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Sample records for dispersao termica provenientes

  1. convencional proveniente de ferrita cúprica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÉSTOR R. ROJAS R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de la cianuración, de un residuo proveniente de una lixiviación de una calcina oxidada de metal blanco con alto contenido de cobre (10,6 % en la forma de ferrita cúprica, con tenores de oro y plata de 38,5 y 1085 g/Ton, respectivamente. Las extracciones de cobre en la cianuraciones son siempre más bajas que las reportadas en la literatura, pues bajo condiciones de extracción completa de oro, el cobre se disuelve tan sólo un 0,36 %, mientras que en las condiciones requeridas para una extracción del 60 % de la plata, se obtuvo una disolución cercana al 5 % de cobre. Es posible que la alta refractariedad del cobre en forma de ferrita cúprica sea la causa de la baja disolución de este metal en cianuro.

  2. Techniques of thermal energy conservation; Tecnicas de conservacion de la energia termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caltenco Estevez, Juan Luis; Roblez Lopez, Francisco; Ceballos Serna, Andres Alberto [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    In modern industry the thermal energy is the energy more intensely used, which implies that in the processes and equipment that operate based on it, rely the greatest opportunities for saving . In this paper some saving and conservation techniques of thermal energy, which nowadays have been developed, are presented, whose application has helped to the successful attainment of the objectives of increased productivity of industrial plants, with the additional benefit of reducing the environmental impact of the production activities. [Spanish] En la industria moderna la energia termica es la forma de energia mas intensamente utilizada, lo cual implica que en los procesos y equipos que operan basandose en esta, residan las mayores oportunidades de ahorro. En este trabajo se presentan algunas de las tecnicas de ahorro y conservacion de energia termica, que hoy en dia se han desarrollado, cuya aplicacion ha coadyuvado a la consecucion exitosa de los objetivos de incremento de la productividad de plantas industriales, con el beneficio adicional de reducir el impacto ambiental de las actividades productivas.

  3. Application techniques of coatings by thermal projection; Tecnicas de aplicacion de recubrimientos por proyeccion termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcayo Calderon, Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The coatings applied by thermal projection have an important number of applications in different industries (chemical, oil, electric, nuclear, etc.). The main purpose of the protection by means of coatings is to alter the surface characteristics of a component so as to resist corrosive environments, abrasion and erosion, among others. The coatings can be applied by different methods, but due to the fact that its characteristics appreciably differ from the base metal, it is important the knowledge of its properties when a coating is selected for a specific use. In this article the characteristics of the applied coatings by thermal projection, the factors that affect its performance and the principal application techniques, are described. [Espanol] Los recubrimientos aplicados por proyeccion termica tienen un numero importante de aplicaciones en diferentes industrias (quimica, petrolera, electrica, nuclear, etc.). El proposito principal de la proteccion por medio de recubrimientos es alterar las caracteristicas de la superficie de un componente de manera que resista ambientes corrosivos, abrasion y erosion, entre otros. Los recubrimientos pueden aplicarse por diferentes metodos, pero debido a que sus propiedades difieren apreciablemente de las del metal base, es importante el conocimiento de sus propiedades cuando se selecciona un recubrimiento para un uso especifico. En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas de los recubrimientos aplicados por proyeccion termica, los factores que afectan su desempeno y las principales tecnicas de aplicacion.

  4. Application techniques of coatings by thermal projection; Tecnicas de aplicacion de recubrimientos por proyeccion termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcayo Calderon, Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The coatings applied by thermal projection have an important number of applications in different industries (chemical, oil, electric, nuclear, etc.). The main purpose of the protection by means of coatings is to alter the surface characteristics of a component so as to resist corrosive environments, abrasion and erosion, among others. The coatings can be applied by different methods, but due to the fact that its characteristics appreciably differ from the base metal, it is important the knowledge of its properties when a coating is selected for a specific use. In this article the characteristics of the applied coatings by thermal projection, the factors that affect its performance and the principal application techniques, are described. [Espanol] Los recubrimientos aplicados por proyeccion termica tienen un numero importante de aplicaciones en diferentes industrias (quimica, petrolera, electrica, nuclear, etc.). El proposito principal de la proteccion por medio de recubrimientos es alterar las caracteristicas de la superficie de un componente de manera que resista ambientes corrosivos, abrasion y erosion, entre otros. Los recubrimientos pueden aplicarse por diferentes metodos, pero debido a que sus propiedades difieren apreciablemente de las del metal base, es importante el conocimiento de sus propiedades cuando se selecciona un recubrimiento para un uso especifico. En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas de los recubrimientos aplicados por proyeccion termica, los factores que afectan su desempeno y las principales tecnicas de aplicacion.

  5. Measurement of the thermal conductivity from construction materials; Medicion de conductividad termica de materiales de construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lira Cortes, Leonel; Xaman Villasenor, Jesus P; Chavez Chena, Yvonne [CENIDET: Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In order to improve the calculation of thermal loads that allows to model the thermal behavior of constructions with aims of energy saving, it is necessary to count on the thermophysical properties of the materials used in the construction industry. Nevertheless at present in Mexico do not exist reported data of the materials that are made and used in our country, reason why it is chosen to take the results reported in the literature, whose values in their majority do not correspond to Mexican materials. In order to cover this necessity, at the CENIDET an instrument was developed to determine the thermal conductivity of insulating and construction materials. To date they have come with studies of different materials, which are provided by the manufacturers, with the intention of obtaining real data of thermal conductivity and to apply them with whole confidence in simulations of calculations of thermal loads. In this paper the results of measurement of the apparent thermal conductivity of two different materials from construction are presented, pumice stone block and block of tezontle (a porous volcanic rock).The measurement was made with an absolute and primary instrument according to norm ANSI/ASTM C-177-97. The operation principle of the apparatus is based on the technique of heat transference by conduction in permanent state between two plates, the experiment is carried out using an apparatus of hot plate with guard (APCG). Given the geographic zone where the studied materials are to be used, it is concluded that the obtained results show better properties for both with respect to reported values of similar materials, by virtue that these materials are intended to be applied in a humid climate as it is in the state of Puebla, Mexico. [Spanish] Para mejorar el calculo de cargas termicas que permita modelar el comportamiento termico de edificaciones con fines de ahorro de energia, es necesario contar con las propiedades termofisicas de los materiales utilizados

  6. CONSUMO ENERGÉTICO PROVENIENTE DE ALIMENTOS ULTRAPROCESSADOS POR ADOLESCENTES

    OpenAIRE

    D’Avila, Helen Freitas; Kirsten, Vanessa Ramos

    2017-01-01

    RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o consumo proveniente dos alimentos ultraprocessados e fatores relacionados em adolescentes. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 784 adolescentes (de ambos os sexos e entre 12 a 19 anos) de escolas públicas e privadas do município de Palmeira das Missões, Brasil. O consumo alimentar foi registrado pelo questionário semiquantitativo de frequência de consumo de alimentos e convertido em energia (Kcal/dia). Os alimentos foram classificados em: minimamente processados, gr...

  7. Thermal efficiency of Duovent array glassing; Eficiencia termica de arreglos de vidrios Duovent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Garcia G; Cortina Leyva, C; Flores Prieto, Jose J [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Tecnologico, DGIT SEP, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the thermal performance of duovent glazing with different solar control coatings. The thermal efficiency, {eta}, was determined. The duovent array consists of 6 mm glass+solar coating+air layer+6 mm glass. The width of the air layer between the two glasses is 12 mm. The experimental work was carried out using a calorimeter setup calling DEMETEV. The DEMETEV was specially designed to measure the heat gains through sample glassings. The heat flux, the shading coefficients and the thermal efficiency curve as a function of the temperature difference and incident radiative flux are presented. Comparing the results for duovent with clear glasses with the ones reported by Dubrous show a difference of 2.2%. Also this study verifies the theoretical model reported. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un estudio experimental del comportamiento termico de vidrios Duovent con diferentes filtros solares mediante el calculo de la eficiencia termica, {eta}. El arreglo lo comprende vidrio+filtro+aire+vidrio de 6 mm de espesor con un espacio con aire entre vidrios de 12 mm. El trabajo experimental se llevo a cabo haciendo uso del dispositivo calorimetrico experimental, denominado DEMETEV, que fue disenado especialmente para medir las ganancias de calor a traves de vidrios. Se presentan los flujos de calor, los coeficientes de sombreado y la curva de eficiencia termica como funcion de la diferencia de temperaturas y del flujo radioactivo incidente. Los resultados obtenidos para vidrios claros fueron comparados con los que se obtuvieron en el trabajo reportado por Dubrous obteniendo una diferencia del 2.2%. Tambien se presenta la validacion de los datos experimentales con un modelo teorico reportado.

  8. Thermal responses and its relation with the building outdoor conditions; Respuestas termicas y su relacion con la envolvente del edificio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marincic, Irene [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Isalgue, Antoni [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    entran y salen de los mismos, identificando tanto los fenomenos termicos mas relevantes que intervienen, como los factores geometricos y propiedades fisicas que influyen modificando el balance termico de cada sistema. En el presente trabajo se analiza el comportamiento termico experimental en edificios, en relacion con el ambiente exterior. Mas especificamente, la respuesta termica en el interior del edificio a diferentes distancias de la envolvente del mismo, teniendo en cuenta las distintas situaciones de aislamiento termico. Basandonos en datos medidos de temperatura en viviendas de construccion urbana tradicional, se analizan los efectos sobre la respuesta termica dependiendo de la distancia del punto considerado a la envolvente, considerando el grado de aislamiento termico que los separa. Mediante el uso de una metodologia basada en la funcion de transferencia experimental del edificio, se evalua el comportamiento termico tanto en el espacio temporal como en el frecuencial. Con esta metodologia, es posible evidenciar fenomenos y obtener parametros termicos que caracterizan a los aspectos dinamicos de la respuesta termica. El objetivo principal es extraer informacion del analisis de edificios, con el fin de extrapolar las conclusiones del comportamiento para el diseno termico apropiado de otras construcciones similares. Del analisis de respuestas termicas en diferentes localizaciones espaciales, se concluye que la distancia desde el envolvente (asi como las propiedades de la misma) tiene gran influencia sobre los efectos de inercia termica, que modifican en forma importante la respuesta, con cierto paralelismo con el efecto piel en la penetracion de campos electromagneticos en conductores. La localizacion espacial implica una cierta masa termica involucrada en cada caso, y esta a su vez, controla la penetracion de la oscilacion termica exterior.

  9. CONSUMO ENERGÉTICO PROVENIENTE DE ALIMENTOS ULTRAPROCESSADOS POR ADOLESCENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Freitas D’Avila

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o consumo proveniente dos alimentos ultraprocessados e fatores relacionados em adolescentes. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 784 adolescentes (de ambos os sexos e entre 12 a 19 anos de escolas públicas e privadas do município de Palmeira das Missões, Brasil. O consumo alimentar foi registrado pelo questionário semiquantitativo de frequência de consumo de alimentos e convertido em energia (Kcal/dia. Os alimentos foram classificados em: minimamente processados, grupo 1 (G1; alimentos processados, grupo 2 (G2; e alimentos ultraprocessados, grupo 3 (G3. As variáveis avaliadas foram: sexo, classe socioeconômica, cor, atividade física, índice de massa corpórea (IMC e níveis pressóricos. Na comparação de variáveis quantitativas foi usado o teste de Mann-Whitney e o teste H de Kruskal-Wallis. Para ajustar as diferenças entre os grupos, considerando os efeitos de calorias totais, foi aplicado o teste de análise de covariância (ANCOVA. Resultados: A mediana do consumo energético total foi de 3.039,8 Kcal e a de ultraprocessados foi de 1.496,5 Kcal/dia (49,23%. O consumo calórico proveniente dos alimentos do G1, do G2 e do G3 não diferiu de acordo com a cor da pele dos adolescentes. Os adolescentes pertencentes às classes C e D são os maiores consumidores de calorias do G2 e do G3 (p<0,001. Os adolescentes insuficientemente ativos consomem menos calorias de alimentos minimamente processados. Os adolescentes eutróficos apresentam maior consumo do G3 (p<0,001, quando comparados aos que possuem excesso de peso. Conclusões: O consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados associou-se ao nível social, ao nível de atividade física e ao estado nutricional.

  10. Determination of the thermal conductivity of metallic coatings; Determinacion de la conductividad termica de recubrimientos metalicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uc Way, Manuel Eugenio

    1998-02-01

    obtained. This value is small when it is compared with the effect that introduces the deposition of slag in these banks of tubes, that is in the order of 50 to 250 Celsuis degrees approximately, for this interval of thermal flows. [Espanol] Debido a la corrosion por alta temperatura se tiene un serio problema por indisponibilidad y eficiencia de los generadores de vapor en las centrales termoelectricas. Una de las partes mas afectadas por este fenomeno son los bancos de tubos de los sobrecalentadores. Con el objeto de disminuir dicho problema se pretende aplicar a los tubos antes mencionados un recubrimiento metalico a base de niquel y cromo (80Ni20Cr), la deposicion del recubrimiento se hace por el metodo de termorrociado de polvos por flama. El espesor del recubrimiento una vez que ha sido depositado es del orden de 500mm, es indudable que el flujo termico entre los gases de combustion y el fluido conducido en los tubos se ve afectado. Por esto es importante conocer la conductividad termica del recubrimiento a fin de evaluar el impacto que se tiene en el funcionamiento del generador de vapor. Esta necesidad es la que da lugar al presente proyecto de tesis, en el cual se disena una tecnica que permite medir la conductividad termica del recubrimiento. La experimentacion se lleva a cabo tomando como punto de partida la norma E1225-87 de la ASTM y se adecua a las caracteristicas del material a probar. Se diseno una probeta de acero inoxidable 316 para medir el flujo termico que atraviesa el recubrimiento. Primero se caracterizo la instalacion experimental a fin de determinar su confiabilidad. Posteriormente se realizo la experimentacion encontrandose una conductividad termica promedio de 12.09{+-}0.72 W/m K en el intervalo de temperatura de 110-180 grados Celsius. Este valor es 12.3% inferior al correspondiente a un metal solido de la misma composicion. Si consideramos que en los bancos de alta temperatura de los generadores de vapor el flujo termico se encuentra en el

  11. Thermal analysis of the integration of an ammonia plant; Analisis de la integracion termica de una planta de amoniaco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriola Medellin, Alejandro M.; Huante Perez, Liborio; Rodriguez Martinez, J. Hugo; Alcaraz Calderon, A. Moises [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: aarriola@iie.org.mx; lhp@iie.org.mx; jhrm@iie.org.mx; malcaraz@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    In this paper the thermal integration of an existing ammonia plant is evaluated using the Pinch Analysis tools. It is shown the design criteria that would have to fulfill the heat recovery network to take advantage of process streams thermal potentials. It was identified the heat recovery equipment that induces energy losses by incorrect streams selection, and the economic implications. [Spanish] En este trabajo se evalua la integracion termica de una planta existente de amoniaco usando las herramientas del analisis Pinch. Se muestran los criterios de diseno que deberian de cumplir las redes de recuperacion de calor, para aprovechar al maximo el potencial termico de las corrientes del proceso. Tomando como base dichos criterios se analizo el diseno la red de recuperacion de calor de la planta existente, identificando los equipos de recuperacion de calor que generan perdidas de calor por la seleccion incorrecta de las corrientes. Se estiman las perdidas economicas derivadas del diseno ineficiente de la red.

  12. QUALIDADE E PERFIL SENSORIAL DESCRITIVO DA CARNE MATURADA PROVENIENTE DE ANIMAIS CRUZADOS

    OpenAIRE

    Nassu, Renata Tieko; Verruma-Bernardi, Marta Regina; Tullio, Rymer Ramiz; Cruz, Geraldo Maria da; Alencar, Maurício Mello de

    2014-01-01

    A maturação é uma alternativa para obtenção de carne de melhor qualidade, além de diminuir a variabilidade da maciez da carne proveniente de animais do mesmo grupo genético. Neste estudo, carnes provenientes de animais cruzados ½ Angus + ½ Nelore (AN) e ½ Senepol + ½ Nelore (SN) foram maturadas até 28 dias e analisadas em relação a parâmetros físico-químicos e sensoriais. Para todos os parâmetros a interação tempo de maturação x grupo genético não foi significativa, com exceção do atributo te...

  13. The technical-economic potential of thermal energy saving in hospitals; El potencial tecnico-economico de ahorro de energia termica en hospitales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, A. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Islas, J [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Arriola, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The hospitals are important consumers of energy. At the General Hospital of Zone (HGZ) N of the IMSS in Aguscalientes (HGZ N . IMSS Ags.), the diesel oil is the main fuel that is used to satisfy the requirements of thermal energy of the hospital. According to the data collected by this author, this fuel represented in 2001, 75% of its total energy consumption and the 67.9% of its total costs in energy that ascended to $396.131 (December 2001 Dollars) Since this last amount represents an important percentage of the total expenses of the hospital (29.367 million dollars) it is important to determine the technical-economic possibilities of thermal energy saving of the hospital. The HGZ N 1 IMSS Ags. is located in a ampler conglomerate where the IMSS units are located, such as, the regional laundry, the sport unit, the center of social security, the familiar medicine unit N 1 and the hospital. Nevertheless departing from the installation of the electrical systems and the provision of steam and hot water to the hospital, the electrical and thermal fluids of all this facilities are distributed. Due to this situation, in this work we will refer to the global consumption of the IMSS of Aguascalientes development where the hospital is the main consumer of thermal energy. In the present work we will calculate the technical-economic potential of thermal energy saving in the development of the IMSS through the thermodynamic technique of folding point or pinch technique. [Spanish] Los hospitales son importantes consumidores de energia. En el Hospital General de Zona N del IMSS en Aguscalientes (HGZ N - IMSS Ags.), el diesel es el principal combustible que se usa para satisfacer los requerimientos de energia termica del hospital. Segun los datos obtenidos por el autor anterior, este combustible represento en 2001 el 75% de su consumo total energetico y el 67.9% de sus costos totales en energeticos que ascendieron a $396,131 (dolares de diciembre de 2001). Dado que esta ultima

  14. Representaciones culturales del proceso enfermedad en pacientes provenientes del area rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noris Madariaga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es conocer las representaciones culturales frente al proceso de enfermedad en los pacientes provenientes del área rural de Norte de Santander, que egresaron del servicio de Urgencias del Hospital Universitario Erasmo Meoz (ESE HUEM. EL estudio es de enfoque cualitativo de abordaje etnográfico. Se definió la muestra de tres informantes, de modo intencional. El método para la recolección de la información que se utilizó en esta investigación fue la observación, las notas de campo y la entrevista a profundidad, que permitió aprender y conocer más a fondo como los pacientes del área rural conceptualizan la experiencia de estar enfermos y cuáles son los cuidados culturales que aplican durante este proceso. Los resultados de esta investigación permitieron observar que la enfermedad es un enemigo común para las personas del área rural y para mantener el equilibrio de la persona con el entorno natural estos pueden a travesar cuatro fases: fase tomásica, fase de rituales culturales, fase auxilio multidisciplinario y fase reestructuración del cuidado. La cultura es definitivamente el juez que califica las acciones de las personas, para unos la enfermedad es un castigo, por el mal comportamiento que han tenido en un momento de su vida y para otros es simplemente una prueba para que Dios perdone sus pecados. Así que el acontecimiento puede ser el mismo pero la cultura transforma la definición del evento.

  15. TRATAMIENTO DE OLORES PROVENIENTES DEL PROCESO DE SAPONIFICACION DE BORRAS DE SOYA

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    Ramiro Escalera Vásquez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio de laboratorio sobre el desarrollo de un sistema híbrido de tratamiento de olores provenientes de procesos de saponificación de borras de soya. El sistema consiste en un absorbedor de gases seguido por un tanque contactor entre aceites esenciales nebulizados y los gases remanentes del proceso de absorción. Se caracterizaron física y químicamente varias muestras de las borras de soya obtenidas de proveedores nacionales y los gases generados en la saponificación de esas borras. Se probó la efectividad de tres sistemas de tratamiento diseñados y construidos en laboratorio: Un sistema cerrado; un sistema de contacto entre esencias nebulizadas y los gases malolientes y el sistema híbrido mencionado. Los gases sin tratar tienen como principales componentes compuestos orgánicos volátiles (VOCs soluble y no solubles, amoníaco y dióxido de carbono. Las borras con mayor contenido de proteína residual desprenden mayores cantidades de amoníaco libre. Se  establecieron relaciones confiables entre las dosis de aceites esenciales nebulizados y la concentración de VOCs y el Umbral de Olor Mínimo Detectable (CUOMD. El producto de cabeza del aceite de eucalipto es la esencia más efectiva y económica para el tratamiento de los olores generados por los tres tipos de borra de soya probados. Se eliminó totalmente la percepción de olores desagradables utilizando el sistema híbrido que demostró ser el más eficiente. Los métodos y aparatos experimentales utilizados pueden servir para investigaciones similares en problemas de olor que actualmente tienen diversas industrias locales y nacionales.

  16. Cultivo in vitro del tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea (Cav.) Sendt. (Fenotipo naranja) proveniente de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón-Cerdas, Randall; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica; Flores-Mora, Dora; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica; Alvarado-Marchena, Luis; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica; Schmidt-Durán, Alexander; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica; Alvarado-Ulloa, Carlos; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica

    2014-01-01

    El tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea) es un frutal de importancia comercial en países como Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador y Perú, donde se consume como fruta fresca y procesada. Tradicionalmente, es propagado por semillas y estacas, y enfrenta problemas de heterogeneidad y calidad de material de siembra. En esta investigación se desarrolló un protocolo para la micropropagación in vitro del tomate de árbol criollo del fenotipo naranja, proveniente de Costa Rica, el cual presenta potencial para ...

  17. Cultivo in vitro del tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea (Cav.) Sendt. (Fenotipo naranja) proveniente de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Randall Chacón-Cerdas; Dora Flores-Mora; Luis Alvarado-Marchena; Alexander Schmidt-Durán; Carlos Alvarado-Ulloa

    2014-01-01

    El tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea) es un frutal de importancia comercial en países como Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador y Perú, donde se consume como fruta fresca y procesada. Tradicionalmente, es propagado por semillas y estacas, y enfrenta problemas de heterogeneidad y calidad de material de siembra.  En esta investigación se desarrolló un protocolo para la micropropagación in vitro del tomate de árbol criollo del fenotipo naranja, proveniente de Costa Rica, el cual presenta potencial p...

  18. Obtención y evaluación de taninos provenientes del alquitrán de Hulla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Ballesteros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se muestra la posibilidad de obtener taninos sintéticos a partir de la mezcla de fenoles obtenida por destilación del extracto fenólico proveniente de alquitranes de coquización.Las mejores resinas sulfonadas (taninos fueron obtenidas por condensación de formaldehído-fenoles iniciales en una relación molar de 0.6:1.0, durante cuatro horas, y subsiguiente sulfonación en una relación molar de ácido sulfúrico-fenoles iniciales de 0.75:1.00 ó 0.50:1.00, durante dos horas.

  19. NATURALEZA MINERALÓGICA DE ESMECTITAS PROVENIENTES DE LA FORMACIÓN HONDA (NORESTE DEL TOLIMA COLOMBIA)

    OpenAIRE

    LAGUNA E, OSCAR HERNANDO; MOLINA G, CARLOS MARTÍN; MORENO, SONIA; MOLINA G, RAFAEL

    2008-01-01

    Cinco materiales arcillosos provenientes del departamento del Tolima (Colombia), fueron caracterizados mineralógica, química y granulométricamente. Los resultados indican que los materiales contienen diferentes proporciones de fase esmectítica dioctaédrica (entre 24 y 64%), con comportamiento similar al de la montmorillonita tipo "chambers", excepto en un caso donde se confirma la presencia adicional de montmorillonita de transformación. El análisis mineralógico reveló tres casos, un grupo de...

  20. Naturaleza mineralógica de esmectitas provenientes de la formación honda (noreste del tolima colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    LAGUNA E., OSCAR HERNANDO; MOLINA G., CARLOS MARTÍN; MORENO, SONIA; MOLINA G., RAFAEL

    2009-01-01

    Cinco materiales arcillosos provenientes del departamento del Tolima (Colombia), fueron caracterizados mineralógica, química y granulométricamente. Los resultados indican que los materiales contienen diferentes proporciones de fase esmectítica dioctaédrica (entre 24 y 64%), con comportamiento similar al de la montmorillonita tipo "chambers", excepto en un caso donde se confirma la presencia adicional de montmorillonita de transformación. El análisis mineralógico reveló tres casos, un grupo de...

  1. Equipment to evaluate in experimental form the thermal conductivity of the construction materials; Equipo para evaluar en forma experimental el coeficiente de conductividad termica de los materiales de construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez C, Raymundo; Morales G, Juan R.; Diaz C, Alen; Lizardi R, Arturo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Vaca M, Mabel [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    An equipment meant to obtain the thermal conductivity coefficient was designed, constructed and evaluated. Convection losses in the experimental device were reduced by means of a vacuum chamber that wraps it. Conduction losses were minimized with the proper insulation. The tested materials are the most frequently used in the construction of buildings in Mexico, such as concrete, burnt brick, adobe and gypsum. Results observed are comparable to those reported in the literature. The essays done using the vacuum chamber produced values of thermal conductivity coefficient 3% lower than those obtained without using it. [Spanish] Se diseno, construyo y evaluo un equipo, con el cual se obtiene el coeficiente de conductividad termica en diversos materiales. En este se reducen las perdidas por conveccion, colocando una camara de vacio alrededor del conjunto de prueba. Las perdidas por conduccion se minimizan con un aislamiento adecuado. Los materiales evaluados son los que mas se utilizan en la construccion en Mexico, a saber, el concreto, el ladrillo cocido, el adobe y el yeso. Los valores obtenidos, sin considerar las perdidas por conveccion, se comparan con los de la literatura. Los ensayos utilizando la camara de vacio proporcionan valores del coeficiente de conductividad termica menores en 3% a los obtenidos sin dicha camara.

  2. Influencia del gobierno corporativo en el costo de capital proveniente de la emisión de deuda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes Lagos Cortes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento estudia la relación entre la aplicación de prácticas de gobierno corporativo, incluidas en el código de mejores prácticas corporativas (Código País, y el costo de capital proveniente de deuda en empresas listadas en la Bolsa de Valores de Colombia. Usando modelos de regresión, se encuentra evidencia que indica la existencia de una relación inversa entre el nivel de aplicación de prácticas de gobierno corporativo y el costo de la deuda en emisores no financieros (empresas pertenecientes al sector real y de servicios públicos. Para el caso de los emisores financieros, no se encuentra evidencia de esta situación.

  3. Substratos renováveis na produção de mudas de Ficus enormis proveniente de jardim clonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeri de Oliveira Fragoso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar substratos renováveis à base de casca de arroz carbonizada (CAC e fibra de coco (FC sobre o enraizamento e qualidade final de mudas de Ficus enormis Mart. ex Miq. via estaquia caulinar de plantas provenientes de jardim clonal. Foram avaliados seis substratos: comercial (controle, composto por casca de arroz carbonizada (CAC, fibra de coco (FC e vermiculita (S1; 100% FC (S2; 100% CAC (S3; 50% FC e 50% CAC (S4; 30% (FC e 70% CAC (S5; 70% FC e 30% CAC (S6. O substrato comercial (S1 e as composições com maior proporção de FC apresentam qualificação superior para a produção de mudas de F. enormis.

  4. Development and implementation of a methodology to simultaneously determine the thermal properties of rocks; Desarrollo e implantacion de una metodologia experimental para determinar simultaneamente las propiedades termicas de las rocas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras Lopez, Enrique; Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In the frame of the experimental infrastructure development of the Reservoirs Laboratory of the Geothermal Department of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), a methodology that allows the simultaneous determination of the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat in rock samples and other solid materials of low and medium conductivity, was implemented. The methodology is based in the theoretical solution of temperature distribution around an ideal linear heat source immersed in an infinite medium. The three properties are derived from one relatively simple experiment, that essentially consists in recording the temporary temperature variation in a given point of the specimen during a short heating period. This methodology has special application in the geothermal area, as well as in other areas related to the development and exploitation of underground energy and mineral resources. [Espanol] En el marco de las actividades de desarrollo de infraestructura experimental del Laboratorio de Yacimientos del Departamento de Geotermia del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), se implemento una metodologia que permite determinar simultaneamente la conductividad termica, la difusividad termica y el calor especifico en muestras de rocas y otros materiales solidos de conductividad baja e intermedia. La metodologia se basa en la solucion teorica de la distribucion de temperatura alrededor de una fuente lineal ideal de calor inmersa en un medio infinito. Las tres propiedades se derivan de un solo experimento relativamente simple, que consiste esencialmente en registrar la variacion temporal de la temperatura en un punto dado del especimen durante un corto periodo de calentamiento. Esta metodologia tiene especial aplicacion en el ambito de la geotermia, asi como en otras areas relacionadas con el desarrollo y aprovechamiento de los recursos energeticos y minerales del subsuelo.

  5. Development and implementation of a methodology to simultaneously determine the thermal properties of rocks; Desarrollo e implantacion de una metodologia experimental para determinar simultaneamente las propiedades termicas de las rocas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras Lopez, Enrique; Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In the frame of the experimental infrastructure development of the Reservoirs Laboratory of the Geothermal Department of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), a methodology that allows the simultaneous determination of the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat in rock samples and other solid materials of low and medium conductivity, was implemented. The methodology is based in the theoretical solution of temperature distribution around an ideal linear heat source immersed in an infinite medium. The three properties are derived from one relatively simple experiment, that essentially consists in recording the temporary temperature variation in a given point of the specimen during a short heating period. This methodology has special application in the geothermal area, as well as in other areas related to the development and exploitation of underground energy and mineral resources. [Espanol] En el marco de las actividades de desarrollo de infraestructura experimental del Laboratorio de Yacimientos del Departamento de Geotermia del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), se implemento una metodologia que permite determinar simultaneamente la conductividad termica, la difusividad termica y el calor especifico en muestras de rocas y otros materiales solidos de conductividad baja e intermedia. La metodologia se basa en la solucion teorica de la distribucion de temperatura alrededor de una fuente lineal ideal de calor inmersa en un medio infinito. Las tres propiedades se derivan de un solo experimento relativamente simple, que consiste esencialmente en registrar la variacion temporal de la temperatura en un punto dado del especimen durante un corto periodo de calentamiento. Esta metodologia tiene especial aplicacion en el ambito de la geotermia, asi como en otras areas relacionadas con el desarrollo y aprovechamiento de los recursos energeticos y minerales del subsuelo.

  6. Desenvolvimento larval de Chrysoperla externa alimentada com Aphis gossypii provenientes de três cultivares de algodoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Cláudia Schlick-Souza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os aspectos biológicos de Chrysoperla externa alimentadas com Aphis gossypii provenientes de três cultivares de algodoeiro (FMT 701, Acala 90 e Delta Opal. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Fitossanidade da Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS, Unidade de Cassilândia (MS. Os adultos de C. externa foram mantidos em gaiolas de PVC, em sala climatizada. As larvas do predador foram individualizadas em placas de Petri e alimentadas diariamente com pulgões advindos das diferentes cultivares. Larvas que se alimentaram de indíviduos da cultivar FMT 701 apresentaram a viabilidade menor do que as que alimentaram dos afídeos criados nas cultivares Delta Opal e Acala 90. Observou-se redução do consumo diário nas larvas de terceiro ínstar que se alimentaram dos pulgões advindos da cultivar Acala 90. Consequentemente, larvas supridas com pulgões criados nas cultivares Delta Opal e Acala 90, tiveram menor peso, 3,60 e 3,90 mg respectivamente, diferindo significativamente da FMT 701. De modo geral, é possível a utilização de C. externa no controle de A. gossypii nas cultivares estudadas.

  7. ESTABILIZACIÓN ANAEROBIA MESOFÍLICA Y TERMOFÍLICA DE LODOS ACTIVADOS PROVENIENTES DE LA INDUSTRIA CERVECERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribet Rincón Ramírez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación, se evaluó la degradación de lodos activados provenientes de una industria cervecera ubicada en el Estado Zulia (Venezuela bajo condiciones mesofílicas (CM, a 37º C y condiciones termofílicas (CT, a 55º C mediante el uso de un digestor anaerobio de crecimiento suspendido y mezcla completa de 3,5 L, que trabajó con flujo discontinuo. Se evaluaron tiempos de retención hidráulicos (TRH, de 30, 25 y 15 días. Las mayores remociones se obtuvieron al aplicar la carga orgánica volumétrica (COV, de 1 kg DQO m3/d (TRH de 30 días, en la cual se removió el 32% de la DQOtotal, 10% de sólidos totales (ST, y 29% de sólidos volátiles (SV, para la CM y 59%, 32% y 43% para DQOtotal, ST y SV respectivamente en la CT. La concentración de metano en el biogás estuvo cerca al 60% para ambas condiciones, y la concentración de ácidos grasos volátiles (AGV se mantuvo siempre menor a 35 mg/L, indicando que toda la DQO acidificada fue transformada a metano.

  8. ¿A qué atribuyen el alto rendimiento escolar los estudiantes de buen rendimiento escolar proveniente de liceos con altos indices de vulnerabilidad?

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Mario; Sepúlveda, Martitza

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación tiene como finalidad comprender desde las subjetividades de los participantes egresados de secundaria, provenientes de instituciones escolares con altos índices de vulnerabilidad, los principales factores que han contribuido en la obtención de su alto rendimiento escolar. Son varios los modelos que se han utilizados para explicar el abandono de los estudiantes en los primeros años de universidad (Ethington, 1990; St. John, Cabrera y Asker, 2000; Spady, 1970; Braxton,...

  9. Inferencias paleodietarias mediante isótopos estables en restos óseos humanos provenientes de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schinder, Gala

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Las actuales lineas de acción vinculadas al uso de isótopos estables en la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego están orientándose a acotar factores de variación (especialmente la variación espacial y temporal y al cruce con otras lineas de evidencias como los estilos de vida. A partir de la ocupación europea en el Siglo XVIII se modificó el estilo de vida de las poblaciones históricas de la región. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivos explorar la variabilidad en cuanto al tipo de recursos consurnidos por hombres y mujeres a partir de la información isotópica obtenida de huesos de individuos provenientes de diferentes sectores geográficos (Norte, Sudeste y Beagle y la determinación de la composición de la dieta en términos de contenido proteico. Los datos isotópicos se complementaron con información etnográfica. El análisis Kruskal-Wallis sugiere que existen diferencias significativas entre los diferentes sectores geográficos, pero no se registraron diferencias significativas entre hombres y mujeres. Asimismo, los isótopos indican que los individuos del Sudeste consumían preferentemente dietas más ricas en proteínas que sus vecinos del norte de la Isla. En los últimos años, ha crecido el interé por los estudios orientados al análisis de la división sexual del trabajo en sociedades cazadoras recolectoras. Este trabajo constituye un primer aporte para evaluar la variabilidad en cuanto a las diferencias en la obtención de recursos entre sexos y el tipo de dieta en individuos históricos de Tierra del Fuego.

  10. Adubação química e cobertura morta em alho proveniente de cultura de tecidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa Tiago M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se diferentes épocas de parcelamento da adubação de cobertura com nitrogênio e potássio e o uso de cobertura morta em um clone da cultivar Gravatá proveniente de cultura de tecidos. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 2 x 3 com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por solo com e sem cobertura morta e pela adubação de cobertura com N e K parcelada em três períodos de aplicação 45 e 65; 60 e 80; 75 e 95 dias após o plantio. A altura das plantas, número de folhas/planta, diâmetro do bulbo e a taxa de bulbificação foram avaliados 105 dias após o plantio. O parcelamento da adubação com nitrogênio e potássio em cobertura na cultura do alho aos 45 e 65 dias ou aos 60 e 80 dias após o plantio resultaram em bulbos com maior diâmetro, independente do uso de cobertura morta. As demais características avaliadas não foram influenciadas pelas épocas de parcelamento da adubação nitrogenada e potássica. A cobertura morta mostrou-se vantajosa em relação ao solo descoberto para cultura do alho oriundo de cultura de tecidos, permitindo aumentos significativos no crescimento e produtividade, que alcançou 16,76 t/ha com cobertura e 13,44 t/ha sem cobertura.

  11. Evidencia serológica de infecciones de Rickettsia en humanos provenientes de tres localidades de Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio E. Bermúdez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Desde mediados del siglo pasado, se conocen en Panamá casos de rickettsiosis, cuando fueron reportados brotes de tifus en ratones y de fiebres manchadas. A partir de entonces, poca información se tiene sobre su prevalencia en este país, lo cual se debe principalmente a que son confundidos con otras enfermedades. Objetivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue demostrar la presencia de rickettsiosis en humanos provenientes de tres localidades de Panamá, que corresponden a zonas agropecuarias, cercanas a bosques, o que trabajaban en zoológicos. Materiales y métodos. Se escogieron tres localidades para este estudio: Tortí (provincia de Panamá, El Valle de Antón (provincia de Coclé y el Parque Municipal Summit en Ciudad de Panamá. Los voluntarios firmaron un consentimiento informado, además de responder un cuestionario. De cada voluntario se extrajo sangre venosa, la que fue analizada por medio de inmunoflorescencia indirecta, utilizando kits comerciales y láminas sensibilizadas con antígenos cultivados de Rickettsia rickettsii y Rickettsia amblyommii. Resultados. Se tomaron muestras de 97 voluntarios, 25 en Tortí, 37 en El Valle de Antón y 35 en el Parque Municipal Summit. De estos, 38 (39 % de las muestras fueron positivas en algunas de las dos técnicas practicadas: 8 (32 % en Tortí, 18 (48 % en El Valle y 12 (34 % en el Parque Municipal Summit. Conclusión. Se demuestra una alta prevalencia de anticuerpos contra Rickettsia del grupo de las fiebres manchadas en las tres áreas de estudio, además de presentarse evidencia de títulos para Rickettsia del grupo tifus en El Valle de Antón. Estas zonas podrían considerarse como endémicas por rickettsiosis, ya que existen condiciones que permiten el mantenimiento de las mismas. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i0.831

  12. ESTABILIZACIÓN DE HECES HUMANAS PROVENIENTES DE BAÑOS SECOS POR UN PROCESO DE FERMENTACIÓN ÁCIDO LÁCTICA

    OpenAIRE

    Mindreau Ganoza, Elías; Laboratorio de Fisiología Animal y Bioremediación “Luis Basto Acosta”. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Av. La Molina s/n, Lima 12, Perú.; Juscamaita Morales, Juan; Laboratorio de Fisiología Animal y Bioremediación “Luis Basto Acosta”. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Av. La Molina s/n, Lima 12, Perú.; Williams León de Castro, Marta; Profesora Principal, Departamento de Biología. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Av. La Molina s/n, Lima 12, Perú.

    2016-01-01

    Se evaluaron los parámetros físico-químicos y microbiológicos de un proceso de estabilización de heces humanas provenientes del uso de “baños secos” de Pamplona Alta (Lima- Perú) durante los meses de agosto y setiembre del 2015 (Mindreau, 2016). Se estudiaron veinticinco tratamientos por triplicado siguiendo un protocolo ya aplicado en otros tipos de residuos (excretas de vacunos, equinos, etc.) mediante la inoculación de bacterias ácido lácticas (BAL) de una solución denominada “Biolac” y ac...

  13. Electrorremediación de suelos arenosos contaminados por Pb, Cd y As provenientes de residuos mineros, utilizando agua y acido acético como electrolitos

    OpenAIRE

    García Hernández, Laura; Vargas Ramírez, Marissa; Reyes Cruz, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se realizaron estudios potenciostáticos en una celda de electrorremediación experimental, de un suelo real tipo arenoso (93% arena) contaminado por la oxidación residuos mineros proveniente de la zona de Zimapán Hidalgo, se utilizó agua desionizada, CH3COOH y CH3COONH4 0.001 M, ya sea como humectante del suelo o como electrolitos, se aplicó un potencial constante de 20 V durante 24 horas. Al terminar los experimentos se recuperó el suelo, se determinó el pH, observándos...

  14. Metales pesados en plantas provenientes de áreas afectadas por la minería aurífera en la reserva forestal Imataca, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Gil, Rosa; Bermúdez, Alexis; De Abreu, Orlando; Alvarado, José; Dominguez, José

    2006-01-01

    Metales pesados en plantas provenientes de áreas afectadas por la minería aurífera en la reserva forestal Imataca, Venezuela. Reyes Gil, Rosa; Bermúdez, Alexis; De Abreu, Orlando; Alvarado, José y Dominguez, José Resumen La Reserva Forestal Imataca ha sido explotada artesanalmente para la extracción de oro de aluvión con la utilización de técnicas agresivas para el ambiente, que incluyen la deforestación de grandes áreas boscosas y el uso de mercurio. El objetivo de este traba...

  15. Suelos agrícolas contaminados por metales pesados provenientes de depósitos de vehículos de desecho

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel Balderas-Plata

    2003-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo fue determinar el grado de contaminación por metales pesados provenientes de depósitos de vehículos de desecho en suelos agrícolas que se encuentran en la periferia de éstos. Las muestras de suelo (0 a 10 y 10 a 30 cm de profundidad) se tomaron a lo largo de un trayecto a intervalos regulares de 5 m, hasta una distancia de 25 m. Se observó que en el suelo estudiado, en el ejido de San Gabriel Jilotepec (ESAJ), los contenidos de Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb y Zn presentan un...

  16. Diseño piloto del sistema de tratamiento pasivo de infiltraciones provenientes del depósito de material inadecuado de Minera La Zanja, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado Garayar, Dante Danilo

    2016-01-01

    El presente estudio denominado “Diseño piloto del sistema de tratamiento pasivo de infiltraciones provenientes del depósito de material inadecuado de Minera La Zanja, Perú” tiene como objetivo evaluar y seleccionar un piloto de sistema de tratamiento pasivo, para ello se identificará la zona de estudio, los materiales y especies vegetales con potencial para la implementación de este sistema de tratamiento. El método de investigación utilizado es el cualitativo y descriptivo (He...

  17. Aislamiento y caracterización de microorganismos con actividad lipolítica provenientes de sedimentos del Humedal El Jaboque (Bogotá, Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Lilia Carolina Mora Moreno; Hernando Valencia Zapata

    2006-01-01

    En el humedal el Jaboque (Engativá) Bogotá, Colombia, se aislaron microorganismos lipolíticos provenientes de
    sedimentos, mediante la utilización de medios de cultivo selectivos (agar tributirina, agar aceite de girasol). Primero se evaluó la concentración del sustrato (aceite de girasol) en la cual se encontraba el mayor número de morfotipos aislados, luego se comparó la eficiencia de los dos medios de cultivo de acuerdo a la cantidad de morfotipos aislados. Se evaluaron tres conc...

  18. Comparison of the thermal gain of the more commonly roofing systems used in Mexico`s social dwellings; Comparacion de la ganancia termica de los sistemas de techumbre mas comunmente utilizados en la vivienda social en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Alfredo [Division de Estudios de Posgrado de la Facultad de Arquitectura UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Morillon, David [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    Under the frame of discussion of the Mexican Official Standard 008 (Integral Energy Efficiency in non-residential Buildings), and with the purpose of assessing its feasibility and possible extension to residential buildings, this paper, whose objective is to evaluate the roofing systems (opaque) more commonly utilized on the social dwellings in Mexico, is presented. To perform this evaluation the heat gains by conduction through the roofing in different cities were obtained. Later on these heat gains were compared against the energy consumption that would produce its removal in each one of the cases. Finally, thermal resistance values (R) that allow, in significant form diminishing such gains, are presented, producing in consequence, a thermally efficient building. [Espanol] Dentro del marco de discusion de la Norma Oficial Mexicana 008 (Eficiencia energetica integral en edificios no residenciales), y con el fin de evaluar su factibilidad y posible extension hacia las edificaciones residenciales, se presenta este trabajo que tiene como objetivo la evaluacion de los sistemas de techumbre (opacos) mas comunmente utilizados dentro de la vivienda social en Mexico. Para realizar esta evaluacion se obtuvieron las ganancias por conduccion a traves del techo para distintas ciudades. Posteriormente, se compararon dichas ganancias contra el consumo de energia que produciria la remocion de las mismas en cada uno de los casos. Finalmente, se proponen valores de Resistencia Termica (R) que permitan disminuir de manera importante dichas ganancias teniendo, en consecuencia, una edificacion energeticamente eficiente.

  19. Comparison of the thermal gain of the more commonly roofing systems used in Mexico`s social dwellings; Comparacion de la ganancia termica de los sistemas de techumbre mas comunmente utilizados en la vivienda social en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Alfredo [Division de Estudios de Posgrado de la Facultad de Arquitectura UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Morillon, David [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Under the frame of discussion of the Mexican Official Standard 008 (Integral Energy Efficiency in non-residential Buildings), and with the purpose of assessing its feasibility and possible extension to residential buildings, this paper, whose objective is to evaluate the roofing systems (opaque) more commonly utilized on the social dwellings in Mexico, is presented. To perform this evaluation the heat gains by conduction through the roofing in different cities were obtained. Later on these heat gains were compared against the energy consumption that would produce its removal in each one of the cases. Finally, thermal resistance values (R) that allow, in significant form diminishing such gains, are presented, producing in consequence, a thermally efficient building. [Espanol] Dentro del marco de discusion de la Norma Oficial Mexicana 008 (Eficiencia energetica integral en edificios no residenciales), y con el fin de evaluar su factibilidad y posible extension hacia las edificaciones residenciales, se presenta este trabajo que tiene como objetivo la evaluacion de los sistemas de techumbre (opacos) mas comunmente utilizados dentro de la vivienda social en Mexico. Para realizar esta evaluacion se obtuvieron las ganancias por conduccion a traves del techo para distintas ciudades. Posteriormente, se compararon dichas ganancias contra el consumo de energia que produciria la remocion de las mismas en cada uno de los casos. Finalmente, se proponen valores de Resistencia Termica (R) que permitan disminuir de manera importante dichas ganancias teniendo, en consecuencia, una edificacion energeticamente eficiente.

  20. Thickness calculation software of the thermal insulation in facilities using thermal solar energy; Software para el calculo de espesores del aislante termico en instalaciones de aprovechamiento de energia solar termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portillo Jimenez, Canek [Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico)]. E-mail: cnk@uas.uasnet.mx

    2010-11-15

    It is presented a software application for calculating the thickness of the thermal insulation used in various facilities where there are thermal systems using solar energy. The software facilitates the calculation of the thermal cover thickness over components such as pipes (flat or round), storage and other devices that require thermal protection, installed in outdoors or indoors. The software was programmed in Visual Basic by following the technical specifications of the current regulations in the field. Application examples are performed, obtaining certain results that are discussed briefly. [Spanish] Se presenta un software de aplicacion para el calculo de los espesores de los aislantes termicos, utilizados en diferentes instalaciones donde existen sistemas de aprovechamiento termico de energia solar. El software facilita el calculo del grosor del recubrimiento termico en componentes tales como: tuberias (planas o circulares), depositos acumuladores y otros aparatos que necesiten proteccion termica, instalados en exteriores o en interiores. El software fue programado en Visual Basic siguiendo las especificaciones tecnicas de la normatividad vigente en la materia. Se realizan ejemplos de aplicacion, donde se obtienen ciertos resultados de los cuales se hace una breve discusion.

  1. Reaproveitamento de resíduo sólido proveniente do setor siderúrgico em cerâmica vermelha

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,G. E.; Holanda,J. N. F.

    2004-01-01

    Este trabalho mostra os resultados de um estudo sobre a incorporação de resíduo sólido proveniente do setor siderúrgico na formulação de uma massa argilosa utilizada na fabricação de cerâmica vermelha. As massas preparadas continham os seguintes teores de resíduo de siderurgia: 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 e 3,0% em peso. Os resultados de difração de raios X, distribuição de tamanho de partículas e limites de Atterberg são apresentados para as massas argilosas. Os corpos-de-prova foram conforma...

  2. Niveles séricos de IGF-I e IGFBP-3 en adolescentes embarazadas provenientes de un sector socioeconómico de bajos ingresos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Carrasco Rodríguez

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available El eje de la hormona de crecimiento (GH/factor de crecimiento similar a la insulina tipo-l (IGF-I participa en el crecimiento durantela vida postnatal y fetal y se encuentra regulado por la nutrición. Sin embargo, muy pocos estudios se han adelantado con el fin de comprender los efectos de la mala nutrición sobre dicho eje durante el embarazo en la adolescencia. En este estudio se determinaron los niveles séricos del IGF-I y de IGFBP-3 en un grupo (n=62 de adolescentes en el segundo trimestre de embarazo y provenientes de un estrato pobre de la ciudad de Bogotá y se compararon con los de un grupo (n=36 de adolescentes del mismo estrato. Como referencia se tomaron los valores obtenidos en un grupo (n=20 de adolescentes de un estrato de clase media de la misma ciudad. Se encontró que las adolescentes del estrato pobre presentaban un crecimiento por debajo del percentil 3 con talla y peso significativamente (p

  3. Pesquisa da infecção natural por Yersinia pestis, em pulicídeos provenientes de focos pestosos do nordeste do Brasil

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    Darci Pascoal Brasil

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados três processos de acondicionamento e transporte de pulgas, objetivando análise bacteriológica para isolamento da Yersinia pestis. As três abordagens testadas foram: pulgas vivas em tubos de ensaio com tiras dobradas de papel de filtro; pulgas em solução salina; macerados de pulgas em meio de Cary-Blair. Os dois últimos métodos foram quase iguais e superiores ao primeiro. Foram analisadas pelas três técnicas, um total de 29.512 "pools" de pulicideos provenientes de focos de peste do Nordeste do Brasil no período de 1966 a 1982. Deste total, 236 (0,80% dos "pools" foram positivos por cultura e/ou inoculação em animais sensíveis.Three different containment transport processes of fleas were evaluated as an approach to the bacteriologic isolation of Yersinia pestis. The three methods employed were: live fleas in glass tubes containing pieces of wrapped filter paper; dead fleas in saline solution; and maceratedfleas in Cary-Blair culture medium. The two latter methods were almost equal and superior to the first method. A total of 29512 flea pools, from plague foci in Northeast Brazil collected during 1966 to 1982 were evaluated by the three methods. Among these samples, 236 (0.80% flea pools were positive with regard to bacteriological cultivation and/or infection of susceptible animals.

  4. Determinação das propriedades físicas e mecânicas do gesso reciclado proveniente de chapas de gesso acartonado

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    A. Erbs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A busca pela viabilidade técnica e econômica da reciclagem de resíduos na cadeia produtiva da construção civil vem atender às novas necessidades do setor de promover crescimento econômico integrado às necessidades sociais e ambientais. O crescente aumento do consumo das chapas de gesso acartonado carrega consigo o problema da geração dos resíduos de gesso, onde a falta de pesquisa e o descarte incorreto acaba destinando o resíduo gerado, na maioria das vezes, para aterros ou bota-foras irregulares, sem controle ou estimativa de volume. No presente trabalho, por meio da adoção de um processo de reciclagem composto das etapas de moagem e calcinação do resíduo das chapas de gesso acartonado, determinaram-se as propriedades físicas e mecânicas do gesso reciclado proveniente das chapas de gesso acartonado. A análise dos resultados mostrou a viabilidade da reciclagem, pois após a reidratação foi possível moldar corpos de prova, demonstrando que é possível reciclar um produto que hoje é descartado.

  5. AUTOIGNICION 3-D EN DEPOSITOS DE LODOS PROVENIENTES DE TRATAMIENTOS DE AGUAS RESIDUALES 3D SELF IGNITION IN SEWAGE SLUDGE WASTE WATER TREAMENT

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    Nelson Moraga B

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia el transporte de calor y de oxígeno por difusión en pilas de compostajes provenientes de tratamiento de aguas municipales. El modelo 3-D transiente incluye la generación de calor originada por microorganismos y por la descomposición de la celulosa. El sistema de ecuaciones acopladas de difusión de calor y materia se resuelve con el método de volúmenes finitos. Los resultados predicen la variación en el tiempo de la distribución de temperatura y oxígeno. El análisis de los resultados permite proponer un nuevo sistema para el almacenamiento de lodos con el fin de evitar su autoignición.Heat and oxygen transport by diffusion in sewage sludge piles obtained from water treatment is studied. The 3D unsteady mathematical model incorporates the heat generated by microorganisms and by cellulose decomposition. The coupled heat and mass diffusion equations system of partial differential equations is solved by the finite volume method. The results obtained allow predicting the time history of temperature and oxygen concentration distributions. Results analysis suggests a new way to build the solid waste compost piles.

  6. Volatilização de Amônia Proveniente de Ureia Compactada com Enxofre e Bentonita, em Ambiente Controlado

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    José Antônio de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, novas tecnologias têm sido desenvolvidas para reduzir as perdas de N quando se utiliza ureia como fonte desse macronutriente. A utilização de fertilizantes de características ácidas pode reduzir as perdas de amônia por volatilização, quando combinados com a ureia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as perdas de amônia provenientes de fontes de N revestidas e, ou, incorporadas com ou sem enxofre e bentonita. Esses foram aplicados na superfície de um Planossolo Háplico contido em bandejas (0,1 m2 de área e 10 cm de profundidade, em dose equivalente a 200 kg ha-1 de N. Foram avaliadas as perdas de N-NH3 por volatilização durante 21 dias, com auxílio de um coletor semiaberto. A adição de diferentes fontes de enxofre e de bentonita no processo de compactação da ureia reduziu as perdas de amônia em até 29 %, quando comparadas com a ureia granulada comercial, comprovando serem alternativas promissoras para aumentar a eficiência da adubação nitrogenada.

  7. ANÁLISE ECONÔMICO-FINANCEIRA DO APROVEITAMENTO ENERGÉTICO DO GÁS METANO PROVENIENTE DE INSTALAÇÃO DE SUINOCULTURA

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    Juciara Oliveira Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou analisar de maneira econômico-financeira o aproveitamento energético do gás metano proveniente das instalações da suinocultura do IFNMG, Campus Januária. Para isso, foram avaliadas duas situações diferentes: o aproveitamento do biogás a partir do biodigestor já instalado e uma segunda situação para analisar desde a instalação do biodigestor ao aproveitamento do biogás. No cenário de 10 anos foram obtidos, na situação 1 payback de 4,46 anos, VPL de R$ 38.209,42, e o TIR de 19%, e na situação 2 payback de 1,10 anos, VPL de R$ 82.698,00 e TIR de 86%. Representando assim, um investimento atraente para a instituição e possivelmente para produtores rurais no Norte de Minas Gerais, com produção suinícola similares a este estudo.

  8. Aislamiento e identificaci?n de diez cepas bacterianas desnitrificantes a partir de un suelo agr?cola contaminado con abonos nitrogenados proveniente de una finca productora de cebolla en la Laguna de Tota, Boyac?, Colombia

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    Ostos Ortiz, Olga Lucia; Benavides L?pez de Mesa, Joaqu?n; Quintero, Gladys

    2006-01-01

    Este articulo presenta los resultados de la versatilidad adaptativa y tolerancia de una consorcio bacteriano constituido por 10 cepas bacterianas end?micas de un suelo agr?cola contaminado, proveniente de una finca productora de cebolla ubicada en la laguna de Tota en Aquitania, Boyac?, Colombia, expuesto al uso incontrolado de fertilizantes nitrogenados. La consorcio bacteriano aislado del suelo est? conformado por: Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Acinetoba...

  9. Mapeamento da deposição irregular dos resíduos provenientes da construção civil na cidade de Mossoró-RN

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    Giordanio Bruno Silva Oliveira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A construção civil tem sido considerada uma das mais importantes atividades para o desenvolvimento da sociedade, porém é uma atividade que causa impactos ambientais, pois utiliza recursos naturais, modifica o meio ambiente e gera um grande volume de resíduos. Nota-se que as atividades ligadas à construção civil no município de Mossoró-RN, são responsáveis por gerar uma quantidade considerável de resíduos de construção civil (RCC, que na maioria das vezes, são depositados em locais irregulares, por não haver na cidade um local específico para esse fim. Esses resíduos constituem um grave problema, tanto para o meio ambiente quanto para qualidade de vida da população. A pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de mapear áreas de depósito irregular de resíduos provenientes da construção civil na cidade de Mossoró-RN. Foi realizada a demarcação dos pontos de acordo com a localização do despejo dos resíduos, com a finalidade de identificar e indicar sua localização dentro da zona urbana de Mossoró-RN. No presente estudo, foi possível identificar 11 pontos de deposição irregular de resíduos provenientes da construção civil, espalhados em diferentes locais da cidade, alguns situando-se próximo de áreas residenciais, o que caracteriza sérios riscos à saúde pública, e outros dispostos próximos de cursos d’água, o que provoca degradação do meio ambiente.Mapping of irregular dumping of solid waste from construction industry at Mossoró-RN, BrazilAbstract: Construction industry has been considered one of the most important activities regarding to society development, however it causes environmental impacts, because it uses natural resources, modifies the environment and generate a huge amount of waste. It was observed that in Mossoró, RN, Brazil, a large amount of construction waste is often deposed in unauthorized sites because the municipality does not provide a specific site for this purpose. Such waste

  10. Seed bank from soil of coffee plantations associated with grevillea trees Banco de sementes do solo proveniente de cafezais arborizados com grevílea

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    M.A.F. Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to study the composition and dynamics of seed bank from soil of coffee plantations associated with grevilea trees in the experimental fields of the Southwest Bahia State University, on Vitória da Conquista campus. The experiments were carried out from September 2006 to May 2007. The coffee trees (Coffea arabica were sown at three x one m spacing, associated with grevillea trees (Grevillea robusta and maintained at densities of 277, 139, 123, 69, 62 and 31 plants ha-1, under direct sunlight. One hundred grams of soil were taken from each treatment with four repetitions and later identified and counted with a 10x magnifying glass. To determine seedling emergence, four soil samples of 1000 g were collected from each experimental field and transported to the greenhouse. Seedling emergence was observed by counts after 15, 30 and 45 days. The experimental design was randomized blocks of seven treatments (soil from different tree densities and four replicates; the experimental unit consisted of a plastic tray (0, 30 x 0.22 x 0.06 m containing 1.000 g of soil. The variables utilized to characterize the bank and its dynamics were: relative frequency, relative density, relative abundance, importance index and species diversity (Shannon-Weaver index.Increased number of monocotyledon seeds and sprouts were verified in the treatments maintained under full sunlight.Com o objetivo de estudar a composição e a dinâmica do banco de sementes provenientes de solos de cafezais arborizados com grevíleas, desenvolveu-se um ensaio no campo experimental da Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, no campus de Vitória da Conquista. Os cafeeiros (Coffea arabica foram dispostos em espaçamento de 3 x 1 m, associados a grevíleas (Grevillea robusta mantidas em densidades de 277, 139, 123, 69, 62 e 31 plantas ha-1, e a pleno sol, no período de setembro de 2006 a maio de 2007. Para avaliação do número de sementes, foram retirados 100 g de solo de

  11. Novas Ocorrências de Âmbar Provenientes da Bacia do Araripe (Formação Santana, Membro Crato.

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    Ricardo Pereira

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O âmbar é uma resina fóssil originada devegetais superiores, tanto gimnospermas quantoangiospermas. A análise de sua composição molecularpermite que se determine a origem botânica domesmo, também apresentando importância pela suaextraordinária capacidade de preservação de inclusõesorgânicas, tais como insetos, pequenos vertebrados erestos vegetais. No Brasil, a Bacia do Araripe constituia bacia sedimentar mais prolífica em âmbar, tendosido relatadas diversas ocorrências. Esses registrossão todos provenientes do Membro Crato, FormaçãoSantana (Cretáceo Inferior, Aptiano, consistindosempre em gotas de material resinoso imersos emcamadas de calcário laminado. A análise químicade algumas dessas amostras indicou a famíliaAraucariaceae como a possível fonte botânica dessesâmbares. Na localidade de Nova Olinda, CE, foramencontrados três fragmentos de material resinosocom aspecto vítreo amarelado e diâmetro médiode 1 cm, constituindo um novo registro de âmbarno Brasil. Os fragmentos encontram-se imersosem placas de calcário laminado, típico do MembroCrato. A superfície dos mesmos apresenta aspectotrincado, com morfologia semelhante a um padrãode fratura do tipo conchoidal. Seus eixos maioresencontram-se paralelos aos planos de estratificaçãodo sedimento, estando deformados nesse sentidoprovavelmente devido à compressão litostática. Nomomento, esses âmbares estão sendo analisados porCromatografia Gasosa acoplada à Espectrometriade Massas para caracterização da composiçãomolecular e conseqüente estabelecimento da origembotânica dos mesmos.

  12. ASPECTOS FÍSICO-QUÍMICOS DE AZEITES DE OLIVA E DE FOLHAS DE OLIVEIRA PROVENIENTES DE CULTIVARES DO RS, BRASIL

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    Lucilene Dornelles MELLO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo apresentar os resultados da caracterização físico-química de azeites de oliva e folhas de oliveira da variedade Arbequina, cultivadas no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, e determinar o potencial antioxidante pelo ensaio do DPPH na atividade sequestrante de radicais livres (ASRL %, atividade quelante (% AQ e poder redutor de extratos aquosos de folhas de oliveira in natura, folhas processadas para chás (comercial 1 e comercial 2 e azeites de oliva provenientes de olivais dos municípios de Caçapava do Sul (azeite 1 e Cachoeira do Sul (azeite 2. Os azeites de oliva também foram avaliados quanto aos índices de iodo, saponificação, peróxidos, refração absoluto a 20ºC e determinação da acidez, densidade, medida da absorbância no ultravioleta a 270nm/232nm e determinação do perfil de ácidos graxos. Os estudos com os derivados de oliveira para a fração fenólica e a atividade antioxidante elevaram-se concomitantemente. Os extratos de folhas processadas e os azeites de oliva foram às amostras que apresentaram teores mais altos de fenóis totais e as melhores respostas de ASRL (> 80%. Todas as amostras apresentaram baixos valores percentuais de AQ (< 30% e poder redutor (entre 20 – 50%. Pela análise dos parâmetros físico-químicos e perfil de ácidos graxos, os azeites de oliva podem ser classificados como azeite virgem extra.

  13. SUSCEPTIBILIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA DE AISLAMIENTOS DE Salmonella enterica PROVENIENTES DE PISOS, EQUIPOS, UTENSILIOS Y PRODUCTO TERMINADO EN PLANTAS DE BENEFICIO PORCINO EN COLOMBIA

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    P. M. Bermúdez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La diseminación de Salmonella spp. resistente a antimicrobianos en las cadenas productivas de alimentos de origen animal es una preocupación de salud pública de carácter mundial. Este estudio describe los patrones de resistencia antimicrobiana de 283 aislamientos de Salmonella enterica procedentes de plantas de beneficio porcino en Colombia. Se evaluó la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana frente a diez antimicrobianos mediante el método de difusión en disco: amoxacilina-ácido clavulánico (30 ug, ampicilina (10 ug, ceftiofur (30 ug, ciprofloxacina (5 ug, cloranfenicol (30 ug, florfenicol (30 ug, gentamicina (10 ug, sulfadiazina/trimetroprim (25 ug, tetraciclina (30 ug y tilmicosina (15 ug. Los resultados evidenciaron la presencia de 279 aislamientos multirresistentes de Salmonella enterica de origen porcino provenientes del ambiente y del producto terminado en las plantas de beneficio evaluadas (46,64% n: 132. Se detectaron 52 patrones de multiresistencia: el más común fue ceftiofur-tetraciclina-tilmicosina en el 9,89% (n: 28 de los aislamientos. Con referencia a estos antimicrobianos, 96,82% (n: 274 de los aislamientos fueron resistentes a tetraciclina, 73,14% (n: 207 a tilmicosina y 28,27% (n: 80 a ceftiofur. De especial interés fue la alta proporción de aislamientos resistentes a ceftiofur, debido a una posible resistencia cruzada con ceftriaxona. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran la necesidad de promover el diseño e implementación de un Programa oficial Integrado de Vigilancia de la Resistencia Antimicrobiana, además de sistemas de monitoreo voluntario en cada eslabón de la cadena productiva porcina, para contribuir a la prevención y control de la transmisión de microorganismos resistentes de origen alimentario en el marco del sistema de gestión de inocuidad alimentaria en Colombia.

  14. Caracterización Antimicrobiana Y Fisico-Quimica De Muestras De Propoleo Proveniente De La Región Andina Colombiana

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    E Bastos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El propóleo es un material resinoso, de origen animal, producido por las abejas a partir de diversos materiales vegetales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar muestras de propoleo provenientes de la región  andina Colombiana respecto a su perfil antimicrobiano y físico-químico. Fueron empleados extractos etanólicos de propóleos por la técnica de disco- difusión, frente a las especies Eschericia coli, S.aureus y Candida albicans. Para la caracterización físico-química se evaluo el porcentaje de extracto seco, contenidio de cera, índice de oxidación y determinación cuantitativa de compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides. Todas las muestras presentaron actividad antibacteriana, con halos de inhibición comprendidos entre 8 y 12 mm para E. coli y entre 8,3 y  23,5 mm para S. aureus, no se observo ninguna actividad para C. albicans. Los parámetros fisico-químicos citados anteriormente presentaron una variación de 2,72 a 9,17%, 0 a 2%, 3 a 51s, 0,1 a 0,5 (p/p y 0,02 a 0,95 (p/p, respectivamente. El perfil antimicrobiano observado, relacionado al físico-químico, sugiere la necesidad de nuevos estudios para la determinación del origen botánico y geográfico de las muestras estudiadas.

  15. Caracterización de propóleos provenientes del municipio de Caldas obtenido por dos métodos de recolección

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    Julián Martínez G.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar las características fisicoquímicas y la actividad antimicrobiana de propóleos de Apis mellifera, provenientes del municipio de Caldas, obtenidos por dos métodos de recolección. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron dos métodos de recolección: de raspado y trampa plastica. Se estableció el contenido de cera, ceniza, material insoluble y resina de los propóleos crudos. Al extracto etanólico de los propóleos se les determinó el perfil cromatográfico (GC-MS y el espectro UV; además, se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro frente a hongos (Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Colletotrichum acutatum y C. gloesporioides, y bacterias (Salmonella tiphy, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus y Escherichia coli. Resultados. El material obtenido mediante malla matrizada presentó un perfil químico amplio, buena actividad antimicrobiana y mejores parámetros de calidad, de acuerdo con estándares establecidos por normas internacionales que los propóleos obtenidos por el método de raspado. Además, pudo observarse que la acción antimicrobiana de los propóleos fue dependiente de la concentración del extracto y del hongo o bacteria evaluada. Conclusiones. La composición química y la actividad antibacteriana y antifúngica de los propóleos están relacionadas con el método de recolección. El presente estudio aporta información para la selección de la técnica de cosecha del propóleo de acuerdo con la aplicación que se desee dar.

  16. Obtenção e caracterização do amido do endocarpo da manga Tommy Atkins proveniente do resíduo agroindustrial

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    Eliane Alves Onias

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A agroindústria da manga é uma atividade em expansão e produz grande volume de resíduos que não são reaproveitados, mas descartados de forma inadequada. O objetivo deste trabalho é obter e caracterizar o amido da amêndoa do endocarpo da manga, variedade Tommy Atkins, proveniente dos resíduos agroindustriais para que esse possa ser usado na formulação de novos produtos na indústria alimentícia. A amêndoa e o amido foram caracterizados através de análises físico-químicas. A amêndoa da manga Tommy Atkins apesentou umidade de 59,00%, cinza de 1,16%, teor de lipídio de 4,17%, proteína de 3,79% e quase 50% de carboidratos totais. No processo de extração do amido variando a concentração da solução de extração e o tempo de trituração da amêndoa, de acordo com planejamento experimental,observou-se rendimento de extração variando de 18,28 à 27,11%. A qualidade do amido é influenciada pela concentração dos outros componentes presentes, sendo assim, o amido extraído apresentou boa qualidade com teor de umidade de 10,4%, proteína de 2,49%, cinzas de 0,07% e lipídios de 4,6%. O amido apresentou características desejáveis podendo ser largamente utilizado na indústria de alimentos.

  17. Perfil de consulta en niños alérgicos provenientes de familias de bajos ingresos Profile of consultation of allergic children from low income families

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    Alain Raimundo Rodríguez-Orozco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades alérgicas son una de las principales causas de atención médica en la infancia y su impacto se acentúa más en las familias de bajos ingresos. En un estudio descriptivo analítico se caracterizó el perfil de consulta del niño alérgico proveniente de familias mexicanas de bajos recursos económicos. Las enfermedades alérgicas predominaron en el sexo masculino y la edad escolar; el 71 % de los enfermos provenía de localidades urbanas. El asma fue el diagnóstico más frecuente (64 %, seguido de la rinitis alérgica (30 %, dermatitis atópica (6 % y urticaria (3 %. Las reactividades encontradas con más frecuencia en la prueba cutánea fueron Dermatofagoides farinae (77 %, Dermatofagoides pteronyssinus (60 %, Phleum pratense (20 %, gato (17 %, perro (14 % y Cynodon dactylon (11 %. El alto grado de disfunción familiar y la poca adhesión a tratamientos prolongados posibilitan la perpetuidad de los síntomas y el pronóstico incierto en este grupo de niños.Allergic diseases are one of the main causes for seeing the doctor in childhood and their impact is more acute in low income families. An analytical descriptive study characterized the profile of medical consultation of the allergic child from Mexican low income families. Allergic diseases prevailed in males and at school age, and 71 % of the sick children lived in urban settings. Asthma was the most frequent diagnosis (64 % followed by allergic rhinitis (30%, atopic dermatitis (6 % and urticaria (3 %. The most commom reactivity rates in the cutaneous test were Dermatofagoides farinae (77 %, Dermatofagoides pteronyssinus (60 %, Phleum pratense (20 %, cat (17 %, dog (14 % and Cynodon dactylon (11 %. The high level of family dysfunction and low adhesion to long therapies make it possible the persistence of symptoms and the uncertain prognosis in this group of children.

  18. Fauna helmintológica de ovinos provenientes da microrregião de Jaboticabal, estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Willian Giquelin Maciel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a prevalência e a contagem parasitária das diferentes espécies de helmintos de ovinos provenientes da microrregião de Jaboticabal, região Noroeste de São Paulo. Para tanto, foram utilizados 66 animais naturalmente infectados, de quatro a 36 meses de idade, criados em regime extensivo. Os resultados necroscópicos revelaram a presença de sete gêneros e 12 espécies, com a seguinte prevalência e a média de parasitismo: Haemonchus contortus: 100,0% (2947,2; Trichostrongylus colubriformis: 90,9% (3048,8; Cooperia curticei: 56,0% (256,5; Oesophagostomum columbianum: 48,4% (36,0; Cooperia punctata: 30,3% (94,5; Trichostrongylus axei: 22,7% (26,5; Strongyloides papillosusi: 19,6% (83,0; Haemonchus contortus (L4: 7,5% (17,2; Cooperia pectinatai: 10,6% (12,9; Trichuris ovis: 10,6% (0,6; Cooperia spatulata 4,5% (0,3; Capillaria bovis: 4,5% (0,1. A carga parasitária média foi de 6.524,7 helmintos por animal. Haemonchus contortus (Adultos e L4 e Trichostrongylus colubriformis corresponderam a 45,4% e 46,7% da carga parasitária média total, respectivamente. Pode-se concluir que as duas espécies de helmintos mais abundantes e importantes da microrregião de Jaboticabal/São Paulo foram Trichostrongylus colubriformis e Haemonchus contortus, sendo que essas duas espécies perfizeram 92,1% da distribuição percentual dos helmintos recolhidos de todos os animais. Tais resultados demonstram a importância em se realizar um monitoramento das contagens de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG dos rebanhos desta região, quando o método FAMACHA for empregado em uma determinada propriedade, uma vez que este método de controle, geralmente, não permite diagnosticar os danos/sinais clínicos desencadeados nos animais pelo T. colubriformis, em função de essa espécie não possuir hábito de hematofagismo sobre os hospedeiros.

  19. ESPECIACION QUÍMICA DE METALES PESADOS EN SUELOS INCUBADOS CON LODOS RESIDUALES PROVENIENTES DE UNA PLANTA DE TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS

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    Adriana Forero Hernandez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de evaluar el destino de los metales pesados en los suelos agrícolas, provenientes de los lodos de las aguas residuales de plantas de tratamiento, se determinó la especiación química en los suelos después de 9 semanas de aplicación, para lo cual se realizaron ensayos de incubación utilizando una dosis de 2,5% de lodo p/p equivalente a 81,5 Ton lodo/ha de suelo. Las unidadesexperimentales consistieron en materos con una mezcla suelo-lodo que se mantuvieron entre 17 y 25 ºC, humedad acapacidad de campo, dispuestos en invernadero con un diseño estadístico completamente aleatorizado con cuatroréplicas y siete tratamientos. Se encontró que los niveles de concentración total en el lodo de Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb y Zn fueron muy inferiores a los establecidos por la normatividad del Environmental Protection Agency (EPA para su utilización en suelos.Además, el contenido de carbono orgánico, nitrógeno y fósforo disponible estuvo en el intervalo normal reportado para fertilizantes orgánicos.La adición de lodo al suelo produjo un incremento significativo de la fracción de Cd enlazada a materia orgánica comparada con las fracciones intercambiable y unida a óxidos de hierro-manganeso, el Cu presentó mayor afinidad por la fracción de óxidos de hierro- manganeso, el Pb mostró una fracción enlazada a materia orgánica la cual estaba ausente en el suelo testigo, el Zn tuvo una mayor proporción en la fracción asociada a óxidos de hierro-manganesoy el Mn en comparación con los otros metales fue el que presentó la mayor fracción intercambiable.

  20. Caracterização de águas residuárias de suinocultura provenientes de dois sistemas de tratamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Cristina Dal Bosco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As águas residuárias de suinocultura apresentam características físico-químicas que variam de acordo com o sistema de higienização das baias, estádio de desenvolvimento dos animais, alimentação, condições climáticas, genética, entre outros fatores. No Brasil, o tratamento dessas águas residuárias, com elevada carga poluente, ocorre, geralmente, em esterqueiras e biodigestores. Na maioria das propriedades rurais, o destino final dos efluentes tratados é o solo. Pratica-se, portanto, o reúso de água na agricultura, que pode interferir na dinâmica de diversos poluentes no solo, como é o caso dos pesticidas. As águas residuárias apresentam-se na forma total e dissolvida, sendo esta a fração mais investigada atualmente na dinâmica desses poluentes. Neste sentido, objetivou-se utilizar a técnica de espectroscopia na região do infravermelho médio com transformada de Fourier na caracterização da matéria orgânica total e dissolvida proveniente de águas residuárias de suinocultura tratadas em biodigestor e esterqueira. Nos resultados, não foi possível observar diferenças na composição das águas residuárias pela espectroscopia infravermelha com transformada de Fourier. Entretanto, pode-se identificar a presença de materiais ainda pouco degradados e a ocorrência de grupos funcionais nitrogenados, que apontam para a liberação do nitrogênio no solo quando degradados, evidenciando o potencial de reúso dessas águas residuárias na agricultura como forma de fertirrigação. Palavras-chave: Infravermelho. Esterqueira. Biodigestor. Efluentes.

  1. Painéis de partículas provenientes de rejeitos de Pinus sp. tratado com preservante cca e resina derivada de biomassa

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    Marília Silva Bertolini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização do preservante CCA (sais de cromo, cobre e arsênio tem sido questionada devido ao impacto relacionado à dispersão, principalmente, do cobre e do arsênio para o ambiente, antes de sua completa fixação na madeira. Outra questão se relaciona à disposição indevida dos resíduos provenientes da madeira tratada, viabilizando a lixiviação devido à maior área passível desses rejeitos sujeita a tal fenômeno. Este trabalho teve como objetivo a produção de painéis de partículas, avaliando o efeito da adição de resíduos de Pinus sp. tratado com sais de cromo, cobre e arsênio (CCA, em associação com material da mesma espécie sem preservantes, além de alterações no teor de adesivo poliuretano à base de mamona empregado na produção. As propriedades dos painéis produzidos foram determinadas conforme recomendações da NBR 14810-3: 2006. Por meio de análise estatística, observou-se que a adição da madeira tratada proporcionou desempenho superior no inchamento em espessura (2 h, ao passo que esse insumo utilizado na mesma proporção que a madeira sem preservantes foi significante, obtendo os melhores resultados na adesão interna. Os módulos de ruptura e de elasticidade na flexão não sofreram influência das variações nos insumos utilizados nos painéis. Os painéis, em grande parte, apresentaram-se em conformidade com os principais requisitos nesse âmbito, mostrando a possibilidade da utilização dos referidos insumos na produção, além da obtenção de um produto com considerável apelo ambiental.

  2. Diseño y evaluación de un sistema de tratamiento piloto para las aguas residuales provenientes de la construcción del sector inmobiliario privado en la ciudad de Manizales

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Henao, Claudia Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Tesis (Maestria en Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Contables Económicas y Administrativas, 2015 Con el fin de diseñar un sistema de tratamiento para las aguas residuales provenientes de la construcción en el sector inmobiliario privado en la ciudad de Manizales, se realizó una caracterización de la cantidad y calidad de los vertimientos generados en esta actividad. La cantidad promedio de agua residual generada fue el 71% del agua us...

  3. Analysis of the temperature field of an instrument's guard to measure the thermal conductivity of insulating solid materials; Analisis del campo de temperatura de la guarda de un instrumento para medir la conductividad termica de materiales solidos aislantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lira Cortes, Leonel; Xaman Villasenor, Jesus P; Chavez Chena Yvonne [CENIDET: Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Cuernavaca, Morelos(Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this paper the analysis of the temperature field of the guard of an instrument called hot plate apparatus with guard (APCG), is presented. The experimental results are compared against the ones that are obtained when solving the problem in analytical form. In the analytical solution the influence of taking into account more than one own value is analyzed and the results when truncating in the first term of sum that corresponds to the first own value and to truncate in the second term that includes the first and second root are compared. The instrument is a parallel flat plate apparatus with guards of 305 mm of diameter and operates in an interval of 10 to 80 of temperature and can measure insulating samples with a maximum thickness of 75 mm with a class of exactness of 4%. In applications of calculation of thermal loads, it is necessary to know the thermal conductivity of insulating and construction materials, when the applications are oriented to the use of renewable energies such as the solar, with the purpose of making an efficient use of this energy. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el analisis del campo de temperatura de la guarda de un instrumento denominado aparato de placa caliente con guarda (APCG). Se comparan los resultados experimentales contra los que se obtienen al resolver el problema en forma analitica. En la solucion analitica se analiza la influencia de tomar en cuenta mas de un valor propio y se comparan los resultados al truncar en el primer termino de la sumatoria que corresponde al primer valor propio y truncar en el segundo termino que incluye la primera y segunda raiz. El instrumento es un aparato de platos planos paralelos con guardas de 305 mm de diametro y opera en un intervalo de 10 a 800 grados Celsius de temperatura y puede medir muestras aislantes con un maximo de espesor de 75 mm con una clase de exactitud del 4%. En aplicaciones del calculo de cargas termicas, es necesario conocer la conductividad termica de materiales

  4. Variaciones nucleotídicas de dos grupos de tepezcuintles, Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae, en cautiverio provenientes de dos localidades de Yucatán, México

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    Rubén C Montes-Pérez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimamos las variaciones nucleotídicas entre dos grupos de tepezcuintles (Agouti paca provenientes de los estados de Campeche y Quintana Roo, México y, dentro de cada grupo. Se colectaron muestras sanguíneas de once A. paca mantenidos en cautiverio. El ADN de leucocitos se utilizó para efectuar la amplificación aleatoria de polimorfismos de ADN (RAPD. Se seleccionaron los iniciadores número tres 5’ -d(GTAGACCCGT-3’ y seis 5’ -d(CCCGTCAGCA-3’ del estuche (Ready.To.Go. RAPD Analysis Beads, Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, porque produjeron un adecuado número de bandas. Los patrones electroforéticos de bandas fueron procesados con el software para análisis filogenético basado en el método de UPGMA para estimar la variación nucleotídica. El árbol filogenético obtenido con el iniciador tres reveló una agrupación dicotómica entre los animales de ambos estados de la Península de Yucatán, con un valor de divergencia de 1.983 nucleótidos de cada cien. Los animales de Quintana Roo mostraron un agrupamiento con el iniciador seis y, otro grupo más con animales procedentes de Campeche. La variación nucleotídica entre estos dos grupos fue de 2.118 nucleótidos por cada cien. Las variaciones nucleotídicas dentro de los grupos procedentes de ambos estados, para los dos iniciadores, mostraron valores que fluctuaron entre 0.46 y 1.68 nucleótidos de cada cien, lo cual indica que la variación nucleotídica entre los dos grupos de animales es alrededor de dos nucleótidos por cada cien y, dentro de grupos es menor a 1.7 nucleótidos por cada cien.Nucleotidic variations of two captive groups of tepezcuintle, Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae, from two sites in Yucatan, Mexico. The objective of this work was to estimate the nucleotidic variation between two groups of tepezcuintles (Agouti paca from the states of Campeche and Quintana Roo, Mexico and within members of each group. Blood samples were collected from eleven A. paca kept in

  5. Utilization of Boron (10B derived from fertilizer by sugar cane Aproveitamento do Boro (10B proveniente do fertilizante pela cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The response to B in agricultural systems of sugar cane is still an unexplored issue; B application has however recently been widely publicized and used with a certain degree of frequency. The use of 10B-labeled fertilizers may further contribute to clarify this practice. With the objective of evaluating sugar cane use of B (10B derived from fertilizer (boric acid, an experiment was conducted under field conditions in the 2005/2006 growing season. The experiment consisted of the installation of microplots (2 x 1.5 m where 4 kg ha-1 B (boric acid with 85.95 % in 10B atoms dissolved in water was applied 90 days after planting (May 2005. The solution was applied to the soil on both sides of the plant row at a distance of 20 cm. After harvest (June 2006 the B content and 10B abundance in % atoms in all parts of the sugar cane plants (stalks, dry leaves, tips and roots were determined. Results showed that the total B accumulated was 471 g ha-1 in the entire plant (35 % in the stalks, 22 % in the dry leaves, 9 % in the tips and 34 % in the roots. The sugar cane plants used on average 14 % of the total accumulated B in the above-ground part (44 g ha-1 and 11 % in the roots (19 g ha-1, totaling 13 % in the entire plant (63 g ha-1. The recovery of 10B-fertilizer by sugar cane plants was low, around 2 % of the total applied amount.No agrossistema da cana-de-açúcar a resposta à aplicação de B é ainda uma questão não esclarecida, porém é um procedimento que vem sendo utilizado com certa frequência. O uso de fertilizantes marcados com 10B pode auxiliar no entendimento dessa prática. Com o objetivo de avaliar o aproveitamento do B (10B proveniente do fertilizante (ácido bórico pela cana-de-açúcar, realizou-se um experimento em campo, na safra de 2005/2006, que consistiu na instalação de microparcelas (2 m de comprimento por 1,5 de largura, que, após 90 dias do plantio (maio de 2005, receberam 4 kg ha-1 de B (ácido bórico com 85,95 % em

  6. Caracterización molecular de aislamientos de enterobacter cloacae multirresistentes, productores ß-Lactamasas provenientes de pacientes de un hospital de tercer nivel de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibonne Aydee García Romero

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Las enterobacterias, antaño flora normal del tracto gastrointestinal, han cambiado su biología y emergido como agentes patógenos nosocomiales que se tornan resistentes los antibióticos conocidos. Objetivo. Realizar la caracterización epidemiológico-molecular de 20 aislamientos de Enterobacter cloacae resistentes a cefalosporinas de tercera generación; provenientes de un hospital de tercer nivel de Bogotá-Colombia. Material y métodos. Los aislamientos fueron identificados mediante sistemas automatizados Microscan y VITEK, se utilizó el Enterobacter asbureae como control externo inter-especie. La confirmación de resistencia se hizo por técnica de difusión en agar, y una vez establecida se realizó BLEE para comprobación. La determinación de puntos isoeléctricos se hizo, mediante lisis por ultrasonido y la genotipificación mediante la metodología para bacterias Gramnegativas propuesta por Versalovic. Resultados: Los aislamientos colectados durante un año fueron causantes de 15 casos de infección Intrahospitalaria y dos colonizaciones. Todos los aislamientos presentaron resistencia a cefotaxima, ceftazidima, ceftriaxona, aztreonam y ciprofloxacina, 95% a amikacina, gentamicina y cloranfenicol, 75% a trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol, 20% a cefepime y todos fueron sensibles a imipenem. Dos aislamientos fueron confirmados como productores de â-lactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE por la técnica microbiológica de disco combinado. Por isoelectroenfoque presentaron dos â-lactamasas con puntos isoeléctricos (pI de 5,4 y 8,2. En los 18 aislamientos no inhibidos por ácido clavulánico, se detectaron entre 2 y 4 â-lactamasas con pI de 5,4; 6,0; 7,0; 8,2 y mayor que 8,2; la resistencia a cefalosporinas de tercera generación podría ser atribuida a la hiperproducción de AmpC; los valores de pI sugieren la producción simultánea de â-lactamasas tipo SHV y TEM. La genotipificación mediante tres metodologías de rep

  7. Micorrizas arbusculares no crescimento de mudas de sabiá em um substrato proveniente da mineração de manganês

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    Kaio Gráculo Vieira Garcia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O manganês (Mn é considerado um micronutriente essencial às plantas, porém o seu excesso pode resultar em toxidez, causando clorose e necrose nas folhas. O uso de leguminosas inoculadas com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares tem se tornado uma importante estratégia do ponto de vista da remediação de áreas contaminadas com metais como é o caso do manganês. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento de mudas de Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. inoculadas com micorrizas arbusculares sob condições de substrato esterilizado e natural proveniente de uma área de mineração de Mn do município de Ocara – CE. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x2, considerando-se: quatro tratamentos de inoculação (controle não-inoculado, inoculado com Glomus clarum, inoculado com Glomus etunicatum e com a mistura dos dois fungos (Mix e duas condições de substrato (estéril e natural, com quatro repetições. As mudas de sabiá foram produzidas em bandeja de isopor, sendo transplantadas e inoculadas em vasos após treze dias da semeadura. Após trinta dias do transplantio foram realizadas avaliações de altura da parte áerea, diâmetro do colo, número de folíolos e porcentagem de sobrevivência. A inoculação com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares favoreceu o crescimento das mudas de sabiá em substrato da mineração de manganês, em condições naturais, principalmente quando se utilizou o Glomus etunicatum. No substrato esterilizado a inoculação com micorrizas arbusculares proporcionou a atenuação da toxidez de Mn nas mudas de sabiá favorecendo o crescimento das mesmas nestas condições.Arbuscular mycorrhiza on the growth of sabiá seedlings on a substrate from the manganese miningAbstract: Manganese (Mn is considered an essential micronutrient to plants but its excess can result in toxicity causing chlorosis and necrosis on

  8. Solar Thermal Energy; Energia Solar Termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Martinez, M; Cuesta-Santianes, M J; Cabrera Jimenez, J A

    2008-07-01

    Approximately, 50 % of worldwide primary energy consumption is done in the form of heat in applications with a temperature lower than 250 degree centigree (low-medium temperature heat). These data clearly demonstrate the great potential of solar thermal energy to substitute conventional fossil fuels, which are becoming more expensive and are responsible for global warming. Low-medium temperature solar thermal energy is mainly used to obtain domestic hot water and provide space heating. Active solar thermal systems are those related to the use of solar thermal collectors. This study is dealing with low temperature solar thermal applications, mainly focusing on active solar thermal systems. This kind of systems has been extensively growing worldwide during the last years. At the end of 2006, the collector capacity in operation worldwide equalled 127.8 GWth. The technology is considered to be already developed and actions should be aimed at favouring a greater market penetration: diffusion, financial support, regulations establishment, etc. China and USA are the leading countries with a technology based on evacuated tube collectors and unglazed collectors, respectively. The rest of the world markets are dominated by the flat glazed collectors technology. (Author) 15 refs.

  9. Armazenamento refrigerado de banana 'Prata Anã' proveniente de cachos com 16, 18 e 20 semanas Refrigerated storage of 'Prata Anã' banana originating from 16, 18 e 20 week-old bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramilo Nogueira Martins

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de verificar a influência da temperatura de refrigeração e idade do cacho sobre a conservação e qualidade pós-colheita da banana 'Prata Anã', produzida no Norte de Minas Gerais, visando a exportação. Utilizaram-se frutos de bananeira 'Prata Anã' provenientes do município de Nova Porteirinha, MG. A colheita foi realizada na 16ª, 18ª e 20ª semanas após a emissão floral. Dos cachos colhidos, utilizou-se às segundas pencas, separadas em buquês com 5 frutos, lavados e pesados (18 kg. Em seguida, os frutos foram revestidos com embalagens de polietileno de baixa densidade, com 50m de espessura, sob vácuo parcial, acondicionados em caixas de papelão e distribuídos em paletes. Depois de embalados e paletizados, os frutos foram transportados para a EPAMIG/CTNM, onde foram armazenados em câmaras de refrigeração (10 e 12ºC e umidade relativa de 95%, por um período de 35 dias, sendo analisados antes e após a refrigeração. O armazenamento de bananas 'Prata Anã', provenientes de cachos com 16, 18 e 20 semanas, por 35 dias a temperaturas de 10 e 12ºC, não promoveu "chilling" nos frutos. A temperatura de 10ºC foi mais eficaz em prevenir a evolução da coloração da casca de bananas provenientes de cachos com 18 semanas, que à temperatura de 12ºC, enquanto as temperaturas de 10 e 12ºC foram igualmente eficientes na contenção da mudança de cor de bananas provenientes de cachos com 16 semanas. Frutos provenientes de cachos com 20 semanas amadureceram desuniformemente, ao longo do armazenamento refrigerado.This work had, as objective, to verify the influence of refrigeration temperature and bunch age on the conservation and post-harvest quality of the 'Prata Anã' banana produced in the North of Minas Gerais, looking towards exportation. 'Prata Anã' banana tree fruits were used originating from the municipal district of Nova Porteirinha, MG. The crop was harvested in the 16th, 18th

  10. Estimation of consumption of the useful life in the nozzles of a gas turbine by the phenomenon of thermal fatigue; Estimacion de consumo de vida util en las toberas de una turbina de gas por el fenomeno de fatiga termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Hernandez, Efrain [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (Cenidet), Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Mazur C, Zdzislaw; Garcia Illescas, R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    damage. [Spanish] La estimacion de vida util en los componentes calientes de las turbinas de gas como toberas y alabes es importante ya que sufren de cambios criticos de temperatura los cuales producen fatiga termomecanica durante los arranques, paros y cambios de fatiga para estimacion de vida util en las toberas de turbina de gas fabricados de aleacion base cobalto FSX-414 en las cuales se han desarrollado grietas durante la operacion. La inspeccion visual y metalografia de la tobera revelo muchas grietas por fatiga termomecanica en la superficie del alabe ademas de deterioracion de la aleacion. En los limites de grano se encontro una pelicula continua de carburos y tambien aumento de fraccion de carburos dentro de los granos. Esta densa y continua red de carburos reduce la ductilidad y aumenta la fragilidad, junto con la reduccion de energia de impacto (Charpy), facilita la iniciacion y propagacion de grietas. La iniciacion y propagacion de grieta en la aleacion fue debido a un mecanismo de fatiga termica y termofluencia que fue facilitado por fragilidad del material debido al deterioro previamente mencionado y a significativos niveles de esfuerzos termomecanicos. En el presente articulo se presentan los resultados de analisis de esfuerzos termicos a partir de los resultados de temperatura obtenidas de estudios previos de un analisis de transferencia de calor y flujo de fluidos mediante el programa Star-CD basado en volumen finito. Se muestra la metodologia empleada y las distribuciones de esfuerzos, los cuales se emplearon para el analisis de fatiga para la estimacion de vida util. Para eso se utilizo un modelo de elementos finitos en el programa NISA, asi como el programa de analisis de fatiga nCode. Para el conteo de ciclo de utilizo el metodo de Rainflow y se compararon los modelos de vida por fatiga de Manson-Coffin, Basquin, Morrow y Smih-Watson-Topper. La variacion de las propiedades mecanicas con la temperatura de la superaleacion empleada en esos componentes

  11. Relevancia de la infección natural por Trypanosoma cruzi en triatominos selváticos provenientes de seis municipios de Santander, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Gómez

    2016-06-01

    genotipificación se realizó mediante PCR del espaciador intergénico del gen mini-exón (SL-IR, que amplifica fragmentos de 350 y 300 pb para T. cruzi I (TcI y T. cruzi II o V-VI (TcII-V-VI, respectivamente. Resultados: Se analizaron 50 especímenes adultos de Panstrongylus geniculatus (64% y Rhodnius pallescens (36% capturados principalmente en el domicilio y peridomicilio, respectivamente. La TI en los triatominos fue de 53,6% al examen directo y de 68,0% mediante PCR de satADN. La TI fue mayor para R. pallescens (77,8% en comparación con P. geniculatus (62,5%. Se observaron altas tasas de infección en triatominos provenientes de Floridablanca (90,9%, Bucaramanga (66,7% y Capitanejo (50,0%. En San Vicente de Chucurí y Lebrija también se detectaron altos índices de infección, no obstante, el número de vectores capturados en estos municipios fue muy bajo (entre 1 y 3. Se determinaron las DTUs de las poblaciones de T. cruzi presentes en el 41,2% de los triatominos selváticos positivos por PCR de satADN. En ambas especies vectoriales se evidenció el predominio de TcI (86% y una alta frecuencia (33% de infección mixta por TcI y TcII-V-VI en R. pallescens. Conclusiones: Se determinó la alta tasa de infección por T. cruzi en triatominos selváticos capturados en los municipios evaluados, lo cual resalta su importancia epidemiológica por la posibilidad de transmisión del parásito por vía oral, aún en zonas de baja endemia o donde no hay reporte de vectores domiciliados. Igualmente, es urgente la implementación de estrategias de control dirigidas a prevenir la intrusión domiciliaria de estos vectores.

  12. Caracterização do Resíduo Sólido Proveniente do Processo de Beneficiamento de Areia e sua Viabilidade de Uso em Cerâmica.

    OpenAIRE

    BIFF, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    O presente estudo teve como objetivo efetuar a caracterização química e física do resíduo sólido proveniente do processo de beneficiamento de areia industrial, areia esta destinada às indústrias cerâmicas, vidro e de fundição. Adicionalmente foi avaliado o potencial uso do resíduo na indústria de revestimentos cerâmicos em substituição às matérias-primas convencionalmente utilizadas na composição das massas cerâmicas. O resíduo sólido, objeto deste estudo foi gerado pelo processo de ben...

  13. Mineralogía del proceso de biodesulfurización de carbones provenientes de la zona río Guachinte - río Asnazú (Valle del Cauca y Cauca)

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona Rendón, Isabel Cristina

    2008-01-01

    En Colombia, los depósitos carboníferos se encuentran distribuidos a lo largo de todo el país, encontrándose las mayores reservas en los departamentos de La Guajira, Cesar y Cundinamarca. Los carbones de la región suroccidental del país son útiles para la generación de vapor, pero tienen los más altos contenidos de azufre, principalmente en forma de azufre orgánico y pirita. Para dos muestras de carbón provenientes de la zona río Guachinte – río Asnazú, fue llevado a cabo un proceso de biodes...

  14. ESTUDIO DE MÉTODOS QUÍMICOS DE REMOCIÓN DE CIANURO PRESENTE EN RESIDUOS DE CIANURACIÓN PROVENIENTES DEL PROCESO DE EXTRACCIÓN DE ORO DE VETA EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DE NARIÑO

    OpenAIRE

    FAJARDO, JONNY ARIEL; BURBANO, DIANA CAROLINA; BURBANO, EDITH JACKELINE; APRAEZ, NÉSTOR JAVIER; MOREANO, MILTON ROSERO

    2010-01-01

    Esta investigación se centró en la neutralización a nivel de laboratorio de residuos cianurados provenientes de la mina Nueva Esparta ubicada en el municipio de los Andes-Sotomayor (Nariño), con tres neutralizantes de tipo comercial en distintas relaciones en peso (gramos de neutralizante/gramos de CN- libre/total a neutralizar): peróxido de hidrógeno H2O2 2/1, 5/1 y 8/1, hipoclorito de sodio NaOCl 7/1, 12/1 y 17/1 y sulfato ferroso FeSO4 6/1, 12/1 y 18/1. Las arenas residuales se trataron as...

  15. Metais pesados provenientes de rejeitos de mineração e seus efeitos sobre a saúde e o meio ambiente - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v4i1.24

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    Daphne Heloisa de Freitas Muniz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O aumento nas concentrações de metais pesados no solo e na água próximos a zonas de mineração pode estar relacionado com processos químicos e biológicos que controlam a solubilidade, a disponibilidade e a mobilidade desses metais. Os efeitos tóxicos dos metais pesados no ser humano estão associados aos compostos orgânicos e inorgânicos por eles formados e são determinados pela quantidade do metal envolvida e pelo tempo de exposição. Com base em revisão bibliográfica, o presente artigo enfoca e discute aspectos relevantes sobre o estudo de metais, como arsênio, cádmio, cromo e mercúrio, provenientes de rejeitos de mineração.

  16. La lucha de la Unión Europea contra el crimen organizado transnacional. Estudio de caso: tráfico ilegal de armas pequeñas y ligeras provenientes de Albania y Kosovo (2001-2005)

    OpenAIRE

    García Pinilla, Juan Daniel

    2014-01-01

    En el contexto de la lucha de la Unión Europea contra el crimen organizado transnacional, el tráfico ilegal de armas pequeñas y ligeras proveniente de los grupos criminales albaneses y kosovares, es uno de los delitos a los que la Unión Europea ha tenido que hacer frente. Así pues, esta investigación logró analizar cómo la falta de coordinación de las políticas europeas implementadas para luchar contra el tráfico ilegal de armas pequeñas y ligeras y la corrupción estatal en Albania y Kosovo, ...

  17. Comportamento de adesão da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis proveniente de três condições de manejo

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    Octávio Barbosa Plaster

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985739O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a capacidade de adesão da madeira serrada de eucalipto proveniente de três sistemas de manejo, empregando-se os adesivos: resorcina formaldeído, e dois adesivos em emulsão aquosa à base de poliacetato de vinila. Os sistemas de manejo foram caracterizados por três estratos, sendo o estrato um (E1 caracterizado por madeira proveniente de talhadia e idade de 70 meses; o estrato dois (E2 caracterizado por madeira de reforma e idade de 166 meses e o estrato três (E3 caracterizado também por reforma aos 70 meses de idade. A madeira foi originada de uma mistura aleatória das duas primeiras toras serradas, de três metros cada, a partir da base, que compuseram três tratamentos, relativos aos adesivos utilizados. Foi avaliada a resistência ao cisalhamento por compressão paralela e o percentual de falha na madeira na linha de cola. Com base nos resultados obtidos pode-se afirmar que a adesão apresentou desempenho satisfatório em todas as resinas utilizadas, sendo que os valores médios da resistência ao cisalhamento da linha de cola mostraram-se equivalentes à resistência ao cisalhamento da madeira sólida apenas para as amostras aderidas com o adesivo Wonderbond, proporcionando também maiores valores para falha na madeira (97,64%. A maior densidade presente na madeira do segundo estrato (E2 influenciou apenas na colagem com a resina resorcina formaldeído. Para o acetato de polivinila (Cascorez 2590, os valores do cisalhamento diminuíram na terceira condição de manejo (E3.

  18. Technical-economical diagnosis to schedule the maintenance shut downs of thermal power stations departing from behavior, economic engineering and thermo-economic tests; Diagnostico tecnico economico para programar las salidas a mantenimiento de centrales termicas a partir de pruebas de comportamiento, ingenieria economica y termo economia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arreguin Arredondo, Antonio

    2002-08-01

    The thesis work develops a methodology to determine when it is convenient, technically and economically to provide maintenance to a thermal electric unit and the type of maintenance to be performed, all this sustained in an economic analysis taking into account the variation of the production costs, of the interest rates, of the fuel prices and of the electric energy prices, the maintenance costs and the degradation of the unit in the time. Once analyzed the previous matters a thermo-economic test model and reference (values provided by the manufacturer) is performed and they are compared to determine in what equipment or system of the process of electric energy generation is required to focus on the material resources as well as on the human resources, in order to obtain the best results from the maintenance and recover the greatest possible efficiency of the unit. [Spanish] El trabajo de tesis desarrolla una metodologia para determinar cuando conviene, tecnica y economicamente proporcionar mantenimiento a una unidad termica y el tiempo de mantenimiento a realizar, todo esto sustentado en un analisis economico tomando en cuenta la variacion de los costos de produccion de las tasas de interes, de los precios del combustible y de la energia electrica, el costo de mantenimiento y la degradacion de la unidad en el tiempo. Una vez analizado lo anterior se realiza un modelo termoeconomico de prueba y referencia (valores proporcionados por el fabricante) y se comparan para determinar en que equipos o sistema del proceso de generacion de energia electrica se requiere enfocar tanto los recursos materiales como humanos, con el fin de obtener mejores resultados del mantenimiento y recuperar lo mayor posible la eficiencia de la unidad.

  19. Analysis of the consumption of useful life by thermal fatigue in the gas turbine nozzles during the operation at continuous load and transients; Analisis de consumo de vida por fatiga termica en las toberas de turbina de gas durante operacion con carga continua y transitorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Hernandez, Efrain Betuel

    2007-08-15

    The gas turbines operate at extremely high temperatures, with high thermal and mechanical stresses, causing that the life of the involved components diminishes. In the present thesis the temperature distribution on the nozzle obtained in other investigation as a result of heat transfer and fluid flow analysis applying CDF code Star-CD was used. Next, the program NISA was used to perform the analysis of thermal stresses by means of finite element method. Finally, the results of stress analysis were introduced to the program nCode to accomplish the nozzle remaining useful life assessment due to thermal fatigue in critical location on the nozzle by means of the CLF module (Critical Location Fatigue). The full methodology used to determine the nozzle operational conditions, load history, material properties and the fatigue model used to determine the number of cycles to failure of the nozzle during constant load and transients operation is presented. [Spanish] Las turbinas de gas operan a temperaturas extremadamente altas, a elevados esfuerzos termicos y mecanicos, ocasionando que la vida de los componentes involucrados se reduzca. En la presente tesis se presentan los resultados realizados por otras investigaciones de temperaturas obtenidas a partir de un analisis de transferencia de calor y flujo de fluidos de la tobera mediante el programa Star-CD basado en volumenes finitos. Posteriormente, se utilizo el programa NISA para realizar el analisis de esfuerzos mediante elementos finitos. Finalmente, se llevaron los resultados al programa nCode para realizar la estimacion de vida util por fatiga termica en un punto critico de la tobera mediante el modulo CLF (Critical Location Fatigue). Se muestra la metodologia empleada para determinar las condiciones de operacion, historial de carga, propiedades del material y el modelo de dano por fatiga para determinar el numero de ciclo para falla de la tobera durante operacion con carga continua y transitorios.

  20. The Nature of the Phonon Spectrum and the Analysis of Lattice Thermal Conductivity; Nature du Spectre des Phonons et Analyse de la Conductibilite Thermique du Reseau; Kharakter fononnogo spektra i analiz teploprovodnosti reshetki; Naturaleza del Espectro Fononico y Analisis de la Conductividad Termica Reticular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, S. K.; Sharma, K. C. [Physics Department, Allahabad University, Allahabad (India)

    1965-04-15

    'ajustement des differents parametres entrant dans les calculs. Les auteurs estiment qu'au lieu de s'attarder a effectuer la sommation d'integrales complexes pour des modeles de la dynamique de reseau plus proches de la realite, il vaudrait mieux etudier la validite des differentes hypotheses relatives au temps de relaxation prises comme base pour l'etablissement de ces integrales. (author) [Spanish] Los autores analizan la conductividad termica reticular utilizando para ello un espectro fononico mas realista que el habitual espectro fononico tipo Debye, consistente en una rama acustica media. Para calcular la influencia de la temperatura sobre la conductividad termica reticular del germanio, emplean en primer termino un modelo dispersivo continuo de caracter anisotropico. Aplican a tal efecto una version modificada de las formulas de Callaway, Utilizan el metodo de integracion de seis y tres terminos de Houston para determinar integrales sumamente complejas que abarquen las frecuencias reticulares, y emplean las expresiones actualmente mas adecuadas para los tiempos de relajacion correspondientes a la dispersion en los bordes y a la dispersion por impurezas, asi como procesos trifononicos normales y procesos de 'Umklapp'. En el caso del germanio se obtiene una concordancia satisfactoria con los datos experimentales de Holland y de Slack y Glassbrenner, entre 2 y 1000 Degree-Sign K, ajustando las cuatro constantes que aparecen en las integrales. Como se sabe por los resultados fidedignos obtenidos por espectroscopia neutronica, el germanio tiene ramas transversales muy dispersas, y un modelo dispersivo continuo de tipo anisotropico tampoco constituye una representacion satisfactoria de las mismas. Por tanto, los autores han estimado oportuno utilizar el complejo modelo de capas propuesto por Cochran para la dinamica reticular del germanio. Ajustando adecuadamente los parametros que figuran en la formula utilizada por los autores para calcular la conductividad termica de la red

  1. Aproveitamento de silício proveniente de escória siderúrgica por cultivares de cana-de-açúcar Recovery of silicon from metallurgy slag by sugarcane cultivars

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    Robson Thiago Xavier de Sousa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar é uma espécie acumuladora de silício (Si, capaz de responder à adubação silicatada, principalmente, em solos pobres desse elemento. As escórias de siderurgia constituem em uma interessante fonte de Si para aplicação em solos cultivados com essa cultura. Objetivou-se estudar o aproveitamento do Si proveniente da escória siderúrgica pela cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi desenvolvido em Uberlândia (MG, entre 15 de agosto de 2007 e 2 de maio de 2008. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 2x4, sendo duas cultivares de cana-de-açúcar (SP81 - 3250 e RB86 - 7515 e quatro doses de Si (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 em quatro repetições. A cana foi cultivada em tambores plásticos (200 L. A aplicação de escória de siderurgia (silicato aumentou o teor de Si disponível no solo e o teor foliar da cana-de-açúcar. A quantidade de Si acumulada pela parte aérea da cana proveniente do silicato aplicado variou entre 23% e 56%, respectivamente, para as variedades RB86-7515 e SP81-3250. Em média, 39% do Si absorvido pela parte aérea da cana foram provenientes do fertilizante aplicado (silicato.Sugarcane is a species that accumulates silicon (Si and is capable of responding to Si applications, especially in soils lacking Si.. Metallurgy slag is an interesting source of Si for soils cultivated with this crop. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery of Si from metallurgy slag by sugarcane. The experiment was carried out at Uberlândia-MG, from August 15, 2007 to May 02, 2008. The experimental design was randomized in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement being two cultivate of sugarcane (SP81 - 3250 and RB86 - 7515 and four Silicon doses (0, 100, 200 and 400 kg ha-1 with four replications. The sugarcane was cultivated in plastic drums (200 L. The application of slag (silicates increased the content of available silicon in soil and leaf of sugarcane. The amount of Si accumulated in

  2. DESEMPENHO DE MOTOR-GERADOR DE CICLO OTTO OPERADO COM GASOLINA E BIOGÁS PROVENIENTE DE SUINOCULTURA / PERFORMANCE MOTOR-GENERATOR OPERATED WITH OTTO CYCLE GASOLINE AND BIOGAS FROM THE PIG.

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    C. Rossetto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A busca por novas fontes energéticas que não poluam o meio ambiente, bem como a mitigação dos impactos ambientais gerados pelo aumento da população, abre uma nova perspectiva no campo da pesquisa do biogás provenientes do resultado de tratamento de efluentes. O processo de transformação de energia gerada pela combustão do biogás para energia em motores no ciclo Otto e posterior transformação em energia elétrica é de fácil realização sendo necessárias algumas adaptações no motor, neste trabalho foi realizada apenas a substituição do carburador por um misturador de ar/combustível tipo Venturi. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de motor-gerador ciclo Otto alimentado com biogás proveniente de suinocultura. Como testemunha foram utilizados ensaios com gasolina, simulando diferentes condições de trabalho, com cargas de 0; 0,250 kW (10 % da carga; 0,500 kW (20 % da carga; 0,750 kW (30 % da carga; 1 kW (40 % da carga; 1,250 kW (50 % da carga; 1,500 kW (60 % da carga; 1,750 kW (70 % da carga; 2 kW (80 % da carga; 2,250 kW (90 % da carga e 2,500 kW (100 % da carga. Onde foram avaliadas as emissões de dióxido de carbono (CO2, monóxido de carbono (CO e oxido de nitrogênio (NOx, e analisado o rendimento do motor-gerador que foi baixo em torno de 76 % menor quando comparado com gasolina, sendo necessários ajustes para o melhor desempenho. 

  3. Sensory response of the egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi to stimuli from the bug Euschistus heros Resposta sensorial do parasitóide de ovos Telenomus podisi a estímulos provenientes do percevejo Euschistus heros

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    Cleonor Cavalcante Silva

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the foraging behavior of Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae in the presence of stimuli from its host, Euschistus heros (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae. The stimuli selected were: egg mass; virgin males and females; volatile extracts of sexually mature males and females; components of male sex pheromone; a component of the alarm pheromone, hexane and an empty cage as control. In a closed arena, the parasitoids were given the choice between single and combined stimuli presented to them simultaneously. To find the host egg, T. podisi primarily uses the sensory cues released from the male insects. The orientation toward odors of male chemical extract indicates that a source of kairomone was detected. Gas chromatographic analyses of this substance showed peak of methyl 2,6,10-trimethyltridecanoate, the main component of male sexual pheromone. The sensory response to methyl 2,6,10-trimethyltridecanoate confirms that this compound may act as a kairomone to find host eggs. Females and egg mass stimuli were weakly attractive to the parasitoid.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o comportamento de busca de Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae, em presença de estímulos provenientes do hospedeiro Euschitus heros (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae. As fontes de estímulos utilizadas foram: massas de ovos, machos e fêmeas virgens, extratos químicos de machos e fêmeas sexualmente maduros, componentes sintéticos do feromônio sexual do macho de E. heros, um composto sintético do feromônio de alarme, hexano e uma gaiola vazia como controle. Os testes foram conduzidos em arenas, onde foi dada a oportunidade para os parasitóides escolherem entre estímulos isolados e estímulos combinados. Para encontrar o hospedeiro, T. podisi utiliza principalmente estímulos olfativos emitidos pelos machos. As respostas sensoriais aos odores liberados pelos extratos químicos do macho indicam que uma fonte de

  4. ANÁLISIS DE LA DINÁMICA BIOLÓGICA PRESENTE EN UN SISTEMA PILOTO DE LOMBRICULTURA PARA EL MANEJO DE BIOSÓLIDOS PROVENIENTES DE AGUAS RESIDUALES

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    Álvaro Chávez Porras

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la dinámica biológica presente en un sistema piloto de lombricultura con la especie Eisenia foetida para el manejo de biosólidos provenientes de la Planta de Tratamiento Aguas Residuales -PTAR- Salitre, Bogotá D. C., con el fin de establecer la influencia de los organismos presentes en la transformación y translocación de la materia orgánica -MO-, la eficiencia de este proceso, así como la calidad del humus y su posible uso como abono orgánico. Esto, mediante análisis biológicos en diferentes etapas. En la primera fase del sistema se identificó que los biosólidos están clasificados como tipo B de acuerdo con la EPA (Agencia de Protección del Medioambiente de los EE. UU., y presentan condiciones desfavorables para su aplicación a cultivos agrícolas. Sin embargo, luego de dos meses de procesamiento biológico, el humus tuvo características similares a las de un compost maduro, con baja presencia de microorganismos patógenos, así como también un leve aumento en la diversidad y equitatividad de la meso y la macrofauna.

  5. Perfil sensorial e composição físico-química de cervejas provenientes de dois segmentos do mercado brasileiro Sensorial and physical-chemical evaluation of beers deriving from two segments of Brazilian market

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    F.B. Araújo

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas seis marcas de cervejas produzidas no Brasil, das quais as marcas 1, 2, 3 e 4 foram provenientes de microcervejarias e as 5 e 6 são líderes do mercado nacional, com o objetivo de avaliar sua qualidade pelas características físico-químicas e sensoriais. A marca 1 constituiu cerveja "ale", tipo Trigo; a 2, cerveja "lager", tipo Amber; e as demais foram cervejas "lager", tipo Pilsen. As marcas 1 e 2 apresentaram concentrações mais elevadas de ácidos voláteis e foram as que evidenciaram maior intensidade do gosto amargo. Observou-se que as marcas provenientes de microcervejarias foram as que apresentaram maior intensidade dos atributos sensoriais, devendo-se ressaltar que as marcas 1 e 2 foram as que apresentaram cor, aroma de levedura, aroma de fruta, aroma de papelão, sabor oxidado, gosto doce e aroma de diacetil mais intensos. As marcas que apresentaram, mediante análise físico-química, maior concentração de acetato de etila foram as que tiveram aroma de fruta perceptível pela equipe sensorial, não sendo este atributo detectado nas marcas 3, 4, 5 e 6. O aroma de solvente não foi detectado em nenhuma das marcas avaliadas, o que indica que a concentração de álcoois superiores estava abaixo do limiar sensorial de detecção. As marcas 3, 4 e 5 foram utilizadas para avaliar a aceitação do produto, não tendo sido verificada diferença significativa (p > 0,05 entre elas, que se situaram entre os termos hedônicos "gostei muito" e "gostei ligeiramente", o que contraria o esperado, já que as microcervejarias objetivam uma cerveja diferenciada e de maior atração para o consumidor.Six brands of beer produced in Brazil, of which brands 1, 2, 3 and 4 derived from small brewery and brands 5 and 6 were leaders of the national market, were studied to evaluate their quality through physical-chemical and sensorial characteristics. Brand 1 constitutes the "ale" Wheat type and brand 2 the "lager" Amber type. The other

  6. Composição físico-química do vinho Cabernet Franc proveniente de videiras conduzidas no sistema lira aberta Physico-chemical composition of Cabernet Franc wine from vineyards conducted in the lyre system

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    Luciano Manfroi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as características físico-químicas do vinho Cabernet Franc proveniente de videiras conduzidas no sistema lira aberta durante o ciclo vegetativo de 1995/1996. O experimento foi realizado em oito vinhedos localizados nos municípios de Bento Gonçalves e Monte Belo do Sul, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os vinhos foram elaborados por microvinificação, com duas repetições para cada vinhedo, os quais foram analisados por processos físico-químicos, espectrofotometria de absorção atômica e cromatografia líquida e gasosa. Os parâmetros das variáveis mais significativas foram os seguintes: álcool 9,65%, acidez total 69 meq L-1, pH 3,46, extrato seco reduzido 16,0 g L-1, K nas cinzas 49,4%, ácido tartárico 33 meq L-1, glicerol 9,3 g L-1, prolina 669 mg L-1, antocianinas 330 mg L-1, taninos 1,19 g L-1, intensidade de cor 0,286, K 1.078 mg L-1, metanol 101,7 mg L-1 e soma dos álcoois superiores 450 mg L-1. Os resultados dos vinhos avaliados foram relativamente similares aos encontrados em vinhos Cabernet Franc da mesma região elaborados com uvas provenientes de videiras conduzidas em latada. Eles evidenciam que o sistema de condução da videira em lira aberta constitui-se como alternativa para a produção de vinho tinto fino na Serra Gaúcha.The objective of the work was to evaluate the physico-chemical characteristics of the Cabernet Franc wine from the 1995/1996 vegetative cycle. It was conducted in eight vineyards in the communes of Bento Gonçalves and Monte Belo do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. From each vineyard, two microvinifications were elaborated and wines were analysed by physicochemical, atomic absorption spetrophotometry, and liquid and gas chromatography processes. The parameters of the most significant variables were the following: alcohol 9.65%, total titratable acidity 69 meq L-1, pH 3.46, reduced dry extract 16.0 g L-1, K in the ashes 49.4%, tartaric acid 33 meq L-1

  7. Caracterização físico-química do mel de abelhas proveniente da florada do cajueiro Physicochemical characterization of the bee honey originating in the cashew flowering

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    Juliana do Nascimento Bendini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos identificar e caracterizar o mel proveniente da florada do cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.. O estudo foi realizado a partir de 24 amostras de mel coletadas em apiários distribuídos num cajueiral de aproximadamente 1000 hectares, localizado no município de Cascavel, Estado do Ceará, Brasil. As mesmas foram submetidas a análises melissopalinológicas e físico-químicas (umidade, acidez total, cinzas, açúcares totais, Lund, pH, condutividade elétrica, HMF, atividade de água e densidade. Com base nas análises melissopalinológicas, o mel foi considerado monofloral, proveniente da floradado cajueiro. Os intervalos de variação dos parâmetros físico-químicos analisados foram: 16,5-19,2% (umidade, 22-40meq kg-1 (acidez total, 0,182-0,301% (cinzas, 80,8-83,5% (açúcares totais, 1,0-2,0mL (Lund, 3,48-3,83 (pH, 179-198µS cm-1 (condutividade elétrica, 9,6-30,91mg kg-1 (HMF, 0,62-0,76 (atividade de água e 1,33-1,43g mL-1 (densidade. As análises mostraram que o mel da florada do cajueiro apresenta características físico-químicas dentro dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação vigente.The present study was aimed at the identification and characterization of the bee honey (Apis mellifera derived from cashew flowers (Anacardium occidentale L.. The study was carried out through the analysis of 24 samples of honey collected from apiaries distributed in a cashew plantation of about 1000 hectares, located in the area around the town of Cascavel, in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The samples were submitted to melissopalinological and physicochemical analysis (humidity, total acidity, ashes, total sugars, Lund, pH, electrical conductivity, HMF, water activity, and density. On the basis of the melissopalinological analysis, the honey was considered unifloral, with its origin traced to the cashew flowering. The variation intervals of the physicochemical parameters under analysis were: 16

  8. Molecular characterization of Malassezia sympodialis and Malassezia furfur from cattle with and without otitis Caracterização molecular de isolados de Malassezia sympodialis e Malassezia furfur provenientes de bovinos com e sem otite externa

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    E.R. Duarte

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A molecular study of Malassezia strains isolated from cattle with or without otitis was carried out by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD. DNA was extracted and purified from nine strains of Malassezia sympodialis and fourteen of Malassezia furfur. These microorganisms were collected from eight different bovine herds in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The RAPD analysis and phenograms did not show the formation of genetically distinct groups among the strain isolated from cattle with or without otitis raised in the same herds. Genetic heterogeneity was observed among Malassezia strains from different geographic origins. These data suggest that genetically similar M. sympodialis and M. furfur strains found as members of the normal ear microbiota could become opportunistically active in the inflammatory process in cattle.A caracterização molecular de amostras de Malassezia spp., isoladas de bovinos com e sem otite, foi realizada por meio da técnica do DNA polimórfico amplificado ao acaso (RAPD. DNAs de nove amostras de Malassezia sympodialis e quatorze de M. furfur foram extraídos e purificados. Essas amostras foram provenientes de oito diferentes rebanhos bovinos no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. A análise de RAPD e os fenogramas não revelaram a formação de grupos geneticamente distintos entre amostras isoladas de bovinos, criados no mesmo rebanho, com ou sem otite. Heterogeneidade genética foi observada entre amostras de diferentes origens geográficas. Os dados sugerem que isolados geneticamente semelhantes e membros da microbiota normal do ouvido podem participar, como oportunistas, no processo inflamatório do conduto auditivo externo de bovinos.

  9. Descrição morfológica do coração e dos vasos da base do jacaré-do-pantanal (Caiman yacare Daudin, 1802 proveniente de zoocriadouro

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    Ana C. Alves

    Full Text Available Resumo: Com este estudo objetivou-se descrever os aspectos anatômicos e histológicos do coração do jacaré-do-pantanal (Caiman yacare, proveniente de zoocriadouro. Para tanto, estudou-se 13 exemplares da espécie, os quais foram perfundidos, conservados em solução de formaldeído a 10% e submetidos às técnicas anatômicas específicas. O coração foi separado e amostras foram colhidas e submetidas à avaliação histológica. Macroscopicamente o coração é tetracavitário, e além de dois átrios e dois ventrículos, apresenta uma estrutura denominada cone arterial, do qual emergem os vasos da base do coração. Foram identificadas duas aortas, direita e esquerda, sendo que a esquerda emerge do ventrículo direito e se comunica com o tronco sistêmico direito por meio do forame de Panizza. Histologicamente o coração possui epicárdio, miocárdio e endocárdio típicos. Concluímos que a histologia do coração, no jacaré-do-pantanal, é semelhante à de outras espécies de répteis. Contudo, anatomicamente apresenta particularidades importantes, as quais representam, possivelmente, adaptações que permitiram a perpetuação da espécie.

  10. Autonomia, gênero e gravidez na adolescência: uma análise comparativa da experiência de adolescentes e mulheres jovens provenientes de camadas médias e populares em Belo Horizonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Sampaio Chacham

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, investiga-se como desigualdades de classe e de gênero atuam no sentido de reduzir o grau de autonomia de adolescentes (15 a 19 anos e mulheres jovens (20 a 24 anos, influenciando seu comportamento sexual e reprodutivo, especificamente na experiência da gravidez na adolescência. Na análise foram utilizados dados provenientes de dois inquéritos, cuja amostra total foi de 648 jovens do sexo feminino entre 15 e 24 anos de idade, 292 residentes em bairros de classe média e 356 em favelas situados na região centro-sul da cidade de Belo Horizonte, Brasil. Nos resultados, encontrou-se uma prevalência bruta de 27,3% de gravidez até os 19 anos entre as jovens residentes em favelas e de 1,7% entre as moradoras em bairros da região centro-sul de Belo Horizonte. Os dados apontam para uma relação direta entre a gravidez na adolescência com o controle e a violência por parte do parceiro. Entre aquelas residentes em favelas, 48% das que declararam ter sofrido violência física por parte de um parceiro e 58% das que declararam ter sofrido violência sexual haviam engravidado ao menos uma vez antes dos 19 anos. A associação da violência de gênero com a gravidez na adolescência se manteve presente mesmo quando controlada por classe social, ainda que seu peso fosse muito mais pronunciado entre as jovens de baixa renda. Esses resultados reforçam a importância de se aprofundar a compreensão acerca do impacto das desigualdades de classe e gênero no comportamento sexual e reprodutivo de adolescentes e mulheres jovens.

  11. EVALUACIÓN DE LOS EFLUENTES PROVENIENTES DE LA AGROINDUSTRIA DEL FIQUE EN EL MUNICIPIO DE TOTORÓ - CAUCA. EVALUATION OF THE ORIGINATING EFFLUENTS OF THE AGRO-INDUSTRY OF THE FIQUE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF TOTORÓ - CAUCA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN F DAGUA-MOSQUERA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron los efluentes provenientes de la agroindustria del fique en el río Molino del corregimiento de Paniquitá (Totoró-Cauca en tres fincas y en cuatro sitios a lo largo del río (1: Bocatoma del acueducto de Paniquitá, 2: Finca La Esperanza, 3: El Puente y 4: San José Bajo para generar alternativas de manejo. Los resultados muestran que la carga contaminante para el sitio 3 fue la DBO5 (8.42 kg/día, SST (61.16 kg/día, el 4 registró un valor de DBO5 (113.33 kg/día, SST (70.76 kg/día y el 1 presenta las características del nacimiento de un río. Para las tres fincas evaluadas registraron valores promedios de DBO5 (3113.88 kg/día, SST (3673.13 kg/día.The originating effluents of the agro-industry of fique in the Molino river of the group of judges of Paniquitá (Totoró-Cauca in three farms and four sites along river (1: Of the aqueduct of Paniquitá, 2: Farm La Esperanza, 3: El Puente, 4: San José Bajo generating handling alternatives. The results show that the polluting load for site 3 was the DBO5 (8,42 kg/día, SST (61,16 kg/día, the 4 registered a value of DBO5 (113,33 kg/día, SST (70,76 kg/ día and the 1 presents/displays the characteristics of the birth of a river. For the three evaluated farms they registered values averages of DBO5 (3113,88 kg/día, SST (3673,13 kg/día.

  12. Mineralização do nitrogênio proveniente da aplicação do resíduo da indústria processadora de goiabas em Argissolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Antunes de Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Informações sobre a mineralização de subprodutos são importantes para o correto manejo desses materiais em áreas agrícolas. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a mineralização do nitrogênio proveniente do resíduo da indústria processadora de goiabas, aplicado em Argissolo cultivado com goiabeiras. Amostras do solo mais o subproduto foram acondicionados em frascos de polietileno com capacidade de 0,25 dm³. Foram pesados 100 g de solo mais o resíduo referente a cada tratamento (doses do subproduto: 0; 9; 18 e 36 t ha-1, sendo tal procedimento realizado em triplicata. O período máximo de incubação foi de 11 semanas, analisando-se as amostras nos seguintes tempos: 0; 7; 14; 28; 42; 56; 70; 84; 98; 112 e 126 dias. A umidade foi corrigida para 70% da capacidade de retenção de água do solo, sendo monitorada diariamente através de pesagens dos potes. Nos tempos estabelecidos realizou-se a desmontagem de três frascos correspondentes a cada tratamento, determinando-se o nitrogênio inorgânico. Pode-se afirmar que a mineralização do N ou a liberação é lenta, ou seja, não há rápida disponibilização de nitrogênio. No período avaliado, 126 dias, a fração média de mineralização foi de 23% e, a meia vida média de 73 dias.

  13. Un asteroide proveniente de la Luna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancredi, G.

    El descubrimiento de un débil objeto en movimiento por el telescopio Spacewatch (un instrumento dedicado a la búsqueda de Asteroides Cercanos a la Tierra) en 1991, ha generado una gran controversia en la comunidad planetaria. El objeto, denominado 1991 VG, tiene elementos orbitales llamativamente similares a los de la Tierra, lo que ha llevado a B. G. Marsden a aventurar:``El objeto podría ser una nave espacial en retorno (IAUC 5387)". Luego de analizar las características dinámicas de 1991 VG y las diferentes hipótesis sobre su origen, favorecemos la alternativa de que el objeto es un gran fragmento de material eyectado de la Luna durante un reciente impacto (en las últimas decenas de miles de años). El hallazgo en 1983 en la Antártida de meteoritos con composición tipo lunar, confirma la posibilidad de que material de la superficie del satélite puede ser eyectado a velocidades superiores a la de escape del sistema Tierra-Luna y alcance órbitas heliocéntricas. Los elementos orbitales de 1991 VG corresponden a los valores alcanzados por partículas que apenas escapan de la gravedad lunar y entran en órbitas heliocéntricas a través del punto Lagrangiano exterior del sistema Tierra-Sol.

  14. Susceptibilidad y síntomas respiratorios asociados a la exposición a dióxido de carbono y dióxido de azufre provenientes del volcán Turrialba, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Yglesias-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El volcán Turrialba ha mantenido en los últimos años una actividad de desgasificación, y paulatinamente se han mostrado los efectos de este dinamismo sobre la vegetación e infraestructuras de las comunidades aledañas. Entre las sustancias que conforman esta actividad de desgasificación se encuentra el dióxido de carbono y el dióxido de azufre que se han ido incrementando y son capaces de afectar la salud respiratoria de quienes se exponen a ellas. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar la proclividad de las poblaciones aledañas de desarrollar síntomas respiratorios ante las exposiciones vía aérea de dióxido de carbono y dióxido de azufre provenientes del volcán Turrialba. La investigación consistió en un estudio transversal, descriptivo, analítico y cuantitativo. Se trabajó con ocho comunidades, y se obtuvo una muestra de 502 personas. Las comunidades estudiadas fueron: Hacienda La Fuente, La Central, La Silvia, Miravalles, Finca El Retiro, Guayabo Arriba, Las Virtudes y La Alegría. Esta última fue la comunidad control. Los estratos con mayor riesgo de presentar molestias en la garganta cuando hay exposición a gases volcánicos fueron los niños y adultos mayores (OR=1,93, mujeres (OR=1,86, personas que emplean varios tipos de cocina (OR=2,07, individuos con ocupaciones al aire libre (OR=1,51 y personas con ingresos iguales o mayores a los USD $475 (OR=2,09. Los estratos con mayor riesgo de presentar molestias en la nariz fueron los niños y adultos mayores (OR=1,37, mujeres (OR=1,83, personas que emplean cocina eléctrica (OR=2,23, individuos con ocupaciones dentro de edificaciones (2,12 y personas con ingresos inferiores a los USD $475 (OR=2,30.

  15. Obtenção e caracterização de carbono ativado a partir de resíduos provenientes de bandas de rodagem Preparation and characterization of activated carbons from thread of tire waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene T. S. Garcia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi investigada a preparação de carbonos ativados através da pirólise de composições elastoméricas provenientes de resíduos de bandas de rodagem de pneus de automóveis. O material foi processado nas temperaturas de 500, 620 e 700 °C, em atmosfera de N2, utilizando-se o hidróxido de potássio como agente ativador. Os produtos resultantes foram caracterizados pela fisisorção de N2 a 77 K, através de isotermas de Brunauer, Emmet e Teller e por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Esses carbonos ativados apresentam estruturas típicas de sólidos mesoporosos e a temperatura de pirólise tem grande influência na área específica e distribuição de volume de poros. O carbono ativado obtido a 700 °C apresentou maior área específica e estrutura porosa compacta. Esse material apresenta melhor desempenho frente à adsorção de azul de metileno, removendo até 1,0 x 10-1 g de corante por grama de carbono utilizado, em tempos inferiores a 300 s.In this work, the preparation of activated carbons through the pyrolysis of elastomers, arising from car threads of tire waste, was investigated. The material was processed at 500, 620 and 700 °C, under N2 atmosphere, by using potassium hydroxide as activating agent. The resulting products were characterized by physisorption of N2 at 77 K, through Brunauer, Emmet and Teller isotherms, and scanning electron microscopy. The carbons obtained display a characteristic structure of mesoporous materials and the pyrolysis temperature has strong influence on the specific area and porous volume distribution. The activated carbon obtained at 700 °C has high specific area and compact structure. It exhibited high performance for adsorption of methylene blue solution, removing 1.1 x 10-1 g of the dye per gram of carbon in less than 300 s.

  16. Physiological and sanity seed quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. from Goias state / Qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. provenientes do estado de Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Hilal Moraes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a fabacea sufficiently spread out in all domestic territory. However, the quality of its seeds represents one of the main causes of low productivity in the beans farmings in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate physiological and sanitary seed qualities of eleven bean cultivars. The physiological seed quality was evaluated trough standard germination and vigor tests. The sanitary seed quality was evaluated through two tests: blotter test was employed to evaluate fungi incidence and “Koch & Menten” method was employed to observe Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary occurrence. Xamego, BRS Valente, Bambu and Pérola had the best results of physiological tests. Jalo Precoce, Roxo 90, Corrente and Aporé had no good results of vigor and germination, besides presenting the lowest indices of died seeds. Fusarium sp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium sp., Phoma sp., Rhizopus sp. and Botrytis sp. were the fungi detected in the sanity tests.O feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. é uma fabacea bastante difundida em todo território nacional. A baixa qualidade de suas sementes representa uma das principais causas de baixa produtividade nas lavouras de feijão no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de nove cultivares de feijão provenientes do Estado de Goiás. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi avaliada através dos testes de germinação e vigor, e a análise sanitária, através dos métodos de papel de filtro, para verificar a ocorrência de fungos em geral, e do método de Koch e Menten, para a avaliação de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary. As cultivares que tiveram os melhores desempenhos nos testes fisiológicos foram Xamego, BRS Radiante, Bambu e Pérola. As cultivares Jalo Precoce, Roxo 90, Corrente e Aporé apresentaram baixos índices de vigor e germinação de plântulas normais, além de apresentarem os maiores

  17. Caracterização de sedimento proveniente de dragagem de canais pluviais do município de Salvador-BA visando sua utilização em cerâmica estrutural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. C. Santos

    Full Text Available Resumo Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar o sedimento proveniente de dragagem de canais pluviais (SCP, do município de Salvador-BA, visando sua máxima substituição pela argila em cerâmica estrutural, uma vez que essa mistura binária faz parte do projeto piloto da massa padrão, na pesquisa da formulação de blocos intertravados cerâmicos. Inicialmente o sedimento foi submetido aos ensaios de índice de plasticidade, analise química por fluorescência de raios X, análise mineralógica por difração de raios X, analise térmica e granulométrica. A morfologia do material foi analisada utilizando-se microscopia eletrônica de varredura, acompanhada de espectroscopia de energia dispersiva. Em seguida foram feitas adições de sedimento (SCP a uma argila do município de Candeias-BA, nas proporções de 10, 20, 30 e 40% em massa. Foram preparados corpos de prova por prensagem uniaxial nas dimensões 60 mm x 20 mm, com pressão de compactação de 25 MPa, sendo que o material foi umidificado com 8% de água. A queima foi realizada em forno resistivo a 850, 950 e 1050 °C, com taxa de aquecimento de 5 °C/min. As propriedades avaliadas foram retração linear, absorção de água e módulo de ruptura à flexão. Os resultados indicaram que é possível a utilização do SCP em cerâmica estrutural, mediante os pré-requisitos exigidos em normas, na fabricação de telhas, blocos de vedação e tijolos.

  18. Vigor de sementes de coentro (Coriandrum sativum L. provenientes de sistemas orgânico e convencional Evaluation of force of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. seeds from the organic and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.D. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O coentro (Coriandrum sativum L. é uma hortaliça amplamente consumida no Brasil como condimento. É muito importante, especialmente para a horticultura do Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. É provável que, em relação ao valor de mercado, seja a segunda hortaliça folhosa em importância para o Brasil, com grande volume de importação e produção nacional de sementes. Problemas relacionados ao baixo vigor das sementes e ao estabelecimento da cultura são uma constante nesta espécie. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a influência do sistema de produção orgânico e convencional sobre o potencial fisiológico das sementes de coentro. Foram avaliados lotes de sementes de coentro, cultivar Verdão, provenientes de sistemas de cultivo convencional e orgânico. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições de cinqüenta sementes. Foram avaliados o grau de umidade, porcentagem de emergência, primeira contagem do teste de emergência, peso de mil sementes, índice de velocidade de emergência de plântulas e teste de condutividade. As avaliações realizadas mostraram que os sistemas de cultivo de modo geral não diferem entre si quanto ao potencial fisiológico das sementes.The coriander (Coriandum sativum L. is an herb widely consumed in Brazil as a condiment. It is very important, particularly for horticulture in North and Northeast of Brazil. IT is likely that, in terms of market value, it is the second herb hardwood dusts in importance for Brazil, losing only to the lettuce and the high volume of imports and domestic production of seed. Problems related to the low seed vigor and the establishment of culture are a constant in this species. In the present work lots of coriander seeds, the cv. Verdão, from systems of conventional and organic were evaluated, having as objective is to verify the influence of the physiological potential of the seeds on the initial development of

  19. Susceptibilidad y síntomas respiratorios asociados a la exposición a dióxido de carbono y dióxido de azufre provenientes del volcán Turrialba, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Yglesias-González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El volcán Turrialba ha mantenido en los últimos años una actividad de desgasificación, y paulatinamente se han mostrado los efectos de este dinamismo sobre la vegetación e infraestructuras de las comunidades aledañas. Entre las sustancias que conforman esta actividad de desgasificación se encuentra el dióxido de carbono y el dióxido de azufre que se han ido incrementando y son capaces de afectar la salud respiratoria de quienes se exponen a ellas. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar la proclividad de las poblaciones aledañas de desarrollar síntomas respiratorios ante las exposiciones vía aérea de dióxido de carbono y dióxido de azufre provenientes del volcán Turrialba. La investigación consistió en un estudio transversal, descriptivo, analítico y cuantitativo. Se trabajó con ocho comunidades, y se obtuvo una muestra de 502 personas. Las comunidades estudiadas fueron: Hacienda La Fuente, La Central, La Silvia, Miravalles, Finca El Retiro, Guayabo Arriba, Las Virtudes y La Alegría. Esta última fue la comunidad control. Los estratos con mayor riesgo de presentar molestias en la garganta cuando hay exposición a gases volcánicos fueron los niños y adultos mayores (OR=1,93, mujeres (OR=1,86, personas que emplean varios tipos de cocina (OR=2,07, individuos con ocupaciones al aire libre (OR=1,51 y personas con ingresos iguales o mayores a los USD $475 (OR=2,09. Los estratos con mayor riesgo de presentar molestias en la nariz fueron los niños y adultos mayores (OR=1,37, mujeres (OR=1,83, personas que emplean cocina eléctrica (OR=2,23, individuos con ocupaciones dentro de edificaciones (2,12 y personas con ingresos inferiores a los USD $475 (OR=2,30.

  20. Utilização de resíduo de serragem de granito proveniente do estado do Espírito Santo em cerâmica vermelha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira J. M. S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi utilizar um resíduo de serragem de granito, proveniente da indústria de pedras ornamentais do estado do Espírito Santo, como aditivo na fabricação de produtos cerâmicos para construção civil. Este resíduo é um material não biodegradável que quando descartado gera poluição e degrada o meio ambiente. Assim, uma amostra deste material foi selecionada de modo que suas características com respeito a composição química, difração de raios X, análise de tamanho de partícula, massa específica real e plasticidade pudessem ser estudadas. Foram preparadas misturas contendo até 10% em peso de resíduo, e sinterizadas em sete diferentes temperaturas entre 850 ºC e 1150 ºC. A evolução na formação de fases cristalinas nos corpos cerâmicos durante a sinterização foi acompanhada por DRX. As propriedades físico-mecânicas foram determinadas em função da temperatura de sinterização e % de resíduo adicionado. Os resultados revelaram que o resíduo é um material polimineral não plástico constituído basicamente por sílica, feldspatos, mica e calcita. Uma série de transformações de fases ocorreram durante a sinterização. Além do mais, os corpos sinterizados contendo resíduo de serragem de granito têm uso provável em cerâmica vermelha, contribuindo para a minimização de resíduos e desenvolvimento auto-sustentado.

  1. Caracterização tecnológica de jabuticabas 'Sabará' provenientes de diferentes regiões de cultivo Physico chemical characteristcs of 'Sabara' jaboticaba provenients of differents regions of cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Luís de Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Características fisico-químicas de jabuticabas 'sabará', provenientes de 10 diferentes regiões de cultivo localizadas no Estado de São Paulo, foram analisadas de agosto a setembro de 2001 para determinação de sua qualidade. De cada local de cultivo foram colhidos 3 kg de frutos. Diferenças significativas foram observadas em todas as características avaliadas. A média de peso por fruto variou de 3,56 a 7,40g, e os frutos oriundos de pomar situado na cidade de Casa Branca - SP foram os que apresentaram os maiores pesos. As médias do índice de formato e do fruto e do diâmetro oscilaram de 0,962 a 0,990 e de 2,45 a 1,73 cm, respectivamente. A coloração dos frutos foi mais roxa-escura do que roxa. A firmeza dos frutos variou de firme a mole, e os frutos colhidos em pomares situados nas regiões de Casa Branca - SP, Pedregulho - SP e Miguelópolis -SP apresentaram-se mais firmes, sugerindo um maior potencial de conservação pós-colheita. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais variou de 11,6 a 17,9, o pH de 2,91 a 3,70 sendo maiores em jabuticabas colhidas em pomares situados nas cidades de Guaíra-SP e Ituverava-SP. A acidez total titulável, expressa em g de ácido cítrico por 100g, variou de 0,888 a 1,625, os teores de vitamina C variaram de 14,86 a 24,67 mg de ácido ascórbico por 100g, e os de carboidrato solúvel de 0,91 a 11,39g de glicose por 100g, respectivamente. Os resultados levam a concluir que as jabuticabas provenientes de pomares situados na cidade de Casa Branca-SP apresentaram melhor qualidade, sendo adequadas tanto para a indústria como para o consumo de fruta fresca e com maior potencial de conservação pós-colheita.The physical and chemical characteristics of 'sabara' jaboticaba from 10 differents regions of cultivation in São Paulo state were determined from August to September 2001 to evaluated its quality. The average fruit weight varied from 3.56 to 7.40g and it was the highest in jaboticaba fruits harvested

  2. Passive constituents dispersion simulation in Solimoes river; Simulacao de dispersao de constituintes passivos no rio Solimoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Junior, Audalio Rebelo; Assad, Luiz Paulo de Freitas; Silva, Ricardo Marcelo da; Palagano, Mariana Ramalho; Decco, Hatsue Takanaca de; Mano, Manlio Fernandes; Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (LAMMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Modelagem de Processos Marinhos e Atmosfericos; Ferreira, Paulo Gustavo Crisostomo [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents a passive constituents transport simulation in Solimoes river, that is part of Piatam Project modeling activities. The fluvial hydraulic was done using the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) for the Solimoes Terminal (TESOL) proximity region. An ADCP section was used as initial condition in one of the model boundaries. The velocity field was compared with five ADCP section collected along the simulated river and similar velocity magnitude was observed. Then this dynamic field was used to initialize the oil transport model NICOIL, the one that was used to simulate a 1000 m{sup 3} of soft oil spill (42 deg API), the Urucu type oil. Simultaneously to the ADCP data collection an in situ observation has been done to observe the oil spill spreading, using popcorn liberated in the river. The popcorn spill trajectory observed was similar to the one modeled. (author)

  3. Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e laboratoriais da leishmaniose visceral em cães (Canis familiaris) (Linnaeus, 1758) provenientes da zona urbana do município de Bom Jesus- PI e região metropolitana do Recife- PE, Brasil.

    OpenAIRE

    Jamile Prado dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    A Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (LVC) no Brasil é causada por Leishmania infantum a qual é relatada em várias regiões. O objetivo desta pesquisafoi verificar aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e laboratoriais da leishmaniose visceral em cães (Canis familiaris) (Linnaeus, 1758) provenientes da zona urbana do município de Bom Jesus PI e Região Metropolitana de Recife - PE, Brasil. Cães do município de Bom Jesus, Piauí, e do bairro de Muribeca, município de Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco...

  4. ESTIMACIÓN DE LAS EMISIONES DE CONTAMINANTES ATMOSFÉRICOS PROVENIENTES DE FUENTES MÓVILES EN EL ÁREA URBANA DE ENVIGADO, COLOMBIA ESTIMATIVA DAS EMISSÕES DE CONTAMINANTES ATMOSFÉRICOS PROVENIENTES DE FONTES MÓVEIS NA ÁREA URBANA DE ENVIGADO, COLÔMBIA ESTIMATION OF THE EMISSIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS FROM MOBILE SOURCES IN THE URBAN AREA OF ENVIGADO, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Londoño

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo de investigación presenta los resultados de la estimación de contaminantes atmosféricos (CO, NOx, SO2, PM10 y COV provenientes de fuentes móviles en la zona urbana del municipio de Envigado para el año 2010. Se utilizó información de vehículos matriculados en el municipio, aforos, distribución y actividad vehiculares. Las emisiones fueron estimadas mediante los factores establecidos en el método IVE que mejor se ajustaron a los patrones de movilidad, características del parque automotor y tipo de combustibles presentes en la zona de estudio. Como resultado, fue posible estimar las emisiones horarias y diarias de los contaminantes analizados, y con la ayuda de un sistema SIG, se representaron gráficamente. A partir de los resultados, se evidenció que las mayores emisiones se presentaron sobre las vías con mayor tránsito vehicular (Carrera 50 o Avenida Regional, carrera 48 o Avenida Las Vegas, carrera 43A o Avenida El Poblado y vía paralela a la quebrada La Ayurá; el mayor aporte lo hace el monóxido de carbono (CO con 18,4 t d-1 (71,3%, la hora del día con mayor emisión de este contaminante es las 12:00 horas con 1,4 t h-1 (7,4% y la categoría vehicular que más aporta a los niveles ambientales con este contaminante es Autos con 8,3 ton d-1 (32,7%.Este trabalho de pesquisa apresenta os resultados da estimativa de contaminantes atmosféricos (CO, NOx, SO2, PM10 e COV provenientes de fontes móveis na zona urbana do município de Envigado para o ano 2010. Utilizou-se informação de veículos matriculados no município, contagens de tráfego, distribuição e atividade veicular. As emissões foram estimadas mediante os fatores estabelecidos no método IVE que melhor se ajustaram aos padrões de mobilidade, características do parque automotor e tipo de combustíveis presentes na zona de estudo. Como resultado, foi possível estimar as emissões horárias e diárias dos contaminantes analisados, e com a ajuda de um

  5. Reaproveitamento de resíduo sólido proveniente do setor siderúrgico em cerâmica vermelha Utilization of solid waste from siderurgical industry in red ceramic

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    G. E. Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho mostra os resultados de um estudo sobre a incorporação de resíduo sólido proveniente do setor siderúrgico na formulação de uma massa argilosa utilizada na fabricação de cerâmica vermelha. As massas preparadas continham os seguintes teores de resíduo de siderurgia: 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 e 3,0% em peso. Os resultados de difração de raios X, distribuição de tamanho de partículas e limites de Atterberg são apresentados para as massas argilosas. Os corpos-de-prova foram conformados por extrusão a vácuo e queimados nas temperaturas de 850 ºC, 900 ºC, 950 ºC, 1000 ºC e 1050 ºC. As propriedades físico-mecânicas foram determinadas em função da temperatura de queima e do conteúdo de resíduo de siderurgia. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o resíduo sólido de siderurgia adicionado modificou as características físico-químicas e, também, as propriedades da massa argilosa pura. As massas cerâmicas contendo resíduo de siderurgia têm potencial para serem empregadas na fabricação de produtos de cerâmica vermelha para a construção civil.This work presents the results of a study on the incorporation of solid waste from siderurgical industry in the formulation of a clayey mass used in the production of red ceramics. The prepared masses contained the following amounts of siderurgy waste: 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0wt%. The results of X-ray diffraction, granulometry and Atterberg's limits are presented for the ceramic masses. Test specimens were conformed by vacuum extrusion and fired at temperatures of 850 ºC, 900 ºC, 950 ºC, 1000 ºC and 1050ºC. The physical-mechanical properties were determined as a function of firing temperature and content of siderurgy waste. The results indicate that the addition of siderurgy solid waste modify the physic-chemical characteristics of the clayey mass and the ceramic properties of the test specimens. The results suggest also that the ceramic masses

  6. Tolerância ao sal e às altas temperaturas de estirpes de Sinorhizobium provenientes de zonas secas do Alentejo Salt and temperature tolerance of Sinorhizobium strains isolated from dry environments in Alentejo

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    P. Fareleira

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como principal objectivo a obtenção de estirpes de rizóbio adequadas à nodulação de luzernas anuais e adaptadas a sobreviver nas condições ambientais susceptíveis de ocorrer em solos degradados. Dado que as populações de rizóbio apresentam variabilidade considerável no que respeita à tolerância a factores ambientais, os estudos focaram-se na pesquisa e na selecção de estirpes resistentes a condições adversas. Efectuaram-se colheitas de solos em diversas zonas no sul do País, seleccionando-se locais afectados por secura, temperaturas elevadas e, pontualmente, salinidade. A partir destes solos, isolaram-se estirpes de rizóbio, usando como planta hospedeira a luzerna anual Medicago polymorpha. Estudaram-se os efeitos de condições de stresse ambiental, como a salinidade e as altas temperaturas, no crescimento das estirpes isoladas. Dos 41 isolamentos analisados, 11 apresentaram crescimento em meio con-tendo 1,4 M de cloreto de sódio e suplementado com 10% de extracto de terra, e 22 cresceram quando incubadas a 45 ºC em meio sem aditivos. Três estirpes mostraram ter capacidade para crescer sob os efeitos conjuntos da salinidade e da alta temperatura. A análise de extractos etanólicos de estirpes tolerantes à salinidade revelou, na maior parte dos casos, a acumulação, induzida pelo sal, dos solutos compatíveis de Sinorhizobium: o dipéptido N - acetilglutaminilglutamina amida, vários tipos de betaínas, trealose, glutamato e prolina. A observação, por NMR de 31P in vivo, de uma estirpe tolerante ao sal, proveniente de um solo xistoso de baixo teor em fósforo, mostrou a presença de níveis elevados de reservas intracelulares de fosfato inorgânico (polifosfato, sugerindo um bom potencial para utilização em solos onde os riscos de salinização se conjuguem com deficiências em fósforo assimilável.The main objective of this work was to obtain rhizobial strains able to nodulate annual medics and

  7. Composición química y calidad sensorial de jamones curados provenientes de cerdos alimentados con una dieta rica en ácido oleico y pasturas

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    Ana Echenique

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available La dieta animal es uno de los factores que más incide sobre la calidad de los productos porcinos. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de la utilización de semilla de girasol de alto oleico (SGAO y pasturas sobre la calidad química y sensorial del jamón curado. Se analizaron jamones provenientes de 60 cerdos faenados a los 145 kg. Éstos fueron sometidos a cuatro tratamientos, consistentes en el suministro de dietas con diferente aporte lipídico en cantidad y composición química, con y sin acceso a pasturas: i ración estándar, sin pasturas; ii ración estándar, con pasturas; iii ración con SGAO, sin pasturas, y iv ración con SGAO, con pasturas.Se evaluaron parámetros físico-químicos y sensoriales de jamones obtenidos luego de un curado tradicional de nueve meses. La ración con SGAO dio lugar a jamones con una mayor proporción de C18:1(9 y menor de ácidos grasos saturados en relación a la estándar. Las pasturas incidieron sobre el color y determinaron una mayor proporción de C18:3(3 y C22:6(3. Se concluye que con una dieta compuesta por SGAO y pasturas se obtienen jamones con mayor proporción de ácidos grasos oleico y 3 yrelaciones 6/3 más favorables para la salud humana, sin que se vean afectados atributos sensoriales.Palabras clave: Porcinos, sistema de alimentación, ácidos grasos, calidad.AbstractOne of the most important factors that determine the quality of pork products is the pig´s diet. This study was performed to evaluate the use of sun ower seed with high oleic acid (HOSS and the use of pastures on the chemical and sensorial quality of dry-cured ham. Dry-cured hams from 60 pigs slaughtered at 145 kg were analyzed. These animals were fed with two diets with different lipid content and chemical composition, and with and without access to pastures: i standard diet without pastures;ii standard diet with pastures; iii diet with HOSS without pastures and iv diet with HOSS with pastures. Dry-cured hams obtained after

  8. Qualidade de sementes de marcela (Achyrocline satureioides provenientes de duas populações do Rio Grande do Sul Seed quality of marcela (Achyrocline satureioides of two populations from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Flávia Charão Marques

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Marcela é uma planta medicinal de largo uso popular, cujas propriedades despertam interesse da indústria farmacêutica. Com o objetivo de avaliar sementes de diferentes procedências e épocas de coleta, aquênios de marcela foram coletados em Eldorado do Sul e Viamão/RS, em 11 de março; 24 de março e 11 de abril. Os aquênios foram classificados em cheios, intermediários e chochos, conforme seu tamanho, coloração e rugosidade do pericarpo. A umidade foi determinada pelo método da estufa a 105ºC (± 3ºC/24h, o vigor foi avaliado pelo teste de condutividade elétrica e velocidade de germinação. A germinação foi testada a 20ºC e iluminação constante. Os lotes de 24 de março reuniram melhores características, pois aliaram maior quantidade de sementes cheias (58%, com vigor e germinação (64% satisfatórios. Sementes de 11 de abril, embora tenham atingido maior germinação (82%, apresentaram grande quantidade de sementes chochas (49%, baixando a qualidade do lote. Em 11 de março, as sementes apresentaram significativamente maior umidade, caracterizando sua imaturidade. Os lotes coletados em Eldorado do Sul/RS apresentaram qualidade superior àqueles provenientes de Viamão/RS, evidenciando diferenças populacionais. A melhor época de coleta foi em 24 de março; a maturação das sementes parece estar relacionada à senescência da planta mãe.Marcela is a plant used in folk medicine in Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil, whose properties are important to pharmaceutical industry. With the objective of evaluating seeds of different origins and collection times, achenes of marcela were collected in Eldorado do Sul and Viamão/RS, in March 11; March 24 and April 11. Achenes were classified in full, intermediary and shrivelled, according to size and characteristic of pericarp. Moisture was determined by the owen method at 105ºC (± 3ºC/24h, the vigor was evaluated by the test of electric conductivity and germination velocity. Germination

  9. Ultrastructural analysis of bovine oocytes from ovarian follicles with different diametersAnálise ultra-estrutural de oócitos bovinos provenientes de folículos ovarianos com diferentes diâmetros

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    Cesar Roberto Esper

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In vitro embryo production is an important technique for facilitating the reproduction of animals with high genetic merit. The greatest challenge for the reproducibility of this technique is the quality of the oocyte that is submitted for in vitro maturation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ultrastructural characteristics of oocytes from follicles of different diameters using transmission electron microscopy. The animals were divided into 2 groups and were given a single i.m. injection of 250 IU FSH (Pluset, Serono, Italy. To synchronize the follicular growth, all follicles > 2 mm were aspirated during the estrous cycle, which was considered day zero (D0. Group 1 (G1; n = 4 received FSH on day 1 (D1, and the 2- to 5-mm follicles were aspirated on day 2 (D2. The animals in group 2 (G2; n = 5 received FSH on day 2 (D2, and their 10- to 15-mm follicles were aspirated on day 5 (D5. After aspiration, the oocytes from both groups were fixed and prepared for ultrastructural analysis. The oocytes analyzed from both groups had similar ultrastructural characteristics. The presence and distribution of organelles in the cytoplasm of the oocytes did not differ between groups, suggesting that, in relation to the ultrastructural characteristics, oocytes from 2 to 5 mm and 10 to 15 mm follicles are similar.A produção in vitro de embriões é uma técnica importante para facilitar a reprodução de animais com elevado mérito genético. O maior desafio para a reprodutibilidade desta técnica é a qualidade do oócito destinado à maturação in vitro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características ultra-estruturais de oócitos provenientes de folículos com diferentes diâmetros por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos e receberam uma única injeção im de 250 UI de FSH (Pluset, Serono, Itália. Para sincronizar o crescimento folicular, todos os folículos > 2 mm foram aspirados durante o ciclo

  10. In Vitro Propagation of Heliconia bihai (L. L. from Zygotic Embryos Propagação In vitro de Heliconia bihai (L. L. provenientes de embriões zigóticos

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    Cláudia Ulisses

    2010-03-01

    embriões inoculados desenvolveram em plantas quando cultivados em meio ½MS com sacarose, contrastando com 41% cultivados no mesmo meio nutritivo acrescido de glucose. Na fase de multiplicação, as plantas cultivadas em meio ½MS acrescido de 2.5 mg L-1 de BAP apresentaram maior formação de gemas laterais. A análise isoenzimática apresentou diferença na intensidade de coloração e migração de algumas bandas. Esse comportamento pode estar associado com a diferença fisiológica relacionada à idade entre a planta mãe e as plantas provenientes do cultivo de embrião in vitro.

  11. Endoparasitos em cobaias (Cavia porcellus) (Mammalia, Rodentia, Caviidae) provenientes de biotérios de criação e experimentação do município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Endoparasites in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) (Mammalia, Rodentia, Caviidae) from breeding and experimentation animal housing of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Casartelli Alves; Cleide Cristina Apolinário Borges; Sidnei da Silva; Sebastião Enes Reis Couto; Rodrigo Caldas Menezes

    2007-01-01

    Foi realizado um levantamento sobre a prevalência e intensidade de infecção de endoparasitos em cobaias convencionais de linhagem Short Hair provenientes de biotérios de criação (A) e experimentação (B) do município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, avaliando-se a eficácia das medidas de prevenção entre eles. Para a realização do estudo, utilizou-se exame direto de mucosa e do conteúdo intestinal, a técnica de tricromo de WHEATLEY e exames coproparasitológicos pelas técnicas de Ritchie e Kinyoun. Os...

  12. Strain Dependence of the Frequencies and the Thermal Expansion of the Hexagonal Close-Packed Lattice; Variations, en Fonction de la Deformation, des Frequences et de la Dilatation Thermique du Reseau a Structure Hexagonale Compacte; Zavisimost' chastot i teplovogo rasshireniya geksagonal'noj reshetki s plotnoj upakovkoj ot napryazheniya; Variacion de las Frecuencias y de la Dilatacion Termica de la Red Hexagonal Compacta en Funcion de la Deformacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, R.; Ramji Rao, R. [Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (India)

    1965-04-15

    que la grandeur de cette difference soit independante des valeurs de m et n. En tenant compte d'une interaction avec des voisins plus eloignes, on peut s'attendre a une reduction de cette difference. Les auteurs comparent ces resultats theoriques aux resultats experimentaux obtenus avec le magnesium. (author) [Spanish] Recientemente se ha medido la dilatacion termica anisotropa de algunos metales de estructura hexagonal. Para desarrollar la teoria de la dilatacion termica anisotropa de las redes hexagonales compactas, es necesario estudiar la influencia de las deformaciones sobre las frecuencias de esas redes. Los autores han elegido una red hexagonal compacta con interaccion central de los atomos mas proximos de la forma Empty-Set = -a/{gamma}{sup m} + b/{gamma}{sup n} . Las deformaciones aplicadas son: 1) una dilatacion {zeta} a lo largo del eje z, y 2) una dilatacion uniforme bidimensional #Greek Lunate Epsilon Symbol#' a lo largo del plano basal. Estas deformaciones son las que intervienen en la teoria de la dilatacion termica, y ofrecen la ventaja de que no entranan desplazamientos interreticulares. Los autores determinan los parametros de Grueneisen {gamma}'{sub i} = - Partial-Differential log{omega}{sub i}/ Partial-Differential #Greek Lunate Epsilon Symbol#' y {gamma}'{sub i}' = - Partial-Differential log{omega}{sub i}/ Partial-Differential {zeta} para vectores de onda que siguen determinadas direcciones de simetria, comprobando que para las ramas acusticas estos parametros cambian considerablemente con la direccion y ofrecen un amplio margen de variacion. Una de las ramas acusticas transversales del plano basal tiene un valor negativo de {gamma}'' sean cuales fueren los valores de m y n. Se ha establecido la relacion de dependencia existente entre los momentos {mu}{sub 2}, {mu}{sub 4} y {mu}{sub 6} las deformaciones antes mencionadas. Se han determinado los limites superiores e inferiores de temperatura de los parametros de Grueneisen equivalentes {gamma}' y

  13. Evaluation of the dispersion of oil refinery liquid effluent; Avaliacao da dispersao de efluente liquido de refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Silva, Ariovaldo Jose da; Oliveira, Valdenilson Jose Alves de; Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Microbiologia. Inst. de Biociencias], e-mail: adrianomariano@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-15

    In this paper, two techniques to evaluate the dispersion of the effluent of an oil refinery are presented. Thus, the dispersion plume was characterized by field measurements of electrical conductivity and by computational simulation (Cormix simulator). An oil refinery whose effluent is discharged on the Atibaia river (Paulinia/SP) is taken as study case. The behavior of the effluent was evaluated until 1000 m after the discharge. The results show that the measurement of electrical conductivity is a suitable technique to evaluate the dispersion of oil refinery wastewaters, since they have high conductivity and for this reason there is a strong contrast between the values of the wastewater and the ambient background. Furthermore, other water quality parameters had a dispersion behavior similar to that shown by the conductivity. The dispersion plume generated by the computational simulator showed high concordance with the field data. In this manner, computational simulation can be a useful tool to evaluate the dispersion of discharges considering hypothetical scenarios, as well as to design the discharge channel. (author)

  14. Aspectos micológicos e suscetibilidade in vitro de leveduras do gênero Candida em pacientes HIV-positivos provenientes do Estado de Mato Grosso Mycological aspects and susceptibility in vitro the yeast of the genus Candida from HIV-positive patients in the State of Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Cometti Favalessa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A candidíase é uma das infecções fúngicas mais frequentes entre os pacientes infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana. O presente estudo objetivou a caracterização das leveduras do gênero Candida de distintas amostras clínicas, provenientes de pacientes HIV - positivos, assim como a determinação do perfil de suscetibilidade in vitro a cinco drogas antifúngicas. MÉTODOS: A caracterização dos isolados de Candida sp foi realizada através da metodologia clássica, testes bioquímicos (zimograma e auxanograma e morfológicos (prova do tubo germinativo e microcultivo em lâmina. Também, foram realizadas a técnica genotípica (PCR e identificação pelo método comercial API 20C AUX (BioMeriéux. Para a determinação do perfil de suscetibilidade in vitro, foram utilizadas cinco drogas antifúngicas (cetoconazol, fluconazol, itraconazol, voriconazol e anfotericina B, através do método comercialmente disponível - Etest. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 105 isolados de leveduras do gênero Candida provenientes de 102 pacientes infectados pelo vírus HIV. Destes, foram caracterizadas 82 (78,1% Candida albicans, 8 (7,6% Candida parapsilosis, 8 (7,6% Candida tropicalis, 4 (3,8% Candida krusei, 2 (1,9% Candida glabrata e 1 (1% Candida guilliermondii. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando o perfil geral de sensibilidade, 60% dos isolados foram suscetíveis a todos os antifúngicos testados, porém as espécies C. tropicalis e C. krusei demonstraram uma tendência a valores mais elevados de CIMs para os azóis do que os encontrados paraC. albicans, sugerindo resistência.INTRODUCTION: Candidiasis is one of the most common fungal infections among patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus. The present study aimed to characterize yeasts of the genus Candida from distinct clinical samples from HIV-positive patients and determine the in vitro susceptibility profile to five antifungal drugs. METHODS: Characterization of

  15. VALORACIÓN DE ENERGÍA DIGESTIBLE DE LA GLICERINA CRUDA PROVENIENTE DE ACEITE DE PALMA – Elaeis guineensi – PARA CERDOS EN CRECIMIENTO EN FUNCIÓN DEL NIVEL DE ALMIDÓN DE MAÍZ EN LA DIETA

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    C. A. Ordóñez-Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar la energía digestible aparente (EDA de la glicerina cruda (GC proveniente del aceite de palma ( Elaeis guineensis en cerdos se realizaron dos experimentos (E. En E1 se determinó la EDA para GC con la técnica de la bolsa móvil de nailon (TBMN utilizando ocho cerdos castrados con cánula duodenal. En E2 se determinaron la EDA y la energía metabolizable aparente (EMA para GC, por el método convencional con indicador (MCI, con 10 cerdos castrados ubicados en jaulas metabólicas. En E1 y E2 se evaluaron, en un arreglo factorial 2 x 5, dos niveles de almidón de maíz (NA en la dieta, 10% (NA10 y 12% (NA12, y cinco niveles de sustitución con GC (0%, 2 , 5%, 5,0%, 7 , 5% y 10% en E1 en un diseño completo al azar y en E2 en un diseño de cuadrado latino. Para TBMN y MCI los datos se analizaron mediante regresión lineal múltiple y el metabolismo del nitrógeno en MCI como un diseño de cuadrado latino utilizando los módulos REG y GLM del paquete SAS. Por TBMN no hubo efectos (P > 0 , 05 del NA sobre la EDA de GC. La EDA de GC se calculó en 3.251 kcal/kg MS. La EDA de GC en MCI dependió de NA (P 0 , 05. Los resultados de EDA corregidos por NA con MCI mostraron correlación alta (R 2 = 0 , 82 con TBMN. Con MCI se pudo establecer que el aumento en NA en la dieta reduce la EDA de GC.

  16. Risks from dental radiology; Os riscos provenientes da radiologia odontologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Tamara Goularte [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Florianopolis (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate the risks and consequences of exposure to dental X-ray. The methodology used was the survey of bibliographic literature on this matter. First, we tried to understand the operation and characteristics of dental X-rays. Afterwards, we tried to know about the risks that this procedure offers to workers and patients. And concluded with the consequences of such exposure. The results showed that dental x-rays only offer risks in prolonged exposure, can affect the worker or patient to pathologies such as cancer or a life-time decreased due to the stochastic effect. Therefore, radiological protection standards must be respected and practised. (author)

  17. Novel materials based on chitosan, its derivatives and cellulose fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Susana Cristina de Matos

    O presente trabalho tem como principal objectivo o desenvolvimento de novos materiais baseados em quitosano, seus derivados e celulose, na forma de nanofibras ou de papel. Em primeiro lugar procedeu-se a purificacao das amostras comerciais de quitosano e a sua caracterizacao exaustiva em termos morfologicos e fisicoquimicos. Devido a valores contraditorios encontrados na literatura relativamente a energia de superficie do quitosano, e tendo em conta a sua utilizacao como precursor de modificacoes quimicas e a sua aplicacao em misturas com outros materiais, realizou-se tambem um estudo sistematico da determinacao da energia de superficie do quitosano, da quitina e seus respectivos homologos monomericos, por medicao de ângulos de contacto Em todas as amostras comerciais destes polimeros identificaram-se impurezas nao polares que estao associadas a erros na determinacao da componente polar da energia de superficie. Apos a remocao destas impurezas, o valor da energia total de superficie (gs), e em particular da sua componente polar, aumentou consideravelmente. Depois de purificadas e caracterizadas, algumas das amostras de quitosano foram entao usadas na preparacao de filmes nanocompositos, nomeadamente dois quitosanos com diferentes graus de polimerizacao, correspondentes derivados soluveis em agua (cloreto de N-(3-(N,N,N-trimetilamonio)-2- hidroxipropilo) de quitosano) e nanofibras de celulose como reforco (celulose nanofibrilada (NFC) e celulose bacteriana (BC). Estes filmes transparentes foram preparados atraves de um processo simples e com conotacao 'verde' pela dispersao homogenea de diferentes teores de NFC (ate 60%) e BC (ate 40%) nas solucoes de quitosano (1.5% w/v) seguida da evaporacao do solvente. Os filmes obtidos foram depois caracterizados por diversas tecnicas, tais como SEM, AFM, difraccao de raio-X, TGA, DMA, ensaios de traccao e espectroscopia no visivel. Estes filmes sao altamente transparentes e apresentam melhores propriedades mecânicas e maior

  18. Aspectos biológicos de Thyrinteina arnobia (Lep.: Geometriadae provenientes de lagartas criadas em folhas de Eucalyptus cloeziana ou de Psidium guajava sob condições de campo Biological aspects of Thyrinteina arnobia (Lep.: Geometridae adults originated from caterpillars reared on leaves of Eucalyptus cloeziana or Psidium guajava under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Mathias Holtz

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os plantios de Eucalyptus no Brasil podem sofrer danos por espécies nativas de insetos de diversas ordens, como Orthoptera, Coleoptera e Lepidoptera. Esses insetos podem alimentar-se tanto de mirtáceas brasileiras como goiabeira, gabirobeira, jabuticabeira, entre outras, como de espécies do gênero Eucalyptus. Entre os desfolhadores, destaca-se Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Geometridae como o mais daninho dessa ordem para a eucaliptocultura brasileira. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar aspectos biológicos de adultos de T. arnobia provenientes de lagartas alimentadas com plantas de eucalipto e, ou, goiabeira. Adultos deste inseto criados em folhas de eucalipto e, ou, de goiabeira apresentaram diferenças significativas para a maioria dos aspectos biológicos avaliados, exceto para a duração dos períodos de préoviposição, de oviposição e razão sexual. Assim, insetos herbívoros que vivem em hospedeiros filogeneticamente próximos ao eucalipto são capazes de causar danos consideráveis em reflorestamentos com espécies desse grupo, o que provavelmente ocorre pelo fato de elas estarem ainda em processo de adaptação a essa praga que atacaria o eucalipto, por estar fugindo da pressão exercida por barreiras físicas e químicas existentes nas mirtáceas nativas brasileiras.Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil may be damaged by native insects of many orders including Orthoptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. These insects feed on Brazilian tree species of the family Myrtaceae to which the genus Eucalyptus belongs. The Lepidoptera Thyrinteina arnobia Stoll (Lepidoptera: Geometridae is the most harmful defoliator of Eucalyptus in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate biological aspects of T. arnobia adults originated from caterpillars fed on guava or eucalyptus plants. Adults of T. arnobia originated from caterpillars reared with eucalyptus or guava leaves presented significant differences for most biological

  19. Endoparasitos em cobaias (Cavia porcellus (Mammalia, Rodentia, Caviidae provenientes de biotérios de criação e experimentação do município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Endoparasites in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (Mammalia, Rodentia, Caviidae from breeding and experimentation animal housing of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Luciana Casartelli Alves

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento sobre a prevalência e intensidade de infecção de endoparasitos em cobaias convencionais de linhagem Short Hair provenientes de biotérios de criação (A e experimentação (B do município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, avaliando-se a eficácia das medidas de prevenção entre eles. Para a realização do estudo, utilizou-se exame direto de mucosa e do conteúdo intestinal, a técnica de tricromo de WHEATLEY e exames coproparasitológicos pelas técnicas de Ritchie e Kinyoun. Os parasitos encontrados através da técnica de exame direto da mucosa e do conteúdo intestinal e de tricromo de WHEATLEY com as respectivas prevalências foram: Balantidium sp. (78%, Cyathodinium sp. (68%, Eimeria caviae (38%, Paraspidodera uncinata (34% e Giardia muris (24%. Nos exames de fezes realizados pelas técnicas de Ritchie e Kinyoun, foram encontrados os seguintes parasitos com as respectivas prevalências no biotério A: E. caviae (74%, Balantidium sp. (68%, Cyathodinium sp. (68% e Cryptosporidium sp. (5%. No biotério B, observou-se: E. caviae (58%, Balantidium sp. (42%, Cyathodinium sp. (25% e G. muris (8%. A alta prevalência de endoparasitos nos biotérios sugere a necessidade de se rever a eficácia das barreiras sanitárias adotadas.This paper discusses the prevalence and intensity of infection of endoparasites in conventionally maintained Short Hair guinea pigs colonies from a breeding (A and an experimental (B facilities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It also evaluates the efficacy of the methods of prevention adopted by both facilities. The search of parasites was performed by direct examination of intestinal mucosa and its contents, WHEATLEY's trichrome method and coproparasitological examinations by Ritchie's and Kinyoun's techniques. The prevalences of endoparasites found throught direct examination of intestinal mucosa and its contents were: Balantidium sp. (78%, Cyathodinium sp. (68%, Eimeria caviae (38%, Paraspidodera

  20. Presence of Leishmania amastigotes in peritoneal fluid of a dog with leishmaniasis from Alagoas, Northeast Brazil Presença de formas amastigotas de Leishmania em fluido peritoneal de cão com leishmaniose proveniente de Alagoas, nordeste do Brasil

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    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this short communication is to report the uncommon presence of intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania in peritoneal fluid of a dog with leishmaniasis from Alagoas State, Brazil. Physical examination of an adult male rottweiler suspected to be suffering of leishmaniasis revealed severe loss of weight, ascitis, splenomegaly, moderately enlarged lymph nodes, onychogryphosis, generalized alopecia, skin ulcers on the posterior limbs, and conjunctivitis. Samples of bone marrow, popliteal lymph node, skin ulcer, and peritoneal fluid were collected and smears of each sample were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Numerous amastigotes were detected in bone marrow, popliteal lymph node, and skin ulcer smears. Smears of peritoneal fluid revealed the unusual presence of several free and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania. Future studies are needed to determine whether the cytology of ascitic fluid represents a useful tool for diagnosis Leishmania infection in ascitic dogs, particularly in those living in areas where canine leishmaniasis is enzootic.O objetivo desta comunicação é descrever a presença incomum de formas amastigotas de Leishmania em fluido peritoneal de um cão com leishmaniose proveniente do Estado de Alagoas, nordeste do Brasil. O exame físico de um cão macho adulto da raça rottweiler, apresentando suspeita de leishmaniose, revelou perda de peso severa, esplenomegalia, linfonodos moderadamente aumentados, ascite, onicogrifose, alopecia generalizada, conjuntivite e presença de lesões cutâneas ulceradas localizadas nos membros posteriores. Foram coletadas amostras de medula óssea, linfonodo poplíteo, fluido peritoneal e úlcera cutânea. A partir das amostras, foram elaborados esfregaços, os quais foram corados pela hematoxilina e eosina. Inúmeras formas amastigotas foram detectadas na medula óssea, linfonodo poplíteo e úlcera cutânea. Esfregaços de fluido peritoneal revelaram a presença, n

  1. ACTIVIDAD ANTIBACTERIAL Y COMPOSICIÓN CUALITATIVA DE PROPÓLEOS PROVENIENTES DE DOS ZONAS CLIMÁTICAS DEL DEPARTAMENTO DEL CAUCA ATIVIDADE ANTIBACTERIANA E COMPOSIÇÃO QUALITATIVA DE PRÓPOLIS DE DUAS ÁREAS CLIMÁTICAS DO DEPARTAMENTO DO CAUCA ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AND CUALITATIVE COMPOSITION PROPOLIS FROM TWO CLIMATIC REGIONS CAUCA DEPARTMENT

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    NANCY SAMARA ORTEGA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana de dos extractos etanólicos de Propóleo (EEP provenientes de apiarios de los municipios de Totoróy Buenos Aires en el Departamento del Cauca, frente a una bacteria Gram positiva y otra Gram negativa y se determinó la composición cualitativa de metabolitos secundarios de los dos extractos. La actividad bactericida se evaluó por el método de dilución en caldo y el análisis químico se realizó mediante pruebas de reacciones coloridas, cromatografía bidimensional y cromatografía de capa delgada. Ambos EEP mostraron efecto bactericida, donde el Propóleo de Buenos Aires fue más efectivo que el de Totoró frente a Pseudomonas aeruginosa, al inhibir su crecimiento a una concentración inferior (p0,05 entre los dos extractos. El análisis químico reveló que ambos propóleos poseen flavonoides, alcaloides y cumarinas, entre otros, además que el Propóleo de Buenos Aires posee una mayor complejidad química, lo que sugiere la presencia de compuestos antibacterianos que pueden actuar eficientemente contra bacterias Gram positivas y Gram negativas.Neste estudo, avaliouse a efeito antimicrobiano nós avaliamos a atividade antimicrobiana de dois extratos etanóicos de própolis (EEP vindos de apiários dos municipios de Totoró e Buenos Aires no Departamento do Cauca, contra uma bactéria Gram positiva e Gram negativa e se determinou a composição qualitativa de metabólitos secundários dos dois extratos. A atividade bactericida foi avaliada pelo método de diluição em caldo e a análise química foi realizada por cromatografia em fase de teste, colorido bidimensional e cromatografia em camada delgada. Os resultados mostraram que os dois EEP tiveram um efeito bactericida, onde a própolis de Buenos Aires foi mais eficaz do que a de Totoró contra Pseudomonas aeruginosa, inibindo seu crescimento em menor concentração (p0,05 entre os dois extratos. A análise química mostrou que ambas

  2. Producción de caña semilla en Semilleros Registrados provenientes de micropropagación y de hidrotermoterapia de tres cultivares de caña de azúcar Seedcane production in Registered Nurseries obtained through micropropagation and hot water treatment of three sugarcane cultivars

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    Patricia A. Digonzelli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron los componentes de la producción de caña semilla en Semilleros Registrados de caña de azúcar provenientes de micropropagación e hidrotermoterapia (50ºC, 2 h, en tres variedades (LCP 85-384, CP 65-357 y CP 48-103 y tres épocas de plantación (mayo, agosto y octubre. La semilla micropropagada y la hidrotermotratada estaban libres de achaparramiento de la caña soca (Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli o RSD, por sus siglas en inglés, y escaldadura de la hoja (Xanthomonas albilineans. El diseño experimental fue un factorial completamente aleatorizado 3x3x2, con tres repeticiones. Los factores fueron: época de plantación (tres niveles, variedad (tres niveles y origen de la semilla (dos niveles. Cada parcela constaba de cinco surcos de 3 metros, evaluando los tres surcos centrales. En la cosecha del semillero se contaron todos los tallos por parcela y se midió su altura hasta hoja TVD. En una muestra de 45 tallos por parcela se determinaron el peso y número de yemas por tallo. A partir de los datos obtenidos se calculó el número de yemas por surco de 100 metros de longitud y por hectárea. El origen de la caña semilla (micropropagada o hidrotermotratada afectó el número de tallos y la altura y número de yemas por tallo, por surco y por hectárea. La época de plantación y la variedad afectaron los componentes de la producción de caña semilla. La micropropagada presentó una mayor población, altura y número de yemas por tallo, permitiendo aumentar entre el 8% y 23% el área que es posible plantar a partir de una hectárea de Semillero Registrado. La magnitud de las diferencias entre la caña semilla micropropagada y termotratada varió según cultivares y época de plantación.Seedcane yield components in sugarcane Registered Nurseries obtained through micropropagation and hot water treatment (50ºC, 2 h were evaluated, considering three varieties (LCP 85-384, CP 65-357 and CP 48-103 and three plantation dates (May, August

  3. Helminthic phaune of dogs and cats of some municipalities of São Paulo State/ Fauna helmíntica de cães e gatos provenientes de alguns municípios do Estado de São Paulo

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    Adjair Antônio do Nascimento

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty eight dogs and 11 cats from São Paulo State Municipalities (Araraquara, Cosmorama, Jaboticabal, Pontal, Sertãozinho and Taiuva cities were submeeted to nechropsy. The animals, males and females, no defined race, with different ages and naturally infected by parasites were transported to the CPPAR – Centro de Pesquisas em Sanidade Animal – UNESP. After a five days period, in which the animals have recived water and ration “ ad libitum”, they were killed under normal ethic anesthetic scientific research procedures. A total of 1010 parasites were identified in the dogs, with the following occurrence and infection range: Toxocara canis (71,43% and 0 to 58%; Ancylostoma caninum (76,14% and 0 to 77, Ancylostoma braziliense (57,14% and 0 to 117; Dipylidium caninum (42,86% and 0 to 73 and Physaloptera praeputialis (3,57% and 0 to 1. Among the 750 helminths identified in the felidae the occurrence and infection range were: A.caninum (100% and 3 to 275, D. caninum (54,54% and 0 to 33, Hydatigera taeniformis (45,45% and 0 to 45, P. praeputialis (54,54% and 0 to 20 and Platynosomum fastosum (27,27% and 0 to 5.Foram submetidos à necropsia 28 cães e 11 gatos, provenientes dos canis municipais de Araraquara, Cosmorama, Jaboticabal, Pontal, Sertãozinho e Taiúva, Estado de São Paulo. Os animais, machos ou fêmeas, sem raça definida, de diferentes faixas etárias e naturalmente infectados por parasitos, foram alocados no “Setor de Cães e Gatos” do CPPAR – Centro de Pesquisas em Sanidade Animal – UNESP, durante cinco dias (período de adaptação, recebendo água e ração “ad libitum”. O sacrifício dos animais foi efetuado de acordo com os procedimentos anestésicos recomendados pelas normas éticas utilizadas na pesquisa científica. Nos cães, 1010 helmintos foram diagnosticados. A ocorrência e amplitude de infecção foram: Toxocara canis (71,43% e 0 – 58, Ancylostoma caninum (67,86% e 0 – 77, Ancylostoma braziliense

  4. Evaluación de la técnica de MSP-PCR para la caracterización molecular de aislamientos de Rhodotorula mucilaginosa provenientes de la Patagonia noroccidental Assessment of the MSP-PCR technique for the molecular characterization of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa isolates from northwestern Patagonia

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    D. Libkind

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available La identificación rápida de levaduras de origen ambiental o clínico es de importancia para el estudio de la biodiversidad de estos microorganismos y para la detección de posibles patógenos. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa es una levadura ubicua y pigmentada, capaz de producir infecciones en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. En este trabajo se evaluó la utilidad de la técnica de fingerprinting conocida como MSP-PCR (Micro/Minisatellite-Primed PCR en la caracterización e identificación de aislamientos ambientales de R. mucilaginosa provenientes de la Patagonia noroccidental. Sobre la base de sus caracteres fenotípicos, de un total de 200 levaduras pigmentadas se seleccionaron 110 aislamientos que presuntamente corresponderían a la especie R. mucilaginosa. Se evaluaron los iniciadores (GTG5, (GAC5 y M13 en aislamientos representativos, y se seleccionó el iniciador (GTG5 por ser el que permitió una mejor agrupación de los aislamientos pertenecientes a R. mucilaginosa y una mejor diferenciación de éstos con los de especies filogenéticamente próximas. Utilizando dicho iniciador, el 87% de los aislamientos de R. mucilaginosa presentó un perfil de MSP-PCR similar (> 60% al de la cepa de referencia CBS 316T de R. mucilaginosa. La técnica de MSP-PCR resultó efectiva, tanto para caracterizar e identificar un número elevado de aislamientos ambientales de R. mucilaginosa como para detectar polimorfismos en la especie.The rapid identification of environmental or clinical yeast isolates is important for biodiversity studies and the detection of probable pathogens. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa is a ubiquitous and pigmented yeast capable of infecting immunocompromised patients. In this study, we evaluated the Micro/mini satellite-primed PCR (MSP-PCR fingerprinting method for the characterization and identification of R. mucilaginosa isolates from natural environments in northwestern Patagonia. There were selected 110 putative R. mucilaginosa isolates

  5. Assistência pré-natal na percepção de puérperas provenientes de diferentes serviços de saúde Prenatal care in the perception of postpartum women from different health services

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    Marizete Ilha Ceron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: conhecer a percepção de puérperas acerca da assistência pré-natal. MÉTODO: foram entrevistadas em até 48 horas após o parto, 150 puérperas, provenientes de diferentes serviços de saúde que acessaram o Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria/RS, no período de dezembro de 2010 a fevereiro de 2011. RESULTADOS: das 150 puérperas, 91,33% realizaram consultas de pré-natal em algum serviço de saúde do município e 8,67% não realizaram nenhuma consulta. 56,67% das puérperas entrevistadas consideraram que fazer o pré-natal é importante tanto para a mãe quanto para o bebê; quanto à assistência pré-natal realizada no município 84,67% das puérperas julga que não há necessidade de mudanças. CONCLUSÃO: apesar das usuárias considerarem a assistência como adequada, as autoras avaliam que existem carências na atenção pré-natal nos diferentes serviços e que poderiam ser supridas com a realização de um trabalho multiprofissional e interdisciplinar. Nesse sentido, intensificar o processo educativo entre as gestantes pode melhorar a qualidade da atenção, eliminar a falta de realização de pré-natal e diminuir a morbi-mortalidade materno-infantil no município.PURPOSE: to know the mothers perception about the prenatal care. METHOD: there were interviewed within 48 hours after the delivery, 150 postpartum women, from various health services that accessed the Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria / RS, from December 2010 to February 2011. RESULTS: from the 150 postpartum women, 91,33% attended prenatal consultation in a health system from the town and 8,67% did not attend any consultation. 56,67% of postpartum women considered that prenatal care is important both for the mother and for the baby; regarding prenatal care held in the city, 84.67% of postpartum women judges that there is no need for change. CONCLUSION:despite of the users consider the assistance appropriate, the authors estimate that there are

  6. Overlapping of mononuclear cells derived from bone marrow in rats' intervertebral discs: an in vitro study Sobreposição de células mononucleares provenientes da medula óssea em disco intervertebral de ratos: estudo in vitro

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    Erica Batista Fontes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNC derived from rats were used in order to promote intervertebral disc regeneration. These cells were isolated after centrifugation in a Ficoll-Paque™ PLUS density gradient and then placed in plastic dishes to proliferate during a period of 14 days. The BM-MNCs were previously labeled with the fluorescent membrane marker Chloromethyl-benzamidodialkylcarbocyanine (CM-DIL, and thereafter were implanted in rats' intervertebral discs explants as an in vitro experimental model. Daily analyses of the cells under a fluorescence microscope revealed morphological changes, which assumed a thin and elongated shape similar to cells that originally form the annulus fibroses. Histopathological analysis demonstrated the presence of mononuclear cells interspersed within collagen fibers. The presence of viable cells, in which were found morphological changes and their disposal in the same pattern of the layers that originate the annulus fibrosus, is an indicator that they engrafted and proliferated on the intervertebral disc. Therefore, morphological changes presented by these cells indicate that they presented mesenchymal stem-like cell characteristics.Neste trabalho, foram utilizadas células mononucleares provenientes da medula óssea (MO de ratos para implantação em discos intervertebrais, a fim de estudar a sua participação em possível regeneração tecidual. Essas células foram obtidas por centrifugação, em gradiente de Ficoll-Paque™ PLUS, e cultivadas em frascos apropriados, por um período de 14 dias. Em etapa posterior, foram submetidas à marcação celular, em que foi utilizado o marcador citoplasmático CM-Dil, seguida de implantação em discos intervertebrais de ratos, em um sistema de cultivo in vitro. Foram feitas avaliações diárias dos discos com utilização de um microscópio de fluorescência, sendo constatadas alterações morfológicas com um formato alongado semelhante a c

  7. Toxicity and teratogenicity evaluation of fenproporex in mice fetuses descending from parents that were exposed to this drug during intrauterine life Avaliação da toxicidade e da teratogenicidade do femproporex em fetos de camundongos provenientes de pais expostos à droga durante a vida intra-uterina

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    Camila Queiroz Moreira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Fenproporex is an anorectic drug that is transformed into amphetamine in the organism. The use of amphetaminic compounds during pregnancy increases the risk of exencephaly, cleft palate and cardiac malformations. The aim of this study was to evaluate embryo-fetal development, embryotoxicity and possible teratogenic effects in mice fetuses descending from parents that were exposed to fenproporex duringintra-uterine development. Pregnant females were treated daily, by gavage, with 15 mg/kg of fenproporex during all the gestation. When the off springs reached the adult age, they were mated with integral mice, obtaining the2nd generation. On the 18th gestational day, female mice were killed. It was observed that fenproporex did not alter significantly placent weight, fetuses length, rate of postimplantation loss, visceral and skeletal analysis. This may have occurred due to the decrease of the amphetamine effects on the 2nd generation. However, there was statistically significant difference in relation to the fetuses weight. The reduction of fetal weight is used as parameter to evidence toxic effects of asubstance. Therefore, the results suggest that fenproporex presented fetaltoxicity in the tested experimental conditions. Femproporex é um anorexígeno que se transforma em anfetamina no organismo. O uso de compostos anfetamínicos durante a gravidez aumenta o risco de exencefalia, de fenda palatina e de malformações cardíacas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desenvolvimento embriofetal, a embriotoxicidade e possíveis efeitos teratogênicos em fetos de camundongos provenientes de pais que foram expostos ao femproporex durante o desenvolvimento intra-uterino. As fêmeas prenhes foram tratadas diariamente, via gavage, com 15 mg/kg de femproporex, durante toda a gestação. Quando as progênies atingiram a idade adulta, foram acasaladas com camundongos íntegros, obtendo-se a 2ª geração. No 18º dia de prenhez, as fêmeas foram mortas

  8. Caracterização e incorporação de resíduos provenientes de Estação de Tratamento de Água em cerâmica argilosa Characterization and incorporation of wastes from Water Treatment Plant into clayey ceramic

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    J. P. D. Vitorino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é caracterizar e incorporar, em cerâmica argilosa, três tipos de resíduos provenientes das etapas de desarenação, decantação e de filtração de uma estação de tratamento de água - ETA. Os resíduos foram caracterizados por difração de raios X, fluorescência de raios X, análise termogravimétrica e térmica diferencial, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e técnicas de peneiramento e sedimentação. As propriedades físicas e mecânicas avaliadas das cerâmicas incorporadas com até 10% em peso de resíduos e queimadas a 700 ºC foram retração linear, absorção de água e compressão diametral. Os resultados mostraram que os resíduos do decantador e do filtro possuem composição química e mineralógica semelhantes, formados por minerais argilosos, hidróxidos de alumínio e de ferro, mica e quartzo. O resíduo do desarenador é formado basicamente de quartzo com traços de mica e de caulinita. Os três tipos de resíduos apresentaram potencialidade para utilização em cerâmica vermelha. Entretanto, o resíduo arenoso do desarenador foi o tipo de resíduo que possibilitou benefícios diretos como a melhoria da trabalhabilidade da massa bem como redução da retração linear e da absorção de água da cerâmica queimada.This work has for objective to characterize and to incorporate into a clayey body three types of wastes from the stage of sand collecting, decantation and filtration of a water treatment plant. The wastes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses as well as by sieving and sedimentation. The evaluated physical and mechanical properties of the ceramics, incorporated with up to 10 wt.% of wastes and fired at 700 ºC, were linear shrinkage, water absorption and diametrical compression. The results showed that the wastes from the decantation and filter have chemical and mineralogical compositions similar to clays

  9. Avaliação quantitativa de monoepoxiácidos, monocetoácidos e monohidroxiácidos em óleos e gorduras provenientes de fritura descontínua de batatas Quantitative evaluation of monoepoxyacids, monoketoacids and monohydroxyacids in fats and oils used in discontinuous frying of potatoes

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    Eliana Rodrigues Machado

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Na fritura, os óleos e gorduras sofrem degradação formando os compostos polares, como os triacilgliceróis polimerizados e os monômeros de triacilgliceróis oxidados, estes últimos têm sido relacionados a patologias e se constituem de grupos como os monoepoxiácidos, monocetoácidos e monohidroxiácidos. Foram determinados os teores destes três grupos de substâncias, através da análise cromatográfica a gás dos ésteres metílicos de ácidos graxos após derivação a frio das amostras e concentração posterior das substâncias de interesse mediante extração em fase sólida, e os teores dos ácidos graxos polares polimerizados, utilizando a combinação das técnicas cromatográficas de adsorção em coluna e por exclusão, em gordura de soja parcialmente hidrogenada e óleos de soja e de palma, aquecidos a 180 °C por 25 horas, provenientes de experimentos de fritura. Foram encontrados teores de 3,30 a 8,24; 1,51 a 4,32 e 3,42 a 8,71 mg.g-1 de monoepoxiácidos, monocetoácidos e monohidroxiácidos, respectivamente, nas amostras com níveis de compostos polares de 20,8 a 44,1% (m/m, e predominância de formação de polímeros. Os resultados sugeriram que óleos e gorduras monoinsaturados apresentam maior tendência à formação de monômeros oxidados e menor tendência à formação de polímeros, ao contrário dos óleos poliinsaturados.During frying, fats and oils undergo degradation with the formation of polar compounds. Among these are polymeric triglycerides, as well as oxidized monomeric triglycerides. The last group has been related to several diseases and contains groups including epoxy, keto and hydroxy groups of importance from a quantitative point of view. In this study, monoepoxyacids, monoketoacids and monohydroxyacids were quantified in partially hydrogenated soybean oil, soybean oil and palm oil, after heating for 25 hours, at 180 °C, in frying experiments. The determination was carried out by gas chromatography

  10. Genetic variability among Commelina weed species from the states of Paraná and São Paulo, Brazil Variabilidade genética entre espécies de plantas daninhas do gênero Commelina provenientes dos estados do Paraná e São Paulo, Brasil

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    D.C. Rocha

    2009-01-01

    . Os resultados mostraram que há variabilidade genética inter e intraespecífica nas plantas do gênero Commelina. A análise da diversidade genética entre as espécies indicou quatro agrupamentos monoespecíficos, e isso sugere manter C. villosa como uma espécie. Considerando a variabilidade genética intraespecífica somente de C. benghalensis, apesar das 13 populações provenientes de dois Estados geográficos, três grupos foram identificados. Entretanto, esses agrupamentos não correspondem às características morfológicas distintas observadas.

  11. Efeito do calcário dolomítico e nitrato de potássio no desenvolvimento inicial de mudas da bananeira 'Prata-Anã' (AAB, provenientes de cultura in vitro Efect of dolomiotic limestone and potassium nitrate in the initial development of seedlings of 'Prata-Anã' (AAB banana tree from in vitro culture

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    Jackson de Araújo dos Santos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do nitrato de potássio e do calcário dolomítico no desenvolvimento, em viveiro, de mudas da bananeira 'Prata-Anã', provenientes de cultura in vitro. As mudas foram plantadas em sacos de polietileno (32 x 14 cm, contendo o substrato composto de 60% de solo, 20% de casca de arroz e 20% de areia grossa. O experimento foi desenvolvido em viveiro coberto com tela plástica (50% de insolação, adotando-se delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados completos, com 16 tratamentos, 4 repetições e 5 plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por 4 doses de calcário dolomítico (0; 3; 6 e 9 kg.m³ de substrato combinados com 4 doses de KNO3 (0; 5,1; 10,2 e 20,4 g.planta.aplicação. As aplicações em cobertura, a cada 12 dias, iniciaram-se após 20 dias do transplante, com 200 mL de solução de KNO3 por planta. Aos 95 dias de enviveiramento, observou-se efeito apenas do KNO3, principalmente na altura das mudas, na área foliar e no número de folhas. Nas doses de 5,1 g e 10,2 g de KNO3.planta.aplicação, as mudas atingiram 18,80 cm e 14,71 cm de altura, respectivamente. O diâmetro do pseudocaule das mudas foi superior na dose de 5,1 g de KNO3.planta.aplicação, atingindo 3,44 cm. A área foliar e o número de folhas foram influenciados significativamente pelo KNO3, nas doses de 5,1 g e 10,2 g.planta.aplicação, apresentando 246,03 cm² e 10,34 e 182,14 cm² e 9,36, respectivamente. Não houve efeito do calcário para as características avaliadas.The effect of potassium nitrate and dolomitic limestone in the initial development in nursery of 'Prata-Anã' bananas from in vitro culture was evaluated. The seedlings were planted in polyethylene bags (32 x 14 cm, containing the substrate composed: of 60% of soil, 20% of rice husk and 20% of gross sand. The experiment was developed in a plastic screen-covered nursery (50% of insolation, adopting the complete randomized block experimental design with 16

  12. Thermal recovery simulation at the pore-network level; Simulacao de recuperacao termica em escala microscopica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Claudio L.N.; Almeida, Murilo P.; Andrade Junior, Jose S. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Herrmann, Hans J. [Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich (ETHZ), Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    We have investigated the effect of temperature in penetration of an inviscid fluid into a porous media saturated with a very high viscous fluid. Gradient of temperature is applied across the medium. The viscosity of the defending fluid is considered as an exponential-like function with temperature. This scheme represents a small fraction of a heavy oil reservoir where steam injection is applied. The results show that the recovery of the viscous fluid is a hyperbolic tangent function with the difference of temperature, where it has a maximum recovery for high gradient. Our results show, also, that the recovery efficiency can increase substantially with the gradient of temperature. (author)

  13. Thermal conductivity in high critical temperature superconductors. Conductividad termica en los superconductores de alta temperatura critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castello, D J

    1990-01-01

    A measuring procedure to obtain the electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power of samples of low conductivity has been developed. The setup was designed to allow removal of the sample in clean fashion so that further heat treatments could be performed. The heat equation has been analyzed with time-dependent boundary conditions, with the purpose of developing a dynamic measuring method which avoids the long delays involved in reaching thermal equilibrium above 30K. The developed measuring method allows precise, reliable measurements in a continuous fashion for temperatures above 25K. The same setup is used in a stationary mode at low temperatures. {kappa}(T) has been measured in two ceramic samples of La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}: the first semiconducting, the other superconducting (SC) as a consequence of an oxygen annealing. Both exhibit strong thermal resistivity due to defects, though lower in the SC, where two maxima are observed and are attributed to an AF ordering: T{sub N}' {approx equal} 40K and T{sub N}'' {approx equal} 240K. A third synthesized sample of CuO exhibits a typical behavior of an insulator, with T{sup 2}.6 at low temperatures, a maximum at 40K and a decrease in T{sup -1} at high temperatures. {kappa}(T) in a SC sample of La{sub 1}.85Sr{sub 1}.15CuO{sub 4} with T{sub c}=35.5K has also been measured. {kappa}(T) is lower than in the previous samples and thus a greater number of defects was inferred.

  14. Zirconium titanate: stability and thermal expansion; Titanato de circonio: estabilidad termodinamica y expansion termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Lopez, E.; Moreno, R.; Baudin, C.

    2011-07-01

    Zirconium titanate is a well known compound in the field of electro ceramics, although it has also been used in catalyst and sensors applications. The crystallographic thermal expansion anisotropy of this compound makes it a potential candidate as constituent of structural components. In general, to assure the structural integrity and microstructural homogeneity of a ceramic piece, relatively low cooling rates from the fabrication temperature are required. This requirement is essential for zirconium titanate because thermal expansion as well as phase distribution is affected by small variations in the composition and cooling rate. This work reviews the available data on the phase equilibrium relationships in the systems ZrO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The main discrepancies as well as the possible origins of them are discussed. Additionally, the crystallographic thermal expansion data in the current literature are reviewed. (Author) 56 refs.

  15. Detailed thermal simulation of fenestration; Simulacion termica detallada de una ventana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fissore Sch, Adelqui; Tartari, Paula [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile). Facultad de Ingenieria. Dept. de Ingenieria Mecanica]. E-mail: afissore@udec.cl; ptartari@udec.cl; Hernandez C, Gaston [Universidad del Bio-Bio, Concepcion (Chile). Facultad de Ingenieria. Dept. de Ingenieria Mecanica]. E-mail: ghernand@ubiobio.cl

    2000-07-01

    In this paper a new model for heat balance of a window is proposed. The objective of the model is to solve accurately the heat balance on a single glass window in a moderate climate. This procedure will allow the designer to calculate the main parameters of a fenestration (surface, orientation, overhangs, etc.), minimizing the energy consumption for a specific enclosure (including heating, air conditioning and lighting). The present study is mainly focused on problems related with the internal long wave radiation calculations, and secondly on the effect of internal convection coefficient on the heat balance. A comparison between the results obtained using this model and those obtained with other current models is included in the second part of the paper. The importance of using the right internal convection coefficient on the heat balance of fenestration for this kind of application is also analyzed. (author)

  16. Architecture's models: Integral thermal evaluation; Modelos en arquitectura: evaluacion termica integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roset, Jaume [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain); Marincic, Irene; Ochoa, J. Manuel [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    During the fist stages of a building design, considering energy conscious design, inhabitants needs and functionality, it is necessary to estimate and evaluate the buildings behavior and to know if it achieves the initial design objectives. Models are used to represent a description of objects and architectural concepts, as well as the hypothesis of its temporary and spatial behavior. The quantity and type of information needed as input of a model to be operative, has been, and still is, a controversial topic. The question is: how much useful are models that need a great quantity of inputs than other simpler ones? We consider as simple models those that habitually contain a certain quantity of empirical coefficients, which permit to reduce the number of inputs, solving the calculus as an approximation. In the other hand, in the architectural domain, information is usually presented in different type of supports (tables of numerical values, planes, physical models, ...). The information supplied in each type of support must necessary be combined, in order to maximize the information contained in the global system. In this paper, we present examples of thermal studies dealing with different ways to evaluate models, which involve variables of thermal behavior of buildings, the interaction between them and the environment and its influence on the indoor thermal comfort. As a general conclusion, we can say that a model should minimize the quantity of inputs required, which must be able to approach to the most relevant effects, that nearly represent the real behavior. The hypothesis and evaluation conditions of these effects must be understood and assumed by the user. [Spanish] Durante las etapas previas al diseno de un edificio eficiente energeticamente y coherente con las necesidades de sus usuarios y con su funcion, sera necesario estimar y evaluar su comportamiento para saber en que medida se estan logrando los objetivos de diseno planteados inicialmente. Con este fin, se utilizan modelos que representen tanto la descripcion de los objetos y conceptos arquitectonicos, como las hipotesis sobre su comportamiento espacio-temporal. La cantidad y tipo de informacion que es necesario suministrar a un modelo para hacerlo operativo ha sido, y es, objeto de grandes controversias. La cuestion es: hasta que punto son mas utiles modelos con gran cantidad de entradas que otros mas simples? Entendiendo por modelos simples aquellos que habitualmente contienen cierta cantidad de coeficientes empiricos, lo que reduce el numero de datos, llevando el calculo a una aproximacion. Por otro lado, en el dominio de la arquitectura la informacion se presenta de manera habitual, sobre soportes de diferente tipo (tablas de valores numericos, planos, maquetas, ...). Las informaciones suministradas en cada tipo de soporte deben, necesariamente, ser combinadas de manera que se maximice la informacion contenida sobre el sistema global. En este trabajo, presentamos ejemplos referentes a estudios termicos que hemos realizado sobre diferentes maneras de abordar la evaluacion de modelos variables relacionados con el comportamiento termico de los edificios, la interaccion de estos con el medio ambiente que los rodea y su influencia sobre el confort en el interior de los mismos. Como conclusion general, podriamos decir que un modelo deberia tener las minimas entradas posibles con las cuales abordar los efectos mas significativos, que puedan representar de la manera mas aproximada posible al comportamiento real. Las hipotesis y condiciones de evaluacion de estos efectos deben ser comprendidas y asumidas por el usuario.

  17. Thermodegradation of biodiesel: thermoanalytical and rheological characterization; Degradacao termica de biodiesel: caracterizacao termoanalitica e reologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Everson L.; Carvalho, Laura H.; Araujo, Gilmar T.; Gadelha, Tatiana S. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Brazil is a country of extensive agricultural land and great oil consumption and these factors favor biodiesel production in this country. In order for diesel/biodiesel mixtures to be effectively employed in diesel engines, a rigid quality control of these mixtures is needed. Biodiesel and mixtures must have their quality monitored with respect to oxidative resistance, thermal stability, fluidity and volatility, properties which can be modified by the adverse transport and stock conditions prior to consumption. Oxidation is the main degradation mechanism of products under transport and stock conditions, which can lead to significant economical losses. In this work sought the thermal degradation of neat biodiesel, synthesized in our laboratories was monitored. Thermal aging was conducted at 210 deg C for up to 1000 h. Virgin and thermally degraded samples were characterized by rheological measurements (in different shear conditions); FTIR; density and by color changes. We concluded that the soy biodiesel was successfully synthesized and that thermal exposure caused thermal-oxidative degradation of the biodiesel sample, significantly changing its properties as a function of thermal exposure times. (author)

  18. Evaluacion termica, mecanica y electrica de materiales compuestos cordierita-mullita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Camerucci

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available cordierite and mullite powders were used to obtain cordierite and cordierite-30wt% mullite materials by attrition milling, uniaxial pressing and sintering. Cordierite powders were the coarse (D50 = 1.82 mum, medium (D50 = 0.9 mum and fine (D50 = 0.45 mum single granulometric fractions and binary mixtures of them. Mullite powder employed in composites was the 7 h-attrition milled one (D50 = 1.3 mum. Hardness (H V and fracture toughness (K IC were measured by Vickers indentation techniques. Composites showed higher H V and K IC than cordierite matrices. In both materials, H V and K IC diminish with the increasing porosity. Dielectric constant (epsilon and losses (tan delta were determined at 1 MHz. An increase in epsilon and tan delta values was registered when mullite was present in composites with respect to cordierite material. Higher the porosity, epsilon was lower and tan delta increased. The thermal expansion coefficients (alpha were determined up to 1000 °C resulting the alpha of the composite close to that of the silicon.

  19. Dano cavitacional em revestimentos depositados por aspersão termica a chama

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Villani Marques

    1996-01-01

    Resumo: Quantias elevadas são gastas anualmente na manutenção de turbinas hidráulicas usadas na geração de energia elétrica por causa do ataque cavitacional. Avaliou-se a aplicabilidade de revestimentos metálicos e cerâmicos depositados sobre aço carbono por aspersão térmica a chama na manutenção destes equipamentos em função de sua resistência à erosão por cavitação. Foram realizados ensaios de dureza, rugosidade, ensaio acelerado de cavitação induzida por vibração ultra-sônica, adesão (traç...

  20. Solar thermal energy. Solar pasteurization of dairy products; Energia solar termica. Pasteurizacion solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosell, J.; Chemisana, D.

    2009-07-01

    Nicaragua is one of the south America countries with biggest cattle figures; however, it is at the bottom of the list of milk consumers. The cause which explains this is a twofold trouble. First of all, they have not the adequate milk treatment methods to guarantee a proper hygienic and conservation conditions. By the other side, production is distributed in small production centers to serve local consumers. this article proposal is to get a pasteurization treatment with thermal processes arranged by means of the solar energy. (Author) 3 refs.

  1. La teoria della radiazione termica dalla fisica classica alla fisica quantistica

    CERN Document Server

    Planck, Max

    1999-01-01

    La venuta alla luce, nella scienza fisica dei primi anni del Novecento, di elementi assolutamente nuovi prefiguranti il futuro mondo quantistico, è concordemente attribuita all'opera prevalente di Planck e di Einstein, secondo due linee di ricerca profondamente diverse, anche se non lontane risultano le loro concezioni del mondo fisico. Tuttavia, mentre del secondo è facilmente accessibile e sufficientemente nota la produzione scientifica, del primo risulta ancora scarsamente sconosciuta l'ingente produzione di quegli anni, anche perché reperibile, per la maggior parte, solo in lingua originale. Se si tiene presente, inoltre, la comparsa in tempi recenti, della ricostruzione storiografica non tradizionale di T. Kuhn, che ritiene di cogliere, negli scritti di Planck, la permanenza di una struttura integralmente classica fino ad anni successivi al 1906, data di pubblicazione delle Lezioni, risulta naturale convenire sull'opportunità di rendere più agevole l'accesso alle fonti planckiane di quegli anni. ...

  2. Evaluation of the degree of dispersion of organoclay on nanocomposites with PP/EPDM; Avaliacao do grau de dispersao de argilas organofilicas em nanocompositos de PP/EPDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, F.C.F.; Oliveira, M.G., E-mail: fernanda.braga@int.gov.b [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (DPCM/INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Processamento e Caracterizacao de Materiais; Furtado, C.R.G. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Nanocomposites of thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) composed by PP/EPDM 1/1 blend and organoclay were obtained by the melt intercalation in an internal chamber mix. Initially, a masterbatch of maleinized polypropylene (PP-MA) and clay modified with alkyl ammonium salt in the ratio 3:1 was prepared, and then, added to TPE matrix to obtain loads of 2,5; 5 and 7 wt% of clay in the nanocomposite. The dispersion degree of clay in TPE matrix was evaluated by X-ray diffraction and parallel plate rheometry. The intercalation/exfoliate degree or the degree of dispersion varied with clay content, as observed by X-ray diffraction. This behavior was confirmed by the profile of the curves of elastic modulus versus frequency, which presented different slopes in the region of low frequency, due to the presence of clay and PP-MA. (author)

  3. Modelling of tritium dispersion from postulated accidental release of nuclear power plants; Modelagem da dispersao de tritio a partir de liberacoes acidentais postuladas de centrais nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Abner Duarte

    2010-07-01

    This study has the aim to assess the impact of accidental release of tritium postulate from a nuclear power reactor through environmental modeling of aquatic resources. In order to do that it was used computational models of hydrodynamics and transport for the simulation of tritium dispersion caused by an accident in a CANDU reactor located in the ongoing Angra 3 site. This exercise was accomplished with the aid of a code system (SisBAHIA) developed in the Rio de Janeiro Federal University (COPPE/UFRJ). The CANDU reactor is one that uses heavy water (D{sub 2}O) as moderator and coolant of the core. It was postulated, then, the LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) accident in the emergency cooling system of the nucleus (without fusion), where was lost 66 m{sup 3} of soda almost instantaneously. This inventory contained 35 PBq and was released a load of 9.7 TBq/s in liquid form near the Itaorna beach, Angra dos Reis - RJ. The models mentioned above were applied in two scenarios (plant stopped and operating) and showed a tritium plume with specific activities larger than the reference level for seawater (1.1 MBq/m{sup 3} ) during the first 14 days after the accident. The main difference between the scenario without and with seawater recirculation (pumping and discharge) is based on the enhancement of dilution of the highest concentrations in the last one. This dilution enhancement resulting in decreasing concentrations was observed only during the first two weeks, when they ranged from 1x10{sup 9} to 5x10{sup 5} Bq/m{sup 3} close to the Itaorna beach spreading just to Sandri Island. After 180 days, the plume could not be detected anymore in the bay, because their activities would be lower than the minimum detectable value (< 11 kBq/m{sup 3}). (author)

  4. Analysis of agricultural soils by using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence; Analise de solos agricolas por fluorescencia de raios-X por dispersao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos

    2000-03-01

    In this work, we describe an Energy Dispersive x-ray Fluorescence System with a x-ray tube excitation for trace analysis of environmental samples (soil). The system was used to analyze the contamination of metals in treated soils with doses of 10, 20 and 30 ton/ha of compound organic of urban garbage of the type Fertilurb and 10 ton/ha of aviary bed (manure of birds). Samples of roots and foliages of plant radishes cultivated in these soils were also analyzed. The soil samples were collected in five different depths of 0,5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm. The experimental set-up is composed by an OXFORD X-ray (30 kV, 50 {mu}A and W anode), an ORTEC Si-Li detector, with an energy resolution of about 180 eV at 5.9 keV and an ORTEC multichannel-analyser. The X-ray spectrum tube is quasi-monochromatic by using of Ti filter. Samples were prepared in pellet form with superficial density in the range of 100 mg/cm{sup 2}. The fundamental parameter method was used in order to verify the elemental concentration. It was possible to determine the concentrations of thirteen elements: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb in the treated soils with compounds organic. The results indicate that the values found for K, Ca, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb are significantly above the upper confidence limits for the control soil ({alpha} = 0.05). There is a real different between these elements compared to their relationship in the control soils, ({alpha}=0,05). There is a real difference between these elements compared to their relationship in the control soils, confirming the influence of the organic compounds in the soil. (author)

  5. Modelling of the tritium dispersion from postulated accidental release of nuclear power plants; Modelagem da dispersao de tritio a partir de liberacoes acidentais postuladas de centrais nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Abner Duarte; Simoes Filho, Francisco Fernando Lamego; Cunha, Tatiana Santos da [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Aguiar, Andre Silva de; Lapa, Celso Marcelo Franklin, E-mail: asoares@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: flamego@ien.gov.b, E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This study has the aim to assess the impact of accidental release of tritium postulate from a nuclear power reactor through environmental modeling of aquatic resources. In order to do that it was used computational models to simulation of tritium dispersion caused by an accident in a Candu reactor located in the ongoing Angra 3 site. The Candu reactor is one that uses heavy water (D{sub 2}O) as moderator and coolant of the core. It was postulated, then, the LOCA accident (without fusion), where was lost 66 m3 of soda almost instantaneously. This inventory contained 35 P Bq and was released a load of 9.7 TBq/s in liquid form near the Itaorna beach, Angra dos Reis - RJ. The models mentioned above were applied in two scenarios (plant stopped or operating) and showed a tritium plume with specific activities larger than the reference level for seawater (1.1 MBq/m{sup 3}) during the first 14 days after the accident. (author)

  6. Programming for seismogram 1-D generation, considering the attenuation and dispersing effects; Programa para gerar sismograma 1-D, considerando os efeitos da atenuacao e dispersao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Bruno de O.; Oliveira, Sergio A.M. de [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia e Exploracao do Petroleo (LENEP)

    2004-07-01

    For a processing and an interpretation of correct seismic data, it is necessary to recognize and to know as the factors act that influence in the propagation of the seismic waves, as the attenuation and the dispersion, constituting in the biggest practical impediment for the use of seismic for targets the big depths, limiting the resolution of the method. However these phenomena little are taken in consideration in the analysis of the data, thus the necessity of its bigger agreement, because if attenuation and dispersion they confuse the application of the seismic, if convenient understood and measures, can be valuable sources of information about the constitution of the rocks. Therefore, in this work the effect of the attenuation and dispersion in the data of reflection seismic had been simulated on a program, in Mat-Lab. Being able to generate 1-D seismograms, in the domain of the time, considering the normal incidence of plain wave in a package of plain, horizontal and isotropic layers, taking in account the physical attributes of the way, being able to simulate the effects of ghost and of multiples of free surface, if considering the source in the water. (author)

  7. Experimental design applied optimization of a state in epoxy clay dispersion; Planejamento de experimentos aplicado a otimizacao do estado de dispersao de argilas em epoxi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, Juliana D' Avila; Bertholdi, Jonas; Folgueras, Marilena Valadares; Pezin, Sergio Henrique; Coelho, Luiz Antonio Ferreira, E-mail: julianadpaz@yahoo.com.b [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents some analysis showed that the exfoliation / intercalation of a montmorillonite clay in epoxy resin such as viscosity, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry (TG). Increasing the viscosity of epoxy resin diglycidyl ether bisphenol A with the addition of clay associated with the sonification system at the time of dispersion is a good indication of exfoliation. The X-ray diffraction already cured composite shows a decrease of crystallinity of clay and EDS microanalysis of SEM, non-uniform dispersion of clay in epoxy resin. Thermal analysis TG composite clay / epoxy shows an increase in thermal stability relative to pure epoxy. (author)

  8. Prevalência e aspectos anatomopatológicos da mineralização metastática em coelhos provenientes de biotérios e criação comercial do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Prevalence and morphological aspects of metastatic mineralization in rabbits from animal houses and a comercial breeding in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Santos Almeida Matias

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Uma investigação sobre a prevalência e os aspectos anatomopatológicos de casos naturais da mineralização metastática em coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus foi realizada em 79 animais provenientes de dois biotérios de criação (A e B e de uma criação comercial, do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. A ração comercial fornecida aos animais dos três criatórios foi a mesma. Apenas animais do biotério A, com uma prevalência de 21%, apresentaram alterações macroscópicas e microscópicas relacionadas à mineralização metastática. Todos os coelhos acometidos possuíam idade acima de 1 ano e 92% eram fêmeas. Os órgãos mais freqüentemente atingidos foram a artéria aorta e principais ramos, que apresentavam mineralização das túnicas íntima e média, metaplasia cartilaginosa e óssea na túnica média, arterite granulomatosa e degeneração hialina. Os rins foram o segundo órgão mais comumente acometido, mostrando mineralização da cápsula de Bowman, distensão do espaço de Bowman, fibrose intersticial e mineralização da parede, dos túbulos contornados e dos ductos coletores. As alterações patológicas foram similares às observadas nos casos de hipervitaminose D, excesso de cálcio e fósforo na dieta de coelhos, devendo os níveis dessas substâncias serem revistos e analisados periodicamente nas rações comerciais desses animais.A survey on the prevalence and morphological aspects of natural cases of metastatic mineralization was performed in 79 rabbits from two breeding animal houses (A and B and from a commercial rabbit breeding facility in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Rabbits from the three facilities were fed with the same commercial ration. Only rabbits from the facility A presented gross and microscopic alterations associated with metastatic mineralization with a prevalence of 21%. All of the affected rabbits were older than one year old and 92% were females. The most altered organs were the aorta and its main branches

  9. Evaluation of Iodine-131 dispersion after accident in Nuclear Angra Power Plant using the model of aquatic dispersion, SisBahia; Avaliacao da dispersao de iodo-131 apos um acidente na usina de Angra utilizando o modelo de dispersao aquatica, SisBahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Andre Silva de; Alvim, Antonio Carlos Marques, E-mail: aguiargm@gmail.com, E-mail: aalvim@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia; Simoes Filho, Francisco Fernando Lamego, E-mail: flamego@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    It was inserted, in the cooling system of the nucleus, a LOCA, where 431 m{sup 3} of coolant was lost. Such an inventory contained 3,04 x 10{sup 10} Bq / m{sup 3} and iodine was released near the beach Itaorna, Angra dos Reis - RJ. Applying the model in the proposed scenario (Angra 1 and Angra 2 in operation and 3 in with varying capture and discharge with the discharge gradually reduced after the accident), the dilution of the specific activity of radionuclides reached lower values after 22 hours, the reference levels for seawater {sup 131}I (7,40 x 10{sup 2} Bq / m{sup 3}). After 54 hours, levels of the radionuclide, in the area of indirect influence, are already below minimum activity values detected by the laboratory for environmental monitoring of the CNAAA (5,0 x 10{sup 1} Bq / m{sup 3}.

  10. Lanthanide oxide and phosphate nanoparticles for thermometry and bimodal imaging =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debasu, Mengistie Leweyehu

    Nesta tese relatam-se estudos de fotoluminescencia de nanoparticulas de oxidos e fosfatos dopados com ioes trivalentes de lantanideos, respectivamente, nanobastonetes de (Gd,Eu)2O3 e (Gd,Yb,Er)2O3 e nanocristais de (Gd,Yb,Tb)PO4, demonstrando-se tambem aplicacoes destes materiais em revestimentos inteligentes, sensores de temperatura e bioimagem. Estuda-se a transferencia de energia entre os sitios de Eu3+ C2 e S6 dos nanobastonetes Gd2O3. A contribuicao dos mecanismos de transferencia de energia entre sitios para o tempo de subida 5D0(C2) e descartada a favor da relaxacao directa 5D1(C2) 5D0(C2) (i.e., transferencia de energia entre niveis). O maior tempo de decaimento do nivel 5D0(C2) nos nanobastonetes, relativamente ao valor medido para o mesmo material na forma de microcristais, e atribuido, quer a existencia de espacos livres entre nanobastonetes proximos (factor de enchimento ou fraccao volumica), quer a variacao do indice de refraccao efectivo do meio em torno dos ioes Eu3+. A dispersao de nanobastonetes de (Gd,Eu)2O3 em tres resinas epoxi comerciais atraves da cura por UV permite obter nanocompositos epoxi- (Gd,Eu)2O3. Relatam-se estudos cineticos e das propriedades termicas e de fotoluminescencia destes nanocompositos. Estes, preservam as tipicas propriedades de emissao do Eu3+, mostrando o potencial do metodo de cura por UV para obter revistimentos inteligentes e fotoactivos. Considera-se um avanco significativo a realizacao de uma nanoplataforma optica, incorporando aquecedor e termometro e capaz de medir uma ampla gama de temperaturas (300-2000 K) a escala nano, baseada em nanobastonetes de (Gd,Yb,Er)2O3 (termometros) cuja superficie se encontra revestida com nanoparticulas de ouro. A temperature local e calculada usando, quer a distribuicao de Boltzmann (300-1050 K) do racio de intensidades da conversao ascendente 2H11=2!4I15=2/4S3=2!4I15=2, quer a lei de Planck (1200-2000 K) para uma emissao de luz branca atribuida a radiacao do corpo negro

  11. Adolescencia femenina y cultura. Proyectos de vida de mujeres adolescentes provenientes de diversos medios culturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de convertirse en mujer no es el mismo en México que en Finlandia o en Rusia, la cultura en la que una niña se socializa deja marca en ella, incide en sus planes, inquietudes, temores, esperanzas, influye, en suma, en su forma de entender el mundo y en los bosquejos que ella imagina y ensaya de su identidad como adulta. Y, a pesar de un mundo globalizado, de la pluriculturalidad que prevalece en muchos países (y que puede ser factor de enriquecimiento personal, las adolescentes necesitan y buscan un lugar social de arraigo y una comunidad de pertenencia que confiera sentido a su vida

  12. Reciclagem de cobre proveniente de analisador automático de carbono e nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendassolli José Albertino

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotopic and elemental analysis of N, C and S in liquid and solid samples has been simplified with the advent of automated systems. The simplest method of automation for this kind of analysis involves an elemental analyzer interfaced directly to the ion source of an IRMS (Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry. In the analyzer reduction system, an expressive amount of oxidized copper is generated as solid residue. This material is normally imported and the price is very high. A methodology was proposed for the recovery of metallic copper in order to recycle this reagent in the reduction system of a GC-IRMS, using the hydrogen gas in the vacuum line. Results show that it is possible to obtain a recycle of about 95 % of the initial metallic copper used in the reduction system.

  13. QUALIDADE DE FRUTOS DE DIFERENTES VARIEDADES DE MELANCIA PROVENIENTES DE MOSSORÓ - RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IZAIAS DA SILVA LIMA NETO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the production of watermelon with seeds is highly representative. However, available information about fruit quality of different varieties grown in the same environment is still rare, which makes it necessary to carry out trials that can fill this gap. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the postharvest quality of different varieties of watermelon (Crimson Sweet, Charleston Gray, Sugar Baby, Fairfax and Tendersweet, grown under conventional conditions in Mossoró - RN. The experiment was carried out from September to November 2008 in the experimental field of the Federal Rural University of the Semiarid (UFERSA. The data for the fruit quality were recorded in the Laboratory of Postharvest of UFERSA. The experiment was set under a completely randomized design with six replications and each replication consisted of a fruit. The quality characteristics were analyzed: fruit fresh mass (kg, fruit dimensions (greater length and width, overall appearance, pulp yield in percentage, seed characteristics, pH, acidity, vitamin C, soluble solids and SS/TA ratio. The physical determinations showed variations for fruit fresh mass (4.2 to 9.7 kg, pulp yield (42.0 to 58.5%, rind thickness (1.1 to 2.5 cm, as well as to the number and mass of seeds. In the physical-chemical determinations it was observed phenotypic uniformity among the varieties for almost all variables and, although all of them favorable to consumption, this result indicates narrowing of the genetic basis of varieties, which makes it necessary the evaluation of other genotypes.

  14. Thermal efficiency of low cost solar collectors - CSBC; Eficiencia termica de coletores solares de baixo custo - CSBC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Renato C.; Shiota, Robson T.; Mello, Samuel F.; Assis Junior, Valdir; Bartoli, Julio R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica. Dept. de Tecnologia de Polimeros

    2006-07-01

    The thermal performance of a low cost flat panel solar collector was measured. This Low Cost Solar Collector is a novel concept for water heating using only thermoplastics materials, used on building: ceiling and tubes made of unplasticized PVC, but without transparent cover. The top side of the UPVC panel was black painted to be the solar radiation absorber surface. Prototypes were installed on two charity houses around Campinas and at the FEQ campus, being used without any trouble for one year. The thermal efficiency analysis followed ABNT NBR 10184 standard at the Green-Solar Laboratory, Brazilian Centre for Development of Solar Thermal Energy, PUC-Minas. It was measured a thermal efficiency of 67%, compared to the 75% usually found on conventional solar collectors made of copper tubes and with glass cover. (author)

  15. Protocol in NORM industries. Central thermal coal production; Protocolo de actuacion en industrial NORM. Centrales de produccion termica de carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Baeza, A.; Cancio, D.

    2011-07-01

    This protocol arises from the execution of R and D project Study of the radiological impact of coal power plants on their environment, funded by the Nuclear Safety Council. Its main objective was to assess the radiological impact exerted on workers and their environments, the four coal-fired power more currently in Spain: As Pontes (A Coruna), Compostilla II (Leon ),Litoral (Almeria) and Andorra (Teruel). (Author)

  16. Study of thermal and mechanical properties of PCL films; Estudo das propriedades termicas de filmes a base de PCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, A.R. de; Vieira, A.B. da Silva; Leite, I.F., E-mail: itamaraf@gmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joaoo Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2016-07-01

    In the current situation of the market, it is remarkable the concern for the development of materials that offer better properties and biodegradable behavior. The scientific researches seeks development and improvement of materials for applications in products increasingly biodegradable. To do so, this research aims at obtaining films composed of polymer poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL), aliphatic polyester synthetic and biodegradable, and silicates in layers, specifically in the State of Paraiba, prepared by the method of solution. This mixture makes it possible to form different nanostructures intercalated morphology and/or exfoliated, which therefore provides improvement in the thermal properties of the final product. After analyzing the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) was observed predominantly exfoliated morphologies to PCL films containing different silicate content and an increase in thermal stability when there was a lower concentration of clay as thermal analysis (TGA). (author)

  17. Thermal solar energy - application in industrial heat processes; Energia solar termica - aplicacion en procesos industriales de calor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneschky, Alexis [Universidad Tecnica de Brandenburgo/Cottbus (Germany); Roth, Pedro; Cancino, Beatriz [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile); Kanig, Thomas [Germany, (Georgia)

    2000-07-01

    The main objective of this paper is to show the use solar energy for water heating in industry, integrating the companies through some strategy that signifies a common purpose that benefits both of them. In this report a project made with two neighboring companies in the region of Branderburgo, Germany is presented, that mutually benefit with the solar energy installation, but which are independent as far as its intentions and capitals. The first company is the factory FK-Solartchnik Kleinkoschen that produces solar collectors for hot water and is interested in developing publicity in this sense, reason why it put at the disposition of the second industry the necessary area to install the solar collectors. The second company, is the FGT Glaswerk Kleinkoschen that produces high quality glass plates, but does not have facade available for the installation of any solar equipment. In this industry, for the manufacture of glass, hot water is used. The glass plates, already cut, go trough a process of washing and drying. The washing, requires a volume of 1 m{sup 3}/day of hot water, at 60 degrees Celsius and is made between 6:30 a.m. and 3:30 p.m. The water heating was carried out with two electrical heaters (around 12 kW each one). A solar equipment was designed that allows to diminish the energy losses in the accumulation in the hours following the process, where the water is warmed up, and additionally covers part of the requirements of the consumed water. This equipment has a collector with a surface of 27 m{sup 2}. With this system, plus the contribution made by the workers of the company, the water temperature for washing was diminished in 20 K, without affecting the product quality and in addition, the annual consumption of electrical energy of the company was reduced in 15,000 kWh, using the solar energy resources in about 50% of the total consumption. [Spanish] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es mostrar el uso de la energia solar para el calentamiento de agua en la industria, integrando a las empresas a traves de alguna estrategia que signifique una finalidad comun que beneficie a ambas. En este informe se presenta un proyecto realizado con dos empresas vecinas en la region de Branderburgo Alemania, que se benefician mutuamente por la instalacion de la energia solar, pero que son independientes en cuanto a sus propositos y capitales. La primera empresa es la fabrica FK-Solartchnik Kleinkoschen que produce colectores solares para agua caliente y le interesa desarrollar publicidad en este sentido, por lo que puso a disposicion de la segunda industria el area necesaria para instalar los colectores solares. La segunda empresa, es la FGT Glaswerk Kleinkoschen que produce planchas de vidrio de alta calidad, pero no cuenta con fachada disponible para la instalacion de ningun equipo solar. En esta industria, para la fabricacion del vidrio, se utiliza agua caliente. Las planchas de vidrio, ya cortadas, pasan a un proceso de lavado y secado. El lavado, requiere de un volumen de 1 m{sup 3}/dia agua caliente, a 600 grados Celsius y se realiza entre las 6:30 y las 15:30 h. El calentamiento del agua era efectuado con dos calentadores electricos (alrededor de 12 kW cada uno). Se diseno un equipo solar que permite disminuir las perdidas de energia en la acumulacion en las horas siguientes al proceso, donde se calienta el agua, y adicionalmente se cubre parte de los requerimientos del agua consumida. Este equipo tiene una superficie de colector de 27 m{sup 2}. Con este sistema, mas el aporte realizado por los trabajadores de la empresa, disminuyo la temperatura del agua de lavado en 20 K, sin afectar la calidad del producto y se redujo ademas el consumo anual de energia electrica de la empresa en 15,000 kWh, utilizando los recursos de la energia solar en un 50% del consumo total.

  18. A perspective of the market of thermal solar energy; Una perspectiva del mercado de la energia solar termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, R.; Moreno, J.

    2008-07-01

    The take in effect in 2006 of the new Technical Code of Edification (CTE) augured a remarkable impact in the market of the thermal solar energy in Spain. Parallelly, in april of this year was published in Portugal the Regulation of the Characteristics of thermal Behaviours of the Buildings (RCCTE) that also generated promising expectations. A year and a half later, the market does not match to the initial forecasts made by the government agencies and the solar industry. The purpose of this article is to make an analysis of the causes of ralentization in the definitive takeoff of both markets. (Author)

  19. Thermal and hydraulic characteristics of the JEN-1 Reactor; Caracteristicas hidraulicas y termicas del Reactor JEN-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otra Otra, F; Leira Rey, G

    1971-07-01

    In this report an analysis is made of the thermal and hydraulic performances of the JEN-1 reactor operating steadily at 3 Mw of thermal power. The analysis is made separately for the core, main heat exchanger and cooling tower. A portion of the report is devoted to predict the performances of these three main components when and if the reactor was going to operate at a power higher than the maximum 3 Mw attainable today. Finally an study is made of the unsteady operation of the reactor, focusing the attention towards the pumping characteristics and the temperatures obtained in the fuel elements. Reference is made to several digital calculation programmes that nave been developed for such purpose. (Author) 21 refs.

  20. Solar thermal energy utilization in Brazil: a perspective; Utilizacao da energia solar termica no Brasil: uma perspectiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Francisco Mateus [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Although Brazil has a large insolation potential, utilization of solar thermal energy is still limited to few applications, like residential and commercial water heating and drying of grains. However, there are in other countries more intensive applications, like electricity generation, industrial heat and fresh water production. The present work describes which are the other ways of using solar thermal energy that have been developed in the world, approaches the main technical aspects that affect its utilization, the perspective of increasing it in Brazil and its possible barriers and, finally, PETROBRAS' studies in this area, positioning itself as an Energy Company. The main solar thermal technologies currently used in the world are evacuated collectors, that work efficiently at temperatures up to 130 deg C, and concentrating solar technologies, that can reach the temperature of 1200 deg C. Among the latter, solar trough is the technology that is already considered mature, and near to become economically viable. Brazil, at the moment, has two technological challenges: development of national technology to manufacture high performance solar collectors, like evacuated collectors and solar troughs, and the development of thermal equipment to operate at temperatures under 120 deg C, like adsorption and absorption chillers and desalination towers, that can be economically competitive. (author)

  1. Notes for a procedure of certification of thermal solar facilities; Apuntes para un procedimiento de certificacion de instalaciones solares termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, J. I.; Garcia, D.

    2008-07-01

    A procedure to evaluate the quality of solar thermal installations is proposed, following some analogy to the Calificacion Energetica de Viviendas (C.E.V.) method. The steps required to develop the method are established, analysing with special detail the stage of design-based qualification. The proposed procedures of energy saving qualification, architectural qualification, and economical qualification, are justified. Moreover, the report suggests a list of previous data that must be provided and periodically updated by the Administration to guarantee both the objectivity and the transparency of the qualification procedure. The exposure of the method is complemented with numerical and graphical application to several case studies. (Author)

  2. Development and thermal requirements of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae); Desenvolvimento e exigencias termicas de Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Simone Martins; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Carvalho, Livia Mendes [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia], e-mail: mmsimone@brfree.com.br, e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br

    2005-10-15

    The temperature strongly influences the development time of insects and the understanding of this aspect for natural enemies is essential for its use as biocontrol agents and for mass rearing purpose. The objective of this work was evaluating the effect of different temperatures on the development time of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832) as well as its thermal requirements. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 {+-} 1 deg C; RH 70 {+-} 10% and photo phase 12h. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879) were provided as food. The embryonic period was 14.0, 8.9, 6.6, 4.8, 3.9 and 3.3 days at 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 deg C, respectively. Nymphs of all instars (independent of originated sex) were affected by the temperature on their development time; there was a reduction of this period with the increase of the temperature. Males and females presented a development time about 12 days at 25 deg C. The developmental thresholds (To) for egg stage was estimated at 11.78 deg C, and for the nymphal phase were 12.27 deg C and 13.03 deg C for males and females, respectively. The thermal constants (K) for egg stage (63.75 day-degrees) and for nymphal stage were 161.97 and 157.24 day-degrees, for males and females, respectively. The temperature of 25 deg C was the most suitable for development time of O. insidiosus. (author)

  3. Simulation of the fluctuations of hydraulic pressure in thermal power plants; Simulacion de golpe de ariete en centrales termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzada Mazeres, P. de la [INITEC (Spain)

    1995-07-01

    In this study the different equipments of the circulation waste system in thermal power plants are modellized (refrigeration water from the condenser). The purpose is to analyze the transient generated when the pump trip is produced at different shutting times of discharge valve. (Author)

  4. Comparative analysis of three atmospheric dispersion coefficient systems at the Angra dos Reis, RJ, region; Analise comparativa de tres sistemas de coeficientes de dispersao atmosferica na regiao de Angra dos Reis, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagio, Rosa Maria de Souza

    1982-07-01

    A comparative analysis was made in this work among Pasquill-Gifford (PG) atmospheric dispersion coefficients and those determined at the Juelich and Karlsruhe sites with the purpose of suggesting which one would be the most applicable to the Angra site. Each one of the three systems was determined by different experiments, carried out over sites with diversified features. The systems of Juelich and Karlsruhe were obtained over sites with high surface roughness and from stacks (elevated releases), while the PG system was obtained over sites with a small surface roughness and from ground level releases. The results of the application of these systems at a complex site like Angra,which has a highly diversified structure encompassing sea, vegetation, predominance of light winds and stable stability classes, show that the PG system, the most used in the world, is still the best choice. (author)

  5. Experimental procedure for determination of dispersion coefficient in a column of porous medium using radiotracer; Procedimento experimental para determinacao do coeficiente de dispersao num meio poroso em coluna utilizando radiotracador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Roberto de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Heilbron Filho, Paulo Fernando Lavalle [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The experimental procedures used for determination of parameters such as the molecular diffusion and the diffusion by mechanical convection, responsible for the dispersion in the porous medium, are presented. The experiments were conduct in a column, based on the theory of hydrodynamic dispersion. The radiotracer technique was employed to monitor the dispersion of the radioactive cloud through the porous medium. The radionuclide employed was the bromide 82 (Br{sup 82}), in the KBr chemical form 11 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.; e-mail: rs at serv.com.ufrj.br; paulo at cnen.gov.br

  6. Quality in the chemical analysis of biological matrices by fluorescence X-ray by energy dispersive; Qualidade nas analises quimicas de matrizes biologicas pela fluorescencia de raios-X por dispersao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Evely E. de; Paiva, Jose Daniel S. de; Franca, Elvis J. de; Almeida, Macio E.S.; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: evelysousa_182@hotmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain multielement analytical curves of high analytical rigor to the analysis of biological matrices by the technique of fluorescence x-ray energy dispersive - EDXRF. Calibration curves were constructed from the reference materials IAEA 140, IAEA 155, IAEA V8, V10 to the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA, and SRM1515, SRM 1547, SRM 1570a, SRM 1573a, SEM 1567a, to the National Institute of Standards and Technology - NIST. After energy calibration, all samples were subjected to vacuum to the analyzes by 100 seconds for each group of chemical elements. The voltages used were respectively 15 keV for chemical elements with less than atomic number 22 and 50 keV for the others. After the construction of the curves, the analytical quality was assessed by the analysis of a portion-test of the reference material SRM 2976, also produced by NIST. Based on the number of certified reference materials used for construction of calibration curves in this work, quality analytical protocol was originated with considerable reliability for quantification of chemical elements in biological samples by EDXR.

  7. Dispersion of organoclays in polypropylene nanocomposites by ultrasound-assisted solution method; Estudo da dispersao de argilas organofilicas em nanocompositos de prolipropileno obtidos pelo metodo em solucao com auxilio de ultrassom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Eveline; Santos, Kelly Silva dos; Liberman, Susana Alcira; Mauler, Raquel Santos, E-mail: eve_bischoff@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2013-07-01

    Polypropylene nanocomposites PP/OMMT were prepared using two modified organic clays (C-15A and I-44P) and (PP-g-MA) as compatibilizer in the solution method using an ultrasound bath. The objective of this study was to understand the morphology of the nanocomposites and degree of clay dispersion in the polypropylene matrix, which are then correlated with the final properties. The morphology of nanocomposites was evaluated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The dynamic mechanical properties and thermal properties were measured by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Statistical analyses of the transmission images were made in order to obtain the aspect ratio (length/thickness) of the clay particles. (author)

  8. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence from useless tyres samples with a Si PIN detector; Fluorescencia de raios X por dispersao em energia de amostras de pneus inserviveis com detector de Si-PIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Fabio; Scheibel, Viviane [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada]. E-mail: bonn@uel.br; Melquiades, Fabio Luiz [Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste, Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Moraes, Liz Mary Bueno de [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2005-07-01

    The concentration of Zn from discard tyre samples is of environmental interest, since on its production are used S for the rubber vulcanization process, and Zn O as reaction catalyze. The useless tyres are been used for asphalt pave, burn in cement industry and thermoelectric power plant and in erosion control of agriculture areas. Analyses of these samples requires frequently chemical digestion that is expensive and take a long time. Trying to eliminate these limitations, the objective of this work was use Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence technique (EDXRF) with a portable system as the technique is multi elementary and needs a minimum sample preparation. Five useless tyres samples were grind in a knife mill and after this in a cryogenic mill, and analyzed in pellets form, using a X ray mini tube (Ag target, Mo {sub l}ter, 25 kV/20 {sub A}) for 200 s and a Si-PIN semiconductor detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer. Were obtained Zn concentrations in the range of 40.6 to 44.2 {sub g} g{sub 1}, representing nearly 0.4. (author)

  9. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence of discarded tire samples, using a Si-PIN detector; Fluorescencia de raios X por dispersao em energia de amostras de pneus inserviveis com detector de Si-Pin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Fabio; Appoloni, C.R., E-mail: bonn@uel.b [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada; Melquiades, Fabio L. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2007-07-01

    The determination of zinc concentration in samples of discarded tires is of great environmental interest because the process for manufacturing tyres uses S for rubber vulcanization, and ZnO is the reaction catalyst. Discarded tyres are being used in asphalt paving, in the burning process of thermoelectric and cement industries and also for controlling erosion in agricultural areas. Analysis of tyre samples usually requires chemical digestion which is slow and expensive. Aiming to eliminate those limitations, this work uses energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) with a portable equipment, once it is a simultaneous multi-element analytical technique, requiring minimal sample preparation. Five samples of discarded tyres have been ground and analysed in the form of pastilles, using a mini X-ray tube (Ag target, MO filter, 25 kV/20 muA) for 200 s, and a Si-PIN semiconductor detector coupled to a multichannel analyser. Zinc concentrations in the range of 40.6 to 44.2 mug g{sup -1} have been obtained, representing 0.4% of the tire composition, which is below the maximum value (2%) recommended by the European Tyre Recycling Association. Concentrations between 0.15 and 0.52 mug g{sup -1} were obtained for Fe

  10. Main radiation protection actions for medical personnel as primary responders front of an event with radiological dispersive device; Principais acoes de protecao radiologica para equipe medica como primeiros respondedores frente a um evento com dispositivo de dispersao radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, Hildanielle Ramos

    2015-07-01

    After the terrorist attack in New York, USA, in 2001, there was a worldwide concern about possible attacks using radioactive material in conventional detonators, called as Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or 'dirty bomb'. Several studies have been and are being made to form a global knowledge about this type of event. As until now, fortunately, there has not been an event with RDD, the Goiania Radiological Accident in Brazil, 1987, is used as a reference for decision-making. Several teams with technical experts should act in an event with RDD, but the medical staffs who respond quickly to the event must be properly protected from the harmful effects of radiation. Based on the radiological protection experts performance during the Goiania accident and the knowledge from lessons learned of many radiological accidents worldwide, this work presents an adaptation of the radiation protection actions for an event with RDD that helps a medical team as primary responders. The following aspects are presented: the problem of radioactive contamination from the explosion of the device in underground environment, the actions of the first responders and evaluation of health radiation effects. This work was based on specialized articles and papers about radiological accidents and RDD; as well as personal communication and academic information of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry. The radiation protection actions, adapted to a terrorist attack event with RDD, have as a scenario a subway station in the capital. The main results are: the use of the basic radiation protection principle of time because there is no condition to take care of a patient keeping distance or using a shielding; the use of full appropriate protection cloths for contaminating materials ensuring the physical safety of professionals, and the medical team monitoring at the end of a medical procedure, checking for surface contamination. The main conclusion is that all medical actions as primary responders must be followed up by radiation protection specialists. (author)

  11. Evaluation of ensemble atmospheric simulations in oil dispersion models at Itaguai Port region; Avaliacao do uso de resultados numericos de previsao atmosferica por conjunto na modelagem da dispersao de oleo na regiao do Porto de Itaguai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Renato Goncalves dos; Silva, Mariana P.R.; Silva, Ricardo Marcelo da; Torres Junior, Audalio R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Modelagem de Processos Marinhos e Atmosfericos (LAMMA); Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Metodos Computacinais em Engenharia (LAMCE); Sa, Reginaldo Ventura de; Hochleitner, Fabio; Correa, Eduardo Barbosa [AQUAMET Meteorologia e Projeto de Sistemas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work discusses the use of numerical prediction using ensemble as boundary condition in pollutants dispersion models, applied in a hypothetical case of an oil spill occurrence in Itaguai Port. The Princeton Ocean Model (POM) has been used to simulate hydrodynamics and NICOIL Eulerian model to forecast oil spill dispersion, and ensemble wind forecast from Global Forecast System (GFS), aiming to assess the importance of this parameter variability in oil dispersion at sea. The wind scenarios using ensemble members has showed significant dispersion when compared to control simulation, demonstrating that the uncertainty in the atmospheric modeling can generate considerable variations in the placement of the final spot of oil. The region of interest was the Sepetiba Bay, located on the southern coast of the Rio de Janeiro state; because of port operations carried out around the Port of Itaguai where they can, eventually, oil leaks occur. (author)

  12. Characterization of dispersion of a nano composites PP/TiO{sub 2} non modified; Caracterizacao da dispersao dos nanocompositos de PP/TiO{sub 2} nao modificados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Igor L.; Tavares, Maria I.B.; Silva, Vanessa A. da; Legramanti, Cintia, E-mail: igorl@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Instituto de Macromoleculas - IMA (Brazil); Luetkmeyer, Leandro [Universidades Federais do Mato Grosso - UFMT, Escritorio de Inovacao Tecnologica - EIT (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Polymeric nano composites are composite materials where an inorganic particle, which has a dimension in the nanometer range, is dispersed in a polymer matrix. Nano composites, using polypropylene (PP) as matrix polymer and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) as filler, have great versatility in marketing applications, this factor is inherent in the PP and the inherent ability photo degraded TiO{sub 2} particles. This combination can lead to a widely used material and a degradation time after discharge reduced, there by becoming, a residue of low environmental impact. This study aimed to evaluate the dispersion and particle distribution of TiO{sub 2}, non modified, in PP matrix, using the process of preparation by melt extrusion pathway and characterization of the materials obtained: on the molecular dynamics, using low field NMR solid state, measures the relaxation time spin-network (T{sub 1}H); morphology using XRD technique, and thermal analysis technique with the TGA of pure PP and nano composites PP/TiO{sub 2}. (author)

  13. Addition of polyurethane dispersions to Portland G for oil wells steam injection submitted to vapor injection; Adicao de poliuretana em dispersao a Portland G para cimentacao de pocos de petroleo sujeitos a injecao de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, L.B. da; Lima, F.M. de; Martinelli, A.M.; Bezerra, U.T.; Mello, D.M.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Araujo, R.G.S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Portland cement is by far the most important binding material used in oil well cementing. The cement sheath is responsible for both the mechanical stability of the wellbore and zonal isolation. During primary cementing and the production lifespan of the well, the cement sheath is exposed to adverse thermo-mechanical conditions, which may crack the intrinsically brittle cement material. Cracking affects the mechanical integrity of the sheath resulting in the contamination of oil or gas pay zones, as well as in the increase of producing costs related to the extraction of pebble and water. This scenario is especially encountered in wells containing heavy oils, typical of the Northeastern region of Brazil. The objective of the present study was to improve the fracture toughness of hardened Special Portland Cement slurries by the addition of aqueous polyurethane to Portland-based slurries used in primary cementing, plug backs and squeeze operations, improving environmental and economical impacts. The results revealed that the addition of polyurethane increased the viscosity of the slurry but still within the limits established by oil well cement guidelines. No significant increase was observed in the compressive strength of the cement. However, the addition of polyurethane improved the toughness of the cement increasing its ability to withstand thermo-mechanical cycles typical of heavy oil recovery. In addition, significant reduction in permeability was observed as the contents of polyurethane increased, contributing to the reduction in set time and gas migration through the cement sheath. (author)

  14. Neutronic, thermal-hydraulics and safety calculations of a Miniplate Irradiation Device (MID) of dispersion type fuel elements; Calculos neutronicos, termo-hidraulicos e de seguranca de um dispositivo para Irradiacao de miniplacas (DIM) de elementos combustiveis tipo dispersao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingos, Douglas Borges

    2010-07-01

    Neutronic, thermal-hydraulics and accident analysis calculations were developed to estimate the safety of a Miniplate Irradiation Device (MID) to be placed in the IEA-R1 reactor core. The irradiation device is used to receive miniplates of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}- Al dispersion fuels, LEU type (19.75 % {sup 235}U) with uranium densities of, respectively, 3.2 gU/cm{sup 3} and 4.8 gU/cm{sup 3}. The fuel miniplates will be irradiated to nominal {sup 235}U burnup levels of 50% and 80%, in order to qualify the above high-density dispersion fuels to be used in the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), now in the conception phase. For the neutronic calculation, the computer codes CITATION and 2DB were utilized. The computer code FLOW was used to calculate the coolant flow rate in the irradiation device, allowing the determination of the fuel miniplate temperatures with the computer model MTRCR-IEA-R1. A postulated Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) was analyzed with the computer codes LOSS and TEMPLOCA, allowing the calculation of the fuel miniplate temperatures after the reactor pool draining. The calculations showed that the irradiation should occur without adverse consequences in the IEA-R1 reactor. (author)

  15. Use of X-ray fluorescence with energy dispersion, and the total reflexions in the analysis of environmental samples; Uso da fluorescencia de raios X com dispersao de energia e da reflexao total na analise de amostras ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simabuco, Silvana Moreira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    This communication reports the present status of the research on the use of wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence and radioisotopic excitation for quantitative analysis of environmental samples. Simultaneous instrumental determination of various element concentration have been performed, particularly Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Zr and Nb existent in soils with different textures. Also, quantitative analysis has been performed on sediment samples, based on the fundamental parameters for quantification of Z >= 13 elements, and the coherent and incoherent scattered excitation radiation for quantification of the matrix (Z < 13) light fraction 16 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Determination of the inorganic components in the Brazilian medicinal plants from 'in natura' and capsule forms, using X-ray fluorescence techniques (WD and ED systems). Quantitative inorganic profile definition; Determinacao de componentes inorganicos em plantas medicinais, comercializadas em formas de po (capsulas) e 'in natura', utilizando a tecnica de fluorescencia de raios X por dispersao de comprimento de onda (WDXRF) e por dispersao de energia (EDXRF). Definicao de perfis inorganicos quantitativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Manuel Octavio Marques

    2004-07-01

    The Na, Mg, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr concentrations in the Stryphnodendron barbatiman (Barbatimao), Malva officinalis (Malva), Salvia officinalis (Salvia), Ginkgo folium (Ginkgo biloba), Echinodorus macrophylius (Chapeu de couro), Paulina cupana (Guarana), Valeriana officinalis (Valeriana), Cordia salicifolia (Porangaba), Calendula officinalis (Calendula), Solidago microglossa (Arnica), Arnica montana (Arnica) and Schinus molle (Aroeira) species were concentrations. The specimens were sampled 'in natura' (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) and capsule (powder) forms from different commercial labels. The elemental determination was outlined by wavelength dispersive (WDXRF) and energy dispersive (EDXRF) X-ray fluorescence techniques using, respectively, linear regression and fundamental parameter methods. The repeatability and accuracy of the methods were evaluated using the certified reference material NIST 1547 - 'Peach Leaves'. Statistical treatments, such as Chauvenet and Cochrane, ANOVA and Z-score tests, were applied. A quantitative inorganic profile was obtained for each specie from 'in natura' and capsule forms. Different inorganic compositions were observed in the different parts (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) of the Schinus molle (Aroeira), Arnica montana (Arnica), Calendula officinalis (Calendula) and Echinodorus macrophylius (Chapeu de couro) species. (author)

  17. Determination of the inorganic components in the Brazilian medicinal plants from 'in natura' and capsule forms, using X-ray fluorescence techniques (WD and ED systems). Quantitative inorganic profile definition; Determinacao de componentes inorganicos em plantas medicinais, comercializadas em formas de po (capsulas) e 'in natura', utilizando a tecnica de fluorescencia de raios X por dispersao de comprimento de onda (WDXRF) e por dispersao de energia (EDXRF). Definicao de perfis inorganicos quantitativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Manuel Octavio Marques

    2004-07-01

    The Na, Mg, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr concentrations in the Stryphnodendron barbatiman (Barbatimao), Malva officinalis (Malva), Salvia officinalis (Salvia), Ginkgo folium (Ginkgo biloba), Echinodorus macrophylius (Chapeu de couro), Paulina cupana (Guarana), Valeriana officinalis (Valeriana), Cordia salicifolia (Porangaba), Calendula officinalis (Calendula), Solidago microglossa (Arnica), Arnica montana (Arnica) and Schinus molle (Aroeira) species were concentrations. The specimens were sampled 'in natura' (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) and capsule (powder) forms from different commercial labels. The elemental determination was outlined by wavelength dispersive (WDXRF) and energy dispersive (EDXRF) X-ray fluorescence techniques using, respectively, linear regression and fundamental parameter methods. The repeatability and accuracy of the methods were evaluated using the certified reference material NIST 1547 - 'Peach Leaves'. Statistical treatments, such as Chauvenet and Cochrane, ANOVA and Z-score tests, were applied. A quantitative inorganic profile was obtained for each specie from 'in natura' and capsule forms. Different inorganic compositions were observed in the different parts (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) of the Schinus molle (Aroeira), Arnica montana (Arnica), Calendula officinalis (Calendula) and Echinodorus macrophylius (Chapeu de couro) species. (author)

  18. Evaluación antileishmanial in vitro de extractos provenientes de Citrus limetta, Cucurbita maxima y Rhoeo spathacea

    OpenAIRE

    García Parra, Marley; Monzote Fidalgo, Lianet; Montalvo Álvares, Ana Margarita; Scull Lizama, Ramón

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la leishmaniosis comprende un grupo de enfermedades infecciosas causadas por organismos hemoflagelados del género Leishmania. Hoy día, esta enfermedad prevalece en 88 países tropicales alrededor del mundo y existe un estimado de 1,5 a 2 millones de nuevos casos por año. Su control es deficiente, principalmente al no contar con una vacuna eficaz. Aunque existen varios fármacos para su tratamiento, todos requieren una administración parenteral, tratamientos muy largos, costosos, y...

  19. IMPACTO AMBIENTAL DE LOS CONTAMINANTES PROVENIENTES DE AGUAS RESIDUALES DE FEED-LOT SOBRE AGUAS SUBTERRÁNEAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter M. Glessi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se investigó el impacto de los contaminantes de efluentes líquidos generados por doce feedlot del sudeste de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, con el objeto de determinar los aspectos significativos sobre la vulnerabilidad de las aguas subterráneas. Se utilizó la Guía metodológica de Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental propuesta por Conesa (2010 partiendo de do ce Estudios de Impacto Ambiental y analizando como influye la actividad sobre el agua subterránea. Se analizó la dimensión de los establecimientos partiendo del número de animales, el tipo de suelo, profundidad freática y tipo de práctica (estacional o continua, así como las doce matrices de impacto en la emisión de contaminantes sobre el medio físico agua. Se obtuvo que los parámetros de mayor incidencia son: el grado de Destrucción, el área de influencia, el momento de manifestación del efecto y la regularidad de la manifestación.

  20. Cultivo in vitro del tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea (Cav. Sendt. (Fenotipo naranja proveniente de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Chacón-Cerdas

    2014-06-01

    Se determinó que la desinfección con 2,5% de Ca(ClO2 fue la mejor para el establecimiento in vitro; el mejor medio de cultivo para la micropropagación del material fue el M1, compuesto por sales MS(1962 al 100%, sacarosa al 3%, phytagel® 1,8g/L, 0,5mg/L de AG3, 0,25mg/L de BAP y 2,0 mg/L de PaCa, el cual presentó el mejor balance entre el número promedio de brotación/explante y el número promedio de entrenudos/explante, sin formación excesiva de callo, mientras que el medio de cultivo E5, constituido por sales MS(1962 al 100%, agar 6,0g/L y sacarosa al 3%, sin reguladores del crecimiento y el medio de cultivo E6, que incluía las sales MS(1962 al 100%, agar 8,0g/L y sacarosa al 3%, sin reguladores del crecimiento, mostraron el periodo más corto para la formación de raíces, el mayor número promedio de raíces y la mayor longitud promedio de raíz y tallo.

  1. DIOCTOFIMOSE EM UM CÃO PROVENIENTE DO MUNICÍPIO DE VALENÇA, RJ: RELATO DE CASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Zacaron MARQUES

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dioctophyma renale é o maior nematóide conhecido. Seu parasitismo tem sido descrito em várias espécies animais e no homem. Este helminto localiza-se preponderantemente no rim direito ou livre na cavidade abdominal de seus hospedeiros. Sinais clínicos como abatimento, inapetência e emagrecimento podem estar associados à dioctofimose, apesar do curso da parasitose ser muitas vezes assintomático nos animais e pessoas infectadas. O único tratamento eficaz é a remoção cirúrgica do parasito e, em alguns casos, do rim afetado. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo relatar um caso de parasitismo por Dioctophyma renale em um cão no município de Valença/RJ. O animal foi resgatado por apresentar um tumor na pata e também hérnia perianal, mas ao caminho da policlínica veterinária apresentou também uma urina de odor fétido, que através da urinálise observou-se presença de ovos compatíveis com os de Dioctophyma renale.Dado o diagnóstico e localização do parasito, o animal foi encaminhado para a Policlínica de Pequenos Animais, da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária de Valença, onde optou-se pela nefrectomia do rim afetado. 

  2. SANIDADE DE SEMENTES DE GIRASSOL PROVENIENTES DE TRÊS MUNICÍPIOS DO ESTADO DO MARANHÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delineide Pereira Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of sunflower leads to studies on seed pathogen, to guarantee crop sanity and to provide identification of pathogens in new areas. Genotypes seeds lots produced in Embrapa Soja assays carried out in tree cities of the State of Maranhão, Brazil (Balsas, São Luís and Timon were analyzed, with the objective of evaluating sanitary quality of sunflower seeds. Sanitary analysis was performed by blotter test method and identification of fungi genera was based on morphological features. The occurrence of Fusarium sp., Alternaria spp., Curvularia sp., Dreschelera sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Phoma sp., Trichoderma sp., Botrytis sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Rhizopus sp., Colletotrichum sp., Chaetomium sp., Cladosporium sp. and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was observed in seeds of sunflower, with variable incidences.

  3. Argamassa de revestimento utilizando areia proveniente da britagem de resíduo de construção civil

    OpenAIRE

    Pissolato Junior, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    O grande descarte de rejeitos da construção civil, em função das reformas e demolições como também do desperdício gerado pela baixa qualidade da mão de obra, faz da indústria da construção civil uma das grandes poluidoras do meio ambiente. Nas últimas décadas, vem-se obrigando o recolhimento organizado dos entulhos e sua reciclagem por meio da imposição das leis ambientais, de modo que a construção civil, paulatinamente, tem-se disciplinando no sentido de autogerir os seus descartes. Estudos ...

  4. Estudio de la fitohemaglutinina proveniente del frijol colorado (Phaseolus Vulgaris Study of phytohemagglutinin from red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Hernández Díaz

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvieron preparaciones crudas de fitohemaglutinina (PHA a partir de frijol colorado (Phaseolus vulgaris por 2 métodos: extracción acuosa y extracción ácida. Por el método ácido se obtuvieron mejores resultados en cuanto a concentración de proteínas y pureza de la misma. Se empleó la cromatografía en hidroxiapatita para separar las isoformas que forman la PHA y se obtuvieron 5 fraccciones proteicas que se evaluaron funcionalmente junto con las preparaciones crudas, a través de sus propiedades eritroaglutinantes y leucoaglutinantes. A medida que se aumentó la fuerza iónica del medio se observó que las fracciones obtenidas presentaban una disminución relativa de la actividad leucoaglutinante, así como un incremento relativo de la actividad eritroaglutinante. Las preparaciones crudas y las fracciones se evaluaron electroforéticamente y se obtuvieron bandas muy similares a la de la PHA patrón utilizadaRaw preparations of phytohemagglutinin (PHA were obtained from red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris by 2 methods: aqueous extraction and acid extraction. Better results were obtained with the acid methods as regards the protein concentration and its purity. Hydroxyapatite chromatography was used to separate the isoforms forming the phytohemagglutinin. 5 protein fractions were obtained and functionally evaluated together with the raw preparations through their erythroagglutinating and leukoagglutinating properties. As the ionic force of the medium increased it was observed that the fractions obtained presented a relative decrease of the leukoagglutinating activity as well as a relative rise of the crythroagglutinating activity. The raw preparations and the fractions were electrophoretically evaluated and bands very similar to that of the PHA used as a pattern were obtained

  5. Understanding the risk coming from the radiation exposure; Entendiendo el riesgo proveniente de la exposicion a la radiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierzo, J A [Sociedad Mexicana de Medicina Nuclear A.C., Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    From 1972, the National Academy has published a series of reports on the biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIR) in relation to the health effects of the low level radiation. The Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Energy and the Academy of Sciences of US, began in 1996 the first phase of the BEIR VII report about the health risks associated to the exposure to low level ionizing radiation. The purpose of the first phase of the study is to revise the literature and to decide if enough novel information existed to guarantee the complete study. The National Academies concluded that enough information existed with an appropriate time to carry out the reanalysis. Among the conclusions of BEIR VII are that the current scientific evidence is concordant with the hypothesis of the existence of a linear model without threshold (LSU) in the dose-response relationship among the exposure to ionizing radiation and the cancer development in humans. This implies that very low dose even has the potential of causing deleterious effects in the health, although the risk to low dose is very small. (Author)

  6. Contenido de yodo en sal a nivel de puestos de venta provenientes de distintas localidades en tres regiones argentinas

    OpenAIRE

    López Linares, S; Heer I, Martín

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La deficiencia de yodo es la principal causa prevenible de retardo mental y daño cerebral en la población. La yodación de la sal en Argentina es obligatoria según Ley 17259/67. El objetivo fue determinar el contenido de yodo en sal obtenida de puestos de venta de distintas localidades de provincias que integran la región del noroeste (NOA), nordeste (NEA) y Cuyo. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo y transversal. Se analizaron 80 sales adquiridas por compra directa, mercado ...

  7. Atividade enzimática em plântulas de eucalyptus grandis provenientes de sementes envelhecidas artificialmente e naturalmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letícia Camargo Pereira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the standard procedure developed for crop seeds to examine the biochemical processes in accelerated aging seeds (kept for 96 hours at 42ºC and 100% RH and stored seeds (from 5, 10 and 15 years using isoenzyme electrophoresis and peroxidase activity by colorimetric assay. There was significant decrease (z-test in the vigor of accelerated aging seeds (54,9% when compared to the stored ones (97,25%, 95,22% and 89,25%.The peroxidase (PER, EC 1.11.1.7 activity was low, however there was na increase in activity with seed aging. There was a simultaneous increase in both malate dehidrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37 and esterase (EST, EC 3.1.1.1 activities. The results fllowed the in crease in the seeds storage period of time and of the stress which occurs due to the temperature and humidity conditions utilized in accelerated aging.

  8. Prevalencia de Listeria Monocytogenes en salchichas tipo Huacho provenientes de los mercados de abastos del Cercado de Lima

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Alarcón, María Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Se analizaron 60 muestras de Salchicha tipo Huacho de los Mercados de Abastos del Cercado de Lima, con la finalidad de determinar la incidencia de Listeria monocytogenes. Estas muestras se llevaron al Laboratorio de Microbiología de la Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, en recipientes estériles, refrigerados y se procesaron dentro de las 24 horas de colectadas. Para el análisis microbiológico se utilizó la técnica según USDA- FSIS, que consta...

  9. Resistencia mecánica de ladrillos preparados con mezclas de arcilla y lodos provenientes del tratamiento de aguas residuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto García Ubaque

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the mechanical properties of bricks that were made with clay and sludge mixtures. We analyzed 100:0, 99:1, 95:5, 90:10, 80:20 and 60:40 proportions of clay and sludge. Bricks were cooked between 35 ºC to 1100 ºC. The sludge used in this study came from sewage treatment plant of G.M. Colmotors Company. These tests were carried out: Water Absorption and mechanical resistance of bricks compression. The results of this study showed that the best percentage of sludge to mix with clay was 5 % to 10 %. Since, this percentage range meets the quality standards of the product demanded in Colombia.

  10. Recycling of platinum group metals from the automotive catalysts; Reciclagem de metais do grupo da platina proveniente de catalisadores automotivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benevit, Mariana; Petter, Patricia Melo Halmenschlager; Veit, Hugo Marcelo, E-mail: patymhp@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Departamento de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    Currently it is very important to use alternative sources of raw material for obtaining metals, avoiding the traditional mining. This work aims to characterize and evaluate the recoverability of platinum group metals present in automotive catalysts. Thus, the catalysts were divided into two groups: the first was catalysts used in 1.0 cars and the second was catalyst used in 2.0 cars. DRX and FRX techniques and chemical analysis performed by ICP/OES was used to characterized these materials. The results showed that there is a significant amount of platinum group elements in catalyst waste, which can be separated and reused. In the next step, hydro and pyrometallurgical routes, for metals extraction from catalyst waste, will be studied. (author)

  11. CARACTERIZACIÓN ESTRUCTURAL DE LA MATERIA ORGÁNICA DE TRES SUELOS PROVENIENTES DEL MUNICIPIO DE AQUITANIA BOYACÁ, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen S. Mosquera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La materia orgánica del suelo puede variar considerablemente en su estructura, composición y conformación, de acuerdo con el origen y la edad de los materiales que la constituyen. En la presente investigación se procedió a caracterizar, mediante el empleo de la espectroscopia infrarroja y la resonancia magnética nuclear en estado sólido, dos suelos inceptisoles (I01 y I02 y un histosol (H03 destinados al cultivo de cebolla larga, en el municipio de Aquitania-Boyacá, Colombia, a dos profundidades: 0 - 10 y 40 - 50 cm. Según los espectros infrarrojos, se detectó la presencia de grupos OH (debida posiblemente a fenoles, ácidos carboxílicos o alcoholes, grupos aromáticos y alifáticos. Los espectros de 13C-RMN en estado sólido con CPMAS evidenciaron el siguiente orden respecto a la cantidad de carbonos que conforman la materia orgánica del suelo: H03-0 = 100 y H03 -40 = 88, I02-0 = 23 y I02-40 = 0, y finalmente I01-0 = 17 y I01-40 = 12, confirmándose la disminución de carbonos en la materia orgánica a través del perfil del suelo, y además se estableció que el carbón resonante en la región delta = 108-50 ppm de los espectros (N – y O-alquilos y acetales dominó en toda la MOS obtenida; le siguió el carbón aromático (delta = 168-108 ppm para los suelos I01-0 y H03-40, y el carbón alifático (delta = 0-50 ppm para los suelos I01-40, I02-0 y H03-0. Finalmente, el carbónC=O( delta= 220-162 ppm fue el menos dominante en la materia orgánica del suelo en todos los tres suelos caracterizados.

  12. Characterization of natural fiber from agricultural-industrial residues; Caracterizacao de fibras naturais provenientes de residuos agroindustriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Karen S.; Spinace, Marcia A.S., E-mail: marcia.spinace@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, CCNH, Universidade Federal do ABC - UFABC, Campus de Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Natural fibers show great potential for application in polymer composites. However, instead of the production of inputs for this purpose, an alternative that can also minimize solid waste generation is the use of agro-industrial waste for this purpose, such as waste-fiber textiles, rice husks residues and pineapple crowns. In this work the characterization of these three residues and evaluate their properties in order to direct the application of polymer composites. Was analyzed the moisture, density, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis of the fibers. The results show that the use of these wastes is feasible both from an environmental standpoint and because its properties suitable for this application. (author)

  13. De la responsabilidad proveniente de un hecho de las cosas inanimadas según el derecho francés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Kiefer Marchand

    1945-12-01

    Full Text Available En. Octubre de 1939, el PROFESOR JULLIOT DE LAMORANDIIERE dictó, en la Universidad Católica, una conferencia bajo el título que encabeza estas líneas. Catecdrático de la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad de París, el Profesor Julliot de la Morandiere fué Asesorde la Comisión Reformadora del Código Civil Colombianoy es autor de numerosas obras de Derecho Civil y Comercial. A continuación publicamos una traducción de la Conferenciadel notable jurista francés sobre un tema que es objeto de frecuentes discusiones entre nosotros.

  14. Conversion of the biogas from sewage to electric power; Conversao do biogas proveniente de esgoto em eletricidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Abreu, Fernando Castro de [Universidade de Sao Paulo, , SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO)]. E-mails: suani@iee.usp.br; sgvelaz@iee.usp.br; omartins@iee.usp.br; fcabreu@terra.com.br

    2006-07-01

    This article presents the ENERG-BIOG project, electric power generation by using 30 kW (ISO) microturbines with biogas generated in the process of sewage treatment of the Sewage Treatment Station (ETE) from SABESP (Basic Sanitation Company of the Sao Paulo State) in Barueri, BR. It is a pioneer project at Latin America, being jointly accomplished with Biomass Users Network of Brazil (proponent), and CENBIO - Biomass Reference National Center (executor), supported by the FINEP/CT-ENERG (financial support)

  15. La colonización de Baja California con mexicanos provenientes de Estados Unidos (1935-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Saúl Alanís Enciso

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La migración internacional en el espacio fronterizo México-Guatemala se ha vuelto en los últimos años de alto riesgo. En este artículo presentamos algunos resultados preliminares de un proyecto de investigación que tiene como objetivo documentar y analizar la situación de riesgo en la ruta principal que han utilizado los migrantes centroamericanos (en este caso, indocumentados de paso en la costa chiapaneca, conocida como el Soconusco, en la frontera México-Guatemala. El análisis presenta los resultados del rastreo de registros en instituciones que tienen contacto con los migrantes, de las entrevistas en profundidad y de la observación participante. Se describen algunas de estas situaciones señalándolas en los mapas de riesgo, para elaborar un registro espacial de los peligros que permita explorar de qué manera el espacio refleja la situación de riesgo que viven los migrantes y cómo contribuye al fenómeno

  16. Algunos problemas provenientes de la Teoría de Rayos Aplicada a las Ecuaciones de Onda Sísmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos César Piedrahita Escobar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available La parte inicial de este artículo revisa la aplicación de la teoría de rayos en las ecuaciones de onda sísmicas, en particular, la propagación de ondas P. La parte final del artículo se centra en un par de problemas que se generan a partir del análisis utilizando teoría de rayos. Estos problemas posee un interés académico en su formulación matemática, además tienen un interés práctico para el  área de la Geofísica de Exploración y/o Producción.

  17. Caracterización estructural y térmica de almidones provenientes de diferentes variedades de papa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Hernando Pardo C

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando análisis fisicoquímico, estructural y térmico, se evaluaron almidones de las variedades de papa Parda Pastusa (P, Tuquerreña (T, ICA Huila (IH, ICA Puracé (IP, ICA Única (IU, Criolla Latina (C y R-12 (R, cultivadas en el departamento de Boyacá, Colombia. En cada una de ellas se determinaron los contenidos de ceniza y proteína siguiendo métodos de la AOAC, humedad utilizando un analizador, estructura cristalina mediante difracción de rayos-X (DRX y propiedades térmicas utilizando calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 entre los contenidos de humedad en almidones. El almidón de la variedad IU presentó el mayor contenido de ceniza y el de la variedad T, el menor. Los difractogramas mostraron para todas las variedades patrones de cristalinidad tipo B; no obstante el almidón de las variedades IP, P, IU, T y IH presentó un patrón más cristalino que el de las variedades C y R. Los termogramas de los almidones mostraron el primer y segundo pico endotérmico, entre 123 y 163 J/g y entre 141 y 213.3 J/g, respectivamente, para las variedades IP, P, IU, T y IH; mientras que para los almidones de las variedades C y R estos valores fueron entre 68 y 77 J/g y entre 334 y 358 J/g, respectivamente.

  18. Inventário da emissão do material particulado proveniente de diesel e biodiesel brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Thiago de Oliveira Brandão

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: A elaboração de um inventário de emissões atmosféricas demanda estudos de grandes proporções, pois abrange áreas importantes da ciência e sociedade (saúde, economia, tecnologia). Dessa forma, deve ser muito bem planejado, para que sua execução seja bem sucedida e gere resultados confiáveis, que possam servir de base para o desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias, bem como útil para o monitoramento ambiental pertinente em grandes cidades, por exemplo. O biodiesel é visto com simpatia por ...

  19. Development of the conductivity thermal logs based on electrical profiles; Desenvolvimento de perfil de condutividade termica a partir de perfis eletricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Carlos Luciano C. de; Lima, Olivar A.L. de; Argollo, Roberto M.; Romero, Pedro A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Geologia e Geofisica

    2004-07-01

    The thermal conductivity of the rocks is a necessary physical parameter for the calculation of the flow of heat in the terrestrial surface. The conventional methods to measure the thermal conductivity are developed in laboratory having used sample of certifications. However, these nor always are disposable by the industry of the oil, either because of difficulty operational either for its high cost. However, all the constructed wells of oil are stood geophysically, and, in the majority of the times the geophysical profiles are the only petrophysics registers of the wells, mainly when the same ones are not testified. A viable alternative for sedimentary rocks would be to determine the thermal conductivity through the electric conductivity, being this normally gotten in electric profiles of wells. As the electric conductivity and the thermal conductivity they depend on the porosity and of the texture of the rocks and these mathematically equivalents satisfy equations constituent, are intuitive to think that the same largeness can directly be correlated. Applying the same analytical theoretical procedure considered by Lima and Sharma (1990 and 1992) to describe the electric conductivity of clay-sand, we develop an expression to determine the thermal conductivity of clay-sandstone rocks. To test the applicability of this equation they had been used given of electric profile of five explore wells of the regions of Aracas and Miranga, both of the basin of Reconcavo. The results of the conversions are comparable with the ones of effected measures of thermal conductivity with the method of the bar for Carvalho (1981) in the terrigenous sequences of the Reconcavo. (author)

  20. Wood drying project with solar energy and absorption plant; Proyecto de un secador de madera con energia solar termica y una planta de absorcion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corretger, J. M.; Lara, J.; Arnau, J.; Marquez, A.

    2004-07-01

    Wood drying processes currently are developed in tunnel dryers using an air hot flow through the wood to remove the water. These processes are interesting to dry current wood that does not require special control of the drying velocity. However, could be necessary to control drying velocity at any moment of the process in order to dry some high quality wood. This implies to combine heating processes, cooling and dehumidification processes and humidification processes. The aim of this project is to dry noble woods with a drying complex process, in order to improve the quality of the products and to increase the energy saving by free-cooling operations and advanced control strategies, increased by using solar energy to get cold and hot water. The saving of energy will produce a bill reduction and an important minimization of environmental impact. (Author)

  1. Thermal stability of formulations of PVC irradiated with {gamma} of {sup 60}; Estabilidad termica de formulaciones de PVC irradiadas con {gamma} de {sup 60} Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez P, M.E.; Carrasco A, H. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: memp@nuclear.inin.mx; Castaneda F, A.; Benavides C, R.; Garcia R, S.P. [CIQA, 25100 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The industry of cables and wires frequently use cable isolations with base of formulations of PVC, in those that stabilizer has usually been used with the help of heavy metals, as the lead, which is toxic. To solve the problem, from the 2002 one has come studying in combined form in the National Institute of Nuclear Research ININ and the Center of Investigation in Applied Chemistry CIQA, the modifications induced by the radiation in formulations with the help of vinyl poly chloride PVC. In these formulations, prepared with cross linking agent, plastifying industrial grade, stuff and non toxic stabilizers of calcium estearate and zinc industrial grade, it is sought to replace the stabilizer of Pb. For this were irradiated it test tubes of PVC with gamma radiation of cobalt 60 to three different dose in atmospheres of air and argon. Later it was determined their thermal stability at different times of heating and it was measured the Young modulus by means of thermo mechanical analysis. Those results obtained together with other techniques of characterization suggest that the irradiated proposed formulation can substitute the one stabilized with lead. (Author)

  2. Thermal inertia and radiating average Temperature. A brief analysis of some causes of discomfort; Inercia Termica y Temperatura media radiante. Un breve analisis de algunas causas de disconfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroba, M.

    2008-07-01

    Radiant average temperature in walls is as important as dry air temperature to achieve thermal comfort of users of a local. An excessive discrepancy between these levels, or an asymmetric distribution of the surface temperature of fences, may cause localized thermal discomfort, an effect impossible to compensate by rising dry air temperature. Thermal inertia and its concentration must be properly studied in order to handle this parameters, inside or outside the building, on both sides of the cladding or none depending on the weather, the bio climatic strategies used, heating and air conditioning systems and planned use of the building. (Author)

  3. Thermal inertia in thermal infrared: porosity and chemical components of rocks; Inercia termica no infravermelho termal: porosidade e componentes quimicos de rochas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Admilson P.; Ehlers, Ricardo Sandes [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Vitorello, Icaro [Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    The effect of porosity, and the relation between thermal inertia values and chemical components were determined. The thermal inertia values and chemical components were determined. The thermal inertia determinations were performed using radiometric observations, in the range 8 to 14 {mu}, of the surface temperature variations of the sample, induced by an incident heat flux. The results show that the increase in porosity tends to reduce the thermal inertia values, when the rock is in a dry state. In the water saturation state, the inertia also tends to show small values, only for porous rocks with thermal inertia values larger than the water values. The acid rocks show thermal inertia values smaller than those of the basic rocks. The intermediate and basic rocks show strong positive correlation between thermal inertia and Si O{sub 2}. 7 refs., 3 figs

  4. The PFBC Power Plant of Escatron; Proyecto de Demostracion de la Combustion en Lecho Fuido a Presion Central Termica de Escatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Escatron Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Demonstration Plant was led by ENDESA which set out on the Project with its own specific objectives, and also have involved contributions from designers and suppliers, as ABB and BWE. The project objectives may be defined as follows: To make progress in the development of clean and efficient technology applicable to a wide range of coal types, specially to the peculiar Spanish black lignites. To be able to design and manufacture a new technology in the contest of European Union, specially developing capacity in Spain. All this give rise to a framework which took shape in the Escatron Project Monitoring Committee. Sulphur retention in PFBC technology has proved to be efficient, with levels higher than 90%. The nitric oxides emissions fall within limits set by present regulations. It is likely that more restrictive regulations in the future, will require the consideration of injecting ammonium technic over free-chamber bed. The most significant problem is that the flue gas from the cyclones to the gas turbine, has a high dust content. The cleaning system for this gas should be improved, and the best option appear to be the introduction of ceramic filters. The new plants could be built at higher power, as should be 300-400 MWe, operating with higher pressure (16 bar). This option together with better steam conditions, gives rise to a better energy yields and competitive electric energy production. But we should not dimis more proved designs of 100-200 MWe, as an interesting modular solution. (Author)

  5. Hydrogen production from catalytic decomposition of methane; Produccion de hidrogeno a partir de la descomposicion termica catalitica del biogas de digestion anaerobia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belsue Echevarria, M.; Etxebeste Juarez, O.; Perez Gil, S.

    2002-07-01

    The need of substitution of part of the energy obtained from fossil fuels instead of energy from renewable sources, together with the minimal emissions of CO{sub ''} and CO that are expected with these technologies, make renewable sources a very attractive predecessor for the production of hydrogen. In this situation, a usable source for hydrogen production is the biogas achieved by means of technologies like the anaerobic digestion of different kinds of biomass (MSW, sewage sludge, stc.). In this article we suggest the Thermal Catalytic Decomposition of the methane contained in this biogas, after separation of pollutants like CO{sub ''}, H{sub 2}S. steam. This technology will give hydrogen, usable in fuel cells, and nanoestructured carbon as products. (Author) 7 refs.

  6. Simplified model of the thermal evolution of the fuel dry storage; Modelo simplificado de la evolucion termica del combustible en almacenamiento en seco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penalva, J.; Feria, F.; Herranz, L. E.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work is to establish a model that allows to determine easily temperature of the fuel burned and time out of reactor. The model will depend on the selected storage system, but the established methodology lays the groundwork for your application to any other case. to obtain the temperature has been used the FLUENT code, based on a model 3D itself and in the heat of decay at different burn (30-60 MWd/kgU) calculated with origin (information available in the literature). Of the different simulations carried out has developed a 3D map of temperature versus burned and time out of reactor, which has allowed to develop an equation simplified.

  7. Hydrocarbons thermal maturation: Leopatin method applied to the Parana basin; Maturacao termica de hidrocarbonetos: aplicacao do metodo de Lopatin a Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eston, Sergio Medici de; Jardim, Niza S

    1987-12-31

    One of the requirements for the existent of economic deposits of hydrocarbons is that the organic matter has undergone adequate thermal maturation. Several techniques have been proposed in order to quantity the catagenetic state of kerogen, and the Lopatin-Waples methodology permits quantification at any past time and does not require laboratory tests on samples of the material. For this reason it is an useful techniques for predicting mature zones using as basic information the thermal and subsidence histories of each stratum. Lopatin`s technique was applied to the Parana basin, with McKenzie`s crustal stretching model fitted to the data of 18 wells, and the areas predicted as mature for oil and/or gas were in good agreement with the field results. The technique predicted oil phone areas at the east border of the basin for the Ponta Grossa and Irati formation, and also that most of the thermal maturation occurred after the basalt flows of the Cretaceous period. (author) 41 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Thermo active piles and diaphragm walls building process and thermal response test; Pilotes y pantallas termoactivas. Proceso constructivo y caracterizacion termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazariegos, A.; Anton, L. C.; Valle, R.; Urchueguia, J.; Quilis, S.; Martinez, S.; Magraner, T.

    2009-07-01

    Thermo active foundation technology uses building foundation piles diaphragm wall slabs as ground heat exchangers to provide building with heating and cooling. This type of foundation is based on the use of the ground temperature to enhance the heat pump coefficient of performance (COP). In this kind of structures, the heat exchange can be done through a closed circuit installed on the reinforced of the foundation. This closed circuit is made up of HDPE pipes geothermal probes, through which water or brine circulates producing a heat exchange between this fluid and the ground. this fluid is led to a geothermal heat pump GHP, generating the energy required for air-conditioning a building. ENERGESIS, leading company in the air-conditioning field using geothermal energy and RADIO KRONSA, leading company in the engineering field of soil and subsoil, with the collaboration of the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (UPV) and the Escuela Universitaria de Ingenieria Tecnica de Obras Publicas (UPM), have developed an action line to design and implement saving energy facilities by using geothermal energy associated with the foundations. A series of tests at work have been done in order to have a procedure to implement the thermal response of thermo active piles and diaphragm walls. (Author) 7 refs.

  9. Characterization of a clay from Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil, by thermal analysis; Caracterizacao de uma argila de Vitoria da Conquista, BA, por analise termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, O.M.; Zandonadi, A.R.; Martins, M.V. Surmani; Carrio, J.A.G.; Munhoz Junior, A.H. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Kaolinitic clays are vastly used in ceramic industry. Light coloration burned clays are very useful in the coatings production because of their aesthetic. In this work clay material from Vitoria da Conquista (south-west Bahia, Brazil) was characterized by various techniques. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) shows a kaolinite characteristic curve with an endothermic peak at 492 deg C, which corresponds to the kaolinite - metakaolinite transformation. Transformation alpha to beta quartz is characterized by a 573 deg C peak. The samples were also characterized by water absorption and x rays powder diffraction. The 1100 deg C burned samples were tested by rupture tension with acceptable results. (author)

  10. Study of electrical and thermal characteristics of inverters for grid-connected photovoltaic systems; Estudo de caracteristicas eletricas e termicas de inversores para sistemas fotovoltaicos conectados a rede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rampinelli, Giuliano Arns

    2010-12-15

    Grid-connected photovoltaic systems directly convert solar energy into electrical energy delivering to the distribution grid a clean and renewable energy. These systems are basically formed by an array of photovoltaic modules and inverters. The inverters are responsible for converting direct current to alternating current. A study of electrical and thermal characteristics of inverters used in grid-connected photovoltaic systems from a theoretical and experimental analysis. The inverters tests were carried out in two stages: the first stage was performed at Solar Energy Lab. of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Brazil, where it was used a 4,8 kW{sub p} grid-connected photovoltaic system and ten inverters of different manufacturers. The inverters electrical characteristics measured and analyzed were: direct current to alternating current conversion efficiency, maximum power point tracker efficiency, power factor and harmonic distortion in current and voltage. Inverters thermal testing was also conducted and its results are presented ana analyzed. The second stage of the experimental tests was performed at Photovoltaic Solar Energy Lab. at CIEMAT in Spain. It was used 3 kW{sub p} photovoltaic system and seven inverters of different manufacturers. The inverters are single-phase, up to 5 kW and different topologies (high frequency transformer, low frequency transformer and transformerless). The influence of DC voltage input in the behavior of DC to AC conversion efficiency and power factor was analyzed. The results of the tests allowed the development of mathematical models that describe the electrical and thermal behavior of the inverters. The proposed mathematical models were inserted into computer simulation software developed at UFRGS named FVConect. The evolution of the simulation results compared to the experimental results validates the proposed models. The analysis of the behavior of the inverters improves the understanding of the operating os such equipment and their dynamic interaction with other grid-connected photovoltaic system components. (author)

  11. 3D simulation of the thermal and chemical plumes using open source software; Simulacion 3D de las plumas termica y quimica mediante software de codigo libre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenz Temino, J. L.; Lerones Martin, J.; Gonzalez Delgado, J.

    2013-07-01

    The interaction of thermal and chemical plumes in the region of the Irish Sea near the site has been simulated using a finite element model representative of the local hydrodynamic regime, concluding how the method of selected cooling, open cycle, is physically and environmentally feasible. Furthermore, tunnel lengths required for each scenario under discussion have been preliminarily defined, varying in a range from 1800 to 2300 meters for a unit (1 tunnel), 4400-6300 meters of two units (2 tunnels) and 8000 meters to three units (2 tunnels), depending on the chosen technology.

  12. Mechanical and thermal properties of polypropylene and layered double hydroxides nanocomposites; Propriedades mecanicas e termicas de nanocompositos de polipropileno e hidroxidos duplos lamelares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte de Farias, A.M.; Fraga, M.A.; Oliveira, R.B.; Oliveira, M.G., E-mail: marcia.oliveira@int.gov.b [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The recent interest in polymer nanocomposites involving layered double hydroxides (LDH) is due to improved thermal stability, flame resistance, mechanical and barrier properties. The LDHs are structurally described as the stacking of layers with positively charged hydrated anions intercalated between these lamellae. In this paper, polypropylene nanocomposites with Mg / Al-HDL unmodified and modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate (DS) were prepared in the internal mixing chamber equipped with roller rotors and heated to 190 deg C. The nanocomposites were injected molded and then morphology, mechanical and thermal properties were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, tensile tests and DSC, respectively. The results revealed that both LDH and LDH-DS reached a good degree of dispersion in the PP matrix, resulting in increased stiffness, but reduced capacity for deformation and toughness of nanocomposites. The crystallinity of the nanocomposites was higher compared to the PP matrix. (author)

  13. Thermal and mechanical properties of PLA and PBAT/PLA systems; Propriedades mecanicas e termicas de sistemas de PLA e PBAT/PLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.C.; Oliveira, S.V. de; Araujo, E.M., E-mail: milecost@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    Searches with biodegradable materials have grown every day, because they present a lower environmental impact compared to conventional polymers. In this work, biodegradable polymer matrices such as polylactide (PLA) and a poly(adipate butyleneco- terephthalate)/polylactide (PBAT/PLA) blend commercially known as Ecovio ® were used. It was also used a smectite clay from the Paraiba. It was modified with Praepagen surfactant and named as organoclay (OMMT). PLA and PBAT/PLA systems were prepared with organoclay in concentration of 3 wt.%. Initially, masters were produced in a high shear mixer. Subsequently, they were dispersed in the polymer matrix in a do-rotational twin screw extruder. The PLA/OMMT and PBAT/PLA/OMMT biocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), tensile and impact mechanical properties and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). According to XRD patterns of PLA/OMMT and PBAT/PLA/OMMT systems, it was observed a probable formation of a microcomposite for both systems. It was noticed that they showed reduction in tensile mechanical properties, however there was an increase in impact strength for PLA/OMMT system. The DSC curves practically no change in the crystallinity of the systems. (author)

  14. Analysis of thermal stability of ceramic engobes developed with marble reject; Analise da estabilidade termica de engobes ceramicos desenvolvidos com rejeito de marmore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos, E.M.; Assis, R.B.; Sousa, R.F.; Galvao, A.C.P.; Mendes, J.U.L., E-mail: elionemoura@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Considering the technological growth and technical production in the ceramic industry, ceramic mass formulations were evaluated with addition of marble residue to substitute the quartz for obtaining of engobes. Five formulations were prepared varying the proportions of raw material, sieved at 200 mesh, ball mill homogenised, characterized by fluorescence (FRX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Samples were separated from the formulations for thermal analysis (TG / DSC) and dilatometry. The specimens were prepared in uniaxial press (25 Mpa). The FIII and FIV formulations presented satisfactory results, evidencing the potential of replacing quartz by the marble residue in ceramic formulation for engobes, minimizing the environmental impact by the undue discard of waste, reducing costs and increasing the range of raw materials for the coatings industry.

  15. Thermal stability of the F centre in KC1 between 80 and 300 K; Estabilidad termica del centro F' en KC1 entre 80 y 300 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Codovila, C

    1974-07-01

    After shining an F spark light of high intensity upon a coloured sample of KC1, the annealing of the induced F1 band and the decay of the induced luminescence are observed. This luminescence is produced by the electrons returning to the anion vacancies through the F* state. From the annealing characteristics of the F1 band between 80 and 300 K, we conclude that at least six thermally activated processes ase involved. The luminescence decay curves also show evidence of six the thermally activated processes which correlate quite wall in magnitude with those from the F1 band anneal. We conclude that the luminescence and annealing of the F1 band are aspects of the same process, and some explanations are suggested involving the interaction of F1 centres and electron traps. (Author) 41 refs.

  16. Preparation of uranium dioxide by thermal decomposition and direct reduction of ammonium uranate; Preparacion del dioxido de uranio por descomposicion termica y reduccion directa del uranato de amonio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez R, R

    1996-12-31

    The thermal decomposition of ammonium uranate has been studied by infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. It has been show that ammonia remains in the solid until substantially 350 Centigrade degrees, when gaseous nitrogen is released. It is concluded that compounds derived from the calcination of ammonium uranate at atmospheric pressure, produced amorphous U O{sub 3} at about 350-400 Centigrade degrees and transform to U{sub 3} O{sub 8} via {alpha} - U O{sub 3} and/or {alpha} - U O{sub 3}. The object of this study was to obtain reliable fundamental information regarding the character of the pure carbon monoxide-ammonium uranate-uranium trioxide-uranium octaoxide reaction, in the range of temperatures that has been used in commercial reduction processes. Through the use of high-purity samples and by the proper control of incidental variable, this object was realized. (Author).

  17. Thermal analysis of Brazilian standards proposals for social residential buildings; Avaliacao termica das propostas de normas brasileiras para edificacoes de interesse social

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilkin, Pedro [Universidade Regional do Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Ijui, RSA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica, Estatistica e Matematica]. E-mail: dilkin@main.unijui.tche.br; Schneider, Paulo Smith [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: pss@mecanica.ufrgs.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a critical analysis of national proposals of standards for the thermal performance of simple residential buildings. A review of some international standards is performed together with the description of the national proposals of standards, and a prototype of a house is assembled, following each one of the texts. Results are displayed and the prototypes are simulated using the TRNSYS environment, concerning winter and summer periods of Porto Alegre. Finally, the national proposal that achieved the best performance is improved by means new simulations. (author)

  18. Morphology and thermal properties of PLA films plasticized with aliphatic oligoesters; Morfologia e propriedades termicas de filmes de PLA plastificados com oligoesteres alifaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inacio, Erika M.; Dias, Marcos L., E-mail: erika.minacio@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Maria Celiana P. [Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The addition of plasticizers to poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is one of the known ways of changing its ductility, making possible the modification of its mechanical and thermal properties. In this work, it was synthesized two biodegradable aliphatic oligoesters: oligo(trimethylene sebacate) (OST) and oligo(trimethylene malonate) (OMT), and these oligomers were used as plasticizer in cast films of commercial film grade PLA at concentrations of 1, 5 and 10 wt% of each plasticizer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the morphology and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was also used aiming the evaluation of the thermal properties of these films. The PLA films containing no plasticizer showed an amorphous behavior, and the addition of PMT on the PLA films acted, simultaneously, decreasing the Tg, and rising the material's crystallinity. In contrast, the increased addition of OST to the PLA films did not change the Tg, and equally, did not have a significant changes in the material's crystallinity. Therefore, it was possible to observe the effect of the concentration of oligomers on the crystallinity of the films as well as the no plasticizer effect of the OST. (author)

  19. Morphology and thermal properties of PLA films plasticised with aliphatic oligoesters; Morfologia e propriedades termicas de filmes de PLA plastificados com oligoesteres alifaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inacio, Erika M.; Dias, Marcos L., E-mail: erika.minacio@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Maria Celiana P. [Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The addition of plasticizers to poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is one of the known ways of changing its ductility, making possible the modification of its mechanical and thermal properties. In this work, it was synthesized two biodegradable aliphatic oligoesters: oligo(trimethylene sebacate) (OST) and oligo(trimethylene malonate) (OMT), and these oligomers were used as plasticizer in cast films of commercial film grade PLA at concentrations of 1, 5 and 10 wt% of each plasticizer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the morphology and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was also used aiming the evaluation of the thermal properties of these films. The PLA films containing no plasticizer showed an amorphous behavior, and the addition of PMT on the PLA films acted, simultaneously, decreasing the Tg, and rising the material's crystallinity. In contrast, the increased addition of OST to the PLA films did not change the Tg, and equally, did not have a significant changes in the material's crystallinity. Therefore, it was possible to observe the effect of the concentration of oligomers on the crystallinity of the films as well as the no plasticizer effect of the OST. (author)

  20. Study of corrosion in metallic coating in steel-carbon by thermal spray; Estudo de corrosao em revestimentos metalicos em aco-carbono obtidos por aspersao termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Maria C.P.; Cavalcanti, Eliane B.; Rambo, Elisabeth S.M.; Araujo, Paulo M.M. [Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa (IPT), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Santos, Anderson O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The effect caused for constituent elements of the watery environment of production of the oil on metallic coverings was studied that simulate the artificial rise of the oil (connecting rods of pump mechanic). For in such a way, the techniques of electrochemical analysis had been used, as the method of linear polarization and the extrapolation of the straight line of Tafel of metallic coverings [alloy of Bronze and Aluminum; alloy of CrNi 80/20; NiCr 80/20; 95MXC (Cr: 26.5% - 31.5%, Cr: 26.5% - 31.5%, B: 3.35% - 4.15%, Mn: 1.1% - 2.2%, Itself: 1.1% -2.1%, Faith) and aluminum] on the substratum steel simulating covering in the connecting rods of pump. Oil well had been raised the resistance characteristics the polarization of the metal when submitted to the watery way surrounding it. They had been evaluated the resistance the covering polarization applied on the steel, with the objective to analyze its resistance the corrosion and to verify the possibility of its use as barrier against the problems originated for the degradation in connecting rods of pump. For the calculated Taxes of Corrosion, it can be concluded that the Aluminum coverings (0,003 mm/year) and NiCr 80/20 (0,179 mm/year) had been the ones that had presented a bigger resistance to the corrosive way. (author)

  1. ACS production: optimal design of solar thermal power plants; Produccion de ACS. Optimizacion del dimensionado de instalaciones de energia solar termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platon Arias, L.; San Jose Alonso, F.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a program to size solar thermal power plants for the production of the company ACS, which enable optimum value calculations of the different influence parameters (surface, inclination, orientation, energy input) advising diverse circumstances and requirements. The energy input calculation has been effected according to f-chart method. For the solar radiation on inclined and oriented surfaces calculation, has been applied the Klein Method. (Author) 14 refs.

  2. Optimization of thermal efficiency of nuclear central power like as PWR; Otimizacao da eficiencia termica de uma usina nuclear do tipo PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapa, Nelbia da Silva

    2005-10-15

    The main purpose of this work is the definition of operational conditions for the steam and power conservation of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant in order to increase its system thermal efficiency without changing any component, based on the optimization of operational parameters of the plant. The thermal efficiency is calculated by a thermal balance program, based on conservation equations for homogeneous modeling. The circuit coefficients are estimated by an optimization tool, allowing a more realistic thermal balance for the plans under analysis, as well as others parameters necessary to some component models. With the operational parameter optimization, it is possible to get a level of thermal efficiency that increase capital gain, due to a better relationship between the electricity production and the amount of fuel used, without any need to change components plant. (author)

  3. Training of solar energy applications in the Polytechnic School of Caceres; Docencia de las aplicaciones de la energia solar en la escuela politecnica de Caceres arquitectura termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejeiro, C. Y.; Mendez, J. A. S.; Gutierrez, P. D. M.; Barrigon, J. M. M.

    2004-07-01

    In the Polytechnic School of Caceres, for the degree of Technical Architecture, the teaching of the installations of solar energy has been done by Final Projects. We have considered four basic points: 1st A diversified model of project, this means, a different building for each student, and a repeated typology of project. 2nd Teamwork, studying each student a part of the information, and explaining to the other. 3rd Internet as a forum and to obtain general information. 4th The Censolar course as calculus software and database in our laboratory. The result are 30 projects, some of them very completed, that resolve the general topic of the adaptation of the sport installations to be used with solar energy, besides of studying other topics as: maintenance of the installations, economic viability, integration in the landscape, etc. (Author)

  4. Hydrocarbons thermal maturation: Leopatin method applied to the Parana basin; Maturacao termica de hidrocarbonetos: aplicacao do metodo de Lopatin a Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eston, Sergio Medici de; Jardim, Niza S.

    1986-12-31

    One of the requirements for the existent of economic deposits of hydrocarbons is that the organic matter has undergone adequate thermal maturation. Several techniques have been proposed in order to quantity the catagenetic state of kerogen, and the Lopatin-Waples methodology permits quantification at any past time and does not require laboratory tests on samples of the material. For this reason it is an useful techniques for predicting mature zones using as basic information the thermal and subsidence histories of each stratum. Lopatin`s technique was applied to the Parana basin, with McKenzie`s crustal stretching model fitted to the data of 18 wells, and the areas predicted as mature for oil and/or gas were in good agreement with the field results. The technique predicted oil phone areas at the east border of the basin for the Ponta Grossa and Irati formation, and also that most of the thermal maturation occurred after the basalt flows of the Cretaceous period. (author) 41 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Stress and thermal expansion numerical analysis of subsea buried pipelines; Analise numerica de tensoes e expansao termica de dutos submarinos enterrados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souto, Marcio de S.; Vaz, Murilo A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Solano, Rafael F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The design of Capixaba North Terminal pipelines (TNC) became very complex, once the pipelines are exposed to elevated temperature variations. As the pipelines are buried, the interaction with the seabed can become critical with the thermal expansion development, since an axial compressive force arise, reaching critical values and then leading the pipeline to the thermo mechanical instability phenomenon. To minimize these effects, the pipeline will cross the shore approach through a horizontal directional drilling, and expansion loops and intermediate tie-ins took place on his route in order to permit pipeline displacements, working thermally. The objective of this present work is to develop a numerical model, able to analyze the entire pipeline stress, strain and displacements, considering different kinds of soil along of his route. The influence of expansion loops is evaluated and a comparative analysis in order to discover the minimum curvature radius at the directional drilling region is carried out. This study defines a methodology based on the developed numerical model which will be extended to future applications in subsea buried pipeline design. (author)

  6. Thermal requirements of Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) immature stages; Exigencias termicas de estagios imaturos de Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Aline C.; Prezoto, Fabio [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Biologicas]. E-mail: ac-bio@bol.com.br; fprezoto@icb.ufjf.br; Prata, Marcia C. de A.; Furlong, John [EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: mprata@cnpgl.embrapa.br, john@cnpgl.embrapa.br

    2007-09-15

    The rearing of Galleria mellonella L. in laboratory is important for multiplication of entomopathogenic nematodes, mandatory for biological control studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three thermal profiles on development stages of this insect, allowing synchronization of cycle production. Two distinct rearing phases were done: firstly, using nucleous of incubation for development of eggs and, secondly, using circular-aluminum manifolds for development of larvae and pupae. The time necessary for development of the immature stages decreased with higher temperatures. Incubation periods lasted 13.4 days at 22 deg C, 8.3 at 27 deg C and 6.8 days at 32 deg C, while periods for larvae development lasted 40.4, 27.2, and 23.4 days, respectively, for the same temperatures. Development to pupal stage was observed 18.2, 15.0, and 12.2 days, respectively, for the same temperatures. Larval survival was higher at 32 deg C, however embryonic stages and pupae survival were higher at 27 deg C and 22 deg C, respectively. The threshold temperature was 11.209167 deg C for the embryonic development stage, 7.695869 deg C for larval stage, and 1.943050 deg C for pupal stage of G. mellonella. Thermal constants were 138.380533 DG (degree day) for egg, 554.968830 DG for larvae, and 369.054080 DG for pupae. (author)

  7. Development of method to chemical separation of gallium-67 by thermal diffusion technique; Desenvolvimento de metodo para separacao quimica de galio-67 pela tecnica de difusao termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Patricia de Andrade

    2012-07-01

    Radioisotopes of gallium have been studied and evaluated for medical applications since 1949. Over the past 50 years {sup 67}Ga has been widely used in the diagnosis of various diseases, including acute and chronic inflammatory lesions, bacterial or sterile and several types of tumors. In Brazil 30% of clinics that provide services for Nuclear Medicine use {sup 67}Ga citrate and the demand for 67{sup G}a at IPEN-CNEN/SP is 37 GBq (1 Ci)/week. The {sup 67}Ga presents physical half-life of 3.26 days (78 hours) and decays 100% by electron capture to stable {sup 67}Zn. Its decay includes the emission of {gamma} rays with energies of 93.3 keV (37%), 184.6 keV (20.4%), 300.2 keV (16.6%) and 888 keV (26%). In the past {sup 67}Ga was produced by the reaction {sup 68}Zn (p, 2n) {sup 67}Ga at IPEN-CNEN/SP. After irradiation, the target was dissolved in concentrated HCl and the solution percolated through a cationic resin DOWEX 50W-X8, 200-400 mesh, conditioned with 10 mol L{sup -1} HCl. Zinc, nickel and copper were eluted in 10 mol L{sup -1} HCl and {sup 67}Ga 3.5 mol L{sup -1} HCl. The final product was obtained as {sup 67}Ga citrate. This work presents a new, fast, direct and efficient method for the chemical separation of 67{sup G}a by thermal diffusion (heating of the target) combined with concentrated acetic acid extraction. Purification was performed by ion exchange chromatography. Natural zinc electrodeposition was performed on nickel/copper plates as substrate and the zinc deposits were adherent to the substrate, slightly shiny and uniform. The targets were irradiated with 26 MeV protons and integrated current of 10 {mu}A.h. After irradiation, the targets were heated at 300 deg C for 2 hours and placed in contact with concentrated acetic acid for 1 hour. The average yield of extraction of {sup 67}Ga was (72 {+-} 10)%. This solution was evaporated and the residue was taken up in 0.5 mol L{sup -1} NH{sub 4}OH. The 67{sup G}a was purified on cationic resin Dowex 50WX8 in NH{sub 4}OH medium. The {sup 67}Ga recovery was (98 {+-} 2)%. This solution was evaporated and taken up in 0.1 mol L{sup -1} HCl. The chemical purity was evaluated by ICP-OES that resulted in (2 {+-} 1) {mu}g mL{sup -1} of zinc. The concentration of iron, copper and nickel was lower than the detection limits and also than the utilization limits for {sup 67}Ga. The radionuclidic purity was greater than (99.9%). This method showed to be suitable to obtain high purity {sup 67}Ga in less aggressive chemical conditions than before. (author)

  8. Thermal analysis of a solar collector consisting of V cavities for water heating; Analise termica de um coletor solar composto de cavidades V para aquecimento de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Michel Fabio de Souza

    2009-03-15

    The solar water heating is carried through, in Brazil, by means of solar heaters compound for collectors flat plate of the type plate-and-pipes, devices that operate in stationary position and they do not require tracking of the sun. A compound collector for some formed V-trough concentrators can be an alternative to the conventional solar collectors flat plate. This compound collector for V-trough is considered, each one, for side-walls which are specularly reflecting surfaces associates in V (equivalent to a triangular gutter). Next to the vertex to each V-trough concentrators an absorber tube is fixed, for flow of the fluid to be heated. Interconnection of the absorbers tubes forms a similar tubular network existing in solar collectors of the type the plate and pipe. V-trough concentrators with the absorbers tubes are made use in series in the interior a prismatic box, which have one of its faces consisting by a glass covering and directed toward incidence of the solar radiation. An analysis of thermal performance of these devices operating stationary and without tracking of the sun is researched. A mathematical model for the computational simulation of the optical and thermal performance of these concentrative devices is elaborated, whose implementation was carried through software EES (Engineering Equation Solver). The efficiency optics of V-trough concentrators with cylindrical absorbers is calculated from the adaptation of the methodology used for Fraidenraich (1994), proposal for Hollands (1971) for V-trough cavities with plain absorbers. The thermal analysis of the considered collector was based on the applied methodology the CPC for Hsieh (1981) and Leao (1989). Relative results to the thermal performance of V-trough concentrators suggest that these configurations are not competitive, technique and economically, with the conventional plain collectors. Although some geometric configurations presented next thermal efficiencies to the conventional plain collectors, it's raised unitary costs, however, make impracticable, at a first moment, for the domestic water heating. (author)

  9. Thermal efficiency of a non-transferred thermal plasma cannon; Eficiencia termica de un canon de plasma termico no-transferido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, A; Cota, G; Merlo, L; Pacheco, J; Pena, R; Cruz, A [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    This work shows a thermal efficiency research ({nu}) for a plasma torch in d.c. which was carried out through the realization of an energy balance around the system under consideration. The plasma torch is manufactured in copper with a tungsten incrustations in cathode. The gas used was argon and the gas fluxes were at the rank of 10 and 40 lt/min to the total pressure of 1.2 bar (1.1 atm). With these conditions it was worked with electric currents at the rank of 40 and 180 A. The data were collected through a data acquisition card which was programmed in Windows environment. (Author)

  10. Prototype of thermal degradation for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level; Prototipo de degradacion termica para desechos radiactivos de nivel bajo e intermedio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz A, L.V.; Pacheco S, J.O.; Pacheco P, M.; Monroy G, F.; Emeterio H, M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: lauradiazarch@yahoo.com.mx

    2005-07-01

    At the present time, the scientific, academic, industrial and technological activities, generate great quantity of radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level (DRNBI). For to assure an appropriate final disposal of these, it is intended their treatment and vitrification by means of thermal plasma. This alternative offers multiple advantages in an only process: elevated energy density (105W/cm{sup 3}), high enthalpy (1400 kJ/mol), elevated chemical reactivity, quick quenching (106K/s) and operation temperatures of 4000 to 15000K; this allows the treatment of a great diversity of waste. Those reactors are compact and they work to atmospheric pressure and reduced thermal inertia. This technology allows to degrade DRNBI and to contain them in a vitreous matrix by means of a system made up of a reactor, canyon of plasma, of monitoring, of washing of gases and of control. Besides the design and general characteristics of the Prototype of Thermal Degradation of DRNBI, they are reported in this work the advances achieved in the selection of the ceramic material for the vitrification. Their characterization was carried out by means of SEM and XRD. With the preliminary results it can discern that the material but appropriate to be used as vitreous matrix is a ceramic clay. With the development of the proposed technology and the material for the vitreous matrix, it will be to treat DRNBI. (Author)

  11. Spectroscopic and thermal characterization of bovine enamel and dentine using the photoacoustic effect; Caracterizacao espectroscopica e termica de esmalte e dentina bovinos utilizando o efeito fotoacustico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolf, Sandro Fernando

    2003-07-01

    The optical and thermal properties of dental tissues determine the nature and extent of the tissue response through the processes of absorption, transmission, reflection and scattering of the laser light and the heat produced by the absorption of that light. The spectroscopic characterization of bovine dentine and enamel, and the determination of the thermal diffusivity were the aim of this study. The photoacoustic spectra from these tissues were obtained in the Near-Infrared range 900 - 2500 nm, which is the clinical range for odontological application of most lasers. Photoacoustic spectra were taken from block, slices and powder of enamel and dentine. Also photoacoustic spectra were registered before and after 2, 5 and 10 h of topical fluoride (2.26%) application. Using the same technique spectra were taken from dentine and enamel after irradiation with Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, Ho:YLF and CO{sub 2}. It is evident from the results that the presence of O-H in the composition of hydroxyapatite and the water present in the teeth tissue make the obtention of spectrum from components other than O-H bond a very difficult task. In this way, only bands assigned to overtones and combinations of O-H stretch were observed. The thermal diffusivity of the bovine dentine was also measured using the photoacoustic technique. The thermal diffusivity is the physical quantity which measures the rate of heat diffusion throughout the sample. For higher values of the thermal diffusivity the heat diffusion and temperature rise will be faster. As there is many studies devoted to the processes of heat transfer throughout dental tissues using bovine teeth, it is important the determination of its thermal diffusivity. The measured value was found to be a = 2.0 ({+-}0.1).1O{sup -3} cm{sup 2}/s for the both direction, perpendicular and parallel to the dentinal tubules. These {sup a}lues indicate that there is no difference between the thermal diffusivities for the both directions. (author)

  12. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of La Robla; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de La Robla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Mora, J. C.; Trueba, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Baeza, A.; Corbacho, J. A.; Guillen, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of 238{sup U}, 235{sup U}, 232{sup T}h and also the 40{sup K}, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the non-combustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the La Robla coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  13. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of La Robla; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de La Robla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the La Robla coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  14. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Velilla; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Velilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Mora, J. c.; Trueba, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Baeza, A.; Corbacho, J. a.; Guillen, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2013-10-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of 238U, 235U, 232Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the non-combustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Velilla coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  15. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Lada; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Lada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of 238{sup U}, 235{sup U}, 232{sup T}h and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Lada coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  16. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Abono; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Abono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the {sup 4}0K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Abono coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  17. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Anllares; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Anllares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Anllares coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  18. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Meirama; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Meirama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Meirama coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  19. Evaluation of thermal stability of paraffin wax by differential scanning calorimetry; Avaliacao da estabilidade termica de parafina por calorimetria diferencial de varredura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godinho, K.O.; Silva, A.G.P.; Holanda, J.N.F. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (LAMAV/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos], Email: holanda@uenf.br

    2010-07-01

    Phase change materials for heat storage are used as passive solar energy storage materials, which can be impregnated into construction materials. In this work the thermal stability (heating/cooling cycle) of the paraffin wax was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. The latent heat and fusion temperature were determined for the following thermal cycles: 0, 30, 180 and 360. The thermal stability for paraffin wax infiltrated in support of gypsum was also determined. The experimental results showed that the paraffin wax showed good thermal stability in the states pure and infiltrated for up to 360 thermal cycles. (author)

  20. Composting as a source of thermal energy for water heating in aquaculture; Compostagem como fonte termica de energia para aquecimento de agua na agricultura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de; Neitzke, Guilherme; Hermes, Cesar Ademar [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE/CCET), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas. Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciacao Cientifica], Emails: ssouza@unioeste.br, guilherme_neitzke@yahoo.com.br, cahermes@ibestvip.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The objective of the work is to use the composting as thermal energy source in the maintenance of aquatic organisms. The area of Toledo has annual medium temperature of the air of 20,5 deg C and average in the hottest quarter of 27 deg C and in the more cold of 16,5 deg C. The used experimental material consisted of boxes of water, pipes of aluminum, hay of grassy, manure of birds and swine, aquarium compressors, hoses and pipes, porous stones, fish lingers and thermometer. The temperatures of the air, the composition and the water without heating were monitored. The medium temperatures obtained were of 20,9 and 31,1 deg C, for the air and the composition, respectively. The averages of temperature of the water with heating and without heating were of 22,0 deg C and 20,0 deg C. The weight difference among the fish lingers was of 24,0 %. It is ended that the composting can be a thermal source of energy in the aquaculture. (author)

  1. Simulação e integração termica SRV em colunas de destilação extrativa

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Augusto Caldas Batista

    1995-01-01

    Resumo: Neste trabalho estudou-se a aplicação da integração térmica SRV ("Secondary Reflux and Vaporization") à destilação extrativa para misturas com solvente de baixa volatilidade, etanol/água/etileno glicol, e para misturas com solvente que se vaporiza, acetona/metanol/água. Esta integração térmica, que consiste principalmente da transferência de calor da seção de enriquecimento para a seção de esgotamento, pode fazer uso de um gradiente de temperatura natural existente entre as seções da ...

  2. Evaluation of ethanol aged PVDF: diffusion, crystallinity and dynamic mechanical thermal properties; Avaliacao do PVDF envelhecido em etanol combustivel: difusao, cristalinidade e propriedades termicas dinamico-mecanicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Agmar J.J.; Costa, Marysilvia F., E-mail: agmar@metalmat.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work discuss firstly the effect of the ethanol fuel absorption by PVDF at 60°C through mass variation tests. A Fickian character was observed for the ethanol absorption kinetics of the aged PVDF at 60°C. In the second step, the dynamic mechanical thermal properties (E’, E’, E” and tan δ) of the PVDF were evaluated through dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The chemical structure of the materials was analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and significant changes in the degree of crystallinity were verified after the aging. However, DMTA results showed a reduction in the storage modulus (E') of the aged PVDF, which was associated to diffusion of ethanol and swelling of the PVDF, which generated a prevailing plasticizing effect and led to reduction of its structural stiffness. (author)

  3. Forming of porous mullite green bodies by albumin thermal consolidation; Conformado de cuerpos porosos en verde de mullita por consolidacion termica con albumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, M.L.; Tomba Martinez, A.G.; Camerucci, M.A. [Laboratorio de Materiales Estructurales, Division Ceramicos, INTEMA-CONICET, Fac. de Ingenieri-UNMdP., Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2011-07-01

    Pre-firing mullite microstructures developed by a new thermal consolidation method using globular proteins as foaming and consolidator/binders were analyzed. Commercial available powders of mullite (Baikowski) and bovine serum albumin (BSA, Aldricht) were employed. Stable aqueous suspensions (40 vol.%) of mullite- BSA (10 vol.%) were foamed (2300 rpm, 10 min) at: I) room temperature; II) 68 deg C, temperature slightly lower to the gelling 'onset' TG{sup 0}, and III) 68 deg C with the addition of 2 wt.% of methylcellulose. Green disks were prepared by pouring of foamed suspensions into pre-heated metal molds (70 deg C), thermal gelling (80 °C, 3h) and drying (50 °C, 12h). Previously, the developed foams were characterized and their rheological properties were determined as a function of temperature (TG{sup 0}). The characterization of the pre-firing microstructures were carried out by measurements of porosity (>80%) and microstructural analysis in fracture surface by SEM. (author)

  4. Thermal requirements of the coconut pest Atheloca subrufella (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae); Exigencias termicas da praga do coqueiro Atheloca subrufella (Hulst)(Lepidoptera: Phycitidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Suerda W.J. de; Barros, Reginaldo; Torres, Jorge B.; Gondim Junior, Manoel G.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia/Entomologia

    2010-04-15

    Among the important pests of coconut, the coconut moth Atheloca subrufella (Hulst) is a significant pest of flowers and fruits, and is found across all coconut-producing regions in Brazil. We investigated the thermal requirements of A. subrufella and estimated the number of generations for two different growing coconut regions in Pernambuco State. The developmental time of all immature stages reduced as the temperature increased. The egg to adult period ranged from 19.3 to 59.8 days from 32 deg C to 18 deg C, respectively. The survival of the period from egg to adult was 25% at extreme temperatures (18 deg C and 32 deg C), while at the intermediate temperatures it was over 72%. Based on the thermal requirements determined for A. subrufella and the average temperatures determined for Zona da Mata and Sertao of Pernambuco State, it was estimated that A. subrufella is able to complete up to 13 generations per year in both areas. These results indicate that A. subrufella exhibited development and reproduction limited by temperatures higher than 32 deg C and lower than 18 deg C. However, based on the thermal requirements of A. subrufella and the mean temperatures of the Zona da Mata and Sertao of Pernambuco State, this pest can develop throughout the entire year. (author)

  5. Preparation and characterization of novel nanocomposites of inorganic/polysaccharide type =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fabiane Costa

    concerne a carga e as caracteristicas gelificantes: a goma de alfarroba (nao ionica), o quitosano (cationico) e a goma xantana (anionica) cujas propriedades reologicas sao amplamente conhecidas. Os estudos reologicos realizados sob diferentes condicoes demonstraram que a formacao de geis frageis e/ou bem estruturados depende do tamanho SiO2, da concentracao, do pH e da forca ionica. Estes estudos foram confirmados por analises microestruturais usando a microscopia electronica a baixas temperaturas (Cryo-SEM). No quarto capitulo, sao apresentados os estudos relativos a preparacao e caracterizacao de filmes bionanocompositos utilizando quitosano como matriz. Primeiramente e apresentada uma revisao sobre filmes de bionanocompositos e os aspectos fundamentais das tecnicas de caracterizacao utilizadas. A escolha do plasticizante e da sua concentracao sao discutidas com base nas propriedades de filmes de quitosano preparados. Em seguida, o efeito da concentracao de silica e dos metodos utilizados para a dispersar na matriz de polissacarideo, bem como o efeito da modificacao da superficie da silica e avaliado. As caracteristicas da superficie e as propriedades de barreira, mecanicas e termicas sao discutidas para cada conjunto de filmes preparados antes e apos a sua neutralizacao. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a dispersao das cargas no plasticizante e posterior adicao a matriz polissacaridica resultaram apenas em pequenas melhorias ja que o problema da agregacao de silica nao foi ultrapassado. Por esse motivo foram preparados filmes com SiO2 APS os quais apresentaram propriedades melhores apesar da agregacao das particulas nao ter sido completamente impedida. Tal pode estar relacionado com o processo de secagem dos filmes. Finalmente, no capitulo 5, sao apresentadas as principais conclusoes obtidas e algumas sugestoes para trabalho futuro.

  6. Thermal And Gamma-Radiation Annealing Of The Iridium-192 Recoil Species In Crystalline Na{sub 2}IrCl{sub 6} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O; Recuit Thermique et par Rayonnement Gamma de l'espece {sup 192}Ir de Recul dans des Cristaux de Na{sub 2}IrCl{sub 6} * 6H{sub 2}O; 0422 0415 041f 041b 041e 0412 041e 0419 0418 0413 0410 041c 041c 0410 - 041e 0422 0416 0418 0413 041f 0420 041e 0414 0423 041a 0422 041e 0412 041e 0422 0414 0410 0427 0418 0418 0420 0418 0414 0418 042f -192 0412 041a 0420 0418 0421 0422 0410 041b 041b 0418 0427 0415 0421 041a 041e 041c Na{sub 2}IrCl{sub 6} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O; Regeneracion Termica y por Irradiacion Gamma de las Especies de Retroceso del Iridio-192 en Na{sub 2}IrCl{sub 6} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O Cristalino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Rita; Herr, W. [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich, Institut fuer Kernchemie der Universitaet Koeln, Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1965-04-15

    }IrCl{sub 6} * 6H{sub 2}O. Si bien la mayoria de ellos tienen caracter anionico, dos de ellos se comportan como cationes marcados con {sup 192}Ir. Los autores han estudiado el comportamiento de estos compuestos libres de portador frente a los agentes reductores y oxidantes y al envejecimiento en solucion. Investigaron independientemente la hidrolisis de los hexacloro complejos de iridio tri y tetravalente, que habian sido marcados con {sup 36}Cl y {sup 192}Ir. La comparacion entre las dos series de resultados, corroborada por otros datos obtenidos por activacion neutronica, permite identificar la mayor parte de los productos de retroceso como complejos octaedricos de Ir(III) que contienen ligandos Cl{sup -}, H{sub 2}O y OH{sup -} en distintas proporciones. Evidentemente, el agua de cristalizacion desempena un papel importante en la formacion de las especies de retroceso. La regeneracion termica de estos productos a 120 Degree-Sign C revela una rapida disminucion de los rendimientos de los acuocloro, hidroxicloro y acuohidroxicloro complejos y la formacion del compuesto precursor con excepcion del pentacloro complejo. La proporcion de este complejo disminuye unicamente despues de un aumento inicial, lo que indica que interviene como producto intermedio durante la regeneracion de otros productos. La regeneracion y presenta muchas fases separadas cuya tendencia general es una transicion de especies con un bajo contenido de Cl a otras con un elevado contenido de Cl, que conduce finalmente a un hexacloro complejo. Ello demuestra que el proceso de recocido consiste en la nueva penetracion de atomos (o iones) Cl en la esfera de ligandos, con el desplazamiento concomitante de H{sub 2}O y de OH (OH{sup -}). (author) [Russian] Imeetsja vozmozhnost' otdelenija posredstvom bumazhnogo jelektroforeza po krajnej mere 13 razlichnyh soedinenij otdachi, obrazujushhihsja Na{sub 2}IrCl{sub 6} * 6H{sub 2}O v rezul'tate jadernoj reakcii {sup 191}Ir (n, {gamma}) {sup 192}Ir. V to vremja kak

  7. Pcm inclusion in gypsum boards for thermal energy storage through latent heat: thermal characterization with DSC; Incorporacion de materiales de cambio de fase en placas de yeso para almacenamiento de energia termica mediante calor latente: caracterizacion termica del material mediante la tecnica DSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, A.; Neila, F. J.; Garcia, A.

    2011-07-01

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is a thermal analysis technique which has been used for more than three decades to measure the temperatures and heat flows associated with transitions in materials as a function of time. Other techniques, are Differential Thermal Analysis DTA and Conventional Calorimetry. There is great uncertainty in the values supplied by the manufacturers (because they are referred to pure substances) and the DSC should be used to get more accurate values. It will be analyzed the thermal storage capacity depending on temperature for several compound materials formed by some aggregates, mainly gypsum and phase change materials, in various proportions. The results have been compared with other building materials such as gypsum boards and brick layer. The suitability of the new construction material for thermal energy storage will be assessed in comparison with other materials traditionally used for this purpose. (Author) 21 refs.

  8. Contaminação por crômio de águas de rios proveniente de curtumes em Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordão Cláudio Pereira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the chromium contamination from tannery discharges into rivers in the State of Minas Gerais, samples of water and suspended material were collected and submitted to chemical analysis. The total content of chromium in the samples was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Water samples were analysed by standard addition method, while chromium concentration in suspended materials was determined by calibration curves. Localities investigated were Ipatinga, Matias Barbosa, Dores de Campo, Ressaquinha, Ubá and Juiz de Fora. Samples from a not-industrialized area were also analysed to obtain regional background values. Metal inputs were related to effluent discharges into the rivers. Suspended material transported Cr downriver. Chromium concentration in river water exceeded 656 times the value of the Brazilian Environmental Standards, while its concentration in suspended material ranged from 15 to 11066 µg g-1.

  9. Comparación de la reglamentación para el manejo de lodos provenientes de agua residual en Argentina, Chile y Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Andrés Ospina López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo presenta resultados de una revisión sobre el manejo y disposición final de lodos generados en las plantas de tratamiento de agua residual, los cuales deben ser sometidos a diferentes tratamientos para ser transformados en biosólidos y lograr determinar su uso sujeto a la clasificación que se presenta en Argentina, Chile y Colombia. Se realizó un análisis comparativo de los diferentes parámetros que se tienen en cuenta en los reglamentos de cada uno de estos países, evidenciando los cambios entre ellos. Fue posible identificar que Chile no presenta valores máximos de aplicación como los otros países, pero presenta un plan de aplicación. Respecto a Argentina y Colombia se percibe que varios de sus criterios presentan unos valores con una gran diferencia uno respecto al otro, además la normatividad argentina no tiene en cuenta los valores de Selenio en biosólidos, mientras que el reglamento colombiano maneja la normatividad US EPA.Producto Asociado al Proyecto de Investigación INV ING 2127 de la Vicerrectoría de Investigaciones de la UMNG

  10. RELAÇÕES ENTRE CARACTERES DE PIMENTÃO PROVENIENTES DE SEMENTES COM DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RÉLIA RODRIGUES BRUNES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationship between morphological variables and production variables in bell pepper plants derived from seeds of different physiological levels. The experiments were car-ried out in a randomized block design with eight replications in a protected setting at Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Treatments included three lots of hybrid Tiberius seeds and one lot of Rubi Giant seeds during Spring-Winter and Autumn-Winter season with different levels of physiological quality as shown by vigor and germination tests. The following characters (variables were measured: plant height, first fork height, stem di-ameter, and stem diameter below the first fork after 50 days, 70 days and 90 days of transplanting, average weight of fruits, average production per harvest, total production, average fruit length, and average width of fruits. Next, for each level of vigor was estimated the correlation matrixes, multicollinearity diagnosis, and then path analysis, considering the total production as the main variable.Plants derived from high-, low- and medium vigor seeds whose first fork diameters were greater after 50 days and 70 days of transplanting are more produc-tive during Spring-Winter seeding. Coefficients of correlation and effect of low magnitude were identified in vigor levels (being high, low, medium, and extremely low during Autumn-Winter season, indicating a weak relationship between cause and effect of explanatory variables measured on total fruit production of bell pepper.

  11. Protocol proposal for radon concentration mensuration from granitic rocks in marble factory; Proposta de protocolo para medicao de concentracoes de radonio proveniente de rochas graniticas em marmorarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Claro, Flavia

    2016-11-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides such as radon ({sup 222}Rn), its decay products and other elements from the radioactive series of uranium ({sup 238}U and {sup 235}U) and thorium ({sup 232}Th) are an important source of human exposure to natural radioactivity. The worldwide evaluation of health radiobiological effects and risks from population exposure to natural radionuclides is a growing concern. Radionuclides such as radon ({sup 222}Rn), the thoron ({sup 220}Rn), radio ({sup 2}'2'6Ra), thorium ({sup 23}'2Th) and potassium ({sup 40}K) may occur in materials commonly used in construction of dwellings and buildings. Thus, the radioactivity from marbles and granites is of importance, so that under certain conditions these materials radioactivity levels can be hazardous requiring the implementation of mitigation measurements. This research presents a technical protocol marble factories for the control human exposure to natural radioactivity exhaled from granitic rocks. The protocol was based on measurements of the {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn concentration in Brazilian granite rocks commonly nationally and exported. The {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn measurements were done using the AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) and RAD7 (Durridge Company) apparatus, respectively. The samples of granite were sealed in glass jars for 40 days in to achieve secular equilibrium between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn radionuclides. The measurements were performed on Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory at the Federal Technological University of Parana. Also, solid-state nuclear track detectors CR-39 were installed in a marble factory environments located in Curitiba - Parana for the evaluation of {sup 222}Rn concentrations in workplaces. The CR-39 detectors were exposed for about 90 days and submitted to etching process. The alpha particle tracks were observed using an optical microscope. Some granite samples analyzed presented {sup 222}Rn concentrations of attention, since the average values ranged from 3 ± 1 Bq/m{sup 3} to 2087 ± 19 Bq/m{sup 3}. The results obtained underscore the importance of this research in the data contribution to the development of national legislation that establishes limits of radioactivity values for marketing and use of granitic rocks. The results also contribute to the Brazilian granite to attend the international standards. (author)

  12. Estudio de las características de los morteros con adiciones provenientes de neumáticos fuera de uso (NFUs).

    OpenAIRE

    Gualdrón Pernía, Karla Andreina

    2011-01-01

    La creciente evolución de las sociedades y grandes ciudades, ha estado marcada por el desarrollo de industrias que intentan satisfacer las necesidades de los habitantes, entre estas se encuentra la industria automotriz, evolucionando notoriamente en los últimos 100 años, y provocando una serie de consecuencias e impactos medioambientales, muchas veces irreparables. Junto con la industria automotriz crece exponencialmente la de neumáticos, ocasionando la generación incontrolada de residuos ...

  13. EVALUACIÓN DE MATERIALES FILTRANTES PARA EL REÚSO EN AGRICULTURA DE AGUAS RESIDUALES TRATADAS PROVENIENTES DE ZONAS ÁRIDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Moreno Arboleda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La creciente y enorme cantidad de datos, del orden de exabytes, generados por las aplicaciones empresariales actuales han originado conjuntos masivos de estos. Los sistemas de gestión de bases de datos (SGBD NoSQL han surgido como una alternativa a los SGBD relacionales para la gestión de estos conjuntos. Entre los principales SGBD NoSQL está MongoDB. En este artículo se compara el rendimiento entre MongoDB y Oracle (uno de los principales SGBD que soporta bases de datos relacionales. La comparación se basa en las operaciones de inserción, consulta, actualización y borrado (CRUD, por sus siglas en inglés. Aunque se requieren experimentos más exhaustivos y muchos otros tipos de pruebas, los resultados ofrecen un punto de partida para el análisis de rendimiento en estos SGBD.

  14. Faces prototípicas provenientes de amostras populacionais de uma região brasileira Prototypical faces from samples of the population of a Brazilian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Irene Fonseca Mendes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi gerar, por meio de técnica de computação gráfica denominada morphing, faces prototípicas masculinas e femininas a partir de amostras de pessoas que se autodeclaram brancas, pardas e pretas na região de Ribeirão Preto (SP. A cada face prototípica foram utilizadas 64 imagens de faces de voluntários. As faces prototípicas e as faces que as compuseram tiveram a tipicidade de sua cor ou raça julgada por terceiros. Os julgamentos indicaram uma concordância entre a cor/raça-autodeclarada e a heteroatribuída o que indica que os protótipos são representativos de suas respectivas categorias de cor/raça. Discute-se como as faces prototípicas podem ser empregadas em pesquisas básicas e aplicadas em percepção e reconhecimento de faces.The goal of this study was to generate male and female prototypical faces, by morphing technique, from faces of people who were self-declared as white, "mixed race" and black in Ribeirão Preto-SP. Each prototypical face was generated from 64 face images of volunteers. Another sample of volunteers judged the typicality of color/race of the prototypical faces and the faces that composed them. The results suggested a concordance between the self-declared color/race and the judgments, indicating that the prototypical faces are representative of their respective categories of color/race. Applications of the prototypical faces in studies of face perception and face recognition were discussed.

  15. Characterization of contaminated oil with tritium, from of production of gas tripolar scintillators; Caracterizacao de oleo contaminado com tritio, proveniente da producao de centelhadores tripolares a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potiens Junior, Ademar J.; Marumo, Julio T.; Goes, Marcos M.; Isiki, Vera L.K. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a methodology to estimate the activity level present in radioactive oil samples. This oil is derived from vacuum pumps used to produce tension protector of electronic equipment in telecommunication area. The method consisted in obtain a calibration curve in counts per minute versus tritium activity. After the equipment calibration it was analyzed 3 batches of radioactive oil samples. (author)

  16. Caracterização e qualidade de frutos de umbu-cajá (Spondias tuberosa X S. mombin provenientes do Recôncavo Sul da Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Barros dos Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O Recôncavo Sul da Bahia apresenta uma significativa riqueza de fruteiras nativas com grande potencial alimentício. Além de indicativos etnológicos sobre seus usos como alimento, pouco se conhece sobre elas, principalmente sobre sua composição bromatológica. A exemplos destas fruteiras, encontram-se os frutos do umbu-cajá (Spondias tuberosa X S. mombin que são amplamente consumidos in natura ou na forma de produtos processados em quase todo o Brasil. Devido à crescente aceitação de seus produtos e à incessante busca por novos sabores, as agroindústrias vêm despertando o interesse tanto para o mercado interno quanto para exportações. Entretanto, apesar do forte interesse comercial, poucos estudos foram efetuados na busca de respostas sobre a sua composição. Nesse sentido, este trabalho teve o objetivo de efetuar a caracterização física, físico-química e mineralógica dos frutos de umbu-cajá cultivados nas condições climáticas do Recôncavo Sul da Bahia. Foram realizadas análises de peso do fruto e da casca; tamanho e diâmetro; percentagem de casca, semente e polpa; pH; sólidos solúveis totais; acidez titulável; relação sólido solúveis/acidez (Ratio; índice tecnológico; açúcares (redutores, não redutores e totais; vitamina C; proteína; umidade; lipídios; fibra bruta; amido; e minerais (fósforo, ferro, cálcio, sódio e potássio. Os frutos apresentaram tamanho grande (23,18g com rendimento considerável de polpa (69,70 % e razoáveis valores de açucares (7,49 %, acidez (1,32 %, fibras (1,36 %, vitamina C (8 mg /100g e minerais ( Na-40 mg /100g; K-44mg /100g; P-17,76mg /100g; Fé-0,59mg /100g; e Ca-12,25mg /100g, demonstrando ser uma alternativa para o mercado de frutas in natura, bem como para a agroindústria na região.

  17. Liquid radioactive wastes characterizing obtained of {sup 99} Mo production by fission; Caracterizacion de residuos liquidos radiactivos provenientes de la produccion de {sup 99} Mo por fision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devida, Claudio; Bouza, Edgardo; Gil, Daniel; Neuringer, Silvia [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenso Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza. Unidad de Actividad Materiales y Combustibles Nucleares; Ramallo, Telma [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza. Unidad de Actividad gestion de Residuos Radiactivos

    1999-11-01

    Among its facilities, the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina has a {sup 99} Mo by Fission Production Plant, which generates, among others, low and medium activity liquid waste. The characterization of the waste aims at obtaining the array of data that is necessary to carry out the processed which lead to obtain an acceptable product for its storage and final disposal. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory faced the development, adjustment and execution of the necessary analytical procedures to achieve the physico-chemical characterization of the main liquid waste. Given the complexity and activity of the waste, high sensitivity instrumental analytical techniques were chose and the equipment was adapted to work in radiochemical hoods. In a first stage, simulated solutions were used in order to adjust the methods and techniques and to carry out studies about interference and results statistics. Afterwards, physico-chemical analysis were performed on real waste samples yielding satisfactory results as regards precision required for this kind of waste. (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. AVALIAÇÃO DA ESTABILIDADE DE UM TALUDE RODOVIÁRIO ATRAVÉS DE DADOS PROVENIENTES DE INSTRUMENTAÇÃO GEOTÉCNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adriano Cardoso Malko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O Estado de Santa Catarina sempre sofreu com desastres naturais, porém esse fato ganhou amplitude com os acontecimentos das enchentes de 2008, onde deslizamentos aconteceram em diversas regiões, causando mortes e prejuízos para toda a população. Entre todos os acontecimentos, um deles foi o escorregamento de parte do talude rodoviário do Morro do Boi no km-140 da rodovia BR-101 sentido sul. A rodovia ficou interditada nas suas três pistas de rolamento, causando problemas para quem precisava passar pelo local e prejuízos para todo o estado, pois esta é uma das mais importantes ligações da capital Florianópolis com o Vale do Itajaí e região norte do estado. É primordial que seja feito um estudo do talude rodoviário antes mesmo de sua implantação e de qualquer projeto relacionado a obras rodoviárias, a estabilidade e a segurança da rodovia é de grande importância e na maioria dos casos só é estudada depois que algum deslizamento acontece. Portanto, o objetivo principal desse estudo foi avaliar por meio de instrumentação geotécnica, a estabilidade do talude do km-140 da BR-101 no Morro do Boi localizado no município de Balneário Camboriú – SC. Para um conhecimento geotécnico da área em estudo, foram realizadas sondagens a percussão. Os dados dessas sondagens permitiram identificar uma camada de solo residual de migmatito com espessura da ordem de 3 m, representado por camadas silto-areno-argilosas. O estudo de análise da estabilidade indicou uma forte influência da posição do lençol freático no Fator de Segurança do talude, indicando que quando mais alto for o lençol freático, menor é o Fator de Segurança da encosta. Verificou-se a importância da análise da estabilidade, podendo assim entender como um talude chega a sua ruptura. Durante o monitoramento dos instrumentos, o comportamento do talude se mostrou estável, acima dos 1,50 preconizados por norma.

  19. Mineralogical characterization of the argillaceous material from the Municipality of Santa Barbara, Para, Brazil; Caracterizacao mineralogica de material argiloso proveniente do municipio de Santa Barbara, Para, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrando, E.A., E-mail: edemarino@ufpa.b [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Maraba, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia de Materiais. Lab. de Materiais Ceramicos; Sheller, T.; Angelica, R.S. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Geologia. Inst. de Geociencias; Neves, R.S. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Quimica. Inst. de Tecnologia

    2009-07-01

    In the present work were investigated mineralogical phases in a material with argillaceous characteristic of the region of Genipauba, Santa Barbara, State of Para. Characterization of the collected sample was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The results of the assays indicate the presence of the clay minerals like kaolinite and muscovite, as well as minerals as quartz and anatase. (author)

  20. Estudio de la actividad antifúngica de un extracto de propóleo de la abeja Apis mellifera proveniente del estado de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Londoño Orozco

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la acción inhibitoria de un extracto etanólico al 15% de propóleo de la abeja Apis mellifera, procedente del apiario de la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, UNAM, sobre el crecimiento de Candida albicans (ATCC 14055, Cryptococcus neoformans, y Aspergillus fumigatus, mediante dos pruebas de susceptibilidad: difusión en agar y microdilución. Se impregnaron los discos con el extracto de propóleo. Las pruebas de difusión fueron efectuadas sobre agar dextrosa Sabouraud (SDA, Müeller-Hinton con 2% de glucosa y 0,5 μg/mL de azul de metileno (MHAM: documento NCCLS M-44ª y RPMI 1640 con agar noble. Para obtener la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM, se realizaron pruebas de microdilución según los métodos M27-A2 (levaduras y M38-A (filamentosos del NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standard: ahora Institute for Clinical Laboratory Standard. Se observó actividad inhibitoria sobre el desarrollo de todos los hongos estudiados. Estos resultados sugieren el posible potencial del propóleo como un tratamiento alternativo contra las infecciones por hongos, tanto levaduriformes como filamentosos.

  1. Qualidade de carnes provenientes de cortes da carcaça de cordeiros e de ovinos adultos Quality of meats from cuts of lamb and adult sheep carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Silvio Bonilha Pinheiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar as características qualitativas da carne de ovinos de diferentes categorias quanto aos músculos dos cortes da carcaça (paleta, lombo e perna, utilizaram-se 18 ovinos ½ Ile de France ½ Ideal (seis cordeiros não-castrados, seis ovelhas de descarte e seis machos adultos castrados. Os animais foram criados em pasto de capim-tifton 85 e receberam suplementação (concentrado. Os cordeiros foram abatidos aos 32 kg, com aproximadamente 5 meses de idade, e as ovelhas e os machos adultos castrados, com 55 kg e aos 60 meses de idade. Não houve diferenças nos valores de pH 45 minutos e pH 24 horas entre as categorias animais e nos músculos dos cortes da carcaça. A idade de abate influenciou a luminosidade da carne de todos os músculos. O teor de vermelho não diferiu entre os animais adultos, mas foi superior aos valores obtidos na carne dos cordeiros. A carne de animais adultos é mais escura que a de cordeiros. As perdas por cocção no músculo Triceps brachii são maiores que no Longissimus lumborum e Semimembranosus. Os valores de pH e a capacidade de retenção de água são similares entre as categorias animais.Eighteen ½ Ile de France ½ Polwarth sheep (6 no castrated lambs, 6 discarded ewes and 6 discarded wethers were used to evaluate qualitative traits of meat from different categories of sheep for muscle cuts (shoulder, loin and leg. The animals were raised in grazing system with tifton-85 pastures and supplemented with concentrate. Lambs were slaughtered at 32 kg body weight, close to 5 months of age. Ewes and wethers were slaughtered with 55 kg and 60 months of age. There were no differences in pH45mim and pH24h values among different animal categories and muscles of carcass cuts. There was difference in meat luminosity between lambs and adult animals, considering all the evaluated muscles. The red level did not differ between adult categories, but it was higher than values observed in lambs. In conclusion, meat from adult animals was darker than lamb meat. Considering all animal categories, cooking losses were higher in Triceps brachii compared to Longissimus lumborum and Semimembranosus. Values of pH and water retention capacity were similar among animal categories.

  2. Electric power generation from the biogas originated at the sewage treatment; Geracao de energia eletrica a partir do biogas proveniente do tratamento de esgoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Pecora, Vanesa; Abreu, Fernando Castro de [CENBIO - Centro de Referencia Nacional em Biomassa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: suani@iee.usp.br; sgvelaz@iee.usp.br; vpecora@iee.usp.br; fcabreu@terra.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The PUREFA - Programa de Uso Racional de Energia e Fontes Alternativas, had three main goals: to implant measurements of management and energy efficiency actions allowing the reduction of electric power consumption at the University; amplify the distributed generation at USP from renewable and non conventional energy resources, and to implant incentive policies for the efficient and rational use of energy. Among the fourteen goals integrating this project, the CENBIO - Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa - compromised itself with the realization of two goals. The activities included the implementation of a system for impounding, purification and storage of the biogas generated by a bio digester, Anaerobic Flux Ascendent Reactor (RAFA) localized at the CTH - Centro Tecnologico de Hidraulica - at USP campus beside the electric power generation by using the biogas stored as fuel in a Otto cycle engine.

  3. Balanço de massa no tratamento de resíduos sólidos orgânicos provenientes de restaurantes em biorreator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Girardi Neto

    Full Text Available RESUMO O tratamento de resíduos sólidos orgânicos por digestão anaeróbia é realizado por um consórcio de micro-organismos, no qual as archaea metanogênicas são as limitantes do processo, por serem mais sensíveis às mudanças nas condições do meio e possuírem crescimento lento. Para acompanhar a evolução do tratamento, algumas variáveis do processo de digestão anaeróbia são monitoradas, dentre elas, a demanda química de oxigênio (DQO, geralmente utilizada para estimar a matéria degradável e passível de ser convertida em biogás. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência do processo de conversão de biomassa em metano, este artigo se baseou no balanço de massa adaptado da literatura, utilizando valores de DQO e volume de biogás gerado no reator anaeróbio, aqui chamado de biorreator. A produção de biogás foi monitorada diariamente utilizando o método de deslocamento de água, com o auxílio de um contador eletrônico. Com base no balanço de massa, o tratamento mostrou-se viável, visto que 50% da concentração de DQO que entrou no sistema foi convertida em gás metano. Comparando-se aos valores descritos na literatura, que se encontram na faixa de 50 a 70%, a eficiência do tratamento poderá ser elevada com ajustes nos parâmetros de controle que influenciam o processo de digestão anaeróbia, tais como manter a temperatura constante em 37°C e o pH e a alcalinidade equilibrados, o que poderá melhorar as condições do meio em todas as etapas de degradação da matéria orgânica e aumentar a conversão em gás metano.

  4. Estudio fitoquímico y biológico preliminar de la corteza (tallo de vismia cayennensis proveniente del estado Amazonas, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín, Karina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A chemical and biological preliminary study of the species Vismia cayennensis, collected in the Amazonas state, Venezuela. The antibacterial test of plant bark extract showed significant inhibition in Escherichia coli, Shigella sp and Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, three of the five soluble fractions of different polarity solvents, specifically those of chloroform, acetone and water, maintained moderately active against Shigella sp strain. The hydroalcoholic extract of the plant and the fraction soluble in chloroform, exhibited a significant antiinflammatory effect. Cytotoxicity tests performed by the methods of (3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboximetoxifenil-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium/phenazine methosulfate of (MTS/PMS and sulforhodamine B , revealed that only has water soluble cytotoxic effect. Additionally, a study phytochemical obtained information on the presence of some families of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins, tannins, polyphenols, anthraquinones, triterpenes and sterols. It can be inferred that the stem bark of the plant V. cayennensis, is a promising source of bioactive secondary metabolites

  5. Recovering of thorium contained in wastes from Thorium Purification Plant; Reaproveitamento do torio contido em residuos provenientes da Usina de Purificacao do Torio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao Filho, D; Hespanhol, E C.B.; Baba, S; Miranda, L E.T.; Araujo, J.A. de

    1992-08-01

    A study has been developed in order to establish a chemical process for recovering thorium from wastes produced at the Thorium Purification Plant of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. The recovery of thorium in this process will be made by means of solvent extraction technique. Solutions of TBP/Varsol were employed as extracting agent during the runs. The influence of thorium concentration in the solution, aqueous phase acidity, volume ratio of the phases, percentage of TBP/Varsol and the contact time of the phases on the extraction of thorium and lanthanides was determined. (author).

  6. Methodology for monitoring aquatic environment impacts derived from petrochemical and similar industries; Metodologia para monitoramento de impactos ambientais sobre o meio aquatico provenientes de industria petroquimica e afins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, Eduardo von [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Methodological suggestions concerning the implementation of monitoring programs in aquatic environments subjected to impacts derived from petrochemical industries are presented. Some considerations are made about assessment criteria, with emphasis in the utilization hydro biological indicators, whose response capacity is far superior than that of the physicochemical parameters. (author). 1 ref.

  7. PRODUÇÃO DE ETANOL DE SEGUNDA GERAÇÃO PROVENIENTE DO BAGAÇO DE PENDÚCULOS DO CAJU

    OpenAIRE

    EZENILDO EMANUEL DE LIMA; FLÁVIO LUIZ HONORATO DA SILVA; LÍBIA DE SOUSA CONRADO OLIVEIRA; ADRIANO SANT\\u2019ANA SILVA; JOSÉ MARIANO DA SILVA NETO

    2015-01-01

    The use of cashew apple bagasse for bioethanol production aimed at taking advantage of a re-gional culture that has about 85% of waste. Due to the complex structure of the material, it is necessary to sub-mit it to physical pretreatments and/or chemicals such as acid prehydrolysis, alkali, steam explosion, CO2 ex-plosion, hot water treatment, pretreatment with microwave, among others, before hydrolysis process for ethanol production. The aim of this paper was to study the prehydrolysis and ac...

  8. Calidad microbiológica de argopecten purpuratus "concha de abanico" utilizados en acuicultura proveniente de bahía samanco - ancash, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza Ramírez, Jessica Karina

    2016-01-01

    The aquaculture activity in Peru has been increasing by national and international demand for seafood products, being one of the products most in demand Argopecten purpuratus "scallops". For this food product is considered apt for human consumption must comply with maximum permissible limits for microbiological parameters of Salmonella: Absence / 25g and E. coli:

  9. DIAGNOSTICA PER IMMAGINI DI UN CAPOLAVORO DI CARAVAGGIO IMMAGINI OLTRE IL VISIBILE PER IL SEPPELLIMENTO DI SANTA LUCIA PROVENIENTE DALLA CHIESA DI SANTA LUCIA AL SEPOLCRO DI SIRACUSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Prestileo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Il 28 maggio 1606 Michelangelo Merisi fugge da Roma dove non fará mai piú ritorno; l’ultimo duello gli è costato la condanna a morte. Iniziano per lui gli anni della latitanza, anni che trascorrerá tra Napoli, Malta e la Sicilia. Nel suo passaggio in Sicilia, Caravaggio realizza dipinti di eccezionale qualitá, sicuramente tra i piú belli della sua breve e intensa esistenza. Nell’isola l’artista arriva nell’ottobre del 1608, dopo l’ennesima fuga, questa volta da Malta. La sua prima tappa siciliana è Siracusa, dove vive un artista suo amico: Mario Minniti. Da lui trova riparo e lavoro perché dipinge su commissione una grande tela per la chiesa di Santa Lucia al Sepolcro, Il Seppellimento di Santa Lucia, realizzata in un breve lasso di tempo, trasferendosi Caravaggio a Messina nel dicembre dello stesso anno.

     

    Diagnostic campaign on Caravaggio’s painting

    The Assessorato dei Beni Culturali e dell’Identità Siciliana, Diparti-mento dei Beni Culturali e  dell'Identitá Siciliana, Regione Siciliana (i nomi italiani tutti in corsivo has carried out a diagnostic cam-paign on the painting Il Seppellimento di Santa Lucia (oil on canvas, 1608 by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, in order to evaluate the state of conservation of the work of art before its return to Syracu-se, in the Church of S. Lucia al Sepolcro (the original placing from which the painting was removed at the end of the Seventies due to the unsuitable and unstable environment conditions of the exhibi-tion area, which inevitably led to its bad conservation conditions. The diagnostic campaign has been carried out in situ with portable instruments, for a one-month period, during the open exhibition in the Regional Gallery of Sicily of Palazzo Abatellis in Palermo, where the painting has temporarily been displayed in 2006. The investigations were aimed at having a deeper knowledge of the work of art with reference to its execution technique, to the original materials being employed and to any previous restoration work.The paper presents some results obtained from multi-spectral and radiological investigations.

  10. Análisis de la funcionalidad de los sistemas de tratamiento de lixiviados provenientes de vertederos mediante evaporación natural, para los municipios de Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Garzón Alvear, Isabel Margarita

    2014-01-01

    El manejo y tratamiento de lixiviados es uno de los principales desafíos a resolver en las temáticas de los residuos domiciliarios a nivel mundial, siendo esta situación más grave en los países del tercer mundo, entre ellos los latinoamericanos. En el caso particular de Ecuador, se sabe que la problemática es de base, ya que aún se tienen 144 botaderos a cielo abierto, en los cuales los lixiviados se encuentran recogidosen piscinas esperando su evaporación. La evaporación de lixiviado ocurre ...

  11. ISOLAMENTO E IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE MICOBACTÉRIAS EM ÁGUAS TRATADAS PROVENIENTES DO SISTEMA DE ABASTECIMENTO DE ARARAQUARA-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Aparecida GASPAR-GRILLO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da água é muito importante para a saúde e bem-estar do ser humano e o sistema de abastecimento público deve fornecer água de qualidade e em quantidade suficiente para toda a população. As estações de tratamento de água constituem o principal caminho para obtenção de água de qualidade. Quando isso não ocorre vários problemas podem afetar a população que passa a consumir água com qualidade inadequada e com o risco constante de surgimento de várias doenças. A eliminação de micro-organismos em água tratada reduz a competição, favorecendo a multiplicação de bactérias resistentes ao cloro como as do gênero Mycobacterium frequentemente isoladas de águas tratadas e cloradas. Considerando a não indicação da pesquisa de micobactérias nos exames laboratoriais de rotina para controle de qualidade de água para consumo humano e outros usos, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a presença, isolar e identificar as micobactérias ambientais no sistema de abastecimento de água de origem superficial da cidade de Araraquara – SP. Foram analisadas 40 amostras de águas, assim distribuídas: dez de água bruta colhidas na Estação de Tratamento de Água (ETA, dez colhidas após filtração, dez colhidas no reservatório após cloração e dez na rede de distribuição. Foram recuperados 43 isolados de micobactérias. Todos os isolados foram submetidos ao PCR-PRA. As espécies de micobactérias identificadas foram M. lentiflavum, M. parafortuitum, M. genavense, M. gordonae, M. fortuitum, M. confluentis, M. duvalii, M. avium subespécie paratuberculose e M. szulgai. Com esses resultados, concluiu-se que a água é importante fonte de micobactérias ambientais provavelmente relacionadas a várias doenças humanas, sugerindo-se a realização de acompanhamento contínuo desses micro-organismos no sistema de água potável.

  12. PRODUÇÃO DE ETANOL DE SEGUNDA GERAÇÃO PROVENIENTE DO BAGAÇO DE PENDÚCULOS DO CAJU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EZENILDO EMANUEL DE LIMA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of cashew apple bagasse for bioethanol production aimed at taking advantage of a re-gional culture that has about 85% of waste. Due to the complex structure of the material, it is necessary to sub-mit it to physical pretreatments and/or chemicals such as acid prehydrolysis, alkali, steam explosion, CO2 ex-plosion, hot water treatment, pretreatment with microwave, among others, before hydrolysis process for ethanol production. The aim of this paper was to study the prehydrolysis and acid hydrolysis in the cashew bagasse peduncle (Anarcadium occidentale L., and the removal of toxic compounds from the hydrolyzate liquor using the residual lignin as adsorbent and alcoholic fermentation of liquors for the production of the second genera-tion bioethanol. The cashew bagasse, based on its chemical characterization and physical chemistry, presented itself as a promising source in order to produce bioethanol. The prehydrolysis, is effective in the removal of hemicelluloses mainly in the extraction of arabinose, the temperature being the major variable influencing the process. For the acid hydrolysis done with the following hydrolysis conditions: temperature at 200 °C, acid concentration equal to 6% and ratio of 1:6 has presented the combination of the highest concentration of sugars with a minimum concentration of toxic compounds. During the study of the alcoholic fermentation of liquors with hydrolyzed yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, presented yield and efficiency of production of ethanol from cellulosic pulp of processing stalk cashew maximum dry were respectively 0.445 g ethanol/g of pulp and 87.1% hydrolyzed liquor with the addition of cashew apple juice.

  13. Determinação de metais em óleos lubrificantes, provenientes de motores de ônibus urbano, utilizando a FAAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lúcia Cardoso Silveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposed a procedure to examine ashes produced in burning lubricating oils used in public transportation, in Teresina PI. Sulphanilic acid was added to the oil samples, which were burned at 550 °C for three hours and 650 °C for two hours. The ash solutions were analyzed by FAAS and there were significant differences in the metal contents of the waste oil produced from normal car service. The quantification limits in μg g-1 were 5.9 (Fe, 4.4 (Pb, 1.7 (Ni, 2.1 (Cu, and 1.2 (Zn. The results showed positive accuracy and precision with recoveries between 88 and 108%, and RSD lower than 10%.

  14. Determinação das propriedades físicas e mecânicas do gesso reciclado proveniente de chapas de gesso acartonado

    OpenAIRE

    Erbs,A.; Nagalli,A.; Mymrine,V.; Carvalho,K. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Resumo A busca pela viabilidade técnica e econômica da reciclagem de resíduos na cadeia produtiva da construção civil vem atender às novas necessidades do setor de promover crescimento econômico integrado às necessidades sociais e ambientais. O crescente aumento do consumo das chapas de gesso acartonado carrega consigo o problema da geração dos resíduos de gesso, onde a falta de pesquisa e o descarte incorreto acaba destinando o resíduo gerado, na maioria das vezes, para aterros ou bota-foras...

  15. Increase in the amount of evaporator concentrate from nuclear power plants in cemented products; Aumento da quantidade de concentrado de evaporador proveniente de usinas nucleares em produtos cimentados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Bruna S., E-mail: brusilveirac@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Tello, Clédola C.O., E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear power plants, research centers and other nuclear facilities are sources of radioactive liquid waste generation. These wastes can come from cooling of the primary reactor system, cleaning spent pool of fuel, washing contaminated clothing, among others. One of the most used methods for the treatment of these aqueous flows is the evaporation, which generates the concentrate of the evaporator, waste classified as low and medium level of radiation. Norms determine that radioactive waste must be minimized, and that to be accepted in repositories, they must be solidified. The work sought to reduce the volume of the evaporated concentrate waste and its subsequent solidification in cement. In order to carry out the tests, the evaporator concentrate (CE) simulation solution was prepared and then dried in an oven. Subsequently, cementation of the dry material was made using cement, fluidizer, NaOH and water. After a curing time of 28 days, the compressive strength tests were made for all specimens obtained, and for the samples that obtained resistance above that required by the norm, which is 10MPa, the percentages of reject incorporated and volume reduction. The results showed that, by drying the evaporator concentrate, it was possible to reduce the volume of the waste generated by up to 27% in relation to the waste without drying, which shows that drying is an effective way to increase the incorporation of the evaporator concentrate in packaged waste.

  16. TRABAJABILIDAD DE LA MADERA DE Pinus oaxacana Mirov. PROVENIENTE DE UNA PLANTACIÓN EN EL ESTADO DE MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Machuca-Velasco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La calidad de maquinado es diferente en cada especie, por tanto, es necesario conocer las características y propiedades que intervienen en este proceso, tales como; la estructura anatómica, contenido de humedad, densidad básica, velocidad de crecimiento, número de anillos de crecimiento por pulgada y dirección del grano. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar las características de los ensayos de cepillado, lijado, moldurado, torneado y barrenado en la madera de Pinus oaxacana Mirov. El material de estudio se obtuvo en la plantación localizada a un costado de la División de Ciencias Forestales de la Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. Los ensayos de maquinado, la evaluación de los defectos y clasificación se realizaron según la Norma ASTM-D 1666-87, con algunas modificaciones realizadas en función de la maquinaria y contenidos de humedad. En general, la madera de P. oaxacana fue clasificada como una especie con excelente trabajabilidad, exceptuando el ensayo de moldurado en el corte preliminar que fue clasificado como bueno. Este ensayo mejoró en el segundo corte, por lo tanto, la especie puede ser utilizada en la elaboración de productos con mayor valor agregado, por ejemplo; en puertas, ventanas, marcos, piezas torneadas, molduras, lambrín o recubrimientos y muebles en general.

  17. Produção de sulfato ferroso a partir do resíduo proveniente da mineração de ferro

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Kelly Araldi

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química, Florianópolis, 2012. O ferro é o metal de transição mais abundante da crosta terrestre e o quarto de todos os elementos. O ferro é encontrado em uma gama de minerais, destacando-se: a hematita (Fe2O3), a magnetita (Fe3O4), a limonita (FeO(OH)), a siderita (FeCO3), a pirita (FeS2) e a ilmenita (FeTiO3). O ferro é também um nutriente essencial para a vida e at...

  18. Gestión ambiental de aguas residuales industriales con mercurio proveniente de la minería aurífera a nivel mundial: Estado del arte

    OpenAIRE

    Garzón-Gutiérrez, Jennyfer Magdalia; Rodríguez-Miranda, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Dada la problemática social y ambiental generada por la minería aurífera artesanal y a pequeña escala (MAAPE), se lleva a cabo en el presente documento la revisión del estado del arte en cuanto a la gestión ambiental de aguas residuales con mercurio (Hg) a nivel mundial. Materiales y métodos: La revisión se realizó a partir de artículos científicos publicados durante los últimos cinco años, encontrando que las intervenciones para abordar los impactos por Hg en la MAAPE, se han e...

  19. The waste originating from nuclear energy peaceful applications and its management; Os rejeitos provenientes de aplicacoes pacificas da energia nuclear e o seu gerenciamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de [E-mail: jairalbo at ax.apc.org (Brazil)] [and others

    1997-05-01

    This work presents the waste originating from nuclear energy and its management. It approaches the following main topics: nature and classification of the wastes; security requirements to the waste management; state of the art related to the wastes derivates of the uses of the nuclear energy; wastes in the fuel cycle; wastes of the industrial, medical and research and development applications; costs of the waste management.

  20. Estudio de la flotabilidad de pirita aurífera proveniente de desechos de procesos venezolanos de cianuración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    di Yorio, C.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Gold recovery from by-products of metallurgical cyaniding processes has been frequently subject of study. This work studies the flotability of auriferous pyrite by means of column flotation, taking into consideration its extremely fine size and the presence of residual cyanide. From preliminary results it was decided to study three variables: pH; Aero promoter 407 concentration; and conditioning time. The pH was varied between 4.5 and 6.0; the reagent dose between 33.3 and 133.3 g/t; and the conditioning time between 1 and 5 min. All the other conditions were kept constant. Sulphur content was analysed for all the concentrates obtained in the flotation tests. It was determined that the pH of the pulp and the ion interference on the adsorption of the collector on the surface of the ore exert a notable influence on both the recovery and the quality of the concentrates. The best results were obtained in conditions of pH 4.5 and 5.0, with 1 and 3 min of conditioning time, respectively; the most effective amount of reagent was 66.6 g per ton of cyaniding solid waste.

    La recuperación de oro a partir de desechos de procesos metalúrgicos de cianuración ha sido objeto de estudio frecuentemente. En el presente trabajo, se estudia la flotabilidad de la pirita aurífera mediante el uso de la flotación en columna, tomando en consideración su granulometría, extremadamente fina, y la presencia de cianuro residual del propio proceso de cianuración. A la vista de los resultados preliminares, se decidió estudiar tres variables: pH, dosis de reactivo (Aero promoter 407 y tiempo de acondicionamiento. El pH se varió entre 4,5 y 6,0; la dosis de reactivo entre 33,3 y 133,3 g/t y el tiempo de acondicionamiento entre 1 y 5 min; todas las demás condiciones se mantuvieron fijas. Se analizó el contenido de azufre para todos los concentrados obtenidos en los ensayos de flotación. Se determinó que el pH de la pulpa y la interferencia iónica sobre la adsorción del colector en la superficie del mineral ejercen una notable influencia sobre la recuperación y la calidad de los concentrados. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron a condiciones de pH 4,5 y 5,0, con 1 y 3 min de acondicionamiento, respectivamente. La cantidad de reactivo más satisfactoria fue 66,6 g por tonelada de desechos de procesos de cianuración

  1. Estudio de la flotabilidad de pirita aurífera proveniente de desechos de procesos venezolanos de cianuración

    OpenAIRE

    di Yorio, C.; Calles, B.; Peña, Y.; García-Carcedo, F.; Ayala, J. N.; Cornejo, N.; Hernández, A.; Munroe, N.

    2003-01-01

    Gold recovery from by-products of metallurgical cyaniding processes has been frequently subject of study. This work studies the flotability of auriferous pyrite by means of column flotation, taking into consideration its extremely fine size and the presence of residual cyanide. From preliminary results it was decided to study three variables: pH; Aero promoter 407 concentration; and conditioning time. The pH was varied between 4.5 and 6.0; the reagent dose between 33.3 and 133.3 g/t; and the ...

  2. Radioactivity of rocks from the geological formations belonging to the Tibagi River hydrographic basin; Radioatividade de rochas provenientes das formacoes geologicas pertencentes a bacia hidrografica do Rio Tibagi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Rodrigo Oliveira

    2008-07-01

    This work is a study of the {sup 40}K and the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series radioactivity in rocks measured with high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The rocks were taken from the geologic formations in the region of the Tibagi river hydrographic basin. The course of this river cuts through the Paleozoic and Mesozoic stratigraphic sequences of the Parana sedimentary basin. In order to take into account the background radiation attenuation by the samples, a technique was developed that eliminated the need to measure a blank sample. The effects of the radiation's self-attenuation in the sample matrix were taken into account by using a gamma ray direct transmission method. The results for 87 rock samples, taken from 14 distinct formations, and their corresponding radioactivity variations are presented and discussed according to the possible geological processes from which they originated. Among the most discussed results are: an outcrop that profiles shale, limestone and rhythmite in the Irati Formation; a sandstone and siltstone sequence from the Rio do Rasto Formation; and a profile sampled in a coal mine located in the Rio Bonito Formation. The calculations of the rocks' contributions to the outdoor gamma radiation dose rate agree with the values presented by other authors for similar rocks. The highest dose values were obtained from felsic rocks (rhyolite of the Castro group, 129.8 {+-} 3.7 nGy.h{sup -1}, and Cunhaporanga granite, 167 {+-} 37 nGy.h{sup -1}). The other highest values correspond to the shale rocks from the Irati Formation (109 {+-} 16 nGy.h{sup -1}) and the siltic shale rocks from the Ponta Grossa Formation (107.9 {+-} 0.7 nGy.h{sup -1}). The most recent geological formations presented the lowest dose values (e.g. the Botucatu sandstone, 3.3 {+-} 0.6 nGy.h{sup -1}). The average value for sedimentary rocks from seven other formations is equal to 59 {+-} 26 nGy.h{sup -1}. The Rio Bonito Formation presented the highest dose value (334 {+-} 193 nGy.h{sup -1}) mainly due to the anomalous {sup 226}Ra concentration in the samples. The Ra{sub eq} parameter and the activity concentration index for environmental radioactivity monitoring were calculated for rocks used as building materials. Only one sample reached a Ra{sub eq} value higher than 370 Bq.kg{sup -1}. In relation to the activity concentration index ali results are lower than two, satisfying the most rigorous dose criterion (0.3 mSv.a{sup -1}) for materials with restricted use (e.g. tiles and coverings). When materials used in bulk amounts are considered (e.g. bricks, sand, gravel), the Castro group and the Cunhaporanga granite samples do not satisfy the less rigorous dose criterion (1 mSv.a{sup -1}). This indicates that there is a radiological protection concern when these materials are used as concrete gravel. This result warrants a more detailed analysis using dose assessments based in the scenarios where these rocks are typically used. (author)

  3. Characterization of waste soda-lime glass from the process lapping; Caracterizacao do rejeito de vidro sodo-calcico proveniente do processo de lapidacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, A.C.P.; Farias, A.C.M. de; Mendes, J.U.L., E-mail: galvao_alvaro@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The beneficiation process of plates by stoning of soda-lime glass in glass industry generates, by itself, a residue not used (waste). The waste of this material is sent to landfills, causing environmental impacts. This study aimed to characterize and evaluate the waste of stoning of soda-lime glass (GP). After its acquisition, the GP was processed by grinding and sieving and subsequently characterized through the chemical analysis (XRF, XRD, EDS), morphology by SEM, particle size by laser diffraction and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and DSC). It was observed that the particles of GP are micrometer and irregular with the predominant presence of Na, Si and Ca, which are the characteristic elements of an amorphous soda-lime glass. The assessment of the chemical, morphological and thermogravimetric characteristics of GP allowed to suggest its reuse as reinforcing fillers or filler in composite materials to obtain thermal insulators. (author)

  4. Valorización de un residuo proveniente de la industria de galvanizado en caliente mediante la síntesis hidrometalúrgica de sales de zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Andrés Casal-Ramos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of adding value to a residual dust from hot-dip galvanizing process was explored, through the synthesis of potentially marketable organic zinc salts. The valorization process started by dissolving the residue in HCl, citric acid was then added and zinc salts were finally precipitated by the addition of NaOH. In another experiment, absolute ethanol was added as a modifying agent. In both cases, the products were fine white powders which were characterized by pycnometry, atomic spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x–ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. In the synthesized products, the following phases were identified: Zn(C2H3O22.2H2O, Na3C6H5O7.2H2O and NaCl

  5. MORFOMETRÍA COMPARADA DE SEMILLAS DE NICOTIANA (SOLANACEAE E IDENTIFICACIÓN DE SEMILLAS CARBONIZADAS PROVENIENTES DE UN SITIO ARQUEOLÓGICO EN CHILE CENTRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teresa Planella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia frecuente de pipas para fumar en sitios arqueológicos del Período Alfarero Temprano deChile central y las evidencias en relación con la costumbre de fumar especies de Nicotiana halladas en sitios prehispánicos de otros lugares de las Américas, muestran la necesidad de contar con una metodología para identificar las especies de este género usadas en Chile. En este trabajo se ha realizado un estudio morfométrico en semillas de especies de Nicotiana que sirve de referencia para comparaciones con semillas de origen arqueológico. La forma y tamaño de la semilla, el patrón de ornamentación dado por las células epidérmicas y la ubicación del hilum resultaron ser caracteres relevantes para identificaciones confiables. Utilizando estos caracteres, se determinaron como N. corymbosa a las semillas recuperadas en el sitio arqueológico Las Morrenas 1, ubicado en Chile central.

  6. Aislamiento e identificación de microorganismos en biopelículas provenientes del Castillo de Chapultepec, Ciudad de México.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E de la Cruz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Today microbiology is based on pure cultures and separate microorganisms, pure cultures really do not exist in nature, because that microorganism are combined into large colonies slimy (biofilms in which the various individuals establish relationships and dependencies. Only in the United State of America is estimated that biofilms cause billions of dollars in energy losses, equipment damage, product contamination and medical infections. This paper presents the results of the isolation of microorganisms by microbiological and molecular methods, from biofilms located in the Castle of Chapultepec in Mexico City. In the biofilm coexist different genres of filamentous fungi such as Cladosporium, Mucor, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Aureobasidium, Rhodotorula and others in those biofilms; besides bacterial genera as Bacillus, Pantoea, Kokuria, etc. Many of these microbial genera have been widely reported as a participating in biodeterioration processes to monuments and others are reported as contributing to its restoration, so this work opens the door to future researches that allow biological restoration of monuments, conservation and development of new biotechnological processes.   Keywords: Microbiology; pure cultures; biofilms; isolation of microorganism; microbiological methods; biodeterioration processes. 

  7. BIODEGRADACIÓN AEROBIA DE FRACCIONES DE HIDROCARBUROS PROVENIENTES DE LA ACTIVIDAD PETROLERA EN UN SUELO DE LA REGIÓN PATAGONIA NORTE, ARGENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro, Cecilia E. Silvana; Arocena, Lucas Agustín; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Nudelman, Norma Ethel S.

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN Las técnicas recientes de evaluación de sitios contaminados con hidrocarburos se fundamentan en la metodología del análisis de riesgo. El efecto sobre la salud y el ecosistema que producen agentes químicos presentes en un ambiente contaminado es estimado como la sumatoria de riesgos individuales, siendo la concentración de hidrocarburos un dato relevante. La biorremediación es una tecnología sustentable que acelera la degradación del petróleo en suelos contaminados y posee una relació...

  8. Prevalência da microbiota no trato digestivo de fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae provenientes do campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Sandra Maria Pereira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foram dissecados o trato digestivo de 245 fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis originários da Gruta da Lapinha, Município de Lagoa Santa, MG, formando 7 grupos de 35 flebotomíneos. Das 8 espécies de bactérias isoladas houve uma predominância de bactérias Gram negativas (BGN pertencentes ao grupo de não fermentadoras de açúcar das seguintes espécies: Acinetobacter lowffii, Stenotrophomonas maltophhilia, Pseudomonas putida e Flavimonas orizihabitans. No grupo das fermentadoras tivemos: Enterobacter cloacae e Klebsiella ozaenae. No grupo dos Gram positivos foram identificados Bacillus thuringiensis e Staphylococcus spp.

  9. Avaliação do teor de antocianinas em polpa de acerola congelada proveniente de frutos de 12 diferentes aceroleiras (Malpighia emarginata D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Vera Lúcia Arroxelas G. de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A ampla variabilidade genética nos pomares de aceroleiras brasileiros tem gerado frutos de coloração amarela a vermelha púrpura dificultando a obtenção de produtos de coloração avermelhada, cor esperada pelos consumidores. As antocianinas são pigmentos instáveis, responsáveis pela cor vermelha deste fruto maduro. Com o objetivo de determinar o teor destes pigmentos em polpa de acerola submetida ao congelamento foi instalado um experimento inteiramente casualisado. As polpas obtidas de frutos de 12 acessos (plantas do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE foram armazenadas a -18ºC, por um período de 06 meses. Unidades amostrais de 30g foram coletadas ao acaso, no período inicial e final do experimento, e submetidas a determinação quantitativa de antocianinas totais utilizando um método espectrofotométrico. Grande variação nos teores de antocianinas totais foi observada nos acessos estudados. No tempo zero de armazenamento o valor mínimo e máximo deste fitoquímico foi de 59,74mg e 3,79mg.100g -1 de polpa, respectivamente. Após seis meses de congelamento foi constatada uma redução de 3,4% a 23,6% no teor desse pigmento nas amostras avaliadas. Evidenciou-se, portanto, que o armazenamento a -18ºC por seis meses reduziu o teor de antocianinas e que os pigmentos antociânicos dos acessos 08 e 13 apresentaram-se mais estáveis ao congelamento.

  10. Effect of chemical treatment on thermal properties of fibers from pineapple;Estudo da modificacao quimica nas fibras provenientes da coroa do abacaxi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Rafael I.M.; Mulinari, Daniella R.; Carvalho, Kelly C.C.; Conejo, Luiza dos Santos; Voorwald, Herman J.C.; Cioffi, Maria Odila H., E-mail: rafaelimf@hotmail.co [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this work the effect of the chemical modification of natural fibres from of pineapple fibres with alkaline solution was studied. After modification the in nature and modified fibres were analyzed by XRD diffractometry and thermogravimetry with objective to evaluate influence chemical treatment in surface and in the thermal properties fibres. With the obtained results it was possible to verify an increase of 10.4 % in the crystallinity index of fibres beyond the increase around 4.5% in the degradation temperature, what it indicates an increase in the stability thermal of the fibres. (author)

  11. Difusión e impactos del programa Talento e Inclusión en estudiantes provenientes de establecimientos de alto índice de vulnerabilidad en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Karla; Muñoz, Javiera; García, Catalina; Vera, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    La Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (UC), en concordancia con su Plan de Desarrollo 2015-2020, favorece el acceso de estudiantes talentosos que no han tenido la posibilidad de acceder a una educación escolar de calidad y que, por tanto o cumplen los requisitos de la Prueba de Selección Universitaria (PSU) necesarios para ingresar a la educación superior. Dichos puntajes están altamente correlacionados con el nivel socioeconómico de los postulantes, generando una sobre representación d...

  12. Obtainment of Hg-free Mn/Zn solutions from spent alkaline batteries; Obtencion de soluciones de Mn/Zn libres de Hg provenientes de pilas alcalinas gastadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Nicolas, L.; Espinosa-Ramirez, I. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, UPALM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: lepeni@hotmail.com; Aguilar, M. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Palacios-Beas, E. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, UPALM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    As in many other countries, the excessive consumption of alkaline batteries in Mexico has generated highly contaminating wastes, with heavy metal contents such as Mn, Zn, Fe, Hg, Cu and Ni, among others. This has caused a large degree of environmental degradation with repercussions for the health of living beings. Because there are no regulations regarding the disposal of spent batteries, they are thrown out with the rest of the domestic wastes or directly into nature, ending up in open-air landfills or containers where they are incinerated, thereby contaminating the planet's environment, soil and springs. The present work studies the obtainment of solutions of Hg-free Mn and Zn (Mn/Zn {>=} 1) from spent alkaline batteries for use in synthesis of (Mn,Zn)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite by a wet method. The effect is analyzed of the dissolution medium (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, HCl and HCl/NO{sub 3}) temperature and time on the percentage of dissolution of the metals present in the electrode material, characterized by atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of the investigation indicate that the best dissolution conditions are MD=H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, T=50 degrees Celsius and t =30 min, where 94.1 and 90.7 % (w/w) of Mn and Zn are obtained, respectively, with Mn/Zn = 1.51. The mercury content was determined to be 3.91%, higher than that stated by the battery specifications, which is recovered by dissolving with HCl/HNO{sub 3} in the residual solid. [Spanish] En Mexico como en muchos otros paises, el consumo excesivo de pilas alcalinas ha generado desechos altamente contaminantes, con contenidos de metales pesados como Mn, Zn, Fe, Hg, Cu y Ni entre otros, que han provocado un gran deterioro en el medio ambiente repercutiendo en la salud de los seres vivos. Dado que no se tiene una regulacion en cuanto a la disposicion de pilas gastadas, estas se desechan con el resto de las residuos domesticos o directamente a la naturaleza, terminando en basureros al aire libre o contenedores donde son incinerados, contaminando el ambiente, los suelos y los mantos acuiferos del planeta. Por lo anterior, en el presente trabajo se estudia la obtencion de soluciones de Mn y Zn (Mn/Zn {>=} 1) libres de Hg a partir de pilas alcalinas gastadas, para su utilizacion en la sintesis de ferritas (Mn,Zn)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} por via humeda. Se analiza el efecto del medio disolvente (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, HCl y HCl/NO{sub 3}), la temperatura y el tiempo sobre el porcentaje de disolucion de los metales presentes en el material electrodico, utilizando espectroscopia de absorcion atomica (AA) y difraccion de rayos X (DRX) para la caracterizacion. Los resultados de la investigacion indican que las mejores condiciones de disolucion son MD=H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, T=50 grados centigrados y t =30 min, donde se obtiene 94.1 y 90.7 % (w/w) de Mn y Zn respectivamente, con Mn/Zn = 1.51. Se determino que el contenido de mercurio es 3.91%, superior al declarado en las especificaciones de las pilas, que se recupera mediante disolucion con HCl/HNO{sub 3} en el solido remanente.

  13. Perfiles de resistencia a fluoroquinolonas en aislamientos clínicos de cocos Gram positivos provenientes de hospitales colombianos, 1994-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Arias

    2008-06-01

    Conclusión. Los aislamientos colombianos de S. pneumoniae mantienen susceptibilidad a las fluoroquinolonas de última generación. La resistencia a fluoroquinolonas es alta en S. aureus, especialmente en aislamientos resistentes a la meticilina (cercana al 100%.

  14. Plántulas de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. provenientes de semillas embebidas en diferentes soluciones de giberelinas (GA3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaguera-López Helber Enrique

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La obtención de plántulas de tomate vigorosas y en menor tiempo para el trasplante se ha convertido en un factor clave a la hora de iniciar la producción. Con el fin de disminuir el efecto postrasplante e impulsar el desarrollo vegetativo de las plántulas, se sometieron semillas del híbrido larga vida Daniela a imbibición (6, 12, 18, 24, 30 y 36 horas en tres concentraciones de ácido giberélico (300, 600 y 900 mg L-1 y se sembraron en bandejas. Se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado, 18 tratamientos más un testigo con cuatro repeticiones durante cuatro semanas, primera fase. Luego en segunda fase, se trasplantaron cuatro plantas al azar por tratamiento en bolsas de polietileno, y cuatro semanas después se evaluaron. El tratamiento de 36 horas de imbibición y 300 mg L-1 de GA3 mostró diferencias estadísticas en la primera fase para el área foliar, masa fresca de hojas, tallo y raíces y longitud de raíces, y en la segunda fase en la masa seca de hojas, tallo y raíz y en el área foliar. Semillas de tomate embebidas en 300 mg L-1 de GA3 generan plántulas con mayor vigor.

  15. PESQUISA DE PARASITOS EM ALFACE E COUVE PROVENIENTES DE FEIRAS DA REGIÃO CENTRAL E SUAS MEDIAÇÕES NA CIDADE DE ANÁPOLIS-GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Resende Moura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the parasitological quality of vegetables lettuce (Lactuca sativa and cabbage (Brassica oleracea marketed by 28 stalls divided into four exhibitions located in central and mediations in the city of Anápolis-GO. Methods: A total of 28 samples of lettuce and 28 samples of cabbage by spontaneous sedimentation techniques and Craig. Results: We obtained 16% contamination by intestinal parasites in 56 samples. Lettuce showed greater contamination (25% and cabbage showed contamination of 7.1%. The enteroparasite more prevalent among the lettuce was Entamoeba coli (17.8%; on cabbage samples, as well as Entamoeba coli (3.5%, we found Ascaris lumbricoides (3.5%. Conclusions: Probably the presence of these enteroparasito can be related to a low hygienic standard in some management steps of greenery. There is a clear need to increase health education of vegetable handlers and improving the quality of water used in these vegetable crops processes.

  16. Nitrogen derived from fertilization and straw for plant cane nutrition; Nitrogenio proveniente da adubacao nitrogenada e de residuos culturais na nutricao da cana-planta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitti, Andre Cesar, E-mail: acvitti@apta.sp.gov.b [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional Centro-Sul; Franco, Henrique Coutinho Junqueira, E-mail: henrique.franco@bioetanol.org.b [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Ferreira, Danilo Alves; Otto, Rafael; Fortes, Caio, E-mail: pcotrive@cena.usp.b, E-mail: danilo.alves.ferreira@usp.b, E-mail: rotto@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: cfortes@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Faroni, Carlos Eduardo, E-mail: cfaroni@ctc.com.b [Centro de Tecnologia Canavieira, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the recovery, by plant cane, of the nitrogen ({sup 15}N) from urea and from sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crop residues - straw and root system - incorporated into the soil. The experiment was settled in 2005/2006 with the sugarcane cultivar SP81 3250. At planting, microplots of 2 m length and 1.5 m width were installed, and N applications were done with 80 kg ha-1 N (urea with 5.05% in {sup 15}N atoms) and 14 Mg ha{sup -1} crop residues - 9 Mg ha{sup -1} of sugarcane straw and 5 Mg ha{sup -1} of root system, labeled with {sup 15}N (1.07 and 0.81% in {sup 15}N atoms, respectively). The total N accumulation by plants was determined during the crop cycle. Although the N use by shoot from crop residue mineralization (PA and SR) increased significantly over time, this source hardly contributed to crop nutrition. The recovery of the {sup 15}N-urea, {sup 15}N-SS and {sup 15}N-RS by plant cane was 30.3 +- 3.7%, 13.9 +- 4.5% and 6.4 +- 0.9%, respectively, representing 15.9, 4.7 and 1.4% of total nitrogen uptake by shoot. (author)

  17. Utilización de un desecho agroindustrial proveniente de una empresa refinadora de aceite comestible para la producción de jabones

    OpenAIRE

    Altomare, Vanessa; Fernández, Celeste; Ros, Mario

    2008-01-01

    La presente investigación esta enmarcada en el diseño de un proceso técnico factible a escala industrial para la reutilización, de las arcillas blanqueadoras agotadas, que se generan como residuos del proceso de elaboración de aceite comestible a partir de semillas oleaginosas, para obtener un producto de mayor valor agregado. La caracterización de las arcillas así como la síntesis del jabón de tocador se llevó a cabo a nivel de laboratorio, obteniéndose un contenido de aceite de palma de (58...

  18. Mercury and toxic metals in ash from combustion and incineration processes; Mercurio y metales toxicos en cenizas provenientes de procesos de combustion e incineracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugica, V.; Amador, M.A.; Torres, M.; Figueroa, J. de J. [Universidad Autonomo-Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Reynosa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In Mexico, most of the ashes from combustion and incineration process were not appropriately disposed, they are either left on industrial yards and cliffs or thrown away in open spaces and then carried by the wind to places where they can harm population, affect aquatic environment or soils. For prevention and control, the knowledge on the concentration of trace elements in waste ashes is necessary. In this study, several oxidation methods for digestion of ashes followed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry were evaluated. Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and V were determined in ashes from coal and fuel oil combustion, as well as in ashes from the incineration of municipal, water treatment sludge, and medical wastes. Results showed important concentrations of different trace elements in the ashes. This suggests that adequate disposal of these wastes should be mandatory. On the other hand, concentration of trace elements in the leachates indicated that these wastes are not toxic and they could be disposed in sanitary landfill. 23 refs.

  19. Aislamiento y caracterización de microorganismos con actividad lipolítica provenientes de sedimentos del Humedal El Jaboque (Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Carolina Mora Moreno

    2006-07-01

    sedimentos, mediante la utilización de medios de cultivo selectivos (agar tributirina, agar aceite de girasol. Primero se evaluó la concentración del sustrato (aceite de girasol en la cual se encontraba el mayor número de morfotipos aislados, luego se comparó la eficiencia de los dos medios de cultivo de acuerdo a la cantidad de morfotipos aislados. Se evaluaron tres concentraciones diferentes de sustrato. Se aisló un total de 18 cepas pertenecientes a los géneros Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Streptomyces, Penicillium, Alternaria. Los medios evaluados constituyen alternativas sencillas de aislamiento de microorganismos con actividad lipolítica en sedimentos.

  20. Production of ferrous sulfate from residue from the iron mining; Producao de sulfato ferroso a partir de residuo proveniente da mineracao de ferro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, K.A; Riella, H.G.; Abreu, E.F. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engrenharia Quimica; Carvalho, E.F. Urano de; Durazzo, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Combustivel Nuclear

    2012-11-15

    This paper was developed from a residue obtained by processing iron ore exploited by the mining company Samarco S/A. The residue was characterized and the analyses showed that it contains about 70% of the mineral hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and also that some economically important products could be produced. One is the ferrous sulfate that can be used in pharmaceuticals and also that can be used in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. The iron, in addition to is importance for the industrial production of steel and parts in general, also has great biological importance in all living beings. In order to produce ferrous sulfate from the byproduct in question, it was developed a obtaining route using metallic iron as hematite reductor and sulfuric acid to form the salt. (author)

  1. Entre condiciones expertas y negociaciones prácticas: la generización del dinero proveniente de las transferencias monetarias condicionadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Hornes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Basados en entregas directas de dinero a los hogares pobres, las transferencias monetarias condicionadas (TMC se han convertido en las políticas sociales predominantes en Argentina y América Latina. Los saberes expertos vinculados a las TMC pretenden construir un monopolio técnico y moral sobre el dinero transferido, otorgándole una definición unívoca ajustada a las condicionalidades de los programas. Principalmente destacan la titularidad del beneficio sobre las mujeres, en vistas a abordar las disparidades de género y por considerarlas más eficientes en el manejo del dinero. A través de la reconstrucción de los presupuestos de hogares receptores de distintas TMC, observaremos como los integrantes organizan sus dineros construyendo esquemas de clasificación y evaluación sobre el uso del mismo. Indagaremos sobre cómo dichos esquemas se constituyen a partir de las construcciones sociales del género y las negociaciones entre las condicionalidades programáticas y los significados sociales que el dinero adquiere en los hogares.

  2. Biodegradation of radioactive organic liquid waste from spent fuel reprocessing; Biodegradacao de rejeitos radioativos liquidos organicos provenientes do reprocessamento do combustivel nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua

    2008-07-01

    The research and development program in reprocessing of low burn-up spent fuel elements began in Brazil in 70's, originating the lab-scale hot cell, known as Celeste located at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN - CNEN/SP. The program was ended at the beginning of 90's, and the laboratory was closed down. Part of the radioactive waste generated mainly from the analytical laboratories is stored waiting for treatment at the Waste Management Laboratory, and it is constituted by mixture of aqueous and organic phases. The most widely used technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes is the solidification in cement matrix, due to the low processing costs and compatibility with a wide variety of wastes. However, organics are generally incompatible with cement, interfering with the hydration and setting processes, and requiring pre -treatment with special additives to stabilize or destroy them. The objective of this work can be divided in three parts: organic compounds characterization in the radioactive liquid waste; the occurrence of bacterial consortia from Pocos de Caldas uranium mine soil and Sao Sebastiao estuary sediments that are able to degrade organic compounds; and the development of a methodology to biodegrade organic compounds from the radioactive liquid waste aiming the cementation. From the characterization analysis, TBP and ethyl acetate were chosen to be degraded. The results showed that selected bacterial consortia were efficient for the organic liquid wastes degradation. At the end of the experiments the biodegradation level were 66% for ethyl acetate and 70% for the TBP. (author)

  3. Generation of electric power from biogas originating from sewage treatment; Geracao de energia eletrica a partir do biogas proveniente do tratamento de esgoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Silva, Orlando Cristiano da; Pecora, Vanessa; Abreu, Fernando Castro de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/IEE/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa], e-mails: suani@iee.usp.br, sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, gbntumbo@iee.usp.br, vpecora@iee.usp.br, fcabreu@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The main objective of the effluent treatment is to correct its undesirable characteristics, however, during this process, residues like sludge and biogas are generated, and those residues can be used as raw materials The PUREFA (Program of Rational Energy Use and Alternative Sources), compound by 14 purposes, is about a project of the USP - University of Sao Paulo, financial backer FINEP - Financier of Studies and Projects. This project had three main objectives: to implant measures of management and action of energy efficiency, to increase the distributed generation in the USP from the renewable resource and not conventional energy and to introduce incentive permanent politics to the efficient and rational use of energy. In the context, the Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass was responsible for two purposes, related to the biogas use for electricity generation. The first purpose had main objective to implant the generation system, to capture and to stock the biogas, produced by biodigester in the Technological Hydraulically Center (CTH - USP). The biodigester is a UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket), whose outflow of the biogas produce is near 4 m{sup 3}/day, opera rates 24 hours per day and utilize the sewer from the residential buildings located in Sao Paulo University, inside the campus. For the biogas utilization, was made its outflow, chemical composition and heat value identifications, parameters that allowed to determinate the real potential for generation and to shown the necessity of the previous treatment, as H{sub 2}S removal. Finished this stage, was started the next purpose, regarding biogas used as fuel for electricity generation using a generator group Otto cycle. Nowadays this project is a demonstrative project. In this article the technical and environmental project results obtained will be presented. (author)

  4. IAEA Nobel Prize money fights cancer crisis in Latin America; Los fondos provenientes del Premio Nobel otorgado al OIEA se destinan a combatir el cancer en America Latina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-18

    Full text: More than 60 of the world's leading cancer experts are being brought together in Buenos Aires, 23-27 April 2007, by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to assess Latin America's growing cancerden. Poor medical facilities and lack of trained personnel and funding are limiting countries' ability to expand cancer care services and treat patients, while cancer rates are expected to double by 2020. More than 70 per cent of all cancer deaths occur in low and middle income countries and globally cancer kills more people than AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined. Through its Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) the IAEA is using funds, awarded for the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize, to sponsor training workshops, such as the Buenos Aires event, that alert policy makers and health experts to the pressing need for national cancer control plans and programmes. 'I hope that this event in Latin America is the first of many that will enable us to work together to help combat this dreadful disease and provide quality of life to our fellow human beings,' said Director General of the IAEA, Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei. 'Cancer is a disease that is spreading very fast in the developing world and we have come to realise that we have to do much more to combat it in this part of the world.' In Latin America, there are an estimated 450,000 cancer deaths annually. The most commonly occurring cancers in men are prostate, stomach, lung, and colorectal and in women the most commonly occurring cancers are breast, cervix, stomach and colorectal. Breast and cervical cancer can be prevented through screening and early detection and can be cured in the early stages with effective treatment. The World Health Organization (WHO) warns that cancer will soon reach epidemic proportions, causing up to 10 million deaths a year by 2020. Yet at least one third of all cancers are preventable. A further one third of cases can be effectively treated if detected early. PACT was established in 2004 to help developing nations combat the growing cancer crisis. Building on the IAEA's 30 years of expertise in promoting radiotherapy, PACT's goal is to help develop more cancer treatment facilities and provide the trained personnel who can operate in the world's developing regions and ensure that they are integrated into comprehensive cancer control programmes. 'PACT is building partnerships with the WHO and other international cancer-control organisations so that the battle against cancer can be waged at country level,' says the Head of PACT, Massoud Samiei. 'This entails a broad multi-disciplinary approach that includes cancer prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment and palliation and, more importantly, education and training of professionals.' The IAEA's share of the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize award is also being devoted to training personnel from developing countries in the fight against cancer and malnutrition. Current estimates suggest that several billion US$ are needed if the cancer crisis in low and middle-income nations is to be contained effectively. Initial funding for PACT comes from the IAEA and several non-traditional donors. PACT seeks to raise donor awareness of the cancer problem to mobilize new resources and enable developing countries to introduce, expand or improve their cancer control planning and programming, to provide services in a sustainable manner. The meeting opens at 09.00 on Monday, 23 April, at Roffo Hospital. At 10.45, there will be a press conference/panel discussion with opening session speakers. These include: Juan Antonio Casas-Zamora, Director, Division for Latin America, Department of Technical Cooperation, IAEA; Massoud Samiei, Head, PACT Programme Office, Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT), IAEA; Jose Antonio Pages, PAHO/WHO Representative, Argentina; R. Sankaranarayanan, Head, Screening Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC); Elmer Huerta, President-elect, American Cancer Society (ACS); Eduardo Cazap, President, Sociedad Latinoamericana y del Caribe de Oncologia Me dica (SLACOM), International Union Against Cancer (UICC)/ International Network for Cancer Treatment and Research (INCTR). Sessions will focus on comprehensive cancer control, evidence-based radiation oncology emerging techniques in radiotherapy planning and delivery. All sessions of the five-day meeting are open to journalists. Please note that only the first two days will be conducted in English and Spanish while days 3-5 will be conducted only in Spanish. (IAEA) [Spanish] El Organismo Internacional de Energia Atomica (OIEA) reunira a mas de 60 de los principales expertos mundiales sobre el cancer en Buenos Aires, del 23 al 27 de abril, para evaluar la creciente carga que representa esta enfermedad en America Latina. Los deficientes servicios medicos y la falta de personal cualificado y de financiacion estan limitando la capacidad de los paises para ampliar sus servicios de atencion oncologica y ofrecer tratamiento a los pacientes, en tanto se preve una duplicacion de las tasas de cancer para 2020. Mas del 70% de todas las muertes por cancer se producen en paises con ingresos bajos y medianos, y a escala mundial el cancer provoca mas muertes que el SIDA, la malaria y la tuberculosis en conjunto. A traves de su Programa de accion para la terapia contra el cancer (PACT) el OIEA esta utilizando fondos de la dotacion del Premio Nobel de la Paz, que recibio en 2005, para patrocinar talleres, como el de Buenos Aires, que senalen a encargados de formular politicas y expertos en salud la apremiante necesidad de contar con planes y programas nacionales de lucha contra el cancer. 'Confio en que este evento en America Latina sea el primero de muchos que nos permitan trabajar de consuno para ayudar a combatir esa terrible enfermedad y ofrecer calidad de vida a nuestros congeneres', indico el Director General del OIEA, Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei. 'El cancer es una enfermedad que se esta propagando muy rapidamente en el mundo en desarrollo y nos hemos dado cuenta de que en esta parte del mundo son mucho mayores los esfuerzos que se requieren para combatirla.' Se estima que cada ano mueren en America Latina 450 000 personas victimas del cancer. Los canceres mas comunes en el hombre son el cancer de prostata, estomago, pulmon y coy recto, mientras que en la mujer son el cancer de mama, cuello del utero, estomago y colon y recto. Los canceres de mama y de cuello del utero pueden prevenirse mediante revisiones medicas y la deteccion precoz y es posible curarlos si se tratan eficazmente en sus fases iniciales. La Organizacion Mundial de la Salud (OMS) advierte que el cancer adquirira pronto proporciones epidemicas y que para 2020 provocara hasta 10 millones de muertes anuales. Sin embargo, al menos una tercera parte de todos los canceres son prevenibles. En otra tercera parte de los casos el tratamiento puede resultar eficaz si la enfermedad se detecta en su fase inicial. El PACT se creo en 2004 para ayudar a los paises en desarrollo a combatir la creciente crisis del cancer. Tomando como base los conocimientos especializados adquiridos por el OIEA en los 30 anos de promocion de la radioterapia, el objetivo del PACT es contribuir al desarrollo de un mayor numero de instalaciones de tratamiento oncologico y suministrar el personal cualificado capaz de explotarlas en las regiones en desarrollo y garantizar su integracion en amplios programas de lucha contra el cancer. 'El PACT esta forjando alianzas con la OMS y otras organizaciones internacionales de lucha contra el cancer para lograr que la batalla contra esta enfermedad pueda librarse en los paises', dice Massoud Samiei, Jefe de la Oficina del PACT. 'A estos efectos, es necesario aplicar un amplio enfoque multidisciplinario que incluya la prevencion del cancer, la deteccion temprana, el diagnostico, el tratamiento, los cuidados paliativos y, lo que es mas importante, la ensenanza y capacitacion de profesionales'. La parte del Premio Nobel de la Paz 2005 correspondiente al OIEA esta siendo destinada tambien a la capacitacion de personal de paises en desarrollo para la lucha contra el cancer y la malnutricion. Segun estimaciones actuales, a fin de contener de manera eficaz la crisis del cancer en los paises con ingresos bajos y medianos se precisan varios miles de millones de dolares os Estados Unidos. La financiacion inicial del PACT proviene del OIEA y de varios donantes no tradicionales. El PACT trata de sensibilizar a los donantes acerca del problema del cancer a fin de movilizar recursos y brindar a los paises en desarrollo la posibilidad de esta blecer, ampliar o mejorar su capacidad de planificacion y programacion de la lucha contra el cancer para prestar servicios de manera sostenible. La reunion comenzara el lunes 23 de abril de 2007, a las 09.00 horas en el Hospital Roffo. A las 10.45 horas se celebrara una conferencia de prensa/mesa redonda con oradores que participaran en la sesion de apertura: Juan Antonio Casas-Zamora, Director, Director de la Division para America Latina, Departamento de Cooperacion Tecnica, OIEA; Massoud Samiei, Jefe de la Oficina del Programa de accion para la terapia contra el cancer (PACT), OIEA; Jose Antonio Pages, Representante de la Argentina ante la OPS/OMS; R. Sankaranarayanan, Jefe del Grupo de Deteccion, Centro Internacional de Investigaciones sobre el Cancer (CIIC); Elmer Huerta, Presidente electo de la Sociedad Americana del Cancer (ACS); Eduardo Cazap, Presidente de la Sociedad Latinoamericana y del Caribe de Oncologia Medica (SLACOM), Union Internacional contra el Cancer (UICC)/ Red Internacional para el tratamiento y la investigacion del cancer (INCTR). Las sesiones se centraran en la lucha global contra el cancer, la radiooncologia basada en pruebas y las nuevas tecnicas de planificacion y tratamiento respecto de la radioterapia. Todas las sesiones de la reunion, que tendra cinco dias de duracion, estaran abiertas a los medios de comunicacion. Sirvase tomar nota de que solo en los dos primeros dias la reunion se celebrara en ingles y espanol, los tres dias restantes se celebrara en espanol unicamente. (IAEA)

  5. INDICADORES DA VIOLÊNCIA CONTRA A MULHER PROVENIENTES DAS NOTIFICAÇÕES DOS SERVIÇOS DE SAÚDE DE MINAS GERAIS-BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia de Oliveira Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los casos notificados de violencia contra la mujer adulta en Minas Gerais a través del Sistema de Información de Agravios de Notificación, con el fin de caracterizar las víctimas y las situaciones abusivas, calcular indicadores de morbilidad y mortalidad y evaluar la calidad de la información. El estudio es descriptivo, retrospectivo y periodo 2011-2012. La mayoría de las mujeres era blanca, 20-29 años, casadas, agredidas físicamente en su residencia, por medio de fuerza corporal en la cabeza. Hubo un aumento del 41% en las notificaciones entre los años analizados. La mortalidad se destacó en las víctimas con 30-39 años, la letalidad arriba de 80 años, y la mayor incidencia en la violencia física, entre 20-29 años. Muchas fichas de investigación quedaron incompletas. Es necesario optimizar y concientizar sobre completar la ficha de investigación, debido a la importancia de esa notific ación en el contexto de atención integral a las mujeres víctima s de violencia.

  6. Aislamiento e identificación de microorganismos en biopelículas provenientes del Castillo de Chapultepec, Ciudad de México.

    OpenAIRE

    E de la Cruz; J. Narváez Zapata; Leandro Páramo Aguilera

    2011-01-01

    Today microbiology is based on pure cultures and separate microorganisms, pure cultures really do not exist in nature, because that microorganism are combined into large colonies slimy (biofilms) in which the various individuals establish relationships and dependencies. Only in the United State of America is estimated that biofilms cause billions of dollars in energy losses, equipment damage, product contamination and medical infections. This paper presents the results of the isolation of mic...

  7. Comparación de la reglamentación para el manejo de lodos provenientes de agua residual en Argentina, Chile y Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Fabián Andrés Ospina López; Alejandra Rodríguez González; Juan Manuel González Guzmán

    2017-01-01

    El presente artículo presenta resultados de una revisión sobre el manejo y disposición final de lodos generados en las plantas de tratamiento de agua residual, los cuales deben ser sometidos a diferentes tratamientos para ser transformados en biosólidos y lograr determinar su uso sujeto a la clasificación que se presenta en Argentina, Chile y Colombia. Se realizó un análisis comparativo de los diferentes parámetros que se tienen en cuenta en los reglamentos de cada uno de estos países, eviden...

  8. CARACTERIZAÇÃO E ESTUDO DA LIXIVIAÇÃO DE METAIS DE ESCÓRIAS PROVENIENTES DA RECICLAGEM DE BATERIAS DE CHUMBO-ÁCIDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli Barbosa de Andrade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, o chumbo metálico é obtido principalmente a partir da reciclagem de baterias de chumbo-ácido utilizando o processo pirometalúrgico, que é acompanhado da geração de uma escória que apresenta elementos como Fe, Si, S, Al, Ca, Zn, Pb. O objetivo deste trabalho foi de estudar a escória gerada no processo através da fluorescência e difração de raios X e de extrações utilizando o método de Tessier seguida da determinação das concentrações dos metais nos extratos por espectrometria de absorção atômica. Com os resultados da fluorescência de raios X, observou-se que a somatória das porcentagens dos elementos citados se aproxima a 97 %. Pela difração de raios X, detectou-se fases como: Pirrotita (Fe1-xS, Maghemita (Fe2O3, Fayalita (Fe2+2SiO4, Óxido de chumbo e alumínio (Pb2Al2O5, Hercinita (Fe2+Al2O4 e Óxido de chumbo (Pb2O3 e que nos extratos, estão presentes vários metais em concentrações variáveis, sendo que chumbo e ferro são encontrados geralmente em maior concentração.

  9. Determinación de la actividad celulolítica del suelo proveniente de cultivos de Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez R Viviana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En el presente estudio se determinó la actividad celulolítica en suelo mediante el uso de una técnica fluorogénica que utiliza 4-metilumbeliferil B-glucosa (MUF como sustrato, y se comparó con la técnica de Somogyi Nelson (SN. Se manejó sedimento como control positivo del método MUF, ya que esta técnica se estandarizó previamente en esta matriz, y suelo como matriz a evaluar. El muestreo de suelo se realizó en Puerto López, Meta, en cultivos de Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni mediante un muestreo aleatorio simple. El sedimento se recolectó en el humedal La Conejera, localidad de Suba, Bogotá. Se realizaron tres tratamientos para ambas matrices: T1: matriz (control; T2: matriz+extracto crudo enzimático (2,34 UC; T3: matriz+Streptomyces sp. (59x103 conidios/mL. Para la obtención del extracto crudo enzimático utilizado en el T2 se realizó el aislamiento del microorganismo celulolítico con mayor actividad en agar CMC 1% m/v a partir de muestras de suelo, para su posterior fermentación y obtención de extracto enzimático. La incubación de las matrices en los tres tratamientos se realizó a temperatura ambiente, humedad mantenida a 4,6% durante 60 días, con muestreos periódicos cada 15 días para determinar actividad enzimática por métodos planteados (MUF y SN. No se evidenciaron efectos diferenciales en la actividad enzimática con ninguno de los tratamientos planteados, como tampoco se obtuvo correlación estadística entre los métodos (<16%. Es así que se propone la técnica fluorogénica como una metodología viable y fiable de la actividad celulolítica, en virtud de su alta especificidad, mayor rapidez en el montaje, así como por su facilidad de ejecución y apreciable precisión en términos de repetibilidad; sin embargo la técnica de SN no se descarta para futuros estudios.

  10. USO DE LODOS PROVENIENTES DE LA INDUSTRIA PAPELERA EN LA ELABORACIÓN DE PANELES PREFABRICADOS PARA LA CONSTRUCCIÒN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana María Quinchía

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo consistió en la elaboración de paneles prefabricados como elementos no estructurales para la construcción, a partir del aprovechamiento de los lodos residuales del tratamiento de las aguas servidas de la industria papelera. Se definieron las mezclas adecuadas, los materiales y las etapas del proceso de elaboración de los paneles para desarrollar piezas que cumplen con los estándares de resistencia requeridos y la normativa asociada a este tipo de productos. De esta forma no solo se ofrecen nuevas opciones de materiales en el medio, sino que se brinda un enorme beneficio ambiental con la valorización de un residuo industrial generado en grandes cantidades.This work was based on the fabrication of drywalls as nonstructural elements for the construction industry, from the beneficial of the residual sludge from the treatment of waters served as the paper industry. The optimal mixtures, the suitable materials, and the stages of the process of fabrication of the panels to develop pieces were defined that fulfill the standards of resistance required and the technical norms associated to this kind of products. In this form not only new options of materials in the region are offered, but also offers an enormous environmental benefit from the assessment of an industrial waste assessment generated in great quantities.

  11. Characterization of sediments laid on Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plains, using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique; Caracterizacao dos sedimentos depositados nas planicies de inundacao do Rio Solimoes/Amazonas, utilizando a tecnica de fluorescencia de raios-X por dispersao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Ana E.V. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. do [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]|[Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1997-10-01

    This paper proposes sediment analysis with high light elements fraction using dispersive energy X-ray fluorescence technique with radioisotopic excitation, The proposed procedure is based on the Fundamental Parameters for analytical elements (Z {>=} 13) evaluation, and coherent and incoherent scattered radiation for quantification of the light fraction of the matrix (Z < 13). Laid sediments samples on Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plains were analyzed, determining simultaneously the Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sc, V, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Zr element concentrations, thus allowing chemical characterization and spatial variability, and some mineralogical and weathering sediments aspects. (author). 15 refs., 11 tabs.

  12. Dispersion and consolidation of WO{sub x}-doped zirconia from zirconium tungstate and triethanolamine in aqueous medium; Dispersao e consolidacao de zirconia dopada com WO{sub x} a partir do tungstato de zirconio e trietanolamina em meio aquoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, M.; Zorzi, J.E.; Perottoni, C.A., E-mail: jezorzi@ucs.br [Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS), RS (Brazil); Machado, G. [Centro de Tecnologias Estrategicas do Nordeste, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    In recent studies, it was possible to produce hydrous zirconia nanoparticles with crystallite sizes as small as 2 nm from ZrW{sub 2} O{sub 8} powder with initial particle size of 1.7 μm in an aqueous medium. The zirconia nanoparticles formed transparent polycrystalline aggregates. However, the controlled production of transparent zirconia solids by centrifugation of stable suspensions, deagglomerated in the moment of the synthesis, has not been explored yet. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the dispersion and consolidation of hydrous zirconia nanoparticles produced from ZrW{sub 2} O{sub 8} , in aqueous medium and using triethanolamine (TEOA) as surfactant, and to understand the effect of experimental conditions on the tungsten content in the consolidated solids. The synthesis and dispersion were carried out in aqueous medium at 80 °C with the use of NaOH and TEOA; the colloidal solutions were dialysed, their pH values were adjusted to 6, and then ultracentrifuged at 28000 rpm for 24 h. It has been found that the use of TEOA in the synthesis allowed obtaining stable sols of zirconia nanoparticles which, after centrifugation, originated transparent and yellowish solids that were characterized using various techniques (scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and simultaneous thermal analysis). Although TEOA assists in the dispersion of nanoparticles, it interfered in the synthesis mechanism, leading to the production of zirconia doped with WO{sub x} , with tungsten concentrations that varied depending on the experimental conditions employed. (author)

  13. Determination of heavy metals at traces level in leached samples by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique; Determinacao de metais pesados a nivel de tracos em amostras de chorume pela tecnica de fluorescencia de raios X por dispersao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simabuco, Silvana M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. do; Inacio, Graziela R.; Navarro, Angela N. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Secao de Metodologia de Radioisotopos

    1996-07-01

    In landfill solid residues are disposed in the soil. When made based on technical criteria and specifically operation patterns a safe confinement is warranted according to environmental and public health protection. However, when the disposal is made by a random and unsuitable way serious problems can be caused as groundwater and superficial water contamination through leach action, indicating the usefulness of monitoring landfills. In this way energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis with radioisotopic excitation was applied to evaluate the concentrations of heavy metals at trace levels in leached samples from the Americana City Landfill with pre-concentration of the elements by a non-specific precipitating agent, called ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC). (author)

  14. Using the model release ARTM associated with resources for simulation geoprocessing radiological environmental impact of atmospheric emissions from a research reactor; Utilizacao do modelo de dispersao ARTM associado a recursos de geoprocessamento para simulacao do impacto ambiental radiologico de emissoes atmosfericas de um reator de pesquisa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Simone Fonseca

    2013-08-01

    The knowledge of the dispersion of radionuclides emissions into the atmosphere arising from a nuclear reactor, in normal operation, is an important step in the process of the nuclear and environmental assessment study. These processes require an assessment study of the radiological environmental impact. However, to estimate this impact a simulation of the transport mechanisms and deposition of pollutants released into the atmosphere is required. The present study aimed at the application of the dispersion model ARTM (Atmospheric Radionuclide Transport Model), together with the powerful tools of the GIS (Geographic Information System) for the environmental impact assessment of a radiological nuclear reactor under typically routine and conditions. Therefore some important information from the national project for a research reactor known as Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) was considered. The information of the atmospheric emissions of the reactor, needed for the simulation of this project, was based on data of the Open Pool Australian Light Water (OPAL).Other important data that had to be collected and analyzed were the source term, the topography, the meteorology and the environmental data. The radionuclides analyzed as pollutants were {sup 41}Ar; {sup 140}Ba; {sup 51}Cr; {sup 137}Cs; {sup 131}I; {sup 133}I; {sup 85m} Kr; {sup 87}Kr; {sup 88}Kr; {sup 140}La; {sup 133}Xe; {sup 135}Xe; {sup 3}H; {sup 90}Sr. The model was run for two chronological scenarios according to their meteorological data for the years 2009 and 2010, respectively. The adoption of GIS techniques was relevant in planning, data preprocessing and in the post-processing of results as well. After pre-processing, the input data were processed by the ARTM dispersion model. Maps, charts, and tables were then produced and evaluated. According to the simulated and evaluated scenarios it could be concluded that exposure pathways that mostly contributed to the dose for individual public were {sup 41}Ar, for immersion in the plume, and {sup 133}I, for inhalation. Nevertheless, even these pathways were much below the limits established by the current standards. (author)

  15. Application of neutron activation techniques and x-ray energy dispersion spectrometry, in analysis of metallic traces adsorbed by chelex-100 resin; Ativacao das tecnicas de ativacao neutronica e espectrometria por dispersao de onda e de energia de raios X, na analise de tracos metalicos adsorvidos pela resina chelex-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Jair C.; Amaral, Angela M.; Magalhaes, Jesus C.; Pereira, Jose S.J.; Silva, Juliana B. da; Auler, Lucia M.L.A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: jcf@urano.cdtn.br

    2000-07-01

    In this work, the authors have investigated optimal conditions of adsorption for several ion metallic groups (cations of heavy metals and transition metals, oxyanions metallics and metalloids and cations of rare earths), as traces (ppb), withdrawn and in mixture of groups, by chelex-100 resin. The experiments have been developed by bath techniques in ammonium acetate tamponade solution 40 mM pH 5,52 content 0,5 g of chelex-100 resin. After magnetic agitation for two hours, resins were dried and submitted to X-ray energy dispersion spectrometry, x-ray fluorescence spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. The results have demonstrated that chelex-100 resin adsorb quantitatively transition element groups and rare earth groups in two cases (withdrawn and simultaneously adsorption)

  16. Lagrangian modeling of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides and geographical information systems as tools to support emergency planning in area of influence of nuclear complex of Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brazil; Modelagem Lagrangeana da dispersao atmoferica de radionuclideos e sistemas de informacao geografica como ferramentas de suporte ao planejamento de emergencia na area de influencia do complexo nuclear de Angra dos Reis, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Corbiniano

    2013-07-01

    Industrial accidents generally endanger structures and the set of environmental influence area where the enterprises are located, especially when affected by atmospheric dispersion of their pollutants, whose concern with the evacuation of the population is the main goal in emergency situations. Considering the nuclear complex Angra dos Reis - RJ, based on computer modeling analysis of the mechanisms of pollutant dispersion in conjunction with geographic information systems were developed. Thus, information about the dispersion of radionuclides - from simulations performed on the HYSPLIT; meteorological data (direction, intensity and calm on the wind regime and analysis of the wind field in the region using WRF), occurrence of landslides and data on the environmental study area were integrated into a GIS database using ArcGIS platform. Aiming at the identification and definition of escape routes in case of evacuation from accidental events in CNAAA, the results point solutions for long-term planning, based on weather and landslides, and short-term, supported by simulations of the dispersion radionuclides, in order to support actions that assist local emergency planning. (author)

  17. Determination of organic compounds in medicinal plants, commercialized in capsulated forms and 'in natura' by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF). Determination of quantitative inorganic profiles; Determinacao de componentes organicos em plantas medicinais, comercializadas em forma de po (capsulas) e 'in natura', utilizando a tecnica de fluorescencia de raios X por dispersao de comprimento de onda (WDXRF). Determinacao de perfis inorganicos quantitativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Manuel Octavio M; Sato, Ivone Mulako; Salvador, Vera Lucia R [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente

    2005-07-01

    X-ray fluorescence technique was used to determine major and trace elements for five Brazilian commercial medicinal plants. The bromobutane (Barbatimao), Ginkgo folium (Ginkgo biloba), Echinodorus macrophyllus (Chapeu de couro), Valeriana officinalis (Valeriana), Cordia salicifolia (Porangaba) samples were collected from three to six different commercial suppliers. The species were collected 'in natura' (leaves, flowers, barks and roots) and capsulated forms. The samples were grinded in liquid N{sub 2} atmosphere and double layer pressed pellet were prepared. The elements Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb e Sr concentrations were determined by individual calibration curves. The precision and accuracy of method were evaluated by certified reference material, NIST 1547 - Peach Leaves and the Chauvenet, Cochrane, ANOVA and Z-score statistical tests were applied. Each specimen presented a distinct inorganic profile and a great variation in its composition was observed. The inorganic profile will contribute for the elaboration of a quality and security guide to assure the phytotherapics commercialization. Moreover, these profiles could be used as complementary data to active farmaco compounds profiles for specimen's ratification. (author)

  18. Simulation of a gas thermal plant in the new environment of the Brazilian electricity sector: a risk versus return analysis; Simulacao de uma usina termica a gas no novo contexto do setor eletrico brasileiro: uma analise risco versus retorno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinhel, Antonio Carlos da Costa

    2000-12-15

    This work has as its main objective the evaluation of the financial impact in respect to the investment in a thermal gas plant, taking into consideration the complementary role of thermal electricity generation within the interconnected system. A risk x return analysis is performed, by means of computer simulations based on different assumptions, among which the following: costs involved; electric system expansion scenarios; flexible plant operation; long and short term contracting of generation capacity. The combination between flexibility in operation (the level of take/ship or pay in gas contracts) - which in favorable hydraulic periods allows for the use of water which would otherwise overflow through spillways or stored at low value - and a trading strategy - which reduces the risk exposure to electricity spot prices - makes it possible to have a significant increase in the cost effectiveness of the project. Among the main conclusions of the study, the following should be highlighted: the electricity price gap occurring between the prices practiced in present contracts between suppliers and distributors and those of the 'new energy', resulting from the system expansion; the relevance the flexibility in fuel purchase, in order to allow for the cost reduction of the energy generated, through the elimination of unnecessary gas consumption; the high risk associated to strategies in which investors come up with no signed long term power purchase agreements; and the risks for the system expansion, considering the consumer point of view. (author)

  19. Effects of holmium laser on dental structure in vivo: thermal evaluation and histological analysis on pulpal tissue; Efeitos in vivo do laser de holmio em estrutura dental: monitoracao termica e analise histologica do tecido pulpar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strefezza, Claudia

    2001-07-01

    Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that Ho:YLF laser is capable of inducing physical and chemical changes on dental surfaces treated for caries prevention. The temperature in the pulp chamber was in vitro evaluated to as a function of the power and frequency of the laser irradiation. The purpose of this work is to verify the occurrence of pulp inflammation after Ho:YLF laser irradiation using different parameters in rabbits' teeth. The premolars and molars of ten rabbits (NZB) were divided in two groups according to the irradiation energy values of a Ho:YLF laser prototype operating at 2.065{mu}m wave length, frequency of O,5Hz and pulse length of 250{mu}s. An group A teeth were irradiated with using ten pulses of 334mJ/pulse of a Ho:YLF laser prototype operating at O.5Hz, and group B, with 512mJ/pulse. Animals were killed by transcardiac perfusion and the samples were prepared for histopathological analysis. The in vitro temperature monitoring revealed an increase of 1 deg C for the 334mJ/pulse energy and 4.5 deg C for the 512mJ/pulse energy. SEM observations showed the occurrence of melting and resolidification in dental surface. From the in vivo analysis it can be concluded that both employed laser parameters did not induce to any inflammatory response from the pulp. (author)

  20. Externalities assessment of a coal power plant in the forest ecosystems in Valdecaballeros Area; Estimacion de las externalidades de una central termica de carbon en los ecosistemas forestales del Area de Valdecaballeros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laforga, P; Planas, B

    1995-07-01

    The book is divided in two parts. The first one analyzes the critical load and level concepts, and the methodological framework for Environmental Impact Statement (E.L.S.). In line with this, critical loads and levels represent the system vulnerability and excedances of critical values identify zones where impacts could occur. These are evaluated according to a set of criteria, talking into account present and future land use, their socio cultural interest, economic value of their natural resources and ecological quality of the whole system. In addition to Environment Impact Statement of air pollutants, the proposed formalism allows assessing the external cost of gaseous emission. The second part applies the developed ideas to a practical case: a hypothetical coal power plant on Valdecaballeros (Badajoz, Spain). Environmental impact on forestry ecosystems is studied on a 70 km radius area around the plant. The assessment of the external costs rely on yield losses associated with gaseous emission of the hypothetical plant. (Author) 100 refs.

  1. Study and implementation of a thermal acceleration test for the improvement of the quality and reliability of components and systems; Estudo e implementacao de um teste de aceleracao termica para a melhoria da qualidade e confiabilidade de componentes e sistemas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Felippe Carneiro

    1993-09-01

    The objective of this work is to introduce the application of the burn-in test (test of thermal acceleration) in electronic products, using the practical example of this test in a power supply and to do an analysis of the application of this test in a production line showing the advantages and disadvantages of its implementation. For that it is made an abbreviation presentation of the basic concepts of quality and reliability. Starting from these concepts are presented the statistical models used in reliability, that describe the behavior of life of products and components. Besides showing, from the speed chemical reaction model , the influence of the temperature about this reliability.

  2. Polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene with layered double hydroxide nano composites: In situ synthesis, morphology and thermal properties; Nanocompositos de polimetacrilato de metila e poliestireno com hidroxido duplo lamelar: sintese in situ, morfologia e propriedades termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Over the past decade, polymer nanocomposites have attracted interest, both in industry and in academia, because they often exhibit remarkable improvement in their properties when compared with pure polymer or conventional micro and macro-composites using low levels of reinforcements. In this work polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene reinforced with layered double hydroxide, which was intercalated with sodium dodecyl sulfate were synthesized by in situ bulk polymerization. The nanocomposites were characterized and compared by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and flammability test. The X-ray diffraction demonstrated that synthesized nanocomposites showed a high global dispersion of layered double hydroxide, suggesting exfoliated morphology. The result of thermogravimetric analysis and flammability test for synthesized polystyrene/ layered double hydroxide nanocomposite presented a significant improvement in thermal stability and flammability property when compared with pure polymer. (author)

  3. Reduction of particulate emission in two coal-fired power plants; Reduccion de la Emisiones de Particulas Solidas en Centrales Termicas de Carbon Existentes Mediante Acondicionamiento Integral (Fisico y Quimico) de Gases de Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    Escucha and Cercs are two coal-fired power stations, each with a capacity of 160MW, which belong to FECSA. Tehy came into operation in 1970 and 1971. Their boilers are of the once-through type and both have similar configurations, although they use different types of coal. The power station at Cercs uses a mixture of local lignite, rich in calcium, together with 40% of South African coal, while that of Escucha uses local lignite, the ashes of which are predominantly silicon and aluminium oxides, together with 20% of South African coal. At both power stations, the local lignite has changes during the life of the power stations and presently its quality is clearly inferior th that when the power stations were designed. This change in quality has produced two consequences, on one hand, the characteristics of the ash have changed in that the resistivity of the fly ash produced at present is much higher than when the power stations were designed. On the other hand, the temperature of the gases at the boiler outlet has increased and reaches values of up to 200 degree centigree, which has also led to an increase in resistivity. These two facts have produced, as a consequence, a significant increase in the emission of particulate matter. In order to reduce the emission of particulate matter, two stategies were implantes at both power stations; a reduction in the temperature of the flue gases and a reduction of the resistivity of the fly ash. This was an innovative approach to the problem, as generally either one or the other of these strategies is employed but rarely both of them at the same time. A reduction of flue gas temperature was achieved by modifying the last three tube banks of the boiler by adding another 2500 m``2 of heat exchanging surface. As a result, the temperature of the flue gases decreased to a value of 140 degree centigree, which in turn produced a notable effect on the resistivity of the ash. Furthermore, an increase in the performance of the boiler has been obtained as well as significant reduction in the quantity of water injected into the rehater, which has also produeced an increase in the performance of the power stations. As well as the effect due to the reduction of temperature, the resistivity of the fly ash was decreased by means of chemical conditioning: injection of SO{sub 3} anbd under certain operative conditions, NH{sub 3} This combined strategy ha produced a significant decrease in the emission of particulate matter. Total reduction is clearly superior to 60% of the original value and dpends on the rate of injection of SO{sub 3} and NH{sub 3}. (Author)

  4. Thermical Load Calculation and Capacity of Cooling and Venting Equipment of a Diesel Engine Emissions Study Bench; Calculo de Cargas Termicas y Capacidad de los Equipos de Refrigeracion y Ventilacion de un Banco de Estudio de Emisiones de Motores Diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas Garcia, E.; Fonseca Gonzalez, N. A.

    2005-07-01

    The present report tries to develop the calculation of thermical loads and to define the capacity of the equipments of cooling and ventilation that should have the engines test bench that is being ensemble in the installation of the CIEMAT named {sup D}iesel engine emissions study bench (E65-P0). The test bench is formed essentially by a dynamometrical brake and an engine connected at previous one, both of them inside a cabin of isolation acoustic. The thermical loads to be dissipated will be calculated for all the elements that compose the bench and considering his maximum values, to determine the suitable system of cooling air - water of the devices and ventilation in the cabin. (Author) 2 refs.

  5. Mechanical and thermal properties of castor oil polyurethane bone cement after gamma irradiation;Propriedades mecanicas e termicas de poliuretanas derivadas do oleo de mamona usadas como cimento osseo depois da irradiacao com radiacao gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, E.C. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (DF/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Soboll, D.S. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal Parana (CPGEI/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Chierice, G.O.; Claro Neto, S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Lepiesnki, C.M. [Universidade Federal do Parana (DF/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Nascimento, E.M. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (DM/UTFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica

    2009-07-01

    Polyurethanes from castor oil are being employed as bone cement in medical applications. In this work the thermal and mechanical properties of gamma irradiated polyurethanes derivative from castor oil were investigated by instrumented indentation, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy. A slightly increase in hardness is observed only for doses as high as 100 kGy. Thermal analysis indicates stability at human body temperature. The glass transition temperature has small changes after gamma irradiation. (author)

  6. Isotope Dilution - Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometric Analysis for Tin in a Fly Ash Material; Analisis de Estano en una Ceniza de Combustion mediante Espectrometria de Masas de Ionizacion Termica con Dilucion Isotopica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, C; Fernandez, M; Quejido, A L

    2006-07-01

    Isotope dilution-thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) analysis has been applied to the determination of tin in a fly ash sample supplied by the EC Joint Research Centre (Ispra, Italy). The proposed procedure includes the silica gel/phosphoric acid technique for tin thermal ionisation activation and a strict heating protocol for isotope ratio measurements. Instrumental mass discrimination factor has been previously determined measuring a natural tin standard solution. Spike solutions has been prepared from 112Sn-enriched metal and quantified by reverse isotope dilution analysis. Two sample aliquots were spiked and tin was extracted with 4,5 M HCI during 25 min ultrasound exposure time. Due to the complex matrix of this fly ash material, a two-step purification stage using ion-exchange chromatography was required prior TIMS analysis. Obtained results for the two sample-spike blends (10,10 + - 0,55 y 10,50 + - 0,64 imolg-1) are comprarable, both value and uncertainty. Also a good reproducibility is observed between measurements. The proposed ID-TIMS procedure, as a primary method and due to the lack of fly ash reference material certified for tin content, can be used to validate more routine methodologies applied to tin determination in this kind of materials. (Author) 75 refs.

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on mechanical and thermal properties of DGEBA/cycloaliphatic amine networks with potential for medical applications; Efeito da irradiacao gama nas propriedades mecanicas e termicas de redes DGEBA/amina cicloalifatica com potencial para aplicacoes medicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Juliana C.; Silva, Glaura G., E-mail: glaura@qui.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mendes, Marcio W. Duarte; Bressiani, Ana H.; Bressiani, Jose C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Garcia, Filiberto Gonzalez [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Two epoxy polymers based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), cured with piperidine (Pip) and 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-dimethyldicyclohexylmethane (3DCM), were characterized before and after treatment with γ irradiation. The changes in the mechanical and thermal properties were studied by elastic modulus, glass transition temperature and degradation temperature measurements. A dose of 50 kGy of irradiation caused subtle variations in properties such as rigidity and stability, which are relevant from the fundamental point of view. The variations do not imply on negative impact when considering the stage of sterilization during the use of these systems as a biomaterial in the medical area. (author)

  8. Lab determination of soil thermal Conductivity. Fundamentals, geothermal applications and relationship with other soil parameters; Medida de la conductividad termica del suelo en laboratorio. Fundamentos fisicos, aplicaciones geotermicas y relaciones con otros parametros del suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nope Gomez, F. I.; Santiago, C. de

    2014-07-01

    Shallow geothermal energy application in buildings and civil engineering works (tunnels, diaphragm walls, bridge decks, roads, and train/metro stations) are spreading rapidly all around the world. the dual role of these energy geostructures makes their design challenging and more complex with respect to conventional projects. Besides the geotechnical parameters, thermal behavior parameters are needed in the design and dimensioning to warrantee the thermo-mechanical stability of the geothermal structural element. As for obtaining any soil thermal parameter, both in situ and laboratory methods can be used. The present study focuses on a lab test known the need ke method to measure the thermal conductivity of soils (λ). Through this research work, different variables inherent to the test procedure, as well as external factors that may have an impact on thermal conductivity measurements were studied. Samples extracted from the cores obtained from a geothermal drilling conducted on the campus of the Polytechnic University of Valencia, showing different mineralogical and nature composition (granular and clayey) were studied different (moisture and density) compacting conditions. 550 thermal conductivity measurements were performed, from which the influence of factors such as the degree of saturation-moisture, dry density and type of material was verified. Finally, a stratigraphic profile with thermal conductivities ranges of each geologic level was drawn, considering the degree of saturation ranges evaluated in lab tests, in order to be compared and related to thermal response test, currently in progress. Finally, a test protocol is set and proposed, for both remolded and undisturbed samples, under different saturation conditions. Together with this test protocol, a set of recommendations regarding the configuration of the measuring equipment, treatment of samples and other variables, are posed in order to reduce errors in the final results. (Author)

  9. Effect of layered silicate content on the morphology and thermal properties of Poly(vinyl alcohol) films; Efeito do teor de silicato em camadas na morfologia e propriedades termicas de filmes de poli(alcool vinilico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jessica R.M.B. da; Santos, Barbara F.F. dos; Leite, Itamara F., E-mail: jraquell@homail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of layered silicate content on the morphology and thermal properties of PVA films. The PVA/layered silicate (AN) films were prepared by intercalation solution, using 1 to 2% of bentonite with respect to the PVA total weight. Then the films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results of the FTIR revealed interaction between the functional groups of the PVA and the layered silicate. The XRD analysis showed that nanocomposites with intercalated and partially exfoliated morphology were obtained. The results of TG showed that the nanocomposite PVA/2%AN showed higher thermal stability compared to PVA/1%AN. The DSC results showed that the addition of AN to the PVA did not affect crystallization rate, as well as promoted a reduction in glass transition temperature and melting of the PVA. (author)

  10. Thermal activation and characterization of chocolate clay for using as adsorbent in nickel removal; Ativacao termica e caracterizacao da argila chocolate visando sua aplicacao como adsorvente na remocao de niquel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, W.C.T.; Brito, A.L.F.; Laborde, H.M.; Rodrigues, M.G.F., E-mail: meiry@deq.ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Quimica; Ferreira, H.S. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Programa de Ciencias e Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    Clays present interesting properties as adsorbing material for the removal of heavy metals from effluents. This property is clearly modified by thermal activation. In this work, the characterization of chocolate clay before and after thermal activation (from 300 to 500 deg C) is realized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (DTA/TG), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). The main differences between the activated and natural clays are structural modifications of the clay, as shown by XRD and DTA/TG, but also a modification of its cation exchange capacity as shown by the methylene blue method. (author)

  11. X-ray diffractometry of steam cured ordinary Portland and blast-furnace-slag cements; Difratometria de raios X de pastas de cimento Portland comum e de alto-forno submetidas a cura termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarini, G [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia; Djanikian, J G [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    1994-12-31

    This work studies some aspects of the phases produced by hydration of ordinary and blast-furnace-slag cements, at normal conditions and steam cured (60 and 95{sup 0} C), using an X-ray diffraction technique. The blast-furnace-slag cement was a mixture of 50% of ordinary Portland cement and 50% of blast-furnace-slag (separately grinding). After curing the X-ray diffraction reveals that, in relation to ordinary Portland cement, the main phases in blast-furnace-slag cement are hydrated silicates and aluminates, hydro garnet, etringitte and mono sulphate. After steam curing the hydration of blast-furnace-slag cement proceeds. This is a result of the slag activation by the curing temperature. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Identification of market bags composition for biodegradable and oxo-biodegradable samples through thermal analysis in inert and oxidizer atmosphere; Identificacao da composicao de amostras de sacolas plasticas biodegradaveis e oxobiodegradaveis atraves de analises termicas em atmosfera inerte e oxidante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finzi-Quintao, Cristiane M., E-mail: inzi@ufsj.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del-Rei (UFSJ), MG (Brazil); Novack, Katia M. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (DEQUI/UFOP), MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Plastic films used to make market bags are based on polymers such as polyethylene, polystyrene and polypropylene, these materials require a long time to degrade in the environment. The alternative technologies of polymers have been developed to reduce the degradation time and the impact on the environment caused by the conventional materials, using pro-degrading additives or by the development biodegradable polymers. In Brazil, the laws of some municipalities require the use of biodegradable material in the production of market bags but the absence of specific surveillance policies makes its chemical composition unknown. In this paper, we analyzed 7 samples that was obtained from a a trading company and commercial market of Belo Horizonte . The samples were characterized by TGA / DTA , XRF , FTIR and MEV which allowed the identification and evaluation of the thermal behavior of the material in inert and oxidizing atmosphere. (author)

  13. Advanced control system for temperature control in the pressurized fluid bed of Escatron Thermal Plant Power; Sistema de Control Avanzado para Control de la Temperatura del Lecho Fluido a Presion de la Central Termica de Escatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the P. F-B. C a small problem appears, particularly in Escatron the bed temperature gradient is very high. Such gradient very occasionally reaches 50 degree centigree in a same plane. With the reduction of bed difference of temperature, the average bed temperature could be increased with the result steam cycle benefit, at the same time combustion gases would go at a higher temperature to the gas turbine, increasing therefore its performance. The SCAP system will allow to face the resolution of the injection of combustible problem and in this manner achieve the homogenization of bed temperature in Escatron PFBC Thermal Power Station. (Author)

  14. Chemical structures and thermal properties of polyesters obtained from different samples of bio diesel epoxidized; Estruturas quimicas e propriedades termicas de poliesteres obtidos a partir de diferentes tipos de biodiesel epoxidado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samios, Dimitrios; Reiznautt, Quelen B.; Nicolau, Aline; Martini, Denise D.; Chagas, Arthur L. das, E-mail: dsamios@iq.ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (IQ/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Instrumentacao e Dinamica Molecular

    2009-07-01

    In this work new structures from oligo esters and polyesters from different oils (olive oil, sunflower oil and linseed oil) were synthesized and characterized. Oligo esters and polyesters were synthesized from the reaction of fatty acid methyl epoxy-esters, obtained from different oils, with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride in the presence of triethylamine (TEA). Different amounts of the resin 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDGE) were added in order to increase the capacity of crosslinking. The molar ratio of BDGE used in system was between 0 and 0.066. The intermediate structures, as well as the oligo esters and polyesters produced, were analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ({sup 1}H - NMR). The thermal behavior of the products was realized through differential scanning calorimetry and Thermogravimetric analyses. The presence of BDGE in the materials chains increases the bonding capacity resulting in a higher molecular weight material which presents good thermal stability. (author)

  15. Prediction of the thermal expansion coefficients of bio diesels from several sources through the application of linear regression; Predicao dos coeficientes de expansao termica de biodieseis de diversas origens atraves da aplicacao da regressa linear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canciam, Cesar Augusto [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Campus Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: canciam@utfpr.edu.br

    2012-07-01

    When evaluating the consumption of bio fuels, the knowledge of the density is of great importance for rectify the effect of temperature. The thermal expansion coefficient is a thermodynamic property that provides a measure of the density variation in response to temperature variation, keeping the pressure constant. This study aimed to predict the thermal expansion coefficients of ethyl bio diesels from castor beans, soybeans, sunflower seeds and Mabea fistulifera Mart. oils and of methyl bio diesels from soybeans, sunflower seeds, souari nut, cotton, coconut, castor beans and palm oils, from beef tallow, chicken fat and hydrogenated vegetable fat residual. For this purpose, there was a linear regression analysis of the density of each bio diesel a function of temperature. These data were obtained from other works. The thermal expansion coefficients for bio diesels are between 6.3729x{sup 10-4} and 1.0410x10{sup -3} degree C-1. In all the cases, the correlation coefficients were over 0.99. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the price volatility of short-term in Brazil and its relation with the thermal generation; Avaliacao da volatilidade do preco de curto prazo no Brasil e sua relacao com a geracao termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heideier, R.B.; Prado, F.A.A.; Saidel, M.A.; Ueocka, M.Z. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EPUSP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas], E-mails: fernando@sinerconsult.com.br, saidel@pea.usp.br, marcos.ueocka@poli.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    This article evaluate the intensity of volatility of the electric power prices in the short term market in selected countries. It were analyzed historical series of monthly prices of major energy markets worldwide, with assessment of the energy matrix of each region. The study, by analysis of data entry program for optimizing the operation of the SIN (NEWAVE and DECOM), concludes that the price volatility in short-term in Brazil is marked by the large variation of thermal power available, especially the lack of natural gas.

  17. Study of mechanical, rheological and thermal properties of nanocomposite HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene) with Brazilian bentonite; Estudo das propriedades mecanicas, reologicas e termicas de nanocomposito de HMSPP (polipropileno com alta resistencia do fundido) com uma bentonita brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermino, Danilo Marin

    2011-07-01

    This work concerns to the study of the mechanical, thermal and rheological behavior of the nano composite HMSPP - Polypropylene High Melt Strength (obtained at a dose of 12.5 kGy) and a bentonite clay Brazilian Paraiba, known as 'Chocolate' in concentrations of 5 and 10% by weight, comparison of to one American Clay, Cloisite 20A nanocomposite was done. Agent compatibilizer polypropylene-graft, known as maleic anhydride (PP-g-AM) was addict 3% concentration thought technique melt intercalation using a twin-screw extruder and the specimens were prepared by injection process. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by strength, flexural strength and impact tests. The thermal behavior was evaluated by the techniques of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGM). The rheological behavior was evaluated in rheometer. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied by the technique of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The organophilic bentonite and the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (FTIR). (author)

  18. Burner redesign for the reduction of the unburned particulate emission in thermal power stations of Comision Federal de Electricidad; Rediseno de quemadores para la reduccion de la emision de particulas inquemadas en centrales termicas de la Comisionon Federal de Electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta Espino, Mario; Espipnoza Garza, Jesus; Mani Gonzalez, Alejandro; Giles Alarcon, Armando; Pena Garcia, Adriana; Albarran Sanchez, Irma L; Mendez Aranda, Angel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In the presence of the increasing demand for reaching higher efficiencies and a smaller production of polluting emissions in combustion systems, studies focused to the optimization of the present designs of burners are required. The Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) have established a project that contemplates the redesign of burners in ten of its units of thermoelectric generation. In this work the redesign of the flame stabilizer or diffuser for the reduction of the unburned particulate emission is explained. The results of the modeling of a burner of rotational flow of steam generators of the CFE are shown, as well as the graphs of the contours of the recirculation zone generated by each diffuser without combustion and a figure of the velocity profile that is generated in front of the diffuser. In agreement with the results obtained in the aerodynamic evaluation of frontal burners of rotational flow, it is possible to established that the characteristics of the recirculation zone, generated by this type of burners, are related to geometric parameters of the diffuser that identify with the number of turns and the pressure drop, where it is necessary to look for designs that improve the conditions of the mixing process and combustion in the burner. [Spanish] Ante la creciente demanda por alcanzar mayores eficiencias y una menor produccion de emisiones contaminantes en sistemas de combustion, se requieren estudios enfocados a la optimizacion de los disenos actuales de quemadores. La Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) han establecido un proyecto que contempla el rediseno de quemadores en diez de sus unidades de generacion termoelectrica. En este trabajo se explica el rediseno del estabilizador de flama o difusor para la reduccion de la emision de particulas inquemadas. Se muestran los resultados de la modelacion de un quemador de flujo rotacional de generadores de vapor de la CFE. Asi como se muestran graficas de los contornos de la zona de recirculacion generada por cada difusor sin combustion y una figura del perfil de velocidades que se genera frente al difusor. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos en la evaluacion aerodinamica de quemadores frontales de flujo rotacional, se puede establecer que las caracteristicas de la zona de recirculacion, generada por este tipo de quemadores, se relacionan con parametros geometricos del difusor que se identifican con el numero de giro y la caida de presion, donde es necesario buscar disenos que mejoren las condiciones del proceso de mezclado y combustion en el quemador.

  19. Thermal activation and characterization of clay aiming their use as sorbent in fixed bed columns to remove cadmium; Ativacao termica e caracterizacao da argila visando sua utilizacao como adsorvente em colunas de leito fixo para a remocao de cadmio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.M. da; Rodrigues, M.G.F. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Silva, M.L.P. [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido (UFERSA), RN (Brazil); Kleinübing, S.J.; Silva, M.G.C., E-mail: marciliomaximo@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this work we studied the removal of cadmium in a synthetic wastewater using clay of Pernambuco - Brazil, in systems of fixed bed column. Clay was thermally activated at 500 °C. The materials were characterized using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption (BET method). For tests in fixed bed column, we applied a factorial design 2{sup 2} and found that increasing the flow adversely affects the process of removing cadmium concentration while acting positively. The studies showed these materials as promising for the removal of Cd{sup 2+} ions in synthetic wastewater containing low levels of this metal. (author)

  20. Characterization of the neutron flux in the Hohlraum of the thermal column of the TRIGA Mark III reactor of the ININ; Caracterizacion del flujo neutronico en el Hohlraum de la columna termica del reactor TRIGA Mark III del ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfin L, A.; Palacios, J.C.; Alonso, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: adl@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    Knowing the magnitude of the neutron flux in the reactor irradiation facilities, is so much importance for the operation of the same one, like for the investigation developing. Particularly, knowing with certain precision the spectrum and the neutron flux in the different positions of irradiation of a reactor, it is essential for the evaluation of the results obtained for a certain irradiation experiment. The TRIGA Mark III reactor account with irradiation facilities designed to carry out experimentation, where the reactor is used like an intense neutron source and gamma radiation, what allows to make irradiations of samples or equipment in radiation fields with components and diverse levels in the different facilities, one of these irradiation facilities is the Thermal Column where the Hohlraum is. In this work it was carried out a characterization of the neutron flux inside the 'Hohlraum' of the irradiation facility Thermal Column of the TRIGA Mark III reactor of the Nuclear Center of Mexico to 1 MW of power. It was determined the sub cadmic neutron flux and the epi cadmic by means of the neutron activation technique of thin sheets of gold. The maps of the distribution of the neutron flux for both energy groups in three different positions inside the 'Hohlraum' are presented, these maps were obtained by means of the irradiation of undressed thin activation sheets of gold and covered with cadmium in arrangements of 10 x 12, located parallel to 11.5 cm, 40.5 cm and 70.5 cm to the internal wall of graphite of the installation in inverse address to the position of the reactor core. Starting from the obtained values of neutron flux it was found that, for the same position of the surface of irradiation of the experimental arrangement, the relative differences among the values of neutron flux can be of 80%, and that the differences among different positions of the irradiation surfaces can vary until in a one order of magnitude. (Author)

  1. Increase of thermal conductivity of uranium dioxide nuclear fuel pellets with beryllium oxide addition; Condutividade termica de pastilhas de combustivel nuclear de UO{sub 2}-BeO nas temperaturas de 25 deg C e 100 deg C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarano, D.M.; Mansur, F.A.; Santos, A.M.M. dos; Ferraz, W.B., E-mail: dmc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTM/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The UO{sub 2} fuel is one of the most used nuclear fuel in thermal reactors and has many advantages such as high melting point, chemical compatibility with cladding, etc. However, its thermal conductivity is relatively low, which leads to a premature degradation of the fuel pellets due to a high radial temperature gradient during reactor operation. An alternative to avoid this problem is to increase the thermal conductivity of the fuel pellets, by adding beryllium oxide (BeO). Pellets of UO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}-BeO were obtained from a homogenized mixture of powders of UO{sub 2} and BeO, containing 2% and 3% by weight of BeO and sintering at 1750 °C for 3 h under H{sub 2} atmosphere after uniaxial pressing at 400 MPa. The pellet densities were obtained by xylol penetration-immersion method and the thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity were determined according to ASTM E-1461 at room temperature (25 deg C) and 100 deg C. The thermal diffusivity measurements were carried out employing the laser flash method. The thermal conductivity obtained at 25 deg C showed an increase with the addition of 2% and 3% of BeO corresponding to 19% and 28%, respectively. As for the measurements carried out at 100 deg C, there was an increase in the thermal conductivity for the same BeO contents of 20% and 31%. These values as a percentage of increased conductivity were obtained in relation to the UO{sub 2} pellets. (author)

  2. Simulation of a gas thermal plant in the new environment of the Brazilian electricity sector: a risk versus return analysis; Simulacao de uma usina termica a gas no novo contexto do setor eletrico brasileiro: uma analise risco versus retorno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinhel, Antonio Carlos da Costa

    2000-12-15

    This work has as its main objective the evaluation of the financial impact in respect to the investment in a thermal gas plant, taking into consideration the complementary role of thermal electricity generation within the interconnected system. A risk x return analysis is performed, by means of computer simulations based on different assumptions, among which the following: costs involved; electric system expansion scenarios; flexible plant operation; long and short term contracting of generation capacity. The combination between flexibility in operation (the level of take/ship or pay in gas contracts) - which in favorable hydraulic periods allows for the use of water which would otherwise overflow through spillways or stored at low value - and a trading strategy - which reduces the risk exposure to electricity spot prices - makes it possible to have a significant increase in the cost effectiveness of the project. Among the main conclusions of the study, the following should be highlighted: the electricity price gap occurring between the prices practiced in present contracts between suppliers and distributors and those of the 'new energy', resulting from the system expansion; the relevance the flexibility in fuel purchase, in order to allow for the cost reduction of the energy generated, through the elimination of unnecessary gas consumption; the high risk associated to strategies in which investors come up with no signed long term power purchase agreements; and the risks for the system expansion, considering the consumer point of view. (author)

  3. Reduction of SO{sub 2} Emissions in Coal Power Plants by means of Spray-Drying RESOX Research Project; Acondicionamiento de Gases de Combustion para la Reduccion de Emisiones de Particulas en Centrales Termicas de Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    In this experimental study, two important matters concerning the spray-drying technology for the desulphurisation of combustion gases, from pulverized coal boilers, have been analyzed: (1) the behaviour of the spray-dryer absorber under different operating conditions and (2) the behaviour of an electrostatic precipitator that operates downstream form a spray-dryer. The results of this project are of great interest for evaluating the application of this semi-dry desulphurisation technology in existing power plants that already have electrostatic precipitators. Additionally, the conclusions drawn are useful for establishing the optimum design and operating conditions for an integrated SD-ESP flue gas treatment facility. More than 45 experimental tests have been conducted on a 10,000 Nm``3/h spray-drying desulphurisation pilot plant. The effects of SO{sub 2} and fly ash concentration, Ca/S ratio, approach to saturation temperature, density of the slurry and unit load changes on both spray dryer behaviour and treated flue gas properties have been analyzed. In two additional specific tests, the effect of injecting calcium chloride and of preparing the slurry with seawater has also been studied. The impact of spray-dryer desulphurization on the behaviour of the electrostatic precipitators ha been evaluated comparing experimental data (efficiency, emission level, electrical consumption) for the behaviour of the electrostatic precipitator, obtained in two different experimental conditions: with and without desulphurization. Additionally, the possibility of reducing the power consumption of the precipitator by means of intermittent energization has been analyzed. (Author)

  4. Analysis of the technique Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS) and its Application for the Characterization of Metal -Hydrogen Systems; Analisis de la Tecnica Espectroscopia de Desorcion Termica (TDS) y su Applicacion para la Caracterizacion de Sistemas Metal-Hydrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, F J [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    We present the theoretical and experimental developments made to study the desorption of hydrogen from metallic samples by Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS). With this technique gas desorption is stimulated by the programmed heating of the sample. To perform the study we set up a newly designed equipment and develop theoretical models of the kinetic processes involved. The equipment and the models are used to analyze the desorption process in a real system. We begin by analyzing the models developed to interpret the results of the experiments. These models considersimultaneously bulk diffusion and surface reaction processes in metal-hydrogen systems with one or two thermodynamic phases. We present numerical results, computer simulations and analytical approximations of the original models. Based on these results we analyze the main features of the spectra for the different relevant kinetic processes, and determine the changes induced in them when material parameters (activation energies, geometry) or experimental parameters (heating speed, initial concentration) are modified.We present the original equipment, designed and constructed during this work to perform the TDS experiments. We describe its main characteristics, its components, its range of operation and its sensibility. We also offer an analysis of the background spectrum. We use the Pd-H system to test the equipment and the models. The samples chosen, powders, granules, foils and wires, were previously characterized to analyze their composition, their morphology and their characteristic size. We show the results of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observation, X ray diffraction (XRD) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) analysis.We then present and analyze in depth the experimental desorption spectra of the palladium powder. Based on the analysis we determine the rate limiting step for desorption and the characteristic activation energies. When the system is on the b phase (hydride) the rate limiting step is the recombination of two hydrogen atoms on the surface of the material. When the surface of the sample is in the a phase (solid solution) the rate limiting step is one of the processes that occurs on the surface of the material: the transfer of a hydrogen atom from the bulk to the surface or the recombination and desorption on the surface. By fitting the spectra we obtain an activation energy equal to 31 n 6 kJ/mol for the b phase, and equal to 35 n 3 kJ/mol for the a phase. We also compare the spectra of the powder with the spectra of the granules, foils and wires. Based on this comparison we analyze the effect on the desorption spectra of the characteristic size and geometry of the samples.Finally, we present a study of hydrogen desorption in the Pd-H system poisoned with sulfur. The poisoning produces as main effects a delay of the absorption and desorption processes without any appreciable loss in the storage capacity of the material.The experimental apparatus and theoretical models developed have been applied to the study of a MH system using samples with different morphology, characteristic size, geometry and surface state. The spectra were measured for different hydrogen concentrations and heating speeds. The results obtained encourage the utilization of TDS for the study and characterization of hydrogen desorption in MH systems. The technique is suited for the detailed analysis of the physical properties of the system and for the qualitative evaluation of the kinetic processes and their possible influence on technological devices.

  5. Study of mechanical, rheological and thermal properties of nanocomposite HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene) with Brazilian bentonite; Estudo das propriedades mecanicas, reologicas e termicas de nanocomposito de HMSPP (polipropileno com alta resistencia do fundido) com uma bentonita brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermino, Danilo Marin

    2011-07-01

    This work concerns to the study of the mechanical, thermal and rheological behavior of the nano composite HMSPP - Polypropylene High Melt Strength (obtained at a dose of 12.5 kGy) and a bentonite clay Brazilian Paraiba, known as 'Chocolate' in concentrations of 5 and 10% by weight, comparison of to one American Clay, Cloisite 20A nanocomposite was done. Agent compatibilizer polypropylene-graft, known as maleic anhydride (PP-g-AM) was addict 3% concentration thought technique melt intercalation using a twin-screw extruder and the specimens were prepared by injection process. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by strength, flexural strength and impact tests. The thermal behavior was evaluated by the techniques of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGM). The rheological behavior was evaluated in rheometer. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied by the technique of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The organophilic bentonite and the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (FTIR). (author)

  6. Multi-functional system of radiotherapy and thermal phototherapy for tumors that over-express receptors of the gastrin releasing peptide; Sistema multifuncional de radioterapia y fototerapia termica para tumores que sobre-expresan receptores del peptido liberador de gastrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez M, N. P.

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this research was to prepare and characterize a multifunctional system of {sup 177}Lu and {sup 99m}Tc-labelled gold nanoparticles conjugated to Tat(49 57)-Lys{sup 3} bombesin ({sup 177}Lu/{sup 99m}Tc- AuNP-Tat-Bn) and to evaluate the radiation absorbed dose in GRP receptor positive PC3 tumours induced in mice (human prostate cancer cells), as well as to evaluate the thermal effect produced by the multifunctional system in PC3 cancer cells. The preparation of the system involved the conjugation of Bn-Tat, DOTA-GGC and HYNICTOC peptides to AuNP of 20 nm or 5 nm in diameter. The radiolabeling of the system with {sup 99m}Tc was carried out through the ligand HYNIC-TOC and with the {sup 177}Lu through DOTA-GGC. The functionalization of peptides to AuNP, was accomplished through a spontaneous reaction of thiol groups. The system was characterized by spectroscopic techniques while radiochemical purity was determined by size-exclusion molecular chromatography and ultrafiltration. Various internalization trials and non-specific binding were tested to demonstrate the affinity of the system to PC3 cells. The thermal effect was evaluated incubating the system into PC3 cells and irradiating it with a Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam and monitoring the temperature; after irradiation, cell viability was measured. In the evaluation of absorbed dose in mice with induced tumours, the system was administered intratumorally and later, mice were sacrificed, relevant organs and tumor were extracted, activity was quantified and radiopharmaceutical models were obtained for each organ and tumor to be used in the accumulated activity and absorbed dose calculation by the MIRD methodology. Finally, to establish the system location at cellular level, fluorescent images of the system incubated in PC3 cells were acquired with an epi fluorescent microscope. Tem, UV-Vis, XP S and Far-IR spectroscopy techniques demonstrated that AuNPs were functionalized with peptides through interactions with the -Sh groups. The radiochemical purity was 96 ± 2%, no further purification was necessary. In vitro studies showed that after laser irradiation, the presence of AuNP-Tat-Bn caused a significant increase in the temperature of the medium (46.4 grades C vs. 39.5 grades C of that without AuNP) resulting in a significant decrease in PC3 cell viability down to 1.3 %. In the in vivo studies the {sup 177}Lu/{sup 99m}Tc-AuNP-Tat-Bn showed a biological residence time of 80.6 h. The radiation absorbed doses from {sup 177}Lu and {sup 99m}Tc to the tumor after normalization to the unit of administered activity were 7.90 ± 0.95 Gy/MBq and 0.07±0.01 Gy/MBq, respectively. Fluorescent images showed that the system was internalized into the nucleus of PC3 cells. The {sup 177}Lu/{sup 99m}Tc-AuNP-Tat-Bn system showed properties suitable for a targeted radionuclide therapy of tumours expressing GRP receptors due to the energy deposition from β-emissions and the Auger and internal conversion electron emissions near the DNA. It has potential application in medical diagnosis and therapeutic treatments due to its unique combination of radioactive, optical and thermo ablative properties, therefore, this study demonstrated that the nano system exhibited properties that are suitable for plasmonic photothermal therapy and targeted radiotherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer. (Author)

  7. Electrophysical properties of CdS layers obtained by pulverization method and annealed in hydrogen ambience; Proprietati electrofizice ale straturilor de CdS obtinute prin metoda pulverizarii cu tratare termica in hidrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botnariuc, Vasile; Gorceac, Leonid; Coval, Andrei; Cinic, Boris; Chetrus, Petru; Raevschi, Semion; Banu, Semion [Univ. de Stat din Moldova, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    CdS layers were grown from the aqueous solution of CdCl{sub 2}/(NH{sub 2}){sub 2} CS having a molarity of 0,1 M by pulverization method in the temperature range of (250-450) degrees Celsius. The layers were heat treated in a hydrogen flow during 20 min at the temperatures of 350 degrees Celsius and 450 degrees Celsius. Electro- physical properties and photoluminescence of these layers were studied. For the layers deposited at 450 degrees Celsius a slight decrease of charge carriers concentration is observed with the increase of treatment temperature up to 450 degrees Celsius. The photoluminescence spectrum consists of a large band in the energy interval from 1,6 eV to 2,6 eV. A photoluminescence peak with the energy of 1,95 eV is observed, which is shifting with CdS layer growth temperature increase and if reaches the value of 2,5 eV for the layers grown at the temperature of 450 degrees Celsius. (authors)

  8. Thermal stability of the F centre in KC1 between 80 and 300 K; Estabilidad termica del centro F' en KC1 entre 80 y 300 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Codovila, C.

    1974-07-01

    After shining an F spark light of high intensity upon a coloured sample of KC1, the annealing of the induced F1 band and the decay of the induced luminescence are observed. This luminescence is produced by the electrons returning to the anion vacancies through the F* state. From the annealing characteristics of the F1 band between 80 and 300 K, we conclude that at least six thermally activated processes ase involved. The luminescence decay curves also show evidence of six the thermally activated processes which correlate quite wall in magnitude with those from the F1 band anneal. We conclude that the luminescence and annealing of the F1 band are aspects of the same process, and some explanations are suggested involving the interaction of F1 centres and electron traps. (Author) 41 refs.

  9. Reduction of SO{sub 2} Emissions in coal power plants by means of spray-drying RESOX; Reduccion de Emisiones de SO{sub 2} en Centrales Termicas de Carbon Mediante Spary Drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    In this experimental study, two important matters concerning the spray-drying technology for the desulphurisation of combustion gases, from pulverized coal boilers, have been analyzed: (1) the behaviour of the spray-dryer absorber under different operating conditions and (2) the behaviour of an electrostatic precipitator that operates downstream from a spray-dryer. The results of this project are of great interest for evaluating the application of this semi-dry desulphurisation technology in existing power plants that already have electrostatic precipitators. Additionally, the conclusions drawn are useful for establishing the optimum design and operating conditions for an integrated SD-ESP flue gas treatment facility. More than 45 experimental tests have been conducted on a 10,000 Nm``3/h spray-drying desulphurisation pilot plant. The effects of SO{sub 2} and fly ash concentration, Ca/s ratio, approach to saturation temperature, density of the slurry and unit load changes on both spray dryer behaviour and treated flue gas properties have been analyzed. In two additional specific tests, the effect of injecting calcium chloride and of preparing the slurry with seawater has also been studied. The impact of spray-dryer desulphurization on the behaviour of the electrostatic precipitators has been evaluated comparing experimental data (Efficiency, emission level, electrical consumption) for the behaviour of the electrostatic precipitator, obtained in two different experimental conditions: with and without desulphurization. Additionally, the possibility of reducing the power consumption of the precipitator by means of intermittent energization has been analyzed. (Author)

  10. Thermal requirements and estimate of the annual number of generations of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on strawberry crop; Exigencias termicas e estimativa do numero de geracoes anuais de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) em morangueiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nondillo, Aline; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Pinent, Silvia M.J.; Gitz, Rogerio [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fitotecnica. Dept. de Fitossanidade]. E-mails: RS; alinondillo@yahoo.com.br, luredael@ufrgs.br; silviapi@portoweb.com.br; rogitz29@yahoo.com.br; Botton, Marcos [Embrapa Uva e Vinho, Bento Goncalves, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: marcos@cnpuv.embrapa.br

    2008-11-15

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is one of the major strawberry pests in southern Brazil. The insect causes russeting and wither in flowers and fruits reducing commercial value. In this work, the thermal requirements of the eggs, larvae and pupae of F. occidentalis were estimated. Thrips development was studied in folioles of strawberry plants at six constant temperatures (16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 deg C) in controlled conditions (70 +- 10% R.H. and 12:12 L:D). The number of annual generations of F. occidentalis was estimated for six strawberry production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State based on its thermal requirements. Developmental time of each F. occidentalis stages was proportional to the temperature increase. The best development rate was obtained when insects were reared at 25 deg C and 28 deg C. The lower threshold and the thermal requirements for the egg to adult stage were 9.9 deg C and 211.9 degree-days, respectively. Considering the thermal requirements of F. occidentalis, 10.7, 12.6, 13.1, 13.6, 16.5 and 17.9 generations/year were estimated, respectively, for Vacaria, Caxias do Sul, Farroupilha, Pelotas, Porto Alegre and Taquari producing regions located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. (author)

  11. Thermal modeling and geomorphology of the south border of the Sao Francisco Craton: thermochronology by fission tracks in apatites;Modelagem termica e geomorfologia da borda sul do Craton do Sao Francisco: termocronologia por tracos de fissao em apatita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackspacher, Peter Christian [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas; Godoy, Daniel Francoso de; Franco, Ana Olivia Barufi [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Geologia Regional; Ribeiro, Luiz Felipe Brandini [NUCLEARGEO, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Hadler Neto, Julio Cesar [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2007-12-15

    Recent developments in Fission Track thermochronology associated to mesozoic-cenozoic erosion and tectonic presented trough thematic maps (isotemperature), permit to model the landscape evolution in the southern border of the Sao Francisco craton, southeastern Brazil. Paleotemperature, obtained by fission track analysis in apatite, is closely related to geomorphologic interpretations. The area suffered a complex imprint of endogenous and exogenous processes resulting diversified and differentiated relieves. The landscape is strongly controlled by exhumation between Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous, uplift with tectonic denudation related to crustal heating at the Upper Cretaceous and reactivation of faults until the Miocene. This scenario is a result of reactivations of different brittle structures that accommodate the deformation in the southern border of the Sao Francisco craton. The landscape reflects denudations of up to 3 km with preserved remains of erosive surfaces in the topographical tops and chronocorrelates deposits in the basins of the region. (author)

  12. Characterization of polymer-type ionic conductors using nuclear magnetic resonance and thermal analysis. Humidity sensor; Caracterizacao de condutores ionicos de tipo polimerico por ressonancia magnetica nuclear (RMN) e analises termicas. Sensor de umidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Maria Goretti

    1992-04-01

    We report a study using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Thermogravimetry Analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Infrared Spectroscopy in polymeric complexes formed poly(ethylene oxide), (PEO), and lithium salts. These complexes have have shown a large potential for technological applications in batteries, sensors, etc. We developed and characterized humidity sensors and discussed how the humidity affects the conformation of the complexes, the mobility of ionic species, and the polymeric chains. The results indicate that the hydration affects the conformation of polymeric complexes by plasticizing the water, which induces a volumetric expansion in the PEO chain. The processes was completely reversible for the level of hydration studied. NMR was used to distinguish the movement of polymeric chains from the movement of the ionic species. From the analysis of the second moment of resonance lines from the study of the nuclear relaxation we were able to estimate the average distance between the ionic species and the proton in the complexes chains. The behaviour of spin -lattice relaxation of hydrogen and fluorine in the P(EO) - Li B F, as a function of temperature and frequency reflects the nature of the disorder and the complexity of the ionic conduction process in these materials. (author). 91 refs., 69 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Clay Characterization as Engineered Barrier to Contaminants Migration: Thermal, Hydraulic and Mechanical Properties; Caracterizacion de la Arcilla como Barrera de Ingenieria para la Migracion de Contaminantes: Propiedades Termicas, Hidraulicas y Mecanicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bru, A.; Casero, D. [CIEMAT: Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    In this work we characterize the structure of a clay, concretely bentonite. Our main aim is to stress the important role that plays the heterogeneity of the medium structure in transport processes. Randomness of pore sizes produces an anomalous transport of contaminants. We analyze mercuric porosimetry data with simulations finding that pore size distribution has a power-law behaviour. (Author) 6 refs.

  14. Thermal and microstructural modelling in weld heat-affected zones. Part I: thermal cycles; Modelizacion termica y microestructural de la zona afectada por el calor en la soldadura. Parte I: ciclos termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribera, J.M.; Prado, J.M. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    After a review about theoretical concepts involved in heat transfer, the ``double ellipsoid`` model is proposed which will be useful to simulate the welding heat input accurately. The different steps to perform an analysis using the Finite Elements Method (FEM) are described in order to compute the transient temperature field for any point of interest, and the transfer equations are solved numerically for several welding situations. The thermal cycles are obtained and so it will be possible to understand the metallurgical behavior that takes place in weld heat affected zones. In addition the effects of different welding parameters on the shape of the computed thermal cycles are shown. (Author) 5 refs.

  15. Influence of synthesis route in structural, thermal and morphological characteristics of perovskite materials; Influencia da rota de sintese nas caracteristicas estruturais, termicas e morfologicas de materiais ceramicos do tipo perovskita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, I.A.; Araujo, E.M. de; Santos, T.L.; Viana, K.M.S.; Borges, M.M., E-mail: indianara.alves@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil); Ruiz, J.A.C. [Centro de Tecnologia do Gas e Energias Renovaveis (CTGAS-ER), RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Oxides with perovskite structure are interesting objects of study because of their optical, magnetic, electrical properties and its possible application, for example, as automotive catalyst. Various methods have been proposed to synthesise materials with this structure in order to achieve better structural and morphological characteristics and therefore improved properties. In this study, the mixed oxide of the perovskite type La{sub 0.8}Ca{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} was synthesized by three different routes: the polymeric precursors, also known as the Pechini, method of gelatin modified rout and combustion method. Ceramic materials were evaluated thermally morphologically and structurally through thermal gravimetric analysis (TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and diffraction X-ray (XRD). The catalytic tests has been released, the material synthesized by the Pechini method had the best performance in relation to conversion and stability, two important properties for catalysts. (author)

  16. Thermal degradation of a synthetic lube oil API SL/CF SAE 5W 40; Degradacao termica do oleo lubrificante sintetico API SL/CF SAE 5W 40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Eddy H. de O.; Carvalho, Laura H. de; Silva, Everson de L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work deals with the thermal degradation to 210 deg C of lubricating oil synthetic API SL/CF SAE 5W 40 as received and on the presence of metallic particles, from engine parts (head and crankshaft). Samples were collected at various intervals of time. The metallic particles were spent in mesh sieve no. 200 (0.074 mm) and used both in the trials of characterization (EDX and SEM) as the thermal degradation of the oil. Changes in rheology, viscosity, density, color and FTIR were monitored over time of heat exposure. The results indicate that thermal exposure caused by thermal oxidation of synthetic oil and that the presence of metallic particles (10 ppm) accelerated this process, so it is suggested that during the exchange of oil are taken care to remove them from to prevent the premature deterioration of the new oil. The behaviour Newtonian was maintained throughout the period degradation and viscosity of the oil has not changed significantly even after long periods (1148 hours) of thermal exposure. Despite the density of oil also has not changed significantly with time of exposure, changes in color indicate that chemical changes occurred, which was detected by FTIR. (author)

  17. Bidimensional analysis of thermal stratification flow in the surge line of a PWR pressurizer; Analise bidimensional da estratificacao termica do escoamento na linha de surto do pressurizador de um PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, M L; Botelho, D A

    1994-11-01

    A numerical model is developed in order to understand the coolant thermal stratification and to develop a capability of predicting the failure of reactor components caused by this phenomenon. A period of this phenomenon in the surge line of a PWR reactor is simulated in two dimensions using the TURBO computer program. The flow cylindrical geometry is represented in 2 D by the space between two parallel plates, and the separation of the plates is estimated using similarity (the equivalence in the pressure drop). The results are compared to experimental data and to analogous results obtained from the COMMIX-1 C code (3 D). (author). 13 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab.

  18. Risk of fire and dust explosions analysis in thermal Power station of ''As Pontes''; Analisis del Riesgo de fuego y Explosion en la Central Termica As Pontes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Among the numerous difficulties come up in the industrial processes that operate with coal, the handling of combustible solids constitutes a priority objective because of the potential risk of fire and dust explosions that implies. The aim of this project was to determine the coal usage conditions that assure total safety in its manipulation avoiding every risks at the Thermal Power Station. Several variables had to be considered starting with the basis concept of coal, which ranges very different types, compositions and origins and studying the coal handling and operation condition on different areas in the Thermal Power Station. (Author)

  19. Study of the in-situ thermal transformations of Limonite used as pigment coming from Peru; Estudio in-situ de la transformacion termica de limonita utilizada como pigmento procedente de Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Gomez, P.; Gonzalez, J. C.; Bustamente, A.; Ruiz-conde, A.; Sanchez-Soto, P. J.

    2013-06-01

    It has been performed a kinetic study of the thermal transformation of Limonite [FeO(OH).nH{sub 2}O] by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), thermal X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and {mu}-Raman spectroscopy. The mineral was extracted from the Taraco District, Huancane Province, Puno region (Peru). Powdered XRD identify goethite phase as the main mineralogical component besides quartz. It was subjected to in-situ thermal treatment in the range of temperatures 100 to 500 degree centigrade in air and an inert atmosphere (nitrogen). The goethite phase remains stable from room temperature until 200 degree centigrade. From 250 degree centigrade there is a phase transformation {alpha}-FeO(OH) {yields}{alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with 8 wt % weight loss and a chromatic change, i.e., the change of the hydroxylated goethite phase (yellow) to oxided hematite phase (red), as evidenced by the TGA and evolution of the XRD profiles. Moreover, the {mu}-Raman spectra of the in-situ thermal treatment corroborate that there is a transition at 290 degree centigrade by the transformation of the characteristic Raman bands of the goethite to hematite phase, in the frequency range from 200 to 1800cm{sup -}1. (Author) 11 refs.

  20. Thermal annealing of high dose radiation induced damage at room temperature in alkaline. Stored energy, thermoluminescence and coloration; Aniquilacion termica de dano inducido por irradiacion a altas dosis en haluros alcalinos a 300 k. energia almacenda. Termoluminiscencia y coloracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, L

    1980-07-01

    The possible relation between stored energy, thermoluminescence and colour centre annealing in gamma and electron irradiated alkali halides is studied. Thermoluminescence occurs at temperature higher than the temperature at which the main stored energy peak appears. No stored energy release is detected in additively coloured KC1 samples. Plastic deformation and doping with Ca and Sr induce a stored energy spectrum different from the spectrum observed in pure and as cleaved samples, but the amount of stored energy does not change for a given irradiation dose.Capacity of alkali halides to store energy by irradiation increases as the cation size decreases. (Author) 51 refs.

  1. Evaluation of compatibility and thermal properties of PP composites incorporated with Moringa oleifera fibers; Avaliacao das propriedades termicas e compatibilidade de compositos de PP incorporados com fibras de Moringa oleifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Daniel M.; Novack, Katia M., E-mail: danielmirandaufop@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: knovack@iceb.ufop.br [Dept. de Quimica (DEQUI) - Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Botaro, Vagner R., E-mail: vagner@ufscar.br [UFSCar/Sorocaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The 70s, marked by the oil crisis led to knowledge about environmental problems due to indiscriminate use of nonrenewable resources. The automobile manufacturers have sought to obtain new materials for building more efficient cars, which favored the development of high-performance polymers. One alternative was the use of agents of natural reinforcements in composites manufacturing. In this work, composites were prepared using polypropylene as matrix and as a reinforcing agent of natural seed pods of Moringa oleifera in different proportions, treated with sodium hydroxide solution 10%. These composites were characterized by TGA, DSC, XRD, MEV and water absorption. It was found that increasing the amount of fiber in the polymer matrix did not change significantly the morphology and amount of water absorption of the samples. It was also observed that the addition of larger amounts of fibers decreases the degradation temperature of the samples and their melting temperatures shifts to lower temperatures, indicative of compatibility matrix / reinforcement agents. (author)

  2. Determination of thermal diffusivity of dental enamel and dentin as a function of temperature, using infrared thermography; Determinacao da difusividade termica do esmalte e dentina em funcao de temperatura, utilizando termografia no infravermelho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Thiago Martini

    2009-07-01

    In this work it was developed a software that calculates automatically, the thermal diffusivity value as a function of temperature in materials. The infrared thermography technique was used for data acquisition of temperature distribution as a function of time. These data were used to adjust a temperature function obtained from the homogeneous heat equation with specific boundary conditions. For that, an infrared camera (detecting from 8 {mu}m to 9 {mu}m) was calibrated to detect temperature ranging from 185 degree C up to 1300 degree C at an acquisition rate of 300 Hz. It was used, 10 samples of dental enamel and 10 samples of dentin, with 4 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm, which were obtained from bovine lower incisor teeth. These samples were irradiated with an Er:Cr:YSGG pulsed laser ({lambda} = 2,78 {mu}m). The resulting temperature was recorded 2 s prior, 10 s during irradiation and continuing for 2 more seconds after it. After each irradiation, all obtained thermal images were processed in the software, creating a file with the data of thermal diffusivity as a function of temperature. Another file with the thermal diffusivity values was also calculated after each laser pulse. The mean result of thermal diffusivity obtained for dental enamel was 0,0084 {+-} 0,001 cm2/s for the temperature interval of 220-550 degree C. The mean value for thermal diffusivity obtained for dentin was 0,0015 0,0004 cm2/s in temperatures up to 360 degree C; however, this value increases for higher temperatures. According to these results, it was possible to conclude that the use of infrared thermography, associated with the software developed in this work, is an efficient method to determine the thermal diffusivity values as a function of temperature in different materials. (author)

  3. Evaluation of thermal properties of nanocomposites based on Ecobras matrix and vermiculite modified with alkyl phosphonium salt; Avaliacao das propriedades termicas dos nanocompositos de Ecobras e vermiculita modificada com sal alquil fosfonio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcelo F.L. de; Leite, Marcia C.A.M., E-mail: marceloilha@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Braga, Fernanda C.F.; Oliveira, Marcia G. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of biodegradable polymers for producing nanocomposites with mineral fillers fetch the production of new materials with low cost and reduced environmental impact, combined with improvements in the mechanical and thermal properties. Nanocomposites based on Ecobras and vermiculite (VMT) modified with hexadecyl tributyl phosphonium bromide (Ph-VMT) were prepared by melt intercalation. The intercalation of Ph-VMT in Ecobras was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The thermal properties of Ecobras and their compositions were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The addition of VMT and Ph- VMT in Ecobras increases the crystallization temperature (Tc) and crystalline melting (Tm), as observed by DSC analysis. The result of the thermogravimetric analysis showed that the addition of Ph-VMT in Ecobras improved thermal stability of the nanocomposite. (author)

  4. Production of Strontium-90 Thermal Power Sources; Fabrication de sources d'energie thermique au strontium-90; Proizvodstvo istochnikov ''teplovoj ehnergii iz Sr''9''0; Preparacion de fuentes de energia termica con estroncio-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J. S.; Bloom, J. L.; Schneider, A. [Martin Company, Nuclear Division, Baltimore 3, MD (United States)

    1963-11-15

    One of the most attractive fields for utilization of large quantities of waste fission products is the field of direct-conversion power supplies for remote locations. Strontium-90 is being given the greatest exploitation because of its availability, nuclear properties, and the relative ease with which it can be fabricated into compact heat sources. Strontium-90 fuelled generators are being used to power automatic weather stations and navigational aids, and consideration is being given to the use of strontium-90 as a power source for space vehicles. Evaluation of several potentially useful strontium compounds led to the selection of the titanate as exhibiting overall properties most desirable for this purpose. Strontium-90, separated from crude fission product streams and purified to the requisite degree by the USAEC's Hanford Works, is shipped in the form of the carbonate to a hot cell facility operated by the Martin Company, where it is converted to titanate pellets. This process is an adaption to remote operation of conventional chemical and ceramic techniques. The pellets are encapsulated in Hastelloy C containers for use in thermoelectric power supplies. Unusual operational problems are encountered because the large quantities of strontium-90 handled (potentially millions of curies per year) represent formidable radiation and contamination hazards. Details of the facility, equipment, process, and safety criteria are given. The operational experience gained during the recent processing of the first 250 000 curies of strontium-90 into fuel for a SNAP-7 generator is described. Encapsulation, calorimetry, decontamination, and waste disposal procedures are also outlined. (author) [French] L'une des utilisations les plus interessantes des produits de fission en grande quantite consiste a les employer comme sources d'energie par combustion directe pour des installations geographiquement isolees. C'est le strontium-90 qui est l e plus utilise parce qu'on en dispose en grandes quantites et aussi en raison de ses proprietes nucleaires et du fait qu'il est relativement facile de le transformer en sources de chaleur compactes. Des generateurs au strontium-90 servent a alimenter des stations meteorologiques automatiques et des engins de balisage, et on envisage meme d'utiliser cette substance comme source d'energie pour les vehicules spatiaux. Apres avoir examine les possibilites de plusieurs composes du strontium, on a choisi le titanate, qui possede les proprietes generales correspondant le mieux aux objectifs vises. Le strontium-90 est separe de l'effluent brut, puis purifie au degre voulu dans les usines de Hanford de la CEA-EU. On l'expedie ensuite, sous forme de carbonate, jusqu'a l'installation de traitement exploitee par la societe Martin, ou il est transforme en pastilles de titanate. Le procede s'inspire de l'application telecommandee de certaines techniques utilisees pour des produits chimiques et ceramiques classiques. Les pastilles sont mises dans des capsules d' Hastelloy C destinees aux generateurs en energie thermoelectriques. On se heurte a des problemes inaccoutumes, parce que les grandes quantites de strontium-90 a manutentionner representent une quantite enorme de radioactivite (plusieurs millions de curies par an), sans parler des risques de contamination. L'auteur decrit l'installation, le materiel et l e procede et donne des criteres de securite. Il expose l'experience pratique acquise au cours de la transformation d'une premiere quantite de 250 000 s de strontium-90 en combustible pour un generateur SNAP-7. Il donne egalement des indications succinctes sur la mise en capsules, la calorimetrie, la decontamination, et l'evacuation des dechets. (author) [Spanish] Una de las aplicaciones mas interesantes de grandes cantidades de productos de desecho de la fision consiste en emplearlos como fuentes de energia por conversion directa, destinados a lugares geograficamente aislados. Se emplea principalmente el estroncio-90 debido a su abundancia, a sus propiedades nucleares y a la relativa facilidad con que permite construir generadores compactos de calor. Se emplean ya generadores a base de estroncio-90 para suministrar energia a centrales meteorologicas automaticas y aparatos auxiliares para la navegacion, y se esta estudiando la posibilidad de emplear este isotopo como fuente de energia para vehiculos espaciales. Se estudiaron diversos compuestos de estroncio que podian servir para este fin y se eligio el titanato porque reune las propiedades mas adecuadas. El estronico-90 se separa del resto d e los productos brutos de fision y se purifica hasta el grado requerido en las instalaciones de Hanford de la Comision de Energia Atomica de los Estados Unidos. Seguidamente se introduce en forma de carbonato en la ''celda caliente'' de la Martin Company, donde se transforma en pastilla, de titanato. Se sigue e l mismo proceso que en las tecnicas quimicas y ceramicas, pero adaptado para la manipulacion a distancia. Seguidamente las pastillas se encapsulan en recipientes de ''Hastelloy C'' para emplearlas en los generadores de energia termoelectrica. Estos procesos presentan problemas poco corrientes debido a que las grandes cantidades de estroncio-90 que se manejan (que podrian alcanzar millones de curies por ano) pueden originar gravisimos riegos radiologicos y de contaminacion. La memoria describe la instalacion, el equipo, el proceso y los criterios de seguridad. Describe tambien la experiencia adquirida recientemente al elaborar el combustilble para el generador SNAP-7 con los primeros 250 000 s de estroncio-90. Proporciona algunos detalles sobre los procedimientos de encapsulado, calorimetros, de descontaminacion y de evacuacion de desechos. (author) [Russian] Odnoj iz naibolee interesnykh oblastej primeneniya ogromnogo kolichestva radioaktivnykh otkhodov yavlyaetsya ispol'zovanie ikh v ustanovkakh s neposredstvennym preobrazovaniem ehnergii, prednaznachennykh dlya raboty v otdalennykh rajonakh. V ehtom smysle Sr{sup 90} priobretaet bol'shoe znachenie iz-za ego shirokoj dostupnosti, aktivnosti i toj sravnitel'noj legkosti, s kotoroj ego mozhno prevrashchat' v kompaktnye istochniki tepla. Generatory, rabotayushchie na Sr{sup 90} sluzhat v kachestve istochnikov pitaniya avtomaticheskikh meteorologicheskikh i navigatsionnykh stantsij; rassmatrivaetsya vozmozhnost' primeneniya Sr{sup 90} v kachestve istochnika ehnergii dlya dvigatelej kosmicheskikh korablej. Pri sravnitel'noj otsenke ryada strontsievykh soedinenij okazalos', chto naibolee tselesoobrazno ispol'zovat' titanat, tak kak on obladaet naibolee tsennymi svojstvami. Sr{sup 90}, otdelennyj ot drugikh produktov deleniya, ochishchaetsya do trebuemoj stepeni chistoty na predpriyatii Komissii po atomnoj ehnergii SSHA v Khehnforde i trasportiruetsya v vide karbonata v ''gorya- chuyu'' kameru(firmy ''Martin''), gde prevrashchaetsya v granulirovannyj titanat. V ehtom protsesse ispol'zuetsya distantsionnoe upravlenie, analogichnoe primenyaemomu v obychnom khimicheskom i keramicheskom proizvodstve. Granuly, zaklyuchennye v kapsuly, pomeshchayutsya v kontejnery tipa ''Khastellou C'' dlya primeneniya v ehnergeticheskikh ustanovkakh s termoehlektricheskim preobrazovaniem ehnergii. Zdes' prikhoditsya stalkivat'sya s neobychnymi ehkspluatatsionnymi problemami, tak kak bol'shie kolichestva obrabatyvaemogo Sr{sup 90} (milliony kyuri v god) obladayut strashnoj radioaktivnost'yu i sozdayut opasnost' zarazheniya. Opisano ustrojstvo prisposoblenij, oborudovaniya, kharakterizuyutsya tekhnologiya i tekhnika bezopasnosti. Opisyvayutsya dannye opyta, priobretennogo vo vremya nedavnej pererabotki pervykh 250 000 kyuri Sr{sup 90} v toplivo dlya generatora SNAP-7 (yadernaya batareya). Privodyatsya takzhe dannye po germetizatsii granul v kontejnerakh, po kalorimetrii, dezaktivatsii i metodike udaleniya otkhodov. (author)

  5. Electrochemical corrosion behaviour of Mg-Al alloys with thermal spray Al/SiCp composite coatings; Comportamiento a la corrosion electroquimica de aleaciones MgAl con recubrimientos de materiales compuestos Al/SiCp mediante proyeccion termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, A.; Feliu Jr, S.; Merino, M. C.; Mohedano, M.; Casajus, P.; Arrabal, R.

    2010-07-01

    The corrosion protection of Mg-Al alloys by flame thermal spraying of Al/SiCp composite coatings was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The volume fraction of SiC particles (SiCp) varied between 5 and 30%. The as-sprayed Al/SiCp composite coatings revealed a high number of micro-channels, largely in the vicinity of the SiC particles, that facilitated the penetration of the electrolyte and the subsequent galvanic corrosion of the magnesium substrates. The application of a cold-pressing post-treatment reduced the degree of porosity of the coatings and improved the bonding at the coating/substrate and Al/SiC interfaces. This resulted in improved corrosion resistance of the coated specimens. The effectiveness of the coatings slightly decreased with the addition of 5-30 vol.% SiCp compared with the un reinforced thermal spray aluminium coatings. (Author) 31 refs.

  6. Packing: do you really need it in heat transfer section of distillation column?; E realmente necessario o uso de recheio em secoes de troca termica de colunas de destilacao?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waintraub, Silvia [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Torres, Glaucia Alves da Silva [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barbarela, Bruno de Almeida; Guimaraes, Flavio Martins de Queiroz [Chemtech, A Siemens Company, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Recent studies and some designs have shown a great advantage of using empty spray sections in some regions of towers, such as gas oil pump around in vacuum towers and wash oil chambers in coker main fractionator. The main advantages are the pressure drop reduction that implies in an increase of vaporization and in the distillates yields, besides the reduction in both maintenance and investment costs. Plant tests were conducted in vacuum towers from PETROBRAS refineries, and the results were modeled with CFD in order to evaluate the performance of these empty spray sections. Radial temperature surveys were collected at several levels to allow the determination of the distribution quality profile and the height necessary to exchange the desired heat amount. Vapor maldistribution , the influence of vapor velocity (C factor) and the use of more than one level of distributors were also studied. (author)

  7. Application of the electrical characterization to the study of the hydrated phases of the cement with coal bottom ash; Aplicacion de la caracterizacion electrica al estudio de las fases hidratadas de cemento con adicion de escorias de centrales termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez, E.; Frutos, J. de; Alvaro, A. M.

    2014-02-01

    The present paper investigates the influence of using Bottom and Fly Ash as partial replacement of cement in the hydration process. Through measurements of electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X -ray diffraction (XRD), we analyze from the early stages to the hydration process to the end. Values of EIS, XRD and its relation, are used to determine transformation of hydrated phases, and for each of the substitutions, is indicated as modified the hydrated phase as a function of time and compared it with the reference material. It also proves the relevance of using EIS measures in real time, and as non destructive testing to characterize the hydration process of these materials. (Author)

  8. Effect of the incorporation of modified purified clay with different content surfactants in the thermal and mechanical PET nanocomposites; Efeito da incorporacao de argila purificada modificada com diferentes teores de surfactantes nas propriedades termicas e mecanicas dos nanocompositos de PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Itamara F. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (DEMAT/UFPB), PB (Brazil); Soares, Anna P.S.; Silva, Suedina M.L., E-mail: suedina@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UEAMa/CCT/UFCG), PB (Brazil); Malta, Oscar M.L. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DQF/CCEN/UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    An organically modified bentonite purified with different amounts of alkyl ammonium salts and alkyl phosphonium was used as filler in the preparation of nanocomposites of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). PET/organophilic bentonite masterbatch were prepared in a Haake torque rheometer at 260° C, 60 rpm for 10min. Then, the master batch obtained were mixed with PET in quantities necessary to obtain the nominal content of 1 wt% of bentonite, a twin screw extruder counter-rotating to 275°C in all heating zones and 60 rpm. Subsequently, the mixtures were injected (Arburg All Rounder), in the form of tensile specimens (ASTM D638). The effect of incorporating this type of filler on thermal and mechanical properties of nanocomposites of PET will be investigated. The incorporation of different types of organoclay to PET resulted in intercalated nanocomposites and partially exfoliated. The intercalated morphology showed higher thermal stability. (author)

  9. Characterization of new bioactive coatings of hydroxyapatite and TiO{sub 2} obtained by High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel; Caracterizacion de nuevos recubrimientos biocompatibles de hidroxiapatita-TiO{sub 2} obtenidos mediante Proyeccion Termica de Alta Velocidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melero, H.; Fernandez, J.; Dosta, S.; Guilemany, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (Hap: Ca{sub 1}0(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}OH{sub 2}) is a biocompatible and bioactive ceramic material widely used as a coating on metal surfaces (dental implants, hip replacements ...), but the low adhesion between Hap and the substrate, due to differences in thermal expansion coefficients of both (very important in thermal spraying because of the fast cooling of the coating, which can produce a lost of adherence), and the degradation of Hap, have been tried to be improved through the incorporation of TiO{sub 2} to get a good combination of mechanical properties. Therefore, the objective of this project is to produce coatings of Hap 80% TiO{sub 2} and 20% (by weight) on Ti6Al4V by High-Speed Thermal Spray (HVOF). The study of the microstructure has been carried out using scanning electron microscopy and characterization of the crystalline phases by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrometry. The coatings adhesion has been measured by tensile tests according to ASTM C633-01 (2008), and their bioactivity also has been evaluated through its immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF), in order to measure their capacity to form an apatite layer on their surface. (Author) 26 refs.

  10. Urbanistic and architectural integration of thermal solar energy in condominiums. A case study of Alphaville, Sao Paulo; Integracao arquitetonica e urbanistica da energia solar termica em condominios fechados. Estudo de caso de Alphaville, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Bernadette Vechia de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (GEPEA/USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia; Fadigas, Eliane Aparecida Faria Amaral; Fujii, Ricardo Junqueira

    2008-07-01

    In spite of the high Brazilian levels of solar irradiation and the constructive pattern of Alphaville region, which possess a large concentration of high incoming households, use of solar water heating is still not regulated in neither of its comprising municipalities. Nowadays, the search for savings, diffusion of related technologies and raising environmental awareness have led to voluntary up taking of such systems. However, regulation of solar collectors still lacks integration with certification of sustainable building practices, which does not relate to architectonic factors, in particular to main urbanistic features present in each given installation site. Potential for solar heating in the fully regulated gated areas is estimated to add up to 6,000 MWh/year. Authors suggest that such potential be put to sustainable use in a setting in which solar energy and architecture and urbanism are jointly addressed to; and debate on state and federal regulations and certification of buildings as a whole, in order to neatly integrate active solar systems to the plumbing, so avoiding adverse impacts on water consumption and usage of built spaces, that could lead (through the urbanistic and climatic interfaces) to medium and long term environmental consequences on the availability of solar energy itself. (author)

  11. Effect of chitosan content on morphology and thermal properties of poly (vinyl alcohol) / chitosan blends; Eefeito do teor de quitosana na morfologia e propriedades termicas das blendas de poli (alcool vinilico) / quitosana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Barbara Fernanda F. dos; Silva, Jessica Raquel M.B. da; Leite, Itamara Farias, E-mail: itamaraf@gmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work consists in the preparation and characterization of blends consisting of biodegradable polymers, chitosan (CS) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA), to evaluate the effect of different chitosan content in morphology and thermal properties of PVA blends/CS, prepared by the solution method. Therefore, the blends were characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy Fourier Transform (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry (TG). The results showed a good degree of interaction between the polymers of the blend constituents, suggesting certain degree of miscibility in the mixture. It was observed by XRD, that as the chitosan content in the mixture decreases PVA/CS, there is a slight increase in crystallinity. In comparative analysis, is observed that the composition PVA1/CS1 was the composition that showed improvement in thermal stability. (author)

  12. Effects of holmium laser on dental structure in vivo: thermal evaluation and histological analysis on pulpal tissue; Efeitos in vivo do laser de holmio em estrutura dental: monitoracao termica e analise histologica do tecido pulpar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strefezza, Claudia

    2001-07-01

    Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that Ho:YLF laser is capable of inducing physical and chemical changes on dental surfaces treated for caries prevention. The temperature in the pulp chamber was in vitro evaluated to as a function of the power and frequency of the laser irradiation. The purpose of this work is to verify the occurrence of pulp inflammation after Ho:YLF laser irradiation using different parameters in rabbits' teeth. The premolars and molars of ten rabbits (NZB) were divided in two groups according to the irradiation energy values of a Ho:YLF laser prototype operating at 2.065{mu}m wave length, frequency of O,5Hz and pulse length of 250{mu}s. An group A teeth were irradiated with using ten pulses of 334mJ/pulse of a Ho:YLF laser prototype operating at O.5Hz, and group B, with 512mJ/pulse. Animals were killed by transcardiac perfusion and the samples were prepared for histopathological analysis. The in vitro temperature monitoring revealed an increase of 1 deg C for the 334mJ/pulse energy and 4.5 deg C for the 512mJ/pulse energy. SEM observations showed the occurrence of melting and resolidification in dental surface. From the in vivo analysis it can be concluded that both employed laser parameters did not induce to any inflammatory response from the pulp. (author)

  13. Analysis of a natural exhaust fan in a building of houses through thermal simulations and CFD; Analisis de un sistema de ventilacion natural en un edificio de viviendas a traves de simulaciones termicas y CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, B.; Cejudo, J.; Carrillo, A.

    2008-07-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) application to building energy simulation (STE) allows better modelling of indoor air performance and therefore it can be used to optimize the design of natural ventilation systems. In this paper, a natural ventilation system based on thermal chimney applied to a residential building is analyzed. Energy Plus simulations are applied to an apartment and results are coupled to CFD simulations to determine ventilation rates and study convection in the space. CFD simulations are also applied to evaluate indoor air distribution and study how ventilation rate is affected by the pressure drop at ventilation grilles. (Author)

  14. Wear behaviour of coating of aluminium matrix composites fabricated by thermal spray method; Comportamiento a desgaste de recubrimientos de material compuesto de matriz de aluminio fabricados por proyeccion termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, M.; Escalera, M. D.; Torres, B.; Rams, J.; Urena, A.

    2007-07-01

    In this work, the wear behaviour of coatings made of aluminium matrix composites reinforced with 20% of SiC particles and manufactured by thermal spray method with oxyacetylene flame has been investigated. the wear behaviour between coating with uncoated particles and sol-gel silica coated ones heat treated at 500 degree centigree and 725 degree centigree have been compared. The sprayed coatings with silica coated particles are more homogeneous and less porous due to increase of wettability by molten aluminium that takes place on coated particles. The microstructure of the sprayed coatings, the wear surfaces and the wear debris have been analysed using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and micro-analysis techniques (EDX). The results show a smaller wear rate, a lower friction coefficient and more reduced loss of mass for the coatings sprayed with particles with sol-gel silica coatings than those made with uncoated particles. (Author) 15 refs.

  15. Biology and thermal requirements to Trichogramma spp. selection for Ecdytolopha aurantiana control; Selecao de Trichogramma spp., para o controle de Ecdytolopha aurantiana, com base na biologia e exigencias termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Rosa M.S.; Parra, Jose R.P. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola], e-mail: rmsmolina@ig.com.br, e-mail: jrpparra@esalq.usp.br; Fronza, Vanoli [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Uberaba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: vanoli@epamig.br

    2005-03-15

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the potential of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman and Platner, 1983 and T. pretiosum Riley, 1879 as agents of control of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an important Citrus pest in Sao Paulo State (South-East Brazil). In order to provide subsidies to programs of biological control with these parasitoids, studies of biology in different temperatures, thermal requirements and parasitism capacity were carried out. The temperatures (18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 deg C) did not affect the sex ratio, however, female longevity of both species was higher at 22 and 25 deg C. The temperature of 25 deg C tended to be more suitable to both emergency rate and female longevity. The egg-adult period for both Trichogramma species was inversely proportional to temperature. The thermal requirements of the two species were very close, about 108 DD (degree days). Neither the natural rearing host, E. aurantiana, nor the alternative host Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), affected the number of parasitized eggs per Trichogramma female. The parasitism rate and the number of emerged adults per egg on E. aurantiana eggs were higher than on A. kuehniella eggs. However, the emergency rate was higher when the parasitoids were reared on A. kuehniella eggs. Both Trichogramma species could be tested in the field for citrus fruit borer control. The thermal requirements and the parasitism capacity also could be good parameters for selection of Trichogramma species/strains. (author)

  16. Critical heat flux, post dry-out and their augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celata, G.P.; Mariani, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Energia

    1999-07-01

    The report shows the state of art review on the critical heat flux and the post-dryout heat transfer. The work, which is a merge of original researches carried out at the Institute of Thermal Fluid Dynamic of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) and a thorough review of the recent literature, is divided in four chapters: critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling; critical heat flux in saturated flow boiling; post-dryout heat transfer; enhancement of critical heat flux and post-dryout heat transfer. [Italian] Si passa in rassegna lo stato dell'arte sulla crisi termica e sullo scambio termico post-crisi, che compendia studi tradizionali condotti dall'ENEA. Il rapporto e' suddiviso in quattro parti: crisi termica in ebollizione sottoraffreddata; crisi termica in ebollizione satura; scambio termico dopo la crisi termica; incremento del flusso termico critico e dello scambio termico post-crisi.

  17. Critical heat flux, post dry-out and their augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celata, G P; Mariani, A [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Energia

    1999-07-01

    The report shows the state of art review on the critical heat flux and the post-dryout heat transfer. The work, which is a merge of original researches carried out at the Institute of Thermal Fluid Dynamic of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) and a thorough review of the recent literature, is divided in four chapters: critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling; critical heat flux in saturated flow boiling; post-dryout heat transfer; enhancement of critical heat flux and post-dryout heat transfer. [Italian] Si passa in rassegna lo stato dell'arte sulla crisi termica e sullo scambio termico post-crisi, che compendia studi tradizionali condotti dall'ENEA. Il rapporto e' suddiviso in quattro parti: crisi termica in ebollizione sottoraffreddata; crisi termica in ebollizione satura; scambio termico dopo la crisi termica; incremento del flusso termico critico e dello scambio termico post-crisi.

  18. Restore procedure to remove insoluble salts on murals paintings in the church of Paroquia Imaculada Conceicao (Sao Paulo, SP) with accompaniment of portable EDXRF (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence); Procedimento de restauro para remocao de sais insoluveis sobre pinturas murais na igreja da Paroquia Imaculada Conceicao (Sao Paulo, SP) com acompanhamento por equipamento portatil de EDXRF (fluorescencia de raios X por dispersao em energia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Marcia [MRizzo Restauracoes - Laboratorio de Conservacao e Restauracao de Bens Culturais Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Parreira, Paulo Sergio, E-mail: appoloni@uel.b, E-mail: parreira@uel.b [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the proposition and application procedure for removal of insoluble salts, deposited on the surface of a wall painting in water-soluble, as well as the physical-chemical study with fluorescence X-ray in situ, that support and/or validated the restoration decision making

  19. Application of a portable equipment EDXRF (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence) in the monitoring of the restoration work of murals paints in the Church of Paroquia Imaculada Conceicao (Sao Paulo, SP); Aplicacao de um equipamento portatil de EDXRF (fluorescencia de raios X por dispersao em energia) no acompanhamento dos trabalhos de restauro de pinturas murais na igreja da Paroquia Imaculada Conceicao (Sao Paulo, SP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Parreira, Paulo Sergio, E-mail: appoloni@uel.b, E-mail: parreira@uel.b [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil); Rizzo, Marcia [MRizzo Restauracoes - Laboratorio de Conservacao e Restauracao de Bens Culturais Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the application of the portable EDXRF (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence) of the Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina in the analysis in situ of pigments in wall paintings, as well as in monitoring restoration processes

  20. Determination of organic compounds in medicinal plants, commercialized in capsulated forms and 'in natura' by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF). Determination of quantitative inorganic profiles; Determinacao de componentes organicos em plantas medicinais, comercializadas em forma de po (capsulas) e 'in natura', utilizando a tecnica de fluorescencia de raios X por dispersao de comprimento de onda (WDXRF). Determinacao de perfis inorganicos quantitativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Manuel Octavio M.; Sato, Ivone Mulako; Salvador, Vera Lucia R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente]. E-mail: lawless@usp.br

    2005-07-01

    X-ray fluorescence technique was used to determine major and trace elements for five Brazilian commercial medicinal plants. The bromobutane (Barbatimao), Ginkgo folium (Ginkgo biloba), Echinodorus macrophyllus (Chapeu de couro), Valeriana officinalis (Valeriana), Cordia salicifolia (Porangaba) samples were collected from three to six different commercial suppliers. The species were collected 'in natura' (leaves, flowers, barks and roots) and capsulated forms. The samples were grinded in liquid N{sub 2} atmosphere and double layer pressed pellet were prepared. The elements Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb e Sr concentrations were determined by individual calibration curves. The precision and accuracy of method were evaluated by certified reference material, NIST 1547 - Peach Leaves and the Chauvenet, Cochrane, ANOVA and Z-score statistical tests were applied. Each specimen presented a distinct inorganic profile and a great variation in its composition was observed. The inorganic profile will contribute for the elaboration of a quality and security guide to assure the phytotherapics commercialization. Moreover, these profiles could be used as complementary data to active farmaco compounds profiles for specimen's ratification. (author)

  1. Detecção e quantificação de Entrerovirus em lodo de esgoto proveniente de estações de tratamento de esgotos com potencial uso na agricultura do Estado de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Maria Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Lodos de esgoto são resíduos do tratamento do esgoto doméstico, considerados ricos em macronutrientes e matéria orgânica, podendo também apresentar contaminação por substâncias químicas e patógenos. Sua utilização na agricultura é uma das alternativas interessantes para sua disposição final. Entretanto, a presença de contaminantes, dentre eles microrganismos patogênicos podem limitar e orientar sua aplicação. Os vírus entéricos, dentre os quais se inclui o gênero Enterovirus, são potenciais ...

  2. CRESCIMENTO DE TILÁPIA-DO-NILO ALIMENTADA COM PEIXES MARINHOS PROVENIENTES DA PESCA DO CAMARÃO GROWTH IN NILE TILAPIA FED WITH MARINE FISH FROM SHRIMP FISHERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jullyermes Araújo Lourenço

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de peixes marinhos no crescimento de tilápia-do-Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus. Desenvolveu-se o experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos (ração para peixes com 28% de PB, Pellona harroweri e Pomadasys croco, três repetições cada. Utilizaram-se 63 peixes, com peso médio inicial de 3,059±0,846 g e 44,1±4,0 mm para o tratamento com ração, 3,015±0,892 g e 44,6±4,5 mm para o tratamento com P. harroweri e 2,736±0,803 g e 43,6±4,5 mm para o tratamento com P. croco, distribuídos homogeneamente em nove tanques de alvenaria de 2 m3 cada, contendo sete peixes por tanque. Após 91 dias, os resultados indicaram que as dietas com ração resultaram em melhores ganhos em peso e crescimento específico (P < 0,05. A tilápia-do-Nilo, mesmo sendo uma espécie omnívora, aceitou bem as dietas compostas pelas espécies de peixes marinhos utilizadas neste trabalho. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Alimentação de peixes, aqüicultura alternativa, Oreochromis niloticus. The objective of this work was to verify the use of marine fish on Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, growth performance. Sixty three Nile tilapia juveniles, with an average weight and length of 3.059±0.846 g and 44.1±4.0 mm to treatment with ration, 3.015±0.892 g and 44.6±4.5 mm to treatment with Pellona harroweri and 2.736±0.803 g and 43.6±4.5 mm to treatment with Pomadasys croco, were stocked into nine floating cages with 2 m3 (seven fish per cage, in a complete randomized design with three treatments (ration to fish with 28% PB, P. harroweri and P. croco, in three replicates each. After ninety one days, results showed that diet with ration produced a better weight gain, specific growth rate (P < 0.05. The Nile tilapia is an omnivorous species, but fed on marine fish used in this work. KEY- WORDS: Alternatives aquaculture, feeding of fish, Oreochromis niloticus.

  3. Sustainable alternative for use of waste from pruning deriving from power distribution networks maintenance; Alternativa sustentavel para utilizacao de residuos de poda provenientes da manutencao das redes de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Cristiane Lima; Grisoli, Renata; Gavioli, Fabio; Coelho, Suani Teixeira [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], email: cenbio@iee.usp.br; Carmelo, Silma [AES Eletropaulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the context of the environmental issue, the increasing production of solid residues seems to be a problem due to scarcity of methods and solutions for the management. This article presents a project that has as objective to make a survey of the impacts caused by urban pruning residues generated by the electric energy concessionaire AES Eletropaulo, besides developing a method to standardize this residues composting. The obtained results refer to the observation that 50% of the cities that participated on the survey discard the residues in dumps or sanitary landfills, while only 8% perform composting. In the experimental composting plant built, the organic compound obtained reached satisfactory levels of quality with related to the specifications of minimum quality, but showed that humidity should be better controlled. The feasibility of implementing a composting plant was established, with the exception that the higher the production, the better the return on initial investment. Based in the concepts of environmental and social responsibility, we expect that the conclusion of this work can assist the civil, public and private sectors to contribute with the sustainable development. (author)

  4. Extração de espécies metálicas de resíduo sólido proveniente da pirólise de borra de petróleo

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Graziela da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: Nas refinarias e unidades de extração de petróleo, grandes quantidades de borras oleosas são geradas dos processos de extração do petróleo, refinamento do óleo cru e limpeza de equipamentos e dutos em geral. Atualmente, são produzidas cerca de 500 m3/mês deste resíduo na Petrobras (UNSEAL) as quais são acumuladas em diques de contenção. A disposição das borras é um problema para as indústrias petrolíferas, devido ao alto teor de compostos perigosos na sua composição, como as espécies ...

  5. Caracterização do resíduo sólido proveniente do processo galvânico para valoração econômica ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Alves,Lucas Campaner; Seo,Emília Satoshi Miyamaru

    2014-01-01

    O processo galvânico consiste na deposição de uma camada fina de metal sobre uma superfície metálica ou plástica. Este processo gera grande volume de efluentes que devem ser tratados para atender as legislações ambientais. O sistema de tratamento de efluentes é responsável pela geração do resíduo sólido galvânico, também chamado de lodo galvânico. As análises químicas e físico-químicas realizadas demonstram que o sistema de tratamento da empresa em estudo opera incorretamente, produzindo lodo...

  6. Comparative morphological analysis of cherry tomato fruits from three cropping systems Análise morfológica comparativa de frutos tomate cereja provenientes de três sistemas de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Cachoeira Stertz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to meet produces market demand are not always followed by research reports showing the impact of novel, intensive cropping systems on the environment, human and animal health, and eventual chemical and structural changes of plants. This work carries a comparative evaluation of the morphology and anatomy of cherry tomato fruits obtained from organic, conventional and hydroponic cropping systems. Fruits were collected at the free market in the greater Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. For each culture method, 50 fruits their weight, diameter and volume measured. For the anatomical analysis, samples of the pericarp of ten fruits were excised and embedded in glycol methacrylate; 6-mm cuts were then obtained, stained with toluidine blue, and mounted on permanent glass slides. The anatomical analysis and illustrations were performed in Olympus and Zeiss photonic microscope. Samples obtained from the organic cropping system presented the highest mass, diameter, volume and density. The pericarp of fruits, obtained from the conventional cropping system presented larger but less abundant cells in comparison to the pericarp of the hydroponic and organic-produced fruits.A ciência agrícola buscou novas formas de cultivo para atender às exigências de mercado e dividiu-se em três grandes vertentes: os sistemas de cultivo orgânico, convencional e hidropônico. Todavia, esses avanços nem sempre foram acompanhados por pesquisas que objetivassem apontar o impacto de uma nova técnica agrícola sobre o ambiente, a saúde humana e animal e aos próprios vegetais em seus aspectos químicos e estruturais. Este trabalho tem por objetivo o estudo comparativo da morfo-anatomia do fruto do Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme (Duval A. Gray, cultivado nos sistemas orgânico, convencional e hidropônico. Os frutos foram coletados no comércio varejista da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil. Para cada cultivo foram analisados 50 frutos. Cada fruto foi pesado e teve o diâmetro e volume medidos. Para análise anatômica foram retiradas amostras do pericarpo de dez frutos, que foram embebidas em glicol metacrilato, seccionadas com 6 mm de espessura, coradas com azul de toluidina e montadas em lâminas permanentes. A análise anatômica e as ilustrações foram feitas em microscópio fotônico Olympus e Zeiss com câmara fotográfica acoplada. As amostras obtidas pelo sistema de cultivo orgânico apresentaram maior massa, diâmetro, volume e densidade. O pericarpo, dos frutos do cultivo convencional, apresentou células maiores e em menor número em relação ao pericarpo dos frutos hidropônicos e orgânicos.

  7. Destinação de águas residuárias provenientes do processo de dessalinização por osmose reversa Disposal of wastewater from desalination process by reverse osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales M. Soares

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, inúmeros aparelhos de dessalinização por osmose reversa foram instalados no Brasil, sobretudo na Região Nordeste, onde se têm, historicamente, graves problemas econômicos e sociais devido à escassez de água. A dessalinização das águas pode constituir-se em uma ferramenta concreta de desenvolvimento regional no semi-árido do Nordeste brasileiro; entretanto, é necessário que se considerem os riscos ambientais decorrentes, isto porque, na dessalinização se gera, além da água potável, uma água residuária (rejeito, altamente salina e de poder poluente elevado. No presente texto são revisados trabalhos conduzidos no Brasil e em outros paises, os quais utilizam diversas alternativas para a destinação e o uso deste rejeito.During the last years, many desalination equipments by reverse osmosis were installed in Brazil, especially in Northeast Region, where, historically, serious socioeconomic problems exist due to water scarcity. Despite water desalinization be able to constitute a concrete tool for the development of Northeast Region, it is necessary to consider the consequent environmental risks, because in desalination process, besides the potable water a wastewater (reject, highly salty and pollutant is also generared. In the present article, studies conducted in Brazil and in other countries are revised which present alternatives for disposal and use of this reject.

  8. Endophytic fungi of the Genus Penicillium isolated of Platypodium elegans from environments of high dose rate of ionizing radiation; Fungos endofiticos do genero Penicillium isolados de Platypodium elegans provenientes de locais de alta taxa de radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Victor da

    1999-07-01

    The present work had as objective to isolate and to identify endophytic microorganisms and were exposed to stress situations, using for this ionizing radiations, these highly mutagen and in high doses, lethal to all the alive organisms. The endophytic microorganisms were obtained the starting from the species arboreal Platypodium elegans Vog., one of them developed in radioactive land in the area of Ipora/Go and other, developed in land Background in the city of Abadia de Goias/GO. The rates of dose of environmental radiation were shown sharply different, being in Ipora (Anomaly 2) with a value of approximately 140 {mu}R/h and in Abadia de Goias with approximately 20 {mu}R/H, both measured the area of root of the tree close to. Tests through PCR-RAPD were accomplished with the isolated ones, for verification of the similarity of its genetic characteristics and possible polymorphism among its DNA's . The isolated ones were studied with relationship to the effects of the gamma radiation, being used as source {sup 60} Co, with doses of 25 to 2131 Gy. These lineages had the same behavior practically with relationship to the resistance of the gamma radiation, declining strongly at levels of approximately 700 Gy. The isolated ones tested were identified at microscope for morphology, being of the Genus Penicillium, with the same genetic characteristics in agreement with PCR/RAPD, being just observed a polymorphism area in its DNA's. In spite of a lineage to have been isolated of a tree developed in radioactive land, any difference was observed among its resistance to the gamma radiation in comparison to the isolated lineage of tree developed in land radiometric background. (author)

  9. Radon and radon daughters' concentration in spring and wells waters from Presidente Prudente: preliminary results; Concentracao de Rn-222 e filhos em aguas provenientes de pocos e emergencias de agua da regiao de Presidente Prudente: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Ana Maria Araya; Saenz, Carlos Alberto Tello [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCT/UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica Quimica e Biologia; Aguiar, Claudinei Rodrigues de [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), PR (Brazil); Pereira, Luiz Augusto Stuani [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    This work presents the preliminary results about the concentration of radon and radon daughters in wells and springs water from Presidente Prudente. Six water samples were studied: three from well-water, two from springs water and one from potable water. For the determination of α-activity the samples were placed inside plastic containers where the CR-39 tracks detectors were outside the water. The track density of α-particles were measured by using optical microscopy. The results show that one sample from well-water presented higher concentration of radon and radon daughters than the other samples. (author)

  10. Deslocamento miscível de nitrato e fosfato proveniente de água residuária da suinocultura em colunas de solo Miscible displacement of nitrate and phosphate from swine wastewater in soil columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo H. Anami

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A fertirrigação com águas residuárias da suinocultura vem sendo muito difundida no País, principalmente na região sul do Brasil, entretanto, o alto potencial poluidor dos dejetos pode tornar-se uma ameaça de contaminação de solos e águas superficiais e subterrâneas se utilizados em quantidades excessivas. Neste trabalho o objetivo principal foi avaliar o processo de lixiviação de íons nitrato e fosfato em colunas de solo, obtendo-se os coeficientes de dispersão hidrodinâmico e o fator de retardamento para a determinação do potencial de contaminação dos lençóis de água subterrâneos. Verificou-se, ainda, o efeito da aplicação de águas residuárias da suinocultura tratada com reatores anaeróbios sobre as propriedades físico-químicas do solo, cujos resultados indicaram que o potencial de contaminação dos lençóis de água subterrâneos pelo íon nitrato é elevado, ao contrário do que ocorre com o íon fosfato, que apresentou baixo potencial de contaminação em função da sua alta reatividade.Fertigation with wastewater from swine is very much used, mainly in the southern region of Brazil. However, the high polluting potential of these wastewaters represents a threat of soil contamination of surface and underground waters if used in excessive amounts. The objective of this work was to evaluate the leaching process of nitrate and phosphate ions in soil columns, getting the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient and factor of retardation and potential of contamination of underground water. The effect of wastewater application on physical and chemical properties of the soil was verified. The results showed that the potential for contamination of underground water by nitrate ions is high, in contrast to what occurs with phosphate ions that presented low potential of contamination due to their high reactivity.

  11. Diseño e implementación de una base de datos para recogida y análisis de datos de actividad física provenientes de dispositivos wearables

    OpenAIRE

    López Ramírez, Mari Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Este proyecto consiste en diseñar e implementar un sistema de información alojado en una base de datos Oracle, con el fin de dar respuesta al proyecto Big Data, cuyo objetivo es cruzar los datos de salud y los datos de actividad física de los ciudadanos europeos. Aquest projecte consisteix en dissenyar i implementar un sistema d'informació allotjat en una base de dades Oracle, per tal de donar resposta al projecte Big Data, l'objectiu és creuar les dades de salut i les dades d'activitat fí...

  12. El decomiso tras la reforma efectuada por la LO 1/2015 en relacion con los delitos provenientes de la criminalidad organizada: especialmente en el tráfico de drogas y el blanqueo de capitales

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Ruiz, Emiliano

    2017-01-01

    Trabajo de fin de Grado. Grado en Derecho. Curso académico 2016-2017 [ES] En el presente trabajo se aborda el tema del decomiso analizado a la luz de las reformas efectuadas por el legislador nacional, como ocurre con la LO 1/2015 que amplía el decomiso sin sentencia, el decomiso ampliado y el decomiso de bienes de terceros, así como la legislación supranacional que entiende que esta figura es un medio eficaz para la lucha contra la delincuencia organizada, porque garantiza que el delito n...

  13. Considerations on the dispatch out of economic merit order regarding to energy from thermal plants; Consideracoes sobre o despacho fora da ordem de merito economico referente a energia proveniente de usinas termeletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makaron, Paula [Service Energy, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], email: paula@servicegroup.com.br; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Eletrotecnica e Energia], email: vparente@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper present a brief overview of the methodology of centralized order carried by the National System Operator (NSO) and analyze the theoretical and political questions involved: (a) orders out of merit, triggered by exceeding the Risk Curve Aversion (RCA), and (b) in other orders authorized by the Monitoring Committee of the Electricity Sector (MCES). In this context, we discuss the consequences of those orders outside the order of merit of thermoelectric plants with an average cost of generating considerably superior to optimized cost calculated by computer models Newave / Decomp. This analysis is based on the comparison of historical data made available by the ONS, National Energy Agency (ANEEL) and Board of Electric Energy Commercialization (CCEE) in the years 2007 to 2009. (author)

  14. Reuse of sludge from galvanotechnik industrial activity in the manufacture of concrete blocks for paving (PAVERS); Reutilizacao de lodo proveniente de atividade galvanotecnica industrial na fabricacao de blocos de concreto para pavimentacao (PAVERS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, J.M; Almeida, P.H.S.; Tavares, C.R.G., E-mail: phsoal@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Quimica; Sgorlon, J.G. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Apucarana, PR (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This study was to evaluate the interface replacing the cement by galvanic sludge (5-25%) in the production of concrete block paving analyzing the mechanical and microstructural effects of substitution. The results of the blocks produced with 5% of slude had values of compressive strength greater than 35 MPa and lower compared to the reference blocks with 28 days, the interface in cement paste by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the presence of empty capillary arrays of crystalline ettringite (C6AS3H32) and calcium silicate (Ca2SiO4) responsible for the compressive strength and decrease the intensity of the peaks of quartz with respect to the reference blocks, revealing the promising applicability and feasibility of using waste electroplating in the construction industry. (author)

  15. Avaliação da estabilidade da emulsão óleo/água proveniente dos resíduos de uma indústria beneficiadora de gemas frente ao uso de diferentes surfactantes

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Stülp; Max Alan Ritter; Fernanda Cristina Wiedusch Sindelar

    2013-01-01

    A reutilização dos resíduos gerados pelos diversos setores industriais é uma prática que cada dia é mais utilizado, devido ao comprometimento das indústrias com sua responsabilidade social (proteção ao ambiente) ou a exigências dos órgãos de proteção ambiental, já que muitos resíduos não possuem o devido descarte. Na indústria de beneficiamento de gemas a busca pelo reaproveitamento dos resíduos também tem se tornado uma realidade. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o reaproveitame...

  16. Avaliação das contribuições de água de chuva provenientes de ligações domiciliares em sistema de esgotamento sanitário separador absoluto

    OpenAIRE

    Bertolino, Murilo

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Os sistemas de esgotamento sanitário do tipo separador absoluto são concebidos de maneira que não devam sofrer com a interferência das águas pluviais, sendo que estas devem ser direcionadas aos sistemas de drenagem pública. No entanto, a água de chuva é comum na operação deste tipo de sistema. A interferência da água de chuva se dá por meio de infiltrações no sistema ou por afluxo direto ou indireto. A infiltração pode ser definida como sendo a água pluvial ou de lençol freático que p...

  17. Diagnóstico y caracterización molecular de aislamientos de Mycosphaerella sp. Provenientes de plantaciones de banano y plátano de diferentes regiones de Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perea Arango Irene

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet, agente causal de la Sigatoka negra, afecta dramáticamente la producción comercial de banano y plátano en la mayoría de las regiones productoras del mundo. En Colombia, la sigatoka negra se observó por primera vez en 1981 en la zona bananera del Urabá y desde entonces se disemino a todas las regiones, Atlantico, Pacifico, Centro y Oriente del país. En el 2000 la enfermedad fue encontrada en el Choco, zona del Pacifico Colombiano cubierta completamente por selva y que presenta cultivos de plátano en pequeñas parcelas al borde del rio Atrato, la única vía de acceso a la región. En este trabajo se realizó una prueba molecular de diagnóstico a 21 cepas de Mycosphaerella spp. Aisladas de diferentes zonas y se estudió la diversidad genética del patógeno en algunas regiones de Colombia utilizando marcadores RAPD’s. En total se obtuvieron 26 bandas polimórficas con los cebadores OPM01, OPM5 Y OPM20. El análisis de distancias genéticas sugiere que las cepas del Choco provienen de la zona del Urabá antioqueño y que en la zona de Santa Marta se presenta una subpoblación del patógeno diferente de las cepas del resto del país.

  18. COMPORTAMENTO DE ADESÃO DA MADEIRA DE UM HÍBRIDO CLONAL DE EUCALYPTUS UROPHYLLA × EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS PROVENIENTE DE TRÊS CONDIÇÕES DE MANEJO

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    Octávio Barbosa Plaster

    2012-01-01

    treatments on the adhesive used. We evaluated the shear strength by compression tests and the percentage of wood failure in the glue line. Based on the results obtained, it can be said that the adhesion had satisfactory performance with all the resins used, and the average values of shear strength of the glue line were shown to be equivalent to the shear strength of solid wood only for the samples which adhered with 'Wonderbond' adhesive and also provide higher values for wood failure (97.64%. The highest density present in the wood of the second stratum (E2 influenced only sticking with the resorcinol formaldehyde resin. For polyvinyl acetate (Cascorez 2590, shear values decreased in the third management condition (E3.

  19. IDENTIFICAÇÃO DO CIRCOVÍRUS SUÍNO TIPO 2 E DO PARVOVÍRUS SUÍNO EM FETOS SUÍNOS NATIMORTOS E MUMIFICADOS PROVENIENTES DE GRANJAS NO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Leal Rocha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence of genome sequences of the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 and porcine parvovirus (PPV in 147 porcine stillbirths and mummified fetuses. These samples, originated from 39 farms located in eight Brazilian states, were collected between 2006 and 2008. Heart and lung fragments were used for extraction of total DNA and later amplification of correspondent fragments of the virus pathogens through polymerasechain reaction (PCR technique. Out of 147 samples, 74 (50.3% were positive for PCV2 while nine samples (6.2% were positive for PCV2 and PPV. None of the samples were positive just for PPV. Out of 39 investigated farms, 21 (53.8% had fetuses positive for PCV2 while co-infection with PCV2 and PPV was detected in 3 farms (7.7%. These results indicate that PCV2 could be an important infection agent in cases of porcine stillbirths and mummified fetuses in Brazil and must be included at differential diagnostic list.KEY WORDS: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2, porcine parvovirus (PPV, reproductive failure, swine.

  20. EVALUACIÓN Y REGULACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS EN UN EQUIPO DISEÑADO PARA LA DISMINUCIÓN DE CROMO(VI), PROVENIENTES DE LA INDUSTRIA DE RECUBRIMIENTOS GALVÁNICOS

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta Niño, Gema Eunice; Bourdón García, Alejandro; Coy Barrera, Carlos Andrés

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN Con el fin de generar los medios necesarios para poder llevar a cabo las pruebas de remoción de cromo(VI) en aguas residuales de la industria galvánica, se realizó la captura de datos a partir de prototipo de equipo inicial a escala de laboratorio para conseguir el objetivo principal, disminuir la cantidad de metales en aguas residuales contaminadas con diferentes metales. Es así que con los datos obtenidos en el presente estudio se plantearon algunas modificaciones necesarias para me...

  1. EVALUACIÓN Y REGULACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS EN UN EQUIPO DISEÑADO PARA LA DISMINUCIÓN DE CROMO(VI), PROVENIENTES DE LA INDUSTRIA DE RECUBRIMIENTOS GALVÁNICOS

    OpenAIRE

    Gema Eunice Acosta Niño; Alejandro Bourdón García; Carlos Andrés Coy Barrera

    2013-01-01

    Con el fin de generar los medios necesarios para poder llevar a cabo las pruebas de remoción de cromo(VI) en aguas residuales de la industria galvánica, se realizó la captura de datos a partir de prototipo de equipo inicial a escala de laboratorio para conseguir el objetivo principal, disminuir la cantidad de metales en aguas residuales contaminadas con diferentes metales. Es así que con los datos obtenidos en el presente estudio se plantearon algunas modificaciones necesarias para mejorar la...

  2. Enraizamento de estacas de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hill. provenientes de brotações rejuvenescidas Rooting of "erva-mate" (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hill. cuttings from rejuvenated sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bitencourt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hill. é espécie nativa da América do Sul, de grande importância econômica devido a seu consumo na forma de chás e também vem sendo amplamente estudada nas áreas de farmacologia e biotecnologia. No entanto, tem baixo capacidade de propagação, seja ela sexuada ou assexuada. Um dos principais efeitos da maturação é a perda da capacidade de enraizamento, desta forma, o presente trabalho teve como objetivos observar a influência do rejuvenescimento e aplicação de ácido indol butírico (IBA no enraizamento de estacas caulinares de erva-mate. Foram confeccionadas estacas a partir de brotações do ano de árvores de 13 anos, assim como de brotos rejuvenescidos, obtidos da decepa de árvores com 17 anos. As estacas foram tratadas com IBA em solução nas seguintes concentrações: 0, 1500, 3000, 4500 e 6000 mg L-1, resultando em 5 tratamentos para cada tipo de estaca. O plantio foi realizado em caixas plásticas preenchidas com vermiculita e casca-de-arroz carbonizada na proporção de 1:1 e após 90 dias em casa-de-vegetação, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, número de raízes/estaca, comprimento das 3 maiores raízes/estaca, porcentagem de estacas vivas, com calos e mortas. A análise estatística mostrou que o material rejuvenescido apresentou os melhores resultados quanto à porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, assim como de número e comprimento de raízes. Já a aplicação da auxina sintética não influenciou no enraizamento das estacas de nenhum dos dois tipos, de modo que os tratamentos com IBA não diferiram entre si estatisticamente."Erva-mate" (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hill. is native to South America and has great economic importance due to its consumption as tea; it has also been studied in pharmacology and biotechnology. However, this species has low propagation ability, either sexually or not. One of the main effects of maturation is the loss of rooting ability; thus, this paper aimed to verify the influence of rejuvenation and application of indolebutyric acid (IBA on the rooting of stem cuttings from "erva-mate". Cuttings were obtained using sprouts of the year from 13-year-old trees and rejuvenated sprouts from stump regrowth of 17-year-old trees. Cuttings were treated with IBA solution at the following concentrations: 0, 1500, 300, 4500 and 6000 mg L-1, resulting in 5 treatments for each cutting type. Planting was done in plastic containers filled with vermiculite and carbonized rice bark at 1:1 proportion. After 90 days in greenhouse, cuttings were evaluated for the following variables: percentage of cuttings with roots, number of roots/cutting, length of the three largest roots/cutting, and percentage of live cuttings, those with callus and dead ones. Statistical analysis indicated that the rejuvenated material had the best results concerning percentage of cuttings with root, and number and length of roots. The application of synthetic auxin did not influence the rooting of cuttings from neither type, so that IBA treatments did not differ statistically.

  3. Avaliação do desempenho do sistema UV/H2O2 no tratamento de efluentes provenientes do processo de tratamento térmico de emulsões de água e óleo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Hespanhol

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work it is presented the results of bench scale tests using Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP in a UV/H2O2 system, for the treatment of an industrial effluent with a high concentration of dissolved organic matter, resulted from thermal treatment of oil-water emulsions. Treatability tests were carried out in a batch photochemical system with recycle, and the raw effluent was characterized by the analysis of pH, turbidity, color, COD and TOC. Results from these assays shown that UV/H2O2 process is technically feasible resulting in TOC removal above 90%. However, for one log TOC removal from this effluent the energy required was about 455.5 kw.h.m-3, for an alpha relation of 10 mg H2O2/mg COT, resulting in a higher operational cost, considering the evaluated conditions.

  4. USO DE PALHA DE AÇO COMERCIAL PARA O TRATAMENTO DE EFLUENTES CONTENDO CROMO HEXAVALENTE PROVENIENTES DE PROCESSOS DE ELETROCOLORAÇÃO DE AÇOS INOXIDÁVEIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallyni Irikura

    Full Text Available Residual solutions containing Cr(VI ions can be harmful to the environment as well as to human health. Hence, practical and efficient methods for the treatment of such solutions are welcome. In this note, the treatment with commercial steel wool pads of a Cr(VI residual solution from electrochemical coloration processes of stainless steel is described in detail. Successful treatment was achieved when an amount of steel wool equivalent to 20% in excess in relation to the theoretical stoichiometric amount was used, followed by chemical precipitation with sodium hydroxide up to pH 10-11 and separation by filtration under reduced pressure. The treatment yielded a final solution with concentrations of Cr(III and Cr(VI ions of only 0.29 ± 0.02 mg L-1 and < 0.01 mg L-1, respectively. These concentration values are significantly lower than the maximum limits established by CONAMA for industrial wastewaters, attesting the efficiency of the treatment.

  5. Fotocatálisis con TiO2/ultravioleta y TiO2 CuSO4/visible como sistemas de desinfección para inactivar E. coli proveniente de agua residual doméstica

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva Jaramillo, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    El proceso de interés fue la fotocatálisis heterogénea con TiO2. Se elaboraron películas con el TiO2, sinterizadas a diferentes temperaturas, por la técnica sol-gel/sedimentación. Se realizó una caracterización física mediante: XRD, SEM, barrido UV-Vis y EDS. Por XRD se encontró para películas sol-gel la fase cristalina anatasa con planos (101), (004), (200), (105) y (211) el control TiO2 USP presentó las fases anatasa y rutilo. La mayor formación de agregados se observó en películas control ...

  6. Caracterización molecular de 297 genotipos de trigo (triticum aestivum l.) provenientes del centro internacional de mejoramiento de maíz y trigo e inferencia de su estructura genética.

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Carrillo, Miguel Eduardo; Falconí, Esteban; Morillo, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Proyecto PIC-12-INIAP-001: Desarrollo e innovación biotecnológica para la potenciación de rubros agrícolas de importancia en seguridad alimentaria, competitividad exportable y adaptación al cambio En la actualidad el cultivo de trigo se ve afectado por la roya amarilla y fusariosis de la espiga, razón por la cual es necesario contar con información genotípica para mantener e incrementar el acervo genético de las variedades disponibles. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue caracteri...

  7. Análise epidemiológica de isolados clínicos de Pseudomonas aeruginosa provenientes de hospital universitário Epidemiologic analysis of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from an university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José Valença Cordeiro Pires

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: A Pseudomonas aeruginosa é um patógeno oportunista que tem se destacado quanto à prevalência em casos de infecções hospitalares. Sua ampla resistência aos diversos grupos de antimicrobianos garante a este microrganismo um papel de destaque entre as bactérias mais prevalentes associadas à infecção nosocomial. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um levantamento epidemiológico da P. aeruginosa, bem como do seu perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo baseado no livro de registro de secreções diversas do laboratório de bacteriologia do Hospital das Clínicas no período compreendido entre janeiro a junho de 2008. Entre os registros, identificamos aqueles que foram positivos para a P. aeruginosa, analisando sua origem e perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos utilizados na rotina daquele laboratório. RESULTADOS: As bactérias mais freqüentes, isoladas das secreções diversas, foram P. aeruginosa (26% e S. aureus (25%. Quanto à origem, a P. aeruginosa foi isolada principalmente de infecções respiratórias, pois 33% das amostras positivas para esta bactéria foram provinientes de secreções traqueais e 21% nasais. Os antimicrobianos mais eficazes contra a P. aeruginosa foram: amicacina, imipenem, meropenem e aztreonam. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados mostram uma alta prevalência de P. aeruginosa, no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Apesar de apresentar grande resistência a antimicrobianos mais antigos como as cefalosporinas de primeira e segunda geração, assim como cloranfenicol, em geral, este patógeno demonstrou boa sensibilidade às drogas utilizadas na rotina deste hospital.OBJECTIVES: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an increasingly prevalent opportunistic pathogen in hospital infection cases. Its high resistance rates to many antimicrobials has given this microorganism a relevant role among other highly prevalent bacteria involved in nosocomial infections. This study aimed to analyze epidemiologic characteristics of P. aeruginosa and to evaluate its susceptibility to antimicrobial agents at Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco METHODS: A retrospective study was performed based on the registry book of miscellaneous secretions from the bacteriology laboratory of the Hospital das Clínicas involving the period between January and June 2008. Among the secretions registered, were identified the positives samples for P. aeruginosa, whose origin was analyzed, as well as its susceptibility profile to routinely used in our laboratory antimicrobials. RESULTS: The bacteria most frequently isolated from miscellaneous secretions bacteria were P. aeruginosa (26% and S. aureus (25%. P. aeruginosa was mainly isolated from respiratory infections, with 33% of positive samples for this organism from tracheal secretions and 21% from nasal. The most effective antimicrobials against P. aeruginosa were: amikacin, imipenem, meropenem and aztreonam. CONCLUSIONS: These results show a high prevalence of P. aeruginosa in the Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Despite featuring high resistance rates to older antimicrobials, as cephalosporins first and second generations and chloramphenicol, this pathogen showed good susceptibility to agents routinely used in this hospital.

  8. Vitrification of nanotoxic waste (Ru) from the production of nano-catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells; Vitrificacao de nano-residuos toxicos (Ru) provenientes da producao de nano-catalisadores para celulas a combustivel de etanol direto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.C.; Julio-Junior, O.; Mello-Castanho, S.R.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Nanostructured catalysts have been developed for ethanol directly use in fuel cells, which due to the economic advantages that should have widespread use in the near future. The catalysts for these devices using nano-structured metal are based, where the toxic nature and environmental risks presented by these metals are largely enhanced by nano-dispersion. Thus, the production of nano-catalysts are potentially generating highly hazardous waste for public health and the environment. This study presents the treatment and inertization of ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticles waste containing by the vitrification technique and consequent attainment of silicate glasses for potential commercial use. Compositions were prepared containing up to about 20 wt % of nano-waste by changing the basic composition of glass soda-lime-borosilicate. After the fusion, at a temperature of 1100 deg C, the glasses were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Infra-red in the Fourier transform (FT-IR) techniques. The chemical stability was evaluated by hydrolytic attack test. The glass containing 20 wt % of nano-residue showed a high chemical stability, similar to a usual soda-lime glass. (author)

  9. Comparison of the microstructure and composition of aboriginal ceramics, from indigenous site Caninhas, with the obtained ones in the region; Comparacao da microestrutura e da composicao de ceramicas indigenas provenientes do sitio arqueologico Caninhas, com as obtidas atualmente na regiao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, C.C.; Nakano, F.P.; Taguchi, S.P.; Camargo-Vernilli, D., E-mail: cristhian@alunos.eel.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DEMAR/EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia de Lorena. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Ribeiro, R.B.; Rosa, S.J. L. [Faculdades Integradas Teresa D' Avila (FATEA), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Rede Salesianas. Dept. de Desenho Industrial

    2009-07-01

    The archaeological site of Caninhas is made of funeral and combustion structures and various objects of aboriginal daily use. These parts and fragments were safe and inventoried, constituting approximately 4000 units. The objective of this project was to analyze the microstructure and composition of archaeological ceramics, and ceramics made of argil current of the zone. The crystalline phases were identified by X-Rays Diffraction (XRD), elementary composition was obtained by X-Rays Fluorescence (XRF) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS), and the microstructure was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Composition and microstructure of archaeological ceramics are different of current ceramics, indicating the effect of lixiviation in function of the time and the microstructural evolution due different ceramic processing. These results are valuable for the archaeological area studies, mainly for the cultural denoting which represents. The relation between some studies is basic to add knowledge: use of the ceramic materials engineering for archaeology application. (author)

  10. Characterization of tannery sludge from the leather industry of Franca industrial district, SP, Brazil; Caracterizacao de um lodo de cromo proveniente da industria de couro do distrito industrial de Franca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambi, M.M.; Toffoli, S.M., E-mail: marvinchp@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica

    2011-07-01

    The industry of leather manufacture generates large quantities of solid leather waste with characteristics of high-polluting and hazardous conditions. Among these wastes, stands out the wet blue leather (chromed leather scraps), and the tanning sludge and secondary sludge generated in the processes of effluents treatment. These wastes contain Cr(III), which, under oxidizing conditions, can turn into Cr (VI), which is highly toxic. However, these wastes are a potential source of chromium oxide (traditional industrial pigment), which could be used by the glass and ceramic enamel industries. In this study, a preliminary characterization of a chromium sludge from the industrial district of Franca-SP was conducted. X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical (XRF) and thermal (DTA / TG) analyses were used to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of this solid waste. The potential of using this material as an available and cheap pigment for the manufacture of enamels and glass is discussed. (author)

  11. Characterization of obsidian devices come from San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico by Neutron Activation Analysis; Caracterizacion de artefactos de obsidiana provenientes de San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico con Analisis por Activacion Neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almazan T, M.G.; Jimenez R, M.; Monroy G, F.; Tenorio C, D. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is an efficient multielemental technique for determination of elements in low concentration (ppm), what has been result useful in the study of origin of archaeological material. In this work that technique was used for characterizing obsidian devices coming from the San Miguel Ixtapan site, Estado de Mexico and it was found that these come from three important beds which are: Sierra de Pachuca, Hidalgo, Zinapecuaro and Zinaparo-Varal in the Michoacan state. (Author)

  12. Determinación de la presencia de nitratos/nitritos y manganeso en el agua proveniente del pozo que alimenta la zona baja del cantón Huaquillas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román-Samaniego , Oscar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the levels of nitrates, nitrites and manganese in thewaterfromthe "Parador Turístico" well; in additionthe presence of pathogens and its influence on the health of theinhabitants of the La Primavera, Miraflores, 24 de Mayo, Milton Reyes, and 9 de Octubre citadelsfromthelowerpart of theHuaquillascanton. Five points of water samples from the study area were taken, as well as 379 inhabitants were surveyed. From the obtained analysis, the levels of nitrate and manganesepresent in the “Parador Turístico” wellwater and the water sampling points citadels were verified and assessed; these results are below and above the allowable limits for human consumption, respectively, therefore it affects the quality of water, in addition there is a high presence of pathogens in the sector water. Accordingly, it was concluded that this represents potential problems to the health of the population which makes use of it. 50% of the people surveyed considered that the water quality from the public network is regular, and 64% of the population considers that it is not suitable for consumption

  13. Clonación y micropropagación de curuba (Passiflora mollissima Bailey a partir de embriones somáticos provenientes de hojas | Cloning and micropropagation of banana passionfruit (Passiflora mollissima Bailey from leaf somatic embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Del Pilar Acosta-Zambrano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The banana passionfruit (Passiflora mollissima Bailey is a fruit from the Andean region and is used as raw material for the preparation of various food products. Tests were carried out for its in vitro multiplication using somatic embryos obtained from its leaves. A disinfection using sodium hypochlorite for 5 minutes and Murashige and Skoog (MS growth medium protocols with 1 mg/L of gibberellins was designed in order to induce germination. Vitro explants were selected for the multiplication in the MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L of benzyl aminopurine and 1 mg/L of naphthenic acid. The stronger leaves were selected and inoculated in the MS medium and Woody Plant (WPM. The formation of embryos was observed since the third week. The formed plants were inoculated in a WPM medium with 1 mg/L of benzyl aminopurine. A 2-ip WPM 1 mg/L medium was used for the rooting period. Finally, they were acclimatized in peat with earth or pearlite, and then planted in pots with earth for further studies. Seed disinfection using sodium hypochlorite presented 20% contamination and 80% of plants germination, proving to be the best disinfectant (p < 0.05. From this last procedure, somatic embryos of leaves in a 2-ip WPM with 1 mg/L were obtained. The ideal acclimatization occurred in the medium with peat and earth, in which case the survival level obtained was 100% by comparison with earth and pearlite, in which no plant growth was observed. Micropropagation represents an economic and effective technique in the breeding of pathogen-free plants.

  14. Avaliação da qualidade da água proveniente de estações de tratamento de água salobra na zona rural do município de Mossoró, RN

    OpenAIRE

    Cosme, Christiano Rebouças

    2011-01-01

    No Brasil, principalmente na região semiárida, um grande desafio é promover o abastecimento de água às famílias residentes nas áreas rurais. As águas subterrâneas são apontadas como uma alternativa viável para garantir o acesso das comunidades rurais do nordeste à água, a partir de investimentos públicos na perfuração de poços tubulares. Entretanto, essas fontes hídricas apresentam na maioria dos casos restrições de uso para dessedentamento humano, por apresentarem problemas de...

  15. Caracterización por cromatografía de gases y evaluación de la actividad citotóxica del aceite esencial de Salvia occidentalis Sw. (Lamiaceae proveniente del estado Monagas, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Lanza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available From the leaves of Salvia occidentalis Sw. (Lamiaceae, collected in Venezuela, Monagas state, an essential oil was obtained by steam distillation. It is a yellow oil with an agreeable odor, and its toxic activity was determined by the brine shrimp Artemia salina Linn. assay. The essential oil had a LC50 value of 2.60μg/mL-1 which indicate cytotoxicity. CG/MS analysis showed that the oil is a mixture of some terpenes, where β-elemene (20,348% is the major constituent. The identification of compounds was determined by comparing the experimental retention index with those reported in the literature. This is the first report of chemical compounds for this essential oil.

  16. Argamassa com areia proveniente da britagem de resíduo de construção civil – Avaliação de características físicas e mecânicas

    OpenAIRE

    Pimentel, Lia Lorena; Pissolato Junior, Osvaldo; Jacintho, Ana Elisabete Paganelli Guimarães de A.; Martins, Heline Laura de Sousa

    2018-01-01

    RESUMO A preocupação com o meio ambiente, devido a grande quantidade de resíduos da construção civil que são descartados de forma inadequada, incentivou o processamento destes com o intuito de retorná-los ao sistema produtivo. Os estudos com o objetivo de intensificar o reaproveitamento dos resíduos da construção civil se intensificaram recentemente, desenvolvendo normas para produção, avaliação e utilização dos agregados reciclados, para os quais o consumo ainda é incipiente. Para o desenvol...

  17. Composición proximal, ácidos grasos y características fisicoquímicas de aceite de harina artesanal de caribe (Serrasalmus rhombeus Pisces: Characidae proveniente de Caicara del Orinoco-Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granados, Ángel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Caribe (Serrasalmus rhoembeus is a Characidae fish that lives in the basins of the Orinoco and Amazon rivers. It is an  underutilized specie although in the last years has been marketed in the form of of a meal which is obtained through a handmade process but without information about its chemical composition. This research was conducted to evaluate the proximate composition of commercial caribe meal, the fatty acids profile and some physicochemical properties of its lipidic extract. Three aleatory samples of meal were selected in Caicara del Orinoco shops, Bolívar state –Venezuela. Moisture (6.00 ± 0.45 %, crude protein (N x 6.25: 52.78 ± 2.36 %, crude fat (22.47 ± 1.08 % and total ash (24.58 ± 3.12 % were determined in each sample. The fat was extracted with nhexane and it was analyzed for free fatty acids (5.66 ± 0.15 % as oleic acid, peroxide value (23.50 ± 1.02 meq O2/kg, iodine value (152.2 ± 0.5, saponification value (186.5 ± 0.3 mg KOH/g and unsaponifiable matter (2.3 ± 0.4 g/kg. The fatty acids profile showed an unsaturated acids/ saturated acids ratio of 5.62 with 59.9 % of monounsaturated fatty acids and 25.0 % of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Caribe meal is an important source of nutrients and a potential raw material for human food.El caribe (Serrasalmus rhombeus es un pez de la familia Characidae de la cuenca de los ríos Orinoco y Amazonas, de poco valor comercial debido a su estructura espinosa y a creencias relacionadas con su hábito alimentario, pero que en años recientes los pobladores de las zonas donde existe naturalmente le han dado utilidad mediante la obtención artesanal de una harina que es expendida para consumo humano; sin embargo, no se dispone de información referente a su composición química. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la composición química proximal del producto comercializado como harina de caribe y algunas características fisicoquímicas del extracto lipídico de la misma así como el perfil de ácidos grasos. Se seleccionaron aleatoriamente tres muestras de harina de caribe en locales comerciales ubicados en Caicara del Orinoco, estado Bolívar-Venezuela y se les determinó los contenidos de: humedad (6,00 ± 0,45 %, proteína cruda (N x 6,25: 52,78 ± 2,36 %, grasa cruda (22,47 ± 1,08 % y ceniza total (24,58 ± 3,12 %. El contenido de materia grasa fue extraído con n-hexano y se le determinó: Acidez libre (5,66 ± 0,15 % p/p como ácido oleico, índice de peróxidos (23,50 ± 1,02 meq O2/kg, índice de yodo (152,2 ± 0,5 cg I2/g, índice de saponificación (186,5 ± 0,3 mg KOH/g y materia insaponificable (2,3 ± 0,4 g/kg. El perfil de ácidos grasos, obtenido por cromatografía de gas, mostró una relación de ácidos grasos insaturados / ácidos grasos saturados de 5,62, donde el 59,9 % de los ácidos fueron de monoinsaturados y el 25,0 % poliinsaturados. La harina de caribe evaluada es una importante fuente de nutrientes de potencial utilidad como materia prima en alimentación animal.

  18. UTILIZAÇÃO DE MISTURAS DE CAVACOS INDUSTRIAIS COM RESÍDUOS DE SERRARIA PROVENIENTES DE MADEIRAS DE Eucalyptus grandis DE DIFERENTES IDADES PARA PRODUÇÃO DE PASTA KRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Maron

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estuda a viabilidade técnica do uso conjunto de resíduos de serraria (costaneiras dentre outros e topos de árvores de Eucalyptus grandis com 15 anos de idade, destinadas à produção de madeira sólida, com madeira de árvores de plantio industrial, com 7 anos de idade, destinadas à produção de pasta kraft. São apresentados modelos úteis à realização de estimativas de alturas total e comercial e de volumes de madeira comercial e adequadas para serraria, todos baseados no DAP. São fornecidos dados anatômicos, de densidade básica e de composição química de misturas desses tipos de materiais. Mostra-se que é tecnicamente viável realizar deslignificações kraft com misturas contendo madeira comercial de Eucalyptus grandis 7 anos com resíduo de serraria ou topos de árvores. A deslignificação kraft de resíduos de serraria resulta em perda rápida de rendimento, mas a pasta produzida sob as mesmas condições apresenta número Kappa menor que a de Eucalyptus grandis com 7 anos. A deslignificação de topos de árvores resulta em perda de rendimento bruto, mas o consumo específico de madeira é menor. Conforme aumenta a madeira de topo nas misturas, ocorre um aumento na densidade básica, o comprimento médio das fibras fica praticamente o mesmo e um pequeno aumento no teor de lignina; há diminuição nos extrativos em etanol, em água quente e na solubilidade em NaOH 1%. Diminui um pouco o rendimento bruto em pasta, mas praticamente não afeta o número Kappa, caindo sensivelmente o consumo específico de madeira. Com o aumento de madeira de resíduo de serraria das árvores nas misturas, praticamente não há efeito sobre a densidade básica, mas o comprimento médio das fibras aumenta, ocorrendo também um pequeno aumento no teor de lignina. Os extrativos em etanol, em água quente e na solubilidade em NaOH 1% diminuem. O rendimento bruto em pasta cai um pouco, mas com uma queda sensível no número Kappa, sem afetar praticamente o consumo específico de madeira. Em suma, para um mesmo número Kappa, as condições de cozimento podem ser menos drásticas para se obter um mesmo resultado final, podendo significar uma redução no consumo de reagentes durante seu processamento. E como o comprimento médio das fibras sofreu um pequeno acréscimo, a pasta resultante certamente apresentará maior resistência mecânica e, conseqüentemente, um papel de melhor qualidade.

  19. Estudio tafonómico y tecnológico de un útil doble “cincel/retocador”, proveniente del nivel C (Musteriense de Axlor –Dima, Bizkaia

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    Millán MOZOTA HOLGUERAS

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La industria en hueso del Paleolítico medio es una realidad compleja, que requiere de un enfoque distinto al aplicado hasta el momento, heredero de los estudios del Paleolítico superior. La existencia de esta clase de utillaje en hueso, a menudo llamado “poco elaborado”, es una realidad constatada en numerosos yacimientos de Paleolítico medio. Debido a inercias investigadoras, dicho utillaje no ha recibido la atención debida, para comprender su dimensión económica y social, en las actividades cotidianas de los grupos neandertales. El yacimiento de Paleolítico medio de Axlor (Dima, Bizkaia ha proporcionado un conjunto de útiles en hueso, en el marco de las excavaciones en curso. Este trabajo presenta el estudio de un útil óseo de doble función, hallado en el nivel C –Musteriense– de Axlor. Dicho útil se utilizó a modo de “cincel”, en tareas que implican movimientos de percusión y flexión, y –asimismo– como retocador, para trabajar la industria lítica. El análisis realizado combina aspectos tafonómicos, morfométricos y traceológicos (huellas de uso, para ofrecer una visión tecnológica de la obtención y utilización del soporte. Se ha establecido un desarrollo diacrónico para los trabajos que fueron realizados con el útil (una esquirla alargada y plana de húmero de Bos/Bison. La utilización como “cincel” se interrumpe con la fractura del extremo proximal del soporte, y el uso como retocador es posterior.ABSTRACT: Middle Palaeolithic bone tools are a complex reality. The most usual approach derives from the studies of Upper Palaeolithic bone industries, and there is a need for a different one. Those bone tools, often called “sparsely elaborated”, actually appear in many Middle Palaeolithic archaeological sites. Due to research biases, those asemblages haven’t received the propper attention, wich makes imposible to understand its true economic and social relevance (within the context of the subsistence activities of the Neanderthals. During recent excavations in Axlor (Middle Palaeolithic site in Dima, Bizkaia an ensemble of bone tools has been found. This article presents the study of a double-function bone tool, found in Level “C” –Mousterian– in Axlor. This tool was used as a “chisel”, in jobs wich implied percussion and flexion movements, and –also– as a retouching tool to work the lithic asemblages. My analysis combines tafonomic, morphometric and microwear (traceology approaches, to produce a technological view of the production and use of the bone tool. A diachronic development of the different tasks done with the tool (an ellongated and flat Bos/Bison humerus splinter has been established. The use as a “chisel” is interrupted with the fracture shown in the proximal edge of the tool, and the retouching tasks came after that.

  20. Comportamiento productivo y características de la canal en corderos provenientes de la cruza de ovejas Katahdin con machos de cuatro razas cárnicas especializadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Tatiana Vázquez Soria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el desempeño productivo y las características de la canal en corderos procedentes de la cruza de borregas Katahdin (K con sementales Suffolk (S, Texel (T, Charollais (Ch y Dorper (D. Se emplearon 200 borregas que se distribuyeron aleatoriamente en cuatro lotes de 50, las cuales fueron inseminadas por laparoscopía con semenfresco. Las crías se pesaron al nacimiento, destete y cada 30 días hasta la matanza. Todos los animales recibieron una dieta integral con 14 % de proteína cruda (PC y 2.9 Mcal EM/kg MS. A los 137±3 días de edad, se sacrificaron 10 corderos de cada tratamiento para valorar en la canal la morfométría, la clasificación, el rendimiento, el pH 24 h, el color en músculo y grasa perirrenal, así como el índice de compacidad de la canal y las dimensiones del músculo L. dorsi. Además, se determinó la composición tisular de la espaldilla. Los datos obtenidos se analizaron como un diseño completamente al azar. Los animales KCh lograron el mayor peso de matanza (46.61±8.50 kg a los 137 días de edad, seguidos por la cruza KD, KS y KT en orden descendente. No se presentaron diferencias (P>0.05 entre KCh, KD y KS en la clasificación, conformación, rendimiento, área del ojo de chuleta e índice de compacidad de la canal, pero todos ellos superaron (P<0.05 a KT en esas mismas variables. Las cruzas KD, KS y KT presentaron mayor porcentaje de músculo (64.72±1.77 % y menor cantidad de grasa (13.83±2.80 % en promedio (P<0.05 que KCh (61.07±2.60 y 18.10±3.30 %, respectivamente.

  1. Evaluación preliminar de depósitos de estériles y sedimentos provenientes de la actividad carbonífera en Río Turbio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lucia Caballero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo de décadas de actividad carbonífera en la cuenca de Río Turbio ubicada al sudoeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz en la República Argentina, se ha generado una serie de pasivos ambientales entre los cuales se encuentran los depósitos de material estéril denominados escombreras, las piletas de lodos y los sedimentos del curso de agua receptor de efluentes, el arroyo San José. La presencia de estos pasivos, ha ocasionado en distintas partes del mundo complicaciones debido a la naturaleza ácida de las escorrentías que afectan directamente fuentes de agua, superficiales y subterráneas, localizadas en la vecindad de dichos depósitos. El problema se produce cuando dicha acidez no puede ser neutralizada, lo cual ocasiona la generación de lixiviados de metales pesados en las escombreras o redisolución de los que se encuentran depositados como sedimentos en los cursos superficiales. Por tal motivo en este trabajo se realiza una evaluación preliminar del contenido metálico de los depósitos de estériles y de los sedimentos del arroyo San José y de la capacidad de generación ácida de los primeros. Se pretende con ello obtener una información básica que permita un diseño experimental científico para caracterizar dichos depósitos y evaluar el impacto que están produciendo. Como conclusión se pudo corroborar la hipótesis inicial de existencia de contenido metálico en escombreras y sedimentos y un potencial neto de generación ácida de las primeras. Además se determinó la necesidad de investigar el origen de altos contenidos metálicos en sedimentos de zonas alejadas de la producción.

  2. Energetic reuse: the use of energy from organic material from urban waste for plastics recycling; Reaproveitamento energetico: uso de energia proveniente de material organico dos residuos urbanos para reciclar plasticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Priscila Alves; Rocha, Carlos Roberto [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (EXCEN/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Eficiencia Energetica

    2008-07-01

    The population growth and the elevation of the purchasing status due to economic development impel the gradual increase of residues produced a year. The discarding of these residues represents a great economic and environmental challenge, mainly because of discarded plastic concentration with no energetic and economic use, a also because of the organic material that, after decomposing, produces methane, one of the most responsible for global heating when in contact with atmosphere with no control. The recycling of plastic residues is a solution to minimize its discard and to guarantee an environmental improvement for saving raw matter, however the high consumption of energy endears the process, making it difficult its economic viability. This takes the search of new alternatives for attainment of low cost energy. In the problem of discard of the organic matter it can be the solution for the recycling of these residues. The decomposition of the organic matter produces fuel (biogas) useful as power plant for the generation of necessary electricity to the recycling process. The present study analyses an alternative to recycle plastic residues, after being consumed, in some places for discarding and using energy from biogas produced in landfills or biodigestors. Initially it was carried through a data-collecting and analysis of the physical composition of the residues, indispensable to the development of the study, which allowed to daily find the average percentage of plastics (12,9%) and organic matter (41,9%) made use by the involved population. On the basis of the data of organic matter the determination in such a way of the potential of generation of the biogas as of the electric power 'recycled' was possible to leave of that they would be discarded without any use. Data-collecting on equipment used in the plastic recycling had been essential for attainment of the necessary average energy demand to the process in such a way not only for soft plastic and PET (2,12 GJ/t) but also for hard plastic (0.11 GJ/t). According to the percentage of plastics to be recycled and the amount of necessary electric power to that end it was verified recycling possibility using 'the recycled' energy of the residues in the city. The electric power generated by the use of biogas, when applying a study of case in the city of Itajuba-MG, possible of obtaining in the landfill (11,5 GJ/day) and will have used biodigestors (14,5 GJ/day) is enough to supply the necessary energy demand for recycling of the hard plastics (0,17 GJ/day), as well as soft plastics and PET (11,2 GJ/day) discarded daily in this city. The recycling of residues plastic powder-consumption using recycled energy of the discarded residues in a municipal district besides carting social and environmental earnings for using less the natural resources, it comes to contribute for the solution of problems related to the final destination of the residues and consequently for the use of the electric power generated with the use of the biogas that has your price reduced to half of the regular one, besides not having tax taking the smaller economical viability when being sold to the c place than your use, what motivates the installation of units of located recycling in the sanitary embankments or in your proximities guaranteeing a larger supporting to the municipal district in what the project intends to be implanted. (author)

  3. Utilization of biogas from sanitary landfill for generation of electrical energy in Sao Paulo: a case study; Aproveitamento do biogas proveniente de aterro sanitario para geracao de energia eletrica em Sao Paulo: estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcilasso, Vanessa Pecora; Coelho, Suani Teixeira Coelho [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez [Universitaria Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Utilization of the biogas proceeding from urban solid residues for electricity generation: case study in Sao Paulo. The biogas, generated from organic matter degradation, is composed by a mixture of gases, the main components being carbon dioxide and methane, which is a greenhouse effect gas with global warming potential around 21 times greater when compared to CO{sub 2}. Biogas production is possible from a great variety of organic residues such as urban solid residues, residues from agricultural and livestock activities, swine livestock, sewage mud, among others. The sanitary landfills may count on techniques of capture of the produced biogas and its later burning in flare, where the methane is transformed in CO{sub 2}, minimizing the environmental impact. Besides the opportunity of reducing the environmental damages, biogas can also be used as fuel for generating electricity, thus adding environmental gain and reduction of costs, due to the diminishing of purchase of the energy consumed in the concessionaire. In this context, this article presents the project of utilization of biogas proceeding from urban solid residues for electricity generation and gas illumination, developed by CENBIO. This project is currently in development and the obtained results will provide technical and economic subsidies for its replication. (author)

  4. Development of bricks with incorporation of coal ash and sludge from water treatment plant; Desenvolvimento de tijolos com incorporacao de cinzas de carvao e lodo provenientes de estacao de tratamento de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Mauro Valerio da

    2011-07-01

    Sludge from treatment water Brazilian plant station are, frequently, disposed and launched directly in the water bodies, causing a negative impact in the environment. Also, coal ashes is produced by burning of coal in coal-fired power stations and is the industrial solid waste most generated in southern Brazil: approximately 4 million tons/y. The efficient disposal of coal ashes is an issue due to its massive volume and harmful risks to the environment. The aim of this work was study the feasibility of incorporating these two industrial wastes in a mass used in the manufacture of ecological bricks. Samples of fly ashes from a cyclone filter from a coal-fired power plant located at Figueira County in Parana State, Brazil and waterworks sludge of Terra Preta County in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were used in the study. Fly ash-sludge and fly ash-sludge-soil-cement bricks were molded and tested, according to the Brazilians Standards. The materials were characterized by physical-chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, morphological analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and granulometric analysis. The results indicate that the waterworks sludge and coal ashes have potential to be used on manufacturing soil-cement pressed bricks according to the of Brazilians Standards NBR 10836/94. (author)

  5. Obtention and characterization of ceramic products with addition of the mineral coal bottom ashes from thermoelectric power plants; Obtencao e caracterizacao de produtos ceramicos com a adicao de cinzas pesadas de carvao mineral provenientes de usinas termeletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniess, C.T.; Prates, P.B.; Brys, M.; Martins, G.J.; Riella, H.G., E-mail: kniesscl@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil); Bernardin, A. [Universidade do Extremo Sul de Santa Catarina (UNESC), SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of mineral coal bottom ash derived from thermoelectric power plants are compatible with various raw materials used in ceramic industries, which indicates a possibility of partial or fully substitution of raw materials by this residue. This work intends to obtain and characterize ceramic products with additions of different percentages of bottom ash coal. For this, was used a commercial ceramic body (CI) made by an industry in the state of Santa Catarina. The formulations of the ceramics products were obtained by the mixture design (planning network Simplex). The byproduct of coal bottom ash was found to be an attractive raw material source of SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to obtain ceramic materials. Was demonstrated the possibility of developing a ceramic materials classified as semi-porous (6 10) with additions of up to 20% of coal bottom ash in the composition of the ceramic body. (author)

  6. Gestión de los residuos y suelos contaminados provenientes de la minería metálica: aspectos técnicos, problemas ambientales y marco normativo

    OpenAIRE

    Rosique López, María Guadalupe

    2017-01-01

    [ESP] La minería es una parte vital de la economía global, pero la extracción de metales, metaloides y otros productos minerales genera grandes cantidades de residuos líquidos y sólidos. Actualmente el volumen de residuos se estima en varios miles de millones de toneladas por año, pero está aumentando exponencialmente a medida que la demanda y la explotación de los depósitos de menor calidad siguen incrementándose. Las altas concentraciones de elementos potencialmente tóxicos en estos desecho...

  7. Utilização de técnicas hidrometalúrgicas e eletrometalúrgicas na recuperação de ouro proveniente de sucatas de telefones celulares

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Cristina Kasper

    2016-01-01

    A cada ano as reservas naturais de metais preciosos, entre eles o ouro, têm diminuído em todo o mundo. Uma forma de atenuar este problema poderia ser a recuperação dos metais contidos nas sucatas de produtos elétricos e eletrônicos, cujo consumo e descarte aumentam consideravelmente a cada ano. Desta forma, este trabalho teve por objetivo testar alternativas de agentes lixiviantes para a extração do ouro contido nas placas de circuito impresso (PCI) de telefones celulares, e posterior recuper...

  8. Bactérias promotoras de crescimento e adubação nitrogenada no crescimento inicial de cana-de-açúcar proveniente de mudas pré-brotadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Augusto da Silva Gírio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da inoculação de bactérias promotoras de crescimento sobre a formação de mudas pré-brotadas de cana-de-açúcar, oriundas de gemas individualizadas, e quantificar o crescimento inicial dessas mudas, em associação à aplicação de nitrogênio, em solo de baixa fertilidade. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos: um em casa de vegetação, com duração de 50 dias, e o outro, em vasos no campo, com duração de 180 dias. Em ambos os experimentos, utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 2x3, no primeiro experimento - com ou sem inoculante, e com três quantidades de reserva nas gemas -, e 2x2x4, no segundo - com ou sem inoculante, com ou sem nitrogênio, avaliados em quatro épocas: aos 45, 90, 135 e 180 dias. O inoculante produziu efeito na fase inicial de crescimento das mudas pré-brotadas, com aumento na velocidade de brotação e no acúmulo da matéria seca de raízes e da parte aérea, independentemente da quantidade de reserva da gema. No segundo experimento, o inoculante promoveu ganhos no crescimento inicial da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, até os 180 dias após o transplantio, com aumento em altura, perfilhamento, diâmetro do colmo, produção da matéria seca de colmos e de palha e do comprimento radicular, independentemente da aplicação de nitrogênio. O inoculante tem efeito fisiológico positivo sobre o crescimento das plantas.

  9. Aplicaciones al análisis automático del contenido provenientes de la teoría matemática de la información

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Moreiro González

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflexión sintética para revisar las propuestas más relevantes que, siguiendo la teoría matemática de la comunicación de Shannon y Weaver, hayan afectado a los procedimientos del análisis automático del contenido documental. Partiendo del empleo de la teoría matemática en Ciencia de la Información se explican sus aplicaciones metodológicas en nuestra especialidad, en especial respecto a las técnicas de recuperación de la información. Para después describir los modelos matemáticos aplicados al análisis automático del contenido: leyes de Zipf y Goffman, antidiccionarios para índices permutados, Indización Estadística de Términos por Frecuencias, algoritmos n-grams y de stemming, así como los referidos a los métodos de agrupación y clasificación como clusters por valor de discriminación y por relevancia de los términos como son los métodos de agrupación basados en Grafos Teóricos, los basados en Centros de masas, el algoritmo K-vecinos o Kmedias, el K-vecinos axial o incremental, y el algoritmo ISODATA. Para luego exponer los clasificadores cienciométricos como el método de Chen y finalmente los métodos con sistemas de aprendizaje

  10. Obtenção de cermet por tecnologia do pó a partir da utilização da cinza leve proveniente da queima do carvão mineral em termoelétrica

    OpenAIRE

    Andréia Brogni

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho busca produzir cermet (Cinza-Fe) pela tecnologia do pó utilizando cinza leve produzida com a queima do carvão mineral em termoelétrica para uma possível utilização e aplicação na usinagem. Esse estudo tem como objetivo específico caracterizar e analisar as propriedades mecânicas e metalúrgicas das amostras obtidas a partir das misturas. Utilizouse o ferro como componente da mistura em função do baixo custo e vasta disponibilidade. Após a obtenção da cinza leve, determinou-se o t...

  11. Recovery from Iridium-192 flakes of a radioactive source for industrial use after a radiation incident; Recuperacion de hojuelas de Iridio-192 provenientes de una fuente radiactivas de uso industrial despues de un incidente radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, W.H.; Zapata, L.A., E-mail: wcruz@ipen.gob.pe, E-mail: lzapata@ipen.gob.pe [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (GRRA/IPEN), Lima (Peru). Division de Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos

    2013-07-01

    The Iridium-192 ({sup 192}Ir) is the most used and ideal for industrial radiography applications, especially in petrochemical plants and pipelines and provides better contrast sensitivity for thick (25.4 mm). This source has constructive sealed double encapsulation, the internal capsule containing stainless steel to radioactive material in the form of flakes and welded with TIG process. The radiological incident happened at a gas station fuel sales in circumstances in which there was a homogeneity test welds a tank, the flakes or Ir-192 fell off his ponytail and left scattered over an area of 2 m{sup 2}, some fell flat areas and other land so collected in lead shielding and metal container and ground source. Full recovery of the leaflets was performed at the Division of radioactive waste management (GRRA) gaining a total of 22 flakes with no radiation risk to staff performance and installation and the conclusion was reached that the misapplicaion of TIG welding was the main cause the incident. (author)

  12. Chemical composition of four essential oils from Eupatorium spp: Biological activities toward Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae Composición química de cuatro aceites esenciales provenientes de Eupatorium spp. y su toxicidad para Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo G. Lancelle

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic and repellent properties of whole essential oils from four Eupatorium (Asteraceae species (E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker, and E. viscidum Hook. & Arn were investigated in different concentrations toward Tribolium castaneum Herbst adults. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation techniques from the aerial parts. The analysis was performed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods. Contact toxicity assays showed that all the evaluated essential oils were toxic. Furthermore, in all the cases mortality was dose dependent. The main repellency was observed for the essential oil recovered from E. buniifolium.Se evaluaron las propiedades tóxicas y repelentes de los aceites esenciales de cuatro especies del género Eupatorium (Asteraceae: E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker y E. viscidum Hook. & Arn, en diferentes concentraciones frente a adultos de Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Los aceites esenciales se aislaron de las partes aéreas de las plantas, mediante técnicas de hidrodestilación y se analizaron por los métodos GC-FID y GC-MS. Los ensayos de toxicidad por contacto demostraron que todos los aceites fueron tóxicos y la mortalidad fue, en todos los casos, dependiente de la dosis. El aceite esencial de E. buniifolium presentó la mayor actividad repelente.

  13. Logic models from an evaluability assessment of pharmaceutical services for people living with HIV/AIDS Modelos lógicos provenientes de estudo de avaliabilidade da assistência farmacêutica para pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Esher

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil was the first developing country to provide people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA with comprehensive, universal, free access to antiretroviral medicines (ARV. Pharmaceutical services are considered a strategic action that has the goal of providing access to rational use of quality medicines while also promoting user satisfaction. User satisfaction is a complex concept, and evaluation models for pharmaceutical services for PLWA were not found in the literature. Therefore, an evaluation approach to help assess this issue had to be developed. This article seeks to describe a theoretical evaluation model of user satisfaction with the dispensing of ARV, developed as part of an Evaluability Assessment (EA. It presents a brief review of the EA and user satisfaction and describes the development of models created during the EA. The lessons learned in the process are presented as a conclusion.O Brasil foi o primeiro país em desenvolvimento a fornecer medicamentos antiretrovirais (ARV de forma integral, universal e gratuita às pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids (PVHA. A Assistência Farmacêutica é considerada uma ação estratégica e busca prover acesso a medicamentos de qualidade, com uso racional, promovendo a satisfação dos usuários. Satisfação do usuá-rio é um conceito complexo e modelos para avaliarem serviços farmacêuticos para PVHA não são encontrados na literatura. Este artigo objetiva descrever o desenvolvimento de três modelos criados em um Estudo de Avaliabilidade (EA. É apresentada uma breve revisão dos conceitos de EA e de Satisfação do Usuário. As lições apreendidas no processo são apresentadas como conclusão.

  14. Hydrogen and energy recovery by gasification of petroleum coke from heavy crude refining; Recuperacion de hidrogeno y energia mediante gasificacion de coques de petroleo provenientes de refinacion de crudos pesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paniagua-Rodriguez, J.C [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Jimenez-Garcia, G. [Instituto Tecnologico del Valle de Morelia, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Maya-Yescas, R. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmayay@umich.mx

    2013-03-15

    Heavy oils exhibit high yields to bottom-of barrel products (low commercial value); depending on the metals content and on carbon residue the upgrading of bottoms could follow either hydroprocessing or carbon rejection. In particular the Mexican Maya, which is the most refined crude in Mexico, is upgraded by carbon rejection via delayed coking of vacuum residue. In order to obtain acceptable economic profit, it is necessary to transform that carbon (mainly petroleum coke) into useful higher added value products. Coke gasification could be used to obtain hydrogen and/or energy (preferable electrical), via the reaction of coke molecules with oxygen, carbon dioxide and water. Departing from the empiric formulas of five petroleum cokes, a kinetic scheme that consists of three linearly independent stoichiometric equations was recently developed; by including the enthalpy of each reaction and considering the gasification reactor as adiabatic, it is possible to predict product stream composition and high pressure steam that could be generated by the process. [Spanish] Los crudos pesados exhiben rendimientos altos a productos de-fondo-de-barril (de bajo valor comercial); dependiendo del contenido de metales y del residuo carbonoso, la mejora de fondos puede llevarse a cabo por hidrotratamiento o rechazo de carbon. En particular el crudo Maya, que es el mas refinado en Mexico, se mejora via rechazo de carbon por coquizacion retardada del residuo de vacio. A fin de obtener ganancias aceptables, es necesario transformar ese carbon (coque de petroleo, principalmente) en producto util de alto valor agregado. La gasificacion de coque puede usarse para obtener hidrogeno y/o energia (electrica de preferencia), via la reaccion de moleculas de coque con oxigeno, dioxido de carbono y agua. Recientemente se desarrollo un esquema cinetico que consiste de tres reacciones linealmente independientes, partiendo de las formulas empiricas de cinco coques de petroleo; incluyendo la entalpia de cada reaccion y considerando el reactor de gasificacion como adiabatico, se puede predecir la composicion de la corriente de productos y el potencial de generacion de vapor de alta presion por el proceso.

  15. Transformaciones en la producción simbólica en la clínica con niños con problemas de aprendizaje provenientes de contextos de pobreza

    OpenAIRE

    Grunberg, Débora; Yapura, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo surge a partir de interrogantes formulados al interior de la Cátedra de Psicopedagogía Clínica (Facultad de Psicología, UBA), especialmente en espacios clínicos e investigativos. Su objetivo central es atender una temática latente en la clínica psicopedagógica de niños con problemas de aprendizaje que tiene lugar en el Servicio de Asistencia de la Cátedra: el despliegue y las restricciones de los procesos imaginativos de niños con dificultades de simbolización, en tanto pr...

  16. Photodynamic inactivation of in vitro bacterial cultures from pressure ulcers Inativação fotodinâmica de culturas de bactérias in vitro provenientes de úlceras de pressão

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    Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate in vitro the antibacterial effect of diode laser light of wavelength 650 nm, in association with the photosensitive substance toluidine blue, on the bacteria in infected skin ulcers. METHODS: Samples were collected by means of swabs containing a medium for transporting infected material from skin ulcers. The material was inoculated into culturing medium containing azide blood agar for the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, and MacConkey agar for Gram-negative bacteria, and incubated for 48 hours. The results obtained from counting the colony-forming units were correlated and subjected to statistical analysis, adopting the significance level of p > or = 0.05. RESULTS: From analysis of variance (ANOVA, the result for the general mean was p = 0.0215. Using the t test with post-hoc test, the result for TBO vs. Control was p = 0.0186, and for TBO + Laser vs. Control it was p = 0.0039. CONCLUSION: There was a significant reduction in colony-forming units when the cultures were subjected to photodynamic therapy.OBJETIVO: Avaliar in vitro o efeito antibacteriano do laser diodo com comprimento de onda de 650nn, associado a substancia fotossensível azul de toluidina sobre as bactérias de ulceras cutâneas infectadas. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas amostras através de um swab com meio de transporte, de material infectado de úlceras cutâneas. Os materiais foram inoculadas em meios de cultura contendo ágar sangue azida para o crescimento de bactérias gram-positivas e agar Mac Conkey para as gram-negativas, e incubadas por 48 horas. Os resultados obtidos da contagem das unidades formadoras de colônias foram relacionados e submetidos a analise estatística adotando como nível de significância p > ou = 0.05. RESULTADOS: Os resultados da análise de variância ANOVA para a media geral foi p= 0,0215 e para o post hoc test teste t. TBO x Controle p=0,0186, TBO + Laser x Controle p=0,0039. CONCLUSÃO: Houve redução, significativa das unidades formadoras de colônias quando submetidas à terapia fotodinâmica.

  17. Use of residues proceeding from marbles and granites finishing and manufacturing processes as raw material for structural ceramic; Utilizacao do residuo proveniente do acabamento e manufatura de marmores e granitos como materia-prima em ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Roberta Monteiro de

    2006-07-01

    In order to decrease environmental impact, caused by mud discarding and clay extraction in the ceramic industry, it was used residual mud from marble and granite companies for structural ceramic. Samples were collected in twelve different marble companies located at the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. However, only four samples were selected, based on its different characteristics. Clay stone was the raw material chosen to prepare the structural ceramic, considering its high use in this segment. Samples and clay stone were both analysed by the following procedures: granulometric analysis, x-rays fluorescent chemical analysis and x-rays diffraction mineralogical analysis, besides, tests in the samples were conducted following NBR 10004 standards. Once raw materials were characterized, the plasticity test was conducted. Test specimen were molded with different levels of mud, then burned and submitted to technological tests, such as: mechanical resistance, water absorption, porosity, specific gravity and retraction, material dilation before burning process and scanning electron microscopy. The final results have shown the viability of using this kind of mud, and pointed some advantages on its usage, but taking in consideration some previous conditions to be adopted. (author)

  18. Use of ultrasound radiation for extraction of bioactive compounds from natural sources. Current events and perspectives; Empleo de la radiacion ultrasonica para la extraccion de compuestos bioactivos provenientes de fuentes naturales. Estado actual y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Riera, Zalua [Instituto Superior de Tecnologia y Ciencias Aplicadas (INSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Robaina Mesa, Malvis [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Medicamentos, La Habana (Cuba); Jauregui Haza, Ulises, E-mail: zalua@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologia y Ciencias Aplicadas (INSTEC), La Habana (Cuba)

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, clean technologies have been developed for high efficiency extracting of isolation of biologically active compounds from natural sources, without the loss of biological activity, with good yield and high purity. Ultrasound-assisted extraction has low instrumental requirements and their implementation is very appropriate where the stability of the active component to be removed is affected by the high temperatures of conventional processes. In this paper it is evaluated the state of the art of ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from various natural sources, its mechanism, the parameters governing its use and research perspectives in this field. Ultrasonic cavitation phenomenon promotes cell wall rupture, reduction of particle size and tissue permeability, which facilitates the diffusion of the solvent into the inert part of the plant material and increasing the mass transferred through membranes. This mechanism explains the high efficiency of ultrasound-assisted extraction as it allows to reduce the time, temperature and amounts of solvent extraction process with high yields and high purity of the extracted product. Currently there is a great demand for the use of ultrasound to industrial and current research lead to the development of larger scale reactors and the theoretical modeling of the parameters that determine efficient extraction.

  19. Avaliação do nível de chumbo, em solo de várzea, proveniente da reciclagem de baterias Evaluation of the lead level, in low land soil, originated from a recycling of batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele I. T. H. Wowk

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando caracterizar e quantificar os minerais da fração argila e avaliar a contaminação por chumbo (Pb ocasionada por efluentes de uma empresa recicladora de sucatas de baterias no município de Paula Freitas, PR, coletaram-se amostras de solo de várzea em cinco perfis. Além dos teores totais, as amostras de solo foram submetidas a análises químicas seqüenciais para determinação de diferentes formas de Pb: solúvel, trocável, ligado à matéria orgânica, ligado aos óxidos de alumínio e ferro e residual. A fração argila, estudada por difratometria de raios-X e análise termogravimétrica diferencial, apresentou altos teores de caulinita e menores de gibbsita, material amorfo e goethita. Todos os solos da várzea apresentaram teores de Pb superiores aos encontrados no solo sob mata (testemunha, evidenciando a contaminação ambiental. O perfil P2 indicou o maior potencial de contaminação do nível freático, pois continha maior teor de Pb total (2.399,6 µg cm-3 associado ao elevado teor do metal, na forma trocável (adsorção não específica. A alta superfície específica dos óxidos de Fe e Al de baixa cristalinidade promoveram maior retenção de Pb nos solos contaminados.In order to characterize and to quantify the minerals of the clay fraction and to evaluate the contamination by lead (Pb caused by effluents from a recycling company of waste batteries in Paula Freitas, Paraná state, Brazil , samples of low land soil were collected from five profiles. Besides the total levels, the soil samples were submitted to sequential chemical analyses for the determination of different Pb forms: soluble, exchangeable, linked to organic matter, linked to alluminiun and iron oxides and residual. The clay fraction, studied by X-ray diffraction and differential thermogravimetric analysis, presented high levels of kaolinite and small amounts of gibbsite, amorphous material and goethite. All samples of low land soil presented Pb levels superior to the ones found in the soil under forest (control, showing clearly the environmental contamination. The P2 profile showed the greatest potential of contamination of the freatic level because it had the highest level of total Pb (2,399.6 µg cm-3 associated with the high level of metal in the exchangeable form (non-specific adsorption. The high specific surface of Al and Fe oxides of low crystalinity was responsible for a higher retention of Pb in the contaminated soils.

  20. Actividades enzimáticas antioxidativas em Cistus Ladanifer L. provenientes de áreas não contaminadas em elementos vestigiais Antioxidant enzymes activity of Cistus Ladanifer L. from areas non contaminated in trace elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Santos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a actividade das enzimas antioxidativas (catalase, peroxidase e superóxido dismutase e as concentrações em As, Cu, Pb e Zn nas folhas de duas populações de Cistus ladanifer L. colhidas, na Primavera e no Verão, em solos não contaminados em elementos vestigiais (Caldeirão e Pomarão e com condições climáticas diferentes. Nos solos das duas áreas, as concentrações totais e disponíveis (extracção com DTPA em elementos vestigiais foram baixas. A distribuição dos elementos pelas folhas novas e maduras foi semelhante entre áreas e estações do ano. As actividades enzimáticas variaram consoante a população. As folhas colhidas nas duas estações do ano, excepto as folhas novas de Verão do Pomarão, apresentaram actividade enzimática na fracção solúvel e iónica. Comparando as estações do ano e áreas de amostragem, constatou-se que as actividades enzimáticas representam um mecanismo de tolerância a vários factores de stresse (radiação UV, temperatura do ar elevada no verão, défice hídrico no verão, baixa-média fertilidade do solo e conteúdo de elementos vestigiais no solo, o que confere uma elevada plasticidade à espécie.The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant enzymes activity (catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and the concentrations of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in leaves from two populations of Cistus ladanifer growing on soils non-contaminated with trace elements (Caldeirco and Pomarco, but with different climatic conditions and in two different seasons (spring and summer. In both areas, total and available concentrations (DTPA extraction of trace elements in soils were low. The distribution of elements for young and mature leaves was similar between areas and seasons. The enzyme activities varied with the plant population. Leaves collected in the two seasons, except young leaves from Pomarco collected in summer, showed enzymatic activity in the soluble and ionic fractions. Comparing the seasons and sampling areas, C. ladanifer enzymatic activities represent a tolerance mechanism to different stress factors (UV radiation, high air temperature in summer, drought, low-medium fertility in soils, trace element concentrations in soil, giving it a high plasticity.

  1. EVALUACIÓN Y REGULACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS EN UN EQUIPO DISEÑADO PARA LA DISMINUCIÓN DE CROMO(VI, PROVENIENTES DE LA INDUSTRIA DE RECUBRIMIENTOS GALVÁNICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Eunice Acosta Niño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de generar los medios necesarios para poder llevar a cabo las pruebas de remoción de cromo(VI en aguas residuales de la industria galvánica, se realizó la captura de datos a partir de prototipo de equipo inicial a escala de laboratorio para conseguir el objetivo principal, disminuir la cantidad de metales en aguas residuales contaminadas con diferentes metales. Es así que con los datos obtenidos en el presente estudio se plantearon algunas modificaciones necesarias para mejorar las condiciones y eficiencia del equipo y aumentar las posibilidades de uso mediante la determinación de los parámetros de trabajo usando la técnica de electrocoagulación. Los parámetros analizados fueron: voltaje, intensidad de corriente, conductividad, pH y temperatura durante una hora de funcionamiento del reactor. A lo largo del texto se pueden observar los cambios realizados sobre el prototipo inicial, cuyo concepto principal es el manejo de la electrocoagulación, para disminuir la cantidad de metales en aguas residuales. Un resultado final de interés a analizar entre otros, es el consumo de energía, pues basándose en este consumo se calculó el valor final del gasto energético versus el costo ambiental, lo que sin duda resulta ser un aporte importante para su uso en la remoción de metales pesados y abre la posibilidad de continuar con estudios posteriores de este tipo para la elaboración de nuevos reactores mucho más eficientes y útiles en la industria en general, y como respuesta, ayudará bastante en la disminución de la contaminación ambiental.

  2. Avaliação da estabilidade da emulsão óleo/água proveniente dos resíduos de uma indústria beneficiadora de gemas frente ao uso de diferentes surfactantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Stülp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A reutilização dos resíduos gerados pelos diversos setores industriais é uma prática que cada dia é mais utilizado, devido ao comprometimento das indústrias com sua responsabilidade social (proteção ao ambiente ou a exigências dos órgãos de proteção ambiental, já que muitos resíduos não possuem o devido descarte. Na indústria de beneficiamento de gemas a busca pelo reaproveitamento dos resíduos também tem se tornado uma realidade. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o reaproveitamento do óleo utilizado como lubrificante na indústria de beneficiamento de gemas, juntamente com água, surfactantes e anticorrosivos. Para preparo das emulsões foram utilizadas amostras de óleo diesel utilizado como lubrificante no setor de corte deste tipo de indústria, mais os seguintes surfactantes: Tween 20, Tween 80, Lauril Éter Sulfato de Sódio (SLES e Cetiol HE. Depois de realizadas análises de pH, viscosidade, densidade e separação de fases nestas emulsões, chegou-se a conclusão que o surfactante Lauril Éter Sulfato de Sódio proporcionava a melhor formulação. Utilizando-se deste resultado, foram preparadas novas emulsões com o surfactante Lauril Éter Sulfato de Sódio e um anticorrosivo, neste caso, o molibdato de sódio. Nestas soluções contendo molibdato de sódio mais óleo e surfactante foram realizadas análises de resistência à corrosão deste sistema, utilizando-se de placas de aço SAE 1020, pela análise de perda de massa. Após estas análises, verificou-se que a adição de um anticorrosivo pode reduzir ou inibir a oxidação, mas em outros casos, como neste estudo, pode promover uma oxidação ainda maiorAbstract The reuse of waste generated by various industrial sectors is a practice that has been increasingly used due to impairment of industries with their social responsibility (environmental protection or the requirements of the protection of the environment, since many residues do not have proper disposal. In the processing industry in the reuse of stones is no different. This study aims to evaluate the reuse of the oil used as a lubricant in the stone processing industry, along with water, surfactants and corrosion. To prepare the emulsions samples were used of diesel oil as a lubricant used in the cutting industry this type of industry, plus the following surfactants: Tween 20, Tween 80, sodium lauryl ether sulphate and Cetiol HE. After completing the pH, viscosity, density and phase separation in these emulsions, the conclusion was reached that the surfactant Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate provided the best formulation. Using this result, new emulsions prepared with the surfactant Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate and an anticorrosive, in this case, sodium molybdate. In such solutions containing sodium molybdate were analyzed power anticorrosive this substance, using the SAE 1020 steel plates. After these analyzes, it was found that the addition of an anticorrosive may reduce or inhibit oxidation, but in other cases, as in this study, can promote oxidation even greater.

  3. Proposal to neutralize acid fluids from wells in the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Propuesta para la neutralizacion de fluidos acidos provenientes de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly del Carmen; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Garcia Cuevas, Juan Manuel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    Neutralizing an acidic fluid consists of adding a sodium hydroxide solution to neutralize the H group of acids, therefore increasing the pH. The injection of sodium hydroxide has to be continuous and at a proper depth inside the well to protect against the corrosion of casing and surface equipment. Neutralization is a common practice used in geothermal fields, such as at The Geysers in the US and Miravalles in Costa Rica-places where aggressive fluids cause problems for extracting and using geothermal fluids commercially. A zone surrounding wells H-4, H-16 and H-29 in the northern section of the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field, known as the Colapso Central, has shown evidence of aggressively acidic fluids. Several wells drilled in the area had to be repaired, thus plugging and isolating the deepest production zones. Well H-43 was drilled two years ago in the northern zone of the field, and even though it is not located in the aggressive-fluid zone, the well presents mineralogical features possibly indicating the presence of acidic fluids. Therefore, before producing this well it has been proposed we install a neutralization system with general characteristics presented in this paper. The system will prevent corrosion that up to now has prevented exploitation of the deep portion of Colapso Central, helping to develop the field in a more profitable way. [Spanish] Neutralizar un fluido acido consiste en agregarle una solucion de hidroxido de sodio. Esto neutraliza el grupo de acidos H y en consecuencia aumenta el pH. La inyeccion de hidroxido de sodio se realiza de manera continua y a una profundidad adecuada dentro del pozo para proteger a la tuberia y a todo el equipo superficial contra la corrosion. La neutralizacion es una practica comun que se viene realizando en campos como Los Geysers en Estados Unidos y en Miravalles, Costa Rica, donde la presencia de fluidos agresivos causa problemas en la extraccion y aprovechamiento del fluido geotermico con fines comerciales. La zona alrededor de los pozos H-4, H-16 y H-29 del sector norte del campo de Los Humeros, Pue., conocido como el Colapso Central, presento en el pasado indicios de fluidos acidos agresivos, motivo por el cual varios pozos de esa zona debieron ser reparados cementando y aislando sus zonas productoras mas profundas. El pozo H-43 se perforo hace dos anos en la zona norte del campo, y aunque no esta localizado en la zona con fluidos agresivos, hay caracteristicas mineralogicas que podrian indicar la presencia de fluidos acidos. Por tanto, para la operacion comercial de este pozo se contempla la instalacion de un sistema de neutralizacion, cuyas caracteristicas generales se describen en este trabajo. Esto permitiria prevenir la corrosion que hasta el momento ha impedido la explotacion de la parte profunda del Colapso Central y coadyuvaria a un desarrollo mas rentable en este campo.

  4. Estudo da influência de resíduos catalíticos na degradação de plásticos reciclados (Blenda HDPE/PP e PET provenientes de lixo urbano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Amélia S. F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A degradação derivada do processamento, uso, descarte, lavagem e reprocessamento foram caracterizados neste estudo. Para o HDPE/PP pós-consumo, a degradação foi estudada em função da presença de garrafas de HDPE/LDPE reprocessadas (recicladas e da presença de tampas e rótulos de LDPE e PP. Esses materiais mostraram uma influência significativa na degradação total de HDPE/PP apenas quando presentes em conjunto. Os resíduos que apresentaram menor estabilidade termo-oxidativa foram os rótulos e tampas de LDPE e PP. As análises usadas na caracterização da influência destes resíduos foram espectroscopia do Infra-vermelho (IR e Calorimetria Diferencial Exploratória (tempo de indução oxidativa - OIT. Além disso, a degradação do PET foi estudada em função das condições de lavagem e da presença de resíduos de soda cáustica e adesivo. Foram usadas medidas de viscosidade intrínseca e de titulação para caracterizar estas variáveis. Foi observado que apesar do uso de altas temperaturas (80 ºC durante a lavagem, a extensão de tempo desta etapa (5 ou 15 min não afetou a degradação do PET, pelo menos não em níveis detectáveis pelas análises. No entanto, a remoção do resíduo de adesivo mostrou uma influência significativa na degradação catalítica do PET.

  5. Bacterial diversity characterization in petroleum samples from Brazilian reservoirs Caracterização da diversidade bacteriana em amostras de petróleo provenientes de reservatórios brasileiros

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    Valéria Maia de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating potential differences among the bacterial communities from formation water and oil samples originated from biodegraded and non-biodegraded Brazilian petroleum reservoirs by using a PCR-DGGE based approach. Environmental DNA was isolated and used in PCR reactions with bacterial primers, followed by separation of 16S rDNA fragments in the DGGE. PCR products were also cloned and sequenced, aiming at the taxonomic affiliation of the community members. The fingerprints obtained allowed the direct comparison among the bacterial communities from oil samples presenting distinct degrees of biodegradation, as well as between the communities of formation water and oil sample from the non-biodegraded reservoir. Very similar DGGE band profiles were observed for all samples, and the diversity of the predominant bacterial phylotypes was shown to be low. Cloning and sequencing results revealed major differences between formation water and oil samples from the non-biodegraded reservoir. Bacillus sp. and Halanaerobium sp. were shown to be the predominant components of the bacterial community from the formation water sample, whereas the oil sample also included Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Rhodococcus sp., Streptomyces sp. and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The PCR-DGGE technique, combined with cloning and sequencing of PCR products, revealed the presence of taxonomic groups not found previously in these samples when using cultivation-based methods and 16S rRNA gene library assembly, confirming the need of a polyphasic study in order to improve the knowledge of the extent of microbial diversity in such extreme environments.Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar as comunidades bacterianas de amostras de água de formação e de óleo de reservatórios de petróleo brasileiros com diferentes graus de biodegradação usando a técnica de PCR-DGGE. O DNA ambiental foi isolado e empregado em reações de PCR com primers bacterianos, com subseqüente separação dos fragmentos de DNAr 16S em DGGE. Os produtos de PCR foram também clonados e seqüenciados, visando à afiliação taxonômica dos membros da comunidade. Os fingerprints obtidos permitiram a comparação direta entre as comunidades bacterianas das amostras de óleo com diferentes graus de biodegradação, assim como entre as comunidades da água de formação e do óleo do reservatório não biodegradado. Perfis de DGGE muito similares foram observados para todas as amostras, e a diversidade dos filotipos bacterianos predominantes mostrou-se baixa. Os resultados de clonagem e seqüenciamento revelaram diferenças mais significativas entre as amostras de água de formação e de óleo do reservatório não biodegradado. Bacillus sp. e Halanaerobium sp. mostraram-se os componentes predominantes da comunidade bacteriana da presente na amostra de água de formação, ao passo que a amostra de óleo incluiu também Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Rhodococcus sp., Streptomyces sp. e Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. A técnica de PCR-DGGE, combinada com clonagem e seqüenciamento dos produtos de PCR, revelou a presença de grupos taxonômicos não encontrados anteriormente nestas amostras quando métodos baseados em cultivo e na construção de bibliotecas de genes RNAr 16S foram utilizados, evidenciando a necessidade de um estudo polifásico a fim de contribuir para o conhecimento da diversidade microbiana em ambientes extremos como reservatórios de petróleo.

  6. Avaliação do perfil hematológico de portadores de talassemia alfa provenientes das regiões Sudeste e Nordeste do Brasil Evaluation of alpha thalassemia carriers hematologic profile from Southeast and Northeast Brazilian regions

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    Gislane L. V. Oliveira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A talassemia alfa é uma anemia hereditária resultante da síntese deficiente de cadeias alfa, provocando um excesso relativo de cadeias beta, que vão formar tetrâmeros identificados como hemoglobina H (Hb H no indivíduo adulto. Para direcionar o diagnóstico laboratorial desta anemia, a análise dos índices eritrocitários, a eletroforese em acetato de celulose em pH neutro e a pesquisa de corpos de inclusão de Hb H são essenciais. O objetivo deste estudo foi traçar o perfil hematológico, por meio dos índices eritrocitários, dos portadores de talassemia alfa das regiões Sudeste e Nordeste do Brasil. Foram analisadas 1.010 amostras de sangue periférico após consentimento informado. Os índices eritrocitários como contagem de glóbulos vermelhos (RBC, dosagem de hemoglobina (HGB, hematócrito (HCT, volume corpuscular médio (VCM, hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM foram fornecidos por aparelhos automatizados com controle de qualidade interno e externo. Para o diagnóstico de talassemia alfa foram utilizados testes de triagem e complementares para talassemias, como eletroforese em pH neutro e pesquisa de corpos de inclusão de Hb H com coloração de azul cresil brilhante. Comparando-se os valores hematológicos observados nos dois grupos, notou-se que, em ambas as regiões, os índices com valores discrepantes foram os níveis de HGB e HCT, sendo a maior freqüência de variação observada entre as mulheres. Nos portadores do fenótipo alfa talassêmico da região Nordeste, todos os índices eritrocitários estavam abaixo dos valores de normalidade. Estes resultados evidenciam a necessidade de melhor avaliação do perfil hematológico de talassemia alfa em diferentes regiões, considerando-se os interferentes ambientais para um diagnóstico mais preciso.Alpha thalassemia is a hereditary anaemia resulting from deficient synthesis of the alpha chains, causing a relative excess of beta chains which form tetramers identified as hemoglobin H (Hb H in adults. To diagnose this type of anaemia it is essential to analyze the erythrocytic values, electrophoresis in neutral pH and to study the Hb H inclusion bodies. The aim of this study was to determine the hematologic profile of alpha thalassemia carriers from the southeastern and northeastern regions of Brazil. Peripheral blood samples from 1010 patients were analyzed. The erythrogram values, including the red blood cell count (RBC, hemoglobin level (HGB, hematocrit (HCT, mean cell volume (MCV, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC were supplied by automatic devices. To diagnose alpha thalassemia, screening and complementary tests were performed, including electrophoresis in neutral pH and a study of the Hb H inclusion bodies with brilliant blue cresil staining. Comparing hematologic values obtained in both groups, the indices with discrepant values were related to HGB and HCT and the greatest variations in both regions were observed among women. In alpha thalassemic phenotypic carriers from the northeastern region, all the erythrocytic values were lower than normal. These results show the necessity of better evaluation of alpha thalassemia in different regions, considering the environmental factors in order to give an adequate diagnosis.

  7. Study of modification of fibers from pineapple crown for the formation of polymeric composites;Estudo da modificacao da fibra proveniente da coroa de abacaxi para a formacao de compositos polimericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcon, Juliana S.; Mulinari, Daniella R.; Cioffi, Maria Odila H.; Voorwald, Herman J.C., E-mail: mat07103@feg.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Study of modification of fibers from pineapple crown for the formation of polymeric composites An important aspect to make fiber and matrix work together in a given application is the interface between them. For an efficient adherence fiber/matrix an appropriate interfacial contact is required. For this purpose, it was made a modification in the fiber surface using sodium hydroxide solution. And the effect of fibers modification was analyzed by X-Ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that occurred an effective increase in the crystallinity of modified fibers compared to natural fibers and that was occurred the formation of pores or holes across the rough surface of the fiber showing that will can occur an increase in effective superficial area for contact with polymeric matrix. (author)

  8. Mineralização de carbono e de nitrogênio provenientes de composto de lixo urbano em argissolo Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in an ultisol fertilized with urban waste compost

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    José Ricardo Mantovani

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudos da mineralização do C e do N em solos que receberam aplicação de composto de lixo urbano são importantes para avaliar o comportamento desse resíduo no solo e dar subsídios para definir as doses adequadas às culturas, com vistas em atender à necessidade de N das plantas. Foram realizados dois experimentos em condições de laboratório com o objetivo de avaliar a mineralização de C e de N em um Argissolo textura média adubado com composto de lixo urbano. No primeiro experimento, utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e três repetições, com os tratamentos constituídos de cinco doses de composto de lixo urbano, equivalentes a 0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 t ha-1. No segundo experimento, empregou-se esquema fatorial, com delineamento inteiramente ao acaso e três repetições, combinando as mesmas cinco doses de composto de lixo urbano utilizadas no primeiro experimento e 11 tempos de incubação (0, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, 98, 112 e 126 dias. Os maiores aumentos de N-NO3- no solo foram obtidos até os 42 dias de incubação, independentemente da dose de composto de lixo aplicada, percebendo-se, a partir dos 70 dias, tendência de estabilização. A fração de mineralização de C-orgânico em C-CO2 menor do que 2 % em 168 dias indica que o composto de lixo urbano é material que contribui para aumentar os estoques de matéria orgânica do solo. Na ausência de adubação nitrogenada complementar, a fração de mineralização de N-orgânico de 12 % em 126 dias evidencia que o composto de lixo urbano apresenta potencial fertilizante de liberação lenta de N para as plantas.Studies about nitrogen and carbon mineralization in soils amended with urban waste compost are important to evaluate the reactions of this waste in soil and to define the best rates for crops. Two experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions to evaluate carbon and nitrogen mineralization in an Ultisol fertilized with urban waste compost. The Ultisol first experiment had a completely randomized design, with five urban waste compost rates of 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 t ha-1 and three replicates. In the second experiment, N mineralization was evaluated at the same waste compost rates along eleven incubation periods (0, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, 98, 112, and 126 days, in three replicates. The following results were obtained for a medium texture Ultisol fertilized with urban waste compost: regardless of urban waste compost dose the greatest increase in N-NO3- in the soil was found up to 42 days, stabilizing afterwards; the mineralization rate of organic carbon of less than 2 % in 168 days indicates that urban waste compost contributes to increase soil organic matter. In the absence of other N fertilizers, urban waste compost releases N to plants slowly at a rate of 12 % in 126 days, demonstrating its potential as slow-release nitrogen fertilizer.

  9. IMPLICACIONES BIOÉTICAS DERIVADAS DEL ACCESO DE LAS PAREJAS DEL MISMO SEXO A LAS TECNOLOGÍAS PROVENIENTES DE LA BIOMEDICINA Y LA BIOTECNOLOGÍA, PARA LA CONFORMACIÓN DE FAMILIAS HOMOPARENTALES

    OpenAIRE

    Zárate-Cuello, Amparo de Jesús; Celis, Luis Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se realiza una reflexión y una revisión, desde el ámbito de las ciencias básicas y del bioderecho, sobre los aspectos biológicos y genéticos de la homosexualidad, y sobre el impacto que tiene en la familia el acceso a las técnicas de reproducción asistida por parte de las parejas del mismo sexo. Lo anterior nos lleva al desarrollo de conceptos como la "violencia prenatal", el derecho de los niños a crecer en el seno de una familia con una imagen paterna y materna, al igual qu...

  10. Influências dos modos de operação nas emissões de poluentes provenientes de veículos flex em região urbana

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    Julie Anne Holanda Azevedo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes to verify the influence of operating modes on pollutants emissions of flex - fuel vehicles. For this, a real driving cycle was developed for the flex light vehicle in an urban street of the Fortaleza city. For data collection was used a method of instant collection of kinematic parameters from engine, road and vehicle emissions. Due to the local characteristics of the traffic, a greater representatively of the idle operating modes was observed. In general, there was a greater influence of the acceleration mode on pollutant emissions and fuel consumption. The highest average CO2 emission rate was observed during acceleration mode (6.38 mg/s, followed by the idle mode (4.70 mg/s. For the CO pollutant, the highest average emission rate was also observed during the acceleration mode (55.60 μg/s, followed by the idle mode (35.01 μg/s. For the NOx pollutant, higher emission rates were observed in the acceleration mode, 5.08 μg/km and 1.98 μg/km for the idle mode. The average fuel consumption in the acceleration mode was 6.61 L/100 km during the tests, followed by idle and deceleration modes, with 4.84 and 3.39 L/100 km, respectively.

  11. Patrones de adherencia de cepas de Escherichia coli Difusamente adherente (DAEC provenientes de niños con y sin diarrea Adhesion patterns in diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC strains isolated from children With and without diarrhea

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    Maribel Riveros

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las E. coli de adherencia difusa (DAEC son el sexto grupo de E. coli diarrogénicas reconocidas. Su asociación con diarrea es controversial. No se conoce la variabilidad en los patrones de adherencia de cepas clínicas. Objetivos. Comparar los patrones de adherencia entre cepas aisladas de niños con y sin diarrea. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó 31 cepas DAEC, 25 de diarrea y 6 de niños asintomáticos (control aislados de un estudio de cohorte de niños menores de 12 meses en el cono sur de Lima. Las DAEC fueron identificadas por PCR (gen daaD. Se evaluó el patrón y grado de adherencia en cultivos de células HEp-2; la polimerización de actina se evaluó por la prueba de coloración de fluorescencia de actina (FAS; y la motilidad se evaluó por métodos convencionales microbiológicos. Resultados. El patrón de adherencia difusa se encontró en el 88% de muestras de diarrea y en el 100% de muestras control. La cantidad de bacterias adheridas por célula fue significativamente menor en las muestras de diarrea (pIntroduction. Diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC is the sixth recognized group of diarrheagenic E. coli. However, its association with diarrhea remains controversial. Variability in the adherence patterns of clinical strains is unknown. Objectives. To compare the adherence patterns between strains isolated from children with and without diarrhea. Materials and methods. A total of 31 DAEC strains were analyzed, 25 from children with diarrhea and 6 from asymptomatic (control children, isolated from a cohort study of children under one year of age in the southern districts of Lima. DAEC were identified by PCR (daaD gene. The pattern and adherence score in HEp-2 cell culture were evaluated, Actin polimerization was determined by fluorescence actin staining (FAS and motility was evaluated by conventional microbiology methods. Results. Diffuse adherence pattern was found in 88% of diarrhea samples and in the total of control strains. The number of bacteria adhered per cell was significantly lower in diarrhea samples (p<0.05. However, actin polymerization was greater in diarrhea samples (60% vs. 17%. Motility test was positive in 60% of the diarrhea samples and in all control samples. Conclusions. Our findings suggest a difference between adherence patterns, actin polymerization and motility between DAEC strains corresponding to diarrhea and control groups. The significance of these results must be confirmed with a bigger number of strains and determining the presence of virulence genes in the strains.

  12. Discharge of treated wastewater from drilling exploratory wells by infiltration of hydrocarbons in the ground; Vertido de aguas residuales tratadas provenientes de pozos de perforacion exploratoria de hidrocarburos mediante la infiltracion en el terreno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Miranda, J. P.

    2009-07-01

    The discharge of treated waste water from a well drilling exploratory oil, such as the consideration ser out to determine the minimum area needed to saturate the ground is not where he planned the infiltration of the dumping in special conditions of soil type and permeability, limited space, water quality and influence of underground aquifers in the study area. (Author) 16 refs.

  13. Concentração de Rn-222 e filhos em águas provenientes de poços e emergências de água da região de Presidente Prudente: resultados preliminares

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    Ana Maria Araya Osório

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the preliminary results about the concentration of radon and radon daughters in wells and springs water from Presidente Prudente. Six water samples were studied: three from well-water, two from springs water and one from poTabelale water. For the etermination of α-activity the samples were placed inside plastic containers where the CR-39 tracks detectors were outside the water. The track density of α-particles were measured by using optical microscopy. The results show that one sample from well-water presented higher concentration of radon and radon daughters than the other samples.

  14. ¿Policentrismo o ampliación de la centralidad histórica en el Área Metropolitana del Gran Santiago?: Evidencia novedosa proveniente de la encuesta Casen 2009

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    Jorge Rodríguez V

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Se usan los módulos de "movilidad cotidiana para trabajar" del censo de población de 2002 y de la Encuesta de Caracterización Socioeconómica Nacional (Casen de 2009, de Chile, para verificar las hipótesis del avance del policentrismo y de la "difusión del empleo" en el Área Metropolitana del Gran Santiago (AMGS, Chile, planteadas por estudios recientes. Ambas hipótesis se ajustan tanto a las predicciones de las teorías del cambio metropolitano predominantes, como a la experiencia de numerosas ciudades de los países desarrollados y de América Latina. Sin embargo, en ellas se tiende a desconocer el efecto que la segregación residencial socioeconómica a gran escala del AMGS tiene sobre la localización del empleo. La evidencia sistematizada en este trabajo sugiere un proceso mixto en el AMGS: nuevas sub-centralidades aparecen, pero no contrapesan aún el predominio económico de la centralidad histórica ampliada.Questions on commuting from the 2002 Population Census and the 2009 Casen (National Socioeconomic Characterization survey of Chile are used for assessing two hypotheses raised in some recent articles about the Metropolitan Area of Greater Santiago (MAGS: i the advancement of polycentrism, and ii territorial diffusion of employment across the MAGS. Both hypotheses are based on mainstream theories of metropolitan change, and have been supported by evidence from several cities, mostly in developed countries. However, these hypotheses do not take the effects of Santiago's high levels of residential segregation into account. According to results obtained in this study, the MAGS is experiencing a mixed process: new centralities indeed are arising but they do not overshadow yet the concentration of employment in the wider historic centrality.

  15. Descripción de la nocividad del cromo proveniente de la industria curtiembre y de las posibles formas de removerlo Description of chrome toxicity from the tannery industry and possible ways of removing it

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    Álvaro Chávez Porras

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Los diversos compuestos de cromo (Cr representan una gran amenaza al ambiente y al hombre debido a sus efectos nocivos. Las intoxicaciones se manifiestan en lesiones renales, gastrointestinales, del hígado, del riñón, de la glándula tiroides y la médula ósea, y la velocidad corporal de eliminación es muy lenta. Las industrias de curtiduría de pieles utilizan sales de Cr en sus procesos, que generan cantidades de efluentes líquidos con alto contenido de este metal, el cual, debe ser removido a fin de cumplir con la legislación ambiental. En esta revisión se presenta una descripción de algunas de las técnicas de remoción como la electrolítica o electrodeposición; el intercambio iónico; la precipitación y los sistemas biológicos. Cada una de ellas ofrece una solución práctica y viable en términos económicos, ambientales y de mejoramiento continuo de los procesos, permitiendo pensaren una producción sostenible y responsable.The various chromium (Cr compounds represent a major threat to both environment and human beings, due to its harmful effects. Toxicity is shown in kidney, gastrointestinal tract, liver, thyroid glands, and in the marrow; and body elimination speed is very slow. Tannery industries use Cr salts in their processes, generating large amounts of liquid effluents with high content of this metal; which should be removed in order to comply with existing environmental legislation. This study provides a description of techniques such as electrolytic removal or electroplating, ion exchange process; process of precipitation; and biological systems. Each one of them offers a practical and feasible solution in terms of economy, environment, and continuous improvement of processes, which allows thinking of a sustainable and responsible production.

  16. Botanical profile of bee pollen from the southern coastal region of Bahia, Brazil Perfil botânico do pólen apícola proveniente do litoral sul da Bahia, Brasil

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    Marcos da Costa Dórea

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the botanical origin of pollen loads collected by Apis mellifera L. in Canavieiras municipality, Bahia state. It provides a list of polliniferous plant species from the Atlantic Forest biome that are important for the development of regional apiculture. Using the acetolysis method, 35 bee-pollen samples were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Results showed that pollen types Elaeis (23.99%, Mimosa pudica (22.78% and Cecropia (13.68% were the most abundant among the samples. These also showed the highest relative frequencies of the material studied and were important pollen sources for bees in the study area.O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar a origem botânica das bolotas de pólen coletadas pelas abelhas Apis mellifera L. no município de Canavieiras, Bahia, gerando uma lista de plantas poliníferas pertencentes ao bioma Mata Atlântica e importantes para o desenvolvimento da apicultura regional. Foram analisadas palinologicamente 35 amostras de pólen apícola, utilizando-se o processo de acetólise para, em seguida, serem feitas análises qualitativas e quantitativas. Os resultados revelaram que os tipos polínicos Elaeis (23,99%, Mimosa pudica (22,78% e Cecropia (13,68% foram os mais abundantes no pólen apícola analisado. Estes tipos polínicos também apresentaram as maiores frequências relativas de todo o material estudado e representam importantes plantas fontes de pólen para as abelhas na área estudada.

  17. Qualidade de méis produzidos por apicultores e méis provenientes de entrepostos registrados no Serviço de Inspeção Federal

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    M.B.L. Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to compare the physiochemical quality of honeys from beekeepers in northern Zona da Mata, MG, and honeys from warehouses registered at the Serviço de Inspeção Federal (SIF in the State of Minas Gerais. Physiochemical analysis involving 39 samples were done, with three samples from each of the 13 beekeepers and 18 samples from warehouses registered at SIF-MG. Differences in quality from the two origins occurred in: free acidity, ashes, hydroxymethylfurfural, apparent sucrose and insoluble solids, where honeys from warehouses were of better quality. In addition, for free acidity and insoluble solids, two samples from northern Zona da Mata showed values above the established by the Instrução Normativa n°11 relative to the year 2000, whereas the values for insoluble solids in 11 samples from northern Zona da Mata and 2 samples from warehouses were in disagreement with this legislation.

  18. National inventory of anhyd ric carbonic emissions providing of fuels consumption as energy source; Inventario nacional de las emisiones de anhidrido carbonico proveniente del consumo de combustibles como fuente de Energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    The Convention of the United Nations about Climatic Change, carried out in 1992, and whose ratification this being considerate d at level Parliament in the Republica Oriental del Uruguay, it has as objective to achieve the stabilization of the concentrations of gases of effect hot house in the atmosphere at a level that impedes interferences dangerous antropogenias. The National Direction of environment has carried out and Inventory of the Emissions of gas carbonic anhydride in the execution of the arisen commitments of the mentioned Convention. It being this the first step for the realization of a national inventory, which will not include the rest of the gases of effect hothouse controlled by the Protocols of Montreal. The inventory of the emissions carried out by the Division of Global and Regional Matters, it has been carried out for each one of the years understood in the period from 1987 to 1992 being studied the contribution of each sector of the national activity in the Emissions of carbonic anhydride.The results show that the total emissions estimated for Uruguay reach only the 6655 gigagrames of annual for the year 1992, being a light increase of the emission values among the years 1989 at 1992.

  19. Expresión y actividad de posibles polimorfismos provenientes de individuos normales en la proteína de 67 kd del sistema NADPH oxidasa utilizando el sistema COSphox.

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    Andrés Augusto Arias

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available El sistema NADPH oxidasa de las células fagocíticas cumple una función importante durante la respuesta antimicrobiana del organismo. La activación de este sistema está precedida por la translocación de las proteínas citosólicas p67phox, p47phox y p40phox hacia la membrana para ponerse en contacto con el flavocitocromo b558, lo que induce la generación del anión superóxido, un precursor de agentes microbicidas oxidantes. El presente trabajo presenta un análisis funcional del sistema NADPH oxidasa basado en los hallazgos de polimorfismos encontrados en el gen de p67phox de individuos sanos. Para esto se generaron mutaciones en el cADN que codifica la p67phox y se expresaron en el sistema de células COSphox. Los datos obtenidos en el presente trabajo indican que los cambios Val166?Ile, Pro329?Ser y His389?Gln no generan alteraciones en el funcionamiento de la p67phox cuando su función se analizó en el sistema transgénico basado en células COS-7. Por lo tanto, estos polimorfismos no generan ningún riesgo genético de producir deficiencias en la activación del sistema NADPH oxidasa. Además, se demuestra que el modelo de células COSphox representa un nuevo sistema celular, fácilmente transfectable que permite estudiar la función del sistema NADPH oxidasa de las células fagocíticas y sus particularidades genéticas. Finalmente, los hallazgos con estos polimorfismos nos permiten avanzar en el conocimiento sobre los mecanismos moleculares involucrados en la activación del sistema NADPH oxidasa células fagocíticas.

  20. Caracterización genética del virus de la fiebre amarilla proveniente de un brote icterohemorrágico en una comunidad nativa del distrito de Imaza, Amazonas, 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Yábar, Carlos; Mamani, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    La fiebre amarilla (FA) sigue siendo una enfermedad de importancia en salud pública en el mundo a pesar de la existencia de una vacuna eficaz (WHO, 2005). En Sudamérica, el Perú fue uno de los países que registró el mayor número de casos de FA durante el 2004 (WHO, 2005), contando con zonas endémicas que se extienden desde la selva norte hacia la selva central. Recientemente, en diciembre de 2005 la Dirección de Salud (DISA) de Bagua tomó conocimiento de un brote icterohemorrágico en la co...

  1. Metodologias para reutilização do resíduo de terra diatomácea, proveniente da filtração e clarificação da cerveja

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    Marcos Roberto Goulart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The earth diatomite is a material used by the industries in the filtration process and clarification of the beer. This material presents a reduced useful life due to the blockages of their pores during the filtration process. The objective of this work was to reactivate the properties of filtration of the earth diatomite, saturated with organic matter during the filtration stage, starting from a controlled thermal treatment. The obtained results demonstrated that the earth diatomite saturated with organic matter submitted to a controlled thermal treatment has their filtration properties reactivated, could be reused in the beer production process.

  2. Trading of the electric power originated at biomass - regulatory incentives in the new electric sector model; Comercializacao de energia eletrica proveniente de biomassa. Incentivos regulatorios no novo modelo do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Grupo de Planejamento Energeticos e Sistemas Eletricos]. E-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br; Agapito, Cassiano Augusto; Lima, Rodrigo Alves [AES Tiete S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: cassiano.agapito@aes.com; rodrigoa.lima@aes.com

    2006-07-01

    Brazil offers excellent conditions to produce and use biomass as fuel in large scale. The electric energy generation from biomass presents a huge potential, however it is poorly explored up to this moment. Among the prime reasons by the lack of investments in that sector are the institutional obstacles and the risk aversion of investors who have a different focus in business and have difficulty to understand the complex market rules. The Brazilian government shows interest in increase the share of that source in the national installed capacity, since various social and environmental advantages, besides supplementary between the hydraulic and biomass inventory. The regulation changes since the law 10,848/04 and the decree 5,163/04 modify the structure of the electrical energy market and brought some incentives to the sells of the energy deriving from biomass. The possibility of trade your capacity, the annual Physical Guarantee definition and the reduction on transmission and distribution costs will be the center of our discussion. (author)

  3. Valorização de landoltia punctata proveniente de tratamento de esgoto doméstico através de hidrólise enzimática visando a produção de etanol

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Flávia Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Alimentos, Florianópolis, 2014. A necessidade de se explorar novas fontes de energia renovável e limpa vem exigindo o desenvolvimento de biocombustíveis, por serem considerados uma alternativa promissora aos combustíveis tradicionais. Nesse contexto, as lemnas vêm ganhando interesse em pesquisas, por não competirem com culturas alimentícias e terras produtivas par...

  4. BENEFÍCIOS AMBIENTAIS E ECONOMICOS PROVENIENTES DA IMPLEMENTAÇÃO DA PRODUÇÃO MAIS LIMPA EM UMA INDÚSTRIA DE MÓVEIS DE MUNICIPIO DE NATAL-RN

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Paulo Silva Leite; Handson Cláudio Dias Pimenta

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo geral analisar os benefícios ambientais e econômicos obtidos através da implementação da Produção mais Limpa (P+L) em uma indústria de móveis localizada em Natal-RN. Trata-se de um estudo de caso que contou com uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o setor e a P+L e uma pesquisa de campo que contemplou as seguintes etapas: diagnóstico ambiental e operacional da empresa (estudo de arranjo físico, levantamento de métodos, fluxograma especifico do processo produt...

  5. Evaluación del efecto de las artemisininas provenientes del extracto etanólico de Artemisia cina sobre L3 de Haemonchus contortus en una técnica de explantes abomasales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Isabel Higuera-Piedrahita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El nuevo enfoque de control integrado de parásitos obliga a buscar alternativas que consideren el medioambiente, es decir, sostenibles y sustentables. El objetivo de este trabajo fue fraccionar el extracto etanólico de la planta Artemisia cina, obtener artemisininas y conocer el efecto de estas sobre la capacidad de asociación de las L3 de Haemonchus contortus en explantes abomasales. El extracto etanólico se fraccionó por medio de la metodología establecida para Artemisia japónica, y se identificaron las artemisininas por medio de cromatografía en capa fina, teniendo como referencia artemisininas comerciales. Las artemisininas se utilizaron sobre L3 desenvainada, se realizó la técnica de explantes abomasales por triplicado y se compararon así: levamisol (7.5 mg/ml, artemisinina comercial (1 mg/ml, agua y seis diferentes fracciones de A. cina a dosis de 1 mg/ml: Ac3k, Ac3b, Ac3a, Ac3h, Ac3i, Ac4b. No se obtuvieron diferencias significativas entre las fracciones de A. cina y artemisinina comercial (p>0.05. Se concluye que no existió efecto de las artemisininas obtenidas del extracto etanólico de A. cina sobre la capacidad de asociación de las L3 de H. contortus al tejido abomasal. Es importante continuar con más estudios de la artemisinina para determinar sobre qué fase del parásito afecta su viabilidad.

  6. Evaluation of the quality of hot air dehydrated onion coming from gamma radiated bulbs; Evaluacion de la calidad de cebolla deshidratada por aire caliente proveniente de bulbos tratados con radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elman, L; Pezzutti, A; Croci, C A [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Laboratorio de Radioisotopos

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the quality of hot air dehydrated onion, as regards physical and chemical characteristics, coming from the regional product that was gamma irradiated for sprout inhibition. We worked with the onion variety Valenciana Sintetica 14. Radio inhibition was made 30 days post harvest with gamma radiation from a {sup 60}Co source at the Centro Atomico Ezeiza-CNEA, using a dose of 60 Gy. The skin of the bulbs was manually removed and the bulbs were cut in pieces 3 mm thick and between 1 and 3 cm long. The material was dehydrated in a rotating dryer with forced air circulation at 60 C degrees, between 0.8 and 1.7 m/s air speed and at ambient relative humidity. Dehydration was made 80 days after post-irradiation. The quality of the dehydrated onion was evaluated by the following physical- chemical analysis: total solids content, pungency (indirectly measured by pyruvic acid content assessment), color, pH, carbon hydrates and sensorial analysis. All analytical determinations were made in triplicate. The results obtained showed there are no significant changes between the averages of the physical-chemical properties of the control dehydrated samples and those coming from the radio-inhibited raw matter. According to the sensorial analysis, only the color of dehydrated onion was affected by the radio inhibition process. However, and according to the panel members comment, the greatest browning degree observed in ionizing radiation treated onion seemed to result more attractive to them. It may be concluded that radio inhibited regional onion can be useful as raw matter for hot air dehydrated product. It must be remarked that its use would extend the product use by dehydration plants, thus implying an increase of their processing capacity with the corresponding financial benefit. (author)

  7. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: a remarkable histopathological picture of one asymptomatic animal reported from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil Leishmaniose visceral canina: um caso inusitado de um animal assintomático