreasing the discharge gap increased the energy per pulse for the same length and allowed the installation of more electrode pairs in the same space. It allowed the increase of the number of plasma channels in the same space to achieve the same SIE at a lower peak voltage with less energy per plasma channel. The ozone concentration gradually increased to ~1500 ppmv (140 to 50 g kWh-1) from air and to ~6000 ppmv (400 to 200 g kWh-1) from oxygen with a gradual increase in the SIE to ~200 J L-1, irrespective of the variations in electrode geometry, applied voltage or flow rate of the feed gas. A gradual increase in SIE beyond 200 J L-1 gradually increased the ozone concentration to a certain maximum value followed by a decline, but the rate of increase and the maximum value was higher for the greater number of plasma channels and lower peak voltage combination. The maximum ozone concentration was ~5000 ppmv (~30 g kWh-1) from air and ~22 000 ppmv (~80 g kWh-1) from oxygen. The results are explained on the basis of characteristics of the plasma and ozone synthesis mechanism.

  19. The CD14+CD16+ inflammatory monocyte subset displays increased mitochondrial activity and effector function during acute Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis R V Antonelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Plasmodium vivax results in strong activation of monocytes, which are important components of both the systemic inflammatory response and parasite control. The overall goal of this study was to define the role of monocytes during P. vivax malaria. Here, we demonstrate that P. vivax-infected patients display significant increase in circulating monocytes, which were defined as CD14(+CD16- (classical, CD14(+CD16(+ (inflammatory, and CD14loCD16(+ (patrolling cells. While the classical and inflammatory monocytes were found to be the primary source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the CD16(+ cells, in particular the CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes, expressed the highest levels of activation markers, which included chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules. Morphologically, CD14(+ were distinguished from CD14lo monocytes by displaying larger and more active mitochondria. CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes were more efficient in phagocytizing P. vivax-infected reticulocytes, which induced them to produce high levels of intracellular TNF-α and reactive oxygen species. Importantly, antibodies specific for ICAM-1, PECAM-1 or LFA-1 efficiently blocked the phagocytosis of infected reticulocytes by monocytes. Hence, our results provide key information on the mechanism by which CD14(+CD16(+ cells control parasite burden, supporting the hypothesis that they play a role in resistance to P. vivax infection.

  20. The Whitish Inner Mantle of the Giant Clam, Tridacna squamosa, Expresses an Apical Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA Which Displays Light-Dependent Gene and Protein Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen K. Ip

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Giant clams live in symbiosis with extracellular zooxanthellae and display high rates of growth and shell formation (calcification in light. Light-enhanced calcification requires an increase in the supply of Ca2+ to, and simultaneously an augmented removal of H+ from, the extrapallial fluid where shell formation occurs. We have obtained the complete coding cDNA sequence of Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA from the thin and whitish inner mantle, which is in touch with the extrapallial fluid, of the giant clam Tridacna squamosa. The deduced PMCA sequence consisted of an apical targeting element. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed that PMCA had an apical localization in the shell-facing epithelium of the inner mantle, whereby it can actively secrete Ca2+ in exchange for H+. More importantly, the apical PMCA-immunofluorescence of the shell-facing epithelium of the inner mantle increased significantly after 12 h of exposure to light. The transcript and protein levels of PMCA/PMCA also increased significantly in the inner mantle after 6 or 12 h of light exposure. These results offer insights into a light-dependable mechanism of shell formation in T. squamosa and a novel explanation of light-enhanced calcification in general. As the inner mantle normally lacks light sensitive pigments, our results support a previous proposition that symbiotic zooxanthellae, particularly those in the colorful and extensible outer mantle, may act as light-sensing elements for the host clam.

  1. Glycoprotein fucosylation is increased in seminal plasma of subfertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Olejnik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fucose, the monosaccharide frequent in N- and O-glycans, is a part of Lewis-type antigens that are known to mediate direct sperm binding to the zona pellucida. Such interaction was found to be inhibited in vitroby fucose-containing oligo- and polysaccharides, as well as neoglycoproteins. The objective of this study was to screen seminal plasma proteins of infertile/subfertile men for the content and density of fucosylated glycoepitopes, and compare them to samples of fertile normozoospermic subjects. Seminal proteins were separated in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and blotted onto nitrocellulose membrane and probed with fucose-specific Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL. Twelve electrophoretic bands were selected for quantitative densitometric analysis. It was found that the content, and especially the density of fucosylated glycans, were higher in glycoproteins present in seminal plasma of subfertile men. No profound differences in fucosylation density were found among the groups of normozoospermic, oligozoospermic, asthenozoospermic, and oligoasthenozoospermic subfertile men. According to the antibody probing, AAL-reactive bands can be attributed to male reproductive tract glycoproteins, including prostate-specific antigen, prostatic acid phosphatase, glycodelin and chorionic gonadotropin. Fibronectin, α1 -acid glycoprotein, α1 -antitrypsin, immunoglobulin G and antithrombin III may also contribute to this high fucosylation. It is suggested that the abundant fucosylated glycans in the sperm environment could interfere with the sperm surface and disturb the normal course of the fertilization cascade.

  2. Resistance Training Does Not Protect Against Increases in Plasma Cytokine Levels Among Germ Cell Cancer Patients During and After Chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Frank; Tolver, Anders; Andersen, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Context: Testicular germ cell cancer (GCC) patients treated with cisplatin-etoposide-bleomycin chemotherapy (BEP) have excellent prognosis but have an increased risk of late-occurring morbidities, which may be associated with changes in the inflammatory profile. Objective: The objective...... of the study was to explore plasma cytokine concentrations in GCC patients randomized to resistance training or usual care during BEP, in comparison with healthy controls. Design/Setting: This was a randomized controlled trial in GCC patients enrolled from an oncology clinic, including a healthy reference......). Changes in TNF-α correlated with pulmonary toxicity (P BEP display consistently elevated levels of systemic inflammatory markers compared with healthy...

  3. Bile acid sequestration reduces plasma glucose levels in db/db mice by increasing its metabolic clearance rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxi Meissner

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels. Therefore, in vivo glucose metabolism was assessed in db/db mice on and off BAS using tracer methodology. METHODS: Lean and diabetic db/db mice were treated with 2% (wt/wt in diet Colesevelam HCl (BAS for 2 weeks. Parameters of in vivo glucose metabolism were assessed by infusing [U-(13C]-glucose, [2-(13C]-glycerol, [1-(2H]-galactose and paracetamol for 6 hours, followed by mass isotopologue distribution analysis, and related to metabolic parameters as well as gene expression patterns. RESULTS: Compared to lean mice, db/db mice displayed an almost 3-fold lower metabolic clearance rate of glucose (p = 0.0001, a ∼300% increased glucokinase flux (p = 0.001 and a ∼200% increased total hepatic glucose production rate (p = 0.0002. BAS treatment increased glucose metabolic clearance rate by ∼37% but had no effects on glucokinase flux nor total hepatic or endogenous glucose production. Strikingly, BAS-treated db/db mice displayed reduced long-chain acylcarnitine content in skeletal muscle (p = 0.0317 but not in liver (p = 0.189. Unexpectedly, BAS treatment increased hepatic FGF21 mRNA expression 2-fold in lean mice (p = 0.030 and 3-fold in db/db mice (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: BAS induced plasma glucose lowering in db/db mice by increasing metabolic clearance rate of glucose in peripheral tissues, which coincided with decreased skeletal muscle long-chain acylcarnitine content.

  4. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increase plasma irisin levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atici, Emine; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Menevse, Esma

    2017-11-28

    Background A recently discovered hormone, irisin is accepted to be significantly involved in the regulation of body weight. Thyroid functions may be, directly or indirectly, associated with irisin. Aim The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of experimental thyroid dysfunction on irisin levels in rats. Methods The study registered 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were allocated to groups as follows: 1. Control; 2. Hypothyroidism induced by injection of 10 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal propylthiouracil (PTU) for 3 weeks; 3. Hypothyroidism (PTU 2 weeks) + L-thyroxin (1.5 mg/kg/day for 1 week); 4. Hyperthyroidism induced in rats by 3-week thyroxin (0.3 mg/kg/day); 5. Hyperthyroidism + PTU. At the end of the study, blood samples were collected to quantify free triiodothyronine (FT3), free triiodothyronine (FT4) and irisin levels. Results FT3 and FT4 levels were reduced in hypothyroidism and were significantly elevated in hyperthyroidism (p hyperthyroidism groups (p hyperthyroidism, and that when hypothyroidism is corrected by thyroxin administration and hyperthyroidism by PTU injection, plasma irisin values go back to normal.

  5. Increase in the energy absorption of pulsed plasma by the formation of tungsten nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, D.; Ohno, N.; Domon, F.; Kajita, S.; Kikuchi, Y.; Sakuma, I.

    2017-06-01

    The synergistic effects of steady-state and pulsed plasma irradiation to material have been investigated in the device NAGDIS-PG (NAGoya DIvertor Simulator with Plasma Gun). The duration of the pulsed plasma was ~0.25 ms. To investigate the pulsed plasma heat load on the materials, we developed a temperature measurement system using radiation from the sample in a high time resolution. The heat deposited in response to the transient plasma on a tungsten surface was revealed by using this system. When the nanostructures were formed by helium plasma irradiation, the temperature increase on the bulk sample was enhanced. The result suggested that the amount of absorbed energy on the surface was increased by the formation of nanostructures. The possible mechanisms causing the phenomena are discussed with the calculation of a sample temperature in response to the transient heat load.

  6. In-situ plasma processing to increase the accelerating gradients of superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doleans, M.; Tyagi, P. V.; Afanador, R.; McMahan, C. J.; Ball, J. A.; Barnhart, D. L.; Blokland, W.; Crofford, M. T.; Degraff, B. D.; Gold, S. W.; Hannah, B. S.; Howell, M. P.; Kim, S.-H.; Lee, S.-W.; Mammosser, J.; Neustadt, T. S.; Saunders, J. W.; Stewart, S.; Strong, W. H.; Vandygriff, D. J.; Vandygriff, D. M.

    2016-03-01

    A new in-situ plasma processing technique is being developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to improve the performance of the cavities in operation. The technique utilizes a low-density reactive oxygen plasma at room temperature to remove top surface hydrocarbons. The plasma processing technique increases the work function of the cavity surface and reduces the overall amount of vacuum and electron activity during cavity operation; in particular it increases the field emission onset, which enables cavity operation at higher accelerating gradients. Experimental evidence also suggests that the SEY of the Nb surface decreases after plasma processing which helps mitigating multipacting issues. In this article, the main developments and results from the plasma processing R&D are presented and experimental results for in-situ plasma processing of dressed cavities in the SNS horizontal test apparatus are discussed.

  7. Application of atmospheric pressure plasma on polyethylene for increased prosthesis adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vrekhem, S., E-mail: stijn.vanvrekhem@ugent.be [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Cools, P. [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Declercq, H. [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185 6B3, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Tongel, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185 13K12, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vercruysse, C.; Cornelissen, M. [Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185 6B3, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Geyter, N.; Morent, R. [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-12-01

    Biopolymers are often subjected to surface modification in order to improve their surface characteristics. The goal of this study is to show the use of plasma technology to enhance the adhesion of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) shoulder prostheses. Two different plasma techniques (low pressure plasma activation and atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization) are performed on UHMWPE to increase the adhesion between (1) the polymer and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement and (2) the polymer and osteoblast cells. Both techniques are performed using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). A previous paper showed that low pressure plasma activation of UHMWPE results in the incorporation of oxygen-containing functional groups, which leads to an increased surface wettability. Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of methylmethacrylate (MMA) on UHMWPE results in a PMMA-like coating, which could be deposited with a high degree of control of chemical composition and layer thickness. The thin film also proved to be relatively stable upon incubation in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). This paper discusses the next stage of the study, which includes testing the adhesion of the plasma-activated and plasma-polymerized samples to bone cement through pull-out tests and testing the cell adhesion and proliferation on the samples. In order to perform the pull-out tests, all samples were cut to standard dimensions and fixed in bone cement in a reproducible way with a sample holder specially designed for this purpose. The cell adhesion and proliferation were tested by means of an MTS assay and live/dead staining after culturing MC3T3 osteoblast cells on UHMWPE samples. The results show that both plasma activation and plasma polymerization significantly improve the adhesion to bone cement and enhance cell adhesion and proliferation. In conclusion, it can be stated that the use of plasma technology can lead to an implant with improved quality and a subsequent

  8. IGF-II transgenic mice display increased aberrant colon crypt multiplicity and tumor volume after 1,2-dimethylhydrazine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oesterle Doris

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In colorectal cancer insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II is frequently overexpressed. To evaluate, whether IGF-II affects different stages of tumorigenesis, we induced neoplastic alterations in the colon of wild-type and IGF-II transgenic mice using 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF served as markers of early lesions in the colonic mucosa, whereas adenomas and carcinomas characterized the endpoints of tumor development. DMH-treatment led initially to significantly more ACF in IGF-II transgenic than in wild-type mice. This increase in ACF was especially prominent for those consisting of ≥three aberrant crypts (AC. Nevertheless, adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the colon, present after 34 weeks in both genetic groups, were not found at different frequency. Tumor volumes, however, were significantly higher in IGF-II transgenic mice and correlated with serum IGF-II levels. Immunohistochemical staining for markers of proliferation and apoptosis revealed increased cell proliferation rates in tumors of IGF-II transgenic mice without significant affection of apoptosis. Increased proliferation was accompanied by elevated localization of β-catenin in the cytosol and cell nuclei and reduced appearance at the inner plasma membrane. In conclusion, we provide evidence that IGF-II, via activation of the β-catenin signaling cascade, promotes growth of ACF and tumors without affecting tumor numbers.

  9. PEG-albumin plasma expansion increases expression of MCP-1 evidencing increased circulatory wall shear stress: an experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Makena Hightower

    Full Text Available Treatment of blood loss with plasma expanders lowers blood viscosity, increasing cardiac output. However, increased flow velocity by conventional plasma expanders does not compensate for decreased viscosity in maintaining vessel wall shear stress (WSS, decreasing endothelial nitric oxide (NO production. A new type of plasma expander using polyethylene glycol conjugate albumin (PEG-Alb causes supra-perfusion when used in extreme hemodilution and is effective in treating hemorrhagic shock, although it is minimally viscogenic. An acute 40% hemodilution/exchange-transfusion protocol was used to compare 4% PEG-Alb to Ringer's lactate, Dextran 70 kDa and 6% Hetastarch (670 kDa in unanesthetized CD-1 mice. Serum cytokine analysis showed that PEG-Alb elevates monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, a member of a small inducible gene family, as well as expression of MIP-1α, and MIP-2. MCP-1 is specific to increased WSS. Given the direct link between increased WSS and production of NO, the beneficial resuscitation effects due to PEG-Alb plasma expansion appear to be due to increased WSS through increased perfusion and blood flow rather than blood viscosity.

  10. Anti-tau antibody administration increases plasma tau in transgenic mice and patients with tauopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra, Kiran; Patel, Tirth K.; Jiang, Hong; Schindler, Suzanne; Ulrich, Jason D.; Boxer, Adam L.; Miller, Bruce L.; Kerwin, Diana R.; Gallardo, Gilbert; Stewart, Floy; Finn, Mary Beth; Cairns, Nigel J.; Verghese, Philip B.; Fogelman, Ilana; West, Tim; Braunstein, Joel; Robinson, Grace; Keyser, Jennifer; Roh, Joseph; Knapik, Stephanie S.; Hu, Yan; Holtzman, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Tauopathies are a group of disorders in which the cytosolic protein tau aggregates and accumulates in cells within the brain, resulting in neurodegeneration. A promising treatment being explored for tauopathies is passive immunization with anti-tau antibodies. We previously found that administration of an anti-tau antibody to human tau transgenic mice increased the concentration of plasma tau. We further explored the effects of administering an anti-tau antibody on plasma tau. After peripheral administration of an anti-tau antibody to human patients with tauopathy and to mice expressing human tau in the central nervous system, there was a dose-dependent increase in plasma tau. In mouse plasma, we found that tau had a short half-life of 8 min that increased to more than 3 hours after administration of anti-tau antibody. As tau transgenic mice accumulated insoluble tau in the brain, brain soluble and interstitial fluid tau decreased. Administration of anti-tau antibody to tau transgenic mice that had decreased brain soluble tau and interstitial fluid tau resulted in an increase in plasma tau, but this increase was less than that observed in tau transgenic mice without these brain changes. Tau transgenic mice subjected to acute neuronal injury using 3-nitropropionic acid showed increased interstitial fluid tau and plasma tau. These data suggest that peripheral administration of an anti-tau antibody results in increased plasma tau, which correlates with the concentration of extracellular and soluble tau in the brain. PMID:28424326

  11. Increased osteopontin plasma levels in multiple sclerosis patients correlate with bone-specific markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, M.H.J.; ten Kate, J.; Drent, R.J.M.; Polman, C.H.; Hupperts, R.

    2010-01-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokine osteopontin has been found to be highly expressed in multiple sclerosis lesions and plasma levels are increased during relapses in relapse-onset multiple sclerosis patients. The objective was to determine the relationship between osteopontin plasma and cerebrospinal

  12. To the mechanism of modulated REB current increase during its propagation through plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Maslov, V.I.; Uskov, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism of full current increase is investigated in this paper. This current arises at transporting of the short relativistic electron bunches in the plasma,formed by them at gas of large pressure. This phenomenon is determined by the electric field, arising at motion of the relativistic electron bunches, having an angular divergence, in the plasma

  13. Increased germination and growth rates of pea and Zucchini seed by FSG plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Shohreh; Ahmadinia, Arash

    2018-04-01

    Recently, cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) with the unique bio-disinfection features is used in various fields of industry, medicine, and agriculture. The main objectives of this work were to design FSG plasma (a semi-automatic device) and investigate the effect of the cold plasma in the enhancement of the Pea and Zucchini seed germination. Plasma irradiation time was studied to obtain a proper condition for the germination enhancement of seeds. The growth rate was calculated by measuring length of root and stem and dry weight of plants treated by plasma. To investigate drought resistance of plants, all treated and untreated samples were kept in darkness without water for 48 h. From the experimental results, it could be confirmed both drought resistance and germination of seedlings increased after plasma was applied to seeds at 30 s, while seeds treated whiten 60 s showed a decrease in both germination rate and seedling growth.

  14. Hg+ ion density in low-pressure Ar-Hg discharge plasma used for liquid crystal display back-lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Miki; Arai, Toshihiko

    1995-01-01

    The positive column of a low-pressure Ar-Hg discharge has been applied as a fluorescent light source for illumination. Many studies on the diagnostics and fundamental mechanisms have been carried out on both the classical fluorescent lamp (d=36 mm) and the compact fluorescent lamp (d=12 mm). On the other hand, a lamp of extremely narrow diameter (usually below 6 mm) has been recently developed for liquid crystal display (LCD) back-lighting and its importance is undoubtedly increasing. Some characteristics or mechanisms of the narrow-diameter lamp may be similar to those of the 36 mm one; however the similarity rule does not hold between them due to the contributions from a stepwise ionization process. Therefore, in order to clarify the excitation mechanism in the narrow-diameter lamp quantitatively, various parameters must be measured directly and some analysis must be done. The Hg + ion density and electron density are important parameters for the purpose of clarifying the excitation mechanism quantitatively. In this work, we have measured the Hg + ion density using the modified absorption method, and the electron density using the probe method in the Ar-Hg discharge of the 4 mm bore tube on bath temperature. Moreover, with combining the modified absorption method and the probe method, the Hg 2 + molecular ion density has been determined

  15. Moringa Oleifera leaf extract increases plasma antioxidant status associated with reduced plasma malondialdehyde concentration without hypoglycemia in fasting healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Khannongpho, Teerawat; Siriwatanapaiboon, Marent; Sirikwanpong, Sukrit; Dahlan, Winai; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2016-12-29

    To investigate the effect of Moringa Oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) on plasma glucose concentration and antioxidant status in healthy volunteers. A randomized crossover design was used in this study. Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either 200 mL of warm water (10 cases) or 200 mL of MOLE (500 mg dried extract, 10 cases). Blood samples were drawn at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min for measuring fasting plasma glucose (FPG), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA). FPG concentration was not signifificantly different between warm water and MOLE. The consumption of MOLE acutely improved both FRAP and TEAC, with increases after 30 min of 30 μmol/L FeSO 4 equivalents and 0.18 μmol/L Trolox equivalents, respectively. The change in MDA level from baseline was signifificantly lowered after the ingestion of MOLE at 30, 60, and 90 min. In addition, FRAP level was negatively correlated with plasma MDA level after an intake of MOLE. MOLE increased plasma antioxidant capacity without hypoglycemia in human. The consumption of MOLE may reduce the risk factors associated with chronic degenerative diseases.

  16. Elevated cAMP increases aquaporin-3 plasma membrane diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marlar, Saw; Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Koffman, Jennifer Skaarup

    2014-01-01

    be short-term regulated via changes in protein-protein interactions, incorporation into lipid rafts, and/or changes in steady-state turnover, which could result in changes in the diffusion behavior of AQP3. Thus we measured AQP3 diffusion coefficients upon stimulation with the AVP mimic forskolin to reveal...... if AQP3 could be short-term regulated by AVP. k-Space image correlation spectroscopy (kICS) analysis of time-lapse image sequences of basolateral enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged AQP3 (AQP3-EGFP) revealed that the forskolin-mediated elevation of cAMP increased the diffusion coefficient by 58...

  17. The relationship between HbA(1c) and fasting plasma glucose in patients with increased plasma liver enzyme measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, R; Rasmussen, L Melholt; Nybo, H

    2012-01-01

    levels of increased liver enzyme concentrations. Methods:  Data from 10 065 patients with simultaneous measurement of HbA(1c) , venous fasting plasma glucose, alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase were extracted from our laboratory database. Correlations were investigated in four patient...

  18. Plasma treatment of fiber facets for increased (de)mating endurance in physical contact fiber connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Voss, Kevin; De Witte, Martijn; Radulescu, Radu; Beri, Stefano; Watté, Jan; Thienpont, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    It is known that cleaving an optical fiber introduces a number of irregularities and defects to the fiber's end-face, such as hackles and shockwaves. These defects can act as failure initiators when stress is applied to the end-face. Given the fiber's small diameter of 125 ffm, a large amount of mechanical stress can be expected to be applied on its end-face during the mating-demating cycle. In addition, a connector in a fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) network can be expected to be mated and demated more than 30 times during its lifetime for purposes such as testing, churning, or provisioning. For this reason, the performance of a connector that displays low optical loss when first installed can dramatically degrade after few mating-demating cycles and catastrophic connector failure due to end-face breakage is likely. We present plasma discharge shaping of cleaved fiber tips to strongly improve the endurance of the fibers to repeated mating-demating cycles. We quantify the dependency of the plasma-induced surface curvature of the fiber tip on the plasma duration and on the position of the fiber tip within the plasma cloud. Finally we present data showing the improved endurance of fibers that are exposed to plasma compared to conventional as-cleaved fibers.

  19. European display scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Christopher T.

    2000-08-01

    The manufacture of Flat Panel Displays (FPDs) is dominated by Far Eastern sources, particularly in Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays (AMLCD) and Plasma. The United States has a very powerful capability in micro-displays. It is not well known that Europe has a very active research capability which has lead to many innovations in display technology. In addition there is a capability in display manufacturing of organic technologies as well as the licensed build of Japanese or Korean designs. Finally, Europe has a display systems capability in military products which is world class.

  20. Handbook of display technology

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, Joseph A

    1992-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of technical and commercial aspects of display technology. It provides design engineers with the information needed to select proper technology for new products. The book focuses on flat, thin displays such as light-emitting diodes, plasma display panels, and liquid crystal displays, but it also includes material on cathode ray tubes. Displays include a large number of products from televisions, auto dashboards, radios, and household appliances, to gasoline pumps, heart monitors, microwave ovens, and more.For more information on display tech

  1. Recombinant proteins incorporating short non-native extensions may display increased aggregation propensity as detected by high resolution NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanzoni, Serena; D’Onofrio, Mariapina; Molinari, Henriette; Assfalg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bile acid binding proteins from different constructs retain structural integrity. ► NMR 15 N-T 1 relaxation data of BABPs show differences if LVPR extension is present. ► Deviations from a 15 N-T 1 /molecular-weight calibration curve indicate aggregation. -- Abstract: The use of a recombinant protein to investigate the function of the native molecule requires that the former be obtained with the same amino acid sequence as the template. However, in many cases few additional residues are artificially introduced for cloning or purification purposes, possibly resulting in altered physico-chemical properties that may escape routine characterization. For example, increased aggregation propensity without visible protein precipitation is hardly detected by most analytical techniques but its investigation may be of great importance for optimizing the yield of recombinant protein production in biotechnological and structural biology applications. In this work we show that bile acid binding proteins incorporating the common C-terminal LeuValProArg extension display different hydrodynamic properties from those of the corresponding molecules without such additional amino acids. The proteins were produced enriched in nitrogen-15 for analysis via heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. Residue-specific spin relaxation rates were measured and related to rotational tumbling time and molecular size. While the native-like recombinant proteins show spin-relaxation rates in agreement with those expected for monomeric globular proteins of their mass, our data indicate the presence of larger adducts for samples of proteins with very short amino acid extensions. The used approach is proposed as a further screening method for the quality assessment of biotechnological protein products.

  2. Recombinant proteins incorporating short non-native extensions may display increased aggregation propensity as detected by high resolution NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanzoni, Serena; D' Onofrio, Mariapina; Molinari, Henriette [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, 37134 Verona (Italy); Assfalg, Michael, E-mail: michael.assfalg@univr.it [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, 37134 Verona (Italy)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bile acid binding proteins from different constructs retain structural integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NMR {sup 15}N-T{sub 1} relaxation data of BABPs show differences if LVPR extension is present. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deviations from a {sup 15}N-T{sub 1}/molecular-weight calibration curve indicate aggregation. -- Abstract: The use of a recombinant protein to investigate the function of the native molecule requires that the former be obtained with the same amino acid sequence as the template. However, in many cases few additional residues are artificially introduced for cloning or purification purposes, possibly resulting in altered physico-chemical properties that may escape routine characterization. For example, increased aggregation propensity without visible protein precipitation is hardly detected by most analytical techniques but its investigation may be of great importance for optimizing the yield of recombinant protein production in biotechnological and structural biology applications. In this work we show that bile acid binding proteins incorporating the common C-terminal LeuValProArg extension display different hydrodynamic properties from those of the corresponding molecules without such additional amino acids. The proteins were produced enriched in nitrogen-15 for analysis via heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. Residue-specific spin relaxation rates were measured and related to rotational tumbling time and molecular size. While the native-like recombinant proteins show spin-relaxation rates in agreement with those expected for monomeric globular proteins of their mass, our data indicate the presence of larger adducts for samples of proteins with very short amino acid extensions. The used approach is proposed as a further screening method for the quality assessment of biotechnological protein products.

  3. A sulfur amino acid-free meal increases plasma lipids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngja; Le, Ngoc-Anh; Yu, Tianwei; Strobel, Fred; Gletsu-Miller, Nana; Accardi, Carolyn J; Lee, Kichun S; Wu, Shaoxiong; Ziegler, Thomas R; Jones, Dean P

    2011-08-01

    The content of sulfur amino acid (SAA) in a meal affects postprandial plasma cysteine concentrations and the redox potential of cysteine/cystine. Because such changes can affect enzyme, transporter, and receptor activities, meal content of SAA could have unrecognized effects on metabolism during the postprandial period. This pilot study used proton NMR ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy of human plasma to test the hypothesis that dietary SAA content changes macronutrient metabolism. Healthy participants (18-36 y, 5 males and 3 females) were equilibrated for 3 d to adequate SAA, fed chemically defined meals without SAA for 5 d (depletion), and then fed isoenergetic, isonitrogenous meals containing 56 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) SAA for 4.5 d (repletion). On the first and last day of consuming the chemically defined meals, a morning meal containing 60% of the daily food intake was given and plasma samples were collected over an 8-h postprandial time course for characterization of metabolic changes by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. SAA-free food increased peak intensity in the plasma (1)H-NMR spectra in the postprandial period. Orthogonal signal correction/partial least squares-discriminant analysis showed changes in signals associated with lipids, some amino acids, and lactate, with notable increases in plasma lipid signals (TG, unsaturated lipid, cholesterol). Conventional lipid analyses confirmed higher plasma TG and showed an increase in plasma concentration of the lipoprotein lipase inhibitor, apoC-III. The results show that plasma (1)H-NMR spectra can provide useful macronutrient profiling following a meal challenge protocol and that a single meal with imbalanced SAA content alters postprandial lipid metabolism.

  4. Increased concentrations of plasma IL-18 in patients with hepatic dysfunction after hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M; Hirota, M; Nozawa, F; Okabe, A; Kurimoto, M; Ogawa, M

    2000-10-01

    We investigated the dynamic aspects of circulatory IL-18 and other inflammatory cytokines in patients who underwent a hepatectomy. In patients with post-operative hepatic dysfunction, plasma concentrations of these cytokines increased, reflecting severe surgical trauma. IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-gamma increased in the early phase, while IL-18 increased in the later phase after 1 week. Interestingly, the increase in the plasma IL-18 concentration was correlated with that in serum bilirubin levels in hepatectomized patients. Hence, the decrease in the hepatic metabolism of IL-18 may cause the plasma accumulation of IL-18. This mechanism was confirmed using rat experiments. Intravenously administered human IL-18 was excreted into bile. Furthermore, the plasma clearance of human IL-18 was prolonged in bile duct-ligated rats. These results suggest that IL-18 is metabolized in the liver and excreted into bile, and an increase in plasma IL-18 in patients with hepatic dysfunction reflects the decreased metabolism in the liver. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  5. Increased plasma levels of microparticles expressing CD39 and CD133 in acute liver injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmelzle, Moritz; Splith, Katrin; Wiuff Andersen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that CD133 and CD39 are expressed by hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which are mobilized after liver injury and target sites of injury, limit vascular inflammation, and boost hepatic regeneration. Plasma microparticles (MP) expressing CD39 can block...... sacrificed and plasma MP were isolated by ultracentrifugation. HSC and CD133 MP levels were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Patients were enrolled with acute (n=5) and acute on chronic (n=5) liver injury with matched controls (n=7). Blood was collected at admission and plasma CD133 and CD39...... MP subsets were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. RESULTS: HSC and CD133 MP levels were significantly increased only in the plasma of wild-type mice with acetaminophen hepatotoxicity (P

  6. Influence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reflective layer under phosphor layer on luminance and luminous efficiency characteristics in alternating-current plasma display panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choon-Sang [School of Electronics Engineering, College of IT Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Tae, Heung-Sik, E-mail: hstae@ee.knu.ac.kr [School of Electronics Engineering, College of IT Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Eun Young [Core Technology Lab., Corporate R and D Center, Samsung SDI Company Ltd., Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-29

    This paper examines the optical and discharge characteristics of alternating-current plasma display panel when adopting the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reflective layer. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reflective layer is deposited under the phosphor layer by using the screen-printing method. The resulting changes in the optical and discharge characteristics, including the power consumption, color temperature, luminance, luminous efficiency, scanning electron microscopy image, and reflectance, are then compared for both cases with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reflective layer. As a result of optimizing the thicknesses between the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and phosphor layers, the luminance and luminous efficiency are improved by about 17% and 7%, respectively. - Highlights: • We examine characteristics of plasma display panel when adopting reflective layer. • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reflective layer was deposited under the phosphor layer. • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reflective layer with flaky shape is very effective in enhancing luminance.

  7. Increased Plasma Cell-Free DNA Level during HTNV Infection: Correlation with Disease Severity and Virus Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cell-free DNA (cf-DNA in blood represents a promising DNA damage response triggered by virus infection or trauma, tumor, etc. Hantavirus primarily causes two diseases: haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS, depending on different Hantavirus species. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma cf-DNA levels in acute phase of HFRS, and to correlate plasma cf-DNA with disease severity and plasma Hanttan virus (HTNV load. We observed the appearance of cf-DNA in 166 plasma samples from 76 HFRS patients: the plasma cf-DNA levels peaked at the hypotensive stage of HFRS, and then decreased gradually. Until the diuretic stage, there was no significant difference in plasma cf-DNA level between patients and the healthy control. Exclusively in the febrile/hypotensive stage, the plasma cf-DNA levels of severe/critical patients were higher than those of the mild/moderate group. Moreover, the plasma cf-DNA value in the early stage of HFRS was correlated with HTNV load and disease severity. In most of the patients, plasma cf-DNA displayed a low-molecular weight appearance, corresponding to the size of apoptotic DNA. In conclusion, the plasma cf-DNA levels were dynamically elevated during HFRS, and correlated with disease severity, which suggests that plasma cf-DNA may be a potential biomarker for the pathogenesis and prognosis of HFRS.

  8. Correlation of reversely increased level of plasma glucose during pregnancy to the pregnancy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ya SHEN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the correlation of the reversely increased results of 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT during pregnancy to the pregnancy outcome, so as to provide a reliable theoretical basis of the early intervention for the pregnant women with high plasma glucose. Methods The clinical data of 461 cases were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were chosen from the pregnant women undergoing routine antenatal examination in our hospital during 2014. According to the results of 75g OGTT, 226 patients were analyzed as the observation group, in whom the level of postprandial 2-hour plasma glucose was higher than that of postprandial 1-hour plasma glucose. Meanwhile 235 pregnant women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM were randomly selected as the control group. Results The levels of fasting plasma glucose and 1-hour postprandial plasma glucose were lower, but those of 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose was higher in observation group than in control group (P0.05 in the incidences of polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, fetal growth restriction (FGR, premature labor (PTL, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH, complicated with premature rupture of membrane (PROM, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD and non scar uterus cesarean section rate (CSR. Compared with the observation group, the rates of neonatal dysplasia and neonatal asphyxia and the newborn transfer rate were lower in the control group, of which the newborn transfer rate was statistically different (P<0.01. Conclusions There might be a delayed plasma glucose metabolism in the patients with reversely increased result of 75g OGTT during pregnancy, which may affect the long-term prognosis of the newborn. Therefore, more attention should be paid to such patients with reversely increased result of 75g OGTT. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.01.09

  9. Partners' Empathy Increases Pain Ratings: Effects of Perceived Empathy and Attachment Style on Pain Report and Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurter, Sarah; Paloyelis, Yannis; de C. Williams, Amanda C.; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2014-01-01

    Pain can be influenced by its social context. We aimed to examine under controlled experimental conditions how empathy from a partner and personal attachment style affect pain report, tolerance, and facial expressions of pain. Fifty-four participants, divided into secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment style groups, underwent a cold pressor task with their partners present. We manipulated how much empathy the participants perceived that their partners had for them. We observed a significant main effect of perceived empathy on pain report, with greater pain reported in the high perceived empathy condition. No such effects were found for pain tolerance or facial display. We also found a significant interaction of empathy with attachment style group, with the avoidant group reporting and displaying less pain than the secure and the anxious groups in the high perceived empathy condition. No such findings were observed in the low empathy condition. These results suggest that empathy from one's partner may influence pain report beyond behavioral reactions. In addition, the amount of pain report and expression that people show in high empathy conditions depends on their attachment style. Perspective Believing that one's partner feels high empathy for one's pain may lead individuals to rate the intensity of pain as higher. Individual differences in attachment style moderate this empathy effect. PMID:24953886

  10. Anxiety-induced plasma norepinephrine augmentation increases reactive oxygen species formation by monocytes in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Kenichi; Matsui, Tokuzo; Maeda, Kensaku; Nakamura, Munehiro; Watanabe, Takanori; Kiriike, Nobuo

    2006-06-01

    An association between anxiety and depression and increased blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease risk has not been firmly established. We examined the hypothesis that anxiety and depression lead to increased plasma catecholamines and to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mononuclear cells (MNC) in hypertensive individuals. We also studied the role of BP in this effect. In Protocol 1, a cross-sectional study was performed in 146 hypertensive patients to evaluate whether anxiety and depression affect BP and ROS formation by MNC through increasing plasma catecholamines. In Protocol 2, a 6-month randomized controlled trial using a subtherapeutic dose of the alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist doxazosin (1 mg/day) versus placebo in 86 patients with essential hypertension was performed to determine whether the increase in ROS formation by MNC was independent of BP. In Protocol 1, a significant relationship was observed between the following: trait anxiety and plasma norepinephrine (r = 0.32, P anxiety may increase plasma norepinephrine and increase ROS formation by MNC independent of BP in hypertensive patients.

  11. Identification of a Hemolysis Threshold That Increases Plasma and Serum Zinc Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killilea, David W; Rohner, Fabian; Ghosh, Shibani; Otoo, Gloria E; Smith, Lauren; Siekmann, Jonathan H; King, Janet C

    2017-06-01

    Background: Plasma or serum zinc concentration (PZC or SZC) is the primary measure of zinc status, but accurate sampling requires controlling for hemolysis to prevent leakage of zinc from erythrocytes. It is not established how much hemolysis can occur without changing PZC/SZC concentrations. Objective: This study determines a guideline for the level of hemolysis that can significantly elevate PZC/SZC. Methods: The effect of hemolysis on PZC/SZC was estimated by using standard hematologic variables and mineral content. The calculated hemolysis threshold was then compared with results from an in vitro study and a population survey. Hemolysis was assessed by hemoglobin and iron concentrations, direct spectrophotometry, and visual assessment of the plasma or serum. Zinc and iron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Results: A 5% increase in PZC/SZC was calculated to result from the lysis of 1.15% of the erythrocytes in whole blood, corresponding to ∼1 g hemoglobin/L added into the plasma or serum. Similarly, the addition of simulated hemolysate to control plasma in vitro caused a 5% increase in PZC when hemoglobin concentrations reached 1.18 ± 0.10 g/L. In addition, serum samples from a population nutritional survey were scored for hemolysis and analyzed for changes in SZC; samples with hemolysis in the range of 1-2.5 g hemoglobin/L showed an estimated increase in SZC of 6% compared with nonhemolyzed samples. Each approach indicated that a 5% increase in PZC/SZC occurs at ∼1 g hemoglobin/L in plasma or serum. This concentration of hemoglobin can be readily identified directly by chemical hemoglobin assays or indirectly by direct spectrophotometry or matching to a color scale. Conclusions: A threshold of 1 g hemoglobin/L is recommended for PZC/SZC measurements to avoid increases in zinc caused by hemolysis. The use of this threshold may improve zinc assessment for monitoring zinc status and nutritional interventions.

  12. Fasting and prolonged exercise increase vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbo, H; Hilsted, J; Fahrenkrug, J

    1979-01-01

    and maximal exercise. During 59 h of fasting, VIP increased from 3.6 (0.6--6.6) to 10.2 (6.6--13.8) pmol.1(-1) (p less than 0.05). The concentration of glucose in plasma decreased significantly during the prolonged exercise as well as during fasting. The known metabolic actions of VIP and the demonstrated...

  13. Elevated plasma fibrinogen associated with reduced pulmonary function and increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Vestbo, J

    2001-01-01

    We tested whether increased concentrations of the acute-phase reactant fibrinogen correlate with pulmonary function and rate of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) hospitalization. We measured plasma fibrinogen and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), and assessed prospectively COPD...

  14. Persistent increase of plasma butyryl/isobutyrylcarnitine concentrations as marker of SCAD defect and ethylmalonic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merinero, B; Perez-Cerda, C; Ruiz Sala, P

    2007-01-01

    High concentrations of butyryl/isobutyrylcarnitine (C(4)-carnitine) in plasma with increase of ethylmalonic acid (EMA) in urine point to different genetic entities, and further investigations are required to differentiate the possible underlying defect. Here we report three unrelated cases, two n...

  15. Increase of plasma ion source efficiency utilizing collisions of the second kind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, H.

    1979-01-01

    It is experimentally found that the efficiency of a plasma ion source for use in an electromagnetic separator can be increased under appropriate operating conditions utilizing collisions of the second kind, of a proper gas is additionally introduced into the arc chamber containing atoms with metastable excited levels. (author)

  16. Wire number doubling in plasma-shell regime increases z-accelerator x-ray power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Spielman, R.B.; Chandler, G.A. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Doubling the number of tungsten wires from 120 to 240, keeping the mass fixed, increased the radiated x-ray power relative to the electrical power at the insulator stack of the z accelerator by (40{+-}20)% for 8.75- and 20-mm-radii z-pinch wire arrays. Radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic calculations suggest that the arrays were operating in the {open_quotes}plasma shell{close_quotes} regime, where the plasmas generated by the individual wires merge prior to the inward implosion of the entire array.

  17. Wire number doubling in plasma-shell regime increases z-accelerator x-ray power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Spielman, R.B.; Chandler, G.A.

    1997-11-01

    Doubling the number of tungsten wires from 120 to 240, keeping the mass fixed, increased the radiated x-ray power relative to the electrical power at the insulator stack of the z accelerator by (40±20)% for 8.75- and 20-mm-radii z-pinch wire arrays. Radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic calculations suggest that the arrays were operating in the 'plasma shell' regime, where the plasmas generated by the individual wires merge prior to the inward implosion of the entire array

  18. Wire number doubling in plasma-shell regime increases Z-accelerator X-ray power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Spielman, R.B.; Chandler, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Doubling the number of tungsten wires from 120 to 240, keeping the mass fixed, increased the radiated x-ray power relative to the electrical power at the insulator stack of the z accelerator by (40 ± 20)% for 8.75- and 20-mm-radii z-pinch wire arrays. Radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic calculations suggest that the arrays were operating in the plasma shell regime, where the plasma generated by the individual wires merge prior to the inward implosion of the entire array

  19. Wire number doubling in plasma-shell regime increases Z-accelerator X-ray power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Spielman, R.B.; Chandler, G.A. [and others

    1997-12-01

    Doubling the number of tungsten wires from 120 to 240, keeping the mass fixed, increased the radiated x-ray power relative to the electrical power at the insulator stack of the z accelerator by (40 {+-} 20)% for 8.75- and 20-mm-radii z-pinch wire arrays. Radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic calculations suggest that the arrays were operating in the plasma shell regime, where the plasma generated by the individual wires merge prior to the inward implosion of the entire array.

  20. Increased plasma apolipoprotein (a) levels in IDDM patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, L; Rossing, P; Nielsen, F S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The relative mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased 40-fold in IDDM patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy as compared with nondiabetic subjects on average. We assessed the potential contribution of dyslipidemia in general and elevated serum apolipoprotein (a.......0001. Multiple logistic regression analysis of cardiovascular risk factors revealed that plasma apo(a) concentration > 300 U/l is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, odds ratio 1.86 (1.03-3.36) (P Dyslipidemia and raised plasma concentrations of apo(a), particularly > 300...

  1. Measles Virus Neutralizing Antibodies in Intravenous Immunoglobulins: Is an Increase by Revaccination of Plasma Donors Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrof, Jens; Tille, Björn; Farcet, Maria R; McVey, John; Schreiner, Jessica A; Borders, Charles M; Gudino, Maria; Fitzgerald, Peter; Simon, Toby L; Kreil, Thomas R

    2017-11-15

    We report a screen of plasma donors confirming that widespread use of childhood measles vaccination since 1963 resulted in a decrease in average measles virus antibody titers among plasma donors, which is reflected in intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs). The measles virus antibody titer, however, is a potency requirement for IVIGs, as defined in a Food and Drug Administration regulation. To mitigate the decline in measles virus antibody titers in IVIGs and to ensure consistent product release, revaccination of plasma donors was investigated as a means to boost titers. However, revaccination-induced titer increases were only about 2-fold and short-lived. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Keiko; Kimura, Yurika; Matsuda, Yoko; Takahashi, Masatoki; Honjyou, Motomu; Arai, Tomio; Tsutsumi, Takeshi

    2017-02-01

    High levels of IgG4-positive plasma cells were observed in tissue samples from ∼30% of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis who satisfied the comprehensive diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease. Detection of increased numbers of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses might not be sufficient to make a diagnosis of IgG4-related rhinosinusitis, and a comprehensive evaluation is required. This study aimed to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of IgG4-positive plasma cells in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. This study examined nasal mucosal specimens from 35 patients and assigned them to high-IgG4 and low-IgG4 groups based on infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells. It compared the pathological characteristics of the two groups, including the presence of fibrosis, phlebitis, hyperplasia of the nasal glands and infiltration of inflammatory cells. No cases of chronic rhinosinusitis showed storiform fibrosis or obliterative phlebitis. The mean number of IgG4-positive plasma cells in samples from all patients was 29.8 ± 40.3/high-power field. Eleven of the 35 cases (31.4%) were classified as high-IgG4. Hyperplasia of the nasal glands was observed significantly more frequently in the high-IgG4 group than in the low-IgG4 group (p = .03).

  3. Powder free PECVD epitaxial silicon by plasma pulsing or increasing the growth temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanghua; Maurice, Jean-Luc; Vanel, Jean-Charles; Cabarrocas, Pere Roca i.

    2018-06-01

    Crystalline silicon thin films are promising candidates for low cost and flexible photovoltaics. Among various synthesis techniques, epitaxial growth via low temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is an interesting choice because of two low temperature related benefits: low thermal budget and better doping profile control. However, increasing the growth rate is a tricky issue because the agglomeration of clusters required for epitaxy leads to powder formation in the plasma. In this work, we have measured precisely the time evolution of the self-bias voltage in silane/hydrogen plasmas at millisecond time scale, for different values of the direct-current bias voltage applied to the radio frequency (RF) electrode and growth temperatures. We demonstrate that the decisive factor to increase the epitaxial growth rate, i.e. the inhibition of the agglomeration of plasma-born clusters, can be obtained by decreasing the RF OFF time or increasing the growth temperature. The influence of these two parameters on the growth rate and epitaxial film quality is also presented.

  4. Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Shiun Tsai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome. Adiponectin is an important adipokine that regulates energy homeostasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and frailty in elders. METHODS: The demographic data, body weight, metabolic and inflammatory parameters, including plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, c-reactive protein (CRP and adiponectin levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed using the Fried Frailty Index (FFI. RESULTS: The mean (SD age of the 168 participants [83 (49.4% men and 85 (50.6% women] was 76.86 (6.10 years. Judged by the FFI score, 42 (25% elders were robust, 92 (54.7% were pre-frail, and 34 (20.3% were frail. The mean body mass index was 25.19 (3.42 kg/m(2. The log-transformed mean (SD plasma adiponectin (µg/mL level was 1.00 (0.26. The log-transformed mean plasma adiponectin (µg/mL levels were 0.93 (0.23 in the robust elders, 1.00 (0.27 in the pre-frail elders, and 1.10 (0.22 in the frail elders, and the differences between these values were statistically significant (p  = 0.012. Further analysis showed that plasma adiponectin levels rose progressively with an increasing number of components of frailty in all participants as a whole (p for trend  = 0.024 and males (p for trend  = 0.037, but not in females (p for trend  = 0.223. CONCLUSION: Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders. The difference between the sexes suggests that certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between adiponectin levels and frailty.

  5. The coffee diterpene cafestol increases plasma triacylglycerol by increasing the production rate of large VLDL apolipoprotein B in healthy normolipidemic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de B.; Caslake, M.J.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Bedford, D.; Demacker, P.N.; Katan, M.B.; Packard, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Cafestol is a diterpene in unfiltered coffee that raises plasma triacylglycerol in humans. Objective: We studied whether cafestol increases plasma triacylglycerol by increasing the production rate or by decreasing the fractional catabolic rate of VLDL1 [Svedberg flotation unit (Sf)

  6. Triglyceride content in remnant lipoproteins is significantly increased after food intake and is associated with plasma lipoprotein lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Tokita, Yoshiharu; Sakamaki, Koji; Shimomura, Younosuke; Kobayashi, Junji; Kamachi, Keiko; Tanaka, Akira; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J; Wang, Tao; Machida, Tetsuo; Murakami, Masami

    2017-02-01

    Previous large population studies reported that non-fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) reflect a higher risk for cardiovascular disease than TG in the fasting plasma. This is suggestive of the presence of higher concentration of remnant lipoproteins (RLP) in postprandial plasma. TG and RLP-TG together with other lipids, lipoproteins and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in both fasting and postprandial plasma were determined in generally healthy volunteers and in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) after consuming a fat load or a more typical moderate meal. RLP-TG/TG ratio (concentration) and RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio (particle size) were significantly increased in the postprandial plasma of both healthy controls and CAD patients compared with those in fasting plasma. LPL/RLP-TG ratio demonstrated the interaction correlation between RLP concentration and LPL activity The increased RLP-TG after fat consumption contributed to approximately 90% of the increased plasma TG, while approximately 60% after a typical meal. Plasma LPL in postprandial plasma was not significantly altered after either type of meal. Concentrations of RLP-TG found in the TG along with its particle size are significantly increased in postprandial plasma compared with fasting plasma. Therefore, non-fasting TG determination better reflects the presence of higher RLP concentrations in plasma. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased plasma ghrelin suppresses insulin release in wethers fed with a high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Sato, K; Kato, S; Yonezawa, T; Kobayashi, Y; Ohtani, Y; Ohwada, S; Aso, H; Yamaguchi, T; Roh, S G; Katoh, K

    2014-06-01

    Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide that promotes an increase of food intake and stimulates GH secretion. Ghrelin secretion is regulated by nutritional status and nutrients. Although a high-protein (HP) diet increases plasma ghrelin secretion in mammals, the mechanisms and the roles of the elevated ghrelin concentrations due to a HP diet have not been fully established. To clarify the roles of elevated acylated ghrelin upon intake of a HP diet, we investigated the regulation of ghrelin concentrations in plasma and tissues in wethers fed with either the HP diet or the control (CNT) diet for 14 days, and examined the action of the elevated plasma ghrelin by using a ghrelin-receptor antagonist. The HP diet gradually increased the plasma acylated-ghrelin concentrations, but the CNT diet did not. Although the GH concentrations did not vary significantly across the groups, an injection of ghrelin-receptor antagonist enhanced insulin levels in circulation in the HP diet group. In the fundus region of the stomach, the ghrelin levels did not differ between the HP and CNT diet groups, whereas ghrelin O-acyltransferase mRNA levels were higher in the group fed with HP diet than those of the CNT diet group were. These results indicate that the HP diet elevated the plasma ghrelin levels by increasing its synthesis; this elevation strongly suppresses the appearance of insulin in the circulation of wethers, but it is not involved in GH secretion. Overall, our findings indicate a role of endogenous ghrelin action in secretion of insulin, which acts as a regulator after the consumption of a HP diet. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  8. Safflower oil consumption does not increase plasma conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, B K; McGuire, M K; McGuire, M A; Shultz, T D

    1998-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA) with conjugated double bonds. CLA has anticarcinogenic properties and has been identified in human tissues, dairy products, meats, and certain vegetable oils. A variety of animal products are good sources of CLA, but plant oils contain much less. However, plant oils are a rich source of LA, which may be isomerized to CLA by intestinal microorganisms in humans. To investigate the effect of triacylglycerol-esterified LA consumption on plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids, a dietary intervention (6 wk) was conducted with six men and six women. During the intervention period a salad dressing containing 21 g safflower oil providing 16 g LA/d was added to the subjects' daily diets. Three-day diet records and fasting blood were obtained initially and during dietary and postdietary intervention periods. Although LA intake increased significantly during the dietary intervention, plasma CLA concentrations were not affected. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower after addition of safflower oil to the diet. In summary, consumption of triacylglycerol-esterified LA in safflower oil did not increase plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids.

  9. Supplementation with Folic Acid, but Not Creatine, Increases Plasma Betaine, Decreases Plasma Dimethylglycine, and Prevents a Decrease in Plasma Choline in Arsenic-Exposed Bangladeshi Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Megan N; Howe, Caitlin G; Liu, Xinhua; Caudill, Marie A; Malysheva, Olga; Ilievski, Vesna; Lomax-Luu, Angela M; Parvez, Faruque; Siddique, Abu B; Shahriar, Hasan; Uddin, Mohammad N; Islam, Tariqul; Graziano, Joseph H; Gamble, Mary V

    2016-05-01

    Folic acid (FA) supplementation facilitates urinary excretion of arsenic, a human carcinogen. A better understanding of interactions between one-carbon metabolism intermediates may improve the ability to design nutrition interventions that further facilitate arsenic excretion. The objective was to determine if FA and/or creatine supplementation increase choline and betaine and decrease dimethylglycine (DMG). We conducted a secondary analysis of the Folic Acid and Creatine Trial, a randomized trial in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults (n = 605, aged 24-55 y, 50.3% male) who received arsenic-removal water filters. We examined treatment effects of FA and/or creatine supplementation on plasma choline, betaine, and DMG concentrations, measured by LC-tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at week 12. Group comparisons were between 1) 400 and 800 μg FA/d (FA400 and FA800, respectively) compared with placebo, 2) creatine (3 g/d) compared with placebo, and 3) creatine plus FA400 compared with FA400. Choline decreased in the placebo group (-6.6%; 95% CI: -10.2%, -2.9%) but did not change in the FA groups (FA400: 2.5%; 95% CI: -0.9%, 6.1%; FA800: 1.4%; 95% CI: -2.5%, 5.5%; P creatine treatment arms and their respective reference groups. Supplementation for 12 wk with FA, but not creatine, increases plasma betaine, decreases plasma DMG, and prevents a decrease in plasma choline in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01050556. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Treatment with cinacalcet increases plasma sclerostin concentration in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczera, Piotr; Adamczak, Marcin; Więcek, Andrzej

    2016-11-15

    Sclerostin is a paracrine acting factor, which is expressed in the osteocytes and articular chondrocytes. Sclerostin decreases the osteoblast-related bone formation through the inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Osteocytes also express the Calcium sensing receptor which is a target for cinacalcet. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of six-month cinacalcet treatment on plasma sclerostin concentration in hemodialysed patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT). In 58 hemodialysed patients with sHPT (PTH > 300 pg/ml) plasma sclerostin and serum PTH, calcium and phosphate concentrations were assessed before the first dose of cinacalcet and after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Serum PTH concentration decreased after 3 and 6 month of treatment from 1138 (931-1345) pg/ml to 772 (551-992) pg/ml and to 635 (430-839) pg/ml, respectively. Mean serum calcium and phosphate concentrations remained stable. Plasma sclerostin concentration increased after 3 and 6 months of treatment from 1.66 (1.35-1.96) ng/ml, to 1.77 (1.43-2.12) ng/ml and to 1.87 (1.50-2.25) ng/ml, respectively. In 42 patients with cinacalcet induced serum PTH decrease plasma sclerostin concentration increased after 3 and 6 months of treatment from 1.51 (1.19-1.84) ng/ml to 1.59 (1.29-1.89) ng/ml and to 1.75 (1.42-2.01) ng/ml, respectively. Contrary, in the 16 patients without cinacalcet induced serum PTH decrease plasma sclerostin concentration was stable. Plasma sclerostin concentrations correlated inversely with serum PTH concentrations at the baseline and also after 6 months of treatment. 1. In hemodialysed patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism treatment with cinacalcet increases plasma sclerostin concentration 2. This effect seems to be related to decrease of serum PTH concentration.

  11. Plasma insulin levels are increased by sertraline in rats under oral glucose overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition and control of depression symptoms are important to increase patient compliance with treatment and to improve the quality of life of diabetic patients. Clinical studies indicate that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI are better antidepressants for diabetic patients than other drugs. However, preclinical trials have demonstrated that not all SSRI reduce plasma glucose levels. In fact, fluoxetine increases and sertraline decreases glycemia in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In the present study we evaluated plasma insulin levels during fasting and after glucose overload after treatment with sertraline. Adult male Wistar rats were fasted and treated with saline or 30 mg/kg sertraline and submitted or not to glucose overload (N = 10. Blood was collected and plasma insulin was measured. The mean insulin levels were: fasting group: 25.9 ± 3.86, sertraline + fasting group: 31.10 ± 2.48, overload group: 34.1 ± 3.40, and overload + sertraline group: 43.73 ± 5.14 µU/ml. Insulinemia was significantly increased in the overload + sertraline group. There were no differences between the other groups. No difference in glucose/insulin ratios could be detected between groups. The overload + sertraline group was the only one in which a significant number of individuals exceeded the upper confidence limit of insulin levels. This study demonstrates that sertraline increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without any change in peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  12. Handbook of Visual Display Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cranton, Wayne; Fihn, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Visual Display Technology is a unique work offering a comprehensive description of the science, technology, economic and human interface factors associated with the displays industry. An invaluable compilation of information, the Handbook will serve as a single reference source with expert contributions from over 150 international display professionals and academic researchers. All classes of display device are covered including LCDs, reflective displays, flexible solutions and emissive devices such as OLEDs and plasma displays, with discussion of established principles, emergent technologies, and particular areas of application. The wide-ranging content also encompasses the fundamental science of light and vision, image manipulation, core materials and processing techniques, display driving and metrology.

  13. Acute Exercise Increases Plasma Total Antioxidant Status and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Untrained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Berzosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant defences are essential for cellular redox regulation. Since free-radical production may be enhanced by physical activity, herein, we evaluated the effect of acute exercise on total antioxidant status (TAS and the plasma activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and its possible relation to oxidative stress resulting from exercise. Healthy untrained male subjects (=34 performed three cycloergometric tests, including maximal and submaximal episodes. Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after each different exercise. TAS and enzyme activities were assessed by spectrophotometry. An increase of the antioxidant enzyme activities in plasma was detected after both maximal and submaximal exercise periods. Moreover, under our experimental conditions, exercise also led to an augmentation of TAS levels. These findings are consistent with the idea that acute exercise may play a beneficial role because of its ability to increase antioxidant defense mechanisms through a redox sensitive pathway.

  14. Non-thermal hydrogen plasma processing effectively increases the antibacterial activity of graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Zhigang; Ma, Yulong; Zhu, Zhongjie; Zhao, Hongwei; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qing

    2018-01-01

    Graphene-based materials (GMs) are promising antibacterial agents which provide an alternative route to treat pathogenic bacteria with resistance to conventional antibiotics. To further improve their antibacterial activity, many methods have been developed to functionalize the GMs with chemicals. However, the application of additional chemicals may pose potential risks to the environment and human being. Herein, a radio-frequency-driven inductively coupled non-thermal hydrogen plasma was used to treat and reduce graphene oxide (GO) without using any other chemicals, and we found that the plasma-reduced GO (prGO) is with significantly higher bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli. The mechanism of the increased antibacterial activity of prGO is due to that plasma processing breaks down the GO sheets into smaller layers with more rough surface defects, which can thus induce more destructive membrane damages to the bacteria. This work sets another good example, showing that plasma processing is a green and low-cost alternative for GM modification for biomedical applications.

  15. Poloidally asymmetric potential increases in tokamak scrape-off layer plasmas by radiofrequency power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebold, D.A.; Majeski, R.; Tanaka, T.

    1992-01-01

    Langmuir probe data are presented which show poloidally asymmetric increases in floating potential, electron temperature and, hence, plasma potential on magnetic field lines which map to the Faraday shield of an ICRF antenna in a medium size tokamak, Phaedrus-T, during radiofrequency power injection. These data are consistent with and suggestive of the existence of radiofrequency generated sheath voltages on those field lines. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 20 refs, 3 figs

  16. The increase of plasma galectin-9 in a patient with insulin allergy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagan-Yasutan Haorile

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergic reaction to insulin is known to be associated with eosinophilia and hyper IgE. Recent report showed that eosinophilia is related with the increased synthesis of galectin-9 (GAL-9 and osteopontin (OPN. Here, we examined plasma levels of GAL-9 and OPN first time in a case of 65-year old patient with insulin allergy. Insulin aspart & insulin aspart 30 mix were given to the patient and an elevation of the eosinophil count (8440/μl, 17.6 fold and a moderate increase of IgE (501 U/ml, reference range: 10-350 U/ml, eotaxin-3 (168 pg/ml, 2 fold, histamine (0.95 ng/ml, 5.3 fold were found 33 days later. The plasma levels of GAL-9 and OPN were 22.5 and 1.7 fold higher than the cut-off point, respectively. After one month cessation of insulin therapy, elevations of the eosinophil count (3,480/μl; 7.3 fold, and OPN (1.4 fold still occurred but the GAL-9 levels became normal. Therefore, we noted the increases of GAL-9 and OPN in plasma for the first time in a patient with insulin allergy and propose that GAL-9 reflects the conditions of allergy more accurately.

  17. Increase of hot initial plasma energy content in the end system of AMBAL-M during hydrogen puffing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, Timour; Bekher, Sergei; Davydenko, Vladimir; Krivenko, Aleksander; Muraviev, Maksim; Reva, Vladimir; Sokolov, Vladimir

    2001-01-01

    At the end system of the completely axisymmetric mirror trap AMBAL-M the experiments on creation and study of a hot initial plasma have been performed. In the experiments a gas-box was used for hydrogen supply into the hot startup plasma in the mirror trap to increase the plasma density. The hot initial plasma in the trap was produced by the trapping of a plasma stream with developed electrostatic turbulence generated by a gas-discharge source located outside the entrance throat. It was found that in addition to the increase in the plasma density by a factor of 2-3, hydrogen puffing resulted in an unexpected nearly twofold diamagnetism increase. The gas puffing did not reduce the electron temperature in the trap. Essential for explanation of the observed effect is the fact that with the gas puffing the measured plasma potential in the trap increased. The increase in the plasma potential enhanced the trapping of the ion flow entering the trap and increased the average energy of the electron flow entering the trap. It was found that with the increasing hydrogen puffing rate plasma parameters in the trap were saturated. (author)

  18. Control plasma renin activity and changes in sympathetic tone as determinants of minoxidil-induced increase in plasma renin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, K; Velasco, M; Wells, J; McNay, J L

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the possible mechanism(s) underlying minoxidil-induced increase in plasma renin activity (PRA). 10 patients with essential hypertension were treated with minoxidil and subsequently with a combination of minoxidil plus propranolol. Minoxidil lowered mean arterial pressure 31.6 plus or minus 3.3 mm Hg, mean plus or minus SEM. There was an associated increase in both PRA, 6.26 plus or minus 2.43 NG/ML/H, and heart rate, 21.4 plus or minus 2.7 beats/min. The changes in PRA and heart rate were positively correlated, r, 0.79. Addition of propranolol reduced mean arterial pressure by a further 10.1 plus or minus 1.5 mm Hg and returned heart rate to control levels. Propranolol reduced PRA significantly but not to control levels. Control PRA positively correlated with PRA on minoxidil, r, 0.97, and with PRA on minoxidil plus propranolol, r, 0.98. We conclude that control PRA is a major determinant of change in PRA with minoxidil. Minoxidil increased PRA by at least two mechanisms: (a) an adrenergic mechanism closely related to change in heart rate and blocked by propranolol, and (b) a mechanism(s) not sensitive to propranolol and possibly related to decrease in renal perfusion pressure. PMID:1127099

  19. Mutations in the NOT Genes or in the Translation Machinery Similarly Display Increased Resistance to Histidine Starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine A. Collart

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The NOT genes encode subunits of the conserved Ccr4-Not complex, a global regulator of gene expression, and in particular of mRNA metabolism. They were originally identified in a selection for increased resistance to histidine starvation in the yeast S. cerevisiae. Recent work indicated that the Not5 subunit, ortholog of mammalian CNOT3, determines global translation levels by defining binding of the Ccr4-Not scaffold protein Not1 to ribosomal mRNAs during transcription. This is needed for optimal translation of ribosomal proteins. In this work we searched for mutations in budding yeast that were resistant to histidine starvation using the same selection that originally led to the isolation of the NOT genes. We thereby isolated mutations in ribosome-related genes. This common phenotype of ribosome mutants and not mutants is in good agreement with the positive role of the Not proteins for translation. In this regard, it is interesting that frequent mutations in RPL5 and RPL10 or in CNOT3 have been observed to accumulate in adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL. This suggests that in metazoans a common function implicating ribosome subunits and CNOT3 plays a role in the development of cancer. In this perspective we suggest that the Ccr4-Not complex, according to translation levels and fidelity, could itself be involved in the regulation of amino acid biosynthesis levels. We discuss how this could explain why mutations have been identified in many cancers.

  20. Unfiltered coffee increases plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, M.J.; Boers, G.H.; Blom, H.J.; Broekhuizen, R.; Jong, de R.; Rijt, van L.; Katan, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Background: An elevated plasma homocysteine concentration is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Observational studies have reported an association between coffee consumption and plasma homocysteine concentrations. Objective: We studied the effect of coffee consumption on plasma

  1. Unfiltered coffee increases plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, M. J.; Boers, G. H.; Blom, H. J.; Broekhuizen, R.; de Jong, R.; van Rijt, L.; de Ruijter, E.; Swinkels, D. W.; Nagengast, F. M.; Katan, M. B.

    2000-01-01

    An elevated plasma homocysteine concentration is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Observational studies have reported an association between coffee consumption and plasma homocysteine concentrations. We studied the effect of coffee consumption on plasma homocysteine in a crossover

  2. Increased concentration of vasopressin in plasma of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Warberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA-D) on the plasma concentration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and the urinary AVP excretion was investigated. Weanling rats were fed a fat-free diet (FF-rats). Control rats received the same diet in which 6% by wt. of sucrose was replaced by arachis...... oil. After 4-6 weeks of feeding, urine and plasma were analysed for AVP, osmolality, sodium and potassium. When compared to control rats FF-rats had decreased urine volume (6.0 ± 1.6 ml/24 hr versus 11.7 ± 3.2 ml/24 hr), increased urine osmolality (2409 ± 691 mOsm/kg versus 1260 ± 434 m...

  3. Dietary omega-6 fatty acid lowering increases bioavailability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human plasma lipid pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y; Cheon, Yewon; Faurot, Keturah F; Macintosh, Beth; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon F; Mann, J Douglas; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Ringel, Amit; Ramsden, Christopher E

    2014-05-01

    Dietary linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) lowering in rats reduces n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) plasma concentrations and increases n-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) concentrations. To evaluate the extent to which 12 weeks of dietary n-6 PUFA lowering, with or without increased dietary n-3 PUFAs, alters unesterified and esterified plasma n-6 and n-3 PUFA concentrations in subjects with chronic headache. Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Subjects with chronic headache were randomized for 12 weeks to (1) average n-3, low n-6 (L6) diet; or (2) high n-3, low n-6 LA (H3-L6) diet. Esterified and unesterified plasma fatty acids were quantified at baseline (0 weeks) and after 12 weeks on a diet. Compared to baseline, the L6 diet reduced esterified plasma LA and increased esterified n-3 PUFA concentrations (nmol/ml), but did not significantly change plasma arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) concentration. In addition, unesterified EPA concentration was increased significantly among unesterified fatty acids. The H3-L6 diet decreased esterified LA and AA concentrations, and produced more marked increases in esterified and unesterified n-3 PUFA concentrations. Dietary n-6 PUFA lowering for 12 weeks significantly reduces LA and increases n-3 PUFA concentrations in plasma, without altering plasma AA concentration. A concurrent increase in dietary n-3 PUFAs for 12 weeks further increases n-3 PUFA plasma concentrations and reduces AA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases are essential for coagulopathy and increase plasma tissue factor levels during envenomation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine M Yamashita

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF, resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP and serine proteinases (SVSP to hemostatic disturbances. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. CONCLUSIONS: SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in

  5. Plasma Irisin Modestly Increases during Moderate and High-Intensity Afternoon Exercise in Obese Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Nathan C.; Grunewald, Zachary I.; Liu, Ying; Heden, Timothy D.; Nyhoff, Lauren M.; Kanaley, Jill A.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Irisin is an exercise-responsive myokine that has been proposed to exert anti-obesity benefits; yet its response during exercise in obese women is not described. This study characterized plasma irisin levels during a single bout of afternoon isocaloric-exercise of different intensities (moderate- vs high-intensity) in obese females. Methods Eleven obese females participated in 3 randomized study days beginning at 1600h: 1) no exercise (NoEx), 2) moderate exercise (ModEx; 55%VO2max) and 3) high intensity interval exercise (IntEx; 4 min (80%VO2max)/3 min (50% VO2max). Frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose and lactate (whole-blood), and insulin, c-peptide, glucagon, and irisin (plasma) throughout 190 min of testing. Results Plasma irisin increased above baseline during ModEx and IntEx (P0.05). Peak irisin levels during ModEx and IntEx exercise were 11.9± 3.4% and 12.3 ± 4.1% relative to baseline (Pexercise intensities (P>0.05). Irisin levels remained elevated above resting for 125 minutes post-exercise during ModEx, whereas levels returned to baseline within 15 minutes post-exercise during IntEx. Similarly, no associations were found between plasma irisin levels and circulating lactate, glucose, insulin, c-peptide, or glucagon among study days (P>0.05). However, there was an inverse association between basal irisin and lean mass (r = -0.70, P = 0.01). Conclusion A single bout of moderate and high intensity afternoon exercise induces modest increases in circulating irisin concentrations during exercise; however the regulation post-exercise appears to be dimorphic between exercise intensity in obese females. Future studies are needed to compare morning and afternoon exercise on irisin secretion. PMID:28125733

  6. Supplementation with Folic Acid, but Not Creatine, Increases Plasma Betaine, Decreases Plasma Dimethylglycine, and Prevents a Decrease in Plasma Choline in Arsenic-Exposed Bangladeshi Adults123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Megan N; Liu, Xinhua; Caudill, Marie A; Malysheva, Olga; Ilievski, Vesna; Lomax-Luu, Angela M; Parvez, Faruque; Siddique, Abu B; Shahriar, Hasan; Uddin, Mohammad N; Islam, Tariqul; Graziano, Joseph H; Gamble, Mary V

    2016-01-01

    Background: Folic acid (FA) supplementation facilitates urinary excretion of arsenic, a human carcinogen. A better understanding of interactions between one-carbon metabolism intermediates may improve the ability to design nutrition interventions that further facilitate arsenic excretion. Objective: The objective was to determine if FA and/or creatine supplementation increase choline and betaine and decrease dimethylglycine (DMG). Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Folic Acid and Creatine Trial, a randomized trial in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults (n = 605, aged 24–55 y, 50.3% male) who received arsenic-removal water filters. We examined treatment effects of FA and/or creatine supplementation on plasma choline, betaine, and DMG concentrations, measured by LC–tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at week 12. Group comparisons were between 1) 400 and 800 μg FA/d (FA400 and FA800, respectively) compared with placebo, 2) creatine (3 g/d) compared with placebo, and 3) creatine plus FA400 compared with FA400. Results: Choline decreased in the placebo group (−6.6%; 95% CI: −10.2%, −2.9%) but did not change in the FA groups (FA400: 2.5%; 95% CI: −0.9%, 6.1%; FA800: 1.4%; 95% CI: −2.5%, 5.5%; P DMG was greater in the FA groups (FA400: −26.7%; 95% CI: −30.9%, −22.2%; FA800: −27.8%; 95% CI: −31.8%, −23.4%) than in the placebo group (−12.3%; 95% CI: −18.1%, −6.2%; P DMG did not differ between creatine treatment arms and their respective reference groups. Conclusion: Supplementation for 12 wk with FA, but not creatine, increases plasma betaine, decreases plasma DMG, and prevents a decrease in plasma choline in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01050556. PMID:27052531

  7. Increased maternal plasma leptin in early pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chunfang; Williams, Michelle A; Vadachkoria, Surab; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Luthy, David A

    2004-03-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, may have independent direct effects on both insulin secretion and action, in addition to its well documented effects on appetite and energy expenditure. Some, but not all, previously published studies suggest that maternal leptin concentrations may be increased in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We examined the association between plasma leptin concentration and GDM risk. Women were recruited before 16 weeks of gestation and were followed up until delivery. Maternal plasma leptin concentrations (collected at 13 weeks of gestation) were measured by using immunoassay. We used generalized linear models to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. GDM developed in 5.7% of the cohort (47 of 823). Elevated leptin concentrations were positively associated with GDM risk (P for trend risk of GDM (95% confidence interval 1.2, 18.0) as compared with women who had concentrations of 14.3 ng/mL or lower. We noted a strong linear component of trend in risk of GDM with increasing maternal plasma leptin concentration. Each 10-ng/mL increase in the leptin concentration was associated with a 20% increase in GDM risk (relative risk 1.2; 95% confidence interval 1.0, 1.3). Hyperleptinemia, independent of maternal adiposity, in early pregnancy appears to be predictive of an increased risk of GDM later in pregnancy. Additional larger prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm and more precisely assess the etiologic importance of hyperleptinemia in pregnancy. II-2

  8. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing a native plasma membrane aquaporin MusaPIP1;2 display high tolerance levels to different abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Shareena; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2013-10-01

    Water transport across cellular membranes is regulated by a family of water channel proteins known as aquaporins (AQPs). As most abiotic stresses like suboptimal temperatures, drought or salinity result in cellular dehydration, it is imperative to study the cause-effect relationship between AQPs and the cellular consequences of abiotic stress stimuli. Although plant cells have a high isoform diversity of AQPs, the individual and integrated roles of individual AQPs in optimal and suboptimal physiological conditions remain unclear. Herein, we have identified a plasma membrane intrinsic protein gene (MusaPIP1;2) from banana and characterized it by overexpression in transgenic banana plants. Cellular localization assay performed using MusaPIP1;2::GFP fusion protein indicated that MusaPIP1;2 translocated to plasma membrane in transformed banana cells. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing MusaPIP1;2 constitutively displayed better abiotic stress survival characteristics. The transgenic lines had lower malondialdehyde levels, elevated proline and relative water content and higher photosynthetic efficiency as compared to equivalent controls under different abiotic stress conditions. Greenhouse-maintained hardened transgenic plants showed faster recovery towards normal growth and development after cessation of abiotic stress stimuli, thereby underlining the importance of these plants in actual environmental conditions wherein the stress stimuli is often transient but severe. Further, transgenic plants where the overexpression of MusaPIP1;2 was made conditional by tagging it with a stress-inducible native dehydrin promoter also showed similar stress tolerance characteristics in in vitro and in vivo assays. Plants developed in this study could potentially enable banana cultivation in areas where adverse environmental conditions hitherto preclude commercial banana cultivation. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons

  9. Enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants increase plasma clearance of dexmedetomidine: a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexman, Alana M; Wong, Harvey; Riggs, K Wayne; Shih, Tina; Garcia, Paul A; Vacas, Susana; Talke, Pekka O

    2014-05-01

    Dexmedetomidine is useful during mapping of epileptic foci as it facilitates electrocorticography unlike most other anesthetic agents. Patients with seizure disorders taking enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants appear to be resistant to its sedative effects. The objective of the study was to compare the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of dexmedetomidine in healthy volunteers with volunteers with seizure disorders receiving enzyme-inducing anticonvulsant medications. Dexmedetomidine was administered using a step-wise, computer-controlled infusion to healthy volunteers (n = 8) and volunteers with seizure disorders (n = 8) taking phenytoin or carbamazapine. Sedation and dexmedetomidine plasma levels were assessed at baseline, during the infusion steps, and after discontinuation of the infusion. Sedation was assessed by using the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale, Ramsay Sedation Scale, and Visual Analog Scale and processed electroencephalography (entropy) monitoring. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on both groups, and differences between groups were determined using the standard two-stage approach. A two-compartment model was fit to dexmedetomidine concentration-time data. Dexmedetomidine plasma clearance was 43% higher in the seizure group compared with the control group (42.7 vs. 29.9 l/h; P = 0.007). In contrast, distributional clearance and the volume of distribution of the central and peripheral compartments were similar between the groups. No difference in sedation was detected between the two groups during a controlled range of target plasma concentrations. This study demonstrates that subjects with seizure disorders taking enzyme-inducing anticonvulsant medications have an increased plasma clearance of dexmedetomidine as compared with healthy control subjects.

  10. Upregulation of glycolytic enzymes, mitochondrial dysfunction and increased cytotoxicity in glial cells treated with Alzheimer's disease plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharusha Jayasena

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with increased oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Markers of increased protein, lipid and nucleic acid oxidation and reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes have been reported in AD plasma. Amyloid plaques in the AD brain elicit a range of reactive inflammatory responses including complement activation and acute phase reactions, which may also be reflected in plasma. Previous studies have shown that human AD plasma may be cytotoxic to cultured cells. We investigated the effect of pooled plasma (n = 20 each from healthy controls, individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD on cultured microglial cells. AD plasma and was found to significantly decrease cell viability and increase glycolytic flux in microglia compared to plasma from healthy controls. This effect was prevented by the heat inactivation of complement. Proteomic methods and isobaric tags (iTRAQ found the expression level of complement and other acute phase proteins to be altered in MCI and AD plasma and an upregulation of key enzymes involved in the glycolysis pathway in cells exposed to AD plasma. Altered expression levels of acute phase reactants in AD plasma may alter the energy metabolism of glia.

  11. Sleep restriction is associated with increased morning plasma leptin concentrations, especially in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Norah S; Banks, Siobhan; Dinges, David F

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of sleep restriction on leptin levels in a large, diverse sample of healthy participants, while allowing free access to food. Prospective experimental design. After 2 nights of baseline sleep, 136 participants (49% women, 56% African Americans) received 5 consecutive nights of 4 hours time in bed (TIB). Additionally, one subset of participants received 2 additional nights of either further sleep restriction (n = 27) or increased sleep opportunity (n = 37). Control participants (n = 9) received 10 hr TIB on all study nights. Plasma leptin was measured between 10:30 a.m. and 12:00 noon following baseline sleep, after the initial sleep-restriction period, and after 2 nights of further sleep restriction or recovery sleep. Leptin levels increased significantly among sleep-restricted participants after 5 nights of 4 hr TIB (Z = -8.43, p women compared to men (Z = -4.77, p restriction (p restriction with ad libitum access to food significantly increases morning plasma leptin levels, particularly among women.

  12. Rhabdomyolysis and Artifactual Increase in Plasma Bicarbonate Concentration in an Amazon Parrot (Amazona species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leissinger, Mary K; Johnson, James G; Tully, Thomas N; Gaunt, Stephen D

    2017-09-01

    A 7-year-old male Amazon parrot housed outdoors presented with acute collapse, marked lethargy, and open-mouth breathing. The patient had stiffness of the pectoral muscles, and petechiation and ecchymosis noted around the eyes and beneath the mandible. Laboratory data revealed markedly increased aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase activity consistent with rhabdomyolysis, as well as markedly increased plasma bicarbonate concentration. Marked clinical improvement and resolution of laboratory abnormalities occurred with fluid therapy, administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication, and husbandry modifications, including indoor housing and dietary alteration. A spurious increase in bicarbonate measurement as documented in equine and bovine cases of rhabdomyolysis also occurred in this avian patient and must be considered for accurate interpretation of acid-base status in exotic species presenting with consistent clinical signs.

  13. Increased interleukin-11 levels in thoracic aorta and plasma from patients with acute thoracic aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yao; Ye, Jing; Wang, Menglong; Wang, Yuan; Ji, Qingwei; Huang, Ying; Zeng, Tao; Wang, Zhen; Ye, Di; Jiang, Huimin; Liu, Jianfang; Lin, Yingzhong; Wan, Jun

    2018-06-01

    Interleukin (IL) 11 is closely related to tumor and hematological system diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that IL-11 also participates in cardiovascular diseases, including ischemia-reperfusion mediated heart injury and acute myocardial infarction. This study aimed to investigate whether IL-11 is involved in acute thoracic aortic dissection (TAD). Aortic tissue samples from normal donors and acute TAD patients were collected, and the expression of IL-11 in all aortic tissue was analyzed. In addition, blood samples from patients with chest pain were collected and divided into a non-AD (NAD) group and a TAD group according to the results of computed tomography angiography of the thoracic aorta. The plasma IL-11, IL-17 and interferon (IFN) γ in all blood samples were measured. Compared with aortic tissue of normal controls, IL-11 was significantly increased in aortic tissue of acute TAD patients, especially in the torn section. The IL-11 was derived from aorta macrophages in TAD. In addition, the plasma IL-11, IL-17 and IFN-γ were significantly higher in acute TAD patients than in NAD patients, and the correlation analysis showed that IL-11 levels were positively correlated with levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, glucose, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, white blood cells, C-reactive proteins and D-dimers. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that elevated IL11 in patients who may have diagnostic value of TAD, but less that D-dimer. IL-11 was increased in thoracic aorta and plasma of TAD patients and may be a promising biomarker for diagnosis in patients with TAD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Reduction of dietary saturated fatty acids correlates with increased plasma lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, A M; Dabadie, H; Palos-Pinto, A; Dumon, M-F; Darmon, M

    2004-06-01

    Increased HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations have been associated with lower coronary heart disease risk. On the other hand, dietary fats are known to influence the fatty acid profile of plasma lipids, including phospholipids that are substrates of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), an important enzyme in HDL metabolism. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake and LCAT activity. An interventional study was performed in a monk community of 25 men. A French monk community, South West of France. The basal diet of the study cohort contained SFA in a proportion of 13.5% of their total energy intake (TEI). They were submitted to two experimental isocaloric diets containing either 8.4% of the TEI in SFA (diet A) or 11% (diet B), each lasting 5 weeks. The elevation of SFA in diet B was mainly obtained by decreasing carbohydrates. The only significant difference among total fats between diets A and B was the myristic acid content (0.6 and 1.2% of TEI, respectively). The elevation in SFA in diet B resulted in a significant increase of HDL-C (P<0.04), while plasma apo A-I concentration and LCAT activity both decreased (P<0.02). Altogether, these results are consistent with a negative effect of SFA on reverse cholesterol transport.

  15. Decreased Fibroblast and Increased Osteoblast Functions on Ionic Plasma Deposited Nanostructured Ti Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storey Dan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBioactive coatings are in high demand to control cellular functions for numerous medical devices. The objective of this in vitro study was to characterize for the first time fibroblast (fibrous scar tissue forming cells adhesion and proliferation on an important polymeric biomaterial (silicone coated with titanium using a novel ionic plasma deposition (IPD process. Fibroblasts are one of the first anchorage-dependent cells to arrive at an implant surface during the wound healing process. Persistent excessive functions of fibroblasts have been linked to detrimental fibrous tissue formation which may cause implant failure. The IPD process creates a surface-engineered nanostructure (with features usually below 100 nm by first using a vacuum to remove all contaminants, then guiding charged metallic ions or plasma to the surface of a medical device at ambient temperature. Results demonstrated that compared to currently used titanium and uncoated silicone, silicone coated with titanium using IPD significantly decreased fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. Results also showed competitively increased osteoblast (bone-forming cells over fibroblast adhesion on silicone coated with titanium; in contrast, osteoblast adhesion was not competitively increased over fibroblast adhesion on uncoated silicone or titanium controls. In this manner, this study strongly suggests that IPD should be further studied for biomaterial applications in which fibrous tissue encapsulation is undesirable (such as for orthopedic implants, cardiovascular components, etc..

  16. Altered Antioxidant Status and Increased Lipid Per-Oxidation in Seminal Plasma of Tunisian Infertile Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atig, Fatma; Raffa, Monia; Ali, Habib Ben; Abdelhamid, Kerkeni; Saad, Ali; Ajina, Mounir

    2012-01-01

    Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants that protect spermatozoa from oxidative damages. There is evidence in literature supports the fact that impairments in seminal antioxidant and lipid per-oxidation status play important roles in the physiopathology of male infertility. Our present study forms the first one which was carried out in Tunisia. We evaluated the antioxidant status in the seminal plasma of 120 infertile men programmed to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) for the first tentative. Patients were characterized by an idiopathic infertility. They were divided into three groups: normozoospermics who were considered as controls (n=40), asthenozoospermics (Astheno; n=45) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (OAT; n=35). Seminal activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and the levels of glutathione (GSH), zinc (Zn) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. With the significant increase of the seminal activities of SOD and GPX in normozoospermics group, there were positive correlations observed between this enzymes and sperm quality. Also, significant elevated rates of seminal zinc and GSH were observed in control group, but there was contradictory associations reflecting the effects of these antioxidants on semen parameters. However, we noted significant increase of MDA levels in groups with abnormal seminogram. We showed negative associations between this per-oxidative marker and sperm parameters. These results obviously suggested that impairment on seminal antioxidants is an important risk factor for low sperm quality associated to idiopathic infertility and as a result can lead to poor IVF outcome. PMID:22211112

  17. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samman S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Samir Samman,1 Ben Crossett,2 Miles Somers,1 Kirstine J Bell,1 Nicole T Lai,1,3 David R Sullivan,3 Peter Petocz4 1Discipline of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2Discipline of Proteomics and Biotechnology, School of Molecular Bioscience, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Department of Statistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Amino acid (AA status is determined by factors including nutrition, metabolic rate, and interactions between the metabolism of AA, carbohydrates, and lipids. Analysis of the plasma AA profile, together with markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, will shed light on metabolic regulation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the acute responses to the consumption of meals containing either pork (PM or chicken (CM, and to identify relationships between plasma AA and markers of glycemic and lipemic control. A secondary aim was to explore AA predictors of plasma zinc concentrations. Ten healthy adults participated in a postprandial study on two separate occasions. In a randomized cross-over design, participants consumed PM or CM. The concentrations of 21 AA, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and zinc were determined over 5 hours postprandially. The meal composition did not influence glucose, insulin, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or zinc concentrations. Plasma histidine was higher following the consumption of PM (P=0.014, with consistently higher changes observed after 60 minutes (P<0.001. Greater percentage increases were noted at limited time points for valine and leucine + isoleucine in those who consumed CM compared to PM. In linear regression, some AAs emerged as predictors of the metabolic responses, irrespective of the meal that was consumed. The present study demonstrates that a single meal of PM or CM produces a differential profile of AA in the

  18. Intraileal casein infusion increases plasma concentrations of amino acids in humans: A randomized cross over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripken, Dina; van Avesaat, Mark; Troost, Freddy J; Masclee, Ad A; Witkamp, Renger F; Hendriks, Henk F

    2017-02-01

    Activation of the ileal brake by casein induces satiety signals and reduces energy intake. However, adverse effects of intraileal casein administration have not been studied before. These adverse effects may include impaired amino acid digestion, absorption and immune activation. To investigate the effects of intraileal infusion of native casein on plasma amino acid appearance, immune activation and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. A randomized single-blind cross over study was performed in 13 healthy subjects (6 male; mean age 26 ± 2.9 years; mean body mass index 22.8 ± 0.4 kg/m -2 ), who were intubated with a naso-ileal feeding catheter. Thirty minutes after intake of a standardized breakfast, participants received an ileal infusion, containing either control (C) consisting of saline, a low-dose (17.2 kcal) casein (LP) or a high-dose (51.7 kcal) of casein (HP) over a period of 90 min. Blood samples were collected for analysis of amino acids (AAs), C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxylipins at regular intervals. Furthermore, GI symptom questionnaires were collected before, during and after ileal infusion. None of the subjects reported any GI symptoms before, during or after ileal infusion of C, LP and HP. Plasma concentrations of all AAs analyzed were significantly increased after infusion of HP as compared to C (p casein, respectively. Ileal casein infusion did not affect plasma concentrations of CRP, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α. Infusion of HP resulted in a decreased concentration of 11,12-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid whereas none of the other oxylipins analyzed were affected. A single intraileal infusion of native casein results in a concentration and time dependent increase of AAs in plasma, suggesting an effective digestion and absorption of AAs present in casein. Also, ileal infusion did not result in immune activation nor in GI symptoms. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT01509469. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  19. Caloric Restriction and Exercise Increase Plasma ANGPTL4 Levels in Humans via Elevated Free Fatty Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, A.H.; Lichtenstein, L.L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, C.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Müller, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective - Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However,

  20. Caloric restriction and exercise increase plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans via elevated free fatty acids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.; Lichtenstein, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, K.; Hendriks, H.F.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Muller, M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However,

  1. Caloric restriction and exercise increase plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans via elevated free fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.; Lichtenstein, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, K.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Müller, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-: Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However,

  2. Determination of GABA and vigabatrin in human plasma by a rapid and simple HPLC method: correlation between clinical response to vigabatrin and increase in plasma GABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löscher, W; Fassbender, C P; Gram, L; Gramer, M; Hörstermann, D; Zahner, B; Stefan, H

    1993-03-01

    The novel antiepileptic drug vigabatrin (Sabril) acts by inhibiting degradation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), increasing the GABA concentrations in the brain. Because the GABA degrading enzyme GABA aminotransferase (GABA-T) is also present in peripheral tissues, including blood platelets, measurement of plasma GABA levels might be a useful indication of the pharmacological response to vigabatrin during therapeutic monitoring. However, because of the very low concentrations of GABA in plasma, the few methods available for plasma GABA analysis are time-consuming, difficult to perform and/or not selective enough because of potential interference with other plasma constituents. In the present study, a rapid, selective and sensitive amino acid analysis HPLC method has been developed for plasma GABA determination with fluorescence detection, using o-phthaldialdehyde as a precolumn derivatizing agent. By employing a 3 microns particle size reversed-phase column and a multi-step gradient system of two solvents, the very low endogenous concentration of GABA in human plasma could be reproducibly quantitated without interference of other endogenous compounds. Incubation of human plasma samples with GABA degrading enzyme(s) resulted in an almost total loss of the GABA peak, thus demonstrating the specificity of the method for GABA analysis. In addition to GABA and other endogenous amino acids, the HPLC method could be used to quantitate plasma levels of vigabatrin. Thus, this improved HPLC amino acid assay might be used to examine whether concomitant monitoring of plasma GABA and vigabatrin is useful for clinical purposes. This was examined in 20 epileptic patients undergoing chronic treatment with vigabatrin. The average plasma GABA level of these 20 patients did not differ significantly from non-epileptic controls. However, when epileptic patients were subdivided according to their clinical response to vigabatrin, vigabatrin responders

  3. Krill protein hydrolysate reduces plasma triacylglycerol level with concurrent increase in plasma bile acid level and hepatic fatty acid catabolism in high-fat fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Krill powder, consisting of both lipids and proteins, has been reported to modulate hepatic lipid catabolism in animals. Fish protein hydrolysate diets have also been reported to affect lipid metabolism and to elevate bile acid (BA level in plasma. BA interacts with a number of nuclear receptors and thus affects a variety of signaling pathways, including very low density lipoprotein (VLDL secretion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a krill protein hydrolysate (KPH could affect lipid and BA metabolism in mice. Method: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (21%, w/w diet containing 20% crude protein (w/w as casein (control group or KPH for 6 weeks. Lipids and fatty acid composition were measured from plasma, enzyme activity and gene expression were analyzed from liver samples, and BA was measured from plasma. Results: The effect of dietary treatment with KPH resulted in reduced levels of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs. The KPH treated mice had also a marked increased plasma BA concentration. The increased plasma BA level was associated with induction of genes related to membrane canalicular exporter proteins (Abcc2, Abcb4 and to BA exporters to blood (Abcc3 and Abcc4. Of note, we observed a 2-fold increased nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr mRNA levels in the liver of mice fed KPH. We also observed increased activity of the nuclear peroxiosme proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα target gene carnitine plamitoyltransferase 2 (CPT-2. Conclusion: The KPH diet showed to influence lipid and BA metabolism in high-fat fed mice. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and elevation of BA concentration may regulate the plasma level of TAGs and NEFAs.

  4. Cardiac natriuretic peptides in plasma increase after dietary induced weight loss in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistorp, Caroline; Bliddal, Henning; Goetze, Jens P; Christensen, Robin; Faber, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac natriuretic peptides are established biomarkers in heart disease, but are also affected by body mass index (BMI). The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of weight loss and changes in body composition following dietary intervention on plasma concentrations of the prohormones to A- and B-type natriuretic peptides (proANP and proBNP) and adrenomedullin (proADM). A total of 52 healthy obese subjects, 47 women and 5 men (BMI 36.5 ± 5.6 kg/m(2)) were randomised to either an intensive weight reduction programme using a combination of very low calorie diet (810 kcal/day) and conventional hypo-energetic diet (1200 kcal/day) for 52 weeks, or to a control group that was offered diet-related counselling. N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP), mid-regional proANP (MR-proANP) and proADM (MR-proADM) and body composition using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning were determined at baseline and after 52 weeks. Comparisons between groups were analysed using t-tests. Changes from the baseline within the groups were analysed with paired tests. Changes in the variables, delta (∆), were calculated as 52 weeks minus the baseline. In the intervention group, BMI decreased by almost 20% (31.6 ± 6.2 vs. 37.1 ± 6.1 kg/m(2); P <0.001) with a loss of body fat of 23.5 ± 15.5% (P < 0.001). Plasma concentrations of NT-proBNP and MR-proANP increased (from 55 ± 31 to 97 ± 55 pg/ml; P < 0.001, and from 59 ± 21 to 74 ± 26 pmol/L; P < 0.001), whereas MR-proADM decreased (from 573 ± 153 to 534 ± 173 pmol/L; P <0.001). Changes (Δ) in MR-proANP correlated with Δfat mass (r = -0.359; P = 0.011) and Δglucose (r = -0.495; P <0.001), while increases in NT-proBNP were primarily associated with reduced plasma glucose (r = -0.462; P <0.001). A modest but significant weight loss of 6% (P < 0.001) was found in the control group with no changes in plasma concentrations of NT-proBNP or MR-proANP, and a minor change in MR-proADM. Plasma NT-proBNP and MR

  5. Plasma C16-Cer levels are increased in patients with preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudanski, Piotr; Charkiewicz, Karol; Kisielewski, Rafal; Kuc, Pawel; Koc-Zorawska, Ewa; Raba, Grzegorz; Kraczkowski, Janusz; Dymicka-Piekarska, Violetta; Chabowski, Adrian; Kacerovsky, Marian; Jacobsson, Bo; Zabielski, Piotr; Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    The pathogenesis of preterm labor is fragmentarily explained. The most widely accepted theory points out to infection and inflammation as possible causes, which can be mediated by potentially different factors, including sphingolipid mediators. Sphingolipids are a class of lipids that have been shown as important mediators in various cell processes such as: proliferation, growth, apoptosis, stress response, necrosis and inflammation. The aim of the study was to assess plasma concentrations of selected sphingolipids in patients with preterm labor. We used ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with triple mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) to assess plasma concentrations of the 11 sphingolipids in patients presenting with symptoms of preterm labor (n=61) and threatened preterm labor (n=40). We observed a statistically significant increase (p-valueCer in patients with preterm labor as compared to the control group. We also found C16-Cer to be the best predictor of preterm labor in the group of patients with symptoms occurring after 32 weeks of gestation. Our findings show a possible involvement of selected sphingolipids, especially C16-Cer, in the pathogenesis of preterm labor. Their role as predictors of preterm delivery needs to be validated in the future on larger group of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased understanding of the dynamics and transport in ITB plasmas from multi- machine comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohil, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents details on: (a) examination and compilation of experimental results on transport from the many machines worldwide to better understand the physics of ITB formation and sustainment; (b) the development of an international database on ITB experimental results to determine the requirements for the formation and sustainment of ITBs, especially for reactor relevant conditions; (c) determining and performing comprehensive tests of theory-based models and simulations using the experimental ITB database. This paper will further present the status of research on critical issues in ITB physics including barrier formation and access conditions, particle and impurity transport, fueling, core-edge integration, profile control and stability as well as issues of accessibility in reactor scale devices such as barriers with T e =T i , barriers with low toroidal rotation and flat density profiles. Results will be presented from many devices providing a clearer understanding of transport and ITB physics in present plasmas and how this understanding can be applied to increase the performance of plasmas in future devices. An ITB database is being developed. (author)

  7. Increased understanding of the dynamics and transport in ITB plasmas from multi-machine comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohil, P.; Kinsey, J.; Parail, V.

    2003-01-01

    Our understanding of the physics of internal transport barriers (ITBs) is being furthered by analysis and comparisons of experimental data from many different tokamaks worldwide. An international database consisting of scalar and 2-D profile data on ITB plasmas is being developed to determine the requirements for the formation and sustainment of ITBs and to perform tests of theory-based transport models in an effort to improve the predictive capability of the models. Tests of several transport models (JETTO, Weiland model) using the 2-D profile data indicate that there is only limited agreement between the model predictions and the experimental results for the range of plasma conditions examined for the different devices (DIII-D, JET, JT-60U). Gyrokinetic stability analysis of the ITB discharges from these devices indicates that the ITG/TEM growth rates decrease with increased negative magnetic shear and that the ExB shear rate is comparable to the linear growth rates at the location of the ITB. (author)

  8. The Arabidopsis cax3 mutants display altered salt tolerance, pH sensitivity and reduced plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Marshall, Joy; Pittman, Jon K; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2008-02-01

    Perturbing CAX1, an Arabidopsis vacuolar H+/Ca2+ antiporter, and the related vacuolar transporter CAX3, has been previously shown to cause severe growth defects; however, the specific function of CAX3 has remained elusive. Here, we describe plant phenotypes that are shared among cax1 and cax3 including an increased sensitivity to both abscisic acid (ABA) and sugar during germination, and an increased tolerance to ethylene during early seedling development. We have also identified phenotypes unique to cax3, namely salt, lithium and low pH sensitivity. We used biochemical measurements to ascribe these cax3 sensitivities to a reduction in vacuolar H+/Ca2+ transport during salt stress and decreased plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity. These findings catalog an array of CAX phenotypes and assign a specific role for CAX3 in response to salt tolerance.

  9. Effects of increased CO2 on fish gill and plasma proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Bresolin de Souza

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification and warming are both primarily caused by increased levels of atmospheric CO2, and marine organisms are exposed to these two stressors simultaneously. Although the effects of temperature on fish have been investigated over the last century, the long-term effects of moderate CO2 exposure and the combination of both stressors are almost entirely unknown. A proteomics approach was used to assess the adverse physiological and biochemical changes that may occur from the exposure to these two environmental stressors. We analysed gills and blood plasma of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus exposed to temperatures of 12 °C (control and 18 °C (impaired growth in combination with control (400 µatm or high-CO2 water (1000 µatm for 14 weeks. The proteomic analysis was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE followed by Nanoflow LC-MS/MS using a LTQ-Orbitrap. The high-CO2 treatment induced the up-regulation of immune system-related proteins, as indicated by the up-regulation of the plasma proteins complement component C3 and fibrinogen β chain precursor in both temperature treatments. Changes in gill proteome in the high-CO2 (18 °C group were mostly related to increased energy metabolism proteins (ATP synthase, malate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase thermostable, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, possibly coupled to a higher energy demand. Gills from fish exposed to high-CO2 at both temperature treatments showed changes in proteins associated with increased cellular turnover and apoptosis signalling (annexin 5, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1γ, receptor for protein kinase C, and putative ribosomal protein S27. This study indicates that moderate CO2-driven acidification, alone and combined with high temperature, can elicit biochemical changes that may affect fish health.

  10. Skim Milk, Whey, and Casein Increase Body Weight and Whey and Casein Increase the Plasma C-Peptide Concentration in Overweight Adolescents12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Karina; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2012-01-01

    insulin, and insulin secretion estimated as the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents. Overweight adolescents (n = 203) aged 12–15 y with a BMI of 25.4 ± 2.3 kg/m2 (mean ± SD) were randomized to 1 L/d of skim milk, whey, casein, or water for 12 wk. All milk drinks contained 35 g protein....... Outcomes were BMI-for-age Z-scores (BAZs), waist circumference, plasma insulin, homeostatic model assessment, and plasma C-peptide. We found no change in BAZ in the pretest control and water groups, whereas it was greater at 12 wk in the skim milk, whey, and casein groups compared with baseline...... and with the water and pretest control groups. The plasma C-peptide concentration increased from baseline to wk 12 in the whey and casein groups and increments were greater than in the pretest control (P

  11. Hypergravity-induced increase in plasma catecholamine and corticosterone levels in telemetrically collected blood of rats during centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrak, Juraj; Mravec, Boris; Jurani, Marian; Baranovska, Magda; Tillinger, Andrej; Hapala, Ivan; Frollo, Ivan; Kvetnanský, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Rats subjected to various accelerations (+G) exhibited increased levels of plasma epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), and corticosterone. However, the collection of blood was performed after a centrifugation finished, and therefore the levels could be affected by the process of deceleration. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma EPI, NE, and corticosterone levels in blood collected directly during centrifugation after reaching different G (2-6), using newly developed remote-controlled equipment. Animals placed into the centrifuge cabins had inserted polyethylene tubing in the tail artery, which was connected with a preprogrammed device for blood withdrawals. Plasma EPI, NE, and corticosterone levels were measured at different time intervals of hypergravity of 2-6G. Plasma EPI levels showed a huge, hypergravity-level-dependent increase. After the last blood collection was completed during hypergravity, the centrifuge was turned off and another blood sampling was performed immediately after the centrifuge stopped (10 min). In these samples, plasma EPI showed significantly lower levels compared to centrifugation intervals. Plasma NE levels were significantly increased after 6G only. The increase in plasma corticosterone was dependent on level of G, however after the centrifuge stopped, corticosterone levels remained elevated. Thus, our data show that hypergravity highly activates the adrenomedullary and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical systems, whereas the sympathoneural system is activated only at high hypergravity. Immediately after centrifugation is over, EPI levels quickly return to control values. Our technique of blood collection during centrifugation allows assessment of the real hormonal levels at the particular hypergravity value.

  12. A sustained increase in plasma NEFA upregulates the Toll-like receptor network in human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Sophie E; Lum, Helen; Alvarez, Andrea; Cipriani, Yolanda; Garduño-Garcia, Jesús; Anaya, Luis; Dube, John; Musi, Nicolas

    2014-03-01

    Insulin-sensitive tissues (muscle, liver) of individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are in a state of low-grade inflammation, characterised by increased Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and TLR-driven signalling. However, the cause of this mild inflammatory state is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that a prolonged mild increase in plasma NEFA will increase TLR expression and TLR-driven signalling (nuclear factor κB [NFκB] and mitogen-activated kinase [MAPK]) and impair insulin action in muscle of lean healthy individuals. Twelve lean, normal-glucose-tolerant participants were randomised to receive a 48 h infusion (30 ml/h) of saline or Intralipid followed by a euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were performed before and during the clamp. Lipid infusion impaired insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity (p < 0.01). The elevation in circulating NEFA increased expression of TLR3, TLR4 and TLR5, and several MAPK (MAPK8, MAP4K4, MAP2K3) and inhibitor of κB kinase-NFκB (CHUK [IKKA], c-REL [REL] and p65 [RELA, NFKB3, p65]) signalling genes (p < 0.05). The lipid infusion also increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation (p < 0.05) and tended to reduce the content of inhibitor of kappa Bα (p = 0.09). The muscle content of most diacylglycerol, ceramide and acylcarnitine species was unaffected. In summary, insulin resistance induced by prolonged low-dose lipid infusion occurs together with increased TLR-driven inflammatory signalling and impaired insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. A sustained, mild elevation in plasma NEFA is sufficient to increase TLR expression and TLR-driven signalling (NFκB and MAPK) in lean individuals. The activation of this pathway by NEFA may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in humans. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01740817.

  13. Dietary omega-6 fatty acid lowering increases bioavailability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human plasma lipid pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y.; Cheon, Yewon; Faurot, Keturah F.; MacIntosh, Beth; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon F.; Mann, J. Douglas; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Ringel, Amit; Ramsden, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) lowering in rats reduces n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) plasma concentrations and increases n-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) concentrations. Objective To evaluate the extent to which 12 weeks of dietary n-6 PUFA lowering, with or without increased dietary n-3 PUFAs, change unesterified and esterified plasma n-6 and n-3 PUFA concentrations in subjects with chronic headache. Design Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Subjects with chronic headache were randomized for 12 weeks to: (1) average n-3, low n-6 (L6) diet; or (2) high n-3, low n-6 LA (H3-L6) diet. Esterified and unesterified plasma fatty acids were quantified at baseline (0 weeks) and after 12 weeks on a diet. Results Compared to baseline, the L6 diet reduced esterified plasma LA and increased esterified n-3 PUFA concentrations (nmol/ml), but did not significantly change plasma arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) concentration. In addition, unesterified EPA concentration was increased significantly among unesterified fatty acids. The H3-L6 diet decreased esterified LA and AA concentrations, and produced more marked increases in esterified and unesterified n-3 PUFA concentrations. Conclusion Dietary n-6 PUFA lowering for 12 weeks significantly reduces LA and increases n-3 PUFA concentrations in plasma, without altering plasma AA concentration. A concurrent increase in dietary n-3 PUFA for 12 weeks further increases n-3 PUFA plasma concentrations, but also reduces AA. PMID:24675168

  14. Effects of acute exposure to increased plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Sarah; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Carroll, Chad C; Katsanos, Christos S

    2015-01-01

    Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are inversely related to insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism in humans. However, currently, it is not known whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between increased plasma BCAA concentrations and decreased insulin sensitivity. To determine the effects of acute exposure to increased plasma BCAA concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in humans. Ten healthy subjects were randomly assigned to an experiment where insulin was infused at 40 mU/m2/min (40U) during the second half of a 6-hour intravenous infusion of a BCAA mixture (i.e., BCAA; N = 5) to stimulate plasma glucose turnover or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (Control; N = 5). In a separate experiment, seven healthy subjects were randomly assigned to receive insulin infusion at 80 mU/m2/min (80U) in association with the above BCAA infusion (N = 4) or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (N = 3). Plasma glucose turnover was measured prior to and during insulin infusion. Insulin infusion completely suppressed the endogenous glucose production (EGP) across all groups. The percent suppression of EGP was not different between Control and BCAA in either the 40U or 80U experiments (P > 0.05). Insulin infusion stimulated whole-body glucose disposal rate (GDR) across all groups. However, the increase (%) in GDR was not different [median (1st quartile - 3rd quartile)] between Control and BCAA in either the 40U ([199 (167-278) vs. 186 (94-308)] or 80 U ([491 (414-548) vs. 478 (409-857)] experiments (P > 0.05). Likewise, insulin stimulated the glucose metabolic clearance in all experiments (P BCAA in either of the experiments (P > 0.05). Short-term exposure of young healthy subjects to increased plasma BCAA concentrations does not alter the insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism.

  15. Effects of acute exposure to increased plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in healthy young subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Everman

    Full Text Available Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA are inversely related to insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism in humans. However, currently, it is not known whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between increased plasma BCAA concentrations and decreased insulin sensitivity.To determine the effects of acute exposure to increased plasma BCAA concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in humans.Ten healthy subjects were randomly assigned to an experiment where insulin was infused at 40 mU/m2/min (40U during the second half of a 6-hour intravenous infusion of a BCAA mixture (i.e., BCAA; N = 5 to stimulate plasma glucose turnover or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (Control; N = 5. In a separate experiment, seven healthy subjects were randomly assigned to receive insulin infusion at 80 mU/m2/min (80U in association with the above BCAA infusion (N = 4 or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (N = 3. Plasma glucose turnover was measured prior to and during insulin infusion.Insulin infusion completely suppressed the endogenous glucose production (EGP across all groups. The percent suppression of EGP was not different between Control and BCAA in either the 40U or 80U experiments (P > 0.05. Insulin infusion stimulated whole-body glucose disposal rate (GDR across all groups. However, the increase (% in GDR was not different [median (1st quartile - 3rd quartile] between Control and BCAA in either the 40U ([199 (167-278 vs. 186 (94-308] or 80 U ([491 (414-548 vs. 478 (409-857] experiments (P > 0.05. Likewise, insulin stimulated the glucose metabolic clearance in all experiments (P 0.05.Short-term exposure of young healthy subjects to increased plasma BCAA concentrations does not alter the insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism.

  16. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, M; Mortensen, S P; Hellsten, Y

    2013-03-01

    Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension and age on endothelin-1 levels in plasma and skeletal muscle and endothelin receptors in skeletal muscle in human subjects. In study 1, normotensive (46 ± 1 years, n = 11) and hypertensive (47 ± 1 years, n = 10) subjects were studied before and after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training. In study 2, young (23 ± 1 years, n = 8), older lifelong sedentary (66 ± 2 years, n = 8) and older lifelong endurance-trained (62 ± 2 years, n = 8) subjects were studied in a cross-sectional design. Skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels were increased with age and plasma endothelin-1 levels were higher in hypertensive than normotensive individuals. Eight weeks of exercise training normalized plasma endothelin-1 levels in the hypertensive subjects and increased the protein expression of the ET(A) receptor in skeletal muscle of normotensive subjects. Similarly, individuals that had performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension. This effect may explain some of the beneficial effects of training on the cardiovascular system in older and hypertensive subjects. © 2012 The Authors Acta Physiologica © 2012 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  17. Prolonged submaximal eccentric exercise is associated with increased levels of plasma IL-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Thomas; MacLean, D A; Richter, Erik

    1997-01-01

    To study the relationship between exercise-related muscle proteolysis and the cytokine response, a prolonged eccentric exercise model of one leg was used. Subjects performed two trials [a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation and a control trial]. The release of amino acids from muscle...... during and after the eccentric exercise was decreased in the BCAA trial, suggesting a suppression of net muscle protein degradation. The plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 increased from 0.75 +/- 0.19 (preexercise) to 5.02 +/- 0.96 pg/ml (2 h postexercise) in the control trial and in the BCAA...... supplementation trial from 1.07 +/- 0.41 to 4.15 +/- 1.21 pg/ml. Eccentric exercise had no effect on the concentrations of neutrophils, lymphocytes, CD16+/CD56+, CD4+, CD8+, CD14+/CD38+, lymphocyte proliferative response, or cytotoxic activities. BCAA supplementation reduced the concentration of CD14+/CD38+ cells...

  18. Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Mary B; Engler, Marguerite M; Chen, Chung Y; Malloy, Mary J; Browne, Amanda; Chiu, Elisa Y; Kwak, Ho-Kyung; Milbury, Paul; Paul, Steven M; Blumberg, Jeffrey; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L

    2004-06-01

    Dark chocolate derived from the plant (Theobroma cacao) is a rich source of flavonoids. Cardioprotective effects including antioxidant properties, inhibition of platelet activity, and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase have been ascribed to the cocoa flavonoids. To investigate the effects of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on endothelial function, measures of oxidative stress, blood lipids, and blood pressure in healthy adult subjects. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design conducted over a 2 week period in 21 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were randomly assigned to daily intake of high-flavonoid (213 mg procyanidins, 46 mg epicatechin) or low-flavonoid dark chocolate bars (46 g, 1.6 oz). High-flavonoid chocolate consumption improved endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery (mean change = 1.3 +/- 0.7%) as compared to low-flavonoid chocolate consumption (mean change = -0.96 +/- 0.5%) (p = 0.024). No significant differences were noted in the resistance to LDL oxidation, total antioxidant capacity, 8-isoprostanes, blood pressure, lipid parameters, body weight or body mass index (BMI) between the two groups. Plasma epicatechin concentrations were markedly increased at 2 weeks in the high-flavonoid group (204.4 +/- 18.5 nmol/L, p < or = 0.001) but not in the low-flavonoid group (17.5 +/- 9 nmol/L, p = 0.99). Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and is associated with an increase in plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. No changes in oxidative stress measures, lipid profiles, blood pressure, body weight or BMI were seen.

  19. Increases in plasma lutein through supplementation are correlated with increases in physical activity and reductions in sedentary time in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Rebecca L; Coates, Alison M; Howe, Peter R C; Bryan, Janet; Matsumoto, Megumi; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2014-03-03

    Cross-sectional studies have reported positive relationships between serum lutein concentrations and higher physical activity levels. The purpose of the study was to determine whether increasing plasma lutein levels increases physical activity. Forty-four older adults (BMI, 25.3 ± 2.6 kg/m²; age, 68.8 ± 6.4 year) not meeting Australian physical activity guidelines (150 min/week of moderate to vigorous activity) were randomized to consume capsules containing 21 mg of lutein or placebo with 250 mL of full-cream milk per day for 4 weeks and encouraged to increase physical activity. Physical activity was assessed by self-report, pedometry and accelerometry (daily activity counts and sedentary time). Exercise self-efficacy was assessed by questionnaire. Thirty-nine participants competed the study (Lutein = 19, Placebo = 20). Lutein increased plasma lutein concentrations compared with placebo (p lutein were inversely associated with absolute (r = -0.36, p = 0.03) and percentage changes (r = -0.39, p = 0.02) in sedentary time. Percentage change in plasma lutein was positively associated with the percentage change in average daily activity counts (r = 0.36, p = 0.03). Exercise self-efficacy did not change (p = 0.16). Lutein increased plasma lutein, which was associated with increased physical activity and reduced sedentary time in older adults. Larger trials should evaluate whether Lutein can provide health benefits over the longer term.

  20. Acute isoproterenol induces anxiety-like behavior in rats and increases plasma content of extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Giuseppina; Guescini, Michele; Genedani, Susanna; Stocchi, Vilberto; Carone, Chiara; Filaferro, Monica; Sisti, Davide; Marcoli, Manuela; Maura, Guido; Cortelli, Pietro; Guidolin, Diego; Fuxe, Kjell; Agnati, Luigi Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Several clinical observations have demonstrated a link between heart rate and anxiety or panic disorders. In these patients, β-adrenergic receptor function was altered. This prompted us to investigate whether the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol, at a dose that stimulates peripheral β-adrenergic system but has no effects at the central nervous system, can induce anxiety-like behavior in rats. Moreover, some possible messengers involved in the peripheral to brain communication were investigated. Our results showed that isoproterenol (5 mg kg(-1) i.p.) increased heart rate, evoked anxiety-like behavior, did not result in motor impairments and increased extracellular vesicle content in the blood. Plasma corticosterone level was unmodified as well as vesicular Hsp70 content. Vesicular miR-208 was also unmodified indicating a source of increased extracellular vesicles different from cardiomyocytes. We can hypothesize that peripheral extracellular vesicles might contribute to the β-adrenergic receptor-evoked anxiety-like behavior, acting as peripheral signals in modulating the mental state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of plasma charging-induced white pixel defect increase in CMOS active pixel sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokashiki, Ken; Bai, KeunHee; Baek, KyeHyun; Kim, Yongjin; Min, Gyungjin; Kang, Changjin; Cho, Hanku; Moon, Jootae

    2007-01-01

    Plasma process-induced 'white pixel defect' (WPD) of CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) is studied for Si3N4 spacer etch back process by using a magnetically enhanced reactive ion etching (MERIE) system. WPD preferably takes place at the wafer edge region when the magnetized plasma is applied to Si3N4 etch. Plasma charging analysis reveals that the plasma charge-up characteristic is well matching the edge-intensive WPD generation, rather than the UV radiation. Plasma charging on APS transfer gate might lead to a gate leakage, which could play a role in generation of signal noise or WPD. In this article the WPD generation mechanism will be discussed from plasma charging point of view

  2. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes......AIMS: Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension...... and age on endothelin-1 levels in plasma and skeletal muscle and endothelin receptors in skeletal muscle in human subjects. METHODS: In study 1, normotensive (46 ± 1 years, n = 11) and hypertensive (47 ± 1 years, n = 10) subjects were studied before and after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training. In study...

  3. Modifying TiO{sub 2} surface architecture by oxygen plasma to increase dye sensitized solar cell efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajmohan, Gayathri Devi [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong Waurn Ponds, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Dai, Xiujuan J., E-mail: jane.dai@deakin.edu.au [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong Waurn Ponds, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Tsuzuki, Takuya; Lamb, Peter R. [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong Waurn Ponds, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Plessis, Johan du [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476 V, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Huang, Fuzhi; Cheng, Yi-Bing [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2013-10-31

    Oxygen plasma treatment of TiO{sub 2} films has been used to improve the efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells. Both a commercial TiO{sub 2} sample and a TiO{sub 2} thin film synthesized by a sol-gel technique were treated using a custom built inductively coupled plasma apparatus. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that oxygen-plasma treatment increased the number of oxygen functional groups (hydroxyl groups) and introduced some Ti{sup 3+} species on the surface of TiO{sub 2}. A sample solar cell with plasma treated TiO{sub 2} showed an overall solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 4.3%, about a 13% increase over untreated TiO{sub 2}. The photon conversion efficiency for the plasma treated TiO{sub 2} was 34% higher than untreated TiO{sub 2}. This enhanced cell-performance is partly due to increased dye adsorption from an increase in surface oxygen functional groups and also may be partly due to Ti{sup 3+} states on the surface of TiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Oxygen plasma is used to generate hydroxyl groups on the surface of TiO{sub 2} • Parallel study was conducted using a spin coated TiO{sub 2} and a Commercial TiO{sub 2} film. • The plasma functionalization caused increased dye uptake. • Some species in Ti{sup 3+} state are also generated after oxygen plasma. • Dye sensitised solar cell with functionalised electrode showed improved efficiency.

  4. Increasing Wear Resistance of Titanium Alloys by Anode Plasma Electrolytic Saturation with Interstitial Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, P. N.; Kusmanov, S. A.; Dyakov, I. G.; Silkin, S. A.; Smirnov, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    In our previous studies, we have shown that anode plasma electrolytic saturation of titanium alloys with nitrogen and carbon can improve their tribological properties. Obtained structure containing oxide layer and solid solution of diffused element in titanium promotes the enhancement of running-in ability and the decrease in the wear rate in some special cases. In this paper, further investigations are reported regarding the tribological properties of alpha- and beta-titanium alloys in wear test against hardened steel (50 HRC) disk using pin-on-disk geometry and balls of Al2O3 (6.25 mm in diameter) or bearing steel (9.6 mm in diameter) with ball-on-plate one and normal load from 5 to 209 N. Reproducible results were obtained under testing samples treated by means of the plasma electrolytic nitriding (PEN) with the mechanical removal of the oxide layer. Friction coefficient of nitrided samples is 0.5-0.9 which is somewhat higher than that for untreated one (0.48-0.75) during dry sliding against Al2O3 ball. An increase in the sliding speed results in the polishing of nitrided samples and reduction of their wear rate by 60 times. This result is obtained for 5 min at 850 °C using PEN in electrolyte containing 5 wt.% ammonia and 10 wt.% ammonium chloride followed by quenching in solution. Optical microscope was employed to assist in the evaluation of the wear behavior. Sizes of wear tracks were measured by profilometer TR200.

  5. Increases in Plasma Lutein through Supplementation Are Correlated with Increases in Physical Activity and Reductions in Sedentary Time in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Thomson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional studies have reported positive relationships between serum lutein concentrations and higher physical activity levels. The purpose of the study was to determine whether increasing plasma lutein levels increases physical activity. Forty-four older adults (BMI, 25.3 ± 2.6 kg/m2; age, 68.8 ± 6.4 year not meeting Australian physical activity guidelines (150 min/week of moderate to vigorous activity were randomized to consume capsules containing 21 mg of lutein or placebo with 250 mL of full-cream milk per day for 4 weeks and encouraged to increase physical activity. Physical activity was assessed by self-report, pedometry and accelerometry (daily activity counts and sedentary time. Exercise self-efficacy was assessed by questionnaire. Thirty-nine participants competed the study (Lutein = 19, Placebo = 20. Lutein increased plasma lutein concentrations compared with placebo (p < 0.001. Absolute and percentage changes in plasma lutein were inversely associated with absolute (r = −0.36, p = 0.03 and percentage changes (r = −0.39, p = 0.02 in sedentary time. Percentage change in plasma lutein was positively associated with the percentage change in average daily activity counts (r = 0.36, p = 0.03. Exercise self-efficacy did not change (p = 0.16. Lutein increased plasma lutein, which was associated with increased physical activity and reduced sedentary time in older adults. Larger trials should evaluate whether Lutein can provide health benefits over the longer term.

  6. Does cooperation increase helpers' later success as breeders? A test of the skills hypothesis in the cooperatively displaying lance-tailed manakin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVal, Emily H

    2013-07-01

    Experience improves individual performance in many tasks. Pre-breeding cooperation may provide important experience that improves later success as a breeder, offering one compelling explanation for why some individuals delay reproduction to help others breed (the 'skills hypothesis'). However, confounding effects of age, quality and alternative selective benefits have complicated rigorous tests of this hypothesis. Male lance-tailed manakins perform cooperative courtship displays involving partnerships between unrelated alpha and beta males, and alphas monopolize resulting copulations. Beta males therefore do not receive immediate direct or indirect fitness benefits, but may gain skills during cooperation that increase their later success as an alpha. To date, however, the effect of cooperative experience on later success as a breeder has never been tested in any cooperatively displaying taxon. The effects of prior cooperative experience on reproductive success of alpha lance-tailed manakins were analysed in a mixed model framework using 12 years of information on cooperative experience and annual and lifetime genetic reproductive success for 57 alpha males. Models included previously identified effects of age and alpha tenure. Individual-level random effects controlled for quality differences to test for an independent influence of beta experience on success. Males accumulated up to 5 years of beta experience before becoming alphas, but 42·1% of alphas had no prior beta experience. Betas became alphas later in life, and experienced significantly lower reproductive success in their final year as alpha than males that were never beta, but did not have higher lifetime success or longer alpha tenures. Differences in patterns of annual siring success were best explained by age-dependent patterns of reproductive improvement and senescence among alphas, not beta experience. Cooperative experience does not increase relative breeding success for male lance-tailed manakins

  7. Increased Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure Facilitates the Uptake of Therapeutic Macromolecules in a Xenograft Tumor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Hofmann

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Elevated tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP is a characteristic of most solid tumors. Clinically, TIFP may hamper the uptake of chemotherapeutic drugs into the tumor tissue reducing their therapeutic efficacy. In this study, a means of modulating TIFP to increase the flux of macromolecules into tumor tissue is presented, which is based on the rationale that elevated plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP pulls water from tumor interstitium lowering the TIFP. Concentrated human serum albumin: (20% HSA, used as an agent to enhance COP, reduced the TIFP time-dependently from 8 to 2 mm Hg in human tumor xenograft models bearing A431 epidermoid vulva carcinomas. To evaluate whether this reduction facilitates the uptake of macromolecules, the intratumoral distribution of fluorescently conjugated dextrans (2.5 mg/ml and cetuximab (2.0 mg/ml was probed using novel time domain nearinfrared fluorescence imaging. This method permitted discrimination and semiquantification of tumor-accumulated conjugate from background and unspecific probe fluorescence. The coadministration of 20% HSA together with either dextrans or cetuximab was found to lower the TIFP significantly and increase the concentration of the substances within the tumor tissue in comparison to control tumors. Furthermore, combined administration of 20%HSA plus cetuximab reduced the tumor growth significantly in comparison to standard cetuximab treatment. These data demonstrate that increased COP lowers the TIFP within hours and increases the uptake of therapeutic macromolecules into the tumor interstitium leading to reduced tumor growth. This model represents a novel approach to facilitate the delivery of therapeutics into tumor tissue, particularly monoclonal antibodies.

  8. Weak 24-h periodicity of body temperature and increased plasma vasopressin in melancholic depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Londen, L.; Goekoop, J.G.; Kerkhof, G.A.; Zwindeman, K.H.; Wiegant, V.M.; de Wied, D.

    2001-01-01

    Earlier work has shown that plasma vasopressin levels of depressed patients were higher than those of healthy controls. The aim of the present study was to determine whether plasma vasopressin levels were correlated to parameters of the circadian rhythm. 41 patients with major depression (aged 22-77

  9. Effect of increased magnesium intake on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and oxidative stress in alloxan-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, L A; Soladoye, A O

    2007-06-01

    Cardiovascular disorders are the primary causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Agents that improve lipid profile and reduce oxidative stress have been shown to reduce the ensuing risk factors. In the present study, we investigated whether increased magnesium intake could improve hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, and reduce oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into non-diabetic (ND), diabetic (DM) and diabetic fed on a high magnesium diet (DM-Mg) groups. Plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were used as markers of oxidative stress. Plasma levels of ascorbic acid, magnesium and calcium were also determined. Diabetes was induced by injecting alloxan (100 mg/kg B.W). The fasting blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the DM-Mg rats than in the DM rats. Plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, TBARS levels were significantly higher while plasma HDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio, ascorbic acid levels were significantly lowered in DM rats compared with the ND rats. Increased intake of magnesium significantly abrogated these alterations. There were no significant differences in the plasma levels of magnesium and calcium between the DM and ND groups. However, plasma levels of magnesium but not calcium were significantly elevated in DM-Mg rats when compared with other groups. In conclusion, these results suggest that diet rich in magnesium could exert cardioprotective effect through reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, oxidative stress and ameliorated HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio as well as increased plasma ascorbic acid and magnesium in diabetic rats.

  10. Increasing plasma fibrinogen, but unchanged levels of intraplatelet cyclic nucleotides, plasma endothelin-1, factor VII, and neopterin during cholesterol lowering with fluvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottsäter, A; Anwaar, I; Lind, P; Mattiasson, I; Lindgärde, F

    1999-04-01

    Lipid-lowering statin treatment reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and improves endothelial function in patients with hypercholesterolemia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and the macrophage-derived inflammatory mediator neopterin during lipid lowering. In addition, the endothelial production of platelet antiaggregatory and vasodilatory factors such as nitric oxide and prostacyclin, and vasoconstrictive factors such as endothelin-1, was assessed. Plasma fibrinogen, factor VII, endothelin-1, and the neopterin and intraplatelet nitric oxide and prostacyclin mediators cyclic 3'-5'guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic 3'-5'adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) were measured before and 6 months after the institution of treatment with fluvastatin in 17 patients (eight men and nine women, median age 60 years) with vascular disease and previously untreated hypercholesterolemia. After 6 months, a decrease of 1.62 mmol/l [1.26-2.18 (19%); P factor VII [from 1.14 IE/ml (0.58-1.38) to 1.22 IE/ml (0.96-1.46); NS], or plasma neopterin [from 8.6 nmol/l (7.1-11.5) to 8.7 nmol/l (7.9-11.3); NS]. In conclusion, during cholesterol-lowering treatment with fluvastatin, plasma levels of fibrinogen increased whereas intraplatelet cyclic nucleotide levels and plasma endothelin-1, factor VII and neopterin levels were unchanged.

  11. Functional displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelis De, F.; Haentjens, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Functional Displays are directly derived from the Man-Machine Design key document: Function-Based Task Analysis. The presentation defines and describes the goals-means structure of the plant function along with applicable control volumes and parameters of interest. The purpose of the subject is to show, through an example of a preliminary design, what the main parts of a function are. (3 figs.)

  12. Display hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    To appreciate the limitations and possibilities of computer graphics it is necessary to have some acquaintance with the available technology. The aim of this chapter is to mention briefly the different display types and their 'ball-park' price ranges. It must be stressed that prices change rapidly, and so those quoted here are only intended to give an idea of the cost at the time of writing.

  13. Lack of Plasma Protein Hemopexin Results in Increased Duodenal Iron Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorito, Veronica; Geninatti Crich, Simonetta; Silengo, Lorenzo; Aime, Silvio; Altruda, Fiorella; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    The body concentration of iron is regulated by a fine equilibrium between absorption and losses of iron. Iron can be absorbed from diet as inorganic iron or as heme. Hemopexin is an acute phase protein that limits iron access to microorganisms. Moreover, it is the plasma protein with the highest binding affinity for heme and thus it mediates heme-iron recycling. Considering its involvement in iron homeostasis, it was postulated that hemopexin may play a role in the physiological absorption of inorganic iron. Hemopexin-null mice showed elevated iron deposits in enterocytes, associated with higher duodenal H-Ferritin levels and a significant increase in duodenal expression and activity of heme oxygenase. The expression of heme-iron and inorganic iron transporters was normal. The rate of iron absorption was assessed by measuring the amount of (57)Fe retained in tissues from hemopexin-null and wild-type animals after administration of an oral dose of (57)FeSO4 or of (57)Fe-labelled heme. Higher iron retention in the duodenum of hemopexin-null mice was observed as compared with normal mice. Conversely, iron transfer from enterocytes to liver and bone marrow was unaffected in hemopexin-null mice. The increased iron level in hemopexin-null duodenum can be accounted for by an increased iron uptake by enterocytes and storage in ferritins. These data indicate that the lack of hemopexin under physiological conditions leads to an enhanced duodenal iron uptake thus providing new insights to our understanding of body iron homeostasis.

  14. Anthocyanins increase low-density lipoprotein and plasma cholesterol and do not reduce atherosclerosis in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, I. L. F.; Rasmussen, S.E.; Mortensen, Alicja

    2005-01-01

    a purified anthocyanin fraction front black currants, a black currant juice, probucol or control diet for 16 weeks. Purified anthocyanins significantly increased plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Intake of black currant juice had no effect on total plasma cholesterol......, but lowered very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol significantly. There were no significant effects of either purified anthocyanins or black currant juice on aortic cholesterol or development of atherosclerosis after 16 weeks. Probucol had no effect on plasma cholesterol but significantly lowered......, antioxidant enzymes, protein and lipid oxidation were not affected by any of the anthocyanin treatments. Adverse effects of purified anthocyanins were observed on plasma- and LDL-cholesterol. These effects were not observed with black currant juice, suggesting that black currants may contain components...

  15. Book Display as Adult Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Moore

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Book display as an adult service is defined as choosing and positioning adult books from the collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access. The paper considers the library-as-a-whole as a display, examines the right size for an in-library display, and discusses mass displays, end-caps, on-shelf displays, and the Tiffany approach. The author proposes that an effective display depends on an imaginative, unifying theme, and that book displays are part of the joy of libraries.

  16. Fasting and exercise increase plasma cannabinoid levels in THC pre-treated rats: an examination of behavioural consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexander; Keats, Kirily; Rooney, Kieron; Hicks, Callum; Allsop, David J; Arnold, Jonathon C; McGregor, Iain S

    2014-10-01

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, accumulates in fat tissue where it can remain for prolonged periods. Under conditions of increased fat utilisation, blood cannabinoid concentrations can increase. However, it is unclear whether this has behavioural consequences. Here, we examined whether rats pre-treated with multiple or single doses of THC followed by a washout would show elevated plasma cannabinoids and altered behaviour following fasting or exercise manipulations designed to increase fat utilisation. Behavioural impairment was measured as an inhibition of spontaneous locomotor activity or a failure to successfully complete a treadmill exercise session. Fat utilisation was indexed by plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels with plasma concentrations of THC and its terminal metabolite (-)-11-nor-9-carboxy-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) also measured. Rats given daily THC (10 mg/kg) for 5 days followed by a 4-day washout showed elevated plasma THC-COOH when fasted for 24 h relative to non-fasted controls. Fasted rats showed lower locomotor activity than controls suggesting a behavioural effect of fat-released THC. However, rats fasted for 20 h after a single 5-mg/kg THC injection did not show locomotor suppression, despite modestly elevated plasma THC-COOH. Rats pre-treated with THC (5 mg/kg) and exercised 20 h later also showed elevated plasma THC-COOH but did not differ from controls in their likelihood of completing 30 min of treadmill exercise. These results confirm that fasting and exercise can increase plasma cannabinoid levels. Behavioural consequences are more clearly observed with pre-treatment regimes involving repeated rather than single THC dosing.

  17. Specific plasma oxylipins increase the odds of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiuri, Stephanie P B; Aukema, Harold M; Ravandi, Amir; Lavallée, Renée; Guzman, Randy; Pierce, Grant N

    2017-08-01

    Oxylipins and fatty acids may be novel therapeutic targets for cardiovascular disease. The objective was to determine if plasma oxylipins or fatty acids can influence the odds of cardiovascular/cerebrovascular events. In 98 patients (25 female, 73 male) with peripheral artery disease, the prevalence of transient ischemic attacks, cerebrovascular accidents, stable angina, and acute coronary syndrome was n = 16, 10, 16, and 24, respectively. Risk factors such as being male, diagnosed hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia were not associated with events. Plasma fatty acids and oxylipins were analyzed with gas chromatography and HPLC-MS/MS, respectively. None of 24 fatty acids quantified were associated with events. In contrast, 39 plasma oxylipins were quantified, and 8 were significantly associated with events. These 8 oxylipins are known regulators of vascular tone. For example, every 1 unit increase in Thromboxane B 2 /Prostaglandin F 1 α and every 1 nmol/L increase in plasma 16-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, thromboxane B2, or 11,12-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (DiHETrE) increased the odds of having had ≥2 events versus no event (p < 0.05). The greatest predictor was plasma 8,9-DiHETrE, which increased the odds of acute coronary syndrome by 92-fold. In conclusion, specific oxylipins were highly associated with clinical events and may represent specific biomarkers and (or) therapeutic targets of cardiovascular disease.

  18. Phosphodiesterase inhibitor KMUP-3 displays cardioprotection via protein kinase G and increases cardiac output via G-protein-coupled receptor agonist activity and Ca2+ sensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Pin Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available KMUP-3 (7-{2-[4-(4-nitrobenzene piperazinyl]ethyl}-1, 3-dimethylxanthine displays cardioprotection and increases cardiac output, and is suggested to increase cardiac performance and improve myocardial infarction. To determine whether KMUP-3 improves outcomes in hypoperfused myocardium by inducing Ca2+ sensitization to oppose protein kinase (PKG-mediated Ca2+ blockade, we measured left ventricular systolic blood pressure, maximal rates of pressure development, mean arterial pressure and heart rate in rats, and measured contractility and expression of PKs/RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCKII in beating guinea pig left atria. Hemodynamic changes induced by KMUP-3 (0.5–3.0 mg/kg, intravenously were inhibited by Y27632 [(R-(+-trans-4-1-aminoethyl-N-(4-Pyridyl cyclohexane carboxamide] and ketanserin (1 mg/kg, intravenously. In electrically stimulated left guinea pig atria, positive inotropy induced by KMUP-3 (0.1–100μM was inhibited by the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS inhibitors N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME and 7-nitroindazole, cyclic AMP antagonist SQ22536 [9-(terahydro-2-furanyl-9H-purin-6-amine], soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC antagonist ODQ (1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one, RhoA inhibitor C3 exoenzyme, β-blocker propranolol, 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A antagonist ketanserin, ROCK inhibitor Y27632 and KMUP-1 (7-{2-[4-(2-chlorobenzene piperazinyl]ethyl}-1, 3-dimethylxanthine at 10μM. Western blotting assays indicated that KMUP-3 (0.1–10μM increased PKA, RhoA/ROCKII, and PKC translocation and CIP-17 (an endogenous 17-kDa inhibitory protein activation. In spontaneous right atria, KMUP-3 induced negative chronotropy that was blunted by 7-nitroindazole and atropine. In neonatal myocytes, L-NAME inhibited KMUP-3-induced eNOS phosphorylation and RhoA/ROCK activation. In H9c2 cells, Y-27632 (50μM and PKG antagonist KT5823 [2,3,9,10,11,12-hexahydro-10R- methoxy-2,9-dimethyl-1-oxo-9S,12R-epoxy-1H-diindolo(1,2,3-fg:3′,2′,1

  19. Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy Increases Growth Factor Release from Equine Platelet-Rich Plasma In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A. Seabaugh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionExtracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT and platelet-rich plasma (PRP are common treatments for soft tissue injuries in horses. Shockwave triggers cell specific responses to promote healing. Growth factors released from PRP also promote healing. It has been hypothesized that greater growth factor release would amplify the healing process. The combination of ESWT and PRP could promote healing in injured tendons and ligaments in the horse. The objective of this study was to determine if application of shockwaves to PRP samples increases the concentration of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and platelet-derived growth factor ββ (PDGF-ββ released from the platelets in vitro.Materials and methodsPRP was produced from blood drawn from six horses. The PRP from each horse was exposed to the following treatments: (1 positive control (freeze-thaw cycle, (2 untreated negative control, or shockwaves with either (3 a “standard probe” (ESWT-S with a 2 cm focal width and medium energy density or (4 a “power probe” (ESWT-P with a 1 cm focal width and high energy density. After each treatment, the samples were centrifuged, and the supernatant was harvested. The supernatant was then used for growth factor quantification via commercially available ELISA kits for TGF-β1 and PDGF-ββ.ResultsConcentrations of TGF-β1 and PDGF-ββ in PRP that underwent a freeze-thaw cycle were significantly increased compared with all other treatments. Both ESWT-S and ESWT-P resulted in significantly increased TGF-β1 concentrations, 46 and 33%, respectively, when compared with the negative control. Both ESWT-S and ESWT-P resulted in significantly increased PDGF-ββ concentrations, 219 and 190%, respectively, when compared with the negative control.DiscussionThese data indicate that the application of ESWT to PRP increases the expression of growth factors in vitro. This suggests that the combination therapy of local PRP injection followed by ESWT

  20. Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Brian K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplements targeting fat loss and increased thermogenesis are prevalent within the sport nutrition/weight loss market. While some isolated ingredients have been reported to be efficacious when used at high dosages, in particular in animal models and/or via intravenous delivery, little objective evidence is available pertaining to the efficacy of a finished product taken by human subjects in oral form. Moreover, many ingredients function as stimulants, leading to increased hemodynamic responses. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a finished dietary supplement on plasma catecholamine concentration, markers of lipolysis, metabolic rate, and hemodynamics. Methods Ten resistance trained men (age = 27 ± 4 yrs; BMI = 25 ± 3 kg· m-2; body fat = 9 ± 3%; mean ± SD ingested a dietary supplement (Meltdown®, Vital Pharmaceuticals or a placebo, in a random order, double blind cross-over design, with one week separating conditions. Fasting blood samples were collected before, and at 30, 60, and 90 minutes post ingestion and were assayed for epinephrine (EPI, norepinephrine (NE, glycerol, and free fatty acids (FFA. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated for all variables. Gas samples were collected from 30–60 minutes post ingestion for measurement of metabolic rate. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all blood collection times. Results AUC was greater for the dietary supplement compared to the placebo for NE (1332 ± 128 pg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 1003 ± 133 pg·mL-1·90 min-1; p = 0.03, glycerol (44 ± 3 μg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 26 ± 2 μg·mL-1·90 min-1; p -1·90 min-1 vs. 0.88 ± 0.12 mmol·L-1·90 min-1; p = 0.0003. No difference between conditions was noted for EPI AUC (p > 0.05. For all variables, values were highest at 90 minutes post ingestion. Total kilocalorie expenditure during the 30 minute collection period was 29.6% greater (p = 0.02 for the dietary supplement (35 ± 3

  1. Human plasma phospholipid transfer protein increases the antiatherogenic potential of high density lipoproteins in transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van Haperen (Rien); A. van Tol (Arie); P. Vermeulen; M. Jauhiainen; T. van Gent (Teus); P.M. van den Berg (Paul); S. Ehnholm (Sonja); A.W.M. van der Kamp (Arthur); M.P.G. de Crom (Rini); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractPlasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) transfers phospholipids between lipoprotein particles and alters high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction patterns in vitro, but its physiological function is poorly understood. Transgenic mice that overexpress

  2. A Sulfur Amino Acid–Free Meal Increases Plasma Lipids in Humans123

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Youngja; Le, Ngoc-Anh; Yu, Tianwei; Strobel, Fred; Gletsu-Miller, Nana; Accardi, Carolyn J.; Lee, Kichun S.; Wu, Shaoxiong; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Jones, Dean P.

    2011-01-01

    The content of sulfur amino acid (SAA) in a meal affects postprandial plasma cysteine concentrations and the redox potential of cysteine/cystine. Because such changes can affect enzyme, transporter, and receptor activities, meal content of SAA could have unrecognized effects on metabolism during the postprandial period. This pilot study used proton NMR (1H-NMR) spectroscopy of human plasma to test the hypothesis that dietary SAA content changes macronutrient metabolism. Healthy participants (...

  3. C57Bl/6 N mice on a western diet display reduced intestinal and hepatic cholesterol levels despite a plasma hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmarchelier Charles

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small intestine and liver greatly contribute to whole body lipid, cholesterol and phospholipid metabolism but to which extent cholesterol and phospholipid handling in these tissues is affected by high fat Western-style obesogenic diets remains to be determined. Methods We therefore measured cholesterol and phospholipid concentration in intestine and liver and quantified fecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretion in C57Bl/6 N mice fed for 12 weeks either a cholesterol-free high carbohydrate control diet or a high fat Western diet containing 0.03% (w/w cholesterol. To identify the underlying mechanisms of dietary adaptations in intestine and liver, changes in gene expression were assessed by microarray and qPCR profiling, respectively. Results Mice on Western diet showed increased plasma cholesterol levels, associated with the higher dietary cholesterol supply, yet, significantly reduced cholesterol levels were found in intestine and liver. Transcript profiling revealed evidence that expression of numerous genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake via LDL, but also in phospholipid metabolism, underwent compensatory regulations in both tissues. Alterations in glycerophospholipid metabolism were confirmed at the metabolite level by phospolipid profiling via mass spectrometry. Conclusions Our findings suggest that intestine and liver react to a high dietary fat intake by an activation of de novo cholesterol synthesis and other cholesterol-saving mechanisms, as well as with major changes in phospholipid metabolism, to accommodate to the fat load.

  4. Intravenous flurbiprofen axetil enhances analgesic effect of opioids in patients with refractory cancer pain by increasing plasma β-endorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Ting; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Ou, Wu-Ling; Wang, Jun; Yao, Guo-Qing; Yang, Bo; Rao, Zhi-Guo; Gao, Jian-Fei; Zhang, Bi-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the analgesic effect of a combination of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil and opioids, and evaluate the relationship between refractory pain relief and plasma β-endorphin levels in cancer patients. A total of 120 cancer patients was randomly divided into two groups, 60 patients took orally morphine sulfate sustained-release tablets in group A, and another 60 patients receiving the combination treatment of intravenous flurbiprofen axetil and opioid drugs in group B. After 7 days, pain relief, quality of life improvement and side effects were evaluated. Furthermore, plasma β-endorphin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. With the combination treatment of intravenous intravenous flurbiprofen axetil and opioids, the total effective rate of pain relief rose to 91.4%, as compared to 82.1% when morphine sulfate sustained-release tablet was used alone. Compared with that of group A, the analgesic effect increased in group B (p=0.031). Moreover, satisfactory pain relief was associated with a significant increase in plasma β-endorphin levels. After the treatment, plasma β-endorphin level in group B was 62.4±13.5 pg/ml, which was higher than that in group A (45.8±11.2 pg/ml) (pflurbiprofen axetil and opioids can enhance the analgesic effect of opioid drugs by increasing plasma β-endorphin levels, which would offer a selected and reliable strategy for refractory cancer pain treatment.

  5. JTEC panel on display technologies in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Glenn, William E.; Credelle, Thomas; Doane, J. William; Firester, Arthur H.; Thompson, Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development and production, large flat panel displays (FPD's), electroluminescent displays and plasma panels, infrastructure in Japan's FPD industry, market and projected sales, and new a-Si active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) factory); materials for flat panel displays (liquid crystal materials, and light-emissive display materials); manufacturing and infrastructure of active matrix liquid crystal displays (manufacturing logistics and equipment); passive matrix liquid crystal displays (LCD basics, twisted nematics LCD's, supertwisted nematic LCD's, ferroelectric LCD's, and a comparison of passive matrix LCD technology); active matrix technology (basic active matrix technology, investment environment, amorphous silicon, polysilicon, and commercial products and prototypes); and projection displays (comparison of Japanese and U.S. display research, and technical evaluation of work).

  6. Increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity of grazing Japanese Black heifers and cows in forestland in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Satoshi; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Nakano, Miwa; Nakao, Seiji; Hirano, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Yoshito; Kitagawa, Miya; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Kariya, Yoshihiro

    2014-02-01

    Blood total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has become a key bio-marker for animal health. Forest-grazing cattle are known to forage various native plants that have high TAC. This study evaluated differences of plasma TAC between forest-grazing (FG) and pasture-grazing cattle (PG). Experiment 1 monitored the plasma TAC levels of 32 Japanese Black cattle. The level in PG did not change throughout the grazing period. However, that in FG, which increased from summer, was significantly higher than that in PG through fall (P trees consumed by FG were higher than those in pasture grasses. Results of this study show that plasma TAC of grazing Japanese Black cattle in forestland increase from summer through fall. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Increased plasma proline concentrations are associated with sarcopenia in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Kenji; Nakamura, Marie; Adachi, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Akira; Hakamada, Tomomi; Abe, Yasuko; Kaneko, Eiji; Takahashi, Soiciro; Shimokado, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    Metabolome analyses have shown that plasma amino acid profiles reflect various pathological conditions, such as cancer and diabetes mellitus. It remains unclear, however, whether plasma amino acid profiles change in patients with sarcopenia. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia-specific changes occur in plasma amino acid profiles. A total of 153 community-dwelling and seven institutionalized elderly individuals (56 men, 104 women; mean age, 77.7±7.0 years) were recruited for this cross-sectional analysis. We performed a comprehensive geriatric assessment, which included an evaluation of hand grip strength, gait speed, muscle mass and blood chemistry, including the concentration of 18 amino acids. Twenty-eight of the 160 participants met the criteria for sarcopenia established by the Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Univariate analysis revealed associations between the presence of sarcopenia and a higher plasma concentration of proline and glutamine, lower concentrations of histidine and tryptophan. Multivariable analysis revealed that a higher concentration of proline was the only variable independently associated with sarcopenia. The plasma concentration of proline may be useful for understanding the underlying pathophysiology of sarcopenia.

  8. Increased plasma proline concentrations are associated with sarcopenia in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Toyoshima

    Full Text Available Metabolome analyses have shown that plasma amino acid profiles reflect various pathological conditions, such as cancer and diabetes mellitus. It remains unclear, however, whether plasma amino acid profiles change in patients with sarcopenia. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia-specific changes occur in plasma amino acid profiles.A total of 153 community-dwelling and seven institutionalized elderly individuals (56 men, 104 women; mean age, 77.7±7.0 years were recruited for this cross-sectional analysis. We performed a comprehensive geriatric assessment, which included an evaluation of hand grip strength, gait speed, muscle mass and blood chemistry, including the concentration of 18 amino acids.Twenty-eight of the 160 participants met the criteria for sarcopenia established by the Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Univariate analysis revealed associations between the presence of sarcopenia and a higher plasma concentration of proline and glutamine, lower concentrations of histidine and tryptophan. Multivariable analysis revealed that a higher concentration of proline was the only variable independently associated with sarcopenia.The plasma concentration of proline may be useful for understanding the underlying pathophysiology of sarcopenia.

  9. Gas Plasma Pre-treatment Increases Antibiotic Sensitivity and Persister Eradication in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Xu, Ruobing; Zhao, Yiming; Liu, Dingxin; Liu, Zhijie; Wang, Xiaohua; Chen, Hailan; Kong, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of serious nosocomial infections, and recurrent MRSA infections primarily result from the survival of persister cells after antibiotic treatment. Gas plasma, a novel source of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and RNS (reactive nitrogen species) generation, not only inactivates pathogenic microbes but also restore the sensitivity of MRSA to antibiotics. This study further found that sublethal treatment of MRSA with both plasma and plasma-activated saline increased the antibiotic sensitivity and promoted the eradication of persister cells by tetracycline, gentamycin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin, and vancomycin. The short-lived ROS and RNS generated by plasma played a primary role in the process and induced the increase of many species of ROS and RNS in MRSA cells. Thus, our data indicated that the plasma treatment could promote the effects of many different classes of antibiotics and act as an antibiotic sensitizer for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria involved in infectious diseases. PMID:29628915

  10. Plasma level of cyclophilin A is increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and suggests presence of vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Surya; Venugopal, Anila; Kutty, V Raman; A, Vinitha; G, Divya; Chitrasree, V; Mullassari, Ajit; Pratapchandran, N S; Santosh, K R; Pillai, M Radhakrishna; Kartha, C C

    2014-02-07

    Cyclophilin A, an immunophilin is secreted from human monocytes activated by high glucose. Given its role as an inflammatory mediator of vascular tissue damage associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, we examined plasma levels of cyclophilin A in normal healthy volunteers and patients with type 2 diabetes (DM), with or without coronary artery disease (CAD). Study subjects comprised of 212 patients with DM and CAD,101 patients with diabetes, 122 patients with CAD and 121 normal healthy volunteers. Diabetes was assessed by HbA1c levels while coronary artery disease was established by a positive treadmill test and/or coronary angiography. Plasma cyclophilin A was measured using a cyclophilin A ELISA Kit. Relationship of plasma cyclophilin A levels with blood markers of type 2 diabetes, blood lipid levels and medication for diabetes and coronary artery disease were also explored. Plasma Cyclophilin levels were higher in diabetes patients with or without CAD compared to normal subjects (P levels and HbA1C levels were positively associated with increased plasma cyclophilin. Patients using metformin had reduced levels of plasma cyclophilin (p levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides had no significant association with plasma cyclophilin levels. In patients with increased serum CRP levels, plasma cyclophilin A was also elevated (p = 0.016). Prevalence odds for DM, DM + CAD and CAD are higher in those with high cyclophilin values, compared to those with lower values, after adjusting for age and sex, indicating strong association of high cyclophilin values with diabetes and vascular disease. Our study demonstrates that patients with type 2 diabetes have higher circulating levels of cyclophilin A than the normal population. Plasma cyclophilin levels were increased in patients with diabetes and coronary artery disease suggesting a role of this protein in accelerating vascular disease in type 2 diabetes. Considering the evidence that

  11. High resolution Thomson scattering on the COMPASS tokamak - extending edge plasma view and increasing repetition rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílková, Petra; Böhm, Petr; Aftanas, Milan; Šos, Miroslav; Havránek, Aleš; Šesták, David; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Hron, Martin; Pánek, Radomír

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2018), č. článku C01024. ISSN 1748-0221. [International Symposium on Laser-Aided Plasma Diagnostics (LAPD2017) /18./. Prague, 24.09.2017-28.09.2017] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-35260S; GA MŠk(CZ) 8D15001; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma diagnostics - interferometry * spectroscopy and imaging * Trigger concepts and systems (hardware and software) Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: 2.11 Other engineering and technologies Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/13/01/C01024/meta

  12. Increases in plasma plant sterols stabilize within four weeks of plant sterol intake and are independent of cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ras, R T; Koppenol, W P; Garczarek, U; Otten-Hofman, A; Fuchs, D; Wagner, F; Trautwein, E A

    2016-04-01

    Plant sterols (PS) lower plasma LDL-cholesterol through partial inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption. Although PS themselves are poorly absorbed, increased intakes of PS result in elevated plasma concentrations. In this paper, we report time curves of changes in plasma PS during 12 weeks of PS intake. Furthermore, the impact of cholesterol synthesis and absorption on changes in plasma PS is explored. The study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study with the main aim to investigate the effects of PS on vascular function (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01803178). Hypercholesterolemic but otherwise healthy men and women (n = 240) consumed low-fat spreads without or with added PS (3 g/d) for 12 weeks after a 4-week run-in period. Blood sampling was performed at week 0, 4, 8 and 12. Basal cholesterol-standardized concentrations of lathosterol and sitosterol + campesterol were used as markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption, respectively. In the PS group, plasma sitosterol and campesterol concentrations increased within the first 4 weeks of intervention by 69% (95%CI: 58; 82) starting at 7.2 μmol/L and by 28% (95%CI: 19; 39) starting at 11.4 μmol/L, respectively, and remained stable during the following 8 weeks. Placebo-corrected increases in plasma PS were not significantly different between high and low cholesterol synthesizers (P-values >0.05). Between high and low cholesterol absorbers, no significant differences were observed, except for the cholesterol-standardized sum of four major plasma PS (sitosterol, campesterol, brassicasterol and stigmasterol) showing larger increases in low absorbers (78.3% (95%CI: 51.7; 109.5)) compared to high absorbers (40.8% (95%CI: 19.9; 65.5)). Increases in plasma PS stabilize within 4 weeks of PS intake and do not seem impacted by basal cholesterol synthesis or absorption efficiency. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01803178). Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of

  13. Endurance training increases plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentration in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, J A; Pilc, A; Majerczak, J; Grandys, M; Zapart-Bukowska, J; Duda, K

    2008-12-01

    It is believed that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neuronal growth, transmission, modulation and plasticity. Single bout of exercise can increase plasma BDNF concentration [BDNF](p) in humans. It was recently reported however, that elevated [BDNF](p) positively correlated with risk factors for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle age group of subjects. On the other hand it is well established that endurance training decreases the risk of diabetes and development of metabolic syndrome. In the present study we have examined the effect of 5 weeks of moderate intensity endurance training on the basal and the exercise induced changes in [BDNF](p) in humans. Thirteen young, healthy and physically active men (mean +/- S.E: age 22.7 +/- 0.5 yr, body height 180.2 +/- 1.7 cm, body weight 77.0 +/- 2.5 kg, V(O2max) 45.29 +/- 0.93 ml x kg-1 x min(-1)) performed a five week endurance cycling training program, composed mainly of moderate intensity bouts. Before training [BDNF]p at rest have amounted to 10.3 +/- 1.4 pg x ml(-1). No effect of a single maximal incremental cycling up to V(O2max) on its concentration was found (10.9 +/- 2.3 pg x ml(-1), P=0.74). The training resulted in a significant (P=0.01) increase in [BDNF]p at rest to 16.8 +/- 2.1 pg x ml(-1), as well as in significant (P=0.0002) exercise induced increase in the [BDNF](p) (10.9 +/- 2.3 pg x ml(-1) before training vs. 68.4 +/- 16.0 pg x ml(-1) after training). The training induced increase in resting [BDNF](p) was accompanied by a slight decrease in insulin resistance (P=0.25), calculated using the homeostatic model assessment version 2 (HOMA2-IR), amounting to 1.40 +/- 0.13 before and 1.15 +/- 0.13 after the training. Moreover, we have found that the basal [BDNF](p) in athletes (n=16) was significantly higher than in untrained subjects (n=13) (29.5 +/- 9.5 pg x ml(-1) vs. 10.3 +/- 1.4 pg x ml(-1), P=0.013). We have concluded that endurance training of

  14. A cereal-based evening meal rich in indigestible carbohydrates increases plasma butyrate the next morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Östman, Elin M; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2010-01-01

    , mean ± SD: 25.9 ± 3.2 y, BMI meals (50 g available starch) varying in content of indigestible carbohydrates. Each participant consumed all test meals in a random order on separate evenings. At a standardized breakfast following evening test meals......, the postprandial glucose response (incremental area under the curve, 0-120 min) was inversely related to plasma butyrate (r = -0.26; P meals composed of high-amylose barley kernels or high-ß-glucan barley kernels resulted in higher plasma butyrate...... concentrations the following morning compared with an evening meal with white wheat bread (P

  15. Anticipation and consumption of food each increase the concentration of neuroactive steroids in rat brain and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisu, Maria Giuseppina; Floris, Ivan; Maciocco, Elisabetta; Serra, Mariangela; Biggio, Giovanni

    2006-09-01

    Stressful stimuli and anxiogenic drugs increase the plasma and brain concentrations of neuroactive steroids. Moreover, in rats trained to consume their daily meal during a fixed period, the anticipation of food is associated with changes in the function of various neurotransmitter systems. We have now evaluated the effects of anticipation and consumption of food in such trained rats on the plasma and brain concentrations of 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG) and 3alpha,21-dihydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-TH DOC), two potent endogenous positive modulators of type A receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The abundance of these neuroactive steroids was increased in both the cerebral cortex and plasma of the rats during both food anticipation and consumption. In contrast, the concentration of their precursor, progesterone, was increased in the brain only during food consumption, whereas it was increased in plasma only during food anticipation. Intraperitoneal administration of the selective agonist abecarnil (0.1 mg/kg) 40 min before food presentation prevented the increase in the brain levels of 3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG and 3alpha,5alpha-TH DOC during food anticipation but not that associated with consumption. The change in emotional state associated with food anticipation may thus result in an increase in the plasma and brain levels of 3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG and 3alpha,5alpha-TH DOC in a manner sensitive to the activation of GABA(A) receptor-mediated neurotransmission. A different mechanism, insensitive to activation of such transmission, may underlie the changes in the concentrations of these neuroactive steroids during food consumption.

  16. Plasma level of the macrophage-derived soluble CD163 is increased and positively correlates with severity in Gaucher's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Holger Jon; de Fost, Maaike; Aerts, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Recently, soluble CD163 (sCD163) has been identified as a macrophage/monocyte-specific plasma protein and increased concentrations have been measured in patients with infection and myeloid leukaemia. In the present study we investigated the levels of sCD163 in patients with Gaucher's disease...

  17. Short-term increase of plasma free fatty acids does not interfere with intrinsic mitochondrial function in healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, Myrte; Hoeks, Joris; Sauerwein, Hans P.; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Ouwens, Margriet; Lammers, Nicolette M.; van der Plas, Mart N.; Schrauwen, Patrick; Groen, Albert K.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2011-01-01

    Free fatty acid (FFA)- and obesity-induced insulin resistance has been associated with disturbed mitochondrial function. Elevated plasma FFA can impair insulin-induced increase of adenosine triphosphate synthesis and downregulate the expression of genes important in the biogenesis of mitochondria in

  18. Caffeine synergizes with another coffee component to increase plasma GCSF: linkage to cognitive benefits in Alzheimer's mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chuanhai; Wang, Li; Lin, Xiaoyang; Mamcarz, Malgorzata; Zhang, Chi; Bai, Ge; Nong, Jasson; Sussman, Sam; Arendash, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Retrospective and prospective epidemiologic studies suggest that enhanced coffee/caffeine intake during aging reduces risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Underscoring this premise, our studies in AD transgenic mice show that long-term caffeine administration protects against cognitive impairment and reduces brain amyloid-β levels/deposition through suppression of both β- and γ-secretase. Because coffee contains many constituents in addition to caffeine that may provide cognitive benefits against AD, we examined effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on plasma cytokines, comparing their effects to caffeine alone. In both AβPPsw+PS1 transgenic mice and non-transgenic littermates, acute i.p. treatment with caffeinated coffee greatly and specifically increased plasma levels of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF), IL-10, and IL-6. Neither caffeine solution alone (which provided high plasma caffeine levels) or decaffeinated coffee provided this effect, indicating that caffeine synergized with some as yet unidentified component of coffee to selectively elevate these three plasma cytokines. The increase in GCSF is particularly important because long-term treatment with coffee (but not decaffeinated coffee) enhanced working memory in a fashion that was associated only with increased plasma GCSF levels among all cytokines. Since we have previously reported that long-term GCSF treatment enhances cognitive performance in AD mice through three possible mechanisms (e.g., recruitment of microglia from bone marrow, synaptogenesis, and neurogenesis), the same mechanisms could be complimentary to caffeine's established ability to suppress Aβ production. We conclude that coffee may be the best source of caffeine to protect against AD because of a component in coffee that synergizes with caffeine to enhance plasma GCSF levels, resulting in multiple therapeutic actions against AD.

  19. Intake of kale suppresses postprandial increases in plasma glucose: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Sumio; Suzuki, Asahi; Kurokawa, Mihoko; Hasumi, Keiji

    2016-11-01

    Kale ( Brassica oleracea var. acephala ), a vegetable in the family Brassicaceae, has beneficial effects on health, including hypoglycemic effects. In our previous study with a limited number of subjects, intake of kale-containing food at a dose of 14 g decreased postprandial plasma glucose levels. In the present study, the effective dose of kale-containing food was investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. The trial was conducted on 42 Japanese subjects aged 21-64 years with fasting plasma glucose levels of ≤125 mg/dl and 30-min postprandial plasma glucose levels of 140-187 mg/dl. The subjects consumed placebo or kale-containing food [7 or 14 g; low-dose (active-L) or high-dose (active-H) kale, respectively] together with a high-carbohydrate meal. At 30-120 min after the test meal intake, the plasma levels of glucose and insulin were determined. The postprandial plasma glucose levels in subjects with intake of active-L or active-H were significantly lower than those in subjects with intake of placebo, with the maximum plasma concentration (C max ; 163±24 mg/dl for active-L and 162±23 mg/dl for active-H compared with 176±26 mg/dl for placebo [values presented as means ± standard deviation (SD); Pkale were observed. Our findings suggest that intake of kale suppresses postprandial increases in plasma glucose levels at a single dose of 7 g, and that a dose as high as 14 g is safe.

  20. PKU : high plasma phenylalanine concentrations are associated with increased prevalence of mood swings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anjema, Karen; van Rijn, Margreet; Verkerk, Paul H; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; van Spronsen, Francjan J; Fokkema, Margaretha

    2011-01-01

    UNLABELLED: In phenylketonuria, knowledge about the relation between behavior and plasma phenylalanine is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine whether high phenylalanine is associated with disturbed behavior noticed by the patient and or close environment (parents or partners). 48 early

  1. Continuous reduction of plasma paraoxonase activity with increasing dialysis vintage in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Bernhard F; Holzhausen, Helge; Tepel, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Plasma paraoxonase (PON) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes organic phosphate and aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Reduced activity is associated with early events of atherogenesis. The relevance of PON phenotypes is not well characterized in hemodialysis patients. In a cross-sectional study we measure...

  2. Plasma levels of trefoil factors are increased in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, E.M.; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2006-01-01

    Through cDNA array analyses and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) was recently shown to be overexpressed in prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using the levels of trefoil factors as a plasma marker for prostate cancer....

  3. PKU: High plasma phenylalanine concentrations are associated with increased prevalence of mood swings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anjema, K.; Rijn, M. van; Verkerk, P.H.; Burgerhof, J.G.M.; Heiner-Fokkema, M.R.; Spronsen, F.J. van

    2011-01-01

    In phenylketonuria, knowledge about the relation between behavior and plasma phenylalanine is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine whether high phenylalanine is associated with disturbed behavior noticed by the patient and or close environment (parents or partners). 48 early treated PKU

  4. PKU : high plasma phenylalanine concentrations are associated with increased prevalence of mood swings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anjema, Karen; van Rijn, Margreet; Verkerk, Paul H; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; van Spronsen, Francjan J; Fokkema, Margaretha

    UNLABELLED: In phenylketonuria, knowledge about the relation between behavior and plasma phenylalanine is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine whether high phenylalanine is associated with disturbed behavior noticed by the patient and or close environment (parents or partners). 48 early

  5. Interleukin-6 is increased in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of community-dwelling domestic dogs with acute ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne; Thomsen, Barbara B; Boza-Serrano, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    itself contributes towards the cytokine response. Community-dwelling domestic dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke, and therefore, offer the opportunity to study the cytokine response in a noninvasive set-up. The aims of this study were to investigate cytokine concentrations in plasma...... and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in dogs with acute ischaemic stroke and to search for correlations between infarct volume and cytokine concentrations. Blood and CSF were collected from dogs less than 72 h after a spontaneous ischaemic stroke. Infarct volumes were estimated on MRIs. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL......-10 and tumour necrosis factor in the plasma, CSF and brain homogenates were measured using a canine-specific multiplex immunoassay. IL-6 was significantly increased in plasma (P = 0.04) and CSF (P = 0.04) in stroke dogs compared with healthy controls. The concentrations of other cytokines...

  6. Plasma factor VII-activating protease is increased by oral contraceptives and induces factor VII activation in-vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Skouby, Sven O.; Kluft, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    progestins. FSAP genotypes, FSAP and factor VII (FVII) plasma measures were assessed at baseline and after 6 cycles of OC. The 1601GA genotype was present in 49 (8.3%) of the women and was associated with significantly reduced levels of FSAP (P≤0.001). OC use increased FSAP antigen by 25% and FSAP activity......Oral contraceptive (OC) use influences the hemostatic system significantly and is a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) has potential effects on hemostasis. The 1601GA genotype of the 1601G/A polymorphism in the FSAP gene expresses a FSAP...... by 59% (P0.05). The relative increase in FSAP activity was significantly higher in women carrying the 1601GG genotype (63%) than in women carrying 1601GA genotype (50%) (P=0.01) and was associated with an increased activation of FVII. In conclusion: OC use increases the plasma measures of FSAP...

  7. Effects of experimentally increased protein supply to postpartum dairy cows on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Røntved, Christine Maria; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2017-01-01

    The effect of experimentally increasing the postpartum protein supply on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis was studied using 8 periparturient Holstein cows in a complete randomized design. At calving, cows were assigned to abomasal infusion of water (CTRL......) or casein (CAS) in addition to a lactation diet. Casein infusion was gradually decreased from 696 ± 1 g/d at +2 d relative to calving (DRTC) to 212 ± 10 g/d at +29 DRTC to avoid excessive supply. Synthesis rate of plasma proteins was measured at –14, +4, +15, and +29 DRTC by measuring [13C]Phe isotopic...... enrichment in arterial plasma free Phe, total plasma proteins, and albumin after 3, 5, and 7 h of jugular ring[13C]Phe infusion. Plasma volume was determined at +4 and +29 DRTC by dilution of a [125I]BSA dose. Synthesis rate of tissue protein in biopsied rumen papillae was determined by measuring [13C...

  8. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of infants are increased by feeding a milk-based infant formula supplemented with carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Amy D; Albrecht, Daniel; Oliver, Jeffery; Williams, Timberly; Long, Amy C; Price, Pamela T

    2013-06-01

    Human milk is the gold standard of infant nutrition and is a source of important substances, including carotenoids. Infant formulas are designed to mimic the composition and/or performance of human milk, although currently carotenoids are not routinely added to US infant formulas. The aim of this study was to assess plasma concentrations of β-carotene, lutein and lycopene 56 days after feeding infants milk-based infant formula without (CTRL) or with different concentrations of added carotenoids (L1 and L2). Plasma carotenoid concentrations increased in infants fed carotenoid-supplemented formulas as compared with the control formula with no added carotenoids. At study day 56, infants fed the supplemented formulas (L1 and L2) had mean plasma lutein, β-carotene and lycopene concentrations that were within the range of a concurrent group of human milk-fed infants (HM). Anthropometric measurements were comparable among all study groups. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of infants fed the supplemented formulas were within the range of the HM group and are consistent with reported plasma carotenoid ranges in human milk-fed infants. The experimental formulas were well tolerated and anthropometric measurements were comparable among all study groups. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Supplementation with zinc in rats enhances memory and reverses an age-dependent increase in plasma copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandusky-Beltran, Leslie A; Manchester, Bryce L; McNay, Ewan C

    2017-08-30

    Zinc and copper are essential trace elements. Dyshomeostasis in these two metals has been observed in Alzheimer's disease, which causes profound cognitive impairment. Insulin therapy has been shown to enhance cognitive performance; however, recent data suggest that this effect may be at least in part due to the inclusion of zinc in the insulin formulation used. Zinc plays a key role in regulation of neuronal glutamate signaling, suggesting a possible link between zinc and memory processes. Consistent with this, zinc deficiency causes cognitive impairments in children. The effect of zinc supplementation on short- and long-term recognition memory, and on spatial working memory, was explored in young and adult male Sprague Dawley rats. After behavioral testing, hippocampal and plasma zinc and copper were measured. Age increased hippocampal zinc and copper, as well as plasma copper, and decreased plasma zinc. An interaction between age and treatment affecting plasma copper was also found, with zinc supplementation reversing elevated plasma copper concentration in adult rats. Zinc supplementation enhanced cognitive performance across tasks. These data support zinc as a plausible therapeutic intervention to ameliorate cognitive impairment in disorders characterized by alterations in zinc and copper, such as Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Increases in Plasma Lutein through Supplementation Are Correlated with Increases in Physical Activity and Reductions in Sedentary Time in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Rebecca L.; Coates, Alison M.; Howe, Peter R. C.; Bryan, Janet; Matsumoto, Megumi; Buckley, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have reported positive relationships between serum lutein concentrations and higher physical activity levels. The purpose of the study was to determine whether increasing plasma lutein levels increases physical activity. Forty-four older adults (BMI, 25.3 ± 2.6 kg/m2; age, 68.8 ± 6.4 year) not meeting Australian physical activity guidelines (150 min/week of moderate to vigorous activity) were randomized to consume capsules containing 21 mg of lutein or placebo with 250...

  11. Increasing fetal ovine number per gestation alters fetal plasma clinical chemistry values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywicki, Micaela; Blohowiak, Sharon E; Magness, Ronald R; Segar, Jeffrey L; Kling, Pamela J

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is interconnected with developmental programming of lifelong pathophysiology. IUGR is seen in human multifetal pregnancies, with stepwise rises in fetal numbers interfering with placental nutrient delivery. It remains unknown whether fetal blood analyses would reflect fetal nutrition, liver, and excretory function in the last trimester of human or ovine IUGR In an ovine model, we hypothesized that fetal plasma biochemical values would reflect progressive placental, fetal liver, and fetal kidney dysfunction as the number of fetuses per gestation rose. To determine fetal plasma biochemical values in singleton, twin, triplet, and quadruplet/quintuplet ovine gestation, we investigated morphometric measures and comprehensive metabolic panels with nutritional measures, liver enzymes, and placental and fetal kidney excretory measures at gestational day (GD) 130 (90% gestation). As anticipated, placental dysfunction was supported by a stepwise fall in fetal weight, fetal plasma glucose, and triglyceride levels as fetal number per ewe rose. Fetal glucose and triglycerides were directly related to fetal weight. Plasma creatinine, reflecting fetal renal excretory function, and plasma cholesterol, reflecting placental excretory function, were inversely correlated with fetal weight. Progressive biochemical disturbances and growth restriction accompanied the rise in fetal number. Understanding the compensatory and adaptive responses of growth-restricted fetuses at the biochemical level may help explain how metabolic pathways in growth restriction can be predetermined at birth. This physiological understanding is important for clinical care and generating interventional strategies to prevent altered developmental programming in multifetal gestation. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  12. High-nitrate vegetable diet increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduces blood pressure in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Ann; Mitchell, Klaus; Blackwell, Jamie R; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that green leafy vegetables, which are high in dietary nitrate, are protective against CVD such as stroke. High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for stroke and inorganic nitrate has been shown to reduce BP. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that diets containing high-nitrate (HN) vegetables would increase plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduce BP in healthy women. A randomized, crossover trial, where participants received HN vegetables (HN diet) or avoided HN vegetables (Control diet) for 1 week. Before and after each intervention, resting BP and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were measured. University of Exeter, UK. Nineteen healthy women (mean age 20 (sd 2) years; mean BMI 22·5 (sd 3·8) kg/m2). The HN diet significantly increased plasma nitrate concentration (before HN diet: mean 24·4 (sd 5·6) µmol/l; after HN diet: mean 61·0 (sd 44·1) µmol/l, Pdiet: mean 98 (sd 91) nmol/l; after HN diet: mean 185 (sd 34) nmol/l, Pdiet. The HN diet significantly reduced resting systolic BP (before HN diet: mean 107 (sd 9) mmHg; after HN diet: mean 103 (sd 6) mmHg, Pdiet (before Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg; after Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg). Consumption of HN vegetables significantly increased plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduced BP in normotensive women.

  13. Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability through modulation of intracellular calcium levels in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Vandenbussche, Filip; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Petrášek, Jan

    2018-05-01

    Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability for water and small organic compounds through their stimulatory effect on plasma membrane calcium channels, with subsequent modulation of intracellular calcium levels and ion homeostasis. The action of silver ions at the plant plasma membrane is largely connected with the inhibition of ethylene signalling thanks to the ability of silver ion to replace the copper cofactor in the ethylene receptor. A link coupling the action of silver ions and cellular auxin efflux has been suggested earlier by their possible direct interaction with auxin efflux carriers or by influencing plasma membrane permeability. Using tobacco BY-2 cells, we demonstrate here that besides a dramatic increase of efflux of synthetic auxins 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), treatment with AgNO 3 resulted in enhanced efflux of the cytokinin trans-zeatin (tZ) as well as the auxin structural analogues tryptophan (Trp) and benzoic acid (BA). The application of AgNO 3 was accompanied by gradual water loss and plasmolysis. The observed effects were dependent on the availability of extracellular calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) as shown by comparison of transport assays in Ca 2+ -rich and Ca 2+ -free buffers and upon treatment with inhibitors of plasma membrane Ca 2+ -permeable channels Al 3+ and ruthenium red, both abolishing the effect of AgNO 3 . Confocal microscopy of Ca 2+ -sensitive fluorescence indicator Fluo-4FF, acetoxymethyl (AM) ester suggested that the extracellular Ca 2+ availability is necessary to trigger the response to silver ions and that the intracellular Ca 2+ pool alone is not sufficient for this effect. Altogether, our data suggest that in plant cells the effects of silver ions originate from the primal modification of the internal calcium levels, possibly by their interaction with Ca 2+ -permeable channels at the plasma membrane.

  14. Introduction of enteral food increases plasma GLP-2 and decreases GLP-2 receptor mRNA abundance during pig development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Y. M.; Hartmann, B.; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    increased before birth, peaked in suckling 1-d-old pigs (87 +/- 14 pmol/L, P anorexia (34 +/- 5 pmol/L, P ... in these pigs. We conclude that the introduction of enteral feeding transiently increases plasma GLP-2 concentrations and decreases small intestinal GLP-2R mRNA levels during pig development. GLP-2 may play a role in the growth of the small intestine around birth and weaning via a response to enteral nutrition....

  15. Dietary Caprylic Acid (C8:0) Does Not Increase Plasma Acylated Ghrelin but Decreases Plasma Unacylated Ghrelin in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarié, Fanny; Beauchamp, Erwan; Dayot, Stéphanie; Duby, Cécile; Legrand, Philippe; Rioux, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the caprylic acid (C8:0), this study aimed at investigating the discrepancy between the formerly described beneficial effects of dietary medium chain fatty acids on body weight loss and the C8:0 newly reported effect on food intake via ghrelin octanoylation. During 6 weeks, Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed with three dietary C8:0 levels (0, 8 and 21% of fatty acids) in three experimental conditions (moderate fat, caloric restriction and high fat). A specific dose-response enrichment of the stomach tissue C8:0 was observed as a function of dietary C8:0, supporting the hypothesis of an early preduodenal hydrolysis of medium chain triglycerides and a direct absorption at the gastric level. However, the octanoylated ghrelin concentration in the plasma was unchanged in spite of the increased C8:0 availability. A reproducible decrease in the plasma concentration of unacylated ghrelin was observed, which was consistent with a decrease in the stomach preproghrelin mRNA and stomach ghrelin expression. The concomitant decrease of the plasma unacylated ghrelin and the stability of its acylated form resulted in a significant increase in the acylated/total ghrelin ratio which had no effect on body weight gain or total dietary consumption. This enhanced ratio measured in rats consuming C8:0 was however suspected to increase (i) growth hormone (GH) secretion as an increase in the GH-dependent mRNA expression of the insulin like growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) was measured (ii) adipocyte diameters in subcutaneous adipose tissue without an increase in the fat pad mass. Altogether, these results show that daily feeding with diets containing C8:0 increased the C8:0 level in the stomach more than all the other tissues, affecting the acylated/total ghrelin plasma ratio by decreasing the concentration of circulating unacylated ghrelin. However, these modifications were not associated with increased body weight or food consumption. PMID:26196391

  16. Comparison of atmospheric microplasma and plasma jet irradiation for increasing of skin permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, K; Tran, N A; Hayashida, K; Blajan, M

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric plasma is attracting interest for medical applications such as sterilization, treatment of cancer cells and blood coagulation. Application of atmospheric plasma in dermatology has potential as a novel tool for wound healing, skin rejuvenation and treatment of wrinkles. In this study, we investigated the enhancement of percutaneous absorption of dye as alternative agents of transdermal drugs. Hypodermic needles are often the only way to deliver large-molecule drugs into the dermis, although a safe transdermal drug delivery method that does not require needles would be desirable. We therefore explored the feasibility of using atmospheric microplasma irradiation to enhance percutaneous absorption of drugs, as an alternative delivery method to conventional hypodermic needles. Pig skin was used as a biological sample, exposed to atmospheric microplasma, and analyzed by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A tape stripping test, a representative method for evaluating skin barrier performance, was also conducted for comparison. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured and compared with and without atmospheric microplasma irradiation, to quantify water evaporation from the inner body through the skin barrier. The results show that the stratum corneum, the outermost skin layer, could be chemically and physically modified by atmospheric microplasma irradiation. Physical damage to the skin by microplasma irradiation and an atmospheric plasma jet was also assessed by observing the skin surface. The results suggest that atmospheric microplasma has the potential to enhance percutaneous absorption. (paper)

  17. Increased hepatic cholesterol esterification with essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD): relationship to plasma lipoprotein (LP) cholesterol content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ney, D.M.; Ziboh, V.A.; Schneeman, B.O.

    1986-01-01

    EFAD in the rat is associated with hepatic accumulation of esterified cholesterol and altered distribution of cholesterol between plasma and hepatic tissue. Little is known regarding the impact of EFAD on LP composition. To determine the relationship between hepatic cholesterol esterification and plasma lP composition in control (C) and EFAD male Wistar rats, the authors induced EFAD with continuous intragastric (IG) infusion of EFA-free solutions containing 3.5% of calories as triolein for 7 and 14 days. C animals received IG infusion of solutions containing 3.5% of calories as linoleic acid. Data in the EFAD groups reveal: (i) marked decreases in hepatic EFAs and increases in monoenoic acids; (ii) progressive increases in hepatic content of triglyceride and esterified cholesterol with 7 and 14 days of feeding; (iii) assay of acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity in hepatic tissue using 14 C-cholesterol demonstrates an increase in hepatic cholesterol esterification when compared to C animals. Increased hepatic cholesterol esterification correlates with elevated levels of esterified cholesterol in plasma VLDL and HDL particles. These data indicate that the elevated levels of cholesterol esters in LP particles is due, at least in part, to increased hepatic cholesterol esterification with EFAD

  18. Increased expression of TACI on NOD B cells results in germinal centre reaction anomalies, enhanced plasma cell differentiation and immunoglobulin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banday, Viqar S; Thyagarajan, Radha; Sundström, Mia; Lejon, Kristina

    2016-11-01

    B cells have an important pathogenic role in the development of type 1 diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse. We have previously reported that NOD mice display an increased percentage of TACI high -expressing B cells compared with C57BL/6 mice and this trait is linked to chromosomes 1 and 8. In this paper the genetic association of the transmembrane activator, calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI) trait was confirmed using double congenic NOD.B6C1/Idd22 mice. TACI ligation by a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) has been shown to influence plasma cell differentiation, immunoglobulin production and isotype switch. Hence, the functional consequence of the up-regulation of TACI on NOD B cells was analysed both in vitro and in vivo. NOD B cells stimulated with APRIL showed an enhanced plasma cell differentiation and class switch to IgG and IgA compared with B cells from C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, flow cytometry analyses revealed that germinal centre B cells in NOD failed to down-regulate TACI. Availability of the TACI ligand B-cell activating factor (BAFF) has been shown to be a limiting factor in the germinal centre reaction. In line with this, upon immunization with 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl hapten-conjugated hen egg lysozyme, NOD mice produced higher titres of low-affinity antibodies compared with C57BL/6 mice. This observation was supported by the detection of increased levels of BAFF in NOD germinal centres after immunization compared with C57BL/6 by immunofluorescence. Our results support the hypothesis that increased TACI expression on NOD B cells contributes to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Increased MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in mouse neonatal brain and plasma and in human neonatal plasma after hypoxia-ischemia: a potential marker of neonatal encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarek, Nathalie; Svedin, Pernilla; Garnotel, Roselyne; Favrais, Géraldine; Loron, Gauthier; Schwendiman, Leslie; Hagberg, Henrik; Morville, Patrice; Mallard, Carina; Gressens, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    To implement neuroprotective strategies in newborns, sensitive and specific biomarkers are needed for identifying those who are at risk for brain damage. We evaluated the effectiveness of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their naturally occurring tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in predicting neonatal encephalopathy (NE) damage in newborns. Plasma MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels were upregulated as early as 1 h after the HI insult but not did not show such elevations after other types of injury (ibotenate-induced excitotoxicity, hypoxia, lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation), and brain levels reflected this increase soon thereafter. We confirmed these results by carrying out plasma MMP-9 and TIMP-1 measurements in human newborns with NE. In these infants, protein levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were found to be elevated during a short window up to 6 h after birth. This feature is particularly useful in identifying newborns in need of neuroprotection. A second peak observed 72 h after birth is possibly related to the second phase of energy failure after a HI insult. Our data, although preliminary, support the use of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 as early biomarkers for the presence and extent of perinatal brain injury in human term newborns. We first used a mouse model of neonatal HI injury to explore mechanistic aspects such as the time course of these markers after the hypoxia-ischemia event, and the correlation between the levels of these candidate markers in brain and plasma.

  20. Heat and exercise acclimation increases intracellular levels of Hsp72 and inhibits exercise-induced increase in intracellular and plasma Hsp72 in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Passos, Renata L Freitas; Fonseca, Michele Atalla; Oliveira, Kenya Paula Moreira; Lima, Milene Rodrigues Malheiros; Guimarães, Juliana Bohen; Ferreira-Júnior, João Batista; Martini, Angelo R P; Lima, Nilo R V; Soares, Danusa Dias; Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Rodrigues, Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro

    2010-11-01

    In order to verify the effects of heat and exercise acclimation (HA) on resting and exercise-induced expression of plasma and leukocyte heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) in humans, nine healthy young male volunteers (25.0 ± 0.7 years; 80.5 ± 2.0 kg; 180 ± 2 cm, mean ± SE) exercised for 60 min in a hot, dry environment (40 ± 0°C and 45 ± 0% relative humidity) for 11 days. The protocol consisted of running on a treadmill using a controlled hyperthermia technique in which the work rate was adjusted to elevate the rectal temperature by 1°C in 30 min and maintain it elevated for another 30 min. Before and after the HA, the volunteers performed a heat stress test (HST) at 50% of their individual maximal power output for 90 min in the same environment. Blood was drawn before (REST), immediately after (POST) and 1 h after (1 h POST) HST, and plasma and leukocytes were separated and stored. Subjects showed expected adaptations to HA: reduced exercise rectal and mean skin temperatures and heart rate, and augmented sweat rate and exercise tolerance. In HST1, plasma Hsp72 increased from REST to POST and then returned to resting values 1 h POST (REST: 1.11 ± 0.07, POST: 1.48 ± 0.10, 1 h POST: 1.22 ± 0.11 ng mL(-1); p  0.05). HA increased resting levels of intracellular Hsp72 (HST1: 1 ± 0.02 and HST2: 4.2 ± 1.2 density units, p  0.05). Regression analysis showed that the lower the pre-exercise expression of intracellular Hsp72, the higher the exercise-induced increase (R = -0.85, p < 0.05). In conclusion, HA increased resting leukocyte Hsp72 levels and inhibited exercise-induced expression. This intracellular adaptation probably induces thermotolerance. In addition, the non-increase in plasma Hsp72 after HA may be related to lower stress at the cellular level in the acclimated individuals.

  1. Effect of experimentally increased protein supply to postpartum dairy cows on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M; Røntved, C M; Theil, P K; Khatun, M; Lauridsen, C; Kristensen, N B

    2017-05-01

    The effect of experimentally increasing the postpartum protein supply on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis was studied using 8 periparturient Holstein cows in a complete randomized design. At calving, cows were assigned to abomasal infusion of water (CTRL) or casein (CAS) in addition to a lactation diet. Casein infusion was gradually decreased from 696 ± 1 g/d at +2 d relative to calving (DRTC) to 212 ± 10 g/d at +29 DRTC to avoid excessive supply. Synthesis rate of plasma proteins was measured at -14, +4, +15, and +29 DRTC by measuring [C]Phe isotopic enrichment in arterial plasma free Phe, total plasma proteins, and albumin after 3, 5, and 7 h of jugular ring[C]Phe infusion. Plasma volume was determined at +4 and +29 DRTC by dilution of a [I]BSA dose. Synthesis rate of tissue protein in biopsied rumen papillae was determined by measuring [C]Phe isotopic enrichment, and mRNA expression of selected genes was measured by real-time qPCR. Total and differential leukocyte counts were performed and immune responsiveness of monocytes was evaluated by tumor necrosis factor ɑ (TNFɑ) concentration on ex vivo whole blood stimulation with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and responsiveness of T-lymphocytes by interferon γ (IFNγ) concentration on stimulation with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin β (SEB). Further, ELISA plasma concentrations of IgM, IgA, and IgG were determined. The DRTC affected the majority of investigated parameters as expected. The CAS treatment increased milk protein yield (P = 0.04), and tended to lower TNFɑ (P = 0.06), and lowered IFNγ (P = 0.03) responsiveness per monocyte and lymphocyte, respectively, compared with CTRL. Further, fractional synthesis rate of albumin was greater at +4 DRTC for CAS compared with CTRL but did not differ by +29 DRTC (interaction: P = 0.01). In rumen papillae, synthesis rate of tissue protein was greater for CAS compared with CTRL (P protein supply seem to

  2. Increased level of extracellular ATP at tumor sites: in vivo imaging with plasma membrane luciferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Pellegatti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available There is growing awareness that tumour cells build up a "self-advantageous" microenvironment that reduces effectiveness of anti-tumour immune response. While many different immunosuppressive mechanisms are likely to come into play, recent evidence suggests that extracellular adenosine acting at A2A receptors may have a major role in down-modulating the immune response as cancerous tissues contain elevated levels of adenosine and adenosine break-down products. While there is no doubt that all cells possess plasma membrane adenosine transporters that mediate adenosine uptake and may also allow its release, it is now clear that most of extracellularly-generated adenosine originates from the catabolism of extracellular ATP.Measurement of extracellular ATP is generally performed in cell supernatants by HPLC or soluble luciferin-luciferase assay, thus it generally turns out to be laborious and inaccurate. We have engineered a chimeric plasma membrane-targeted luciferase that allows in vivo real-time imaging of extracellular ATP. With this novel probe we have measured the ATP concentration within the tumour microenvironment of several experimentally-induced tumours.Our results show that ATP in the tumour interstitium is in the hundreds micromolar range, while it is basically undetectable in healthy tissues. Here we show that a chimeric plasma membrane-targeted luciferase allows in vivo detection of high extracellular ATP concentration at tumour sites. On the contrary, tumour-free tissues show undetectable extracellular ATP levels. Extracellular ATP may be crucial for the tumour not only as a stimulus for growth but also as a source of an immunosuppressive agent such as adenosine. Our approach offers a new tool for the investigation of the biochemical composition of tumour milieu and for development of novel therapies based on the modulation of extracellular purine-based signalling.

  3. Plasma sterol evidence for decreased absorption and increased synthesis of cholesterol in insulin resistance and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramsothy, Pathmaja; Knopp, Robert H; Kahn, Steven E; Retzlaff, Barbara M; Fish, Brian; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2011-11-01

    The rise in LDL with egg feeding in lean insulin-sensitive (LIS) participants is 2- and 3-fold greater than in lean insulin-resistant (LIR) and obese insulin-resistant (OIR) participants, respectively. We determined whether differences in cholesterol absorption, synthesis, or both could be responsible for these differences by measuring plasma sterols as indexes of cholesterol absorption and endogenous synthesis. Plasma sterols were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in a random subset of 34 LIS, 37 LIR, and 37 OIR participants defined by the insulin sensitivity index (S(I)) and by BMI criteria selected from a parent group of 197 participants. Cholestanol and plant sterols provide a measure of cholesterol absorption, and lathosterol provides a measure of cholesterol synthesis. The mean (±SD) ratio of plasma total absorption biomarker sterols to cholesterol was 4.48 ± 1.74 in LIS, 3.25 ± 1.06 in LIR, and 2.82 ± 1.08 in OIR participants. After adjustment for age and sex, the relations of the absorption sterol-cholesterol ratios were as follows: LIS > OIR (P LIR (P OIR (P = 0.11). Lathosterol-cholesterol ratios were 0.71 ± 0.32 in the LIS participants, 0.95 ± 0.47 in the LIR participants, and 1.29 ± 0.55 in the OIR participants. After adjustment for age and sex, the relations of lathosterol-cholesterol ratios were as follows: LIS sterol concentrations were positively associated with S(I) and negatively associated with obesity, whereas lathosterol correlations were the opposite. Cholesterol absorption was highest in the LIS participants, whereas cholesterol synthesis was highest in the LIR and OIR participants. Therapeutic diets for hyperlipidemia should emphasize low-cholesterol diets in LIS persons and weight loss to improve S(I) and to decrease cholesterol overproduction in LIR and OIR persons.

  4. Enhanced mechanical properties and increased corrosion resistance of a biodegradable magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Leon; Koo, Youngmi; Neralla, Sudheer; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method was developed to control corrosion, porosity, and mechanical property. • Mechanical properties of PEO-coated AZ31 alloys were affected by the different electrolyte. • Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of PEO-coated AZ31 alloys were compared with uncoated one. - Abstract: We report the enhanced mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating in NaOH, Na_2SiO_3, KF and NaH_2PO_4·2H_2O containing electrolytes. Mechanical properties including wear resistance, surface hardness and elastic modulus were increased for PEO-coated AZ31 Mg alloys (PEO-AZ31). DC polarization in Hank's solution indicating that the corrosion resistance significantly increased for PEO-coating in KF-contained electrolyte. Based on these results, the PEO coating method shows promising potential for use in biodegradable implant applications where tunable corrosion and mechanical properties are needed.

  5. Cardiac natriuretic peptides in plasma increase after dietary induced weight loss in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistorp, Caroline Michaela Nervil; Bliddal, Henning; Gøtze, Jens P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac natriuretic peptides are established biomarkers in heart disease, but are also affected by body mass index (BMI). The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of weight loss and changes in body composition following dietary intervention on plasma concentrations...... of the prohormones to A- and B-type natriuretic peptides (proANP and proBNP) and adrenomedullin (proADM). RESULTS: A total of 52 healthy obese subjects, 47 women and 5 men (BMI 36.5 ± 5.6 kg/m(2)) were randomised to either an intensive weight reduction programme using a combination of very low calorie diet (810 kcal...

  6. Increased plasma levels of IL-6 in bacteremic periodontis patients after scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forner, Lone; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Bacteremia frequently occurs after dental treatment. Periodontal inflammation may influence the incidence, magnitude and duration of bacteremia. The presence of circulating oral bacteria or bacterial components may induce cytokine synthesis in blood cells, which may contribute to the development...... or exacerbation of atherosclerosis. The present study tested the hypothesis that bacteremia occurring after scaling in periodontitis patients results in altered plasma levels of cytokines. Twenty periodontitis patients were subjected to scaling. Blood samples at baseline and at 0.5, 10 and 30 minutes postscaling...

  7. Thicker carotid intima-media thickness and increased plasma VEGF levels suffered by post-acute thrombotic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueniwati Y

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yuyun Yueniwati,1 Ni Komang Darmiastini,1 Eko Arisetijono2 1Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia; 2Neurology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia Background and objectives: Atherosclerosis causes reduction of the oxygen supply to structures in the far arterial wall, provoking the release of factors that drive angiogenesis of vasa vasorum, including VEGF. Other studies have revealed the inflammatory response in atherosclerosis and the role of platelet factor 4 (PF4 as an anti-angiogenic chemokine through the inhibition of VEGF. This cross-sectional study aims at measuring the effect of atherosclerosis assessed through carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT against plasma VEGF levels in patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke. Materials and methods: CIMT was assessed sonographically using GE Logiq S6 with 13 MHz frequency linear probe. VEGF-A plasma levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Differences among variables were compared statistically. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation. Results: A total of 25 patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke were identified in days 7 to 90. CIMT thickening was indicated in 88% of patients (1.202 ± 0.312 mm, while an increase in plasma VEGF was identified in all patients (178.28 ± 93.96 ng/mL. There was no significant correlation between CIMT and plasma VEGF levels in patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke (p=0.741. A significant correlation was recognized between CIMT and total cholesterol (p=0.029 and low-density lipoprotein (p=0.018. Conclusion: There were no significant correlations between CIMT and plasma VEGF levels in patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke. However, plasma VEGF increased in patients with thrombotic stroke. CIMT measurement is a promising noninvasive modality to assess the vascular condition of patients with stroke and diabetes, while plasma VEGF

  8. Increased plasma levels of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sFlt-1) in women by moderate exercise and increased plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in overweight/obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makey, Kristina L; Patterson, Sharla G; Robinson, James; Loftin, Mark; Waddell, Dwight E; Miele, Lucio; Chinchar, Edmund; Huang, Min; Smith, Andrew D; Weber, Mark; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide, and this seems to be related to an increase in lifestyle risk factors, including physical inactivity and overweight/obesity. We have reported previously that exercise induced a circulating angiostatic phenotype characterized by increased soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and endostatin and decreased unbound vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in men. However, there are no data on women. The present study determines the following: (a) whether moderate exercise increased sFlt-1 and endostatin and decreased unbound VEGF in the circulation of adult female volunteers and (b) whether overweight/obese women have a higher plasma level of unbound VEGF than lean women. A total of 72 African American and White adult women volunteers ranging in age from 18 to 44 years were enrolled in the exercise study. All the participants walked on a treadmill for 30 min at a moderate intensity (55-59% heart rate reserve), and oxygen consumption (VO(2)) was quantified utilizing a metabolic cart. We obtained blood samples before and immediately after exercise from 63 participants. ELISA assays showed that the plasma levels of sFlt-1 were 67.8±3.7 pg/ml immediately after exercise (30 min), significantly higher than the basal levels, 54.5±3.3 pg/ml, before exercise (P<0.01; n=63). There was no significant difference in the % increase in the sFlt-1 levels after exercise between African American and White (P=0.533) women or between lean and overweight/obese women (P=0.892). There was no significant difference in the plasma levels of unbound VEGF (35.28±5.47 vs. 35.23±4.96 pg/ml; P=0.99) or endostatin (111.12±5.48 vs. 115.45±7.15 ng/ml; P=0.63) before and after exercise. The basal plasma levels of unbound VEGF in overweight/obese women were 52.26±9.6 pg/ml, significantly higher than the basal levels of unbound VEGF in lean women, 27.34±4.99 pg/ml (P<0.05). The results support our hypothesis that exercise

  9. Increased plasma levels of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1) in women by moderate exercise and increased plasma levels of VEGF in overweight/obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makey, Kristina L.; Patterson, Sharla G.; Robinson, James; Loftin, Mark; Waddell, Dwight E.; Miele, Lucio; Chinchar, Edmund; Huang, Min; Smith, Andrew D.; Weber, Mark; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide, and this seems to be related to an increase in lifestyle risk factors, including physical inactivity, and overweight/obesity. We previously reported that exercise induced a circulating angiostatic phenotype characterized by increased sFlt-1 and endostatin and decreased unbound-VEGF in men. However, there is no data on women. The present study determines the following: 1) whether moderate exercise increased sFlt-1 and endostatin and decreased unbound-VEGF in the circulation of adult female volunteers; 2) whether overweight/obese women have a higher plasma level of unbound-VEGF than lean women. 72 African American and Caucasian adult women volunteers aged from 18–44 were enrolled into the exercise study. All the participants walked on a treadmill for 30 minutes at a moderate intensity (55–59% heart rate reserve), and oxygen consumption (VO2) was quantified by utilizing a metabolic cart. We had the blood samples before and immediately after exercise from 63 participants. ELISA assays (R&D Systems) showed that plasma levels of sFlt-1 were 67.8±3.7 pg/ml immediately after exercise (30 minutes), significantly higher than basal levels, 54.5±3.3 pg/ml, before exercise (P < 0.01; n=63). There was no significant difference in the % increase of sFlt-1 levels after exercise between African American and Caucasian (P=0.533) or between lean and overweight/obese women (P=0.892). There was no significant difference in plasma levels of unbound VEGF (35.28±5.47 vs. 35.23±4.96 pg/ml; P=0.99) or endostatin (111.12±5.48 vs. 115.45±7.15 ng/ml; P=0.63) before and after exercise. Basal plasma levels of unbound-VEGF in overweight/obese women were 52.26±9.6 pg/ml, significantly higher than basal levels of unbound-VEGF in lean women, 27.34±4.99 pg/ml (P < 0.05). The results support our hypothesis that exercise-induced plasma levels of sFlt-1 could be an important clinical biomarker to explore the mechanisms of exercise

  10. Increased Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR Levels in Plasma of Suicide Attempters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Ventorp

    Full Text Available The soluble form of the urokinase receptor, suPAR, has been suggested as a novel biomarker of low-grade inflammation. Activation of the immune system has been proposed to contribute to the development of depression and suicidal behavior. In order to identify depressed and suicidal individuals who could benefit from an anti-inflammatory treatment, a reliable biomarker of low-grade inflammation is vital. This study evaluates plasma suPAR levels as a biomarker of low-grade inflammation in patients with major depressive disorder and in patients who recently attempted suicide. The plasma suPAR and an established biomarker, C reactive protein (CRP of suicide attempters (n = 54, depressed patients (n = 19 and healthy controls (n = 19 was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The biomarker attributes of sensitivity and sensibility were evaluated using ROC curve analysis. Both the depressed patients and suicide attempters had increased plasma suPAR. The levels of suPAR discriminated better between controls and suicide attempters than did CRP. In the future, plasma suPAR might be a superior prognosticator regarding outcome of treatment applying conventional antidepressants in conjunction with anti-inflammatory drugs.

  11. Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2014-07-22

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  12. Nitrate-Rich Vegetables Increase Plasma Nitrate and Nitrite Concentrations and Lower Blood Pressure in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonvik, Kristin L; Nyakayiru, Jean; Pinckaers, Philippe Jm; Senden, Joan Mg; van Loon, Luc Jc; Verdijk, Lex B

    2016-05-01

    Dietary nitrate is receiving increased attention due to its reported ergogenic and cardioprotective properties. The extent to which ingestion of various nitrate-rich vegetables increases postprandial plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and lowers blood pressure is currently unknown. We aimed to assess the impact of ingesting different nitrate-rich vegetables on subsequent plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and resting blood pressure in healthy normotensive individuals. With the use of a semirandomized crossover design, 11 men and 7 women [mean ± SEM age: 28 ± 1 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (BMI, in kg/m(2)): 23 ± 1; exercise: 1-10 h/wk] ingested 4 different beverages, each containing 800 mg (∼12.9 mmol) nitrate: sodium nitrate (NaNO3), concentrated beetroot juice, a rocket salad beverage, and a spinach beverage. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and blood pressure were determined before and up to 300 min after beverage ingestion. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations increased after ingestion of all 4 beverages (P nitrate concentrations were similar for all treatments (all values presented as means ± SEMs: NaNO3: 583 ± 29 μmol/L; beetroot juice: 597 ± 23 μmol/L; rocket salad beverage: 584 ± 24 μmol/L; spinach beverage: 584 ± 23 μmol/L). Peak plasma nitrite concentrations were different between treatments (NaNO3: 580 ± 58 nmol/L; beetroot juice: 557 ± 57 nmol/L; rocket salad beverage: 643 ± 63 nmol/L; spinach beverage: 980 ± 160 nmol/L; P = 0.016). When compared with baseline, systolic blood pressure declined 150 min after ingestion of beetroot juice (from 118 ± 2 to 113 ± 2 mm Hg; P nitrate-rich beetroot juice, rocket salad beverage, and spinach beverage effectively increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and lowers blood pressure to a greater extent than sodium nitrate. These findings show that nitrate-rich vegetables can be used as dietary nitrate

  13. Angiotensin II-induced hypertension increases plasma membrane Na pump activity by enhancing Na entry in rat thick ascending limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2013-11-01

    Thick ascending limbs (TAL) reabsorb 30% of the filtered NaCl load. Na enters the cells via apical Na-K-2Cl cotransporters and Na/H exchangers and exits via basolateral Na pumps. Chronic angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion increases net TAL Na transport and Na apical entry; however, little is known about its effects on the basolateral Na pump. We hypothesized that in rat TALs Na pump activity is enhanced by ANG II-infusion, a model of ANG II-induced hypertension. Rats were infused with 200 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) ANG II or vehicle for 7 days, and TAL suspensions were obtained. We studied plasma membrane Na pump activity by measuring changes in 1) intracellular Na (Nai) induced by ouabain; and 2) ouabain-sensitive oxygen consumption (QO2). We found that the ouabain-sensitive rise in Nai in TALs from ANG II-infused rats was 12.8 ± 0.4 arbitrary fluorescent units (AFU)·mg(-1)·min(-1) compared with only 9.9 ± 1.1 AFU·mg(-1)·min(-1) in controls (P Na pump expression, the number of Na pumps in the plasma membrane, or the affinity for Na. When furosemide (1.1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) was coinfused with ANG II, no increase in plasma membrane Na pump activity was observed. We concluded that in ANG II-induced hypertension Na pump activity is increased in the plasma membrane of TALs and that this increase is caused by the chronically enhanced Na entry occurring in this model.

  14. Increased plasma peroxides as a marker of oxidative stress in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)

    OpenAIRE

    Maes, Michael; Kubera, Marta; Uytterhoeven, Marc; Vrydags, Nicolas; Bosmans, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background There is evidence that myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is characterized by activation of immune, inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways. The present study was carried out in order to examine whether ME/CFS is accompanied by increased levels of plasma peroxides and serum oxidized LDL (oxLDL) antibodies, two biomarkers of oxidative stress. Material/Methods Blood was collected from 56 patients with ME/CFS and 37 normal volun...

  15. Total plasma proANP increases with atrial dilatation in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Vekens, N; Hunter, I; Timm, A

    2015-01-01

    ANP product in plasma has proven to be successful in human medicine, but has never been used in horses. The aims were to establish an equine proANP reference interval by measurement of the total proANP product using PIA and to examine the proANP concentrations in horses with atrial dilatation. Sample...... stability was studied by comparison of storage at -80°C and -20°C. Plasma samples were obtained from 23 healthy horses, 12 horses with moderate or severe valvular regurgitation without atrial dilatation and 42 horses with valvular regurgitation and atrial dilatation. The proANP concentration...... was significantly (Phorses with atrial dilatation (761.4 (442.1-1859.1) pmol/l) than in healthy horses (491.6 (429.5-765.9) pmol/l; Phorses with cardiac disease but without atrial dilatation (544.4 (457.0-677.6) pmol/l). A cut-off value (573.8 pmol/l) for detection of atrial dilatation...

  16. Increased vitamin plasma levels in Swedish military personnel treated with nutrients prior to automatic weapon training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C G Le Prell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is a significant clinical, social, and economic issue. The development of novel therapeutic agents to reduce NIHL will potentially benefit multiple very large noise-exposed populations. Oxidative stress has been identified as a significant contributor to noise-induced sensory cell death and NIHL, and several antioxidant strategies have now been suggested for potential translation to human subjects. One such strategy is a combination of beta-carotene, vitamins C and E, and magnesium, which has shown promise for protection against NIHL in rodent models, and is being evaluated in a series of international human clinical trials using temporary (military gunfire, audio player use and permanent (stamping factory, military airbase threshold shift models (NCT00808470. The noise exposures used in the recently completed Swedish military gunfire study described in this report did not, on average, result in measurable changes in auditory function using conventional pure-tone thresholds and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE amplitudes as metrics. However, analysis of the plasma samples confirmed significant elevations in the bloodstream 2 hours after oral consumption of active clinical supplies, indicating the dose is realistic. The plasma outcomes are encouraging, but clinical acceptance of any novel therapeutic critically depends on demonstration that the agent reduces noise-induced threshold shift in randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective human clinical trials. Although this noise insult did not induce hearing loss, the trial design and study protocol can be applied to other populations exposed to different noise insults.

  17. Information rich display design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Robin; Braseth, Alf Ove; Veland, Oeystein

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the concept Information Rich Displays. The purpose of Information Rich Displays (IRDs) is to condensate prevailing information in process displays in such a way that each display format (picture) contains more relevant information for the user. Compared to traditional process control displays, this new concept allows the operator to attain key information at a glance and at the same time allows for improved monitoring of larger portions of the process. This again allows for reduced navigation between both process and trend displays and ease the cognitive demand on the operator. This concept has been created while working on designing display prototypes for the offshore petroleum production facilities of tomorrow. Offshore installations basically consist of wells, separation trains (where oil, gas and water are separated from each other), an oil tax measurement system (where oil quality is measured and the pressure increased to allow for export), gas compression (compression of gas for export) and utility systems (water treatment, chemical systems etc.). This means that an offshore control room operator has to deal with a complex process that comprises several functionally different systems. The need for a new approach to offshore display format design is in particular based on shortcomings in today's designs related to the keyhole effect, where the display format only reveals a fraction of the whole process. Furthermore, the upcoming introduction of larger off- and on-shore operation centres will increase the size and complexity of the operators' work domain. In the light of the increased demands on the operator, the proposed IRDs aim to counter the negative effects this may have on the workload. In this work we have attempted to classify the wide range of different roles an operator can have in different situations. The information content and amount being presented to the operator in a display should be viewed in context of the roles the

  18. High salt intake increases plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) concentration and produces gut dysbiosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielinska, Klaudia; Radkowski, Marek; Grochowska, Marta; Perlejewski, Karol; Huc, Tomasz; Jaworska, Kinga; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Ufnal, Marcin

    2018-03-22

    A high-salt diet is considered a cardiovascular risk factor; however, the mechanisms are not clear. Research suggests that gut bacteria-derived metabolites such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are markers of cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the effect of high salt intake on gut bacteria and their metabolites plasma level. Sprague Dawley rats ages 12-14 wk were maintained on either water (controls) or 0.9% or 2% sodium chloride (NaCl) water solution (isotonic and hypertonic groups, respectively) for 2 wk. Blood plasma, urine, and stool samples were analyzed for concentrations of trimethylamine (TMA; a TMAO precursor), TMAO, and indoxyl sulfate (indole metabolite). The gut-blood barrier permeability to TMA and TMA liver clearance were assessed at baseline and after TMA intracolonic challenge test. Gut bacterial flora was analyzed with a 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequence analysis. The isotonic and hypertonic groups showed a significantly higher plasma TMAO and significantly lower 24-hr TMAO urine excretion than the controls. However, the TMA stool level was similar between the groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in gut-blood barrier permeability and TMA liver clearance. Plasma indoxyl concentration and 24-hr urine indoxyl excretion were similar between the groups. There was a significant difference between the groups in gut bacteria composition. High salt intake increases plasma TMAO concentration, which is associated with decreased TMAO urine excretion. Furthermore, high salt intake alters gut bacteria composition. These findings suggest that salt intake affects an interplay between gut bacteria and their host homeostasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Yeast culture increased plasma niacin concentration, evaporative heat loss, and feed efficiency of dairy cows in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Julia D L; Silva, Rayana B; Fernandes, Tatiane; Barbosa, Eugenio F; Graças, Larissa E C; Araujo, Rafael C; Pereira, Renata A N; Pereira, Marcos N

    2018-04-04

    The supplementation of dairy cows with yeast culture may increase diet digestibility, plasma niacin concentration, heat dissipation, and lactation performance. Our objective was to evaluate the response of Holstein cows in late lactation (234 ± 131 d in milk) to dead yeast culture (YC, 15 g/d, Factor SC, GRASP, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during Brazilian summer (temperature-humidity index >68 for 92.2% of the time). Thirty-two cows were individually fed a standard total mixed ration for 14 d and control (CTL) or YC treatments for 35 d, in a covariate adjusted complete randomized block design. Response was evaluated in wk 5 or as repeated measures over time. Cows were milked 3 times per day and treatments (YC or placebo) were orally dosed to each cow before each milking. Plasma niacin was 1.50 for CTL and 1.66 µg/mL for YC. The YC reduced rectal temperature, respiration rate, and skin temperature, whereas it tended to increase sweating rate. The proportion of cows with rectal temperature ≥39.2°C on CTL and YC was, respectively, 8 and 0% at 0730 h, 52 and 25% at 1500 h, and 35 and 26% at 2200 h. Plasma glucose was increased by YC. The total-tract apparent digestibility of nutrients, plasma urea N concentration, molar proportion of ruminal VFA, and urinary allantoin excretion were not affected by YC. Cows fed YC were less selective against feed particles >19 mm in the morning, in the afternoon were more selective against long feed particles and in favor of particles loss, and feed efficiency of late lactation dairy cows by reducing intake at similar milk yield. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased plasma concentration of serum amyloid P component in centenarians with impaired cognitive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, M; Olsen, H; Jeune, B

    1998-01-01

    these to the cognitive performance evaluated by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). We observed a significantly (p gender-matched controls (32.8+/-11.4 microg/ml). Six severely demented centenarians had an even......Serum amyloid P component (SAP) binds to all amyloid fibrils including those in the plaques and tangles of Alzheimer patients. To investigate whether the plasma SAP concentration correlated to cognitive impairment, we measured SAP levels in blood samples from 41 centenarians and compared...... higher SAP concentration (60.2 microg/ml), while the subgroup of cognitive intact centenarians (MMSE score >24) showed a normal SAP concentration (38.4+/-9.3 microg/ml). No dehydration or hepatic dysfunction was demonstrable in the centenarians. We conclude that the centenarians with impaired cognitive...

  1. PKU: high plasma phenylalanine concentrations are associated with increased prevalence of mood swings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjema, Karen; van Rijn, Margreet; Verkerk, Paul H; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Heiner-Fokkema, M Rebecca; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2011-11-01

    In phenylketonuria, knowledge about the relation between behavior and plasma phenylalanine is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine whether high phenylalanine is associated with disturbed behavior noticed by the patient and or close environment (parents or partners). 48 early treated PKU patients (median age 8.5, range 0-35 years) participated (median phenylalanine concentration in total sample 277 (range 89-1171) μmol/l; and in patients introvert or extravert behavior. The interviewer as well as the respondents were blinded with regard to the phenylalanine concentration. Patients reported less deviant behavior compared to close environment. Mood swings were positively associated with phenylalanine concentrations in the total group (P=0.039) and patients introvert and extravert behavior were not statistically significant. there is a positive association between phenylalanine concentrations and mood swings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Shikonin increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells and improves plasma glucose levels in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.

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    Anette I Öberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest in identifying compounds that can improve glucose homeostasis. Skeletal muscle, due to its large mass, is the principal organ for glucose disposal in the body and we have investigated here if shikonin, a naphthoquinone derived from the Chinese plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon, increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Shikonin increases glucose uptake in L6 skeletal muscle myotubes, but does not phosphorylate Akt, indicating that in skeletal muscle cells its effect is medaited via a pathway distinct from that used for insulin-stimulated uptake. Furthermore we find no evidence for the involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase in shikonin induced glucose uptake. Shikonin increases the intracellular levels of calcium in these cells and this increase is necessary for shikonin-mediated glucose uptake. Furthermore, we found that shikonin stimulated the translocation of GLUT4 from intracellular vesicles to the cell surface in L6 myoblasts. The beneficial effect of shikonin on glucose uptake was investigated in vivo by measuring plasma glucose levels and insulin sensitivity in spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Treatment with shikonin (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally once daily for 4 days significantly decreased plasma glucose levels. In an insulin sensitivity test (s.c. injection of 0.5 U/kg insulin, plasma glucose levels were significantly lower in the shikonin-treated rats. In conclusion, shikonin increases glucose uptake in muscle cells via an insulin-independent pathway dependent on calcium. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Shikonin increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells via an insulin-independent pathway dependent on calcium. The beneficial effects of shikonin on glucose metabolism, both in vitro and in vivo, show that the compound possesses properties that make it of considerable interest for developing novel treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  3. Association of increased levels of plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha with primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondkar AA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Altaf A Kondkar, Tahira Sultan, Faisal A Almobarak, Hatem Kalantan, Saleh A Al-Obeidan, Khaled K Abu-Amero Glaucoma Research Chair, Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Purpose: Retinal ganglion cell (RGC death is a key feature of glaucoma. Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, can induce RGC apoptosis and play a critical role in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Based on the possible role of inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, we investigated the association between plasma levels of TNF-α and POAG or its clinical indices in comparison to non-glaucomatous controls. Patients and methods: In a case–control retrospective cohort of 51 POAG cases and 88 controls, plasma TNF-α levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The assay was performed in duplicates on an automated ELISA analyzer. Results: Mean TNF-α level was significantly elevated in POAG cases (1.88 ± 2.17 pg/mL than the controls (0.93 ± 1.49 pg/mL; p = 0.003. The overall dose–response trend was significant (Χ2 = 6.12, df = 2; p = 0.047. No statistical difference was seen in age, gender and systemic disease distribution. A modest negative and significant correlation was seen between TNF-α level and number of antiglaucoma medications, an important clinical index of POAG severity. Moreover, logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of POAG was most significantly affected by TNF-α level and not by age and sex. Conclusion: High systemic level of an inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, is associated with POAG; however, its possible use as a biomarker for early glaucoma diagnosis and/or disease severity needs further investigation. Keywords: apoptosis, biomarker, cytokines, ELISA, inflammation, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress

  4. Soluble glycoprotein VI, a specific marker of platelet activation is increased in the plasma of subjects with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Stack

    Full Text Available Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA have been shown to cause platelet activation in vitro, through the low-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG receptor (FcγRIIa on platelets. Platelet activation via engagement of FcγRIIa results in proteolytic cleavage and shedding of platelet specific glycoprotein VI (GPVI which can be detected in the plasma as soluble GPVI (sGPVI. We hypothesized that plasma levels of sGPVI would be increased among patients with seropositive RA as a consequence of antibody-induced platelet activation and GPVI shedding.Samples from 84 patients with RA (65 seropositive and 19 seronegative and 67 healthy controls were collected prospectively and analysed for sGPVI using a standardised ELISA.Patients with seropositive RA had significantly higher levels of sGPVI compared to seronegative RA and controls. Median (IQR sGPVI levels were 4.2 ng/ml (3.2, 8.0 in seropositve RA, 2.2 ng/ml (1.5, 3.5 in seronegative RA and 2.2 ng/ml (1.6, 3.4 in controls (p<0.0001. sGPVI levels correlated with ACPA titres (r = 0.32, p = 0.0026 and with RF titres (r = 0.48, p<0.0001.Plasma sGPVI, a specific marker of platelet activation is increased among patients with seropositive RA.

  5. Oxidative stress is involved in fatigue induced by overnight deskwork as assessed by increase in plasma tocopherylhydroqinone and hydroxycholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shichiri, Mototada; Harada, Nobuyoshi; Ishida, Noriko; Komaba, Lilian Kaede; Iwaki, Sunao; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Niki, Etsuo; Yoshida, Yasukazu

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between fatigue and plasma concentrations of antioxidants and lipid peroxidation products. Fourteen healthy volunteers performed overnight desk work for 18h then took a nap for 4h. Participants answered questionnaires of subjective symptoms of fatigue (QSSF) and completed a self-assessment of fatigue using a visual analog scale (VAS). At each test time, they underwent a critical flicker frequency (CFF) test and blood samples were collected. Plasma levels of α-tocopherol (αT) decreased and α-tocopherylquinone (αTQ), the oxidation product of αT, increased. The ratio of 7β-hydroxycholesterol (7β-OHCh), the oxidation product of cholesterol, against total cholesterol increased until the end of experiment. αTQ levels correlated with VAS and QSSF scores. The ratio of 7β-OHCh to total cholesterol and the value of CFF showed a significant correlation. From these results, plasma levels of αTQ and 7β-OHCh are useful and objective indicators of fatigue induced by overnight deskwork. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hypercholesterolemia increases plasma saturated and n-6 fatty acids altering prostaglandin homeostasis and promotes endothelial dysfunction in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, M; Alberto, M R; Sierra, L; Van Nieuwenhove, C; Saad, S; Isla, M I; Jerez, S

    2014-07-01

    The present study evaluated the plasma fatty acid levels and the vascular prostaglandin (PG) release in a rabbit model of early hypercholesterolemia with endothelial dysfunction. Rabbits were fed either a control diet (CD) or a diet containing 1 % cholesterol (HD) for 5-6 weeks. The level of fatty acids was measured in plasma. The levels of PG and nitric oxide (NO) released from the aorta were also determined. Vascular morphology of the aorta was characterized by intima and media thickness measurements. The rabbits fed with HD had higher levels of arachidonic acid (ARA) and lower levels of oleic acid. The linoleic acid level was unchanged. PGI(2) and NO were diminished and PGF(2α) levels, the PGI(2)/TXA(2) ratio and the intima/media ratio were increased in rabbits fed with HD. In conclusion, feeding HD for a short period increased ARA plasma levels and unbalanced release of vasodilator/vasoconstrictor PG redirected the pathway to vasoconstrictor metabolite release. These lipid metabolism alterations in addition to the reduced NO levels and the moderate changes in the vascular morphology contributed to the endothelial dysfunction in this animal model. Therefore, the present findings support the importance of early correction or prevention of high cholesterol levels to disrupt the endothelial dysfunction process that leads to cardiovascular disease.

  7. Aleurone flour increases red-cell folate and lowers plasma homocyst(e)ine substantially in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Michael; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter; Topping, David

    2005-03-01

    Aleurone flour (ALF) is a rich source of natural folate (>500 microg/100 g wet weight). Our objective was to establish whether intake of ALF in man can significantly improve folate status and reduce plasma homocyst(e)ine. We performed a randomised, controlled intervention, of 16 weeks duration, in free-living healthy individuals (mean age 46-52 years). Participants were assigned to one of three groups: ALF, 175 g bread made with ALF and placebo tablet each day; PCS, 175 g bread made with pericarp seed coat (PCS) flour and placebo tablet each day (low-folate control); or FA, 175 g bread made with PCS flour and tablet containing 640 microg folic acid each day (high-folate control). The daily folate intake contributed by the bread and tablet was 233 microg in the PCS group, 615 microg in the ALF group and 819 microg in the FA group. The number of participants completing all phases of the PCS, ALF and FA interventions was twenty-five, twenty-five and eighteen, respectively. Plasma and red-cell folate increased significantly (Pine decreased significantly (Pine in the ALF group decreased from 9.1 (8.2, 10.0) micromol/l at baseline to 6.8 (6.2, 7.5) micromol/l after 16 weeks. In conclusion, moderate dietary intake of ALF can increase red-cell folate and decrease plasma homocyst(e)ine substantially.

  8. Enhanced mechanical properties and increased corrosion resistance of a biodegradable magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Leon; Koo, Youngmi; Neralla, Sudheer; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2016-06-01

    We report the enhanced mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating in NaOH, Na 2 SiO 3 , KF and NaH 2 PO 4 ·2H 2 O containing electrolytes. Mechanical properties including wear resistance, surface hardness and elastic modulus were increased for PEO-coated AZ31 Mg alloys (PEO-AZ31). DC polarization in Hank's solution indicating that the corrosion resistance significantly increased for PEO-coating in KF-contained electrolyte. Based on these results, the PEO coating method shows promising potential for use in biodegradable implant applications where tunable corrosion and mechanical properties are needed.

  9. Exercise-induced increase in glucose transport, GLUT-4, and VAMP-2 in plasma membrane from human muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, S; Hargreaves, Mark; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    contractions may induce trafficking of GLUT-4-containing vesicles via a mechanism similar to neurotransmitter release. Our results demonstrate for the first time exercise-induced translocation of GLUT-4 and VAMP-2 to the plasma membrane of human muscle and increased sarcolemmal glucose transport.......A major effect of muscle contractions is an increase in sarcolemmal glucose transport. We have used a recently developed technique to produce sarcolemmal giant vesicles from human muscle biopsy samples obtained before and after exercise. Six men exercised for 10 min at 50% maximal O2 uptake (Vo2max...

  10. Zinc can increase the activity of protein kinase C and contributes to its binding to plasma membranes in T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csermely, P.; Szamel, M.; Resch, K.; Somogyi, J.

    1988-01-01

    In the primary structure of protein kinase C, the presence of a putative metal-binding site has been suggested. In the present report, the authors demonstrate that the most abundant intracellular heavy metal, zinc, can increase the activity of cytosolic protein kinase C. Zinc reversibly binds the enzyme to plasma membranes,and it may contribute to the calcium-induced binding as well. The intracellular heavy metal chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine prevents the phorbol ester- and antigen-induced translocation of protein kinase C. This effect can be totally reversed by the concomitant addition of Zn 2+ , while Fe 2+ and Mn 2+ are only partially counteractive. The results suggest that zinc can activate protein kinase C and contributes to its binding to plasma membranes in T lymphocytes induced by Ca 2+ , phorbol ester, or antigen

  11. Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis of the cecal pole and appendix vermiformis with increase of IgG4-positive plasma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comtesse, Sarah; Friemel, Juliane; Fankhauser, René; Weber, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the clinicopathological course of a 20-year-old female patient with enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis (ELP) of the appendix vermiformis and cecal pole with increase of IgG4-positive plasma cells. The patient presented with acute abdomen, suspicious of acute appendicitis. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed tumefaction of the cecal pole and appendix vermiformis. Histologic examination revealed mural thickening and a dense lymphoplasmocytic, partly obliterative infiltrate of the veins with sparing of the arteries, diagnostic of ELP. In addition, we found an elevated number of IgG4-positive plasma cells blended in with the lymphocytes. The IgG4-to-IgG ratio accounted for >40 %. This case meets the histopathological criteria requested for IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) and thus opens the possibility that ELP might be part of the IgG4-RD spectrum.

  12. Zinc can increase the activity of protein kinase C and contributes to its binding to plasma membranes in T lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csermely, P.; Szamel, M.; Resch, K.; Somogyi, J.

    1988-05-15

    In the primary structure of protein kinase C, the presence of a putative metal-binding site has been suggested. In the present report, the authors demonstrate that the most abundant intracellular heavy metal, zinc, can increase the activity of cytosolic protein kinase C. Zinc reversibly binds the enzyme to plasma membranes,and it may contribute to the calcium-induced binding as well. The intracellular heavy metal chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine prevents the phorbol ester- and antigen-induced translocation of protein kinase C. This effect can be totally reversed by the concomitant addition of Zn/sup 2 +/, while Fe/sup 2 +/ and Mn/sup 2 +/ are only partially counteractive. The results suggest that zinc can activate protein kinase C and contributes to its binding to plasma membranes in T lymphocytes induced by Ca/sup 2 +/, phorbol ester, or antigen.

  13. Exercise increases the plasma membrane content of the Na+ -K+ pump and its mRNA in rat skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiridis, T; Wong, P P; Liu, Z; Rodgers, C D; Vranic, M; Klip, A

    1996-02-01

    Muscle fibers adapt to ionic challenges of exercise by increasing the plasma membrane Na+-K+ pump activity. Chronic exercise training has been shown to increase the total amount of Na+-K+ pumps present in skeletal muscle. However, the mechanism of adaptation of the Na+-K+ pump to an acute bout of exercise has not been determined, and it is not known whether it involves alterations in the content of plasma membrane pump subunits. Here we examine the effect of 1 h of treadmill running (20 m/min, 10% grade) on the subcellular distribution and expression of Na+-K+ pump subunits in rat skeletal muscles. Red type I and IIa (red-I/IIa) and white type IIa and IIb (white-IIa/IIb) hindlimb muscles from resting and exercised female Sprague-Dawley rats were removed for subcellular fractionation. By homogenization and gradient centrifugation, crude membranes and purified plasma membranes were isolated and subjected to gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting by using pump subunit-specific antibodies. Furthermore, mRNA was isolated from specific red type I (red-I) and white type IIb (white-IIb) muscles and subjected to Northern blotting by using subunit-specific probes. In both red-I/IIa and white-IIa/IIb muscles, exercise significantly raised the plasma membrane content of the alpha1-subunit of the pump by 64 +/- 24 and 55 +/- 22%, respectively (P < 0.05), and elevated the alpha2-polypeptide by 43 +/- 22 and 94 +/- 39%, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant effect of exercise could be detected on the amount of these subunits in an internal membrane fraction or in total membranes. In addition, exercise significantly increased the alpha1-subunit mRNA in red-I muscle (by 50 +/- 7%; P < 0.05) and the beta2-subunit mRNA in white-IIb muscles (by 64 +/- 19%; P < 0.01), but the alpha2- and beta1-mRNA levels were unaffected in this time period. We conclude that increased presence of alpha1- and alpha2-polypeptides at the plasma membrane and subsequent elevation of the alpha1- and beta2

  14. TREATMENTS OF PLASMA CORONA RADIATION ON SEAWEED Gracilaria Verrucosa (HUDSON PAPENFUSS: Efforts to increase growth and biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filemon Jalu N Putra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson Papenfuss has great potential to be farmed in the water resources in Indonesia. As natural resource, the weed has a major contribution in the field of industry both for human food and health. Efforts have been done intensively to increase the production capacity to meet the market demand especially gelatin, both national and international market. One of them is the application of plasma corona irradiation treatments on the weed to improve developmental pathways. The concept of plasma irradiation performed at atmospheric conditions may impact on nitrogen intrusion pathway that is important element in the growth of the weed. The aims of this study are to assess the potential impact of plasma irradiation in improving the growth of G. verrucosa and thus increase their biomass production. The treatments were done using five different duration of plasma irradiation, which were 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 minutes at a 0,5mA stable source of voltage and 8kV of electrical current. Observations of growth rate include thallus length and biomass of G. verrucosa , that was observed every week for 28 days. The result showed that the growth of weed exhibited better than those without radiation. The best growth was reached in the group of treatment of 8 minutes irradiation, exhibited 65,91g of biomass and 9.5515% growth rate and length of thallus reached 22,33 cm and daily growth rate of 2.9759%. The lowest growth of the weed occurred in the treatment of 10 minutes irradiation, which was 44,82 g biomass, 8.123% growth rate, 17,13 cm thallus length with a daily growth rate of 1.9942%

  15. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao P. Lopes-Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1 or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05. At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (−3.0% ± 1.3% and −2.7% ± 2.2%. There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05. In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  16. Increased plasma concentrations of vasopressin, oxytocin, cortisol and the prostaglandin F2alpha metabolite during labour in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, K; Bergström, A; Kindahl, H; Lagerstedt, A-S

    2003-11-01

    This study investigated if the plasma vasopressin concentration increases during labour in the dog and whether the change in vasopressin correlates with that of oxytocin, 15-ketodihydro-PGF2alpha and cortisol. Five beagle dogs each delivered three to seven puppies. Blood samples were taken from a catheter inserted into the cephalic vein during labour and by venepuncture during the other periods. Vasopressin concentration increased from 2 +/- 0 pmol L-1 (anoestrus) to 26 +/- 11 pmol L-1 at the birth of the first puppy, remained high at the birth of the second puppy and then decreased. Oxytocin increased from 63 +/- 5 pmol L-1 (anoestrus) to 166 +/- 19 pmol L-1 at the birth of the first puppy and remained elevated throughout labour. The PGF2alpha metabolite concentration increased from 0.2 +/- 0.0 nmol L-1 (anoestrus) to 66 +/- 17 nmol L-1 at the birth of the first puppy and remained elevated 1 h after the completion of parturition. The cortisol concentration increased from 49 +/- 9 nmol L-1 (anoestrus) to 242 +/- 35 nmol L-1 at the birth of the first puppy, remained high during the birth of the second puppy and then declined. The plasma level of vasopressin was strongly correlated with that of cortisol but less with that of the PGF2alpha metabolite, and not significantly with the concentration of oxytocin. This indicates that the four hormones play different roles during labour in the dog.

  17. Chloroquine Increases Glucose Uptake via Enhancing GLUT4 Translocation and Fusion with the Plasma Membrane in L6 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chloroquine can induce an increase in the cellular uptake of glucose; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Methods: In this study, translocation of GLUT4 and intracellular Ca2+ changes were simultaneously observed by confocal microscope in L6 cells stably over-expressing IRAP-mOrange. The GLUT4 fusion with the plasma membrane (PM was traced using HA-GLUT4-GFP. Glucose uptake was measured using a cell-based glucose uptake assay. GLUT4 protein was detected by Western blotting and mRNA level was detected by RT-PCR. Results: We found that chloroquine induced significant increases in glucose uptake, glucose transporter GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane (GTPM, GLUT4 fusion with the PM, and intracellular Ca2+ in L6 muscle cells. Chloroquine-induced increases of GTPM and intracellular Ca2+ were inhibited by Gallein (Gβγ inhibitor and U73122 (PLC inhibitor. However, 2-APB (IP3R blocker only blocked the increase in intracellular Ca2+ but did not inhibit GTPM increase. These results indicate that chloroquine, via the Gβγ-PLC-IP3-IP3R pathway, induces elevation of Ca2+, and this Ca2+ increase does not play a role in chloroqui-ne-evoked GTPM increase. However, GLUT4 fusion with the PM and glucose uptake were significantly inhibited with BAPTA-AM. This suggests that Ca2+ enhances GLUT4 fusion with the PM resulting in glucose uptake increase. Conclusion: Our data indicate that chloroquine via Gβγ-PLC-IP3-IP3R induces Ca2+ elevation, which in turn promotes GLUT4 fusion with the PM. Moreover, chloroquine can enhance GLUT4 trafficking to the PM. These mechanisms eventually result in glucose uptake increase in control and insulin-resistant L6 cells. These findings suggest that chloroquine might be a potential drug for improving insulin tolerance in diabetic patients.

  18. Effects of chemical sympathectomy on the increases in plasma catecholamines and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase induced by forced immobilization and insulin-induced hypoglycemia: origin and fate of plasma dopamine-beta-hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, A S; Barbella, Y R; Cubeddu, L X

    1982-06-01

    The effect of acute stresses on plasma norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) were evaluated in control and 6-hydroxydopamine-treated, awake cannulated guinea pigs. Forced immobolization for 1 hr caused a 3- and 5-fold increase in plasma DBH and norepinephrine, respectively. Pretreatment with 6-hydroxydopamine (23 mg/kg b.wt.i.a., 72 and 48 hr before stress) reduced by 70% the increase in plasma DBH and totally prevented the rise in plasma catecholamines evoked by the restraining stress. Injection of insulin (5 U/kg b.wt.i.a.) induced a 60% decrease in blood glucose, a 1-fold increase in plasma DBH and a selective 4-fold increase in plasma epinephrine; these effects were not modified by chemical sympathectomy. Our results indicate that forced immobilization and hypoglycemia produce a preferential activation of the sympathetic postganglionic nerves and of the adrenal medulla, respectively, and that in guinea pigs both stresses increase plasma DBH. The kinetics of disappearance of plasma DBH were studied after subjecting the guinea pigs for 1 hr to forced immobilization. Although 7 of 12 animals showed a biphasic rate of fall of plasma DBH, in each case there was a rapid initial fall possibly due to the "distribution" of the enzyme with a T1/2 of 1.65 hr. Similar findings were observed in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated guinea pigs. These results suggest that the distribution of DBH is the most important process in reducing the augmented plasma DBH levels elicited by a short-term stress and that this process is not dependent on the integrity of the sympathetic nerves nor on the adrenal or sympathetic origin of the enzyme. This study supports the view that the ratio, content of releasable DBH present in sympathetic nerves and adrenal glands/total circulating pool of DBH, is the factor that determines whether an increase in plasma DBH would occur in animals exposed to an acute stress.

  19. ATP Synthase β-Chain Overexpression in SR-BI Knockout Mice Increases HDL Uptake and Reduces Plasma HDL Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kexiu Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available HDL cholesterol is known to be inversely correlated with cardiovascular disease due to its diverse antiatherogenic functions. SR-BI mediates the selective uptake of HDL-C. SR-BI knockout diminishes but does not completely block the transport of HDL; other receptors may be involved. Ectopic ATP synthase β-chain in hepatocytes has been previously characterized as an apoA-I receptor, triggering HDL internalization. This study was undertaken to identify the overexpression of ectopic ATP synthase β-chain on DIL-HDL uptake in primary hepatocytes in vitro and on plasma HDL levels in SR-BI knockout mice. Human ATP synthase β-chain cDNA was delivered to the mouse liver by adenovirus and GFP adenovirus as control. The adenovirus-mediated overexpression of β-chain was identified at both mRNA and protein levels on mice liver and validated by its increasing of DiL-HDL uptake in primary hepatocytes. In response to hepatic overexpression of β-chain, plasma HDL-C levels and cholesterol were reduced in SR-BI knockout mice, compared with the control. The present data suggest that ATP synthase β-chain can serve as the endocytic receptor of HDL, and its overexpression can reduce plasma HDL-C.

  20. Compact toroid challenge experiment with the increasing in the energy input into plasma and the level of trapped magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romadanov, I.V.; Ryzhkov, S.V., E-mail: ryzhkov@power.bmstu.ru

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Compact torus formation method with high level of magnetic flux is proposed. • A compact torus is produced in a theta-pinch-coil with pulse mode of operation. • Key feature is a pulse of current in an axial direction. • We report a level of linked magnetic flux is higher than theta-pinch results. - Abstract: The present work reports on compact toroid hydrogen plasma creation by means of a specially designed discharge system and results of magnetic fields introduction. Experiments in the compact toroid challenge (CTC) device at P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (FIAN) have been conducted since 2005. The CTC device differs from the conventional theta-pinch formation in the use of an axial current for enhanced efficiency. We have used a novel technique to maximize the flux linked to the plasma. The purpose of this method is to increase the energy input into the plasma and the level of trapped magnetic flux using an additional toroidal magnetic field. A study of compact torus formation with axial and toroidal currents was done and a new method is proposed and implemented.

  1. About a possibility of increasing the adhesion strength between mineral glass and polymeric binder under radio-frequency induction plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miftakhov, I S; Trofimov, A V; Nagmutdinova, A I; Voznesensky, E F; Sharifullin, F S; Krasina, I V; Rakhmatullina, G R

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigated influences of radio-frequency induction plasma treatment on the surface of sheet mineral glasses for household purpose. Discussion for casting the most suitable treatment modes and theirs substantiation is shown. During the investigation the most productive plasma treatment modes for applied binders have been found. It is shown that the durability of adhesive joints between mineral glass and polymeric binder under low-temperature plasma treatment increase to 65%. (paper)

  2. Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomanno, Alexander; O'Modhrain, Sile; Gillespie, R Brent; Rodger, Matthew W M

    2015-01-01

    The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies and deliver graphical content as well as text. And many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single braille cell. In this paper, we demonstrate that restricting tactile cues during braille reading leads to poorer performance in a letter recognition task. In particular, we show that lack of sliding contact between the fingertip and the braille reading surface results in more errors and that the number of errors increases as a function of presentation speed. These findings suggest that single cell displays which do not incorporate sliding contact are likely to be less effective for braille reading.

  3. Injection of auxiliary electrons for increasing the plasma density in highly charged and high intensity ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odorici, F., E-mail: fabrizio.odorici@bo.infn.it; Malferrari, L.; Montanari, A. [INFN—Bologna, Viale B. Pichat, 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Rizzoli, R. [INFN—Bologna, Viale B. Pichat, 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); CNR–Istituto per la Microelettronica ed i Microsistemi, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Neri, L. [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Different electron guns based on cold- or hot-cathode technologies have been developed since 2009 at INFN for operating within ECR plasma chambers as sources of auxiliary electrons, with the aim of boosting the source performances by means of a higher plasma lifetime and density. Their application to microwave discharge ion sources, where plasma is not confined, has required an improvement of the gun design, in order to “screen” the cathode from the plasma particles. Experimental tests carried out on a plasma reactor show a boost of the plasma density, ranging from 10% to 90% when the electron guns are used, as explained by plasma diffusion models.

  4. Injection of auxiliary electrons for increasing the plasma density in highly charged and high intensity ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorici, F; Malferrari, L; Montanari, A; Rizzoli, R; Mascali, D; Castro, G; Celona, L; Gammino, S; Neri, L

    2016-02-01

    Different electron guns based on cold- or hot-cathode technologies have been developed since 2009 at INFN for operating within ECR plasma chambers as sources of auxiliary electrons, with the aim of boosting the source performances by means of a higher plasma lifetime and density. Their application to microwave discharge ion sources, where plasma is not confined, has required an improvement of the gun design, in order to "screen" the cathode from the plasma particles. Experimental tests carried out on a plasma reactor show a boost of the plasma density, ranging from 10% to 90% when the electron guns are used, as explained by plasma diffusion models.

  5. Plasma factor VII-activating protease is increased by oral contraceptives and induces factor VII activation in-vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes J; Skouby, Sven O; Kluft, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) use influences the hemostatic system significantly and is a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) has potential effects on hemostasis. The 1601GA genotype of the 1601G/A polymorphism in the FSAP gene expresses a FSAP...... progestins. FSAP genotypes, FSAP and factor VII (FVII) plasma measures were assessed at baseline and after 6 cycles of OC. The 1601GA genotype was present in 49 (8.3%) of the women and was associated with significantly reduced levels of FSAP (P=0.001). OC use increased FSAP antigen by 25% and FSAP activity...

  6. Early and exudative age-related macular degeneration is associated with increased plasma levels of soluble TNF receptor II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Carsten; Jehs, Tina; Juel, Helene Baek

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We have recently identified homeostatic alterations in the circulating T cells of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In cultures of retinal pigment epithelial cells, we have demonstrated that T-cell-derived cytokines induced the upregulation of complement, chemokines...... and other proteins implicated in AMD pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to test whether increased plasma levels of cytokines were present in patients with AMD. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study. Age-related macular degeneration status was assessed using standardized multimodal imaging...

  7. Insulin-mediated increases in renal plasma flow are impaired in insulin-resistant normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC; Bakker, SJL; Serne, EH; Moshage, HJ; Gans, ROB

    2000-01-01

    Background Impaired vasodilatation in skeletal muscle is a possible mechanism linking insulin resistance to blood pressure regulation. Increased renal vascular resistance has been demonstrated in the offspring of essential hypertensives. We assessed whether insulin-mediated renal vasodilatation is

  8. IPOMOEA BATATAS SYRUP DECREASE MALONDIALDEHYDE AND INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE PLASMA LEVELS AMONGST MODERATE SMOKER WORKERS AT DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Dewa Ayu Intan Dwi-Primayanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cells and tissues are continuously damaged by reactive oxygen species. Cigarette smoke is one of an exogenous source of free radical containing more than 4000 chemical compounds, that triggering the formation of free radicals related to diseases and aging process. Anthocyanins are potent antioxidants that are widely distributed in fruit, vegetables, red wines and Ipomea batatas. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ipomea batatas as a source of antioxidants in decreasing levels of alondialdehyde (MDA and increasing of Nitrous oxide (nitrite/nitrate/NOxplasma in moderate smokers of workers at Denpasar.Method: This was an experimental study with a pretest-posttest control groups design. There are 33 moderate smokers who were divided into three groups, control group (placebo, treatment group with 15 ml purple sweet potato syrup (P1 and 30 ml (P2, for 14 days. All groups were performed the laboratory examinations for MDA and NOx plasma before and after the treatment.Results: This study showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05 both in MDA and NOx plasma levels in the control group, P1 and P2. The decrease of MDAlevels on P1 was 35.39% and on P2 was 49.87%. The increase of NOx plasma levels was 7.78% for P1 and 14.68% for P2.Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that Ipomea batatas syrup contains of 8mg/mL anthocyanins, probably play a role in reducing the free radical and thus reducingthe risk of disease and slowing the aging process.

  9. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in t...

  10. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations: a dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Vliet, van T.; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine¿the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine¿may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  11. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations: A dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Vliet, T. van; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine-the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine-may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  12. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations : A dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Petra; Van Vliet, Trinette; Olthof, Margreet R.; Katan, Martijn B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine-the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine-may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  13. Enhanced mechanical properties and increased corrosion resistance of a biodegradable magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Leon; Koo, Youngmi [FIT BEST Laboratory, Engineering Research Center, Department of Chemical, Biological, and Bio Engineering, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Neralla, Sudheer [Jet-Hot LLC, Burlington, NC 27215 (United States); Sankar, Jagannathan [FIT BEST Laboratory, Engineering Research Center, Department of Chemical, Biological, and Bio Engineering, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Yun, Yeoheung, E-mail: yyun@ncat.edu [FIT BEST Laboratory, Engineering Research Center, Department of Chemical, Biological, and Bio Engineering, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method was developed to control corrosion, porosity, and mechanical property. • Mechanical properties of PEO-coated AZ31 alloys were affected by the different electrolyte. • Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of PEO-coated AZ31 alloys were compared with uncoated one. - Abstract: We report the enhanced mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating in NaOH, Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, KF and NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O containing electrolytes. Mechanical properties including wear resistance, surface hardness and elastic modulus were increased for PEO-coated AZ31 Mg alloys (PEO-AZ31). DC polarization in Hank's solution indicating that the corrosion resistance significantly increased for PEO-coating in KF-contained electrolyte. Based on these results, the PEO coating method shows promising potential for use in biodegradable implant applications where tunable corrosion and mechanical properties are needed.

  14. The Dietary Furocoumarin Imperatorin Increases Plasma GLP-1 Levels in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Yu Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Imperatorin, a dietary furocoumarin, is found not only in medicinal plants, but also in popular culinary herbs, such as parsley and fennel. Recently, imperatorin has been shown to activate GPR119 in cells. Another GPR, GPR131, also called TGR5 or G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1, is known to regulate glucose metabolism. Additionally, TGR5 activation increases glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1 secretion to lower blood sugar levels in animals. Therefore, the present study aims to determine whether the effects of imperatorin on GLP-1 secretion are mediated by TGR5. First, we transfected cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 cells with the TGR5 gene. Glucose uptake was confirmed in the transfected cells using a fluorescent indicator. Moreover, NCI-H716 cells, which secrete GLP-1, were used to investigate the changes in calcium concentrations and GLP-1 levels. In addition, streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 1-like diabetic rats were used to identify the effects of imperatorin in vivo. Imperatorin dose-dependently increased glucose uptake in CHO-K1 cells expressing TGR5. In STZ diabetic rats, similar to the results in NCI-H716 cells, imperatorin induced a marked increase of GLP-1 secretion that was reduced, but not totally abolished, by a dose of triamterene that inhibited TGR5. Moreover, increases in GLP-1 secretion induced by imperatorin and GPR119 activation were shown in NCI-H716 cells. We demonstrated that imperatorin induced GLP-1 secretion via activating TGR5 and GPR119. Therefore, imperatorin shall be considered as a TGR5 and GPR119 agonist.

  15. Elite level adolescent athletes with Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) display increased lower extremity symptoms and larger postural sway than those without GJH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, B; Schmidt, H; Pedersen, T Lykke

    mobility was measured as HSA using an inclinometer in a standardized protocol format. A multiple regression analysis was used to reveal associations between GJH and horizontal shoulder abduction, adjusted for sex and age. Results Overall, significant associations between GJH and HSA were found. An increase...

  16. Dyes for displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, U.

    1984-01-01

    The improvement of contrast and visibility of LCD by two different means was undertaken. The two methods are: (1) development of fluorescent dyes to increase the visibility of fluorescent activated displays (FLAD); and (2) development of dichroic dyes to increase the contrast of displays. This work was done in close cooperation with the electronic industry, where the newly synthesized dyes were tested. The targets for the chemical synthesis were selected with the help of computer model calculations. A marketable range of dyes was developed. Since the interest of the electronic industries concerning FLAD was low, the investigations were stopped. Dichroic dyes, especially black mixtures with good light fastness, order parameter, and solubility in nematic phases were developed. The application of these dyes is restricted to indoor use because of an increase of viscosity below -10 C. Applications on a technical scale, e.g., for the automotive industry, will be possible if the displays work at temperatures down to -40 C. This problem requires a complex optimization of the dye/nematic phase system.

  17. Increased plasma soluble uPAR level is a risk marker of respiratory cancer in initially cancer-free individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Anne A; Hansen, Tine Willum; Ladelund, Steen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a stable plasma biomarker associated with inflammation and disease. This study tested the association between suPAR levels and incident respiratory, gastrointestinal or other types of cancer in initially cancer-free individuals...... with respiratory, gastrointestinal and other cancer types, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Elevated suPAR levels were associated with increased risk of incident respiratory cancer and other types of cancer, but not gastrointestinal cancers, independently of established risk factors, CRP and leukocyte numbers. Impact.......RESULTS: suPAR levels ranged from 0.6-22 ng/ml, and median suPAR level was 4.01 ng/ml. 1 ng/ml increase in baseline suPAR was associated with adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.61 (95% CI: 1.23-2.11, P

  18. Short communication: Artificial ultraviolet B light exposure increases vitamin D levels in cow plasma and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Hymøller, Lone

    2015-01-01

    tested the ability of a specially designed UVB lamp to enhance the vitamin D-3 content in milk from dairy cows housed indoors. This study included 16 cows divided into 4 groups. Each group was exposed daily to artificial UVB light simulating 1, 2, 3, or 4 h of summer sun at 56 degrees N for 24 d...... exposure to artificial UVB light to 73 d did not lead to an increase of vitamin D-3 or 25OHD(3) level in the milk. In conclusion, the change in production facilities for dairy cows providing cows with no access to pasture and sunlight causes a decrease of vitamin D levels in dairy products. This decrease......The number of dairy cows without access to pasture or sunlight is increasing; therefore, the content of vitamin D in dairy products is decreasing. Ultimately, declining vitamin D levels in dairy products will mean that dairy products are a negligible source of natural vitamin D for humans. We...

  19. The case for transparent depth display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The continuing developments in display technology have resulted in the ability to present increasing amounts of data on computer displays. One of the coming break-throughs is generally believed to be the introduction of '3-D displays': displays with a true sense of depth. Though these types

  20. Increase in serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A is correlated with increase in cardiovascular risk factors in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linman; Ren, Wei; Li, Jinchao; Liu, Jingjing; Wang, Lingli; Zheng, Xiaoya; Liu, Dezhen; Li, Sufang; Souvenir, Rhonda; Tang, Jiping

    2012-10-01

    Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency (AGHD) is correlated to many adverse effects on metabolism and increased cardiovascular risk. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a protease that promotes IGF-I availability in vascular tissues in recent study, and PAPP-A levels have been proposed as an early predictor of cardiac events. The aim of our study was to compare PAPP-A levels in AGHD patients with that of healthy adult subjects to determine if there is a relationship between serum PAPP-A and glucose and lipid metabolism. Twenty AGHD patients and 20 healthy, age-matched and weight-matched persons were chosen for the study. Their weight, height, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist and hip circumference, and waist-hips ratio were assessed. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed and venous blood was collected from the each patient's cubital vein for biochemical analysis. Serum PAPP-A level in AGHD patients was significantly higher than that of the control group [(7.62 ± 1.62 vs. 6.54 ± 1.31) p < 0.05], and PAPP-A was positively correlated to age, BMI, waist circumference and so on. After adjusting for the waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, 2 h postprandial blood glucose, triglycerides, the serum PAPP-A in AGHD patients was positively correlated to the BMI (r = 0.728, p < 0.05) and fasting insulin (r = 0.433, p < 0.05). In a multiple step-wise regression analysis, BMI, 2 h postprandial glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR were independently associated with serum PAPP-A in AGHD patients. The increase in serum PAPP-A levels is associated with abnormal glucose metabolism and increased risk of atherosclerosis in AGHD patients.

  1. Increasing platelet concentration in platelet-rich plasma inhibits anterior cruciate ligament cell function in three-dimensional culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryu; Cheng, Mingyu; Murray, Martha M

    2014-02-01

    Tissue engineering is one new strategy being developed to treat ACL ruptures. One such approach is bio-enhanced ACL repair, where a suture repair is supplemented with a bio-active scaffold containing platelets. However, the optimal concentration of platelets to stimulate ACL healing is not known. We hypothesized that increasing platelet concentrations in the scaffold would enhance critical cell behaviors. Porcine ACL fibroblasts were obtained from explant culture and suspended in platelet poor plasma (PPP), 1× platelet-rich plasma (PRP), 3× PRP, 5× PRP, or phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The cell suspensions were cultured in a 3D collagen scaffold. Cellular metabolism (MTT assay), apoptosis (TUNEL assay), and gene expression for type I and type III collagen were measured. 1× PRP significantly outperformed 5× PRP in all parameters studied: Type I and III collagen gene expression, apoptosis prevention, and cell metabolism stimulation. ACL fibroblasts cultured with 1× PRP had the highest type I and type III collagen gene expression. 1× PRP and PPP groups had the highest cell metabolism and lowest apoptosis rates. Concentration of platelets had significant effects on the behavior of ACL fibroblasts; thus, it is an important parameter that should be specified in clinical or basic science studies. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Zinc can increase the activity of protein kinase C and contributes to its binding to plasma membranes in T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, P; Szamel, M; Resch, K; Somogyi, J

    1988-05-15

    In the primary structure of protein kinase C, the presence of a putative metal-binding site has been suggested (Parker, P.J., Coussens, L., Totty, N., Rhee, L., Young, S., Chen, E., Stabel, S., Waterfield, M.D., and Ullrich, A. (1986) Science 233, 853-859). In the present report, we demonstrate that the most abundant intracellular heavy metal, zinc, can increase the activity of cytosolic protein kinase C. Zinc reversibly binds the enzyme to plasma membranes, and it may contribute to the calcium-induced binding as well. The intracellular heavy metal chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine prevents the phorbol ester- and antigen-induced translocation of protein kinase C. This effect can be totally reversed by the concomitant addition of Zn2+, while Fe2+ and Mn2+ are only partially counteractive. Our results suggest that zinc can activate protein kinase C and contributes to its binding to plasma membranes in T lymphocytes induced by Ca2+, phorbol ester, or antigen.

  3. Biomimetic carriers mimicking leukocyte plasma membrane to increase tumor vasculature permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, R.; Parodi, A.; Evangelopoulos, M.; Acciardo, S.; Corbo, C.; De Rosa, E.; Yazdi, I. K.; Scaria, S.; Molinaro, R.; Furman, N. E. Toledano; You, J.; Ferrari, M.; Salvatore, F.; Tasciotti, E.

    2016-10-01

    Recent advances in the field of nanomedicine have demonstrated that biomimicry can further improve targeting properties of current nanotechnologies while simultaneously enable carriers with a biological identity to better interact with the biological environment. Immune cells for example employ membrane proteins to target inflamed vasculature, locally increase vascular permeability, and extravasate across inflamed endothelium. Inspired by the physiology of immune cells, we recently developed a procedure to transfer leukocyte membranes onto nanoporous silicon particles (NPS), yielding Leukolike Vectors (LLV). LLV are composed of a surface coating containing multiple receptors that are critical in the cross-talk with the endothelium, mediating cellular accumulation in the tumor microenvironment while decreasing vascular barrier function. We previously demonstrated that lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-1) transferred onto LLV was able to trigger the clustering of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells. Herein, we provide a more comprehensive analysis of the working mechanism of LLV in vitro in activating this pathway and in vivo in enhancing vascular permeability. Our results suggest the biological activity of the leukocyte membrane can be retained upon transplant onto NPS and is critical in providing the particles with complex biological functions towards tumor vasculature.

  4. Effectiveness of increasing the frequency of posaconazole syrup administration to achieve optimal plasma concentrations in patients with haematological malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wan Beom; Cho, Joo-Youn; Park, Sang-In; Kim, Eun Jung; Yoon, Seonghae; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Youngil; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Kim, Eu Suk; Bang, Su Mi; Kim, Nam Joong; Kim, Inho; Oh, Myoung-Don; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Sang Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Few data are available on whether adjusting the dose of posaconazole syrup is effective in patients receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this prospective study was to analyse the impact of increasing the frequency of posaconazole administration on optimal plasma concentrations in adult patients with haematological malignancy. A total of 133 adult patients receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who received posaconazole syrup 200 mg three times daily for fungal prophylaxis were enrolled in this study. Drug trough levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In 20.2% of patients (23/114) the steady-state concentration of posaconazole was suboptimal (increased to 200 mg four times daily. On Day 15, the median posaconazole concentration was significantly increased from 368 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 247-403 ng/mL] to 548 ng/mL (IQR, 424-887 ng/mL) (P = 0.0003). The median increase in posaconazole concentration was 251 ng/mL (IQR, 93-517 ng/mL). Among the patients with initially suboptimal levels, 79% achieved the optimal level unless the steady-state level was increasing the administration frequency of posaconazole syrup is effective for achieving optimal levels in patients with haematological malignancy undergoing chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  5. Mice lacking the conserved transcription factor Grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) display increased apposition of the frontal and parietal bones during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Stephen J; Arhatari, Benedicta D; Anderson, Peter; Auden, Alana; Partridge, Darren D; Jane, Stephen M; Dworkin, Sebastian

    2016-10-18

    Increased apposition of the frontal and parietal bones of the skull during embryogenesis may be a risk factor for the subsequent development of premature skull fusion, or craniosynostosis. Human craniosynostosis is a prevalent, and often serious embryological and neonatal pathology. Other than known mutations in a small number of contributing genes, the aetiology of craniosynostosis is largely unknown. Therefore, the identification of novel genes which contribute to normal skull patterning, morphology and premature suture apposition is imperative, in order to fully understand the genetic regulation of cranial development. Using advanced imaging techniques and quantitative measurement, we show that genetic deletion of the highly-conserved transcription factor Grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) in mice (Grhl3 -/- ) leads to decreased skull size, aberrant skull morphology and premature apposition of the coronal sutures during embryogenesis. Furthermore, Grhl3 -/- mice also present with premature collagen deposition and osteoblast alignment at the sutures, and the physical interaction between the developing skull, and outermost covering of the brain (the dura mater), as well as the overlying dermis and subcutaneous tissue, appears compromised in embryos lacking Grhl3. Although Grhl3 -/- mice die at birth, we investigated skull morphology and size in adult animals lacking one Grhl3 allele (heterozygous; Grhl3 +/- ), which are viable and fertile. We found that these adult mice also present with a smaller cranial cavity, suggestive of post-natal haploinsufficiency in the context of cranial development. Our findings show that our Grhl3 mice present with increased apposition of the frontal and parietal bones, suggesting that Grhl3 may be involved in the developmental pathogenesis of craniosynostosis.

  6. Directed evolution of human T cell receptor CDR2 residues by phage display dramatically enhances affinity for cognate peptide-MHC without increasing apparent cross-reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Steven M.; Rizkallah, Pierre J.; Baston, Emma; Mahon, Tara; Cameron, Brian; Moysey, Ruth; Gao, Feng; Sami, Malkit; Boulter, Jonathan; Li, Yi; Jakobsen, Bent K.

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian α/β T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire plays a pivotal role in adaptive immunity by recognizing short, processed, peptide antigens bound in the context of a highly diverse family of cell-surface major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs). Despite the extensive TCR–MHC interaction surface, peptide-independent cross-reactivity of native TCRs is generally avoided through cell-mediated selection of molecules with low inherent affinity for MHC. Here we show that, contrary to expectations, the germ line-encoded complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of human TCRs, namely the CDR2s, which appear to contact only the MHC surface and not the bound peptide, can be engineered to yield soluble low nanomolar affinity ligands that retain a surprisingly high degree of specificity for the cognate pMHC target. Structural investigation of one such CDR2 mutant implicates shape complementarity of the mutant CDR2 contact interfaces as being a key determinant of the increased affinity. Our results suggest that manipulation of germ line CDR2 loops may provide a useful route to the production of high-affinity TCRs with therapeutic and diagnostic potential. PMID:16600963

  7. Premature infants display increased noxious-evoked neuronal activity in the brain compared to healthy age-matched term-born infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Rebeccah; Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Worley, Alan; Meek, Judith; Boyd, Stewart; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2010-08-15

    This study demonstrates that infants who are born prematurely and who have experienced at least 40days of intensive or special care have increased brain neuronal responses to noxious stimuli compared to healthy newborns at the same postmenstrual age. We have measured evoked potentials generated by noxious clinically-essential heel lances in infants born at term (8 infants; born 37-40weeks) and in infants born prematurely (7 infants; born 24-32weeks) who had reached the same postmenstrual age (mean age at time of heel lance 39.2+/-1.2weeks). These noxious-evoked potentials are clearly distinguishable from shorter latency potentials evoked by non-noxious tactile sensory stimulation. While the shorter latency touch potentials are not dependent on the age of the infant at birth, the noxious-evoked potentials are significantly larger in prematurely-born infants. This enhancement is not associated with specific brain lesions but reflects a functional change in pain processing in the brain that is likely to underlie previously reported changes in pain sensitivity in older ex-preterm children. Our ability to quantify and measure experience-dependent changes in infant cortical pain processing will allow us to develop a more rational approach to pain management in neonatal intensive care. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Plasma volume expansion does not increase maximal cardiac output or VO2 max in lowlanders acclimatized to altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, José A L; Rådegran, Göran; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2004-01-01

    liter of 6% dextran 70 (BV = 6.32 +/- 0.34 liters). PV expansion had no effect on Qmax, maximal O2 consumption (VO2), and exercise capacity. Despite maximal systemic O2 transport being reduced 19% due to hemodilution after PV expansion, whole body VO2 was maintained by greater systemic O2 extraction (P...... VO2 during exercise regardless of PV. Pulmonary ventilation, gas exchange, and acid-base balance were essentially unaffected by PV expansion. Sea......With altitude acclimatization, blood hemoglobin concentration increases while plasma volume (PV) and maximal cardiac output (Qmax) decrease. This investigation aimed to determine whether reduction of Qmax at altitude is due to low circulating blood volume (BV). Eight Danish lowlanders (3 females, 5...

  9. Ames dwarf (Prop1(df)/Prop1(df)) mice display increased sensitivity of the major GH-signaling pathways in liver and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquet, Johanna G; Muñoz, Marina C; Giani, Jorge F; González, Lorena; Dominici, Fernando P; Bartke, Andrzej; Turyn, Daniel; Sotelo, Ana I

    2010-04-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic hormone that regulates growth and metabolism. Ames dwarf mice are natural mutants for Prop1, with impaired development of anterior pituitary and undetectable levels of circulating GH, prolactin and TSH. They constitute an endocrine model of life-long GH-deficiency. The main signaling cascades activated by GH binding to its receptor are the JAK2/STATs, PI-3K/Akt and the MAPK Erk1/2 pathways. We have previously reported that GH-induced STAT5 activation was higher in Ames dwarf mice liver compared to non-dwarf controls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the principal components of the main GH-signaling pathways under GH-deficiency in liver and skeletal muscle, another GH-target tissue. Ames dwarf mice and their non-dwarf siblings were assessed. Animals were injected i.p. with GH or saline 15min before tissue removal. Protein content and phosphorylation of signaling mediators were determined by immunoblotting of tissue solubilizates. GH was able to induce STAT5 and STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation in both liver and muscle, but the response was higher for Ames dwarf mice than for non-dwarf controls. When Erk1/2 activation was assessed in liver, only dwarf mice showed GH-induced phosphorylation, while in muscle no response to the hormone was found in either genotype. GH-induced Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 in liver was only detected in dwarf mice. In skeletal muscle, both normal and dwarf mice responded to a GH stimulus, although dwarf mice presented higher GH activation levels. The phosphorylation of GSK-3, a substrate of Akt, increased upon hormone stimulation only in dwarf mice in both tissues. In contrast, no differences in the phosphorylation of mTOR, another substrate of Akt, were observed after GH stimulus, either in normal or dwarf mice in liver, while we were unable to determine mTOR in muscle. Protein content of GH-receptor and of the signaling mediators studied did not vary between normal and dwarf animals in the assessed

  10. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) induces chondroprotection via increasing autophagy, anti-inflammatory markers, and decreasing apoptosis in human osteoarthritic cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, Mayssam, E-mail: Moussa-mayssam@hotmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Lajeunesse, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.lajeunesse@umontreal.ca [Research Centre in Osteoarthritis, Research Centre in Monteral University (Canada); Hilal, George, E-mail: George2266@gmail.com [Cancer and metabolism Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); El Atat, Oula, E-mail: oulaatat@hotmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Haykal, Gaby, E-mail: Gaby.haykal@hdf.usj.edu.lb [Hotel Dieu de France, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Serhal, Rim, E-mail: rim.basbous@gmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Chalhoub, Antonio, E-mail: Mava.o@hotmail.com [Carantina Hospital, Beirut (Lebanon); Khalil, Charbel, E-mail: charbelk3@hotmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Alaaeddine, Nada, E-mail: Nada.aladdin@gmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2017-03-01

    Objectives: Autophagy constitutes a defense mechanism to overcome aging and apoptosis in osteoarthritic cartilage. Several cytokines and transcription factors are linked to autophagy and play an important role in the degradative cascade in osteoarthritis (OA). Cell therapy such as platelet rich plasma (PRP) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic tool for many diseases including OA. However, its mechanism of action on improving cartilage repair remains to be determined. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of PRP on osteoarthritic chondrocytes and to elucidate the mechanism by which PRP contributes to cartilage regeneration. Methods: Osteoarthritic chondrocytes were co-cultured with an increasing concentration of PRP obtained from healthy donors. The effect of PRP on the proliferation of chondrocytes was performed using cell counting and WST8 proliferation assays. Autophagy, apoptosis and intracellular level of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 were determined using flow cytometry analyses. Autophagy markers BECLIN and LC3II were also determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). qPCR and ELISA were used to measure the expression of ADAMDTS-5, MMP3, MMP13, TIMP-1–2–3, aggregan, Collagen type 2, TGF-β, Cox-2, Il-6, FOXO1, FOXO3, and HIF-1 in tissues and co-cultured media. Results: PRP increased significantly the proliferation of chondrocytes, decreased apoptosis and increased autophagy and its markers along with its regulators FOXO1, FOXO3 and HIF-1 in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Furthermore, PRP caused a dose-dependent significant decrease in MMP3, MMP13, and ADAMTS-5, IL-6 and COX-2 while increasing TGF-β, aggregan, and collagen type 2, TIMPs and intracellular IL-4, IL-10, IL-13. Conclusion: These results suggest that PRP could be a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of OA. - Highlights: • Platelet Rich Plasma is suggested as a new treatment for osteoarthritis. • The proposed therapeutic effect is

  11. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) induces chondroprotection via increasing autophagy, anti-inflammatory markers, and decreasing apoptosis in human osteoarthritic cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, Mayssam; Lajeunesse, Daniel; Hilal, George; El Atat, Oula; Haykal, Gaby; Serhal, Rim; Chalhoub, Antonio; Khalil, Charbel; Alaaeddine, Nada

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Autophagy constitutes a defense mechanism to overcome aging and apoptosis in osteoarthritic cartilage. Several cytokines and transcription factors are linked to autophagy and play an important role in the degradative cascade in osteoarthritis (OA). Cell therapy such as platelet rich plasma (PRP) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic tool for many diseases including OA. However, its mechanism of action on improving cartilage repair remains to be determined. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of PRP on osteoarthritic chondrocytes and to elucidate the mechanism by which PRP contributes to cartilage regeneration. Methods: Osteoarthritic chondrocytes were co-cultured with an increasing concentration of PRP obtained from healthy donors. The effect of PRP on the proliferation of chondrocytes was performed using cell counting and WST8 proliferation assays. Autophagy, apoptosis and intracellular level of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 were determined using flow cytometry analyses. Autophagy markers BECLIN and LC3II were also determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). qPCR and ELISA were used to measure the expression of ADAMDTS-5, MMP3, MMP13, TIMP-1–2–3, aggregan, Collagen type 2, TGF-β, Cox-2, Il-6, FOXO1, FOXO3, and HIF-1 in tissues and co-cultured media. Results: PRP increased significantly the proliferation of chondrocytes, decreased apoptosis and increased autophagy and its markers along with its regulators FOXO1, FOXO3 and HIF-1 in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Furthermore, PRP caused a dose-dependent significant decrease in MMP3, MMP13, and ADAMTS-5, IL-6 and COX-2 while increasing TGF-β, aggregan, and collagen type 2, TIMPs and intracellular IL-4, IL-10, IL-13. Conclusion: These results suggest that PRP could be a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of OA. - Highlights: • Platelet Rich Plasma is suggested as a new treatment for osteoarthritis. • The proposed therapeutic effect is

  12. Increase in nitrite content and functionality of ethanolic extracts of Perilla frutescens following treatment with atmospheric pressure plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Samooel; Lee, Chul Woo; Lee, Juri; Yong, Hae In; Yum, Su Jin; Jeong, Hee Gon; Jo, Cheorun

    2017-12-15

    This study investigated the effect of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment on nitrite content and functionality of plant extracts. Ethanolic extracts of Perilla frutescens (EEP) were prepared and treated with APP for 60min. Nitrite content increased from 0 to 45.8mg/l in EEP after APP treatment for 60min. Antimicrobial activity of EEP against Clostridium perfringens and Salmonella Typhimurium was increased by APP with no influence on antioxidative activity (p<0.05). Lyophilized EEP (LEEP) treated with APP for 60min contained 3.74mg/g nitrite. The control (LEEP without APP) contained no nitrite. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEEP for C. perfringens was 200µg/ml. The control did not inhibit C. perfringens growth between 25 and 1000µg/ml. MICs of LEEP and the control against S. Typhimurium were 25 and 50µg/ml, respectively. New nitrite sources with increased antimicrobial activity can be produced from natural plants by APP treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4–6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose–supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

  14. Lutein supplementation increases breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations in lactating women and infant plasma concentrations but does not affect other carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J

    2014-08-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish for an integ......Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish...... for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  16. Children's Control/Display Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Errol R; Chan, Alan H S; Tai, Judy P C

    2018-06-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine control/display stereotypes for children of a range of ages and development of these stereotypes with age. Background Little is known about control/display stereotypes for children of different ages and the way in which these stereotypes develop with age. This study is part of a program to determine the need to design differentially for these age groups. Method We tested four groups of children with various tasks (age groups 5 to 7, 8 to 10, 11 to 13, 14 to 16), with about 30 in each group. Examples of common tasks were opening a bottle, turning on taps, and allocating numbers to keypads. More complex tasks involved rotating a control to move a display in a requested direction. Results Tasks with which different age groups were familiar showed no effect of age group. Different control/display arrangements generally showed an increase in stereotype strength with age, with dependence on the form of the control/display arrangement. Two-dimensional arrangements, with the control on the same plane as the display, had higher stereotype strength than three-dimensional arrangements for all age groups, suggesting an effect of familiarity with controls and displays with increasing age. Conclusion Children's control/display stereotypes do not differ greatly from those of adults, and hence, design for children older than 5 years of age, for control/display stereotypes, can be the same as that for adult populations. Application When designing devices for children, the relationship between controls and displays can be as for adult populations, for which there are considerable experimental data.

  17. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 activity and human atrial fibrillation: increased plasma angiotensin converting enzyme 2 activity is associated with atrial fibrillation and more advanced left atrial structural remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Tomos E; Kalman, Jonathan M; Patel, Sheila K; Mearns, Megan; Velkoska, Elena; Burrell, Louise M

    2017-08-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an integral membrane protein whose main action is to degrade angiotensin II. Plasma ACE2 activity is increased in various cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to determine the relationship between plasma ACE2 activity and human atrial fibrillation (AF), and in particular its relationship to left atrial (LA) structural remodelling. One hundred and three participants from a tertiary arrhythmia centre, including 58 with paroxysmal AF (PAF), 20 with persistent AF (PersAF), and 25 controls, underwent clinical evaluation, echocardiographic analysis, and measurement of plasma ACE2 activity. A subgroup of 20 participants underwent invasive LA electroanatomic mapping. Plasma ACE2 activity levels were increased in AF [control 13.3 (9.5-22.3) pmol/min/mL; PAF 16.9 (9.7-27.3) pmol/min/mL; PersAF 22.8 (13.7-33.4) pmol/min/mL, P = 0.006]. Elevated plasma ACE2 was associated with older age, male gender, hypertension and vascular disease, elevated left ventricular (LV) mass, impaired LV diastolic function and advanced atrial disease (P < 0.05 for all). Independent predictors of elevated plasma ACE2 activity were AF (P = 0.04) and vascular disease (P < 0.01). There was a significant relationship between elevated ACE2 activity and low mean LA bipolar voltage (adjusted R2 = 0.22, P = 0.03), a high proportion of complex fractionated electrograms (R2 = 0.32, P = 0.009) and a long LA activation time (R2 = 0.20, P = 0.04). Plasma ACE2 activity is elevated in human AF. Both AF and vascular disease predict elevated plasma ACE2 activity, and elevated plasma ACE2 is significantly associated with more advanced LA structural remodelling. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Increased transfer of 45Ca into brain and cerebrospinal fluid from plasma during chronic hypocalcemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, V A; Rapoport, S I

    1988-06-28

    Recent studies have shown regulation of central nervous system [Ca] after chronic hypo- and hypercalcemia. To investigate the mechanism of this regulation, 3-week-old rats were fed diets for 8 weeks that contained low or normal levels of Ca. Plasma [Ca] was 40% less in rats fed the low Ca diet than in animals fed normal diet. Unidirectional transfer coefficients for Ca (KCa) and Cl (KCl) into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain were determined from the 10 min uptake of intravenously injected 45Ca and 36Cl in awake animals. KCa for CSF was 68% greater in low-Ca rats than in normal rats. Likewise, the values of KCa for brain regions with areas adjacent to the ventricles like the hippocampus and pons-medulla were 50% higher than in normal animals. On the other hand, KCas for parietal cortex, a brain region distant from the choroid plexus and not expected to be influenced by Ca entry into CSF, were similar between the groups. Comparison of the regional ratios of KCa/KCl revealed that a selective increase of Ca transport occurred into CSF and all brain regions except the parietal cortex in Ca-deficient rats. The results suggest that Ca homeostasis of CSF and brain [Ca] during chronic hypocalcemia is due to increased transfer of Ca from blood to brain, and that the regulation occurs via the CSF, possibly at the choroid plexus, but not via the cerebral capillaries.

  19. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) induces chondroprotection via increasing autophagy, anti-inflammatory markers, and decreasing apoptosis in human osteoarthritic cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Mayssam; Lajeunesse, Daniel; Hilal, George; El Atat, Oula; Haykal, Gaby; Serhal, Rim; Chalhoub, Antonio; Khalil, Charbel; Alaaeddine, Nada

    2017-03-01

    Autophagy constitutes a defense mechanism to overcome aging and apoptosis in osteoarthritic cartilage. Several cytokines and transcription factors are linked to autophagy and play an important role in the degradative cascade in osteoarthritis (OA). Cell therapy such as platelet rich plasma (PRP) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic tool for many diseases including OA. However, its mechanism of action on improving cartilage repair remains to be determined. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of PRP on osteoarthritic chondrocytes and to elucidate the mechanism by which PRP contributes to cartilage regeneration. Osteoarthritic chondrocytes were co-cultured with an increasing concentration of PRP obtained from healthy donors. The effect of PRP on the proliferation of chondrocytes was performed using cell counting and WST8 proliferation assays. Autophagy, apoptosis and intracellular level of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 were determined using flow cytometry analyses. Autophagy markers BECLIN and LC3II were also determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). qPCR and ELISA were used to measure the expression of ADAMDTS-5, MMP3, MMP13, TIMP-1-2-3, aggregan, Collagen type 2, TGF-β, Cox-2, Il-6, FOXO1, FOXO3, and HIF-1 in tissues and co-cultured media. PRP increased significantly the proliferation of chondrocytes, decreased apoptosis and increased autophagy and its markers along with its regulators FOXO1, FOXO3 and HIF-1 in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Furthermore, PRP caused a dose-dependent significant decrease in MMP3, MMP13, and ADAMTS-5, IL-6 and COX-2 while increasing TGF-β, aggregan, and collagen type 2, TIMPs and intracellular IL-4, IL-10, IL-13. These results suggest that PRP could be a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of OA. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Increasing platelet concentrations in leukocyte-reduced platelet-rich plasma decrease collagen gene synthesis in tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Stacie G; Schnabel, Lauren V; Mohammed, Hussni O; Sundman, Emily A; Minas, Tom; Fortier, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is used for the treatment of tendinopathy. There are numerous PRP preparations, and the optimal combination of platelets and leukocytes is not known. Within leukocyte-reduced PRP (lrPRP), there is a plateau effect of platelet concentration, with increasing platelet concentrations being detrimental to extracellular matrix synthesis. Controlled laboratory study. Different formulations of lrPRP with respect to the platelet:leukocyte ratio were generated from venous blood of 8 horses. Explants of the superficial digital flexor tendon were cultured in lrPRP products for 96 hours. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentrations were determined in the media by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gene expression in tendon tissue for collagen type I and III (COL1A1 and COL3A1, respectively), matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -13 (MMP-3 and MMP-13, respectively), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), and IL-1β was determined. Data were divided into 3 groups of lrPRP based on the ratio of platelets:leukocytes and evaluated to determine the effect of platelet concentration. Complete blood counts verified leukocyte reduction and platelet enrichment in all PRP preparations. In the lrPRP preparation, the anabolic growth factors PDGF-BB and TGF-β1 were increased with increasing platelet concentrations, and the catabolic cytokine IL-1β was decreased with increasing platelet concentrations. Increasing the platelet concentration resulted in a significant reduction in COL1A1 and COL3A1 synthesis in tendons. Increasing the platelet concentration within lrPRP preparations results in the delivery of more anabolic growth factors and less proinflammatory cytokines, but the biological effect on tendons is diminished metabolism as indicated by a decrease in the synthesis of both COL1A1 and COL3A1. Together, this information suggests that

  1. Plasma total homocysteine increases from day 20 to 40 in breastfed but not formula-fed low-birthweight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Woltil, H A; van Beusekom, C M; Schaafsma, A; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; Muskiet, F A J

    2002-01-01

    Homocysteine is an intermediate in the folate cycle and methionine metabolism. This study investigated whether formula-fed infants have different plasma total homocysteine to their breastfed counterparts, and during what period any difference developed. Plasma total homocysteine was determined in 53

  2. Bile Acid Sequestration Reduces Plasma Glucose Levels in db/db Mice by Increasing Its Metabolic Clearance Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, M.; Herrema, H.J.; Dijk, van Th.; Gerding, A.; Havinga, R.; Boer, T.; Müller, M.R.; Reijngoud, D.J.; Groen, A.K.; Kuipers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels.

  3. A pharmacologic increase in activity of plasma transaminase derived from small intestine in animals receiving an acyl CoA: diacylglycerol transferase (DGAT) 1 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Akio; Kondo, Kazuma; Oshida, Shin-Ichi; Takahashi, Tadakazu; Masuyama, Taku; Shoda, Toshiyuki; Sugai, Shoichiro

    2018-01-01

    Acyl CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 1 is an enzyme that catalyzes the re-synthesis of triglycerides (TG) from free fatty acids and diacylglycerol. JTT-553 is a DGAT1 inhibitor and exhibits its pharmacological action (inhibition of re-synthesis of TG) in the enterocytes of the small intestine leading to suppression of a postprandial elevation of plasma lipids. After repeated oral dosing JTT-553 in rats and monkeys, plasma transaminase levels were increased but there were neither changes in other hepatic function parameters nor histopathological findings suggestive of hepatotoxicity. Based on the results of exploratory studies for investigation of the mechanism of the increase in transaminase levels, plasma transaminase levels were increased after dosing JTT-553 only when animals were fed after dosing and a main factor in the diet contributing to the increase in plasma transaminase levels was lipids. After dosing JTT-553, transaminase levels were increased in the small intestine but not in the liver, indicating that the origin of transaminase increased in the plasma was not the liver but the small intestine where JTT-553 exhibits its pharmacological action. The increase in small intestinal transaminase levels was due to increased enzyme protein synthesis and was suppressed by inhibiting fatty acid-transport to the enterocytes. In conclusion, the JTT-553-related increase in plasma transaminase levels is considered not to be due to release of the enzymes from injured cells into the circulation but to be phenomena resulting from enhancement of enzyme protein synthesis in the small intestine due to the pharmacological action of JTT-553 in this organ.

  4. Physical-morphological and chemical changes leading to an increase in adhesion between plasma treated polyester fibres and a rubber matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krump, H.; Hudec, I.; Jasso, M.; Dayss, E.; Luyt, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of plasma treatment, used to increase adhesion strength between poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) fibres and a rubber matrix, were investigated and compared. Morphological changes as a result of atmospheric plasma treatment were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Wettability analysis using a surface energy evaluation system (SEE system) suggested that the plasma treated fibre was more wetting towards a polar liquid. When treated, these fibres showed a new lamellar crystallization, as shown by a new melting peak using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to study the chemical effect of inert (argon), active and reactive (nitrogen and oxygen) microwave-plasma treatments of a PET surface. Reactive oxygen plasma treatment by a de-convolution method shows new chemical species that drastically alter the chemical reactivity of the PET surface. These studies have also shown that the surface population of chemical species formed after microwave-plasma treatment is dependent on the plasma gas. All these changes cause better adhesion strength of the PET fibres to the rubber matrix

  5. Plasma leptin and growth hormone levels in the fine flounder (Paralichthys adspersus) increase gradually during fasting and decline rapidly after refeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Eduardo N; Kling, Peter; Einarsdottir, Ingibjörg Eir; Alvarez, Marco; Valdés, Juan Antonio; Molina, Alfredo; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur

    2012-05-15

    In fish, recent studies have indicated an anorexigenic role of leptin and thus its possible involvement in regulation of energy balance and growth. In the present study, the effects of fasting and refeeding periods on plasma leptin levels were studied in the fine flounder, a flatfish with remarkably slow growth. To further assess the endocrine status of the fish during periods of catabolism and anabolism, plasma growth hormone (GH) levels were also analyzed. Under normal feeding condition, plasma leptin and GH levels remained stable and relatively high in comparison with other teleost species. For the three separate groups of fish, fasted for 2, 3, and 4 weeks, respectively, plasma leptin levels increase gradually, becoming significantly elevated after 3 weeks, and reaching highest levels after 4-week fasting. Plasma GH levels were significantly elevated after 2-week fasting. At the onset of refeeding, following a single meal, leptin levels decline rapidly to lower than initial levels within 2 h, irrespective of the length of fasting. Plasma GH also decline, the decrease being significant after 4, 24 and 2 h for the 2, 3 and 4-week fasted groups, respectively. This study shows that plasma leptin levels in the fine flounder are strongly linked to nutritional status and suggests that leptin secretion is regulated by fast-acting mechanisms. Elevated leptin levels in fasted fish may contribute to a passive survival strategy of species which experience natural food shortage periods by lowering appetite and limiting physical foraging activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute growth hormone administration causes exaggerated increases in plasma lactate and glycerol during moderate to high intensity bicycling in trained young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K.H.; Larsson, B.; Flyvbjerg, A.

    2002-01-01

    ). In the placebo trial, all subjects completed the exercise protocol without any difficulties. In contrast, two subjects were not able to complete the exercise protocol in the GH trial, and one subject barely managed to complete the protocol. In addition, GH administration resulted in exaggerated increases...... in increased whole body fat oxidation (indirect calorimetry). Plasma glucose was, on average, 9% higher during exercise after GH administration compared with placebo (P ... during 90 min of subsequent bicycling at moderate to high intensity. The exaggerated increase in plasma lactate may be associated with substantially decreased exercise performance....

  7. Military training elicits marked increases in plasma metabolomic signatures of energy metabolism, lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; Carrigan, Christopher T; Castellani, John W; Madslien, Elisabeth H; Teien, Hilde-Kristin; Martini, Svein; Montain, Scott J; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2017-09-01

    Military training studies provide unique insight into metabolic responses to extreme physiologic stress induced by multiple stressor environments, and the impacts of nutrition in mediating these responses. Advances in metabolomics have provided new approaches for extending current understanding of factors modulating dynamic metabolic responses in these environments. In this study, whole-body metabolic responses to strenuous military training were explored in relation to energy balance and macronutrient intake by performing nontargeted global metabolite profiling on plasma collected from 25 male soldiers before and after completing a 4-day, 51-km cross-country ski march that produced high total daily energy expenditures (25.4 MJ/day [SD 2.3]) and severe energy deficits (13.6 MJ/day [SD 2.5]). Of 737 identified metabolites, 478 changed during the training. Increases in 88% of the free fatty acids and 91% of the acylcarnitines, and decreases in 88% of the mono- and diacylglycerols detected within lipid metabolism pathways were observed. Smaller increases in 75% of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, and 50% of the branched-chain amino acid metabolites detected were also observed. Changes in multiple metabolites related to lipid metabolism were correlated with body mass loss and energy balance, but not with energy and macronutrient intakes or energy expenditure. These findings are consistent with an increase in energy metabolism, lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, and branched-chain amino acid catabolism during strenuous military training. The magnitude of the energy deficit induced by undereating relative to high energy expenditure, rather than macronutrient intake, appeared to drive these changes, particularly within lipid metabolism pathways. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  8. Nuclear Medicine Image Display. Chapter 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, H. [Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-12-15

    The final step in a medical imaging procedure is to display the image(s) on a suitable display system where it is presented to the medical specialist for diagnostic interpretation. The display of hard copy images on X ray film or photographic film has largely been replaced today by soft copy image display systems with cathode ray tube (CRT) or liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors as the image rendering device. Soft copy display requires a high quality display monitor and a certain amount of image processing to optimize the image both with respect to the properties of the display device and to some psychophysiological properties of the human visual system. A soft copy display system, therefore, consists of a display workstation providing some basic image processing functions and the display monitor as the intrinsic display device. Display devices of lower quality may be used during intermediate steps of the acquisition and analysis of a patient study. Display monitors with a quality suitable for diagnostic reading by the specialist medical doctor are called primary devices, also known as diagnostic devices. Monitors with lower quality but good enough to be used for positioning, processing of studies, presentation of images in the wards, etc. are referred to as secondary devices or clinical devices. Nuclear medicine images can be adequately displayed even for diagnostic purposes on secondary devices. However, the increasing use of X ray images on which to report jointly with images from nuclear medicine studies, such as those generated by dual modality imaging, notably by positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT, requires display devices capable of visualizing high resolution grey scale images at diagnostic quality, i.e. primary display devices. Both grey scale and colour display devices are used, the latter playing an important role in the display of processed nuclear medicine images and

  9. Nuclear Medicine Image Display. Chapter 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, H.

    2014-01-01

    The final step in a medical imaging procedure is to display the image(s) on a suitable display system where it is presented to the medical specialist for diagnostic interpretation. The display of hard copy images on X ray film or photographic film has largely been replaced today by soft copy image display systems with cathode ray tube (CRT) or liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors as the image rendering device. Soft copy display requires a high quality display monitor and a certain amount of image processing to optimize the image both with respect to the properties of the display device and to some psychophysiological properties of the human visual system. A soft copy display system, therefore, consists of a display workstation providing some basic image processing functions and the display monitor as the intrinsic display device. Display devices of lower quality may be used during intermediate steps of the acquisition and analysis of a patient study. Display monitors with a quality suitable for diagnostic reading by the specialist medical doctor are called primary devices, also known as diagnostic devices. Monitors with lower quality but good enough to be used for positioning, processing of studies, presentation of images in the wards, etc. are referred to as secondary devices or clinical devices. Nuclear medicine images can be adequately displayed even for diagnostic purposes on secondary devices. However, the increasing use of X ray images on which to report jointly with images from nuclear medicine studies, such as those generated by dual modality imaging, notably by positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT, requires display devices capable of visualizing high resolution grey scale images at diagnostic quality, i.e. primary display devices. Both grey scale and colour display devices are used, the latter playing an important role in the display of processed nuclear medicine images and

  10. Display of nuclear medicine imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Kataria, S.K.; Samuel, A.M.

    2002-08-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging studies involve evaluation of a large amount of image data. Digital signal processing techniques have introduced processing algorithms that increase the information content of the display. Nuclear medicine imaging studies require interactive selection of suitable form of display and pre-display processing. Static imaging study requires pre-display processing to detect focal defects. Point operations (histogram modification) along with zoom and capability to display more than one image in one screen is essential. This album mode of display is also applicable to dynamic, MUGA and SPECT data. Isometric display or 3-D graph of the image data is helpful in some cases e.g. point spread function, flood field data. Cine display is used on a sequence of images e.g. dynamic, MUGA and SPECT imaging studies -to assess the spatial movement of tracer with time. Following methods are used at the investigator's discretion for inspection of the 3-D object. 1) Display of orthogonal projections, 2) Display of album of user selected coronal/ sagital/ transverse orthogonal slices, 3) Display of three orthogonal slices through user selected point, 4) Display of a set of orthogonal slices generated in the user-selected volume, 5) Generation and display of 3-D shaded surface. 6) Generation of volume data and display along with the 3-D shaded surface, 7) Side by side display orthogonal slices of two 3-D objects. Displaying a set of two-dimensional slices of a 3-D reconstructed object through shows all the defects but lacks the 3-D perspective. Display of shaded surface lacks the ability to show the embedded defects. Volume display -combining the 3-D surface and gray level volume data is perhaps the best form of display. This report describes these forms of display along with the theory. (author)

  11. Plasma Gelsolin Levels Decrease in Diabetic State and Increase upon Treatment with F-Actin Depolymerizing Versions of Gelsolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Khatri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to map plasma gelsolin (pGSN levels in diabetic humans and mice models of type II diabetes and to evaluate the efficacy of gelsolin therapy in improvement of diabetes in mice. We report that pGSN values decrease by a factor of 0.45 to 0.5 in the blood of type II diabetic humans and mice models. Oral glucose tolerance test in mice models showed that subcutaneous administration of recombinant pGSN and its F-actin depolymerizing competent versions brought down blood sugar levels comparable to Sitagliptin, a drug used to manage hyperglycemic condition. Further, daily dose of pGSN or its truncated versions to diabetic mice for a week kept sugar levels close to normal values. Also, diabetic mice treated with Sitagliptin for 7 days, showed increase in their pGSN values with the decrease in blood glucose as compared to their levels at the start of treatment. Gelsolin helped in improving glycemic control in diabetic mice. We propose that gelsolin level monitoring and replacement of F-actin severing capable gelsolin(s should be considered in diabetic care.

  12. A variant near MTNR1B is associated with increased fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Bonnefond, Amélie; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine

    2009-01-01

    with increased FPG (beta = 0.06 mmol/l, P = 7.6 x 10(-29), N = 16,094), type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.08-1.22, P = 6.3 x 10(-5), cases N = 6,332) and risk of developing hyperglycemia or diabetes over a 9-year period (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.06-1.36, P = 0......In genome-wide association (GWA) data from 2,151 nondiabetic French subjects, we identified rs1387153, near MTNR1B (which encodes the melatonin receptor 2 (MT2)), as a modulator of fasting plasma glucose (FPG; P = 1.3 x 10(-7)). In European populations, the rs1387153 T allele is associated.......005, incident cases N = 515). RT-PCR analyses confirm the presence of MT2 transcripts in neural tissues and show MT2 expression in human pancreatic islets and beta cells. Our data suggest a possible link between circadian rhythm regulation and glucose homeostasis through the melatonin signaling pathway....

  13. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix; Gregson, James; Wetzstein, Gordon; Raskar, Ramesh; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  14. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-06-22

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  15. Liquid crystal display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takami, K.

    1981-01-01

    An improved liquid crystal display device is described which can display letters, numerals and other necessary patterns in the night time using a minimized amount of radioactive material. To achieve this a self-luminous light source is placed in a limited region corresponding to a specific display area. (U.K.)

  16. Platelet-Rich Plasma Increases the Levels of Catabolic Molecules and Cellular Dedifferentiation in the Meniscus of a Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Rim Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the susceptibility to frequent intrinsic and extrinsic injuries, especially in the inner zone, the meniscus does not heal spontaneously owing to its poor vascularity. In this study, the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP, containing various growth factors, on meniscal mechanisms was examined under normal and post-traumatic inflammatory conditions. Isolated primary meniscal cells of New Zealand white (NZW rabbits were incubated for 3, 10, 14 and 21 days with PRP(−, 10% PRP (PRP(+, IL(+ or IL(+PRP(+. The meniscal cells were collected and examined using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Culture media were examined by immunoblot analyses for matrix metalloproteinases (MMP catabolic molecules. PRP containing growth factors improved the cellular viability of meniscal cells in a concentration-dependent manner at Days 1, 4 and 7. However, based on RT-PCR, meniscal cells demonstrated dedifferentiation, along with an increase in type I collagen in the PRP(+ and in IL(+PRP(+. In PRP(+, the aggrecan expression levels were lower than in the PRP(− until Day 21. The protein levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3 were higher in each PRP group, i.e., PRP(+ and IL(+PRP(+, at each culture time. A reproducible 2-mm circular defect on the meniscus of NZW rabbit was used to implant fibrin glue (control or PRP in vivo. After eight weeks, the lesions in the control and PRP groups were occupied with fibrous tissue, but not with meniscal cells. This study shows that PRP treatment of the meniscus results in an increase of catabolic molecules, especially those related to IL-1α-induced inflammation, and that PRP treatment for an in vivo meniscus injury accelerates fibrosis, instead of meniscal cartilage.

  17. Increased plasma citrulline in mice marks diet-induced obesity and may predict the development of the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sailer, M.; Dahlhoff, C.; Giesbertz, P.; Eidens, M.K.; Wit, de N.J.W.; Rubio-Aliaga, I.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Müller, M.R.; Daniel, H.

    2013-01-01

    Article About the Authors Metrics Comments Related Content Abstract Introduction Results Discussion Materials and Methods Supporting Information Acknowledgments Author Contributions References Reader Comments (0) Figures Abstract In humans, plasma amino acid concentrations of branched-chain amino

  18. Does Increased Expression of the Plasma Membrane Calcium-ATPase Isoform 2 Confer Resistance to Apoptosis on Breast Cancer Cells?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    VanHouten, Joshua N

    2008-01-01

    The plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 2 (PMCA2) is highly expressed on the apical membrane of mammary epithelial cells during lactation, and is the predominant pump responsible for calcium transport into milk...

  19. Increase in the temperature of a laser plasma formed by two-frequency UV - IR irradiation of metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, A A; Grasyuk, Arkadii Z; Efimovskii, S V; Kurbasov, Sergei V; Losev, Leonid L; Soskov, V I

    1998-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made of a laser plasma formed by successive irradiation of a metal target with 30-ps UV and IR laser pulses. The UV prepulse, of 266 nm wavelength, was of relatively low intensity (∼ 10 12 W cm -2 ), whereas the intensity of an IR pulse, of 10.6 μm wavelength, was considerably higher (∼3 x 10 14 W cm -2 ) and it was delayed by 0 - 6 ns (the optimal delay was 2 ns). Such two-frequency UV - IR irradiation produced a laser plasma with an electron temperature 5 times higher than that of a plasma created by singe-frequency IR pulses of the same (∼3 x 10 14 W cm -2 ) intensity. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  20. Increased Plasma Cathepsin S at the Time of Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty is Associated with 6-Months’ Restenosis of the Femoropopliteal Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijovski Mojca Bozic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We tested the hypothesis that increased levels of cathepsin S and decreased levels of cystatin C in plasma at the time of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA are associated with the occurrence of 6-months’ restenosis of the femoropopliteal artery (FPA. Methods: 20 patients with restenosis and 24 matched patients with patent FPA after a 6-months follow-up were in - cluded in this study. They all exhibited disabling claudication or critical limb ischemia and had undergone technically successful PTA. They were all receiving statins and ACE in hi - bitors (or angiotensin II receptor antagonist before the PTA and the therapy did not change throughout the observational period. Plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein were < 10 mg/L and of creatinine within the reference range at the time of the PTA. Plasma concentration and activity of cathepsin S, together with its potent inhibitor cystatin C, were measured the day before and the day after the PTA. Results: The increased plasma concentration and activity of cathepsin S at the time of PTA was associated with the occurrence of 6-months’ restenosis of FPA, independently of established risk factors (lesion complexity, infrapopliteal run-off vessels, type of PTA, age, gender, smoking, diabetes, lipids and of cystatin C. Plasma cystatin C concentration was not associated with restenosis and did not correlate with cathepsin S activity and concentration in the plasma. Conclusion: Increased level of plasma cathepsin S at the time of PTA is associated with 6-months’ restenosis of PTA, independently of established risk factors.

  1. Corn fiber oil lowers plasma cholesterol levels and increases cholesterol excretion greater than corn oil and similar to diets containing soy sterols and soy stanols in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; DeSimone, A P; Romano, C A; Nicolosi, R J

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the cholesterol-lowering properties of corn fiber oil (CFO) to corn oil (CO), whether the addition of soy stanols or soy sterols to CO at similar levels in CFO would increase CO's cholesterol-lowering properties, and the mechanism(s) of action of these dietary ingredients. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 10 hamsters each, based on similar plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels. The first group of hamsters was fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet containing either 5% coconut oil + 0.24% cholesterol (coconut oil), 5% CO, 5% CFO, 5% CO + 0.6% soy sterols (sterol), or 5% CO + 0.6% soy stanols (stanol) in place of the coconut oil for 4 weeks. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to all other dietary treatments. Also, the CFO and sterol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The CFO, sterol, and stanol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to all other dietary treatments. The sterol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the CO and coconut oil diets, whereas the CFO diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the coconut oil diet only. No differences were observed between the CFO and CO for plasma HDL-C. There were no differences observed between groups for plasma triglycerides. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic TC compared to the coconut oil, sterol, and stanol diets. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol compared to the sterol and stanol diets but not compared to the coconut oil diet; whereas the coconut oil and sterol diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol

  2. Liquid Crystal Airborne Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    Cum.nings, J. P., et al., Properties and Limitations oe Liquid Crystals for Aircraft Displays, Honeywell Corporate Researc ."I Center, Final Report HR-72...basic module could be used to build displays for both the commercial and military! 157- marhecs, and so would establi sh a broad and sizable market ... market for the display becomes a reality; therein lies, f TABLE 16 THE COURSE OF FUTURE DISPLAY DEVELOPMENT Today 1976-77 1980 1985 Display Size 2" 1 3.2

  3. Acute, food-induced moderate elevation of plasma uric acid protects against hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress and increase in arterial stiffness in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Jonatan; Modun, Darko; Budimir, Danijela; Sutlovic, Davorka; Salamunic, Ilza; Zaja, Ivan; Boban, Mladen

    2009-11-01

    We examined the effects of acute, food-induced moderate increase of plasma uric acid (UA) on arterial stiffness and markers of oxidative damage in plasma in healthy males exposed to 100% normobaric oxygen. Acute elevation of plasma UA was induced by consumption of red wine, combination of ethanol and glycerol, or fructose. By using these beverages we were able to separate the effects of UA, wine polyphenols and ethanol. Water was used as a control beverage. Ten males randomly consumed test beverages in a cross-over design over the period of 4 weeks, one beverage per week. They breathed 100% O(2) between 60(th) and 90(th)min of the 4-h study protocol. Pulse wave augmentation index (AIx) at brachial and radial arteries, plasma antioxidant capacity (AOC), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) assessed by xylenol orange method, UA and blood ethanol concentrations were determined before and 60, 90, 120, 150 and 240 min after beverage consumption. Consumption of the beverages did not affect the AIx, TBARS or LOOH values during 60 min before exposure to hyperoxia, while AOC and plasma UA increased except in the water group. Significant increase of AIx, plasma TBARS and LOOH, which occurred during 30 min of hyperoxia in the water group, was largely prevented in the groups that consumed red wine, glycerol+ethanol or fructose. In contrast to chronic hyperuricemia, generally considered as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome, acute increase of UA acts protectively against hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress and related increase of arterial stiffness in large peripheral arteries.

  4. Reconfigurable Full-Page Braille Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, H. Douglas

    1994-01-01

    Electrically actuated braille display cells of proposed type arrayed together to form full-page braille displays. Like other braille display cells, these provide changeable patterns of bumps driven by digitally recorded text stored on magnetic tapes or in solid-state electronic memories. Proposed cells contain electrorheological fluid. Viscosity of such fluid increases in strong electrostatic field.

  5. Visual Merchandising through Display: Advertising Services Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Nelson S.

    The increasing use of displays by businessmen is creating a demand for display workers. This demand may be met by preparing high school students to enter the field of display. Additional workers might be recruited by offering adult training programs for individuals working within the stores. For this purpose a curriculum guide has been developed…

  6. Displays in scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd-Pokropek, A.E.; Pizer, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    Displays have several functions: to transmit images, to permit interaction, to quantitate features and to provide records. The main characteristics of displays used for image transmission are their resolution, dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio and uniformity. Considerations of visual acuity suggest that the display element size should be much less than the data element size, and in current practice at least 256X256 for a gamma camera image. The dynamic range for image transmission should be such that at least 64 levels of grey (or equivalent) are displayed. Scanner displays are also considered, and in particular, the requirements of a whole-body camera are examined. A number of display systems and devices are presented including a 'new' heated object colour display system. Interaction with displays is considered, including background subtraction, contrast enhancement, position indication and region-of-interest generation. Such systems lead to methods of quantitation, which imply knowledge of the expected distributions. Methods for intercomparing displays are considered. Polaroid displays, which have for so long dominated the field, are in the process of being replaced by stored image displays, now that large cheap memories exist which give an equivalent image quality. The impact of this in nuclear medicine is yet to be seen, but a major effect will be to enable true quantitation. (author)

  7. Plasma levels of galectin-3-binding protein reflect type I interferon activity and are increased in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer T; Lood, Christian; Østergaard, Ole

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Simple measures of type I interferon (IFN) activity constitute highly attractive biomarkers in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We explore galectin-3-binding protein (G3BP) as a novel measure of type I IFN activity and serum/plasma biomarker in large independent cohorts of patients...... parameters including disease activity in the four SLE cohorts was performed. RESULTS: G3BP concentrations correlated significantly with the IFN-α reporter gene assay (r=0.56, p=0.0005) and with IFN-α gene expression scores (r=0.54, p=0.0002). Plasma concentrations were significantly increased in the SLE......BP levels in the consecutive SLE-samples and was significantly associated with changes in disease activity (r=0.44, p=0.014). CONCLUSIONS: G3BP plasma levels reflect type I IFN activity and are increased in SLE. Associations with disease activity or clinical manifestations are uncertain. This study...

  8. Increased levels of interleukin-22 in thoracic aorta and plasma from patients with acute thoracic aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Wang, Menglong; Jiang, Huimin; Ji, Qingwei; Huang, Ying; Liu, Jianfang; Zeng, Tao; Xu, Yao; Wang, Zhen; Lin, Yingzhong; Wan, Jun

    2017-11-03

    Interleukin (IL)-22 plays important roles in the development of arterial disease, including atherosclerosis and hypertension. However, the relationship between IL-22 and acute thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) remains unknown. Blood samples were collected from patients with chest pain who underwent computed tomography angiography of the thoracic aorta but had no known preoperative diagnosis of coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, arthritis, and/or membranous nephropathy. Patients were divided into non-AD (NAD) and TAD groups, and the plasma concentrations of IL-22, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured. In addition, aortic tissue samples from acute TAD patients and normal donors were collected, and the expression levels of IL-22 and IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) were measured. IL-22, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in acute TAD patients than in NAD patients (IL-22, NAD group: 27.0 (19.1, 38.6) pg/ml vs. TAD group: 32.9 (20.6, 58.3) pg/ml, pTAD (OR 1.169, 95% CI 1.069 to 1.277; p=0.001). In addition, compared with aortic tissue of normal controls, TAD aortas showed increased expression of IL-22 and IL-22R1, especially in the torn section (IL-22, non-torn section: 2.8±0.5/HPF vs. torn section 2.8±0.5/HPF, pTAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasma 27-hydroxycholesterol/cholesterol ratio is increased in low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Valéria S; Leança, Camila C; Panzoldo, Natália B; Parra, Eliane; Zago, Vanessa; Cazita, Patrícia M; Nakandakare, Edna R; de Faria, Eliana C; Quintão, Eder C R

    2013-10-01

    Sterol 27-hydroxylase converts cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) which is widely distributed among tissues and is expressed at high levels in the vascular endothelium and macrophages. There is a continuous flow of this oxysterol from the tissues into the liver, where it is converted to bile acids. Measure plasma concentrations of 27-OHC in subjects that differ according to their plasma HDL-C concentration. Healthy men presenting low HDL-C (1.55 mmol/L), n=18, BMIm² were recruited after excluding secondary causes that might interfere with their plasma lipid concentrations such as smoking, heavy drinking and diabetes. Blood samples were drawn after a 12h fasting period for the measurement of 27-OHC by the combined GC/MS analysis utilizing deuterium-label internal standards. The plasma ratio 27-OHC/total cholesterol (median and range nmoL/mmoL) was 50.41 (27.47-116.00) in the High HDL-C subjects and 63.34 (36.46-91.18) in the Low HDL-C subjects (p=0.0258). Our data indicate that the production of 27-OHC by extrahepatic tissues and its transport to the liver may represent an alternative pathway for a deficient reverse cholesterol transport system when plasma HDL-C is low. © 2013.

  10. Developing an integrated digitizing and display surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipple, James D.; Wedding, Daniel K.; Wedding, Donald K., Sr.

    1995-04-01

    The development of an integrated digitizing and display surface, which utilizes touch entry and flat panel display (FPD) technology, is a significant hardware advance in the field of geographic information systems (GIS). Inherent qualities of the FPD, notably the ac gas plasma display, makes such a marriage inevitable. Large diagonal sizes, high resolution color, screen flatness, and monitor thickness are desirable features of an integrated digitizing and display surface. Recently, the GIS literature has addressed a need for such an innovation. The development of graphics displays based on sophisticated technologies include `photorealistic' (or high definition) imaging at resolutions of 2048 X 2048 or greater, palates of 16.7 million colors, formats greater than 30 inches diagonal, and integrated touch entry. In this paper, there is an evaluation of FPDs and data input technologies in the development of such a product.

  11. Lower plasma adiponectin is a marker of increased intima-media thickness associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with male gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; de Vries, Rindert; van Tol, Arie; Sluiter, Wim J.

    Objective: We tested the extent to which altered plasma adipokine levels may contribute to the increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with male gender, independently of conventional cardiovascular risk factors, insulin resistance, and

  12. Increase in Skin Autofluorescence and Release of Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Plasma Predicts Mortality of Hemodialysis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsov, Stefan; Trajceska, Lada; van Oeveren, Wim; Smit, Andries J.; Dzekova, Pavlina; Stegmayr, Bernd; Sikole, Aleksandar; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Graaff, Reindert

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are uremic toxins that accumulate progressively in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the 1-year increase in skin autofluorescence (DAF), a measure of AGEs accumulation and plasma markers, as predictors of mortality in HD patients.

  13. Increased protein damage in renal glomeruli, retina, nerve, plasma and urine and its prevention by thiamine and benfotiamine therapy in a rat model of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachalias, N; Babaei-Jadidi, R; Rabbani, N; Thornalley, P J

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify protein damage by glycation, oxidation and nitration in a rat model of diabetes at the sites of development of microvascular complications, including the effects of thiamine and benfotiamine therapy. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by 55 mg/kg streptozotocin and moderated by insulin (2 U twice daily). Diabetic and control rats were given thiamine or benfotiamine (7 or 70 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) over 24 weeks. Plasma, urine and tissues were collected and analysed for protein damage by stable isotopic dilution analysis MS. There were two- to fourfold increases in fructosyl-lysine and AGE content of glomerular, retinal, sciatic nerve and plasma protein in diabetes. Increases in AGEs were reversed by thiamine and benfotiamine therapy but increases in fructosyl-lysine were not. Methionine sulfoxide content of plasma protein and 3-nitrotyrosine content of sciatic nerve protein were increased in diabetes. Plasma glycation free adducts were increased up to twofold in diabetes; the increases were reversed by thiamine. Urinary excretion of glycation, oxidation and nitration free adducts was increased by seven- to 27-fold in diabetes. These increases were reversed by thiamine and benfotiamine therapy. AGEs, particularly arginine-derived hydroimidazolones, accumulate at sites of microvascular complication development and have markedly increased urinary excretion rates in experimental diabetes. Thiamine and benfotiamine supplementation prevented tissue accumulation and increased urinary excretion of protein glycation, oxidation and nitration adducts. Similar effects may contribute to the reversal of early-stage clinical diabetic nephropathy by thiamine.

  14. OLED displays and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Koden, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have emerged as the leading technology for the new display and lighting market. OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. This book covers both the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs.

  15. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason; Johnson, Andrew; Renambot, Luc; Peterka, Tom; Jeong, Byungil; Sandin, Daniel J.; Talandis, Jonas; Jagodic, Ratko; Nam, Sungwon; Hur, Hyejung; Sun, Yiwen

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  16. Plasma soluble cluster of differentiation 147 levels are increased in breast cancer patients and associated with lymph node metastasis and chemoresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Y H; Liu, Y J; Tang, L L; Wang, S M; Yan, G J; Liao, L Q

    2018-05-25

    Cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) contributes to breast cancer invasion, metastasis, and multidrug resistance. Recent studies have shown that peripheral soluble CD147 (sCD147) is increased in hepatocellular tumour and multiple myeloma patients and correlated with disease severity. The primary aim of our study was to assess the level, as well as the biological and clinical significance of sCD147 in breast cancer. We tested plasma sCD147 levels in 308 breast cancer patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay between February 2014 and February 2017. A subset of 165 cases of benign breast diseases was included as a control group at the same period. We analysed the clinical significance of plasma sCD147 with relevance to clinicopathological factors of breast cancer patients. Plasma sCD147 levels were significantly higher in patients with primary breast cancer than those with benign breast diseases (P=0.001), in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (T3-T4 tumour) than those in early breast cancer (T1-T2 tumour; P=0.001), in patients with lymph node metastasis than in those without (P<0.001), and in patients with high recurrence risk than those with medium recurrence risk (P<0.001). Plasma sCD147 levels were also significantly higher in the chemotherapy-resistant group than in the chemotherapy-sensitive group (P=0.040). Plasma sCD147 was an independent predictor for lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients (P=0.001). This is the first study to demonstrate that plasma sCD147 levels are elevated in breast cancer patients. Soluble CD147 is also associated with tumour size, lymph node metastasis, high recurrent risk, and chemoresistance. Our findings support that plasma sCD147 is an independent predictive factor for lymph node metastasis.

  17. JAVA Stereo Display Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2008-01-01

    This toolkit provides a common interface for displaying graphical user interface (GUI) components in stereo using either specialized stereo display hardware (e.g., liquid crystal shutter or polarized glasses) or anaglyph display (red/blue glasses) on standard workstation displays. An application using this toolkit will work without modification in either environment, allowing stereo software to reach a wider audience without sacrificing high-quality display on dedicated hardware. The toolkit is written in Java for use with the Swing GUI Toolkit and has cross-platform compatibility. It hooks into the graphics system, allowing any standard Swing component to be displayed in stereo. It uses the OpenGL graphics library to control the stereo hardware and to perform the rendering. It also supports anaglyph and special stereo hardware using the same API (application-program interface), and has the ability to simulate color stereo in anaglyph mode by combining the red band of the left image with the green/blue bands of the right image. This is a low-level toolkit that accomplishes simply the display of components (including the JadeDisplay image display component). It does not include higher-level functions such as disparity adjustment, 3D cursor, or overlays all of which can be built using this toolkit.

  18. Displays and simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohon, N.

    A 'simulator' is defined as a machine which imitates the behavior of a real system in a very precise manner. The major components of a simulator and their interaction are outlined in brief form, taking into account the major components of an aircraft flight simulator. Particular attention is given to the visual display portion of the simulator, the basic components of the display, their interactions, and their characteristics. Real image displays are considered along with virtual image displays, and image generators. Attention is given to an advanced simulator for pilot training, a holographic pancake window, a scan laser image generator, the construction of an infrared target simulator, and the Apollo Command Module Simulator.

  19. Non linear evolution of plasma waves excited to mode conversion at the vicinity of plasma resonance. Application to experiments of ionosphere modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cros, Brigitte

    1989-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the non linear evolution of plasma waves excited by mode conversion in a non homogeneous, non collisional, and free-of-external-magnetic-field plasma. Experiments performed in the microwave domain in a plasma created by means of a multi-polar device show that the evolution of plasma waves displays a transition between a non linear quasi-steady regime and a stochastic regime when the power of incident electromagnetic waves or plasma gradient length is increased. These regimes are characterized through a numerical resolution of Zakharov equations which describe the coupled evolution of plasma wave envelope and low frequency density perturbations [fr

  20. Theobroma cacao increases cells viability and reduces IL-6 and sVCAM-1 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Budi; Baktiyani, Siti Candra Windu; Nurdiana, Nurdiana

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether an ethanolic extract of Theobroma cacao bean is able to increase cell viability and decrease IL-6 and sVCAM-1 in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluency, endothelial cells were divided into six groups, which included control (untreated), endothelial cells exposed to plasma from normal pregnancy, endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of T. cacao (PP+TC) at the following three doses: 25, 50, and 100 ppm. The analysis was performed in silico using the Hex 8.0, LigPlus and LigandScout 3.1 software. Analysis on IL-6 and sVCAM-1 levels were done by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that seven of them could bind to the protein NFκB (catechin, leucoanthocyanidin, niacin, phenylethylamine, theobromine, theophylline, and thiamin). This increase in IL-6 was significantly (Pcacao extract. Plasma from PP significantly increased sVCAM-1 levels compared to untreated cells. This increase in sVCAM-1 was significantly attenuated by all doses of the extract. In conclusion, T. cacao extract prohibits the increase in IL-6 and sVCAM-1 in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Therefore this may provide a herbal therapy for attenuating the endothelial dysfunction found in preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased kidney size, glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow in short-term insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, JS; Gammelgaard, J; Frandsen, M

    1981-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF) and kidney volume were measured in thirteen male subjects (mean age 30 years) with short-term insulin-dependent diabetes (mean duration of disease 2.4 years) and fourteen normal male subjects (mean age 29 years). GFR and RPF were measured...

  2. Consumption of high doses of chlorogenic acid, present in coffee, or black tea increases plasma total homocysteine concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Hollman, P.C.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    In population studies, high intakes of coffee are associated with raised concentrations of plasma homocysteine, a predictor of risk of cardiovascular disease. Chlorogenic acid is a major polyphenol in coffee; coffee drinkers consume up to 1 g chlorogenic acid/d. OBJECTIVE: We studied whether

  3. Plasma Progranulin Concentrations Are Increased in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity and Correlated with Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance (IR is considered to be one of the most important pathogenesis of glycolipid metabolism disorders. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for IR is not fully understood. Recently, the chronic inflammation has been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of IR. In this study, we aim to investigate the concentrations of plasma progranulin in Chinese patients with obesity (OB and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and its relationship to IR. Plasma progranulin concentrations were significantly higher in the T2DM patients than in the normal glucose tolerant (NGT subjects (. Within the T2DM and the NGT patients, the concentrations of progranulin were significantly higher in obese subjects than that in the normal weight subjects (225.22 ± 34.39 ng/mL versus 195.59 ± 50.47 ng/mL and 183.79 ± 61.63 ng/mL versus 148.69 ± 55.27 ng/mL, . Plasma progranulin concentrations correlated positively with weight, waist circumferences, BMI, HbA1c, TG, IL-6, FINS and HOMA-IR (, while correlated negatively with HOMA-β (. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that BMI, HbA1c, IL-6 and TG correlated independently with circulating progranulin concentrations (. These results suggested that Plasma progranulin concentrations were higher in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity and correlated closely with glycolipid metabolism, chronic inflammation and IR.

  4. How to increase the hydrophobicity of PTFE surfaces using an r.f. atmospheric-pressure plasma torch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carbone, E.A.D.; Boucher, N.; Sferrazza, M.; Reniers, F.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) by an Ar and Ar/O2 plasma created with an atmospheric-pressure radio frequency (r.f.) torch is presented here. The surfaces were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), XPS and water contact angle (WCA) to

  5. Thyroxine administration to infants of less than 30 weeks' gestational age does not increase plasma triiodothyronine concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wassenaer, A. G.; Kok, J. H.; Endert, E.; Vulsma, T.; de Vijlder, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Very preterm infants (less than 30 weeks' gestational age) were treated with thyroxine in three different dosage schemes: 10, 8 and 6 micrograms.kg-1 birthweight.day-1 during the first 6 weeks of life. The aim was to prevent transient hypothyroxinemia of the preterm infant. Plasma levels of

  6. NMR-based metabonomics reveals that plasma betaine increases upon intake of high-fiber rye buns in hypercholesterolemic pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne Christine S.; Malmendal, Anders; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2009-01-01

    fiber for 9-10 wk. Fasting plasma samples were collected 2 days before and after 8 and 12 days on the experimental diets, while postprandial samples taken after 58-67 days, and( 1)H NMR spectra were acquired on these. Principal component analysis on the obtained NMR spectra demonstrated clear effects...

  7. Issues in symbol design for electronic displays of navigation information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-24

    An increasing number of electronic displays, ranging from small hand-held displays for general aviation to installed displays for air transport, are showing navigation information, such as symbols representing navigational aids. The wide range of dis...

  8. Increased plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites and vitamin D binding protein in women using hormonal contraceptives: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liendgaard, Ulla Kristine Møller; við Streym, Susanna; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Use of hormonal contraceptives (HC) may influence total plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites. A likely cause is an increased synthesis of vitamin D binding protein (VDBP). Discrepant results are reported on whether the use of HC affects free concentrations of vitamin D...... metabolites. AIM: In a cross-sectional study, plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, VDBP, and the calculated free vitamin D index in users and non-users of HC were compared and markers of calcium and bone metabolism investigated. RESULTS: 75 Caucasian women aged 25-35 years were included during......, parathyroid hormone, and calcitonin, p > 0.21) or bone metabolism (plasma bone specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and urinary NTX/creatinine ratio) between groups. IN CONCLUSION: Use of HC is associated with 13%-25% higher concentrations of total vitamin D metabolites and VDBP. This however...

  9. Plasma concentrations of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor are increased in patients with malaria and are associated with a poor clinical or a fatal outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Ullum, Henrik; Goka, Bamenla Q

    2005-01-01

    PAR are associated with disease severity in malaria. METHODS: At admission to the hospital, plasma concentrations of suPAR were measured by ELISA in samples from 645 African children with clinical symptoms of malaria: 478 had malaria, and 167 had a blood film negative for Plasmodium parasites. Fourteen healthy......BACKGROUND: Blood concentrations of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) are increased in conditions with immune activation, and high concentrations of suPAR often predict a poor clinical outcome. This study explored the hypothesis that high plasma concentrations of su......: If the plasma concentration of suPAR reflects the extent of parasite-induced immune activation, this may explain why a high concentration of suPAR is associated with a poor clinical outcome in patients with malaria....

  10. Surface recombination of oxygen atoms in O2 plasma at increased pressure: II. Vibrational temperature and surface production of ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopaev, D. V.; Malykhin, E. M.; Zyryanov, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Ozone production in an oxygen glow discharge in a quartz tube was studied in the pressure range of 10-50 Torr. The O3 density distribution along the tube diameter was measured by UV absorption spectroscopy, and ozone vibrational temperature TV was found comparing the calculated ab initio absorption spectra with the experimental ones. It has been shown that the O3 production mainly occurs on a tube surface whereas ozone is lost in the tube centre where in contrast the electron and oxygen atom densities are maximal. Two models were used to analyse the obtained results. The first one is a kinetic 1D model for the processes occurring near the tube walls with the participation of the main particles: O(3P), O2, O2(1Δg) and O3 molecules in different vibrational states. The agreement of O3 and O(3P) density profiles and TV calculated in the model with observed ones was reached by varying the single model parameter—ozone production probability (\\gamma_{O_{3}}) on the quartz tube surface on the assumption that O3 production occurs mainly in the surface recombination of physisorbed O(3P) and O2. The phenomenological model of the surface processes with the participation of oxygen atoms and molecules including singlet oxygen molecules was also considered to analyse \\gamma_{O_{3}} data obtained in the kinetic model. A good agreement between the experimental data and the data of both models—the kinetic 1D model and the phenomenological surface model—was obtained in the full range of the studied conditions that allowed consideration of the ozone surface production mechanism in more detail. The important role of singlet oxygen in ozone surface production was shown. The O3 surface production rate directly depends on the density of physisorbed oxygen atoms and molecules and can be high with increasing pressure and energy inputted into plasma while simultaneously keeping the surface temperature low enough. Using the special discharge cell design, such an approach opens up the

  11. Surface recombination of oxygen atoms in O2 plasma at increased pressure: II. Vibrational temperature and surface production of ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopaev, D V; Malykhin, E M; Zyryanov, S M

    2011-01-01

    Ozone production in an oxygen glow discharge in a quartz tube was studied in the pressure range of 10-50 Torr. The O 3 density distribution along the tube diameter was measured by UV absorption spectroscopy, and ozone vibrational temperature T V was found comparing the calculated ab initio absorption spectra with the experimental ones. It has been shown that the O 3 production mainly occurs on a tube surface whereas ozone is lost in the tube centre where in contrast the electron and oxygen atom densities are maximal. Two models were used to analyse the obtained results. The first one is a kinetic 1D model for the processes occurring near the tube walls with the participation of the main particles: O( 3 P), O 2 , O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) and O 3 molecules in different vibrational states. The agreement of O 3 and O( 3 P) density profiles and T V calculated in the model with observed ones was reached by varying the single model parameter-ozone production probability (γ O 3 ) on the quartz tube surface on the assumption that O 3 production occurs mainly in the surface recombination of physisorbed O( 3 P) and O 2 . The phenomenological model of the surface processes with the participation of oxygen atoms and molecules including singlet oxygen molecules was also considered to analyse γ O 3 data obtained in the kinetic model. A good agreement between the experimental data and the data of both models-the kinetic 1D model and the phenomenological surface model-was obtained in the full range of the studied conditions that allowed consideration of the ozone surface production mechanism in more detail. The important role of singlet oxygen in ozone surface production was shown. The O 3 surface production rate directly depends on the density of physisorbed oxygen atoms and molecules and can be high with increasing pressure and energy inputted into plasma while simultaneously keeping the surface temperature low enough. Using the special discharge cell design, such an approach opens up

  12. Increased plasma levels of FABP4 and PTEN is associated with more severe insulin resistance in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-yuan; Xiao, Rui; Li, Cai-ping; Huangfu, Jian; Mao, Jiang-feng

    2015-02-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), and insulin resistance in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Plasma FABP4 and PTEN were determined by ELISA in GDM patients (GDM group, n=30) and in euglycemic pregnant women (control group, n=30). The clinical features, body mass index (BMI), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and lipid profiles were compared between the 2 groups. The influence of risk factors on insulin resistance, including BMI, lipid profiles, FABP4, and PTEN, were further investigated by multiple-factor stepwise regression analysis. Higher levels of BMI, ΔBMI, triglyceride (TG), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG), fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, FABP4, PTEN, and lower level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were found in the GDM patients than in the controls (all Pinsulin resistance. GDM patients have more severe insulin resistance compared to euglycemic pregnant women. Higher levels of plasma FABP4 and PTEN are associated with increased insulin resistance and may participate in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance during gestation.

  13. Plasma nitrate and nitrite are increased by a high nitrate supplement, but not by high nitrate foods in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gary D.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Dove, Robin W.; Beavers, Daniel; Presley, Tennille; Helms, Christine; Bechtold, Erika; King, S. Bruce; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of dietary nitrate on the nitrate/nitrite/NO (nitric oxide) cycle in older adults. We examined the effect of a 3-day control diet vs. high nitrate diet, with and without a high nitrate supplement (beetroot juice), on plasma nitrate and nitrite kinetics, and blood pressure using a randomized four period cross-over controlled design. We hypothesized that the high nitrate diet would show higher levels of plasma nitrate/nitrite and blood pressure compared to the control diet, which would be potentiated by the supplement. Participants were eight normotensive older men and women (5 female, 3 male, 72.5±4.7 yrs) with no overt disease or medications that affect NO metabolism. Plasma nitrate and nitrite levels and blood pressure were measured prior to and hourly for 3 hours after each meal. The mean daily changes in plasma nitrate and nitrite were significantly different from baseline for both control diet+supplement (pnitrate and nitrite, respectively) and high nitrate diet+supplement (p=0.001 and 0.002), but not for control diet (p=0.713 and 0.741) or high nitrate diet (p=0.852 and 0.500). Blood pressure decreased from the morning baseline measure to the three 2 hr post-meal follow-up time-points for all treatments, but there was no main effect for treatment. In healthy older adults, a high nitrate supplement consumed at breakfast elevated plasma nitrate and nitrite levels throughout the day. This observation may have practical utility for the timing of intake of a nitrate supplement with physical activity for older adults with vascular dysfunction. PMID:22464802

  14. Coffee Consumption Increases the Antioxidant Capacity of Plasma and Has No Effect on the Lipid Profile or Vascular Function in Healthy Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Ochoa, Gloria M; Pulgarín-Zapata, Isabel C; Velásquez-Rodriguez, Claudia M; Duque-Ramírez, Mauricio; Naranjo-Cano, Mauricio; Quintero-Ortiz, Mónica M; Lara-Guzmán, Oscar J; Muñoz-Durango, Katalina

    2016-03-01

    Coffee, a source of antioxidants, has controversial effects on cardiovascular health. We evaluated the bioavailability of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) in 2 coffees and the effects of their consumption on the plasma antioxidant capacity (AC), the serum lipid profile, and the vascular function in healthy adults. Thirty-eight men and 37 women with a mean ± SD age of 38.5 ± 9 y and body mass index of 24.1 ± 2.6 kg/m(2) were randomly assigned to 3 groups: a control group that did not consume coffee or a placebo and 2 groups that consumed 400 mL coffee/d for 8 wk containing a medium (MCCGA; 420 mg) or high (HCCGA; 780 mg) CGA content. Both were low in diterpenes (0.83 mg/d) and caffeine (193 mg/d). Plasma caffeic and ferulic acid concentrations were measured by GC, and the plasma AC was evaluated with use of the ferric-reducing antioxidant power method. The serum lipid profile, nitric oxide (NO) plasma metabolites, vascular endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation; FMD), and blood pressure (BP) were evaluated. After coffee consumption (1 h and 8 wk), caffeic and ferulic acid concentrations increased in the coffee-drinking groups, although the values of the 2 groups were significantly different (P consumption, the plasma AC in the control group was significantly lower than the baseline value (-2%) and significantly increased in the MCCGA (6%) and HCCGA (5%) groups (P profile, FMD, BP, or NO plasma metabolites. This trial was registered at registroclinico.sld.cu as RPCEC00000168. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Displays enabling mobile multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Jyrki

    2007-02-01

    With the rapid advances in telecommunications networks, mobile multimedia delivery to handsets is now a reality. While a truly immersive multimedia experience is still far ahead in the mobile world, significant advances have been made in the constituent audio-visual technologies to make this become possible. One of the critical components in multimedia delivery is the mobile handset display. While such alternatives as headset-style near-to-eye displays, autostereoscopic displays, mini-projectors, and roll-out flexible displays can deliver either a larger virtual screen size than the pocketable dimensions of the mobile device can offer, or an added degree of immersion by adding the illusion of the third dimension in the viewing experience, there are still challenges in the full deployment of such displays in real-life mobile communication terminals. Meanwhile, direct-view display technologies have developed steadily, and can provide a development platform for an even better viewing experience for multimedia in the near future. The paper presents an overview of the mobile display technology space with an emphasis on the advances and potential in developing direct-view displays further to meet the goal of enabling multimedia in the mobile domain.

  16. Increased volume of distribution for recombinant activated factor VII and longer plasma-derived factor VII half-life may explain their long lasting prophylactic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Natascha C J; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Holme, Pal Andre; van Kraaij, Marian G J; Laros-van Gorkom, Britta A P; Peyvandi, Flora; van Heerde, Waander L

    2013-08-01

    Prophylaxis with plasma-derived or recombinant activated factor VII is beneficial in severe factor VII deficiency. To understand why prophylactic treatment with both products is efficacious, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study. Ten factor VII deficient patients were treated with either recombinant activated (20 μg/kg) or plasma-derived (25 IU/kg) factor VII in a cross-over design. Pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed through activated factor VII activity, factor VII clotting activity, and factor VII antigen levels on depicted time points. Factor VII activity half-lifes, determined by non-compartmental and one-compartmental analysis (results in brackets), were shorter for recombinant activated (1.4h; 0.7h) than for plasma-derived factor VII (6.8h; 3.2h); both recombinant activated (5.1h; 2.1h and plasma-derived factor VII (5.8h; 3.2h) resulted in longer half-lives of factor VII antigen. Activated factor VII half-lives (based on activated factor VII activity levels) were significantly higher compared to factor VII clotting activity (1.6h; 0.9h). Volumes of distribution were significantly higher for activated factor VII (236 ml/kg; 175 ml/kg, measured by activated factor VII) as compared to plasma-derived factor VII (206 ml/kg; 64 ml/kg, measured by factor FVII activity), suggesting a plasma- and extracellular fluid distribution for recombinant activated factor VII. Recombinant activated factor VII showed significantly shorter half-lifes than plasma-derived factor VII. Volumes of distribution were significantly higher for treatment with recombinant activated factor VII. The longer half-life for plasma-derived factor VII, compared to recombinant activated factor VII, and the increased volume of distribution for recombinant activated factor VII, compared to plasma-derived factor VII may further elucidate the beneficial effect of prophylactic treatment of both products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  18. Synthetic vision display evaluation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, David M.; Whittington, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research was to help us understand the display requirements for a synthetic vision system for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different levels of perceptual cue complexity in displays used by pilots in a flare and landing task. Increased levels of texture mapping of terrain and runway produced mixed results, including harder but shorter landings and a lower flare initiation altitude. Under higher workload conditions, increased texture resulted in an improvement in performance. An increase in familiar size cues did not result in improved performance. Only a small difference was found between displays using two patterns of high resolution texture mapping. The effects of increased perceptual cue complexity on performance was not as strong as would be predicted from the pilot's subjective reports or from related literature. A description of the role of a synthetic vision system in the High Speed Civil Transport is provide along with a literature review covering applied research related to perceptual cue usage in aircraft displays.

  19. Chitosan inhibits platelet-mediated clot retraction, increases platelet-derived growth factor release, and increases residence time and bioactivity of platelet-rich plasma in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprés-Tremblay, Gabrielle; Chevrier, Anik; Tran-Khanh, Nicolas; Nelea, Monica; Buschmann, Michael D

    2017-11-10

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used to treat different orthopedic conditions, however, the clinical benefits of using PRP remain uncertain. Chitosan (CS)-PRP implants have been shown to improve meniscus, rotator cuff and cartilage repair in pre-clinical models. The purpose of this current study was to investigate in vitro and in vivo mechanisms of action of CS-PRP implants. Freeze-dried formulations containing 1% (w/v) CS (80% degree of deacetylation and number average molar mass 38 kDa), 1% (w/v) trehalose as a lyoprotectant and 42.2 mM calcium chloride as a clot activator were solubilized in PRP. Gravimetric measurements and molecular/cellular imaging studies revealed that clot retraction is inhibited in CS-PRP hybrid clots through physical coating of platelets, blood cells and fibrin strands by chitosan, which interferes with platelet aggregation and platelet-mediated clot retraction. Flow cytometry and ELISA assays revealed that platelets are activated and granules secreted in CS-PRP hybrid clots and that cumulative release of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-AB) and epidermal growth factor is higher from CS-PRP hybrid clots compared to PRP clots in vitro. Finally, CS-PRP implants resided for up to 6 weeks in a subcutaneous implantation model and induced cell recruitment and granulation tissue synthesis, confirming greater residency and bioactivity compared to PRP in vivo.

  20. Microlaser-based displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstedt, Robert; Fink, Charles G.; Flint, Graham W.; Hargis, David E.; Peppler, Philipp W.

    1997-07-01

    Laser Power Corporation has developed a new type of projection display, based upon microlaser technology and a novel scan architecture, which provides the foundation for bright, extremely high resolution images. A review of projection technologies is presented along with the limitations of each and the difficulties they experience in trying to generate high resolution imagery. The design of the microlaser based projector is discussed along with the advantage of this technology. High power red, green, and blue microlasers have been designed and developed specifically for use in projection displays. These sources, in combination with high resolution, high contrast modulator, produce a 24 bit color gamut, capable of supporting the full range of real world colors. The new scan architecture, which reduces the modulation rate and scan speeds required, is described. This scan architecture, along with the inherent brightness of the laser provides the fundamentals necessary to produce a 5120 by 4096 resolution display. The brightness and color uniformity of the display is excellent, allowing for tiling of the displays with far fewer artifacts than those in a traditionally tiled display. Applications for the display include simulators, command and control centers, and electronic cinema.

  1. A variant in the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus is associated with increased fasting plasma glucose, increased basal hepatic glucose production and increased insulin release after oral and intravenous glucose loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, C S; Grarup, N; Krarup, N T

    2009-01-01

    An association between elevated fasting plasma glucose and the common rs560887 G allele in the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus has been reported. In Danes we aimed to examine rs560887 in relation to plasma glucose and serum insulin responses following oral and i.v. glucose loads and in relation to hepatic...... glucose production during a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Furthermore, we examined rs560887 for association with impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), type 2 diabetes and components of the metabolic syndrome....

  2. Time-Dependent Changes in Increased Levels of Plasma Irisin and Muscle PGC-1α and FNDC5 after Exercise in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Minhui; Yang, Jianwei; Rao, Jiaming; Wang, Haiqing; Zhang, Jiayi; Wang, Shengyong; Chen, Xiongfei; Dong, Xiaomei

    2018-02-01

    Exercise induces the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-α (PGC-1α) in skeletal muscle, which promotes the cleavage of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) to irisin. To explore the relationship between irisin and its regulators, we analyzed the plasma irisin levels and the muscle levels of FNDC5 and PGC-1α after exercise. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent a treadmill exercise (60% of VO 2max ) for 30 min or one hour (h), and blood and gastrocnemius samples were collected before exercise (pre-exercise), immediately after exercise, and during 24-h recovery after 1-h exercise. We found that plasma irisin levels were significantly increased during exercise (P < 0.05), while FNDC5 protein levels were not significantly increased. Moreover, PGC-1α mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased during 30-min exercise, but were decreased during 1-h exercise. After 1-h exercise, the irisin levels peaked at 6 h (20.71 ± 0.25 ng/ml) and decreased to pre-exercise levels by 24 h (15.45 ± 0.27 ng/ml). Likewise, PGC-1α mRNA and protein levels were increased at 1 h and maintained at elevated levels for 6 h; thereafter, the expression levels of PGC1-α protein were decreased to pre-exercise levels at 12 h. Thus, the restoration of PGC-1α expression to the pre-exercise levels was followed by the decrease in plasma irisin levels. By contrast, during 24-h recovery, the expression levels of FNDC5 mRNA and protein were maintained at elevated levels. These results suggest that the coordinated expression of FNDC5 and PGC-1α may contribute to the increased levels of plasma irisin after exercise.

  3. Plasma adiponectin levels are increased despite insulin resistance in corticotropin-releasing hormone transgenic mice, an animal model of Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinahara, Masayuki; Nishiyama, Mitsuru; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Nakayama, Shuichi; Noguchi, Toru; Kambayashi, Machiko; Okada, Yasushi; Tsuda, Masayuki; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P; Hashimoto, Kozo; Terada, Yoshio

    2009-01-01

    Adiponectin (AdN), an adipokine derived from the adipose tissue, has an insulin-sensitizing effect, and plasma AdN is shown to be decreased in obesity and/or insulin resistant state. To clarify whether changes in AdN are also responsible for the development of glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance, we examined AdN concentration in plasma and AdN expression in the adipose tissue, using corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) transgenic mouse (CRH-Tg), an animal model of Cushing syndrome. We found, unexpectedly, that plasma AdN levels in CRHTg were significantly higher than those in wild-type littermates (wild-type: 19.7+/-2.5, CRH-Tg: 32.4+/-3.1 microg/mL, pAdN mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased in the adipose tissue of CRH-Tg. Bilateral adrenalectomy in CRH-Tg eliminated both their Cushing's phenotype and their increase in plasma AdN levels (wild-type/sham: 9.4+/-0.5, CRH-Tg/sham: 15.7+/-2.0, CRH-Tg/ADX: 8.5+/-0.4 microg/mL). These results strongly suggest that AdN is not a major factor responsible for the development of insulin resistance in Cushing syndrome. Our data also suggest that glucocorticoid increases plasma AdN levels but decreases AdN expression in adipocytes, the latter being explained possibly by the decrease in AdN metabolism in the Cushing state.

  4. Plasma sterol evidence for decreased absorption and increased synthesis of cholesterol in insulin resistance and obesity1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Robert H; Kahn, Steven E; Retzlaff, Barbara M; Fish, Brian; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2011-01-01

    Background: The rise in LDL with egg feeding in lean insulin-sensitive (LIS) participants is 2- and 3-fold greater than in lean insulin-resistant (LIR) and obese insulin-resistant (OIR) participants, respectively. Objective: We determined whether differences in cholesterol absorption, synthesis, or both could be responsible for these differences by measuring plasma sterols as indexes of cholesterol absorption and endogenous synthesis. Design: Plasma sterols were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in a random subset of 34 LIS, 37 LIR, and 37 OIR participants defined by the insulin sensitivity index (SI) and by BMI criteria selected from a parent group of 197 participants. Cholestanol and plant sterols provide a measure of cholesterol absorption, and lathosterol provides a measure of cholesterol synthesis. Results: The mean (±SD) ratio of plasma total absorption biomarker sterols to cholesterol was 4.48 ± 1.74 in LIS, 3.25 ± 1.06 in LIR, and 2.82 ± 1.08 in OIR participants. After adjustment for age and sex, the relations of the absorption sterol–cholesterol ratios were as follows: LIS > OIR (P LIR (P OIR (P = 0.11). Lathosterol-cholesterol ratios were 0.71 ± 0.32 in the LIS participants, 0.95 ± 0.47 in the LIR participants, and 1.29 ± 0.55 in the OIR participants. After adjustment for age and sex, the relations of lathosterol-cholesterol ratios were as follows: LIS sterol concentrations were positively associated with SI and negatively associated with obesity, whereas lathosterol correlations were the opposite. Conclusions: Cholesterol absorption was highest in the LIS participants, whereas cholesterol synthesis was highest in the LIR and OIR participants. Therapeutic diets for hyperlipidemia should emphasize low-cholesterol diets in LIS persons and weight loss to improve SI and to decrease cholesterol overproduction in LIR and OIR persons. PMID:21940599

  5. Plasma acylcarnitine profiling indicates increased fatty acid oxidation relative to tricarboxylic acid cycle capacity in young, healthy low birth weight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Amalie; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Brøns, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that an increased, incomplete fatty acid beta‐oxidation in mitochondria could be part of the metabolic events leading to insulin resistance and thereby an increased type 2 diabetes risk in low birth weight (LBW) compared with normal birth weight (NBW) individuals. Therefore, we...... measured fasting plasma levels of 45 acylcarnitine species in 18 LBW and 25 NBW men after an isocaloric control diet and a 5‐day high‐fat, high‐calorie diet. We demonstrated that LBW men had higher C2 and C4‐OH levels after the control diet compared with NBW men, indicating an increased fatty acid beta...

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Displays that are effective as of July 1, 2016....

  7. Improvements in data display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    An analog signal processor is described in this patent for connecting a source of analog signals to a cathode ray tube display in order to extend the dynamic range of the display. This has important applications in the field of computerised X-ray tomography since significant medical information, such as tumours in soft tissue, is often represented by minimal level changes in image density. Cathode ray tube displays are limited to approximately 15 intensity levels. Thus if both strong and weak absorption of the X-rays occurs, the dynamic range of the transmitted signals will be too large to permit small variations to be examined directly on a cathode ray display. Present tomographic image reconstruction methods are capable of quantising X-ray absorption density measurements into 256 or more distinct levels and a description is given of the electronics which enables the upper and lower range of intensity levels to be independently set and continuously varied. (UK)

  8. Gamma camera display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera having an array of photomultipliers coupled via pulse shaping circuitry and a resistor weighting circuit to a display for forming an image of a radioactive subject is described. A linearizing circuit is coupled to the weighting circuit, the linearizing circuit including a nonlinear feedback circuit with diode coupling to the weighting circuit for linearizing the correspondence between points of the display and points of the subject. 4 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures

  9. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs.......Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  10. ATLAS Event Display: Run 2 Heavy Ion Collision

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Event display of a lead-lead collision with a large transverse momentum photon. In this event, the expected balancing jet is not visible by eye, consistent with it being degraded by its passage through the quark-gluon plasma.

  11. Extracellular matrix protein fibulin-1 plasma levels are associated with increased cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra

    INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Fibulin-1 is one of the few extracellular matrix proteins present in blood in high concentrations. We aimed to define the relationship between plasma fibulin-1 levels and risk markers of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. METHODS: Plasma fibulin-1...... hemodynamic and arterial stiffness indices. RESULTS: We observed a positive correlation of fibulin-1 levels with age (r=0.38; p=0.033), glycated hemoglobin (r=0.80; p=0.003), creatinine (r=0.35; p=0.045), and fibrinogen (r=0.39; p=0.027). Glomerular filtration rate and fibulin-1 were inversely correlated (r......=-0.57; p=0.022). There was a positive correlation between fibulin-1 and central pulse pressure (r=0.44; p=0.011) and central augmentation pressure (r=0.55; p=0.001). In a multivariable regression model, diabetes, creatinine, fibrinogen and central augmentation pressure were independent predictors...

  12. A High Antioxidant Spice Blend Attenuates Postprandial Insulin and Triglyceride Responses and Increases Some Plasma Measures of Antioxidant Activity in Healthy, Overweight Men123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Teeter, Danette L.; Chen, C-Y. Oliver; Vanden Heuvel, John P.; West, Sheila G.

    2011-01-01

    There is much interest in the potential of dietary antioxidants to attenuate in vivo oxidative stress, but little characterization of the time course of plasma effects exists. Culinary spices have demonstrated potent in vitro antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to examine whether adding 14 g of a high antioxidant spice blend to a 5060-kJ (1200 kcal) meal exerted significant postprandial effects on markers of plasma antioxidant status and metabolism. Healthy overweight men (n = 6) consumed a control and spiced meal in a randomized crossover design with 1 wk between testing sessions. Blood was sampled prior to the meal and at 30-min intervals for 3.5 h (total of 8 samples). Mixed linear models demonstrated a treatment × time interaction (P spiced meal, respectively. Adding spices to the meal significantly increased the ferric reducing antioxidant power, such that postprandial increases following the spiced meal were 2-fold greater than after the control meal (P = 0.009). The hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of plasma also was increased by spices (P = 0.02). There were no treatment differences in glucose, total thiols, lipophilic ORAC, or total ORAC. The incorporation of spices into the diet may help normalize postprandial insulin and TG and enhance antioxidant defenses. PMID:21697300

  13. A strategy for increasing the brain uptake of a radioligand in animals: use of a drug that inhibits plasma protein binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haradahira, Terushi E-mail: terushi@nirs.go.jp; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Maeda, Jun; Okauchi, Takashi; Kawabe, Kouichi; Kida, Takayo; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2000-05-01

    A positron-emitter labeled radioligand for the glycine-binding site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, [{sup 11}C]L-703,717, was examined for its ability to penetrate the brain in animals by simultaneous use with drugs having high-affinity separate binding sites on human serum albumin. [{sup 11}C]L-703,717 has poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability because it binds tightly to plasma proteins. Co-injection of warfarin (50-200 mg/kg), a drug that binds to albumin and resembles L-703,717 in structure, dose-dependently enhanced the penetration by [{sup 11}C]L-703,717 in mice, resulting in a five-fold increase in the brain radioactivity at 1 min after the injection. Drugs structurally unrelated to L-703,717, salicylate, phenol red, and L-tryptophan, were less effective or ineffective in increasing the uptake of [{sup 11}C]L-703,717. These results suggest that the simultaneous use of a drug that inhibits the binding of a radioligand to plasma proteins is a useful way to overcome the poor BBB permeability of the radioligand triggered by its tight binding to plasma proteins. In brain distribution studies in rodents, it was found that, after the increase in brain uptake with warfarin, much of the glycine site antagonist accumulates in the cerebellum but its pharmacological specificity did not match the glycine site of NMDA receptors.

  14. A strategy for increasing the brain uptake of a radioligand in animals: use of a drug that inhibits plasma protein binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haradahira, Terushi; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Maeda, Jun; Okauchi, Takashi; Kawabe, Kouichi; Kida, Takayo; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2000-01-01

    A positron-emitter labeled radioligand for the glycine-binding site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, [ 11 C]L-703,717, was examined for its ability to penetrate the brain in animals by simultaneous use with drugs having high-affinity separate binding sites on human serum albumin. [ 11 C]L-703,717 has poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability because it binds tightly to plasma proteins. Co-injection of warfarin (50-200 mg/kg), a drug that binds to albumin and resembles L-703,717 in structure, dose-dependently enhanced the penetration by [ 11 C]L-703,717 in mice, resulting in a five-fold increase in the brain radioactivity at 1 min after the injection. Drugs structurally unrelated to L-703,717, salicylate, phenol red, and L-tryptophan, were less effective or ineffective in increasing the uptake of [ 11 C]L-703,717. These results suggest that the simultaneous use of a drug that inhibits the binding of a radioligand to plasma proteins is a useful way to overcome the poor BBB permeability of the radioligand triggered by its tight binding to plasma proteins. In brain distribution studies in rodents, it was found that, after the increase in brain uptake with warfarin, much of the glycine site antagonist accumulates in the cerebellum but its pharmacological specificity did not match the glycine site of NMDA receptors

  15. Basics of Antibody Phage Display Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledsgaard, Line; Kilstrup, Mogens; Karatt-Vellatt, Aneesh; McCafferty, John; Laustsen, Andreas H

    2018-06-09

    Antibody discovery has become increasingly important in almost all areas of modern medicine. Different antibody discovery approaches exist, but one that has gained increasing interest in the field of toxinology and antivenom research is phage display technology. In this review, the lifecycle of the M13 phage and the basics of phage display technology are presented together with important factors influencing the success rates of phage display experiments. Moreover, the pros and cons of different antigen display methods and the use of naïve versus immunized phage display antibody libraries is discussed, and selected examples from the field of antivenom research are highlighted. This review thus provides in-depth knowledge on the principles and use of phage display technology with a special focus on discovery of antibodies that target animal toxins.

  16. Increased uncoupling protein-2 mRNA abundance and glucocorticoid action in adipose tissue in the sheep fetus during late gestation is dependent on plasma cortisol and triiodothyronine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanalingham, MG; Mostyn, A; Forhead, AJ; Fowden, AL; Symonds, ME; Stephenson, T

    2005-01-01

    The endocrine regulation of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), an inner mitochondrial protein, in fetal adipose tissue remains unclear. The present study aimed to determine if fetal plasma cortisol and triiodothyronine (T3) influenced the mRNA abundance of UCP2, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) and 2 (11βHSD2) in fetal adipose tissue in the sheep during late gestation. Perirenal–abdominal adipose tissue was sampled from ovine fetuses to which either cortisol (2–3 mg kg−1 day−1) or saline was infused for 5 days up to 127–130 days gestation, or near term fetuses (i.e. 142–145 days gestation) that were either adrenalectomised (AX) or remained intact. Fetal plasma cortisol and T3 concentrations were higher in the cortisol infused animals and lower in AX fetuses compared with their corresponding control group, and increased with gestational age. UCP2 and GR mRNA abundance were significantly lower in AX fetuses compared with age-matched controls, and increased with gestational age and by cortisol infusion. Glucocorticoid action in fetal adipose tissue was augmented by AX and suppressed by cortisol infusion, the latter also preventing the gestational increase in 11βHSD1 mRNA and decrease in 11βHSD2 mRNA. When all treatment groups were combined, both fetal plasma cortisol and T3 concentrations were positively correlated with UCP2, GR and 11βHSD2 mRNA abundance, but negatively correlated with 11βHSD1 mRNA abundance. In conclusion, plasma cortisol and T3 are both required for the late gestation rise in UCP2 mRNA and differentially regulate glucocorticoid action in fetal adipose tissue in the sheep during late gestation. PMID:15961419

  17. IMDISP - INTERACTIVE IMAGE DISPLAY PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    screen at once, the image can be "subsampled." For example, if the image were subsampled by a factor of 2, every other pixel from every other line would be displayed, starting from the upper left corner of the image. Any positive integer may be used for subsampling. The user may produce a histogram of an image file, which is a graph showing the number of pixels per DN value, or per range of DN values, for the entire image. IMDISP can also plot the DN value versus pixels along a line between two points on the image. The user can "stretch" or increase the contrast of an image by specifying low and high DN values; all pixels with values lower than the specified "low" will then become black, and all pixels higher than the specified "high" value will become white. Pixels between the low and high values will be evenly shaded between black and white. IMDISP is written in a modular form to make it easy to change it to work with different display devices or on other computers. The code can also be adapted for use in other application programs. There are device dependent image display modules, general image display subroutines, image I/O routines, and image label and command line parsing routines. The IMDISP system is written in C-language (94%) and Assembler (6%). It was implemented on an IBM PC with the MS DOS 3.21 operating system. IMDISP has a memory requirement of about 142k bytes. IMDISP was developed in 1989 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Additional planetary images can be obtained from the National Space Science Data Center at (301) 286-6695.

  18. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeneva, Inna B., E-mail: inna.korzeneva@molgen.vniief.ru [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Kostuyk, Svetlana V.; Ershova, Liza S. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Osipov, Andrian N. [Federal Medial and Biological Center named after Burnazyan of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency (FMBTz named after Burnazyan of FMBA), Moscow (Russian Federation); State Research Center - Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Zhivopisnaya, 46, Moscow, 123098 (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Porokhovnik, Lev N.; Veiko, Natalia N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The chronic exposure to low-dose IR induces DSBs in human lymphocytes (TM index). • Exposure to IR decreases the level of human circulating DNA (cfDNA index). • IR induces an increase of DNase1 activity (DNase1 index) in plasma. • IR induces an increase of the level of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA index) in plasma. • The ratio cfDNA/(DNase 1 × Ab DNA × TM) is a potential marker of human exposure to IR. - Abstract: The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism’s cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1 × Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab

  19. Increased plasma concentrations of midregional proatrial natriuretic Peptide is associated with risk of cardiorenal dysfunction in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, Simone; Hansen, Tine Willum; Goetze, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine possible associations between midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) and diabetic complications at baseline and risk of mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) during follow-up in type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Observational study including 667 patients...... = 369), and retinopathy (n = 523). Adjustments included gender, age, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), UAER, HbA1c, total cholesterol, 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (24h-U(Na)), body mass index, daily insulin dose, antihypertensive treatment, and smoking in linear...... regression analyses and analysis of covariance models. Development of ESRD (dialysis, renal transplantation, or GFR/eGFR 2)) and mortality was recorded through national registers. RESULTS: The cohort included 293 (44%) females, aged 55 ± 13 years. Plasma MR-proANP (median (interquartile...

  20. Dichroic Liquid Crystal Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * DICHROIC DYES * Chemical Structure * Chemical and Photochemical Stability * THEORETICAL MODELLING * DEFECTS CAUSED BY PROLONGED LIGHT IRRADIATION * CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND PHOTOSTABILITY * OTHER PARAMETERS AFFECTING PHOTOSTABILITY * CELL PREPARATION * DICHROIC PARAMETERS AND THEIR MEASUREMENTS * Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio Of Dyes * Absorbance, Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio Measurements * IMPACT OF DYE STRUCTURE AND LIQUID CRYSTAL HOST ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A DICHROIC MIXTURE * Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio * EFFECT OF LENGTH OF DICHROIC DYES ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * EFFECT OF THE BREADTH OF DYE ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * EFFECT OF THE HOST ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * TEMPERATURE VARIATION OF THE ORDER PARAMETER OF DYES IN A LIQUID CRYSTAL HOST * IMPACT OF DYE CONCENTRATION ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * Temperature Range * Viscosity * Dielectric Constant and Anisotropy * Refractive Indices and Birefringence * solubility43,153-156 * Absorption Wavelength and Auxochromic Groups * Molecular Engineering of Dichroic Dyes * OPTICAL, ELECTRO-OPTICAL AND LIFE PARAMETERS * Colour And CIE Colour space120,160-166 * CIE 1931 COLOUR SPACE * CIE 1976 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * CIE UNIFORM COLOUR SPACES & COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE120,160-166 * Electro-Optical Parameters120 * LUMINANCE * CONTRAST AND CONTRAST RATIO * SWITCHING SPEED * Life Parameters and Failure Modes * DICHROIC MIXTURE FORMULATION * Monochrome Mixture * Black Mixture * ACHROMATIC BLACK MIXTURE FOR HEILMEIER DISPLAYS * Effect of Illuminant on Display Colour * Colour of the Field-On State * Effect of Dye Linewidth * Optimum Centroid Wavelengths * Effect of Dye Concentration * Mixture Formulation Using More Than Three Dyes * ACHROMATIC MIXTURE FOR WHITE-TAYLOR TYPE DISPLAYS * HEILMEIER DISPLAYS * Theoretical Modelling * Threshold Characteristic * Effects of Dye Concentration on Electro-optical Parameters * Effect of Cholesteric Doping * Effect of Alignment

  1. Insulin does not stimulate muscle protein synthesis during increased plasma branched-chain amino acids alone but still decreases whole body proteolysis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Sarah; Meyer, Christian; Tran, Lee; Hoffman, Nyssa; Carroll, Chad C; Dedmon, William L; Katsanos, Christos S

    2016-10-01

    Insulin stimulates muscle protein synthesis when the levels of total amino acids, or at least the essential amino acids, are at or above their postabsorptive concentrations. Among the essential amino acids, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) have the primary role in stimulating muscle protein synthesis and are commonly sought alone to stimulate muscle protein synthesis in humans. Fourteen healthy young subjects were studied before and after insulin infusion to examine whether insulin stimulates muscle protein synthesis in relation to the availability of BCAA alone. One half of the subjects were studied in the presence of postabsorptive BCAA concentrations (control) and the other half in the presence of increased plasma BCAA (BCAA). Compared with that prior to the initiation of the insulin infusion, fractional synthesis rate of muscle protein (%/h) did not change (P > 0.05) during insulin in either the control (0.04 ± 0.01 vs 0.05 ± 0.01) or the BCAA (0.05 ± 0.02 vs. 0.05 ± 0.01) experiments. Insulin decreased (P BCAA (0.89 ± 0.07 vs 0.61 ± 0.03) experiments, but the change was not different between the two experiments (P > 0.05). In conclusion, insulin does not stimulate muscle protein synthesis in the presence of increased circulating levels of plasma BCAA alone. Insulin's suppressive effect on proteolysis is observed independently of the levels of circulating plasma BCAA. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. High-fat diet-induced insulin resistance does not increase plasma anandamide levels or potentiate anandamide insulinotropic effect in isolated canine islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolcott, Orison O; Richey, Joyce M; Kabir, Morvarid; Chow, Robert H; Iyer, Malini S; Kirkman, Erlinda L; Stefanovski, Darko; Lottati, Maya; Kim, Stella P; Harrison, L Nicole; Ionut, Viorica; Zheng, Dan; Hsu, Isabel R; Catalano, Karyn J; Chiu, Jenny D; Bradshaw, Heather; Wu, Qiang; Kolka, Cathryn M; Bergman, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with elevated plasma anandamide levels. In addition, anandamide has been shown to stimulate insulin secretion in vitro, suggesting that anandamide might be linked to hyperinsulinemia. To determine whether high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance increases anandamide levels and potentiates the insulinotropic effect of anandamide in isolated pancreatic islets. Dogs were fed a high-fat diet (n = 9) for 22 weeks. Abdominal fat depot was quantified by MRI. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Fasting plasma endocannabinoid levels were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All metabolic assessments were performed before and after fat diet regimen. At the end of the study, pancreatic islets were isolated prior to euthanasia to test the in vitro effect of anandamide on islet hormones. mRNA expression of cannabinoid receptors was determined in intact islets. The findings in vitro were compared with those from animals fed a control diet (n = 7). Prolonged fat feeding increased abdominal fat content by 81.3±21.6% (mean±S.E.M, Pcanines, high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance does not alter plasma anandamide levels or further potentiate the insulinotropic effect of anandamide in vitro.

  3. Gemfibrozil markedly increases the plasma concentrations of montelukast: a previously unrecognized role for CYP2C8 in the metabolism of montelukast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karonen, T; Filppula, A; Laitila, J; Niemi, M; Neuvonen, P J; Backman, J T

    2010-08-01

    According to available information, montelukast is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and 2C9. In order to study the significance of CYP2C8 in the pharmacokinetics of montelukast, 10 healthy subjects were administered gemfibrozil 600 mg or placebo twice daily for 3 days, and 10 mg montelukast on day 3, in a randomized, crossover study. Gemfibrozil increased the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC)(0-infinity), peak plasma concentration (C(max)), and elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of montelukast 4.5-fold, 1.5-fold, and 3.0-fold, respectively (P gemfibrozil, the time to reach C(max) (t(max)) of the montelukast metabolite M6 was prolonged threefold (P = 0.005), its AUC(0-7) was reduced by 40% (P = 0.027), and the AUC(0-24) of the secondary metabolite M4 was reduced by >90% (P gemfibrozil 1-O-beta glucuronide inhibited the formation of M6 (but not of M5) from montelukast 35-fold more potently than did gemfibrozil (half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) 3.0 and 107 micromol/l, respectively). In conclusion, gemfibrozil markedly increases the plasma concentrations of montelukast, indicating that CYP2C8 is crucial in the elimination of montelukast.

  4. On Integrity of Flexible Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouten, Piet C. P.

    Nowadays two display types are dominant in the display market: the bulky cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal displays (LCD). Both types use glass as substrate material. The LCD display is the dominant player for mobile applications, in for instance mobile phones and portable computers. In the development of displays and their applications a clear interest exists to replace the rigid rectangular display cells by free-shaped, curved or even roll-up cells. These types of applications require flexible displays.

  5. Metformin, but not rosiglitazone, attenuates the increasing plasma levels of a new cardiovascular marker, fibulin-1, in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibe; Cangemi, Claudia; Gram, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    ObjectiveThe extracellular matrix protein fibulin-1 is upregulated in the arterial wall in type 2 diabetes and circulates in increased concentrations in diabetes. Metformin is an anti-diabetic drug with beneficial CVD effects in diabetes. We hypothesized that metformin would influence the increased...... level of plasma fibulin-1 in diabetes.Research Design and MethodsAfter a four-week run-in period, 371 eligible patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to treatment groups in a factorial design including insulin alone (control), +metformin, +rosiglitazone, or +both metformin and rosiglitazone...

  6. The effects of increasing doses of 2 preparations of long-acting insulin on short-term plasma profiles of glucose and insulin in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, L A; Overton, T R

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate effects of administering increasing doses of 2 different preparations of long-acting insulin on the 24-h profiles of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in mid lactation dairy cows. The 2 separately analyzed experiments investigated the effects administering either Humulin N (H), a neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin, or insulin glargine (Lantus, L), an insulin analog, at doses of 0 (control), 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 IU/kg of body weight in a randomized complete block design. Sixteen cows (237±11 d in milk for H; 213±10 d in milk for L; mean ± SD) were used for each insulin preparation, resulting in n=4 for each dose within insulin preparation. Cows were fitted with a single jugular catheter on the day before the study. On the day of the study, cows were given treatments by subcutaneous injection of either sterile water or the designated insulin type and dose. Blood samples were taken hourly from the jugular catheter. Subcutaneous injection of both H and L resulted in linear decreases in plasma glucose concentrations, increased area under the curve, and decreased nadir for plasma glucose following administration of the insulin preparations. Plasma insulin concentration linearly increased with increasing dose of H. Though elevated concentrations of insulin were measurable in cows treated with H, they were not measurable in cows treated with L. Attempts to measure overall insulin concentrations and metabolites of L by a commercially available ELISA and a commercially available RIA kit were not successful and did not retrieve values that we felt truly represented the amount of insulin activity exhibited during this treatment. Both long-acting insulin preparations elicited insulin-like activity in lactating dairy cows, as evidenced by reduced plasma glucose concentrations. Given these results, the potential exists to use both H and L to study the effects of insulin in mid lactation dairy cows without the confounding

  7. Plasma L-cystine/L-glutamate imbalance increases tumor necrosis factor-alpha from CD14+ circulating monocytes in patients with advanced cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Kakazu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The innate immune cells can not normally respond to the pathogen in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Previous studies reported that antigen-presenting cells take up L-Cystine (L-Cys and secrete substantial amounts of L-Glutamate (L-Glu via the transport system Xc- (4F2hc+xCT, and that this exchange influences the immune responses. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the plasma L-Cys/L-Glu imbalance observed in patients with advanced cirrhosis on the function of circulating monocytes. METHODS: We used a serum-free culture medium consistent with the average concentrations of plasma amino acids from patients with advanced cirrhosis (ACM, and examined the function of CD14+ monocytes or THP-1 under ACM that contained 0-300 nmol/mL L-Cys with LPS. In patients with advanced cirrhosis, we actually determined the TNF-alpha and xCT mRNA of monocytes, and evaluated the correlation between the plasma L-Cys/L-Glu ratio and TNF-alpha. RESULTS: The addition of L-Cys significantly increased the production of TNF alpha from monocytes under ACM. Monocytes with LPS and THP-1 expressed xCT and a high level of extracellular L-Cys enhanced L-Cys/L-Glu antiport, and the intracellular GSH/GSSG ratio was decreased. The L-Cys transport was inhibited by excess L-Glu. In patients with advanced cirrhosis (n = 19, the TNF-alpha and xCT mRNA of monocytes were increased according to the Child-Pugh grade. The TNF-alpha mRNA of monocytes was significantly higher in the high L-Cys/L-Glu ratio group than in the low ratio group, and the plasma TNF-alpha was significantly correlated with the L-Cys/L-Glu ratio. CONCLUSIONS: A plasma L-Cys/L-Glu imbalance, which appears in patients with advanced cirrhosis, increased the TNF-alpha from circulating monocytes via increasing the intracellular oxidative stress. These results may reflect the immune abnormality that appears in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

  8. Adaptive upregulation of gastric and hypothalamic ghrelin receptors and increased plasma ghrelin in a model of cancer chemotherapy-induced dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, N M; Moore, G B T; Kaur, R; Liu, Y-L; Wood, S L; Morrow, R W; Sanger, G J; Andrews, P L R

    2008-06-05

    Chemotherapy treatment can lead to delayed gastric emptying, early satiety, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, described collectively as the cancer-associated dyspepsia syndrome (CADS). Administration of ghrelin (GHRL), an endogenous orexigenic peptide known to stimulate gastric motility, has been shown to reduce the symptoms of CADS induced in relevant animal models with the potent chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin. We examined the effects in the rat of cisplatin (6 mg/kg i.p.) treatment on the expression of GHRL and ghrelin receptor (GHSR) mRNAs in the hypothalamus and the stomach at a time-point (2 days) when the effects of cisplatin are pronounced. In addition, plasma levels of GHRL (acylated and total including des-acyl GHRL) were measured and the effect on these levels of treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (2 mg/kg s.c. bd.) was investigated. Cisplatin increased GHSR mRNA expression in the stomach (67%) and hypothalamus (52%) but not GHRL mRNA expression and increased the percentage of acylated GHRL (7.03+/-1.35% vs. 11.38+/-2.40%) in the plasma. Dexamethasone reduced the plasma level of acylated GHRL and the percentage of acylated GHRL to values below those in animals treated with saline alone (7.03+/-1.35% vs. 2.60+/-0.49%). Our findings support the hypothesis that an adaptive upregulation of the ghrelin receptor may occur during cancer chemotherapy-associated dyspepsia. This may have a role in defensive responses to toxic challenges to the gut. In addition, our results provide preliminary evidence for glucocorticoid modulation of plasma ghrelin levels.

  9. Sardine protein diet increases plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels and prevents tissue oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Zohra; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Dalila, Ait Yahia

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether sardine protein mitigates the adverse effects of fructose on plasma glucagon‑like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and oxidative stress in rats. Rats were fed casein (C) or sardine protein (S) with or without high‑fructose (HF) for 2 months. Plasma glucose, insulin, GLP‑1, lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes were assayed. HF rats developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and oxidative stress despite reduced energy and food intakes. High plasma creatinine and uric acid levels, in addition to albuminuria were observed in the HF groups. The S‑HF diet reduced plasma glucose, insulin, creatinine, uric acid and homeostasis model assessment‑insulin resistance index levels, however increased GLP‑1 levels compared with the C‑HF diet. Hydroperoxides were reduced in the liver, kidney, heart and muscle of S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. A reduction in liver, kidney and heart carbonyls was observed in S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. Reduced levels of nitric oxide (NO) were detected in the liver, kidney and heart of the S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. The S diet compared with the C diet reduced levels of liver hydroperoxides, heart carbonyls and kidney NO. The S‑HF diet compared with the C‑HF diet increased the levels of liver and kidney superoxide dismutase, liver and muscle catalase, liver, heart and muscle glutathione peroxidase and liver ascorbic acid. The S diet prevented and reversed insulin resistance and oxidative stress, and may have benefits in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  10. Paediatric dose display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, D.W.; Derges, S.; Hesslewood, S.

    1984-01-01

    A compact, inexpensive unit, based on an 8085 microprocessor, has been designed for calculating doses of intravenous radioactive injections for children. It has been used successfully for over a year. The dose is calculated from the body surface area and the result displayed in MBq. The operator can obtain the required dose on a twelve character alphanumeric display by entering the age of the patient and the adult dose using a hexadecimal keyboard. Circuit description, memory map and input/output, and firmware are dealt with. (U.K.)

  11. Effect of display size on visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Ping; Liao, Chia-Ning; Yeh, Shih-Hao

    2011-06-01

    Attention plays an important role in the design of human-machine interfaces. However, current knowledge about attention is largely based on data obtained when using devices of moderate display size. With advancement in display technology comes the need for understanding attention behavior over a wider range of viewing sizes. The effect of display size on test participants' visual search performance was studied. The participants (N = 12) performed two types of visual search tasks, that is, parallel and serial search, under three display-size conditions (16 degrees, 32 degrees, and 60 degrees). Serial, but not parallel, search was affected by display size. In the serial task, mean reaction time for detecting a target increased with the display size.

  12. High plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in elderly Japanese patients are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk independently from markers of coagulation activation and endothelial cell damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kario, K; Duell, P B; Matsuo, T; Sakata, T; Kato, H; Shimada, K; Miyata, T

    2001-08-01

    Elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in many populations, but the relationship between homocyst(e)ine and CVD in Japanese subjects has been unclear. It has been hypothesized that the link between homocyst(e)ine and CVD may be mediated in part by activation of coagulation and endothelial cell injury in the elderly Japanese subjects. To further evaluate this hypothesis, the present cross-sectional study was designed to assess the relationships among plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations, risk of CVD, and markers of coagulation (fibrinogen, FVII, F1+2, FVIIa and FXIIa) and endothelial cell damage (vWF and thrombomodulin) in 146 elderly Japanese subjects (79 healthy controls and 67 patients with CVD). The geometric mean (range) of plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations was 10.2 (3.2--33) micromol/l in 79 Japanese healthy elderly subjects. As expected, healthy female and male elderly subjects had homocyst(e)ine levels that were 2.5 and 5.3 micromol/; higher, respectively, compared to healthy young control subjects (n=62). Healthy young and elderly men had homocyst(e)ine levels that were 1.7 and 4.5 micromol/l higher, respectively, compared to values in women. This higher plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in the elderly subjects were negatively correlated with levels of folic acid, albumin and total cholesterol, but were not significantly related to markers of coagulation or endothelial cell-damage. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses suggested that high homocyst(e)ine levels were independently related to CVD risk. In addition, levels of FVIIa, and F1+2 were significantly higher in elderly Japanese patients with CVD compared to elderly subjects without CVD, but were unrelated to plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations. In summary, elevated plasma concentrations of homocyst(e)ine, FVIIa, and F1+2 were associated with increased risk of CVD in elderly male and female Japanese subjects, but the association between homocyst

  13. Pavlovian autoshaping procedures increase plasma corticosterone and levels of norepinephrine and serotonin in prefrontal cortex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Tirado, Aidaluz D; Yu, Lung; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2004-08-12

    Pavlovian autoshaping procedures provide for pairings of a small object conditioned stimulus (CS) with a rewarding substance unconditioned stimulus (US), resulting in the acquisition of complex sequences of CS-directed skeletal-motor responses or autoshaping conditioned responses (CRs). Autoshaping procedures induce higher post-session levels of corticosterone than in controls receiving CS and US randomly, and the enhanced post-session corticosterone levels have been attributed to the appetitive or arousal-inducing effects of autoshaping procedures. Enhanced corticosterone release can be induced by aversive stimulation or stressful situations, where it is often accompanied by higher levels of norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) in prefrontal cortex (PFC) but not in striatum (ST). Effects of autoshaping procedures on post-session corticosterone levels, NE contents in PFC, and 5-HT contents in PFC and ST were investigated in male Long-Evans rats. Post-session blood samples revealed higher corticosterone levels in the CS-US Paired group (n = 46) than in the CS-US Random control group (n = 21), and brain samples revealed higher levels of PFC NE and 5-HT in CS-US Paired group. Striatal 5-HT levels were unaltered by the autoshaping procedures. Autoshaping procedures provide for appetitive stimulation and induce an arousal-like state, as well as simultaneous stress-like changes in plasma corticosterone and monoamine levels in PFC. Autoshaping, therefore, may be useful for the study of endocrine and central processes associated with appetitive conditions.

  14. Leptin promoter gene polymorphism on -2549 position decreases plasma leptin and increases appetite in normal weight volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bragança Coelho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Investigate whether polymorphism in the promoter region encoding leptin and leptin receptor gene, in normal weight individuals, affects hormonal and appetite responses to peanuts.Materials and methods: Appetite, anthropometric indices, body composition, physical activity, dietary intake and leptin, ghrelin and insulin levels were monitored. Polymorphism analyses were also carried out.Results: None of the treatments led to statistical differences in the analyzed hormones. No polymorphism was found for leptin receptor gene, while for leptin gene, 50% of the volunteers presented one polymorphic allele and 13% presented both polymorphic alleles. These last ones presented lower body fat mass, leptin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, and fullness rates. They also presented higher hunger, desire to eat, and desire to eat sweet and salty foods.Conclusions: Peanut did not affect appetite and presented no different hormonal responses, compared to other foods studied. Polymorphic allele carriers in both alleles presented higher probability to develop obesity. However, the magnitude of this probability could not be measured.

  15. Changes in plasma amino acid profiles, growth performance and intestinal antioxidant capacity of piglets following increased consumption of methionine as its hydroxy analogue

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hao; Mercier, Yves; Zhang, Xiaoling; Wu, Caimei; Wu, Xiuqun; Tang, Li; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Tian, Gang; Wu, De; Fang, Zhengfeng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether early weaning-induced growth retardation could be attenuated by increased consumption of methionine as DL-methionine (DLM) or DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyrate (HMTBA) in both lactating sows and weaned piglets. Therefore, diets containing DLM and HMTBA at 25\\% of the total sulphur-containing amino acids (AA) present in the control (CON) diet were fed to lactating sows and weaned piglets and their responses were evaluated. Compared with the CON diet-fed sows, the HMTBA diet-fed sows exhibited a tendency (P<0.10) towards higher plasma taurine concentrations and the DLM diet-fed sows had higher (P<0.05) plasma taurine concentrations, but lower (P<0.05) isoleucine concentrations. Suckling piglets in the HMTBA treatment group had higher (P<0.05) intestinal reduced glutathione (GSH) content, lower (P<0.05) oxidised glutathione (GSSG): GSH ratio, and higher (P<0.05) plasma cysteine and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity than those in the CON ...

  16. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  17. Nuclear image display controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    In a nuclear imaging system the digitized x and y coordinates of gamma ray photon emission events address memory locations corresponding to the coordinates. The respective locations are incremented each time they are addressed so at the end of a selected time or event count period the locations contain digital values or raw data corresponding to the intensity of pixels comprising an image frame. The raw data for a frame is coupled to one input of an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) whose output is coupled to a display controller memory. The output of the controller memory is coupled to another ALU input with a feedback bus and is also coupled to a further signal processing circuit which includes means for converting processed data to analog video signals for television display. The ALU is selectively controlled to let raw image data pass through to the display controllor memory or alternately to add (or subtract) raw data for the last image frame developed to the raw data for preceding frames held in the display controller to thereby produce the visual effect on the television screen of an isotope flowing through anatomy

  18. Plant state display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadota, Kazuo; Ito, Toshiichiro.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention conducts information processing suitable for a man to solve a problem in a plant such as a nuclear power plant incorporating a great amount of information, where safety is required and provides information to an operator. Namely, theories and rules with respect to the flow and balanced state of materials and energy upon plant start-up, and a vapor cycle of operation fluids are symbolized and displayed on the display screen of the device. Then, the display of the plant information suitable to the information processing for a man to dissolve problems is provided. Accordingly, a mechanism for analyzing a purpose of the plant is made more definite, thereby enabling to prevent an erroneous judgement of an operator and occurrence of plant troubles. In addition, a simular effect can also be expected when the theories and rules with respect to the flow and the balanced state of materials and energy and thermohydrodynamic behavior of the operation fluids in a state of after-heat removing operation during shutdown of the plant are symbolized and displayed. (I.S.)

  19. Supplementation of Merino ewes with vitamin E plus selenium increases α-tocopherol and selenium concentrations in plasma of the lamb but does not improve their immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterndale, S; Broomfield, S; Currie, A; Hancock, S; Kearney, G A; Lei, J; Liu, S; Lockwood, A; Scanlan, V; Smith, G; Thompson, A N

    2018-05-01

    Vitamin E and selenium have been reported to improve immune function across a range of species. Ewes lambing on poor-quality dry pasture in autumn in Western Australia are at risk of being deficient in vitamin E and selenium at lambing thus predisposing their lambs to deficiencies and increasing the risk of infection and disease. This study tested the hypotheses that (i) supplementation of autumn-lambing ewes with vitamin E plus selenium in late gestation will increase the concentrations of vitamin E and selenium in plasma in the ewe and lamb and (ii) that the increased concentrations of vitamin E and selenium in plasma in the lambs will improve their innate and adaptive immune responses and thus survival. Pregnant Merino ewes were divided into a control group (n=58) which received no supplementation or a group supplemented with vitamin E plus selenium (n=55). On days 111, 125 and 140 of pregnancy ewes in the vitamin E plus selenium group were given 4 g all-rac-α-tocopherol acetate orally. On day 111 the ewes were also given 60 mg of selenium as barium selenate by subcutaneous injection. The concentrations of α-tocopherol and selenium were measured in ewes and/or lambs from day 111 of pregnancy to 14 weeks of age±10 days (weaning). Immune function of the lamb was assessed by analysing the numbers and phagocytic capacities of monocytes and polymorphonuclear leucocytes and plasma IgG and anti-tetanus toxoid antibody concentrations between birth and 14 weeks of age±10 days. Maternal supplementation with vitamin E plus selenium increased the concentration of α-tocopherol in plasma (1.13 v. 0.67 mg/l; P<0.001) and selenium in whole blood (0.12 v. 0.07 mg/l; P<0.01) of the ewes at lambing compared with controls. Supplementation also increased the concentration of α-tocopherol (0.14 v. 0.08 mg/l; P<0.001) and selenium (0.08 v. 0.05 mg/l; P<0.01) in lambs at birth compared with controls. There was no significant effect of supplementation on immune function or

  20. MCG101-induced cancer anorexia-cachexia features altered expression of hypothalamic Nucb2 and Cartpt and increased plasma levels of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Jonathan R; Iresjö, Britt-Marie; Smedh, Ulrika

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore central and peripheral host responses to an anorexia-cachexia producing tumor. We focused on neuroendocrine anorexigenic signals in the hypothalamus, brainstem, pituitary and from the tumor per se. Expression of mRNA for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), nesfatin-1, thyrotropin (TSH) and the TSH receptor were explored. In addition, we examined changes in plasma TSH, CART peptides (CARTp) and serum amyloid P component (SAP). C57BL/6 mice were implanted with MCG101 tumors or sham-treated. A sham-implanted, pair‑fed (PF) group was included to delineate between primary tumor and secondary effects from reduced feeding. Food intake and body weight were measured daily. mRNA levels from microdissected mouse brain samples were assayed using qPCR, and plasma levels were determined using ELISA. MCG101 tumors expectedly induced anorexia and loss of body weight. Tumor-bearing (TB) mice exhibited an increase in nesfatin-1 mRNA as well as a decrease in CART mRNA in the paraventricular area (PVN). The CART mRNA response was secondary to reduced caloric intake whereas nesfatin-1 mRNA appeared to be tumor-specifically induced. In the pituitary, CART and TSH mRNA were upregulated in the TB and PF animals compared to the freely fed controls. Plasma levels for CARTp were significantly elevated in TB but not PF mice whereas levels of TSH were unaffected. The plasma CARTp response was correlated to the degree of inflammation represented by SAP. The increase in nesfatin-1 mRNA in the PVN highlights nesfatin-1 as a plausible candidate for causing tumor-induced anorexia. CART mRNA expression in the PVN is likely an adaptation to reduced caloric intake secondary to a cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS)‑inducing tumor. The MCG101 tumor did not express CART mRNA, thus the elevation of plasma CARTp is host derived and likely driven by inflammation.

  1. Red palm oil-supplemented and biofortified cassava gari increase the carotenoid and retinyl palmitate concentrations of triacylglycerol-rich plasma in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenghao; Cai, Yimeng; Gertz, Erik R; La Frano, Michael R; Burnett, Dustin J; Burri, Betty J

    2015-11-01

    Boiled biofortified cassava containing β-carotene can increase retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma. Thus, it might alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Cassava requires extensive preparation to decrease its level of cyanogenic glucosides, which can be fatal. Garification is a popular method of preparing cassava that removes cyanogen glucosides. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of biofortified gari to gari prepared with red palm oil. The study was a randomized crossover trial in 8 American women. Three gari preparations separated by 2-week washout periods were consumed. Treatments (containing 200-225.9 g gari) were as follows: biofortified gari (containing 1 mg β-carotene), red palm oil-fortified gari (1 mg β-carotene), and unfortified gari with a 0.3-mg retinyl palmitate reference dose. Blood was collected 6 times from -0.5 to 9.5 hours after ingestion. Triacylglycerol-rich plasma was separated by ultracentrifugation and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection. Area under the curve for β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate increased after the fortified meals were fed (P palm oil treatment was greater than that induced by the biofortified treatment (P palm oil and biofortified gari, respectively. These results show that both treatments increased β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma concentrations in healthy well-nourished adult women, supporting our hypothesis that both interventions could support efforts to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Persistent CSF but not Plasma HIV RNA, is Associated with Increased Risk of New-onset Moderate-to-Severe Depressive Symptoms; A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Edward R.; Crum, Rosa M.; Treisman, Glenn J.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Clifford, David B.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L.; Marra, Christina M; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M.; McArthur, Justin C.

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is the most common neuropsychiatric complication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. We determined if detectable cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA) at threshold ≥50 copies/ml is associated with increased risk of depression. The CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) cohort is a six-center US-based prospective cohort with bi-annual follow-up 674 participants. We fit linear mixed models (N=233) and discrete-time survival models (N=154; 832 observations), to evaluate trajectories of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) II scores, and the incidence of new-onset moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (BDI≥17) among participants, on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), who were free of depression at study entry, and received a minimum of three CSF examinations over 2,496 person-months follow-up. Detectable CSF HIV RNA (threshold ≥50 copies/ml) at any visit was associated with a 4.7-fold increase in new-onset depression at subsequent visits adjusted for plasma HIV RNA and treatment adherence; hazard ratio (HR)=4.76, (95% CI: 1.58–14.3); P=0.006. Depression (BDI) scores were 2.53 points higher (95% CI: 0.47–4.60; P=0.02) over 6 months if CSF HIV RNA was detectable at a prior study visit in fully adjusted models including age, sex, race, education, plasma HIV RNA, duration and adherence of cART, and lifetime depression diagnosis by DSM-IV criteria. Persistent CSF but not plasma HIV RNA, is associated with an increased risk for new-onset depression. Further research evaluating the role of immune activation and inflammatory markers may improve our understanding of this association. PMID:26727907

  3. Worsening diastolic function is associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose and increased left ventricular mass in a supra-additive fashion in an elderly, healthy, Swedish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Nielsen, Mette Lundgren; Gerke, Oke

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To examine whether increasing fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were associated with worsening left ventricular (LV) diastolic function, independently of LV mass index (LVMI) in elderly, otherwise healthy subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested cross-sectional associations between...... echocardiographically determined averaged E/é ratio/diastolic function, LVMI, cardiovascular risk factors, and FPG categorized as normal (NFG), impaired (IFG), and new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM), in 483 men and 208 women aged 56-79years without overt cardiovascular disease, who received no cardiovascular, anti...

  4. Plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, Takeo; Yamanaka, Toshiyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To recycle a coolant in a sealed hollow portion formed interiorly of a plasma limiter itself to thereby to cause direct contact between the coolant and the plasma limiter and increase of contact area therebetween to cool the plasma limiter. Structure: The heat resulting from plasma generated during operation and applied to the body of the plasma limiter is transmitted to the coolant, which recycles through an inlet and outlet pipe, an inlet and outlet nozzle and a hollow portion to hold the plasma limiter at a level less than a predetermined temperature. On the other hand, the heater wire is, at the time of emergency operation, energized to heat the plasma limiter, but this heat is transmitted to the limiter body to increase the temperature thereof. However, the coolant recycling the hollow portion comes into direct contact with the limiter body, and since the plasma limiter surround the hollow portion, the heat amount transmitted from the limiter body to the coolant increases to sufficiently cool the plasma limiter. (Yoshihara, H.)

  5. Increased kilo-electron-volt x-ray yields from Z-pinch plasmas by mixing elements of similar atomic numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeney, C.; LePell, P.D.; Failor, B.H.; Wong, S.L.; Apruzese, J.P.; Whitney, K.G.; Thornhill, J.W.; Davis, J.; Yadlowsky, E.; Hazelton, R.C.; Moschella, J.J.; Nash, T.; Loter, N.

    1995-01-01

    Magnesium-coated aluminum wire array Z pinch plasmas have been tested on a 4-MA, 6-TW pulsed electrical generator. A mixture of 80% aluminum and 20% magnesium is observed to maximize the radiated kilovolt x-ray yield at ≥50 kJ, which is 50% higher than that obtained with pure aluminum. Spectroscopic analysis and collisional radiative equilbrium models with radiation transport are employed to show that the aluminum-magnesium mixture reduces the opacity of the strongest emission lines, thus increasing the yield by increasing the probability of photon escape. Furthermore, the spectroscopic data also point to the presence of a strong temperature gradient in the pinched plasma that results in the outer magnesium coating of the wires having a higher electron temperature in the pinch. This temperature difference also plays a role in enhancing the kilovolt x-ray yield. The observation of a higher magnesium electron temperature offers evidence that the magnesium reaches the axis first, forming a core that is compressed and heated by the imploding mass of aluminum. Since the emissions from the core are not absorbed by the outer aluminum, the yields are increased. By comparison, aluminum-magnesium alloys imploded on a different but similar generator do not show a temperature difference

  6. Increased Bone Marrow (BM) Plasma Level of Soluble CD30 and Correlations with BM Plasma Level of Interferon (IFN)-γ, CD4/CD8 T-Cell Ratio and Disease Severity in Aplastic Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Ge, Meili; Li, Xingxin; Shao, Yingqi; Yao, Jianfeng; Zheng, Yizhou

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic aplastic anemia (AA) is an immune-mediated bone marrow failure syndrome. Immune abnormalities such as decreased lymphocyte counts, inverted CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio and increased IFN-γ-producing T cells have been found in AA. CD30, a surface protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family and releasing from cell surface as a soluble form (sCD30) after activation, marks a subset of activated T cells secreting IFN-γ when exposed to allogeneic antigens. Our study found elevated BM plasma levels of sCD30 in patients with SAA, which were closely correlated with disease severity, including absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and absolute netrophil count (ANC). We also noted that sCD30 levels were positively correlated with plasma IFN-γ levels and CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio in patients with SAA. In order to explain these phenomena, we stimulated T cells with alloantigen in vitro and found that CD30+ T cells were the major source of IFN-γ, and induced CD30+ T cells from patients with SAA produced significantly more IFN-γ than that from healthy individuals. In addition, increased proportion of CD8+ T cells in AA showed enhanced allogeneic response by the fact that they expressed more CD30 during allogeneic stimulation. sCD30 levels decreased in patients responded to immunosuppressive therapy. In conclusion, elevated BM plasma levels of sCD30 reflected the enhanced CD30+ T cell-mediated immune response in SAA. CD30 as a molecular marker that transiently expresses on IFN-γ-producing T cells, may participate in mediating bone marrow failure in AA, which also can facilitate our understanding of AA pathogenesis to identify new therapeutic targets. PMID:25383872

  7. Position display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Yukio.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To provide a device capable of easily and quickly reading mutual mounting relations of control bodies such as control rods mounted on a nuclear reactor and positions to which the control bodies are driven. Structure: A scanning circuit is provided to scan positions of controllably mounted control bodies such as control rods. Values detected by scanning the positions are converted into character signals according to the values and converted into preranked color signals. The character signals and color signals are stored in a memory circuit by synchronous signals in synchronism with the scanning in the scanning circuit. Outputs of the memory circuit are displayed by a display unit such as a color Braun tube in accordance with the synchronous signals to provide color representations according to positions to which control bodies are driven in the same positional relation as the mounting of the control bodies. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Multichannel waveform display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolvankar, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    For any multichannel data acquisition system, a multichannel paper chart recorder undoubtedly forms an essential part of the system. When deployed on-line, it instantaneously provides, for visual inspection, hard copies of the signal waveforms on common time base at any desired sensitivity and time resolution. Within the country, only a small range of these strip chart recorder s is available, and under stringent specifications imported recorders are often procured. The cost of such recorders may range from 1 to 5 lakhs of rupees in foreign exchange. A system to provide on the oscilloscope a steady display of multichannel waveforms, refreshed from the digital data stored in the memory is developed. The merits and demerits of the display system are compared with that built around a conventional paper chart recorder. Various illustrations of multichannel seismic event data acquired at Gauribidanur seismic array station are also presented. (author). 2 figs

  9. High-fat diet-induced insulin resistance does not increase plasma anandamide levels or potentiate anandamide insulinotropic effect in isolated canine islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orison O Woolcott

    Full Text Available Obesity has been associated with elevated plasma anandamide levels. In addition, anandamide has been shown to stimulate insulin secretion in vitro, suggesting that anandamide might be linked to hyperinsulinemia.To determine whether high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance increases anandamide levels and potentiates the insulinotropic effect of anandamide in isolated pancreatic islets.Dogs were fed a high-fat diet (n = 9 for 22 weeks. Abdominal fat depot was quantified by MRI. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Fasting plasma endocannabinoid levels were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All metabolic assessments were performed before and after fat diet regimen. At the end of the study, pancreatic islets were isolated prior to euthanasia to test the in vitro effect of anandamide on islet hormones. mRNA expression of cannabinoid receptors was determined in intact islets. The findings in vitro were compared with those from animals fed a control diet (n = 7.Prolonged fat feeding increased abdominal fat content by 81.3±21.6% (mean±S.E.M, P<0.01. In vivo insulin sensitivity decreased by 31.3±12.1% (P<0.05, concomitant with a decrease in plasma 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (from 39.1±5.2 to 15.7±2.0 nmol/L but not anandamide, oleoyl ethanolamide, linoleoyl ethanolamide, or palmitoyl ethanolamide. In control-diet animals (body weight: 28.8±1.0 kg, islets incubated with anandamide had a higher basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as compared with no treatment. Islets from fat-fed animals (34.5±1.3 kg; P<0.05 versus control did not exhibit further potentiation of anandamide-induced insulin secretion as compared with control-diet animals. Glucagon but not somatostatin secretion in vitro was also increased in response to anandamide, but there was no difference between groups (P = 0.705. No differences in gene expression of CB1R or CB2R between groups were found.In canines, high-fat diet

  10. Detection of Increased Plasma Interleukin-6 Levels and Prevalence of Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatus in the Feces of Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Zazeri Leite

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal dysbiosis and metabolic endotoxemia have been associated with metabolic disorders, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the intestinal dysbiosis in Brazilian T2D patients and correlate these data with inflammatory cytokines and lipopolysaccharides (LPS plasma concentrations. This study was approved by the Ethics Committees from Barretos Cancer Hospital and all individuals signed the informed consent form. Stool samples were required for DNA extraction, and the V3/V4 regions of bacterial 16S were sequenced using an Illumina platform. Peripheral blood was used to quantify inflammatory cytokines and plasma LPS concentrations, by CBA flex and ELISA, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using Mann–Whitney and Spearman’s tests. Analysis of variance, diversity indexes, and analysis of alpha- and beta-diversity were conducted using an annotated Operational Taxonomic Unit table. This study included 20 patients and 22 controls. We observed significant differences (P < 0.01 in the microbiota composition (beta-diversity between patients and controls, suggesting intestinal dysbiosis in Brazilian T2D patients. The prevalent species found in patients’ feces were the Gram-negatives Prevotella copri, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides rodentium, and Bacteroides xylanisolvens. The proinflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6 was significantly increased (P < 0.05 in patients’ plasma and LPS levels were decreased. We find correlations between the proinflammatory interferon-gamma with Gram-negatives Bacteroides and Prevotella species, and a positive correlation between the LPS levels and P. copri reads. The P. copri and B. vulgatus species were associated with insulin resistance in previous studies. In this study, we suggested that the prevalence of Gram-negative species in the gut and the increased plasma IL-6 in patients could be linked to low

  11. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Per

    2000-07-01

    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  12. Helicopter Display Improvement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    PRESSURE INDICATOR 43 TURN A N D SLIP INDICATOR 21 ENGINE AND SDG OIL IN TEMPERATURE INDICATOR 44 COURSE INDICATOR 22 RADIO MAGNETIC COMPASS INDICATOR... compass seemed to present a problem to several H-l series pilots In that It was poorly located and should be moved. Possible locations Included...the UH-lNs standby compass . Both H/L and L/L pilots agreed that internal, white light was the best system currently in use. INDIVIDUAL DISPLAYS

  13. Increased plasma orexin-A levels in patients with insomnia disorder are not associated with prepro-orexin or orexin receptor gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shi; Huang, Weiwei; Lu, Shanshan; Lu, Lili; Li, Guohua; Chen, Xu; Liu, Xiaomin; Lv, Xin; Zhao, Zhangning; Duan, Ruisheng; Du, Yifeng; Tang, Jiyou

    2017-02-01

    Orexins, also known as hypocretins, play a regulatory role in the sleep-wake cycle by activating orexin receptors. Previous animal studies have shown that sleep deprivation can elevate orexinergic peptide levels. However, the relationship between insomnia disorder and orexin-A levels in humans has not been explored. In the current study, we examined plasma orexin-A levels in patients with insomnia disorder and in normal sleepers. We also studied the possible mechanisms underlying changes in orexin-A levels between the study groups; this included investigations of prepro-orexin and orexin receptor gene polymorphisms as well as exploration of other variables. We measured plasma orexin-A levels in 228 patients with insomnia disorder and 282 normal sleepers. The results indicated that the patients with insomnia disorder had significantly higher orexin-A levels than normal sleepers (63.42±37.56 vs. 54.84±23.95pg/ml). A positive relationship was detected between orexin-A level and age in patients with insomnia disorder. Orexin-A levels were elevated in relation to course of insomnia, as well as in relation to increased Insomnia Severity Index score. None of the evaluated prepro-orexin gene single nucleotide polymorphisms were informative between the two study populations. After sequencing all orexin receptor exons, one variation (rs2271933) in the OX1R gene and one variation (rs2653349) in the OX2R gene were found. However, no significant differences were found in either genotypic or allelic frequency distributions between the two study groups. It is suggested that the increased plasma orexin-A levels in patients with insomnia disorder are associated with the course and severity of insomnia, but not with prepro-orexin and orexin receptor gene polymorphisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An acute bout of whole body passive hyperthermia increases plasma leptin, but does not alter glucose or insulin responses in obese type 2 diabetics and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Eric; Newmire, Dan E; Crandall, Craig G; Hooper, Philip L; Ben-Ezra, Vic

    2016-07-01

    Acute and chronic hyperthermic treatments in diabetic animal models repeatedly improve insulin sensitivity and glycemic control. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that an acute 1h bout of hyperthermic treatment improves glucose, insulin, and leptin responses to an oral glucose challenge (OGTT) in obese type 2 diabetics and healthy humans. Nine obese (45±7.1% fat mass) type 2 diabetics (T2DM: 50.1±12y, 7.5±1.8% HbA1c) absent of insulin therapy and nine similar aged (41.1±13.7y) healthy non-obese controls (HC: 33.4±7.8% fat mass, Pwhole body passive hyperthermia treatment via head-out hot water immersion (1h resting in 39.4±0.4°C water) that increased internal temperature above baseline by ∆1.6±0.4°C or a control resting condition. Twenty-four hours post treatments, a 75g OGTT was administered to evaluate changes in plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and leptin concentrations. Hyperthermia itself did not alter area under the curve for plasma glucose, insulin, or C-peptide during the OGTT in either group. Fasting absolute and normalized (kg·fat mass) plasma leptin was significantly increased (P<0.01) only after the hyperthermic exposure by 17% in T2DM and 24% in HC groups (P<0.001) when compared to the control condition. These data indicate that an acute hyperthermic treatment does not improve glucose tolerance 24h post treatment in moderate metabolic controlled obese T2DM or HC individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rivastigmine Improves Appetite by Increasing the Plasma Acyl/Des-Acyl Ghrelin Ratio and Cortisol in Alzheimer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko Furiya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weight loss accelerates cognitive decline and increases mortality in patients with dementia. While acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitors are known to cause appetite loss, we sometimes encounter patients in whom switching from donepezil (AChE inhibitor to rivastigmine (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase [BuChE] inhibitor improves appetite. Since BuChE inactivates ghrelin, a potent orexigenic hormone, we speculated that rivastigmine improves appetite by inhibiting BuChE-mediated ghrelin inactivation. Methods: The subjects were patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease treated with either rivastigmine patch (n = 11 or donepezil (n = 11 for 6 months. Before and after treatment, we evaluated appetite (0, decreased; 1, slightly decreased; 2, normal; 3, slightly increased; 4, increased, cognitive function, and blood biochemical variables, including various hormones. Results: Rivastigmine treatment significantly improved appetite (from 1.6 ± 0.5 to 2.6 ± 0.7, whereas donepezil treatment did not (from 2.0 ± 0.0 to 1.8 ± 0.4. Simultaneously, rivastigmine, but not donepezil, significantly decreased the serum cholinesterase activity (from 304.3 ± 60.5 to 246.8 ± 78.5 IU/L and increased the cortisol level (from 11.86 ± 3.12 to 14.61 ± 3.29 μg/dL and the acyl/des-acyl ghrelin ratio (from 4.03 ± 2.96 to 5.28 ± 2.72. The levels of leptin, insulin, total ghrel­in, and cognitive function were not significantly affected by either treatment. Conclusions: Our results suggest that compared with donepezil, rivastigmine has the advantage of improving appetite by increasing the acyl/des-acyl ghrelin ratio and cortisol level, thereby preventing weight loss.

  16. Production of interleukin-6 in contracting human skeletal muscles can account for the exercise-induced increase in plasma interleukin-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, A; Van Hall, Gerrit; Osada, T

    2000-01-01

    1. Plasma interleukin (IL)-6 concentration is increased with exercise and it has been demonstrated that contracting muscles can produce IL-The question addressed in the present study was whether the IL-6 production by contracting skeletal muscle is of such a magnitude that it can account for the IL...... and every hour during the exercise. Leg blood flow was measured in parallel by the ultrasound Doppler technique. IL-6 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 3. Arterial plasma concentrations for IL-6 increased 19-fold compared to rest. The a-fv difference for IL-6 over the exercising leg...... followed the same pattern as did the net IL-6 release. Over the resting leg, there was no significant a-fv difference or net IL-6 release. The work was produced by 2.5 kg of active muscle, which means that during the last 2 h of exercise, the median IL-6 production was 6.8 ng min-1 (kg active muscle)-1...

  17. Cholinesterase inhibitor use is associated with increased plasma levels of anti-Aβ 1-42 antibodies in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Elisa; Galimberti, Gloria; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Masetto, Alessandro; Cereda, Diletta; Zanchi, Clara; Piazza, Fabrizio; Casati, Marco; Isella, Valeria; Appollonio, Ildebrando; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2010-12-17

    Acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) are drugs frequently prescribed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), exerting an effect on cognition, as well as on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia and activities of daily living. The efficacy of AChEI may be ascribed not only to the activation of cholinergic transmission, but also to other mechanisms, among which a putative regulation of the immune response has already been hypothesized. In the present study, we evaluated, in a cross-sectional sample of 66AD patients and 48 healthy controls, the putative influence of AChEI on anti-Abeta 1-42 antibody plasma levels by ELISA assay. AD patients receiving AChEI therapy showed increased plasma levels of anti-Abeta 1-42 antibodies respect to untreated AD patients and antibodies levels similar to those of healthy controls, both before and after normalization by total IgG values. Our results support a potential role of AChEI in the modulation of the immune response against Abeta. We suggest that a strategy aimed at increasing the endogenous response against this peptide might represent an interesting therapeutic target to be further investigated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preoperative methylprednisolone increases plasma Pentraxin 3 early after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, V.; Kehlet, H.; Pilely, K.

    2018-01-01

    (ficolin‐1, −2 and −3), complement components (C4 and C3), terminal complement complex (TCC) and C‐reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. Blood samples were analysed at baseline and 2, 6, 24 and 48 h after surgery with complete sampling from 63 patients for analyses. MP resulted in an increase...... in circulating PTX3 compared to saline from baseline to 24 h postoperatively (P TCC concentrations did not differ between...

  19. One year B-vitamins increases serum and whole blood folate forms and lowers plasma homocysteine in older Germans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Susanne H; Herrmann, Wolfgang; Kruse, Vera; Eckert, Rudolf; Gräber, Stefan; Geisel, Jürgen; Obeid, Rima

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to study the effect of long-term supplementation of B-vitamins on folate forms in serum and whole blood (WB) in elderly German subjects. 59 participants (mean age 67 years) were randomized to daily receive either vitamin D3 (1200 IU), folic acid (500 μg), vitamin B12 (500 μg), vitamin B6 (50 mg), and calcium carbonate (456 mg) or vitamin D3 plus calcium carbonate. Serum and WB folate forms were measured before and after 6 and 12 months. B-vitamins supplementation for 6 months led to higher concentrations of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF) in serum (mean 49.1 vs. 19.6 nmol/L) and WB (1332 vs. 616 nmol/L). Also non-methyl-folate concentrations in serum and WB were higher after 6 months with B-vitamins supplementation. Unmetabolized folic acid (UFA) increased after supplementation. tHcy concentration was lowered after 1 year of B-vitamin supplementation (mean 13.1 vs. 9.6 μmol/L). A stronger reduction of tHcy after 1 year was found in participants who had baseline level >12.5 μmol/L (mean 17.0 vs. 11.9 μmol/L) compared to those with baseline tHcy lower than this limit (mean 9.1 vs. 7.4 μmol/L). In contrast, the increases in serum and WB 5-methylTHF were comparable between the two groups. One year B-vitamins supplementation increased the levels of 5-methylTHF and non-methyl-folate in serum and WB, normalized tHcy, but caused an increase in the number of cases with detectable UFA in serum. Lowering of tHcy was predicted by baseline tHcy, but not by baseline serum or WB 5-methylTHF.

  20. Large Display Interaction Using Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Large displays become more and more popular, due to dropping prices. Their size and high resolution leverages collaboration and they are capable of dis- playing even large datasets in one view. This becomes even more interesting as the number of big data applications increases. The increased screen size and other properties of large displays pose new challenges to the Human- Computer-Interaction with these screens. This includes issues such as limited scalability to the number of users, diver...

  1. Plasma and adipose tissue level of angiopoietin-like 7 (ANGPTL7) are increased in obesity and reduced after physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Farha, Mohamed; Cherian, Preethi; Al-Khairi, Irina; Madhu, Dhanya; Tiss, Ali; Warsam, Samia; Alhubail, Asma; Sriraman, Devarajan; Al-Refaei, Faisal; Abubaker, Jehad

    2017-01-01

    ANGPTL7 is a member of the Angiopoietin-like (ANGPTL) protein family that is composed of eight proteins (1-8). Increasing evidence is associating ANGPTL proteins to obesity and insulin resistance. The biological role of ANGPTL7 is yet to be understood except for a recently proposed role in the pathophysiology of glaucoma. This study was designed to shed light on the function of ANGPTL7 in obesity and its modulation by physical exercise as well as its potential association with lipid profile. A total of 144 subjects were enrolled in this study and finished three months of physical exercise. The participants were classified based on their BMI, 82 subjects were non-obese and 62 obese. ANGPTL7 levels in plasma and adipose tissue were measured by ELISA, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. In this study, we showed that ANGPTL7 level was increased in the plasma of obese subjects (1249.05± 130.39 pg/mL) as compared to non-obese (930.34 ± 87.27 pg/mL) (p-Value = 0.032). ANGPTL7 Gene and protein expression levels in adipose tissue also showed over two fold increase. Physical exercise reduced circulating level of ANGPTL7 in the obese subjects to 740.98± 127.18 pg/mL, (p-Value = 0.007). ANGPTL7 expression in adipose tissue was also reduced after exercise. Finally, ANGPTL7 circulating level showed significant association with TG level in the obese subjects (R2 = 0.183, p-Value = 0.03). In conclusion, our data shows for the first time that obesity increases the level of ANGPTL7 in both plasma and adipose tissue. Increased expression of ANGPTL7 might play a minor role in the regulation of TG level in obese subjects either directly or through interaction with other ANGPTL protein members. Physical exercise reduced the level of ANGPTL7 highlighting the potential for targeting this protein as a therapeutic target for regulating dyslipidemia.

  2. The loss of plasma membrane lysopip and an increase of PIP2 result from treatment of carrot cells with fungal enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.; Boss, W.F.

    1989-01-01

    The plasma membranes of carrot cells grown in suspension culture are enriched with PIP, lysoPIP, and PIP 2 . To determine whether or not these lipids are involved in signal transduction, we have challenged the cells with a mixture of fungal cellulases, Driselase, and monitored the changes in the phosphoinositides and in the phosphoinositide kinase activity. With cell prelabeled with [ 3 H]inositol, two major changes are observed: (1) lysoPIP decreases 30% compared to the sorbitol control and (2) PIP 2 doubles. There is no increase in IP, IP 2 , or IP 3 . In vitro phosphorylation studies using [γ- 32 P]ATP indicate that the increase in PIP 2 is due in part to activation of the PIP kinase. These data suggest that the role of the polyphosphoinositides in signal transduction in plants may involve activation of the PIP kinase and/or activation of A type phospholipases rather than C type phospholipases

  3. Plasma nitriding process by direct current glow discharge at low temperature increasing the thermal diffusivity of AISI 304 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prandel, L. V.; Somer, A.; Assmann, A.; Camelotti, F.; Costa, G.; Bonardi, C.; Jurelo, A. R.; Rodrigues, J. B.; Cruz, G. K. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Grupo de Espectroscopia Optica e Fotoacustica de Materiais, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Carlos Cavalcanti, 4748, CEP 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil)

    2013-02-14

    This work reports for the first time on the use of the open photoacoustic cell technique operating at very low frequencies and at room temperature to experimentally determine the thermal diffusivity parameter of commercial AISI304 stainless steel and AISI304 stainless steel nitrided samples. Complementary measurements of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were also performed. The results show that in standard AISI 304 stainless steel samples the thermal diffusivity is (4.0 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s. After the nitriding process, the thermal diffusivity increases to the value (7.1 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s. The results are being associated to the diffusion process of nitrogen into the surface of the sample. Carrying out subsequent thermal treatment at 500 Degree-Sign C, the thermal diffusivity increases up to (12.0 {+-} 2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s. Now the observed growing in the thermal diffusivity must be related to the change in the phases contained in the nitrided layer.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of repeated sodium salicylate administration to laying hens: evidence for time dependent increase in drug elimination from plasma and eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Poźniak

    Full Text Available Salicylates were the first non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs to be used in any species and are still widely used in humans and livestock. However, the data on their pharmacokinetics in animals is limited, especially after repeated administration. Evidence exist that in chickens (Gallus gallus salicylate (SA may induce its own elimination. The aim of this study was to investigate salicylate pharmacokinetics and egg residues during repeated administration of sodium salicylate (SS to laying hens. Pharmacokinetics of SA was assessed during 14 d oral administration of SS at daily doses of 50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight to laying hens. On the 1st, 7th and 14th d a 24 h-long pharmacokinetic study was carried out, whereas eggs were collected daily. Salicylate concentrations in plasma and eggs were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and pharmacokinetic variables were calculated using a non-compartmental model. Mean residence time (MRT, minimal plasma concentration (Cmin, C16h and elimination half-life (T1/2el of SA showed gradual decrease in layers administered with a lower dose. Total body clearance (ClB increased. Layers administered with the higher dose showed a decrease only in the T1/2el. In the low dose group, SA was found only in the egg white and was low throughout the experiment. Egg whites from the higher dose group showed initially high SA levels which significantly decreased during the experiment. Yolk SA levels were lower and showed longer periods of accumulation and elimination. Repeated administration of SS induces SA elimination, although this effect may differ depending on the dose and production type of a chicken. Decreased plasma drug concentration may have clinical implications during prolonged SS treatment.

  5. NCAP projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, John R.; Ishioka, J.; Jones, Philip J.; Lau, Aldrich; Tomita, Akira; Asano, A.; Konuma, Nobuhiro; Sato, Kazuhiko; Takemoto, Iwao

    1997-05-01

    Projectors based on polymer-eNCAPsulated liquid crystals can provide bright displays suitable for use in conference rooms with normal lighting. Contrast is generated by light scattering among the droplets, rather than by light absorption with crossed polarizers. We have demonstrated a full-color, compact projector showing 1200 ANSI lumens with 200 watts of lamp power - a light efficiency of 6 lumens/watt. This projector is based on low-voltage NCAP material, highly reflective CMOS die, and matched illumination and projection optics. We will review each of these areas and discuss the integrated system performance.

  6. Increased brain and atrial natriuretic peptides in patients with chronic right ventricular pressure overload : correlation between plasma neurohormones and right ventricular dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulevski, I.I.; Groenink, M; van der Wall, EE; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Boomsma, F; Hirsch, A; Lemkes, JS; Mulder, BJM; Stoker, J

    Objective-To evaluate the role of plasma neurohormones in the diagnosis of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic right ventricular dysfunction. Setting-Tertiary cardiovascular referral centre. Methods-Plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations were

  7. Increased brain and atrial natriuretic peptides in patients with chronic right ventricular pressure overload: correlation between plasma neurohormones and right ventricular dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulevski, I. I.; Groenink, M.; van der Wall, E. E.; van Veldhuisen, D. J.; Boomsma, F.; Stoker, J.; Hirsch, A.; Lemkes, J. S.; Mulder, B. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of plasma neurohormones in the diagnosis of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic right ventricular dysfunction. SETTING: Tertiary cardiovascular referral centre. METHODS: Plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations were

  8. The consumer’s choice among television displays: A multinomial logit approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Giovanni González Espitia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The consumer’s choice over a bundle of products depends on observable and unobservable characteristics of goods and consumers. This choice is made in order to maximize utility subject to a budget constraint. At the same time, firms make product differentiation decisions to maximize profit. Quality is a form of differentiation. An example of this occurs in the TV market, where several displays are developed. Our objective is to determine the probability for a consumer of choosing a type of display from among five kinds: standard tube, LCD, plasma, projection and LED. Using a multinomial logit approach, we find that electronic appliances like DVDs and audio systems, as well as socioeconomic status, increase the probability of choosing a high-tech television display. Our empirical approximation contributes to further understanding rational consumer behavior through the theory of utility maximization and highlights the importance of studying market structure and analyzing changes in welfare and efficiency.

  9. Prolonged continuous intravenous infusion of the dipeptide L-alanine- L-glutamine significantly increases plasma glutamine and alanine without elevating brain glutamate in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nägeli, Mirjam; Fasshauer, Mario; Sommerfeld, Jutta; Fendel, Angela; Brandi, Giovanna; Stover, John F

    2014-07-02

    Low plasma glutamine levels are associated with worse clinical outcome. Intravenous glutamine infusion dose- dependently increases plasma glutamine levels, thereby correcting hypoglutaminemia. Glutamine may be transformed to glutamate which might limit its application at a higher dose in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). To date, the optimal glutamine dose required to normalize plasma glutamine levels without increasing plasma and cerebral glutamate has not yet been defined. Changes in plasma and cerebral glutamine, alanine, and glutamate as well as indirect signs of metabolic impairment reflected by increased intracranial pressure (ICP), lactate, lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, electroencephalogram (EEG) activity were determined before, during, and after continuous intravenous infusion of 0.75 g L-alanine-L-glutamine which was given either for 24 hours (group 1, n = 6) or 5 days (group 2, n = 6) in addition to regular enteral nutrition. Lab values including nitrogen balance, urea and ammonia were determined daily. Continuous L-alanine-L-glutamine infusion significantly increased plasma and cerebral glutamine as well as alanine levels, being mostly sustained during the 5 day infusion phase (plasma glutamine: from 295 ± 62 to 500 ± 145 μmol/ l; brain glutamine: from 183 ± 188 to 549 ± 120 μmol/ l; plasma alanine: from 327 ± 91 to 622 ± 182 μmol/ l; brain alanine: from 48 ± 55 to 89 ± 129 μmol/ l; p alanine-L-glutamine infusion (0.75 g/ kg/ d up to 5 days) increased plasma and brain glutamine and alanine levels. This was not associated with elevated glutamate or signs of potential glutamate-mediated cerebral injury. The increased nitrogen load should be considered in patients with renal and hepatic dysfunction. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02130674. Registered 5 April 2014.

  10. Increased plasma homocyst(e)ine after withdrawal of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal from the diet: prevention by breakfast cereal providing 200 microg folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; Duell, P B; Irvin-Jones, A; Upson, B M; Graf, E E

    2000-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that cessation of habitual ingestion of breakfast cereals would be associated with elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations. We anticipated that those subjects who reported consuming breakfast cereals containing 100 to 400 ,microg of folic acid per serving before entering the study would achieve higher plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations if, in addition to their regular diet, they began ingesting a daily serving of breakfast cereal that contained less than 10 microg of folic acid per serving. Seventy-nine subjects consumed a daily serving of breakfast cereal containing either ine elevation. Breakfast cereal containing 200 microg folic acid per day was sufficient to maintain the homocyst(e)ine lowering effects of commercial cereals. Habitual consumption of commercially available fortified breakfast cereals, usually containing 100 to 400 microg folic acid per serving, had significant homocyst(e)ine lowering effects as shown by the homocyst(e)ine increase after cessation of habitual intake of commercial breakfast cereal. Substitution of breakfast cereal containing only 200 microg folic acid per day was sufficient to maintain the homocyst(e)inelowering effects of commercial cereals.

  11. Single-dose infusion of sodium butyrate, but not lactose, increases plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and insulin in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, K J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Schingoethe, D J; Casper, D P; Moreland, S C; van Eys, J E

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have identified beneficial effects of butyrate on rumen development and intestinal health in preruminants. These encouraging findings led to further investigations related to butyrate supplementation in the mature ruminant. However, the effects of elevated butyrate concentrations on rumen metabolism have not been investigated, and consequently the maximum tolerable dosage rate of butyrate has not been established. Therefore, the first objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of a short-term increase in rumen butyrate concentration on key metabolic indicators. The second objective was to evaluate the source of butyrate, either directly dosed in the rumen or indirectly supplied via lactose fermentation in the rumen. Jugular catheters were inserted into 4 ruminally fistulated Holstein cows in a 4×4 Latin square with 3-d periods. On d 1 of each period, 1h after feeding, cows were ruminally dosed with 1 of 4 treatments: (1) 2L of water (CON), (2) 3.5g/kg of body weight (BW) of lactose (LAC), (3) 1g/kg of BW of butyrate (1GB), or (4) 2g/kg of BW of butyrate (2GB). Sodium butyrate was the source of butyrate, and NaCl was added to CON (1.34g/kg of BW), LAC (1.34g/kg of BW), and 1GB (0.67g/kg of BW) to provide equal amounts of sodium as the 2GB treatment. Serial plasma and rumen fluid samples were collected during d 1 of each period. Rumen fluid pH was greater in cows given the 1GB and 2GB treatments compared with the cows given the LAC treatment. Cows administered the 1GB and 2GB treatments had greater rumen butyrate concentrations compared with LAC. Those cows also had greater plasma butyrate concentrations compared with cows given the LAC treatment. Plasma β-hydroxybutyrate was greater and insulin tended to be greater for butyrate treatments compared with LAC. No difference in insulin was found between the 1GB and 2GB treatments. Based on plasma and rumen metabolites, singly infusing 3.5g/kg of BW of lactose into the rumen is not as effective

  12. Lundep, a sand fly salivary endonuclease increases Leishmania parasite survival in neutrophils and inhibits XIIa contact activation in human plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza C Chagas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are the host's first line of defense against infections, and their extracellular traps (NET were recently shown to kill Leishmania parasites. Here we report a NET-destroying molecule (Lundep from the salivary glands of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Previous analysis of the sialotranscriptome of Lu. longipalpis showed the potential presence of an endonuclease. Indeed, not only was the cloned cDNA (Lundep shown to encode a highly active ss- and dsDNAse, but also the same activity was demonstrated to be secreted by salivary glands of female Lu. longipalpis. Lundep hydrolyzes both ss- and dsDNA with little sequence specificity with a calculated DNase activity of 300000 Kunitz units per mg of protein. Disruption of PMA (phorbol 12 myristate 13 acetate- or parasite-induced NETs by treatment with recombinant Lundep or salivary gland homogenates increases parasite survival in neutrophils. Furthermore, co-injection of recombinant Lundep with metacyclic promastigotes significantly exacerbates Leishmania infection in mice when compared with PBS alone or inactive (mutagenized Lundep. We hypothesize that Lundep helps the parasite to establish an infection by allowing it to escape from the leishmanicidal activity of NETs early after inoculation. Lundep may also assist blood meal intake by lowering the local viscosity caused by the release of host DNA and as an anticoagulant by inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of coagulation.

  13. Painting Reproductions on Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Iranowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Paintings in museums might occasionally be replaced by a photoprint mimicking the original. This article is an investigation of what constitutes a good reproduction of an artwork (oil painting that is meant to be displayed. The article discusses what the usefulness of reproductions depends on, applying the Valuation Studies approach, which means the primary concern is with the practice of valuing itself. In other words, the study focuses on how museum experts evaluate reproduc-tions of oil paintings. The article analyses three cases of displaying digitally prin-ted copies of Edvard Munch's oil paintings between 2013 and 2015 in the Munch Museum and in the National Gallery in Oslo. The study is based on a series of semi-structured interviews with the experts, working at and for the museums, that were involved in producing and exhibiting of the photoprints: curators, con-servators, museum educators, and external manufacturers. The interviews were grouped into five clusters, which I have chosen to call registers of valuing following Frank Heuts and Annemarie Mol (2013. The described valuation practices have to do with delivering experiences to the public, obtaining mimetic resemblance, solving ethical aspects, exhibitions' budget, and last but not least, with the time perspective.

  14. Unsolicited displays of insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwer, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    This study is based on videorecorded interactional data from a specific type of institutional setting which consists of a variety of 'language stimulation activities' for bilingual children in Danish preschools. Bilingual children, with a variety of linguistic backgrounds, take part in these acti......This study is based on videorecorded interactional data from a specific type of institutional setting which consists of a variety of 'language stimulation activities' for bilingual children in Danish preschools. Bilingual children, with a variety of linguistic backgrounds, take part...... in these activities in small groups together with a specialized preschool teacher. One pervasive feature of this kind of data is the ongoing orientation to, and guidance from the adult towards the children on what the main business of their interaction is - what they relevantly are doing. In this light, the paper......: Unsolicited displays may lead to side sequences, they may lead to a shift in the main business of the talk, or they may be explicitly or implicitly ignored. The paper discusses whether and how these unsolicited displays of understanding then can be thought of as leading to opportunities for (language...

  15. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Liza S; Osipov, Andrian N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    2015-09-01

    The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism's cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1×Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab DNA and TM values may provide the information about the human organism's cell resistivity to chronic exposure to the low-dose IR and about the development of the adaptive response in the organism that is aimed, firstly, at the effective cfDNA elimination from the blood circulation, and, secondly - at survival of the cells, including the cells with the damaged DNA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Gender and plasma iron biomarkers, but not HFE gene mutations, increase the risk of colorectal cancer and polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiella, Agustin; Múgica, Fernando; Zapata, Eva; Zubiaurre, Leire; Iribarren, Arantxa; de Juan, M Dolores; Alzate, Luis; Gil, Ines; Urdapilleta, Gregorio; Otazua, Pedro; Emparanza, José Ignacio

    2015-09-01

    A cohort study of patients included in the Basque Country colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme was carried out to assess the risk of adenomatous polyps and CRC (P-CRC) associated with HFE gene mutations, with gender and with iron biomarkers (serum ferritin (SF), iron (Fe) and transferrin saturation index (TSI)). Among 432 included patients (mean age 59.8 years), 263 were men (60.9 %) and 169 women (39.1 %). P-CRC were identified in 221 patients (51.2 %) and no polyps (NP) in 211 patients (48.8 %). HFE mutations were identified in 43.8 % of the patients. C282Y/wt genotypic frequency was 6.8 % in the P-CRC group and 1.4 % in the NP group (p < 0.05). The allelic frequency was 3.8 versus 1.2 % (p < 0.05). For laboratory, all three iron biomarkers showed a statistically significant difference: mean Fe, 91.29 ± 34 for P-CRC and 80.81 ± 30.59 for NP group. Mean TSI for P-CRC was 24.95 ± 8.90 and 22.74 ± 8.79 for NP group. Mean SF 308.09 ± 536.32 for P-CRC and 177.55 ± 159.95 for NP group. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, only male gender (odds ratio (OR) = 2.04, 1.29-3.22), SF (OR = 1.001, 1.0004-1.003) and Fe (OR = 1.01, 1.004-1.02) were related with the presence of CRC and adenoma. Men gender and raised serum iron biomarkers increase the risk of P-CRC.

  17. Latest development of display technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hong-Yue; Yao Qiu-Xiang; Liu Pan; Zheng Zhi-Qiang; Liu Ji-Cheng; Zheng Hua-Dong; Zeng Chao; Yu Ying-Jie; Sun Tao; Zeng Zhen-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    In this review we will focus on recent progress in the field of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) display technologies. We present the current display materials and their applications, including organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), flexible OLEDs quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs), active-matrix organic light emitting diodes (AMOLEDs), electronic paper (E-paper), curved displays, stereoscopic 3D displays, volumetric 3D displays, light field 3D displays, and holographic 3D displays. Conventional 2D display devices, such as liquid crystal devices (LCDs) often result in ambiguity in high-dimensional data images because of lacking true depth information. This review thus provides a detailed description of 3D display technologies. (topical review)

  18. 3D display system using monocular multiview displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Saruta, Kazuki; Takeda, Kazutoki

    2002-05-01

    A 3D head mounted display (HMD) system is useful for constructing a virtual space. The authors have researched the virtual-reality systems connected with computer networks for real-time remote control and developed a low-priced real-time 3D display for building these systems. We developed a 3D HMD system using monocular multi-view displays. The 3D displaying technique of this monocular multi-view display is based on the concept of the super multi-view proposed by Kajiki at TAO (Telecommunications Advancement Organization of Japan) in 1996. Our 3D HMD has two monocular multi-view displays (used as a visual display unit) in order to display a picture to the left eye and the right eye. The left and right images are a pair of stereoscopic images for the left and right eyes, then stereoscopic 3D images are observed.

  19. Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, J. William

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT * PDLC MATERIALS PREPARATION * Polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) * Thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) * Solvent induced phase separation (SIPS) * Encapsulation (NCAP) * RESPONSE VOLTAGE * Dielectric and resistive effects * Radial configuration * Bipolar configuration * Other director configurations * RESPONSE TIME * DISPLAY CONTRAST * Light scattering and index matching * Incorporation of dyes * Contrast measurements * PDLC DISPLAY DEVICES AND INNOVATIONS * Reflective direct view displays * Large-scale, flexible displays * Switchable windows * Projection displays * High definition spatial light modulator * Haze-free PDLC shutters: wide angle view displays * ENVIRONMENTAL STABILITY * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  20. Increased plasma dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activities are associated with high prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, T P; Liu, Y H; Yang, L X; Qin, S H; Liu, H B

    2015-10-01

    Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dislipidemia, oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented risk factors for subclinical atherosclerosis. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4(DPP4) is a newly identified adipokine related to these risk factors. Hence, we aimed to investigate the association between plasma DPP4 activities and subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes. A total of 985 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects were studied. Plasma DPP4 activity, mannose 6-phosphate receptor (M6P-R), oxidative stress parameters, inflammatory markers and common carotid artery Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT) were measured in all participants. Participants in the highest quartile of DPP4 activity had higher HbA1c, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance(HOMA-IR), triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), oxidized LDL, nitrotyrosine, 8-iso-PGF2a, interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), M6P-R, c-IMT compared with participants in the lowest quartile (all P dislipidemia, oxidative stress and inflammation were higher with increasing DPP4 quartiles (P < 0.001 for trend). In the highest DPP4 quartile, subclinical atherosclerosis risk was significantly higher (OR 4.97; 95% CI 3.03-8.17) than in the lowest quartile. This association remained strong (2.17; 1.21-3.89) after further controlling for HbA1c, HOMA-IR, triglyceride, oxidized LDL, nitrotyrosine, and IL-6. This study shows that increased DPP4 activities are positively and independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes. Our findings suggest of potential role of DPP4 in the pathogenesis of subclinical atherosclerosis and in the prevention and management of this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Crosstalk evaluation in stereoscopic displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Teunissen, C.; Tu, Yan; Chen, Li; Zhang, P.; Zhang, T.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Substantial progress in liquid-crystal display and polarization film technology has enabled several types of stereoscopic displays. Despite all progress, some image distortions still exist in these 3-D displays, of which interocular crosstalk - light leakage of the image for one eye to the other eye

  2. Increased Plasma Levels of Danger-Associated Molecular Patterns Are Associated With Immune Suppression and Postoperative Infections in Patients Undergoing Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus P. Leijte

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionDanger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs can elicit immune responses and may subsequently induce an immune-suppressed state. Previous work showed that increased plasma levels of DAMPs are associated with immune suppression and increased susceptibility toward infections in trauma patients. Like trauma, major surgical procedures, such as cytoreductive surgery (CRS combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC, are also thought to cause profound DAMP release. Furthermore, the incidence of postoperative infections in these patients, ranging from 10 to 36%, is very high compared to that observed in patients undergoing other major surgical procedures. We hypothesized that the double hit of surgical trauma (CRS in combination with HIPEC causes excessive DAMP release, which in turn contributes to the development of immune suppression. To investigate this, we assessed DAMP release in patients undergoing CRS-HIPEC, and investigated its relationship with immune suppression and postoperative infections.MethodsIn 20 patients undergoing CRS-HIPEC, blood was obtained at five time points: just before surgery (baseline, after CRS, after HIPEC, at ICU admission, and 1 day after surgery. Circulating levels of DAMPs [heat shock protein (HSP70, high mobility group box (HMGB1, S100A12, S100A8/S100A9, nuclear (nDNA, mitochondrial (mtDNA, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, a marker of unscheduled cell death], and cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and MCP-1] were measured. The extent of immune suppression was determined by measuring HLA-DR gene expression and ex vivo leukocytic cytokine production capacity.ResultsPlasma levels of DAMPs (maximum fold increases of HSP70: 2.1 [1.5–2.8], HMGB1: 5.9 [3.2–9.8], S100A8/S100A9: 3.6 [1.8–5.6], S100A12: 2.6 [1.8–4.3], nDNA 3.9 [1.0–10.8], LDH 1.7 [1.2–2.5], and all measured cytokines increased profoundly following

  3. Oral administration of D-alanine in monkeys robustly increases plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels but experimental D-amino acid oxidase inhibitors had minimal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Camilo; Alt, Jesse; Ator, Nancy A; Wilmoth, Heather; Rais, Rana; Hin, Niyada; DeVivo, Michael; Popiolek, Michael; Tsukamoto, Takashi; Slusher, Barbara S

    2016-09-01

    Hypofunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is thought to exacerbate psychosis in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Consistent with this hypothesis, D-alanine, a co-agonist at the glycine site of the NMDA receptor, was shown to improve positive and cognitive symptoms when used as add-on therapy for schizophrenia treatment. However, D-alanine had to be administered at high doses (~7 g) to observe clinical effects. One possible reason for the high dose is that D-alanine could be undergoing oxidation by D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) before it reaches the brain. If this is the case, the dose could be reduced by co-administration of D-alanine with a DAAO inhibitor (DAAOi). Early studies with rodents showed that co-administration of D-alanine with 5-chloro-benzo[d]isoxazol-3-ol (CBIO), a prototype DAAOi, significantly enhanced the levels of extracellular D-alanine in the frontal cortex compared with D-alanine alone. Further, the use of CBIO reduced the dose of D-alanine needed to attenuate prepulse inhibition deficits induced by dizocilpine. The objective of the work reported herein was to confirm the hypothesis that DAAO inhibition can enhance D-alanine exposure in a species closer to humans: non-human primates. We report that while oral D-alanine administration to baboons (10 mg/kg) enhanced D-alanine plasma and CSF levels over 20-fold versus endogenous levels, addition of experimental DAAOi to the regimen exhibited a 2.2-fold enhancement in plasma and no measurable effect on CSF levels. The results provide caution regarding the utility of DAAO inhibition to increase D-amino acid levels as treatment for patients with schizophrenia. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. LHCb Event display

    CERN Document Server

    Trisovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Event Display was made for educational purposes at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The project was implemented as a stand-alone application using C++ and ROOT, a framework developed by CERN for data analysis. This paper outlines the development and architecture of the application in detail, as well as the motivation for the development and the goals of the exercise. The application focuses on the visualization of events recorded by the LHCb detector, where an event represents a set of charged particle tracks in one proton-proton collision. Every particle track is coloured by its type and can be selected to see its essential information such as mass and momentum. The application allows students to save this information and calculate the invariant mass for any pair of particles. Furthermore, the students can use additional calculating tools in the application and build up a histogram of these invariant masses. The goal for the students is to find a $D^0$ par...

  5. Colorimetry for CRT displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golz, Jürgen; MacLeod, Donald I A

    2003-05-01

    We analyze the sources of error in specifying color in CRT displays. These include errors inherent in the use of the color matching functions of the CIE 1931 standard observer when only colorimetric, not radiometric, calibrations are available. We provide transformation coefficients that prove to correct the deficiencies of this observer very well. We consider four different candidate sets of cone sensitivities. Some of these differ substantially; variation among candidate cone sensitivities exceeds the variation among phosphors. Finally, the effects of the recognized forms of observer variation on the visual responses (cone excitations or cone contrasts) generated by CRT stimuli are investigated and quantitatively specified. Cone pigment polymorphism gives rise to variation of a few per cent in relative excitation by the different phosphors--a variation larger than the errors ensuing from the adoption of the CIE standard observer, though smaller than the differences between some candidate cone sensitivities. Macular pigmentation has a larger influence, affecting mainly responses to the blue phosphor. The estimated combined effect of all sources of observer variation is comparable in magnitude with the largest differences between competing cone sensitivity estimates but is not enough to disrupt very seriously the relation between the L and M cone weights and the isoluminance settings of individual observers. It is also comparable with typical instrumental colorimetric errors, but we discuss these only briefly.

  6. Web Extensible Display Manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slominski, Ryan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Larrieu, Theodore L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Jefferson Lab's Web Extensible Display Manager (WEDM) allows staff to access EDM control system screens from a web browser in remote offices and from mobile devices. Native browser technologies are leveraged to avoid installing and managing software on remote clients such as browser plugins, tunnel applications, or an EDM environment. Since standard network ports are used firewall exceptions are minimized. To avoid security concerns from remote users modifying a control system, WEDM exposes read-only access and basic web authentication can be used to further restrict access. Updates of monitored EPICS channels are delivered via a Web Socket using a web gateway. The software translates EDM description files (denoted with the edl suffix) to HTML with Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) following the EDM's edl file vector drawing rules to create faithful screen renderings. The WEDM server parses edl files and creates the HTML equivalent in real-time allowing existing screens to work without modification. Alternatively, the familiar drag and drop EDM screen creation tool can be used to create optimized screens sized specifically for smart phones and then rendered by WEDM.

  7. Low-fat diet with omega-3 fatty acids increases plasma insulin-like growth factor concentration in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lindsay R; Kurzer, Mindy S; Thomas, William; Redmon, J Bruce; Raatz, Susan K

    2013-07-01

    The insulin-like growth factor pathway plays a central role in the normal and abnormal growth of tissues; however, nutritional determinants of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its binding proteins in healthy individuals are not well defined. Three test diets-high-fat diet (40% energy as fat), low-fat diet (LF; 20% energy as fat), and a diet with low fat and high omega-3 fatty acid (LFn3; 23% energy as fat)--were tested in a randomized crossover designed controlled feeding trial in healthy postmenopausal women. Plasma IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), insulin, glucose, and ratio of IGF-I/IGFBP-3 concentrations were measured in response to diets. Insulin sensitivity was calculated using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance We hypothesized that IGF-I, insulin, and glucose concentrations would decrease and IGFBP-3 concentration would increase in response to the low-fat diets. Eight weeks of the LFn3 diet increased circulating IGF-I (P diet increased IGFBP-3 (P = .04), resulting in trends toward an increased IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio with the LFn3 diet and a decreased IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio with the LF diet (P = .13 for both comparisons). No statistically significant differences were detected between treatments at baseline or 8 weeks for IGF-1, IGFBP-3, or the ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3. Insulin, glucose, and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were not altered by the interventions. Low-fat diet with high n-3 fatty acids may increase circulating IGF-I concentrations without adversely affecting insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Replacing the Transfusion of 1–2 Units of Blood with Plasma Expanders that Increase Oxygen Delivery Capacity: Evidence from Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy G. Tsai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available At least a third of the blood supply in the world is used to transfuse 1–2 units of packed red blood cells for each intervention and most clinical trials of blood substitutes have been carried out at this level of oxygen carrying capacity (OCC restoration. However, the increase of oxygenation achieved is marginal or none at all for molecular hemoglobin (Hb products, due to their lingering vasoactivity. This has provided the impetus for the development of “oxygen therapeutics” using Hb-based molecules that have high oxygen affinity and target delivery of oxygen to anoxic areas. However it is still unclear how these oxygen carriers counteract or mitigate the functional effects of anemia due to obstruction, vasoconstriction and under-perfusion. Indeed, they are administered as a low dosage/low volume therapeutic Hb (subsequently further diluted in the circulatory pool and hence induce extremely small OCC changes. Hyperviscous plasma expanders provide an alternative to oxygen therapeutics by increasing the oxygen delivery capacity (ODC; in anemia they induce supra-perfusion and increase tissue perfusion (flow by as much as 50%. Polyethylene glycol conjugate albumin (PEG-Alb accomplishes this by enhancing the shear thinning behavior of diluted blood, which increases microvascular endothelial shear stress, causes vasodilation and lowering peripheral vascular resistance thus facilitating cardiac function. Induction of supra-perfusion takes advantage of the fact that ODC is the product of OCC and blood flow and hence can be maintained by increasing either or both. Animal studies suggest that this approach may save a considerable fraction of the blood supply. It has an additional benefit of enhancing tissue clearance of toxic metabolites.

  9. Display systems for NPP control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozov, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    Main trends in development of display systems used as the means for image displaying in NPP control systems are considered. It is shown that colour display devices appear to be the most universal means for concentrated data presentation. Along with digital means the display systems provide for high-speed response, sufficient for operative control of executive mechanisms. A conclusion is drawn that further development of display systems will move towards creation of large colour fields (on reflection base or with multicolour gas-discharge elements)

  10. White constancy method for mobile displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Ji Young; Park, Hyun Hee; Jang, Seul Ki; Lee, Jae Hyang; Kim, Jong Ho; Yi, Ji Young; Lee, Min Woo

    2014-03-01

    In these days, consumer's needs for image quality of mobile devices are increasing as smartphone is widely used. For example, colors may be perceived differently when displayed contents under different illuminants. Displayed white in incandescent lamp is perceived as bluish, while same content in LED light is perceived as yellowish. When changed in perceived white under illuminant environment, image quality would be degraded. Objective of the proposed white constancy method is restricted to maintain consistent output colors regardless of the illuminants utilized. Human visual experiments are performed to analyze viewers'perceptual constancy. Participants are asked to choose the displayed white in a variety of illuminants. Relationship between the illuminants and the selected colors with white are modeled by mapping function based on the results of human visual experiments. White constancy values for image control are determined on the predesigned functions. Experimental results indicate that propsed method yields better image quality by keeping the display white.

  11. Characterizing the reflectivity of handheld display devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peter; Badano, Aldo

    2014-08-01

    With increased use of handheld and tablet display devices for viewing medical images, methods for consistently measuring reflectivity of the devices are needed. In this note, the authors report on the characterization of diffuse reflections for handheld display devices including mobile phones and tablets using methods recommended by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 18 (TG18). The authors modified the diffuse reflectance coefficient measurement method outlined in the TG18 report. The authors measured seven handheld display devices (two phones and five tablets) and three workstation displays. The device was attached to a black panel with Velcro. To study the effect of the back surface on the diffuse reflectance coefficient, the authors created Styrofoam masks with different size square openings and placed it in front of the device. Overall, for each display device, measurements of illuminance and reflected luminance on the display screen were taken. The authors measured with no mask, with masks of varying size, and with display-size masks, and calculated the corresponding diffuse reflectance coefficient. For all handhelds, the diffuse reflectance coefficient measured with no back panel were lower than measurements performed with a mask. The authors found an overall increase in reflectivity as the size of the mask decreases. For workstations displays, diffuse reflectance coefficients were higher when no back panel was used, and higher than with masks. In all cases, as luminance increased, illuminance increased, but not at the same rate. Since the size of handheld displays is smaller than that of workstation devices, the TG18 method suffers from a dependency on illumination condition. The authors show that the diffuse reflection coefficients can vary depending on the nature of the back surface of the illuminating box. The variability in the diffuse coefficient can be as large as 20% depending on the size of the mask. For all measurements

  12. Consumption of strawberries on a daily basis increases the non-urate 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of fasting plasma in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prymont-Przyminska, Anna; Zwolinska, Anna; Sarniak, Agata; Wlodarczyk, Anna; Krol, Maciej; Nowak, Michal; de Graft-Johnson, Jeffrey; Padula, Gianluca; Bialasiewicz, Piotr; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Rutkowski, Krzysztof P.; Nowak, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Strawberries contain anthocyanins and ellagitanins which have antioxidant properties. We determined whether the consumption of strawberries increase the plasma antioxidant activity measured as the ability to decompose 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) in healthy subjects. The study involved 10 volunteers (age 41 ± 6 years, body weight 74.4 ± 12.7 kg) that consumed 500 g of strawberries daily for 9 days and 7 matched controls. Fasting plasma and spot morning urine samples were collected at baseline, during fruit consumption and after a 6 day wash-out period. DPPH decomposition was measured in both deproteinized native plasma specimens and pretreated with uricase (non-urate plasma). Twelve phenolics were determined with HPLC. Strawberries had no effect on the antioxidant activity of native plasma and circulating phenolics. Non-urate plasma DPPH decomposition increased from 5.7 ± 0.6% to 6.6 ± 0.6%, 6.5 ± 1.0% and 6.3 ± 1.4% after 3, 6 and 9 days of supplementation, respectively. The wash-out period reversed this activity back to 5.7 ± 0.8% (p<0.01). Control subjects did not reveal any changes of plasma antioxidant activity. Significant increase in urinary urolithin A and 4-hydroxyhippuric (by 8.7- and 5.9-times after 6 days of supplementation with fruits) was noted. Strawberry consumption can increase the non-urate plasma antioxidant activity which, in turn, may decrease the risk of systemic oxidants overactivity. PMID:25120279

  13. Increased adhesion of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to acrylic adhesive tape for medical use by surface treatment with an atmospheric pressure rotating plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jofre-Reche, José Antonio; Martín-Martínez, José Miguel; Pulpytel, Jérôme; Arefi-Khonsari, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    The surface properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were modified by treatment with an atmospheric pressure rotating plasma jet (APPJ) and the surface modifications were studied to assess its hydrophilicity and adhesion to acrylic adhesive tape intended for medical applications. Furthermore, the extent of hydrophobic recovery under different storage conditions was studied. The surface treatment of PDMS with the APPJ under optimal conditions noticeably increased the oxygen content and most of the surface silicon species were fully oxidized. A brittle silica-like layer on the outermost surface was created showing changes in topography due to the formation of grooves and cracks. A huge improvement in T-peel and the shear adhesive strength of the APPJ-treated PDMS surface/acrylic tape joints was obtained. On the other hand, the hydrophilicity of the PDMS surface increased noticeably after the APPJ treatment, but 24 h after treatment almost 80% hydrophobicity was recovered and the adhesive strength was markedly reduced with time after the APPJ treatment. However, the application of an acrylic adhesive layer on the just-APPJ-treated PDMS surface retained the adhesive strength, limiting the extent of hydrophobic recovery. (paper)

  14. Elevated plasma YKL-40 predicts increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer and decreased survival after any cancer diagnosis in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.S.; Bojesen, S.E.; Mylin, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    ,899 subjects (20 to 95 years) from the Danish general population, the Copenhagen City Heart Study, observed for 11 years for cancer incidence and 14 years for death: 1,432 participants had a first incident cancer, 968 of these died. Hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer events and death after events according...... to plasma YKL-40 in sex and 10 years age percentile categories: 0% to 33%, 34% to 66%, 67% to 90%, 91% to 95%, and 96% to 100%. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of gastrointestinal cancer increased with increasing YKL-40 (trend P ....0 (95% CI, 0.7 to 1.5) for YKL-40 in category 34% to 66%, 1.5 for 67% to 90% (95% CI, 1.0 to 2.3), 2.4 for 91% to 95%, (95% CI, 1.3 to 4.6), and 3.4 for 96% to 100% (95% CI, 1.9 to 6.1) versus YKL-40 category 0% to 33% (P any cancer event and YKL-40 category 91% to 100% had...

  15. Increasing levels of dietary crystalline methionine affect plasma methionine profiles, ammonia excretion, and the expression of genes related to the hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Larsen, Bodil Katrine

    2016-01-01

    Strictly carnivorous fish with high requirements for dietary protein, such as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are interesting models for studying the role of amino acids as key regulators of intermediary metabolism. Methionine is an essential amino acid for rainbow trout, and works as a signa......Strictly carnivorous fish with high requirements for dietary protein, such as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are interesting models for studying the role of amino acids as key regulators of intermediary metabolism. Methionine is an essential amino acid for rainbow trout, and works...... as a signalling factor in different metabolic pathways. The study investigated the effect of increasing dietary methionine intake on the intermediary metabolism in the liver of juvenile rainbow trout. For this purpose, five diets were formulated with increasing methionine levels from 0.60 to 1.29% dry matter....... The diets were fed in excess for six weeks before three sampling campaigns carried out successively to elucidate (i) the hepatic expression of selected genes involved in lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism; (ii) the postprandial ammonia excretion; and (iii) the postprandial plasma methionine...

  16. Increased binding of LDL and VLDL to apo B,E receptors of hepatic plasma membrane of rats treated with Fibernat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Nandini; Devaraj, S Niranjali; Devaraj, H

    2003-10-01

    Fibernat. The results suggest that Fibernat's effect on plasma LDL concentration is also possibly mediated by increased receptor-mediated catabolism of VLDL. Thus, Fibernat therapy is an effective adjunct to diet therapy and might find potential use in the therapy of hyperlipidemic subjects.

  17. Plasma Periostin Levels Are Increased in Chinese Subjects with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes and Are Positively Correlated with Glucose and Lipid Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuanyuan; Qu, Hua; Wang, Hang; Wei, Huili; Wu, Jing; Duan, Yang; Liu, Dan; Deng, Huacong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relations among plasma periostin, glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and inflammation in Chinese patients with obesity (OB), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Plasma periostin levels in the T2DM group were significantly higher than the NGT group (P index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h postchallenge plasma glucose (2 h PG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TNF-α, and IL-6 (P < 0.05 or 0.001) and negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that TG, TNF-α, and HOMA-IR were independent related factors in influencing the levels of plasma periostin (P < 0.001). These results suggested that Chinese patients with obesity and T2DM had significantly higher plasma periostin levels. Plasma periostin levels were strongly associated with plasma TG, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance.

  18. Minimalism context-aware displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yang

    2004-12-01

    Despite the rapid development of cyber technologies, today we still have very limited attention and communication bandwidth to process the increasing information flow. The goal of the study is to develop a context-aware filter to match the information load with particular needs and capacities. The functions include bandwidth-resolution trade-off and user context modeling. From the empirical lab studies, it is found that the resolution of images can be reduced in order of magnitude if the viewer knows that he/she is looking for particular features. The adaptive display queue is optimized with real-time operational conditions and user's inquiry history. Instead of measuring operator's behavior directly, ubiquitous computing models are developed to anticipate user's behavior from the operational environment data. A case study of the video stream monitoring for transit security is discussed in the paper. In addition, the author addresses the future direction of coherent human-machine vision systems.

  19. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  20. A water-soluble extract of chicken reduced plasma triacylglycerols, but showed no anti-atherosclerotic activity in apoE−/− mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Vik

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Chicken protein displayed a slight potential to increase mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and reduce plasma TAG. However, CP did not affect plasma cholesterol levels, inflammation status or atherosclerotic development in apoE−/− mice. Based on these results, dietary intervention with CP does not have sufficient capacity to influence atherosclerotic development in apoE−/− mice.

  1. Modelling and Display of the Ultraviolet Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, J.; Henry, R.; Murthy, J.; Allen, M.; McGlynn, T. A.; Scollick, K.

    1994-12-01

    A computer program is currently under development to model in 3D - one dimension of which is wavelength - all the known and major speculated sources of ultraviolet (900 A - 3100 A ) radiation over the celestial sphere. The software is being written in Fortran 77 and IDL and currently operates under IRIX (the operating system of the Silicon Graphics Iris Machine); all output models are in FITS format. Models along with display software will become available to the astronomical community. The Ultraviolet Sky Model currently includes the Zodiacal Light, Point Sources of Emission, and the Diffuse Galactic Light. The Ultraviolet Sky Model is currently displayed using SkyView: a package under development at NASA/ GSFC, which allows users to retrieve and display publically available all-sky astronomical survey data (covering many wavebands) over the Internet. We present a demonstration of the SkyView display of the Ultraviolet Model. The modelling is a five year development project: the work illustrated here represents product output at the end of year one. Future work includes enhancements to the current models and incorporation of the following models: Galactic Molecular Hydrogen Fluorescence; Galactic Highly Ionized Atomic Line Emission; Integrated Extragalactic Light; and speculated sources in the intergalactic medium such as Ionized Plasma and radiation from Non-Baryonic Particle Decay. We also present a poster which summarizes the components of the Ultraviolet Sky Model and outlines a further package that will be used to display the Ultraviolet Model. This work is supported by United States Air Force Contract F19628-93-K-0004. Dr J. Daniels is supported with a post-doctoral Fellowship from the Leverhulme Foundation, London, United Kingdom. We are also grateful for the encouragement of Dr Stephen Price (Phillips Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, MA)

  2. Display Parameters and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * HUMAN FACTORS * Anthropometry * Sensory * Cognitive * Discussions * THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM - CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS * Cornea * Pupil and Iris * Lens * Vitreous Humor * Retina * RODS - NIGHT VISION * CONES - DAY VISION * RODS AND CONES - TWILIGHT VISION * VISUAL PIGMENTS * MACULA * BLOOD * CHOROID COAT * Visual Signal Processing * Pathways to the Brain * Spatial Vision * Temporal Vision * Colour Vision * Colour Blindness * DICHROMATISM * Protanopia * Deuteranopia * Tritanopia * ANOMALOUS TRICHROMATISM * Protanomaly * Deuteranomaly * Tritanomaly * CONE MONOCHROMATISM * ROD MONOCHROMATISM * Using Colour Effectively * COLOUR MIXTURES AND THE CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * Colour Matching Functions and Chromaticity Co-ordinates * CIE 1931 Colour Space * CIE PRIMARIES * CIE COLOUR MATCHING FUNCTIONS AND CHROMATICITY CO-ORDINATES * METHODS FOR DETERMINING TRISTIMULUS VALUES AND COLOUR CO-ORDINATES * Spectral Power Distribution Method * Filter Method * CIE 1931 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * ADDITIVE COLOUR MIXTURE * CIE 1976 Chromaticity Diagram * CIE Uniform Colour Spaces and Colour Difference Formulae * CIELUV OR L*u*v* * CIELAB OR L*a*b* * CIE COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE * Colour Temperature and CIE Standard Illuminants and source * RADIOMETRIC AND PHOTOMETRIC QUANTITIES * Photopic (Vλ and Scotopic (Vλ') Luminous Efficiency Function * Photometric and Radiometric Flux * Luminous and Radiant Intensities * Incidence: Illuminance and Irradiance * Exitance or Emittance (M) * Luminance and Radiance * ERGONOMIC REQUIREMENTS OF DISPLAYS * ELECTRO-OPTICAL PARAMETERS AND REQUIREMENTS * Contrast and Contrast Ratio * Luminance and Brightness * Colour Contrast and Chromaticity * Glare * Other Aspects of Legibility * SHAPE AND SIZE OF CHARACTERS * DEFECTS AND BLEMISHES * FLICKER AND DISTORTION * ANGLE OF VIEW * Switching Speed * Threshold and Threshold Characteristic * Measurement Techniques For Electro-optical Parameters * RADIOMETRIC

  3. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and aerobic exercise training (AET) increased plasma BDNF and ameliorated depressive symptoms in patients suffering from major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Iraj; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Bajoghli, Hafez; Gerber, Markus; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-05-01

    To treat patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD), research has focused on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and aerobic exercise training (AET). Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to be key in MDD. The aims of the present study were therefore two-fold, to investigate in a three-arm interventional study the differential effects of ECT, ECT plus AET, and AET alone in patients suffering from TR-MDD on 1. depressive symptoms and 2. plasma BDNF (pBDNF). 60 patients with MDD (mean age: 31 years; 31.6% female patients) were randomly assigned either to the ECT, ECT + AET, or AET condition. The AET condition consisted of treadmill exercise for 45 min, three times a week. Both depression severity and pBDNF levels were assessed at baseline and 4 weeks later. All patients were further treated with an SSRI standard medication. pBDNF levels increased over time in all three study conditions, though, highest increase was observed in the ECT + EAT condition, and lowest increase was observed in the AET condition. Depressive symptoms decreased in all three conditions over time, though, strongest decrease was observed in the ECT + AET condition. The combination of ECT + AET led to significantly greater remission rates than in either the ECT or AET alone conditions. BDNF levels were not associated with symptoms of depression. The pattern of results suggests that ECT, AET and particularly their combination are promising directions for the treatment of patients suffering from MDD, and that it remains unclear to what extent pBDNF is key and a reliable biomarker for MDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ocular Tolerance of Contemporary Electronic Display Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew J; Yang, Paul; Khaderi, Khizer R; Moshfeghi, Andrew A

    2018-05-01

    Electronic displays have become an integral part of life in the developed world since the revolution of mobile computing a decade ago. With the release of multiple consumer-grade virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) products in the past 2 years utilizing head-mounted displays (HMDs), as well as the development of low-cost, smartphone-based HMDs, the ability to intimately interact with electronic screens is greater than ever. VR/AR HMDs also place the display at much closer ocular proximity than traditional electronic devices while also isolating the user from the ambient environment to create a "closed" system between the user's eyes and the display. Whether the increased interaction with these devices places the user's retina at higher risk of damage is currently unclear. Herein, the authors review the discovery of photochemical damage of the retina from visible light as well as summarize relevant clinical and preclinical data regarding the influence of modern display devices on retinal health. Multiple preclinical studies have been performed with modern light-emitting diode technology demonstrating damage to the retina at modest exposure levels, particularly from blue-light wavelengths. Unfortunately, high-quality in-human studies are lacking, and the small clinical investigations performed to date have failed to keep pace with the rapid evolutions in display technology. Clinical investigations assessing the effect of HMDs on human retinal function are also yet to be performed. From the available data, modern consumer electronic displays do not appear to pose any acute risk to vision with average use; however, future studies with well-defined clinical outcomes and illuminance metrics are needed to better understand the long-term risks of cumulative exposure to electronic displays in general and with "closed" VR/AR HMDs in particular. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018;49:346-354.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  6. Increased fibulin-1 plasma levels in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients: possible contribution to the link between PCOS and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, E; Tropea, A; Russo, G; Notaristefano, G; Messana, C; Alesiani, O; Fabozzi, S M; Lanzone, A; Apa, R

    2018-04-21

    To investigate a possible relation between fibulin-1 plasma levels and PCOS. ELISA quantitative determination of human fibulin-1. 50 women with PCOS and 40 control patients who attended the Unit of Human Reproductive Pathophysiology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, were enrolled. Ultrasonographic pelvic examinations, hormonal profile assays, oral tolerance test OGTT, lipid profile and ELISA quantitative determination of human fibulin-1 were performed. Fibulin-1 levels were found to be statistically significantly higher in PCOS patients than in matched control women. No statistically significant positive correlation was found between fibulin-1 and AUCi, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, LDL, AMH, androstenedione and FAI, whereas a statistically significant positive correlation was found between fibulin-1 and 17OHP (p = 0.016) in the PCOS group. However, multivariable linear regression analysis showed that 17 OH P did not independently predict fibulin-1 levels (p = 0.089). Our data could contribute to explain the hypothesized increased cardiovascular risk and vascular damage in patients with PCOS. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in cardiometabolic disorders associated with PCOS is mandatory to identify new therapeutic strategies to eventually prevent the progression of cardiovascular diseases in these patients.

  7. Increased Transfusion of Fresh Frozen Plasma is Associated with Mortality or Worse Functional Outcomes After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Min; Li, Rui; Zhao, Xiao-Chun; Zhang, Qian; Luo, Xing-Liao

    2017-08-01

    The fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion threshold and timing for traumatic brain injury (TBI)-associated coagulopathy are controversial. Thus, a multicenter retrospective study was conducted to determine whether or not FFP transfusion is associated with poor outcomes after severe TBI. Data from decompressive craniotomy after blunt force trauma that took place between December 2013 and June 2016 were collected in a multicenter chart. The primary outcomes were mortality and survival, as well as worse outcomes (defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale [GOS] score ≤3) and better outcomes (GOS score ≥4). Secondary outcomes included 90-day survival rates in all patients with or without FFP transfusion, as well as length of hospital stay in patients with a better prognosis (GOS score ≥4). Univariate analysis, bivariate logistic regression, Spearman rank correlation, and Kaplan-Meier analysis were performed to account for the association between perioperative FFP transfusion and different outcomes. Bivariate logistic analysis showed that mortality and worse outcomes were correlated with FFP transfusion and Glasgow Coma Scale score (P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis suggested that mortality was statistically higher in the FFP transfusion groups compared with the no FFP transfusion groups, regardless of the severity of TBI (P < 0.05). The overall complications, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and pneumonia rate were significantly higher for patients receiving FFP transfusion (P < 0.05). Increased perioperative FFP infusion was independently associated with mortality or worse outcomes across a spectrum of surgical risk profiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Residual viraemia in HIV-1-infected patients with plasma viral load increased blood levels of soluble immune activation markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S R; Katzenstein, T L; Pedersen, B K

    2008-01-01

    Despite undetectable viral load in conventional assays, probably all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected patients have residual viraemia (RV) detectable by ultra-sensitive assays. To study this issue, this study investigated virologic and immunologic consequences of RV in highly active......-count, CD4+HLA-DR+, CD8+HLA-DR+CD38+, CD4+CD45RA-CD45RO+, CD8+CD45RA-CD45RO+, CD4+CD45RA+CD62L+, CD8+CD45RA+CD62L+ T cells, IgG or IgM. In conclusion, RV was associated with increased blood levels of soluble immune activation markers in HAART-treated HIV-1-infected patients. The finding that RV...... antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated HIV-1-infected patients with plasma HIV-1 RNA or=1 episode with TMA-RV whereas 9 patients had undetectable TMA-RV throughout the study-period. Time-points with TMA-RV and PCR-RV were associated with higher circulating sTNFrII (+0.234 ng/ml, P = 0.030) and beta(2...

  9. Large-screen display industry: market and technology trends for direct view and projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Joseph A.; Mentley, David E.

    1996-03-01

    Large screen information displays are defined as dynamic electronic displays that can be viewed by more than one person and are at least 2-feet wide. These large area displays for public viewing provide convenience, entertainment, security, and efficiency to the viewers. There are numerous uses for large screen information displays including those in advertising, transportation, traffic control, conference room presentations, computer aided design, banking, and military command/control. A noticeable characteristic of the large screen display market is the interchangeability of display types. For any given application, the user can usually choose from at least three alternative technologies, and sometimes from many more. Some display types have features that make them suitable for specific applications due to temperature, brightness, power consumption, or other such characteristic. The overall worldwide unit consumption of large screen information displays of all types and for all applications (excluding consumer TV) will increase from 401,109 units in 1995 to 655,797 units in 2002. On a unit consumption basis, applications in business and education represent the largest share of unit consumption over this time period; in 1995, this application represented 69.7% of the total. The market (value of shipments) will grow from DOL3.1 billion in 1995 to DOL3.9 billion in 2002. The market will be dominated by front LCD projectors and LCD overhead projector plates.

  10. Flat panel planar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1994-11-01

    A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic Display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic class sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  11. Coronary Artery-Bypass-Graft Surgery Increases the Plasma Concentration of Exosomes Carrying a Cargo of Cardiac MicroRNAs: An Example of Exosome Trafficking Out of the Human Heart with Potential for Cardiac Biomarker Discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Emanueli

    Full Text Available Exosome nanoparticles carry a composite cargo, including microRNAs (miRs. Cultured cardiovascular cells release miR-containing exosomes. The exosomal trafficking of miRNAs from the heart is largely unexplored. Working on clinical samples from coronary-artery by-pass graft (CABG surgery, we investigated if: 1 exosomes containing cardiac miRs and hence putatively released by cardiac cells increase in the circulation after surgery; 2 circulating exosomes and exosomal cardiac miRs correlate with cardiac troponin (cTn, the current "gold standard" surrogate biomarker of myocardial damage.The concentration of exosome-sized nanoparticles was determined in serial plasma samples. Cardiac-expressed (miR-1, miR-24, miR-133a/b, miR-208a/b, miR-210, non-cardiovascular (miR-122 and quality control miRs were measured in whole plasma and in plasma exosomes. Linear regression analyses were employed to establish the extent to which the circulating individual miRs, exosomes and exosomal cardiac miR correlated with cTn-I. Cardiac-expressed miRs and the nanoparticle number increased in the plasma on completion of surgery for up to 48 hours. The exosomal concentration of cardiac miRs also increased after CABG. Cardiac miRs in the whole plasma did not correlate significantly with cTn-I. By contrast cTn-I was positively correlated with the plasma exosome level and the exosomal cardiac miRs.The plasma concentrations of exosomes and their cargo of cardiac miRs increased in patients undergoing CABG and were positively correlated with hs-cTnI. These data provide evidence that CABG induces the trafficking of exosomes from the heart to the peripheral circulation. Future studies are necessary to investigate the potential of circulating exosomes as clinical biomarkers in cardiac patients.

  12. Introduction to plasma dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A I

    2013-01-01

    As the twenty-first century progresses, plasma technology will play an increasing role in our lives, providing new sources of energy, ion-plasma processing of materials, wave electromagnetic radiation sources, space plasma thrusters, and more. Studies of the plasma state of matter not only accelerate technological developments but also improve the understanding of natural phenomena. Beginning with an introduction to the characteristics and types of plasmas, Introduction to Plasma Dynamics covers the basic models of classical diffuse plasmas used to describe such phenomena as linear and shock w

  13. Oscillatory processes in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallin, E.

    1980-01-01

    The oscillatory process play an important part in plasma evolution, In hot plasma in particular, the interactions between the oscillation modes are preponderant in relation to the binary collisions between particles. The nonlineary interactions between collective plasma oscillations can generate, in this case, a non-balanced steady state of plasma (steady turbulence). The paper elucidates some aspects of the oscillatory phenomena which contribute to the plasma state evolution, especially of hot plasma. A major part of the paper is devoted to the study of parametric instabilities in plasma and their role in increasing the temperature of plasma components (electrons, ions). Both parametric instabilities in plasma in the vicinity of thermodynamic balance and parametric processes is steady turbulent plasma are analysed - in relation to additional heating of hot plasma. An important result of the thesis refers to the drowing-up of a non-lineary interaction model between the oscillation modes in turbulent plasma, being responsible for the electromagnetic radiation in hot plasma. On the basis of the model suggested in the paper the existence of a low frequency radiative mode in hot plasma in a turbulent state, can be demonstrated. Its frequency could be even lower than plasma frequency in the field of long waves be even lower than plasma frequency in the field of long waves. Such a radiative mode was detected experimentally in focussed plasma installations. (author)

  14. Display technologies for augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungho; Lee, Seungjae; Jang, Changwon; Hong, Jong-Young; Li, Gang

    2018-02-01

    With the virtue of rapid progress in optics, sensors, and computer science, we are witnessing that commercial products or prototypes for augmented reality (AR) are penetrating into the consumer markets. AR is spotlighted as expected to provide much more immersive and realistic experience than ordinary displays. However, there are several barriers to be overcome for successful commercialization of AR. Here, we explore challenging and important topics for AR such as image combiners, enhancement of display performance, and focus cue reproduction. Image combiners are essential to integrate virtual images with real-world. Display performance (e.g. field of view and resolution) is important for more immersive experience and focus cue reproduction may mitigate visual fatigue caused by vergence-accommodation conflict. We also demonstrate emerging technologies to overcome these issues: index-matched anisotropic crystal lens (IMACL), retinal projection displays, and 3D display with focus cues. For image combiners, a novel optical element called IMACL provides relatively wide field of view. Retinal projection displays may enhance field of view and resolution of AR displays. Focus cues could be reconstructed via multi-layer displays and holographic displays. Experimental results of our prototypes are explained.

  15. Protected electrodes for plasma panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    A metal oxide coating is applied between the conductive base and the magnesium oxide dielectric of the input and/or erase electrode(s) in a plasma display device to prevent break-down of the dielectric

  16. Plasma particle sources due to interactions with neutrals in a turbulent scrape-off layer of a toroidally confined plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrysøe, Alexander Simon; Løiten, M.; Madsen, J.

    2018-01-01

    The conditions in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) of magnetically confined plasmas determine the overall performance of the device, and it is of great importance to study and understand the mechanics that drive transport in those regions. If a significant amount of neutral molecules and atoms...... is present in the edge and SOL regions, those will influence the plasma parameters and thus the plasma confinement. In this paper, it is displayed how neutrals, described by a fluid model, introduce source terms in a plasma drift-fluid model due to inelastic collisions. The resulting source terms...... are included in a four-field drift fluid model, and it is shown how an increasing neutral particle density in the edge and SOL regions influences the plasma particle transport across the lastclosed-flux-surface. It is found that an appropriate gas puffing rate allows for the edge density in the simulation...

  17. Oxygen/glucose deprivation increases the integration of recombinant P2X7 receptors into the plasma membrane of HEK293 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milius, Doreen; Groeger-Arndt, Helke; Stanchev, Doychin; Lange-Dohna, Christine; Rossner, Steffen; Sperlagh, Beata; Wirkner, Kerstin; Illes, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant human P2X 7 receptors, C-terminally labelled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (P2X 7 -EGFP), were transiently expressed in HEK293 cells. Activation of these receptors by their preferential agonist 2',3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) induced inward currents and propidium ion uptake indicating the opening of cationic channels and of large pores permeable for dye molecules, respectively. Two mutants of P2X 7 receptors (P2X 7 -EGFP-I568N, -E496A) representing polymorphisms in the P2X 7 gene known to interfere with normal receptor-trafficking and with optimal assembly of its subunits, responded with much lower current amplitudes to BzATP than their wild-type counterpart. Similarly, the normal propidium ion uptake induced by BzATP at the wild-type P2X 7 receptor was abolished by the two mutants. Confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that in vitro ischemia of 12 h duration increased the integration of P2X 7 -EGFP, but not of its two mutants, into the plasma membrane of HEK293 cells. Further, this ischemic stimulus facilitated the current response to BzATP in HEK293 cells permanently transfected with P2X 7 receptors. Finally, the fluorescence intensity per cell measured by flow cytometry and P2X 7 antibodies directed against an extracellular, but not an intracellular epitope of the receptor, were also increased. In conclusion, P2X 7 receptors may alter their trafficking properties during ischemia and thereby contribute to the ATP-induced damage of various cell-types including neurons

  18. Plasma Concentration of Biomarkers Reflecting Endothelial Cell- and Glycocalyx Damage are Increased in Patients with Suspected St-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydland, Martin; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Møller, Jacob Eifer

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mortality in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)-patients developing cardiogenic shock (CS) during hospitalization is high. Catecholamines, ischemia, and inflammation (parameters present in CS) affect the endothelium. We hypothesized that plasma level of biomarkers reflecting e...

  19. JTT-130, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP inhibitor lowers plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol concentrations without increasing hepatic triglycerides in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Sudeep

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsomal transfer protein inhibitors (MTPi have the potential to be used as a drug to lower plasma lipids, mainly plasma triglycerides (TG. However, studies with animal models have indicated that MTPi treatment results in the accumulation of hepatic TG. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether JTT-130, a unique MTPi, targeted to the intestine, would effectively reduce plasma lipids without inducing a fatty liver. Methods Male guinea pigs (n = 10 per group were used for this experiment. Initially all guinea pigs were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet containing 0.08 g/100 g dietary cholesterol for 3 wk. After this period, animals were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control, 0.0005 or 0.0015 g/100 g of MTPi for 4 wk. A diet containing 0.05 g/100 g of atorvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor was used as the positive control. At the end of the 7th week, guinea pigs were sacrificed to assess drug effects on plasma and hepatic lipids, composition of LDL and VLDL, hepatic cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism. Results Plasma LDL cholesterol and TG were 25 and 30% lower in guinea pigs treated with MTPi compared to controls (P Conclusion These results suggest that JTT-130 could have potential clinical applications due to its plasma lipid lowering effects with no alterations in hepatic lipid concentrations.