Sample records for disks ii dynamical

  1. Evolution of rotating star clusters at the inelastic-collision stage. II. Dynamics of a disk of gas and stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanova, M.M.


    The dynamics of a gas--star disk embedded in a dense, mildly oblate (flattening epsilon-c or approx. =0.2--0.3 the stable disk will survive for at least half the cluster evolution time. The possibility of a thin disk of stars existing inside a dense star cluster is considered. For small epsilon-c and for disk member stars having > or approx. =0.04 the mass of the cluster members, collisions between cluster and disk stars will have no effect on the disk evolution prior to instability

  2. Structure and evolution of irradiated accretion disks. I - Static thermal equilibrium structure. II - Dynamical evolution of a thermally unstable torus (United States)

    Tuchman, Y.; Mineshige, S.; Wheeler, J. C.


    The thermal equilibrum structure and dynamical behavior of externally irradiated accretion disks are investigated. For radiative disks only the surface layer is heated, while for convective disks the heat penetrates deeply into the disk. For sufficiently strong radiation and given irradiation flux F(irr), the disk is completely stabilized against thermal instabilities of the sort invoked to explain dwarf novae. For moderately strong irradiation there is still an unstable branch in the thermal equilibrium curve. In typical soft X-ray transients, the disk is unstable against the dwarf-nova type instability. Fixed F(irr) on accretion disk annuli reduces the amplitude and the quiescent times and increases the outburst duration of the resultant light curves. Varying F(irr) in proportion to the mass accretion rate at the disks's inner edge results in light curves with a plateau in the decay from outbursts. In the case when irradiation is suddenly switched on, a temperature inversion results which leads to the formation of an accretion corona.

  3. Evolution of planetesimals. I - Dynamics: Relaxation in a thin disk. II - Numerical simulations (United States)

    Palmer, P. L.; Lin, D. N. C.; Aarseth, S. J.


    The study examines the effects of density inhomogeneity and differential rotation as well as inelastic collisions on the dynamical evolution of planetesimals. Consideration is given to a three-step analysis: the dynamical evolution of the planetesimals, collisions and mass accumulation, and interaction with gas. It is shown that the velocity dispersion of a cold system of planetesimals increases rapidly due to elastic gravitational scattering. When the dispersion in the epicycle amplitude becomes comparable to the planetesimals' Roche radius, energy is transferred from the systematic Keplerian shear to the dispersive motion. With a numerical N-body scheme, gravitational scattering and physical collisions among a system of planetesimals is simulated. It is shown that dynamical equilibrium is attained with a velocity dispersion comparable to the surface escape velocity of those planetesimals which contribute most of the system mass.

  4. The CDF Run II disk inventory manager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, Paul; Lammel, Stephan


    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment records and analyses proton-antiproton interactions at a center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron started in April of this year. The duration of the run is expected to be over two years. One of the main data handling strategies of CDF for Run II is to hide all tape access from the user and to facilitate sharing of data and thus disk space. A disk inventory manager was designed and developed over the past years to keep track of the data on disk, to coordinate user access to the data, and to stage data back from tape to disk as needed. The CDF Run II disk inventory manager consists of a server process, a user and administrator command line interfaces, and a library with the routines of the client API. Data are managed in filesets which are groups of one or more files. The system keeps track of user access to the filesets and attempts to keep frequently accessed data on disk. Data that are not on disk are automatically staged back from tape as needed. For CDF the main staging method is based on the mt-tools package as tapes are written according to the ANSI standard


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincke, Kirsten; Pfalzner, Susanne, E-mail: [Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)


    To what degree the cluster environment influences the sizes of protoplanetary disks surrounding young stars is still an open question. This is particularly true for the short-lived clusters typical for the solar neighborhood, in which the stellar density and therefore the influence of the cluster environment change considerably over the first 10 Myr. In previous studies, the effect of the gas on the cluster dynamics has often been neglected; this is remedied here. Using the code NBody6++, we study the stellar dynamics in different developmental phases—embedded, expulsion, and expansion—including the gas, and quantify the effect of fly-bys on the disk size. We concentrate on massive clusters (M {sub cl} ≥ 10{sup 3}–6 ∗ 10{sup 4} M {sub Sun}), which are representative for clusters like the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) or NGC 6611. We find that not only the stellar density but also the duration of the embedded phase matters. The densest clusters react fastest to the gas expulsion and drop quickly in density, here 98% of relevant encounters happen before gas expulsion. By contrast, disks in sparser clusters are initially less affected, but because these clusters expand more slowly, 13% of disks are truncated after gas expulsion. For ONC-like clusters, we find that disks larger than 500 au are usually affected by the environment, which corresponds to the observation that 200 au-sized disks are common. For NGC 6611-like clusters, disk sizes are cut-down on average to roughly 100 au. A testable hypothesis would be that the disks in the center of NGC 6611 should be on average ≈20 au and therefore considerably smaller than those in the ONC.

  6. Disk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu


    htmlabstractIn disk storage, data is recorded on planar, round and rotating surfaces (disks, discs, or platters). A disk drive is a peripheral device of a computer system, connected by some communication medium to a disk controller. The disk controller is a chip, typically connected to the CPU of


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haubois, X.; Carciofi, A. C. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Rivinius, Th. [European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Okazaki, A. T. [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkai-Gakuen University, Toyohira-ku, Sapporo 062-8605 (Japan); Bjorkman, J. E., E-mail: [Ritter Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)


    Be stars possess gaseous circumstellar disks that modify in many ways the spectrum of the central B star. Furthermore, they exhibit variability at several timescales and for a large number of observables. Putting the pieces together of this dynamical behavior is not an easy task and requires a detailed understanding of the physical processes that control the temporal evolution of the observables. There is an increasing body of evidence that suggests that Be disks are well described by standard {alpha}-disk theory. This paper is the first of a series that aims at studying the possibility of inferring several disk and stellar parameters through the follow-up of various observables. Here we study the temporal evolution of the disk density for different dynamical scenarios, including the disk build-up as a result of a long and steady mass injection from the star, the disk dissipation that occurs after mass injection is turned off, as well as scenarios in which active periods are followed by periods of quiescence. For those scenarios, we investigate the temporal evolution of continuum photometric observables using a three-dimensional non-LTE radiative transfer code. We show that light curves for different wavelengths are specific of a mass loss history, inclination angle, and {alpha} viscosity parameter. The diagnostic potential of those light curves is also discussed.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chao-Chin; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Menou, Kristen


    The dynamics of planetesimals and planetary cores may be strongly influenced by density perturbations driven by magneto-rotational turbulence in their natal protoplanetary gas disks. Using the local shearing box approximation, we perform numerical simulations of planetesimals moving as massless particles in a turbulent, magnetized, unstratified gas disk. Our fiducial disk model shows turbulent accretion characterized by a Shakura-Sunyaev viscosity parameter of α ∼ 10 -2 , with rms density perturbations of ∼10%. We measure the statistical evolution of particle orbital properties in our simulations including mean radius, eccentricity, and velocity dispersion. We confirm random walk growth in time of all three properties, the first time that this has been done with direct orbital integration in a local model. We find that the growth rate increases with the box size used at least up to boxes of eight scale heights in horizontal size. However, even our largest boxes show velocity dispersions sufficiently low that collisional destruction of planetesimals should be unimportant in the inner disk throughout its lifetime. Our direct integrations agree with earlier torque measurements showing that type I migration dominates over diffusive migration by stochastic torques for most objects in the planetary core and terrestrial planet mass range. Diffusive migration remains important for objects in the mass range of kilometer-sized planetesimals. Discrepancies in the derived magnitude of turbulence between local and global simulations of magneto-rotationally unstable disks remains an open issue, with important consequences for planet formation scenarios.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Slepian, Zachary S.


    We study the dynamics of a vertically thin, dispersion-dominated disk of planetesimals with eccentricities e-tilde and inclinations i-tilde (normalized in Hill units) satisfying e-tilde >> 1, i-tilde -2 << 1. This situation may be typical (even if only temporarily) for, e.g., a population of protoplanetary cores in the end of the oligarchic phase of planet formation. In this regime of orbital parameters, planetesimal scattering has an anisotropic character and strongly differs from scattering in thick (i-tilde ∼ e-tilde) disks. We derive analytical expressions for the planetesimal scattering coefficients and compare them with numerical calculations. We find significant discrepancies in the inclination scattering coefficients obtained by the two approaches and ascribe this difference to the effects not accounted for in the analytical calculation: multiple scattering events (temporary captures, which may be relevant for the production of distant planetary satellites outside the Hill sphere) and distant interaction of planetesimals prior to their close encounter. Our calculations show that the inclination of a thin, dispersion-dominated planetesimal disk grows exponentially on a very short timescale implying that (1) such disks must be very short-lived and (2) planetesimal accretion in this dynamical phase is insignificant. Our results are also applicable to the dynamics of shear-dominated disks switching to the dispersion-dominated regime.

  10. Dynamic Strength of Titin's Z-Disk End

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kollár


    Full Text Available Titin is a giant filamentous protein traversing the half sarcomere of striated muscle with putative functions as diverse as providing structural template, generating elastic response, and sensing and relaying mechanical information. The Z-disk region of titin, which corresponds to the N-terminal end of the molecule, has been thought to be a hot spot for mechanosensing while also serving as anchorage for its sarcomeric attachment. Understanding the mechanics of titin's Z-disk region, particularly under the effect of binding proteins, is of great interest. Here we briefly review recent findings on the structure, molecular associations, and mechanics of titin's Z-disk region. In addition, we report experimental results on the dynamic strength of titin's Z1Z2 domains measured by nanomechanical manipulation of the chemical dimer of a recombinant protein fragment.

  11. Chaotic Dynamics of Falling Disks: from Maxwell to Bar Tricks. (United States)

    Field, Stuart


    Understanding the motion of flat objects falling in a viscous medium dates back to at least Newton and Maxwell, and is relevant to problems in meteorology, sedimentology, aerospace and chemical engineering, and nori/disks/pub.html>bar wagering strategies. Recent theoretical studies have emphasized the role played by deterministic chaos. Here we nori/falling.html>report(S. B. Field, M. Klaus, M. G. Moore, and F. Nori, Nature 388), 252 (1997) experimental observations and theoretical analysis of the dynamics of disks falling in water/glycerol mixtures. We find four distinct types of motion, and map out a ``phase diagram'' in the appropriate variables. The apparently complex behavior of the disks can be reduced to a series of one-dimensional maps which display a discontinuity at the crossover from periodic and chaotic motion. This discontinuity leads to an unusual intermittency transition between the two behaviors, which has not previously been observed experimentally in any system.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, Marcelo; Faber, Joshua A.; Lombardi, James C.


    Numerical calculations of merging black hole binaries indicate that asymmetric emission of gravitational radiation can kick the merged black hole at up to thousands of km s –1 , and a number of systems have been observed recently whose properties are consistent with an active galactic nucleus containing a supermassive black hole moving with substantial velocity with respect to its broader accretion disk. We study here the effect of an impulsive kick delivered to a black hole on the dynamical evolution of its accretion disk using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, focusing attention on the role played by the kick angle with respect to the orbital angular momentum vector of the pre-kicked disk. We find that for more vertical kicks, for which the angle between the kick and the normal vector to the disk θ ∼ 45°, matter rapidly accretes toward the black hole. There is a systematic trend for higher potential luminosities for more oblique kick angles for a given black hole mass, disk mass, and kick velocity, and we find large amplitude oscillations in time in the case of a kick oriented 60° from the vertical.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Gisela A.; Schreiber, Matthias R.; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Cieza, Lucas A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Merin, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, ESAC (ESA), P.O. Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Smith Castelli, Analia V. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Allen, Lori E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Morrell, Nidia [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile)


    Transition disk objects are pre-main-sequence stars with little or no near-IR excess and significant far-IR excess, implying inner opacity holes in their disks. Here we present a multifrequency study of transition disk candidates located in Lupus I, III, IV, V, VI, Corona Australis, and Scorpius. Complementing the information provided by Spitzer with adaptive optics (AO) imaging (NaCo, VLT), submillimeter photometry (APEX), and echelle spectroscopy (Magellan, Du Pont Telescopes), we estimate the multiplicity, disk mass, and accretion rate for each object in our sample in order to identify the mechanism potentially responsible for its inner hole. We find that our transition disks show a rich diversity in their spectral energy distribution morphology, have disk masses ranging from {approx}<1 to 10 M{sub JUP}, and accretion rates ranging from {approx}<10{sup -11} to 10{sup -7.7} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Of the 17 bona fide transition disks in our sample, three, nine, three, and two objects are consistent with giant planet formation, grain growth, photoevaporation, and debris disks, respectively. Two disks could be circumbinary, which offers tidal truncation as an alternative origin of the inner hole. We find the same heterogeneity of the transition disk population in Lupus III, IV, and Corona Australis as in our previous analysis of transition disks in Ophiuchus while all transition disk candidates selected in Lupus V, VI turned out to be contaminating background asymptotic giant branch stars. All transition disks classified as photoevaporating disks have small disk masses, which indicates that photoevaporation must be less efficient than predicted by most recent models. The three systems that are excellent candidates for harboring giant planets potentially represent invaluable laboratories to study planet formation with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array.

  14. Evolution of protoplanetary disks from their taxonomy in scattered light: Group I vs. Group II (United States)

    Garufi, A.; Meeus, G.; Benisty, M.; Quanz, S. P.; Banzatti, A.; Kama, M.; Canovas, H.; Eiroa, C.; Schmid, H. M.; Stolker, T.; Pohl, A.; Rigliaco, E.; Ménard, F.; Meyer, M. R.; van Boekel, R.; Dominik, C.


    Context. High-resolution imaging reveals a large morphological variety of protoplanetary disks. To date, no constraints on their global evolution have been found from this census. An evolutionary classification of disks was proposed based on their IR spectral energy distribution, with the Group I sources showing a prominent cold component ascribed to an earlier stage of evolution than Group II. Aims: Disk evolution can be constrained from the comparison of disks with different properties. A first attempt at disk taxonomy is now possible thanks to the increasing number of high-resolution images of Herbig Ae/Be stars becoming available. Methods: Near-IR images of six Group II disks in scattered light were obtained with VLT/NACO in polarimetric differential imaging, which is the most efficient technique for imaging the light scattered by the disk material close to the stars. We compare the stellar/disk properties of this sample with those of well-studied Group I sources available from the literature. Results: Three Group II disks are detected. The brightness distribution in the disk of HD 163296 indicates the presence of a persistent ring-like structure with a possible connection with the CO snowline. A rather compact (<100 AU) disk is detected around HD 142666 and AK Sco. A taxonomic analysis of 17 Herbig Ae/Be sources reveals that the difference between Group I and Group II is due to the presence or absence of a large disk cavity (≳5 AU). There is no evidence supporting the evolution from Group I to Group II. Conclusions: Group II disks are not evolved versions of the Group I disks. Within the Group II disks, very different geometries exist (both self-shadowed and compact). HD 163296 could be the primordial version of a typical Group I disk. Other Group II disks, like AK Sco and HD 142666, could be smaller counterparts of Group I unable to open cavities as large as those of Group I. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang-Condell, Hannah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Turner, Neal J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)


    We examine the observational appearance of partial gaps being opened by planets in protoplanetary disks, considering the effects of the inclination relative to the line of sight. We model the disks with static {alpha}-models with detailed radiative transfer, parameterizing the shape and size of the partially cleared gaps based on the results of hydrodynamic simulations. As in previous work, starlight falling across the gap leads to high surface brightness contrasts. The gap's trough is darkened by both shadowing and cooling, relative to the uninterrupted disk. The gap's outer wall is brightened by direct illumination and also by heating, which puffs it up so that it intercepts more starlight. In this paper, we examine the effects of inclination on resolved images of disks with and without gaps at a wide range of wavelengths. The scattering surface's offset from the disk midplane creates a brightness asymmetry along the axis of inclination, making the disk's near side appear brighter than the far side in scattered light. Finite disk thickness also causes the projected distances of equidistant points on the disk surface to be smaller on the near side of the disk as compared to the far side. Consequently, the gap shoulder on the near side of the disk should appear brighter and closer to the star than on the far side. However, if the angular resolution of the observation is coarser than the width of the brightened gap shoulder, then the gap shoulder on the far side may appear brighter because of its larger apparent size. We present a formula to recover the scale height and inclination angle of an imaged disk using simple geometric arguments and measuring disk asymmetries. Resolved images of circumstellar disks have revealed clearings and gaps, such as the transitional disk in LkCa 15. Models created using our synthetic imaging attempting to match the morphology of observed scattered light images of LkCa 15 indicate that the H-band flux deficit in


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balser, Dana S.; Rood, Robert T.; Bania, T. M.; Anderson, L. D.


    The distribution of metals in the Galaxy provides important information about galaxy formation and evolution. H II regions are the most luminous objects in the Milky Way at mid-infrared to radio wavelengths and can be seen across the entire Galactic disk. We used the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) Green Bank Telescope to measure radio recombination line and continuum emission in 81 Galactic H II regions. We calculated LTE electron temperatures using these data. In thermal equilibrium metal abundances are expected to set the nebular electron temperature with high abundances producing low temperatures. Our H II region distribution covers a large range of Galactocentric radius (5-22 kpc) and samples the Galactic azimuth range 330 0 -60 0 . Using our highest quality data (72 objects) we derived an O/H Galactocentric radial gradient of -0.0383 ± 0.0074 dex kpc -1 . Combining these data with a similar survey made with the NRAO 140 Foot telescope we get a radial gradient of -0.0446 ± 0.0049 dex kpc -1 for this larger sample of 133 nebulae. The data are well fit by a linear model and no discontinuities are detected. Dividing our sample into three Galactic azimuth regions produced significantly different radial gradients that range from -0.03 to -0.07 dex kpc -1 . These inhomogeneities suggest that metals are not well mixed at a given radius. We stress the importance of homogeneous samples to reduce the confusion of comparing data sets with different systematics. Galactic chemical evolution models typically derive chemical evolution along only the radial dimension with time. Future models should consider azimuthal evolution as well.

  17. [Lumbar herniated disks treated with a dynamic interspacer]. (United States)

    Cueva-del Castillo Mendoza, J F; Franco-López, E A; Hinojosa-Sandoval, F; de León-Martínez, U A; Cueva-del Castillo Mendoza, F J


    Lumbar herniated disks result in lumbar pain with neurologic involvement. Medical treatment and rehabilitation provide improvement for this type of lumbar pain at the early stages. When conservative treatment fails, the surgical option offers the possibility of improving patients' health status. Moojen considers that the application of interspinous spacers provides good results. The purpose of this research is to assess the clinical and imaging results in patients with contained lumbar herniated disk treated with the DYNAMIC INTERSPACER interspinous spacer, a Mexican product. The efficacy of the interspinous device was assessed by means of a near-investigational and longitudinal study conducted at "General Ignacio Zaragoza" ISSSTE Regional Hospital in patients with a diagnosis of lumbar pain. The mean age of the sample is 46.1 years, with an age range of 26-55 years. The treated levels were 6 L5-S1 and 5 L4-L5; two levels were treated in two patients. The mean preoperative VAS score was 8.1. The mean VAS score at postoperative year three was 1.6. Multiple types and brands of foreign interspinous devices are applied in Mexico which results in patients' clinical improvement. We proved that the use of the Mexican interspinous device can clinically improve patients with lumbar pain due to herniated disk. A decrease in the compression of the sac or the nerve roots by the hernia was observed in the comparative preoperative and postoperative MRI images.

  18. Early Disk dynamics Inferred from Isotope Systematics of Individual Chrondules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollard, Jean Francois André

    can provide direct insights into the environment and dynamics that prevailed at that time. In particular, chondrules are mm-sized igneous silicate spherules that formed throughout the protoplanetary disk by transient heating events in the first few million years. Their sheer abundance in chondrites...... of chondrules has suggested that their formation began approximately 1-2 Myr after the condensation of Calcium-Aluminum-rich Inclusions (CAIs), the oldest known solids, recent absolute dating of individual chondrules by the 207Pb-206Pb chronometer has refuted this supposed age gap. Instead, this chronometer...

  19. Toward a dust penetrated classification of the evolved stellar Population II disks of galaxies (United States)

    Block, David L.; Puerari, Ivânio


    To derive a coherent physical framework for the excitation of spiral structure in galaxies, one must consider the co-existence of two different dynamical components: a gas-dominated Population I disk (OB associations, HII regions, cold interstellar HI gas) and an evolved stellar Population II component. The Hubble classification scheme has as its focus, the morphology of the Population I component only. In the near-infrared, the morphology of evolved stellar disks indicates a simple classification scheme: the dominant Fourier m-mode in the dust penetrated regime, and the associated pitch angle. On the basis of deprojected K' (2.1microns ) images, we propose that the evolved stellar disks may be grouped into three principal dust penetrated archetypes: those with tightly wound stellar arms characterised by pitch angles at K' of ~ 10(deg) (the alpha class), an intermediate group with pitch angles of ~ 25(deg) (the beta class) and thirdly, those with open spirals demarcated by pitch angles at K' of ~ 40(deg) (the gamma bin). There is no correlation between our dust penetrated classes and optical Hubble binning; the Hubble tuning fork does not constrain the morphology of the old stellar Population II disks. Any specific dust penetrated archetype may be the resident disk of both an early or late type galaxy. The number of arms and the pitch angle of the arms at K' of the early-type `a' spiral NGC 718 are almost identical to those for the late-type `c' spiral NGC 309. We demonstrate that galaxies on opposite ends of the tuning fork can display remarkably similar evolved disk morphologies and belong to the same dust penetrated class. Furthermore, a prototypically flocculent galaxy such as NGC 5055 (Elmegreen arm class 3) can have an evolved disk morphology almost identical to that of NGC 5861, characterised in the optical as having one of the most regular spiral patterns known and of Elmegreen class 12. Both optically flocculent or grand design galaxies can reside within


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzerolle, James; Flaherty, Kevin; Balog, Zoltan; Smith, Paul S.; Rieke, George H.; Furlan, Elise; Allen, Lori; Muench, August; Calvet, Nuria; D'Alessio, Paola; Megeath, S. Thomas; Sherry, William H.


    We present multi-epoch Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the transitional disk LRLL 31 in the 2-3 Myr old star-forming region IC 348. Our measurements show remarkable mid-infrared variability on timescales as short as one week. The infrared continuum emission exhibits systematic wavelength-dependent changes that suggest corresponding dynamical changes in the inner disk structure and variable shadowing of outer disk material. We propose several possible sources for the structural changes, including a variable accretion rate or a stellar or planetary companion embedded in the disk. Our results indicate that variability studies in the infrared can provide important new constraints on protoplanetary disk behavior.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WangJianmin; Du Pu; Ge Junqiang; Hu Chen; Baldwin, Jack A.; Ferland, Gary J.


    This is the second in a series of papers discussing the process and effects of star formation in the self-gravitating disk around the supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We have previously suggested that warm skins are formed above the star-forming (SF) disk through the diffusion of warm gas driven by supernova explosions. Here we study the evolution of the warm skins when they are exposed to the powerful radiation from the inner part of the accretion disk. The skins initially are heated to the Compton temperature, forming a Compton atmosphere (CAS) whose subsequent evolution is divided into four phases. Phase I is the duration of pure accumulation supplied by the SF disk. During phase II clouds begin to form due to line cooling and sink to the SF disk. Phase III is a period of preventing clouds from sinking to the SF disk through dynamic interaction between clouds and the CAS because of the CAS overdensity driven by continuous injection of warm gas from the SF disk. Finally, phase IV is an inevitable collapse of the entire CAS through line cooling. This CAS evolution drives the episodic appearance of broad-line regions (BLRs). We follow the formation of cold clouds through the thermal instability of the CAS during phases II and III, using linear analysis. Since the clouds are produced inside the CAS, the initial spatial distribution of newly formed clouds and angular momentum naturally follow the CAS dynamics, producing a flattened disk of clouds. The number of clouds in phases II and III can be estimated, as well as the filling factor of clouds in the BLR. Since the cooling function depends on the metallicity, the metallicity gradients that originate in the SF disk give rise to different properties of clouds in different radial regions. We find from the instability analysis that clouds have column density N H ∼ 22 cm –2 in the metal-rich regions whereas they have N H ∼> 10 22 cm –2 in the metal-poor regions. The metal-rich clouds

  2. Extraplanar H II Regions in Spiral Galaxies. II. In Situ Star Formation in the Interstellar Thick Disk of NGC 4013 (United States)

    Howk, J. Christopher; Rueff, Katherine M.; Lehner, Nicolas; Wotta, Christopher B.; Croxall, Kevin; Savage, Blair D.


    We present observations of an Hα-emitting knot in the thick disk of NGC 4013, demonstrating it is an H II region surrounding a cluster of young hot stars z = 860 pc above the plane of this edge-on spiral galaxy. With LBT/MODS spectroscopy we show that this H II region has an Hα luminosity ∼4–7 times that of the Orion nebula, with an implied ionizing photon production rate log Q 0 ≈ 49.4 (photons s‑1). HST/WFPC2 imaging reveals an associated blue continuum source with M V = ‑8.21 ± 0.24. Together, these properties demonstrate that the H II region is powered by a young cluster of stars formed in situ in the thick disk, with an ionizing photon flux equivalent to ∼6 O7 V stars. If we assume ≈6 other extraplanar Hα-emitting knots are H II regions, the total thick disk star formation rate of NGC 4013 is ∼5 × 10‑4 M ⊙ yr‑1. The star formation likely occurs in the dense clouds of the interstellar thick disk seen in optical images of dust extinction and CO emission.

  3. The Dynamics of Truncated Black Hole Accretion Disks. I. Viscous Hydrodynamic Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogg, J. Drew; Reynolds, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)


    Truncated accretion disks are commonly invoked to explain the spectro-temporal variability in accreting black holes in both small systems, i.e., state transitions in galactic black hole binaries (GBHBs), and large systems, i.e., low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). In the canonical truncated disk model of moderately low accretion rate systems, gas in the inner region of the accretion disk occupies a hot, radiatively inefficient phase, which leads to a geometrically thick disk, while the gas in the outer region occupies a cooler, radiatively efficient phase that resides in the standard geometrically thin disk. Observationally, there is strong empirical evidence to support this phenomenological model, but a detailed understanding of the dynamics of truncated disks is lacking. We present a well-resolved viscous, hydrodynamic simulation that uses an ad hoc cooling prescription to drive a thermal instability and, hence, produce the first sustained truncated accretion disk. With this simulation, we perform a study of the dynamics, angular momentum transport, and energetics of a truncated disk. We find that the time variability introduced by the quasi-periodic transition of gas from efficient cooling to inefficient cooling impacts the evolution of the simulated disk. A consequence of the thermal instability is that an outflow is launched from the hot/cold gas interface, which drives large, sub-Keplerian convective cells into the disk atmosphere. The convective cells introduce a viscous θ − ϕ stress that is less than the generic r − ϕ viscous stress component, but greatly influences the evolution of the disk. In the truncated disk, we find that the bulk of the accreted gas is in the hot phase.

  4. Models of disk chemical evolution focusing the pure dynamical radial mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Re Fiorentin P.


    Full Text Available We performed N-body simulations to study the dynamical evolution of a stellar disk inside a Dark Matter (DM halo. Our results evidence how a standard -radially decreasing- metallicity gradient produces a negative vϕ vs. [Fe/H] correlation, similar to that shown by the thin disk stars, while an inverse radial gradient generates a positive rotation-metallicity correlation, as that observed in the old thick population.

  5. Experimental analysis of the dynamic behavior of a rotating disk submerged in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presas, A; Valentín, D; Egusquiza, E; Valero, C; Seidel, U


    To study the dynamic behavior of turbine runners (natural frequencies and mode shapes) not only the added mass effect of still water has to be considered. Also the effect of rotation may not be neglected in the dynamic response. In the present study, the dynamic behavior of a rotating disk submerged in water is studied. For this purpose an experimental test rig has been developed. It consists of a rotating disk submerged in water that can be excited and its response can be measured from the rotating system by a slip ring system. For the excitation an impact device installed on the casing has been used. The response is measured with miniature accelerometers screwed on the disk. The influence of rotation on the dynamic response has been determined experimentally

  6. Galactic masers: Kinematics, spiral structure and the disk dynamic state (United States)

    Rastorguev, A. S.; Utkin, N. D.; Zabolotskikh, M. V.; Dambis, A. K.; Bajkova, A. T.; Bobylev, V. V.


    We applied the currently most comprehensive version of the statistical-parallax technique to derive kinematical parameters of the maser sample with 136 sources. Our kinematic model comprises the overall rotation of the Galactic disk and the spiral density-wave effects. We take into account the variation of radial velocity dispersion with Galactocentric distance. The best description of the velocity field is provided by the model with constant radial and vertical velocity dispersions, $(\\sigma U0, \\sigma W0) \\approx (9.4 \\pm 0.9~, 5.9 \\pm 0.8)~ km/s$. We compute flat Galactic rotation curve over the Galactocentric distance interval from 3 to 15 kpc and find the local circular rotation velocity to be $ V_0 \\approx (235-238)$~ km/s $\\pm 7$~ km/s. We also determine the parameters of the four-armed spiral pattern (pitch angle $i \\approx (-10.4 \\pm 0.3)^\\circ$ and the phase of the Sun $\\chi_0 \\approx (125 \\pm 10) ^\\circ$). The radial and tangential spiral perturbations are about $f_R \\approx (-6.9 \\pm 1.4)$~km/s, $f_\\Theta \\approx (+2.8 \\pm 1.0$) ~km/s. The kinematic data yield a solar Galactocentric distance of $R_0 \\approx (8.24 \\pm 0.12)~kpc$. Based on rotation curve parameters and the asymmetric drift we Infer the exponential disk scale $H_D \\approx (2.7 \\pm 0.2)$ ~kpc under assumption of marginal stability of the intermediate-age disk, and finally we estimate the minimum local surface disk density, $\\Sigma (R_0) > (26 \\pm 3) ~ M_\\odot pc^{-2}$.

  7. On the Impact Origin of Phobos and Deimos. II. True Polar Wander and Disk Evolution (United States)

    Hyodo, Ryuki; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Genda, Hidenori; Charnoz, Sébastien


    Phobos and Deimos are the two small Martian moons, orbiting almost on the equatorial plane of Mars. Recent works have shown that they can accrete within an impact-generated inner dense and outer light disk, and that the same impact potentially forms the Borealis basin, a large northern hemisphere basin on the current Mars. However, there is no a priori reason for the impact to take place close to the north pole (Borealis present location), nor to generate a debris disk in the equatorial plane of Mars (in which Phobos and Deimos orbit). In this paper, we investigate these remaining issues on the giant impact origin of the Martian moons. First, we show that the mass deficit created by the Borealis impact basin induces a global reorientation of the planet to realign its main moment of inertia with the rotation pole (True Polar Wander). This moves the location of the Borealis basin toward its current location. Next, using analytical arguments, we investigate the detailed dynamical evolution of the eccentric inclined disk from the equatorial plane of Mars that is formed by the Martian-moon-forming impact. We find that, as a result of precession of disk particles due to the Martian dynamical flattening J 2 term of its gravity field and particle–particle inelastic collisions, eccentricity and inclination are damped and an inner dense and outer light equatorial circular disk is eventually formed. Our results strengthen the giant impact origin of Phobos and Deimos that can finally be tested by a future sample return mission such as JAXA’s Martian Moons eXploration mission.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Schetnikovich


    Full Text Available The paper contains description of tool design which is used for rough polishing of balls made of brittle materials. This tool consists of top disk, which is fi-eely set on pouring bearing of the separator shaft, and a bottom disk with elastic coating. Theoretical investigations of ball kinematics have permitted to determine an angular velocity of the balls in the machining zone, value and direction oi slipping speed with respect to the has been determined that even change of the position of bail rotation instantaneous axis relative to the separator is reached at equality of angular velocities of the bottom disk and the separator. When the top disk is freely set slipping speed is equal for all the balls of the machined lot. When the top disk is stationary slipping speed is significantly increasing however its value becomes variable and depends on ball distance to separator rotation axis.The presented equations of ball dynamics in the machining zone have made it possible to detennine a cohesive force with the bottom disk, frictional forces against the top disk and separator. Recommendations on selection of machining modes at initial and final stages of ball polishing are given in the paper.

  9. Dust Dynamics in Protoplanetary Disks: Parallel Computing with PVM (United States)

    de La Fuente Marcos, Carlos; Barge, Pierre; de La Fuente Marcos, Raúl


    We describe a parallel version of our high-order-accuracy particle-mesh code for the simulation of collisionless protoplanetary disks. We use this code to carry out a massively parallel, two-dimensional, time-dependent, numerical simulation, which includes dust particles, to study the potential role of large-scale, gaseous vortices in protoplanetary disks. This noncollisional problem is easy to parallelize on message-passing multicomputer architectures. We performed the simulations on a cache-coherent nonuniform memory access Origin 2000 machine, using both the parallel virtual machine (PVM) and message-passing interface (MPI) message-passing libraries. Our performance analysis suggests that, for our problem, PVM is about 25% faster than MPI. Using PVM and MPI made it possible to reduce CPU time and increase code performance. This allows for simulations with a large number of particles (N ~ 105-106) in reasonable CPU times. The performances of our implementation of the pa! rallel code on an Origin 2000 supercomputer are presented and discussed. They exhibit very good speedup behavior and low load unbalancing. Our results confirm that giant gaseous vortices can play a dominant role in giant planet formation.

  10. Dynamic fracture initiation in brittle materials under combined mode I/II loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, M.; Kishida, K.; Yamauchi, Y.; Sogabe, Y.


    A new test method has been developed to measure the resistance of dynamic fracture initiation in brittle materials under combined mode I/II loadings. The Brazilian disks with center-cracks have been fractured under oblique impact loadings in diametral-compression. The dynamic stress intensity factors of mode I and II are evaluated from the superposition integrals of the step response functions for the cracked disk. The experimental results are presented to elucidate the influence of loading rate on the combined mode fracture toughness for ceramics and glasses. (orig.)

  11. Dynamic 3 T MRI of temporomandibular joint in diagnosing a stuck disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sureka


    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ. Dynamic MRI including the open and close mouth views in sagittal plane determine the exact position of articular disk and thus help to evaluate the joint for internal derangement. We also highlight the role of dynamic MRI of TMJ in diagnosis of stuck disk in a 17-year-old male who presented with symptoms of pain and difficulty in opening the mouth.

  12. Dynamics of unforced and vertically forced rocking elliptical and semi-elliptical disks (United States)

    Wang, Xue-She; Mazzoleni, Michael J.; Mann, Brian P.


    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the dynamics of unforced and vertically forced rocking elliptical and semi-elliptical disks. The full equation of motion for both rocking disks is derived from first principles. For unforced behavior, Lamb's method is used to derive the linear natural frequency of both disks, and harmonic balance is used to determine their amplitude-dependent rocking frequencies. A stability analysis then reveals that the equilibria and stability of the two disks are considerably different, as the semi-elliptical disk has a super-critical pitchfork bifurcation that enables it to exhibit bistable rocking behavior. Experimental studies were conducted to verify the trends. For vertically forced behavior, numerical investigations show the disk's responses to forward and reverse frequency sweeps. Three modes of periodicity were observed for the steady state behavior. Experiments were performed to verify the frequency responses and the presence of the three rocking modes. Comparisons between the experiments and numerical investigations show good agreement.

  13. Imaging Search for Dynamically Inferred Planets in Nearby Debris Disk Systems [Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janson, M.; Carson, J.; Lafreniere, D.; Spiegel, D.; Quanz, S.; Thalmann, C.; Amara, A.


    The nearby stars Eps Eri, Vega, and Fomalhaut all host large debris disks with morphological structures that can be interpreted as being due to dynamical influence from unseen giant planets residing in the systems. At the ages of the systems of a few hundred Myrs, such planets are expected to have

  14. Stirring up the dust: a dynamical model for halo-like dust clouds in transitional disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijt, S.; Dominik, C.


    Context. A small number of young stellar objects show signs of a halo-like structure of optically thin dust, in addition to a circumstellar disk. This halo or torus is located within a few AU of the star, but its origin has not yet been understood. Aims. A dynamically excited cloud of planetesimals


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Sean N.; Armitage, Philip J.; Gorelick, Noel


    We develop an idealized dynamical model to predict the typical properties of outer extrasolar planetary systems, at radii comparable to the Jupiter-to-Neptune region of the solar system. The model is based upon the hypothesis that dynamical evolution in outer planetary systems is controlled by a combination of planet-planet scattering and planetary interactions with an exterior disk of small bodies ('planetesimals'). Our results are based on 5000 long duration N-body simulations that follow the evolution of three planets from a few to 10 AU, together with a planetesimal disk containing 50 M + from 10 to 20 AU. For large planet masses (M ∼> M Sat ), the model recovers the observed eccentricity distribution of extrasolar planets. For lower-mass planets, the range of outcomes in models with disks is far greater than that which is seen in isolated planet-planet scattering. Common outcomes include strong scattering among massive planets, sudden jumps in eccentricity due to resonance crossings driven by divergent migration, and re-circularization of scattered low-mass planets in the outer disk. We present the distributions of the eccentricity and inclination that result, and discuss how they vary with planet mass and initial system architecture. In agreement with other studies, we find that the currently observed eccentricity distribution (derived primarily from planets at a ∼ -1 and periods in excess of 10 years will provide constraints on this regime. Finally, we present an analysis of the predicted separation of planets in two-planet systems, and of the population of planets in mean-motion resonances (MMRs). We show that, if there are systems with ∼ Jupiter-mass planets that avoid close encounters, the planetesimal disk acts as a damping mechanism and populates MMRs at a very high rate (50%-80%). In many cases, resonant chains (in particular the 4:2:1 Laplace resonance) are set up among all three planets. We expect such resonant chains to be common among massive


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Changshuo; Wang Jianmin


    High spatial resolution observations show that high-redshift galaxies are undergoing intensive evolution of dynamical structure and morphologies displayed by the Hα, Hβ, [O III], and [N II] images. It has been shown that supernova explosion (SNexp) of young massive stars during the star formation epoch, as kinetic feedback to host galaxies, can efficiently excite the turbulent viscosity. We incorporate the feedback into the dynamical equations through mass dropout and angular momentum transportation driven by the SNexp-excited turbulent viscosity. The empirical Kennicutt-Schmidt law is used for star formation rates (SFRs). We numerically solve the equations and show that there can be intensive evolution of structure of the gaseous disk. Secular evolution of the disk shows interesting characteristics: (1) high viscosity excited by SNexp can efficiently transport the gas from 10 kpc to ∼1 kpc forming a stellar disk whereas a stellar ring forms for the case with low viscosity; (2) starbursts trigger SMBH activity with a lag of ∼10 8 yr depending on SFRs, prompting the joint evolution of SMBHs and bulges; and (3) the velocity dispersion is as high as ∼100 km s -1 in the gaseous disk. These results are likely to vary with the initial mass function (IMF) that the SNexp rates rely on. Given the IMF, we use the GALAXEV code to compute the spectral evolution of stellar populations based on the dynamical structure. In order to compare the present models with the observed dynamical structure and images, we use the incident continuum from the simple stellar synthesis and CLOUDY to calculate emission line ratios of Hα, Hβ, [O III], and [N II], and Hα brightness of gas photoionized by young massive stars formed on the disks. The models can produce the main features of emission from star-forming galaxies. We apply the present model to two galaxies, BX 389 and BX 482 observed in the SINS high-z sample, which are bulge and disk-dominated, respectively. Two successive



    Kussmaul , K.; Zimmermann , C.; Issler , W.


    A recently completed testing machine for dynamic tensile tests is described. The machine consists essentially of a pendulum which holds the specimen and a large steel disk with a double striking nose fixed to its circumference. Disk diameter measures 2000 mm, while its mass is 6400 kg. The specimens to be tested are tensile specimens with a diameter of up to 20 mm and 300 mm length or CT 15 specimens at various temperatures. Loading velocity ranges from 1 to 150 m/s. The process of specimen-n...

  18. On the Dynamical Structure of the Jet System in the Disk with the Keplerian Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Sook Jeong


    Full Text Available The classical sloar wind theory proposed by Parker(1963 explains well the dynamics of the wind pheonomena such as stellar wind accretion disk. While the stellar wind system like the solar wind has the spherically symmetric wind structure, there are various jet phenomena which collimate the system into the narrow space. We can find these dynamical structures in SS433, in the optical jet of M87, and around the active galactic nulei. We present the dynamical structure of the jet system in disks, which conserves the angular momentum, with the Keplerian rotation and the strong relation between the geometrical cross section and the physical change of the jet stream on the basis of the hydrodynamic equations.

  19. Simulations of the Solar System's Early Dynamical Evolution with a Self-gravitating Planetesimal Disk (United States)

    Fan, Siteng; Batygin, Konstantin


    Over the course of the last decade, the Nice model has dramatically changed our view of the solar system’s formation and early evolution. Within the context of this model, a transient period of planet–planet scattering is triggered by gravitational interactions between the giant planets and a massive primordial planetesimal disk, leading to a successful reproduction of the solar system’s present-day architecture. In typical realizations of the Nice model, self-gravity of the planetesimal disk is routinely neglected, as it poses a computational bottleneck to the calculations. Recent analyses have shown, however, that a self-gravitating disk can exhibit behavior that is dynamically distinct, and this disparity may have significant implications for the solar system’s evolutionary path. In this work, we explore this discrepancy utilizing a large suite of Nice model simulations with and without a self-gravitating planetesimal disk, taking advantage of the inherently parallel nature of graphic processing units. Our simulations demonstrate that self-consistent modeling of particle interactions does not lead to significantly different final planetary orbits from those obtained within conventional simulations. Moreover, self-gravitating calculations show similar planetesimal evolution to non-self-gravitating numerical experiments after dynamical instability is triggered, suggesting that the orbital clustering observed in the distant Kuiper Belt is unlikely to have a self-gravitational origin.

  20. The dynamics of stellar disks in live dark-matter halos (United States)

    Fujii, M. S.; Bédorf, J.; Baba, J.; Portegies Zwart, S.


    Recent developments in computer hardware and software enable researchers to simulate the self-gravitating evolution of galaxies at a resolution comparable to the actual number of stars. Here we present the results of a series of such simulations. We performed N-body simulations of disk galaxies with between 100 and 500 million particles over a wide range of initial conditions. Our calculations include a live bulge, disk, and dark matter halo, each of which is represented by self-gravitating particles in the N-body code. The simulations are performed using the gravitational N-body tree-code Bonsai running on the Piz Daint supercomputer. We find that the time scale over which the bar forms increases exponentially with decreasing disk-mass fraction and that the bar formation epoch exceeds a Hubble time when the disk-mass fraction is ˜0.35. These results can be explained with the swing-amplification theory. The condition for the formation of m = 2 spirals is consistent with that for the formation of the bar, which is also an m = 2 phenomenon. We further argue that the non-barred grand-design spiral galaxies are transitional, and that they evolve to barred galaxies on a dynamical timescale. We also confirm that the disk-mass fraction and shear rate are important parameters for the morphology of disk galaxies. The former affects the number of spiral arms and the bar formation epoch, and the latter determines the pitch angle of the spiral arms.

  1. Disk brake design for cooling improvement using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munisamy, Kannan M; Shafik, Ramel


    The car disk brake design is improved with two different blade designs compared to the baseline blade design. The two designs were simulated in Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to obtain heat transfer properties such as Nusselt number and Heat transfer coefficient. The heat transfer property is compared against the baseline design. The improved shape has the highest heat transfer performance. The curved design is inferior to baseline design in heat transfer performance.

  2. Experimental analysis models for studying the dynamic behaviour of turbine shrouded bladed disk assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, B.


    The study presented concerns the final blade assembly of a low-pressure body in an electric power station. The ultimate objective of the study is to check whether the fatigue damage is acceptable and that the actual stresses do not excite the bladed disk assembly in its own modes. A combined methodology of calculations and tests was adopted to carry out this test. The calculation part involves modelization, by finite elements, of the bladed disk assembly. This paper presents only the experimental part, i.e. the tests, and experimental analysis methods and models. Experimental analysis poses special problems on account of the complexity of the dynamic behaviour of this type of structure and the limited number of available measuring points. (author). 9 refs

  3. Feasibility of using PZT actuators to study the dynamic behavior of a rotating disk due to rotor-stator interaction. (United States)

    Presas, Alexandre; Egusquiza, Eduard; Valero, Carme; Valentin, David; Seidel, Ulrich


    In this paper, PZT actuators are used to study the dynamic behavior of a rotating disk structure due to rotor-stator interaction excitation. The disk is studied with two different surrounding fluids-air and water. The study has been performed analytically and validated experimentally. For the theoretical analysis, the natural frequencies and the associated mode shapes of the rotating disk in air and water are obtained with the Kirchhoff-Love thin plate theory coupled with the interaction with the surrounding fluid. A model for the Rotor Stator Interaction that occurs in many rotating disk-like parts of turbomachinery such as compressors, hydraulic runners or alternators is presented. The dynamic behavior of the rotating disk due to this excitation is deduced. For the experimental analysis a test rig has been developed. It consists of a stainless steel disk (r = 198 mm and h = 8 mm) connected to a variable speed motor. Excitation and response are measured from the rotating system. For the rotating excitation four piezoelectric patches have been used. Calibrating the piezoelectric patches in amplitude and phase, different rotating excitation patterns are applied on the rotating disk in air and in water. Results show the feasibility of using PZT to control the response of the disk due to a rotor-stator interaction.

  4. Feasibility of Using PZT Actuators to Study the Dynamic Behavior of a Rotating Disk due to Rotor-Stator Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Presas


    Full Text Available In this paper, PZT actuators are used to study the dynamic behavior of a rotating disk structure due to rotor-stator interaction excitation. The disk is studied with two different surrounding fluids—air and water. The study has been performed analytically and validated experimentally. For the theoretical analysis, the natural frequencies and the associated mode shapes of the rotating disk in air and water are obtained with the Kirchhoff-Love thin plate theory coupled with the interaction with the surrounding fluid. A model for the Rotor Stator Interaction that occurs in many rotating disk-like parts of turbomachinery such as compressors, hydraulic runners or alternators is presented. The dynamic behavior of the rotating disk due to this excitation is deduced. For the experimental analysis a test rig has been developed. It consists of a stainless steel disk (r = 198 mm and h = 8 mm connected to a variable speed motor. Excitation and response are measured from the rotating system. For the rotating excitation four piezoelectric patches have been used. Calibrating the piezoelectric patches in amplitude and phase, different rotating excitation patterns are applied on the rotating disk in air and in water. Results show the feasibility of using PZT to control the response of the disk due to a rotor-stator interaction.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Taku; Ida, Shigeru


    We present a new analytic approach to the disk-planet interaction that is especially useful for planets with eccentricity larger than the disk aspect ratio. We make use of the dynamical friction formula to calculate the force exerted on the planet by the disk, and the force is averaged over the period of the planet. The resulting migration and eccentricity damping timescale agree very well with previous works in which the planet eccentricity is moderately larger than the disk aspect ratio. The advantage of this approach is that it is possible to apply this formulation to arbitrary large eccentricity. We have found that the timescale of the orbital evolution depends largely on the adopted disk model in the case of highly eccentric planets. We discuss the possible implication of our results for the theory of planet formation.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Taku; Okuzumi, Satoshi


    We study the time evolution of a large-scale magnetic flux threading an accretion disk. The induction equation of the mean poloidal field is solved under the standard viscous disk model. Magnetic flux evolution is controlled by two timescales: one is the timescale of the inward advection of the magnetic flux, τ adv . This is induced by the dragging of the flux by the accreting gas. The other is the outward diffusion timescale of the magnetic flux τ dif . We consider diffusion due to the Ohmic resistivity. These timescales can be significantly different from the disk viscous timescale τ disk . The behaviors of the magnetic flux evolution are quite different depending on the magnitude relationship of the timescales τ adv , τ dif , and τ disk . The most interesting phenomena occur when τ adv << τ dif , τ disk . In such a case, the magnetic flux distribution approaches a quasi-steady profile much faster than the viscous evolution of the gas disk, and the magnetic flux has also been tightly bundled to the inner part of the disk. In the inner part, although the poloidal magnetic field becomes much stronger than the interstellar magnetic field, the field strength is limited to the maximum value that is analytically given by our previous work. We also find a condition for the initial large magnetic flux, which is a fossil of the magnetic field dragging during the early phase of star formation that survives for a duration in which significant gas disk evolution proceeds

  7. Dynamical Evolution of the Debris Disk after a Satellite Catastrophic Disruption around Saturn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyodo, Ryuki [Earth-Life Science Institute/Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Tokyo (Japan); Charnoz, Sébastien [Institut de Physique du Globe, 75005 Paris (France)


    The hypothesis of the recent origin of Saturn’s rings and its midsized moons is actively debated. It was suggested that a proto-Rhea and a proto-Dione might have collided recently, giving birth to the modern system of midsized moons. It has also been suggested that the rapid viscous spreading of the debris may have implanted mass inside Saturn’s Roche limit, giving birth to its modern ring system. However, this scenario has only been investigated in a very simplified way for the moment. This paper investigates it in detail to assess its plausibility by using N -body simulations and analytical arguments. When the debris disk is dominated by its largest remnant, N -body simulations show that the system quickly reaccretes into a single satellite without significant spreading. On the other hand, if the disk is composed of small particles, analytical arguments suggest that the disk experiences dynamical evolutions in three steps. The disk starts significantly excited after the impact and collisional damping dominates over the viscous spreading. After the system flattens, the system can become gravitationally unstable when particles are smaller than ∼100 m. However, the particles grow faster than spreading. Then, the system becomes gravitationally stable again and accretion continues at a slower pace, but spreading is inhibited. Therefore, the debris is expected to reaccrete into several large bodies. In conclusion, our results show that such a scenario may not form today’s ring system. In contrast, our results suggest that today’s midsized moons are likely reaccreted from such a catastrophic event.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yun [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Yiheyuan Lu 5, Haidian Qu, Beijing 100871 (China); Kouwenhoven, M. B. N. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, 111 Ren’ai Road, Suzhou Dushu Lake Science and Education Innovation District, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215123 (China); Stamatellos, D. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute for Mathematics, Physics and Astronomy, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Goodwin, Simon P., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)


    The origin of very low-mass hydrogen-burning stars, brown dwarfs (BDs), and planetary-mass objects (PMOs) at the low-mass end of the initial mass function is not yet fully understood. Gravitational fragmentation of circumstellar disks provides a possible mechanism for the formation of such low-mass objects. The kinematic and binary properties of very low-mass objects formed through disk fragmentation at early times (<10 Myr) were discussed in our previous paper. In this paper we extend the analysis by following the long-term evolution of disk-fragmented systems up to an age of 10 Gyr, covering the ages of the stellar and substellar populations in the Galactic field. We find that the systems continue to decay, although the rates at which companions escape or collide with each other are substantially lower than during the first 10 Myr, and that dynamical evolution is limited beyond 1 Gyr. By t = 10 Gyr, about one third of the host stars are single, and more than half have only one companion left. Most of the other systems have two companions left that orbit their host star in widely separated orbits. A small fraction of companions have formed binaries that orbit the host star in a hierarchical triple configuration. The majority of such double-companion systems have internal orbits that are retrograde with respect to their orbits around their host stars. Our simulations allow a comparison between the predicted outcomes of disk fragmentation with the observed low-mass hydrogen-burning stars, BDs, and PMOs in the solar neighborhood. Imaging and radial velocity surveys for faint binary companions among nearby stars are necessary for verification or rejection of the formation mechanism proposed in this paper.

  9. Evolution of protoplanetary disks from their taxonomy in scattered light: Group I vs. Group II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garufi, A.; Meeus, G.; Benisty, M.; Quanz, S.P.; Banzatti, A.; Kama, M.; Canovas, H.; Eiroa, C.; Schmid, H.M.; Stolker, T.; Pohl, A.; Rigliaco, E.; Ménard, F.; Meyer, M.R.; van Boekel, R.; Dominik, C.

    Context. High-resolution imaging reveals a large morphological variety of protoplanetary disks. To date, no constraints on their global evolution have been found from this census. An evolutionary classification of disks was proposed based on their IR spectral energy distribution, with the Group I

  10. The Optical Structure of the Starburst Galaxy M82. I. Dynamics of the Disk and Inner-Wind (United States)

    Westmoquette, M. S.; Smith, L. J.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Trancho, G.; Bastian, N.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.


    We present Gemini-North GMOS-IFU observations of the central starburst clumps and inner wind of M82, together with WIYN DensePak IFU observations of the inner 2 × 0.9 kpc of the disk. These cover the emission lines of Hα, [N II], [S II], and [S III] at a spectral resolution of 45-80 km s-1. The high signal-to-noise of the data is sufficient to accurately decompose the emission line profiles into multiple narrow components (FWHM ~ 30-130 km s-1) superimposed on a broad (FWHM ~ 150-350 km s-1) feature. This paper is the first of a series examining the optical structure of M82's disk and inner wind; here we focus on the ionized gaseous and stellar dynamics and present maps of the relevant emission line properties. Our observations show that ionized gas in the starburst core of M82 is dynamically complex with many overlapping expanding structures located at different radii. Localised line splitting of up to 100 km s-1 in the narrow component is associated with expanding shells of compressed, cool, photoionized gas at the roots of the superwind outflow. We have been able to associate some of this inner-wind gas with a distinct outflow channel characterised by its dynamics and gas density patterns, and we discuss the consequences of this discovery in terms of the developing wind outflow. The broad optical emission line component is observed to become increasingly important moving outward along the outflow channel, and in general with increasing height above/below the plane. Following our recent work on the origins of this component, we associate it with turbulent gas in wind-clump interface layers and hence sites of mass loading, meaning that the turbulent mixing of cooler gas into the outflowing hot gas must become increasingly important with height, and provides powerful direct evidence for the existence of mass-loading over a large, spatially extended area reaching far into the inner wind. We discuss the consequences and implications of this. We confirm that the


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennesson, B.; Serabyn, E.; Colavita, M. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena CA 91109-8099 (United States); Absil, O. [Departement d' Astrophysique, Geophysique et Oceanographie, Universite de Liege, 17 Allee du Six Aout, B-4000 Sart Tilman (Belgium); Lebreton, J.; Augereau, J.-C. [IPAG, UMR 5274, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Millan-Gabet, R. [Michelson Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena CA 91125 (United States); Liu, W. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hinz, P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Thebault, P. [Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, F-92195 Meudon Principal Cedex (France)


    We report on high-contrast mid-infrared observations of Fomalhaut obtained with the Keck Interferometer Nuller (KIN) showing a small resolved excess over the level expected from the stellar photosphere. The measured null excess has a mean value of 0.35% {+-} 0.10% between 8 and 11 {mu}m and increases from 8 to 13 {mu}m. Given the small field of view of the instrument, the source of this marginal excess must be contained within 2 AU of Fomalhaut. This result is reminiscent of previous VLTI K-band ({approx_equal}2{mu}m) observations, which implied the presence of a {approx}0.88% excess, and argued that thermal emission from hot dusty grains located within 6 AU from Fomalhaut was the most plausible explanation. Using a parametric two-dimensional radiative transfer code and a Bayesian analysis, we examine different dust disk structures to reproduce both the near- and mid-infrared data simultaneously. While not a definitive explanation of the hot excess of Fomalhaut, our model suggests that the most likely inner few AU disk geometry consists of a two-component structure, with two different and spatially distinct grain populations. The 2-11 {mu}m data are consistent with an inner hot ring of very small ({approx_equal}10-300 nm) carbon-rich grains concentrating around 0.1 AU. The second dust population-inferred from the KIN data at longer mid-infrared wavelengths-consists of larger grains (size of a few microns to a few tens of microns) located further out in a colder region where regular astronomical silicates could survive, with an inner edge around 0.4 AU-1 AU. From a dynamical point of view, the presence of the inner concentration of submicron-sized grains is surprising, as such grains should be expelled from the inner planetary system by radiation pressure within only a few years. This could either point to some inordinate replenishment rates (e.g., many grazing comets coming from an outer reservoir) or to the existence of some braking mechanism preventing the grains

  12. Power Scaling Feasibility or Chromium-Doped II-VI Laser Sources and the Demonstration of a Chromium-Doped Zinc Selenide Face-Cooled Disk Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKay, Jason


    ...+:ZnSe disk laser design that can produce sufficient output power. Cr2+:II-VI laser materials are found to be susceptible to overheating and thermal lensing, but are otherwise satisfactory laser materials...

  13. Wireless In-situ Nondestructive Inspection of Engine Rotor Disks with Ultrasonic Guided Waves, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The structural integrity of jet engine turbine or fan rotor disks is vital for aviation safety. Cumulative cracks at critical loading and high stress areas, if not...

  14. Size-dependent magnetization dynamics in individual Ni80Fe20 disk using micro-focused Brillouin Light Scattering spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shimon


    Full Text Available A direct and systematic investigation of the magnetization dynamics in individual circular Ni80Fe20 disk of diameter (D in the range from 300 nm to 1 μm measured using micro-focused Brillouin Light Scattering (μ-BLS spectroscopy is presented. At high field, when the disks are in a single domain state, the resonance frequency of the uniform center mode is observed to reduce with reducing disk’s diameter. For D = 300 nm, additional edge and end-domains resonant modes are observed due to size effects. At low field, when the disks are in a vortex state, a systematic increase of resonant frequency of magnetostatic modes in a vortex state with the square root of the disks’ aspect ratio (thickness divided by radius is observed. Such dependence diminishes for disks with larger aspect ratio due to an increasing exchange energy contribution. Micromagnetic simulations are in excellent agreement with the experiments.

  15. The Taurus Boundary of Stellar/Substellar (TBOSS) Survey. II. Disk Masses from ALMA Continuum Observations (United States)

    Ward-Duong, K.; Patience, J.; Bulger, J.; van der Plas, G.; Ménard, F.; Pinte, C.; Jackson, A. P.; Bryden, G.; Turner, N. J.; Harvey, P.; Hales, A.; De Rosa, R. J.


    We report 885 μm ALMA continuum flux densities for 24 Taurus members spanning the stellar/substellar boundary with spectral types from M4 to M7.75. Of the 24 systems, 22 are detected at levels ranging from 1.0 to 55.7 mJy. The two nondetections are transition disks, though other transition disks in the sample are detected. Converting ALMA continuum measurements to masses using standard scaling laws and radiative transfer modeling yields dust mass estimates ranging from ∼0.3 to 20 M ⊕. The dust mass shows a declining trend with central object mass when combined with results from submillimeter surveys of more massive Taurus members. The substellar disks appear as part of a continuous sequence and not a distinct population. Compared to older Upper Sco members with similar masses across the substellar limit, the Taurus disks are brighter and more massive. Both Taurus and Upper Sco populations are consistent with an approximately linear relationship in M dust to M star, although derived power-law slopes depend strongly upon choices of stellar evolutionary model and dust temperature relation. The median disk around early-M stars in Taurus contains a comparable amount of mass in small solids as the average amount of heavy elements in Kepler planetary systems on short-period orbits around M-dwarf stars, with an order of magnitude spread in disk dust mass about the median value. Assuming a gas-to-dust ratio of 100:1, only a small number of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs have a total disk mass amenable to giant planet formation, consistent with the low frequency of giant planets orbiting M dwarfs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Tushar [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-4767 (United States); Chen, Christine H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jang-Condell, Hannah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Manoj, P. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Sargent, Benjamin A. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Watson, Dan M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Lisse, Carey M., E-mail: [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)


    During the Spitzer Space Telescope cryogenic mission, astronomers obtained Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of hundreds of debris disk candidates that have been compiled in the Spitzer IRS Debris Disk Catalog. We have discovered 10 and/or 20 μm silicate emission features toward 120 targets in the catalog and modeled the IRS spectra of these sources, consistent with MIPS 70 μm observations, assuming that the grains are composed of silicates (olivine, pyroxene, forsterite, and enstatite) and are located either in a continuous disk with power-law size and surface density distributions or thin rings that are well-characterized using two separate dust grain temperatures. For systems better fit by the continuous disk model, we find that (1) the dust size distribution power-law index is consistent with that expected from a collisional cascade, q = 3.5-4.0, with a large number of values outside this range, and (2) the minimum grain size, a {sub min}, increases with stellar luminosity, L {sub *}, but the dependence of a {sub min} on L {sub *} is weaker than expected from radiation pressure alone. In addition, we also find that (3) the crystalline fraction of dust in debris disks evolves as a function of time with a large dispersion in crystalline fractions for stars of any particular stellar age or mass, (4) the disk inner edge is correlated with host star mass, and (5) there exists substantial variation in the properties of coeval disks in Sco-Cen, indicating that the observed variation is probably due to stochasticity and diversity in planet formation.

  17. The influence of magnetic impurities in the vortex core dynamics in magnetic nano-disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.H.; Toscano, D.; Sato, F.; Coura, P.Z.; Costa, B.V.; Leonel, S.A.


    In this work we have used spin dynamics simulations to study the gyrotropic frequency behavior in nano-disks of Permalloy with magnetic impurities. We consider the effect of attractive impurity and repulsive impurity placed near the vortex core gyrotropic trajectory. We observed that the gyrotropic frequency is affected by the presence of impurity. The gyrotropic frequency shift depends on the relative position between the impurity and the vortex core gyrotropic trajectory and if impurity is attractive or repulsive. Our results agree with the analytical model and with experimental behavior for the gyrotropic frequency shown in the literature. - Highlights: ► Study of the gyrotropic frequency behavior in nano-disks with magnetic impurities. ► The gyrotropic frequency is affected by the presence of magnetic impurity. ► The frequency shift ΔF depends on if magnetic impurity is attractive or repulsive. ► The ΔF depends on the relative position of the impurity and gyrotropic trajectory.

  18. Dynamic MRI motion analysis of the condyle and articular disk in the sagittal plane during mouth opening and closing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Yoshinori; Uchida, Shinji; Inoue, Hiroshi


    We used dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to analyze the velocity and excursion of the condyle and articular disk during mouth opening and closing. These parameters were compared between individuals with clicking sounds in the temporomandibular joint (TMD group, n=6) and those with no abnormalities in the joint (normal group, n=7). We used a Signa Horizon LX (1.5 Tesla, GE Inc., Wisconsin, USA) at fast spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (SPGR), 7.7/1.4 ms echo time/repetition time (TR/TE), 8 mm thickness, and 40 sec duration. Each subject was instructed to open as widely as possible and then to close over a period of 40 seconds, during which time we measured the velocity and excursion of the condyle and articular disk. The degree of anterior displacement of the articular disk was quantified in the TMD patients. Compared with normal subjects, the degree of variance in movement velocity for opening and closing movements was significantly greater for the TMD patients. These findings suggest that dynamic MRI is useful for observing and quantifying the dynamics of the articular disk and that the degree of fluctuation in the velocity of articular disk movement is significantly greater for patients with clicking sounds. (author)

  19. Variable Dynamics in the Inner Disk of HD 135344B Revealed with Multi-epoch Scattered Light Imaging (United States)

    Stolker, Tomas; Sitko, Mike; Lazareff, Bernard; Benisty, Myriam; Dominik, Carsten; Waters, Rens; Min, Michiel; Perez, Sebastian; Milli, Julien; Garufi, Antonio; de Boer, Jozua; Ginski, Christian; Kraus, Stefan; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Avenhaus, Henning


    We present multi-epoch Very Large Telescope/Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (VLT/SPHERE) observations of the protoplanetary disk around HD 135344B (SAO 206462). The J-band scattered light imagery reveal, with high spatial resolution (˜41 mas, 6.4 au), the disk surface beyond ˜20 au. Temporal variations are identified in the azimuthal brightness distributions of all epochs, presumably related to the asymmetrically shading dust distribution in the inner disk. These shadows manifest themselves as narrow lanes, cast by localized density enhancements, and broader features which possibly trace the larger scale dynamics of the inner disk. We acquired visible and near-infrared photometry which shows variations up to 10% in the JHK bands, possibly correlated with the presence of the shadows. Analysis of archival Very Large Telescope Interferometer/Precision Integrated-Optics Near-infrared Imaging ExpeRiment (VLTI/PIONIER) H-band visibilities constrain the orientation of the inner disk to I=18\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} {2}-4.1+3.4 and {PA}=57\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 3+/- 5\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 7, consistent with an alignment with the outer disk or a minor disk warp of several degrees. The latter scenario could explain the broad, quasi-stationary shadowing in north-northwest direction in case the inclination of the outer disk is slightly larger. The correlation between the shadowing and the near-infrared excess is quantified with a grid of radiative transfer models. The variability of the scattered light contrast requires extended variations in the inner disk atmosphere (H/r≲ 0.2). Possible mechanisms that may cause asymmetric variations in the optical depth ({{Δ }}τ ≲ 1) through the atmosphere of the inner disk include turbulent fluctuations, planetesimal collisions, or a dusty disk wind, possibly enhanced by a minor disk warp. A fine temporal sampling is required to follow day-to-day changes of the shadow patterns which may be a face

  20. Influence of polymer additives on turbulence in von Karman swirling flow between two disks. II (United States)

    Burnishev, Yuri; Steinberg, Victor


    We present the experimental studies of the influence of polymer additives on the statistical and scaling properties of the fully developed turbulent regime in a von Karman swirling flow driven either by the smooth or bladed disks using only the global measurements of torque Γ and pressure p fluctuations in water- and water-sugar-based solutions of different viscosities, or elasticity El, and different polymer concentrations ϕ as a function of Re in the same apparatus. There are three highlights achieved and reported in the paper: (i) An observation of turbulent drag reduction (TDR) at both the inertial and viscous flow forcing, in a contradiction to a currently accepted opinion that only the viscous forcing leads to TDR, and the unexpected drastic difference in the transition to the fully developed turbulent and TDR regimes in von Karman swirling flow of water-based polymer solutions depending on the way of the forcing; (ii) a continuous transition to TDR in both the normalized torque drop and the rms pressure fluctuations drop and universality in scaling behavior of Cf in an agreement with theoretical predictions; and (iii) the dramatic differences in the appearance of the frequency power spectra of Γ and in particular p due to the different ways of the forcing are also observed. We discuss and summarize further the results in accordance with these three main achievements. The main message of these studies is that both the inertial forcing and viscous forcing of von Karman swirling flow between two counter-rotating disks lead to TDR in the sharp contrast to the currently accepted opinion [O. Cadot et al., "Turbulent drag reduction in a closed flow system: Boundary layer versus bulk effects," Phys. Fluids 10, 426 (1998); D. Bonn et al., "From scale scales to large scales in three-dimensional turbulence: The effect of diluted polymers," Phys. Rev. E 47, R28 (1993); and D. Bonn et al., "Turbulent drag reduction by polymers," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, S1195

  1. Imaging the equilibrium state and magnetization dynamics of partially built hard disk write heads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkass, R. A. J., E-mail:; Yu, W.; Shelford, L. R.; Keatley, P. S.; Loughran, T. H. J.; Hicken, R. J. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Cavill, S. A. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Laan, G. van der; Dhesi, S. S. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Bashir, M. A.; Gubbins, M. A. [Research and Development, Seagate Technology, 1 Disc Drive, Springtown Industrial Estate, Derry BT48 0BF (United Kingdom); Czoschke, P. J.; Lopusnik, R. [Recording Heads Operation, Seagate Technology, 7801 Computer Avenue South, Bloomington, Minnesota 55435 (United States)


    Four different designs of partially built hard disk write heads with a yoke comprising four repeats of NiFe (1 nm)/CoFe (50 nm) were studied by both x-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) and time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy (TRSKM). These techniques were used to investigate the static equilibrium domain configuration and the magnetodynamic response across the entire structure, respectively. Simulations and previous TRSKM studies have made proposals for the equilibrium domain configuration of similar structures, but no direct observation of the equilibrium state of the writers has yet been made. In this study, static XPEEM images of the equilibrium state of writer structures were acquired using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism as the contrast mechanism. These images suggest that the crystalline anisotropy dominates the equilibrium state domain configuration, but competition with shape anisotropy ultimately determines the stability of the equilibrium state. Dynamic TRSKM images were acquired from nominally identical devices. These images suggest that a longer confluence region may hinder flux conduction from the yoke into the pole tip: the shorter confluence region exhibits clear flux beaming along the symmetry axis, whereas the longer confluence region causes flux to conduct along one edge of the writer. The observed variations in dynamic response agree well with the differences in the equilibrium magnetization configuration visible in the XPEEM images, confirming that minor variations in the geometric design of the writer structure can have significant effects on the process of flux beaming.

  2. Mass Distribution in Rotating Thin-Disk Galaxies According to Newtonian Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Q. Feng


    Full Text Available An accurate computational method is presented for determining the mass distribution in a mature spiral galaxy from a given rotation curve by applying Newtonian dynamics for an axisymmetrically rotating thin disk of finite size with or without a central spherical bulge. The governing integral equation for mass distribution is transformed via a boundary-element method into a linear algebra matrix equation that can be solved numerically for rotation curves with a wide range of shapes. To illustrate the effectiveness of this computational method, mass distributions in several mature spiral galaxies are determined from their measured rotation curves. All the surface mass density profiles predicted by our model exhibit approximately a common exponential law of decay, quantitatively consistent with the observed surface brightness distributions. When a central spherical bulge is present, the mass distribution in the galaxy is altered in such a way that the periphery mass density is reduced, while more mass appears toward the galactic center. By extending the computational domain beyond the galactic edge, we can determine the rotation velocity outside the cut-off radius, which appears to continuously decrease and to gradually approach the Keplerian rotation velocity out over twice the cut-off radius. An examination of circular orbit stability suggests that galaxies with flat or rising rotation velocities are more stable than those with declining rotation velocities especially in the region near the galactic edge. Our results demonstrate the fact that Newtonian dynamics can be adequate for describing the observed rotation behavior of mature spiral galaxies.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Christian D.; Sandell, Göran; Vacca, William D.; Duchêne, Gaspard; Mathews, Geoffrey; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Ménard, Francois; Pinte, Christophe; Podio, Linda; Thi, Wing-Fai; Barrado, David; Riviere-Marichalar, Pablo; Dent, William R. F.; Eiroa, Carlos; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Grady, Carol; Roberge, Aki; Kamp, Inga; Vicente, Silvia; Williams, Jonathan P.


    The Herschel Space Observatory was used to observe ∼120 pre-main-sequence stars in Taurus as part of the GASPS Open Time Key project. Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer was used to measure the continuum as well as several gas tracers such as [O I] 63 μm, [O I] 145 μm, [C II] 158 μm, OH, H 2 O, and CO. The strongest line seen is [O I] at 63 μm. We find a clear correlation between the strength of the [O I] 63 μm line and the 63 μm continuum for disk sources. In outflow sources, the line emission can be up to 20 times stronger than in disk sources, suggesting that the line emission is dominated by the outflow. The tight correlation seen for disk sources suggests that the emission arises from the inner disk (<50 AU) and lower surface layers of the disk where the gas and dust are coupled. The [O I] 63 μm is fainter in transitional stars than in normal Class II disks. Simple spectral energy distribution models indicate that the dust responsible for the continuum emission is colder in these disks, leading to weaker line emission. [C II] 158 μm emission is only detected in strong outflow sources. The observed line ratios of [O I] 63 μm to [O I] 145 μm are in the regime where we are insensitive to the gas-to-dust ratio, neither can we discriminate between shock or photodissociation region emission. We detect no Class III object in [O I] 63 μm and only three in continuum, at least one of which is a candidate debris disk


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-hoon [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Agertz, Oscar [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Teyssier, Romain; Feldmann, Robert [Centre for Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Zurich, 8057 (Switzerland); Butler, Michael J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ceverino, Daniel [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Choi, Jun-Hwan [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Keller, Ben W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Lupi, Alessandro [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 6 et CNRS, F-75014 Paris (France); Quinn, Thomas; Wallace, Spencer [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Revaz, Yves [Institute of Physics, Laboratoire d’Astrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Leitner, Samuel N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Shen, Sijing [Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Smith, Britton D., E-mail: [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Collaboration: AGORA Collaboration; and others


    Using an isolated Milky Way-mass galaxy simulation, we compare results from nine state-of-the-art gravito-hydrodynamics codes widely used in the numerical community. We utilize the infrastructure we have built for the AGORA High-resolution Galaxy Simulations Comparison Project. This includes the common disk initial conditions, common physics models (e.g., radiative cooling and UV background by the standardized package Grackle) and common analysis toolkit yt, all of which are publicly available. Subgrid physics models such as Jeans pressure floor, star formation, supernova feedback energy, and metal production are carefully constrained across code platforms. With numerical accuracy that resolves the disk scale height, we find that the codes overall agree well with one another in many dimensions including: gas and stellar surface densities, rotation curves, velocity dispersions, density and temperature distribution functions, disk vertical heights, stellar clumps, star formation rates, and Kennicutt–Schmidt relations. Quantities such as velocity dispersions are very robust (agreement within a few tens of percent at all radii) while measures like newly formed stellar clump mass functions show more significant variation (difference by up to a factor of ∼3). Systematic differences exist, for example, between mesh-based and particle-based codes in the low-density region, and between more diffusive and less diffusive schemes in the high-density tail of the density distribution. Yet intrinsic code differences are generally small compared to the variations in numerical implementations of the common subgrid physics such as supernova feedback. Our experiment reassures that, if adequately designed in accordance with our proposed common parameters, results of a modern high-resolution galaxy formation simulation are more sensitive to input physics than to intrinsic differences in numerical schemes.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Tang, Ya-Wen; Leurini, Silvia


    We present sensitive high angular resolution (0.''57-0.''78) SO, SO 2 , CO, C 2 H 5 OH, HC 3 N, and HCOCH 2 OH line observations at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths of the young O-type protostar W51 North made with the Submillimeter Array. We report the presence of a large (about 8000 AU) and hot molecular circumstellar disk around this object, which connects the inner dusty disk with the molecular ring or toroid reported recently and confirms the existence of a single bipolar outflow emanating from this object. The molecular emission from the large disk is observed in layers with the transitions characterized by high excitation temperatures in their lower energy states (up to 1512 K) being concentrated closer to the central massive protostar. The molecular emission from those transitions with low or moderate excitation temperatures is found in the outermost parts of the disk and exhibits an inner cavity with an angular size of around 0.''7. We modeled all lines with a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) synthetic spectrum. A detailed study of the kinematics of the molecular gas together with an LTE model of a circumstellar disk shows that the innermost parts of the disk are also Keplerian plus a contracting velocity. The emission of the HCOCH 2 OH reveals the possible presence of a warm 'companion' located to the northeast of the disk, however its nature is unclear. The emission of the SO and SO 2 is observed in the circumstellar disk as well as in the outflow. We suggest that the massive protostar W51 North appears to be in a phase before the presence of a hypercompact or an ultracompact H II (HC/UCH II) region and propose a possible sequence on the formation of the massive stars.

  6. Extremely Large and Hot Multilayer Keplerian Disk Around the O-type Protostar W51N: The Precursors of the HCH II Regions? (United States)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Tang, Ya-Wen; Leurini, Silvia


    We present sensitive high angular resolution (0farcs57-0farcs78) SO, SO2, CO, C2H5OH, HC3N, and HCOCH2OH line observations at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths of the young O-type protostar W51 North made with the Submillimeter Array. We report the presence of a large (about 8000 AU) and hot molecular circumstellar disk around this object, which connects the inner dusty disk with the molecular ring or toroid reported recently and confirms the existence of a single bipolar outflow emanating from this object. The molecular emission from the large disk is observed in layers with the transitions characterized by high excitation temperatures in their lower energy states (up to 1512 K) being concentrated closer to the central massive protostar. The molecular emission from those transitions with low or moderate excitation temperatures is found in the outermost parts of the disk and exhibits an inner cavity with an angular size of around 0farcs7. We modeled all lines with a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) synthetic spectrum. A detailed study of the kinematics of the molecular gas together with an LTE model of a circumstellar disk shows that the innermost parts of the disk are also Keplerian plus a contracting velocity. The emission of the HCOCH2OH reveals the possible presence of a warm "companion" located to the northeast of the disk, however its nature is unclear. The emission of the SO and SO2 is observed in the circumstellar disk as well as in the outflow. We suggest that the massive protostar W51 North appears to be in a phase before the presence of a hypercompact or an ultracompact H II (HC/UCH II) region and propose a possible sequence on the formation of the massive stars.

  7. The formation of superdense gaseous cores in the nuclei of disk galaxies. II (United States)

    Basu, B.; Bhattacharya, T.


    In a previous paper (hereafter referred to as Paper I) we have tried to show that superdense cores in the nuclei of disk galaxies can be formed by accretion of gas ejected by the evolved stars which populate the central bulge of these galaxies. Solving the equations for radial flow of a magnetized gas, we found that the accretion of an explodable mass at the core can be achieved over a time-scale ranging from a few times iO~ and a few times 108 yr. It was shown, however, that the accretion process is seriously inhibited if the gas possesses sufficient rotational velocity but lacks any dissipative mechanism within the system. Since rotational velocity is an observed parameter of the stars which shed the gas to be accreted, one must consider the existence of some dissipative force in it in order that the accretion process may be efficient. In the present paper, therefore, we have solved the problem of the flow of a rotating, viscous (variable), magnetized gas. With plausible assumptions regarding some of the parameters involved, the time-scale for the accretion of an explodable mass (~- i09 M®) at the core again turns out to be ranging between a few times iÃ&~cedil; and a few times 108 yr. Such time-scale has been proposed by several authors as that for repeated explosions in nuclei of these galaxies. It has also been proposed by many authors that the spiral arms are generated and destroyed in disk galaxies over the same time-scale. Our solution also yields a nearly linear rotational velocity law which is usually observed in the central regions of these galaxies


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Tomoya; Suzuki, Takeru K.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)


    We investigate the dynamics of dust grains of various sizes in protoplanetary disk winds driven by magnetorotational turbulence, by simulating the time evolution of the dust grain distribution in the vertical direction. Small dust grains, which are well-coupled to the gas, are dragged upward with the upflowing gas, while large grains remain near the midplane of a disk. Intermediate-size grains float near the sonic point of the disk wind located at several scale heights from the midplane, where the grains are loosely coupled to the background gas. For the minimum mass solar nebula at 1 au, dust grains with size of 25–45 μm float around 4 scale heights from the midplane. Considering the dependence on the distance from the central star, smaller-size grains remain only in an outer region of the disk, while larger-size grains are distributed in a broader region. We also discuss the implications of our result for observations of dusty material around young stellar objects.

  9. Dynamic characterisation of the head media interface in hard disk drives using novel sensor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunstall, Glen Alan


    Hard disk drives function perfectly satisfactorily when used in a stable environment, but in certain applications they are subjected to shock and vibration. During the work reported in this thesis it has been found that when typical hard disk drives are subjected to vibration, data transfer failure is found to be significant at frequencies between 440Hz and 700Hz, at an extreme, failing at only 1g of sinusoidal vibration. These failures can largely be attributed to two key components: the suspension arm and the hard disk. At non-critical frequencies of vibration the typical hard disk drive can reliably transfer data whilst subjected to as much as 45g. When transferring data to the drive controller, the drive's operations are controlled and monitored using BIOS commands. Examining the embedded error signals proved that the drive predominantly failed due to tracking errors. Novel piezo-electric sensors have been developed to measure unobtrusively suspension arm and disk motion, the results from which show the disk to be the most significant failure mechanism, with its first mode of resonance at around 440Hz. The suspension arm movement has been found to be greatest at 1kHz. Extensive modelling of the flexure of the disk, clamped and unclamped, has been undertaken using finite element analysis. The theoretical modelling strongly reinforces the empirical results presented in this thesis. If suspension arm movement is not directly coupled with disk movement then a flying height variation is created. This, together with tracking variations, leads to data transfer corruption. This has been found to occur at 1kHz and 2kHz. An optical system has been developed and characterised for a novel and inexpensive flying height measurement system using compact disc player technology. (author)

  10. Dynamics and mechanism of cavitation erosion on perspex and epoxy resins tested in a rotating disk device (United States)

    Rao, P. V.; Rao, N. S. L.; Rao, B. C. S.


    The cavitation erosion behavior including the initiation, dynamics and mechanism of damage process on perspex and epoxy resin specimens tested in a rotating disk device were discussed with respect to exposure time. The inception of erosion always took place at the location nearest to the center of rotation of the disk. Subsequently, as exposure time increased, erosion initiated at other locations as well. Light optical photographs and scanning electron micrographs clearly indicate that most of the material loss appears to occur form the networks of cracks due to their interaction and pits indicate particle debris. The optical degradation (loss of transmittance) on perspex was observed to be more on the rear side than on the front side.

  11. Dynamic characterisation of the head media interface in hard disk drives using novel sensor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tunstall, G A


    Hard disk drives function perfectly satisfactorily when used in a stable environment, but in certain applications they are subjected to shock and vibration. During the work reported in this thesis it has been found that when typical hard disk drives are subjected to vibration, data transfer failure is found to be significant at frequencies between 440Hz and 700Hz, at an extreme, failing at only 1g of sinusoidal vibration. These failures can largely be attributed to two key components: the suspension arm and the hard disk. At non-critical frequencies of vibration the typical hard disk drive can reliably transfer data whilst subjected to as much as 45g. When transferring data to the drive controller, the drive's operations are controlled and monitored using BIOS commands. Examining the embedded error signals proved that the drive predominantly failed due to tracking errors. Novel piezo-electric sensors have been developed to measure unobtrusively suspension arm and disk motion, the results from which show the d...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Brem, Patrick [Max Planck Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Cuadra, Jorge, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, 782-0436 Santiago (Chile)


    In our current interpretation of the hierarchical structure of the universe, it is well established that galaxies collide and merge with each other during their lifetimes. If massive black holes (MBHs) reside in galactic centers, we expect them to form binaries in galactic nuclei surrounded by a circumbinary disk. If cooling is efficient enough, the gas in the disk will clump and trigger stellar formation in situ. In this first paper we address the evolution of the binary under the influence of the newly formed stars, which form individually and also clustered. We use smoothed particle hydrodynamics techniques to evolve the gas in the circumbinary disk and to study the phase of star formation. When the amount of gas in the disk is negligible, we further evolve the system with a high-accurate direct-summation N-body code to follow the evolution of the stars, the innermost binary and tidal disruption events (TDEs). For this, we modify the direct N-body code to include (1) treatment of TDEs and (2) 'gas cloud particles' that mimic the gas, so that the stellar clusters do not dissolve when we follow their infall on to the MBHs. We find that the amount of stars disrupted by either infalling stellar clusters or individual stars is as large as 10{sup -4} yr{sup -1} per binary, higher than expected for typical galaxies.

  13. Real-time dynamic simulator for the Topaz II reactor power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, K.S.


    A dynamic simulator of the TOPAZ II reactor system has been developed for the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program. The simulator is a self-contained IBM-PC compatible based system that executes at a speed faster than real-time. The simulator combines first-principle modeling and empirical correlations in its algorithm to attain the modeling accuracy and computational through-put that are required for real-time execution. The overall execution time of the simulator for each time step is 15 ms when no data is written to the disk, and 18 ms when nine double precision data points are written to the disk once in every time step. The simulation program has been tested and it is able to handle a step decrease of $8 worth of reactivity. It also provides simulation of fuel, emitter, collector, stainless steel, and ZrH moderator failures. Presented in this paper are the models used in the calculations, a sample simulation session, and a discussion of the performance and limitations of the simulator. The simulator has been found to provide realistic real-time dynamic response of the TOPAZ II reactor system under both normal and causality conditions


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Andrew F. [XCP-2, Mailstop T082, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Marzari, F., E-mail:, E-mail: [Università di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)


    We present two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic code, VINE, to model a self-gravitating binary system. We model configurations in which a circumbinary torus+disk surrounds a pair of stars in orbit around each other and a circumstellar disk surrounds each star, similar to that observed for the GG Tau A system. We assume that the disks cool as blackbodies, using rates determined independently at each location in the disk by the time dependent temperature of the photosphere there. We assume heating due to hydrodynamical processes and to radiation from the two stars, using rates approximated from a measure of the radiation intercepted by the disk at its photosphere. We simulate a suite of systems configured with semimajor axes of either a = 62 AU (“wide”) or a = 32 AU (“close”), and with assumed orbital eccentricity of either e = 0 or e = 0.3. Each simulation follows the evolution for ∼6500–7500 yr, corresponding to about three orbits of the torus around the center of mass. Our simulations show that strong, sharply defined spiral structures are generated from the stirring action of the binary and that, in some cases, these structures fragment into 1–2 massive clumps. The torus quickly fragments into several dozen such fragments in configurations in which either the binary is replaced by a single star of equal mass, or radiative heating is neglected. The spiral structures extend inwards to the circumstellar environment as large scale material streams for which most material is found on trajectories that return it to the torus on a timescale of 1–200 yr, with only a small fraction accreting into the circumstellar environment. The spiral structures also propagate outwards through the torus, generating net outwards mass flow, and eventually losing coherence at large distances from the stars. The torus becomes significantly eccentric in shape over most of its evolution. In all configurations, accretion onto the

  15. Assimilation Dynamic Network (ADN), Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Assimilation Dynamic Network (ADN) is a dynamic inter-processor communication network that spans heterogeneous processor architectures, unifying components,...

  16. Far-ultraviolet and X-ray irradiated protoplanetary disks: a grid of models. II. Gas diagnostic line emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aresu, G.; Meijerink, R.; Kamp, I.; Spaans, M.; Thi, W.-F.; Woitke, P.


    Context. Most of the mass in protoplanetary disks is in the form of gas. The study of the gas and its diagnostics is of fundamental importance in order to achieve a detailed description of the thermal and chemical structure of the disk. Both radiation from the central star (from optical to X-ray

  17. Far-ultraviolet and X-ray irradiated protoplanetary disks : a grid of models II. Gas diagnostic line emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aresu, G.; Meijerink, R.; Kamp, I.; Spaans, M.; Thi, W. -F.; Woitke, P.


    Context. Most of the mass in protoplanetary disks is in the form of gas. The study of the gas and its diagnostics is of fundamental importance in order to achieve a detailed description of the thermal and chemical structure of the disk. Both radiation from the central star (from optical to X-ray

  18. Far-ultraviolet and X-ray irradiated protoplanetary disks: a grid of models : II. Gas diagnostic line emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aresu, G.; Meijerink, R.; Kamp, I.; Spaans, M.; Thi, W. -F; Woitke, P.


    Context. Most of the mass in protoplanetary disks is in the form of gas. The study of the gas and its diagnostics is of fundamental importance in order to achieve a detailed description of the thermal and chemical structure of the disk. Both radiation from the central star (from optical to X-ray

  19. High Performance Simulations of Accretion Disk Dynamics and Jet Formations Around Kerr Black Holes (United States)

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Mizuno, Yosuke; Watson, Michael


    We investigate jet formation in black-hole systems using 3-D General Relativistic Particle-In-Cell (GRPIC) and 3-D GRMHD simulations. GRPIC simulations, which allow charge separations in a collisionless plasma, do not need to invoke the frozen condition as in GRMHD simulations. 3-D GRPIC simulations show that jets are launched from Kerr black holes as in 3-D GRMHD simulations, but jet formation in the two cases may not be identical. Comparative study of black hole systems with GRPIC and GRMHD simulations with the inclusion of radiate transfer will further clarify the mechanisms that drive the evolution of disk-jet systems.

  20. Non-linear dynamics in galactic disks: the spiral-warps connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masset, Frederic


    After a recall on warp theories and on warp waves, this research thesis reports a linear study of warp waves with an assessment of the role of gas compressibility when taking the galactic disk thickness into account. Then, the author reports an analytical study of the non-linear coupling between warp waves and density waves, in order to calculate coupling efficiency, to identify areas of the galactic disk in which it is efficient, and to discuss concurrent physical processes (such as Landau absorption) and the validity of assumptions made to perform the calculations. The next part reports numerical simulations which have been performed to check the coupling mechanism. The author notably comments evolutions brought to existing codes, and finally presents the three-dimensional version of the developed code, and discusses choices made for this code (presence of gas, choice of hydrodynamics algorithms and of gas mesh geometry, and so on). Numerical results are then presented and discussed: they actually show the existence of a coupling between density waves and warp waves [fr


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz-Gutiérrez, M. A.; Pichardo, B.; Peimbert, A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70-264 Ciudad Universitaria, México (Mexico); Reyes-Ruiz, M., E-mail: [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 877, 22800 Ensenada, México (Mexico)


    With the use of long-term numerical simulations, we study the evolution and orbital behavior of cometary nuclei in cold Kuiper belt–like debris disks under the gravitational influence of dwarf planets (DPs); we carry out these simulations with and without the presence of a Neptune-like giant planet. This exploratory study shows that in the absence of a giant planet, 10 DPs are enough to induce strong radial and vertical heating on the orbits of belt particles. On the other hand, the presence of a giant planet close to the debris disk, acts as a stability agent reducing the radial and vertical heating. With enough DPs, even in the presence of a Neptune-like giant planet some radial heating remains; this heating grows steadily, re-filling resonances otherwise empty of cometary nuclei. Specifically for the solar system, this secular process seems to be able to provide material that, through resonant chaotic diffusion, increase the rate of new comets spiraling into the inner planetary system, but only if more than the ∼10 known DP sized objects exist in the trans-Neptunian region.

  2. Galaxy Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kruit, P. C.; Freeman, K. C.

    The disks of disk galaxies contain a substantial fraction of their baryonic matter and angular momentum, and much of the evolutionary activity in these galaxies, such as the formation of stars, spiral arms, bars and rings, and the various forms of secular evolution, takes place in their disks. The

  3. Dynamic quenching in single photosystem II supercomplexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruber, J.M.; Xu, P.; Chmeliov, J.; Kruger, T.P.J.; Alexandre, M.T.A.; Valkunas, L.; Croce, R.; van Grondelle, R.


    Photosystem II (PSII) is a huge pigment-protein supercomplex responsible for the primary steps of photosynthesis in green plants. Its light-harvesting antenna exhibits efficient transfer of the absorbed excitation energy to the reaction center and also contains a well-regulated protection mechanism

  4. Dynamic Adsorption Studies for the Removal of Cd (II) and Ni (II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 17, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. A dynamic adsorption study was carried out using mahogany leaves (ML) powder as an adsorbent for the removal of Cd (II) and Ni (II) from their aqueous solutions. The effects of contact time, adsorbent dose (5, 10 and 15 g), initial concentration (10, 15 and 20 mg/L), particle size (212, 150 and ...

  5. Dusty OB Stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud. II. Extragalactic Disks or Examples of the Pleiades Phenomenon? (United States)

    Adams, Joshua J.; Simon, Joshua D.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Sloan, G. C.; Sandstrom, Karin M.; Schmiedeke, Anika; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Oliveira, Joana M.; Keller, Luke D.


    We use mid-infrared Spitzer spectroscopy and far-infrared Herschel photometry for a sample of 20 main sequence O9-B2 stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) with strong 24 μm excesses to investigate the origin of the mid-IR emission. Either debris disks around the stars or illuminated patches of dense interstellar medium (ISM) can cause such mid-IR emission. In a companion paper, Paper I, we use optical spectroscopy to show that it is unlikely for any of these sources to be classical Be stars or Herbig Ae/Be stars. We focus our analysis on debris disks and cirrus hot spots. The local, prototype objects for these models are the debris disk around Vega and the heated dust cloud surrounding the stars in the Pleiades, also known as a cirrus hot spot. These two cases predict different dust masses, radii, origins, and structures, but the cleanest classification tools are lost by the poor physical resolution at the distance of the SMC. We also consider transition disks, which would have observable properties similar to debris disks. We begin classification by measuring angular extent in the highest resolution mid-IR images available. We find 3 out of 20 stars to be significantly extended, establishing them as cirrus hot spots. We then fit the IR spectral energy distributions to determine dust temperatures and masses. Analysis yields minimum grain sizes, thermal equilibrium distances, and the resultant dust mass estimates. We find the dust masses in the SMC stars to be larger than for any known debris disks. The difference in inferred properties is driven by the SMC stars being hotter and more luminous than known debris disk hosts and not in any directly observed dust properties, so this evidence against the debris disk hypothesis is circumstantial. Finally, we created a local comparison sample of bright mid-IR OB stars in the Milky Way (MW) by cross-matching the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and Hipparcos catalogs. We find that of the thousands of nearby

  6. Myosin II dynamics are regulated by tension in intercalating cells. (United States)

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Simoes, Sérgio de Matos; Röper, Jens-Christian; Eaton, Suzanne; Zallen, Jennifer A


    Axis elongation in Drosophila occurs through polarized cell rearrangements driven by actomyosin contractility. Myosin II promotes neighbor exchange through the contraction of single cell boundaries, while the contraction of myosin II structures spanning multiple pairs of cells leads to rosette formation. Here we show that multicellular actomyosin cables form at a higher frequency than expected by chance, indicating that cable assembly is an active process. Multicellular cables are sites of increased mechanical tension as measured by laser ablation. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments show that myosin II is stabilized at the cortex in regions of increased tension. Myosin II is recruited in response to an ectopic force and relieving tension leads to a rapid loss of myosin, indicating that tension is necessary and sufficient for cortical myosin localization. These results demonstrate that myosin II dynamics are regulated by tension in a positive feedback loop that leads to multicellular actomyosin cable formation and efficient tissue elongation.

  7. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) investigation onto passenger car disk brake design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munisamy, Kannan M; Moorthy, Shangkari K Kanasan


    The aim of this study is to investigate the flow and heat transfer in ventilated disc brakes using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). NACA Series blade is designed for ventilated disc brake and the cooling characteristic is compared to the baseline design. The ventilated disc brakes are simulated using commercial CFD software FLUENT TM using simulation configuration that was obtained from experiment data. The NACA Series blade design shows improvements in Nusselt number compared to baseline design.

  8. Null-strut calculus. II. Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheyfets, A.; LaFave, N.J.; Miller, W.A.


    In this paper, we continue from the preceding paper to develop a fully functional Regge calculus geometrodynamic algorithm from the null-strut-calculus construction. The developments discussed include (a) the identification of the Regge calculus analogue of the constraint and evolution equations on the null-strut lattice, (b) a description of the Minkowski solid geometry for the simplicial blocks of the null-strut lattice, (c) a description of the evolution algorithm for the geometrodynamic scheme and an analysis of its consistency, and (d) a presentation of the dynamical degrees of freedom for a simplicial hypersurface and the description of an initial-value prescription. To demonstrate qualitatively this new approach to geometrodynamics, we present the most simple application of null-strut calculus that we know of---the Friedmann cosmology using the three-boundary of a 600-cell simplicial polytope to model the simplicial hypersurface

  9. Mineral vein dynamics modelling (FRACS II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urai, J.; Virgo, S.; Arndt, M.


    The Mineral Vein Dynamics Modeling group ''FRACS'' started out as a team of 7 research groups in its first phase and continued with a team of 5 research groups at the Universities of Aachen, Tuebingen, Karlsruhe, Mainz and Glasgow during its second phase ''FRACS 11''. The aim of the group was to develop an advanced understanding of the interplay between fracturing, fluid flow and fracture healing with a special emphasis on the comparison of field data and numerical models. Field areas comprised the Oman mountains in Oman (which where already studied in detail in the first phase), a siliciclastic sequence in the Internal Ligurian Units in Italy (closed to Sestri Levante) and cores of Zechstein carbonates from a Lean Gas reservoir in Northern Germany. Numerical models of fracturing, sealing and interaction with fluid that were developed in phase I where expanded in phase 11. They were used to model small scale fracture healing by crystal growth and the resulting influence on flow, medium scale fracture healing and its influence on successive fracturing and healing, as well as large scale dynamic fluid flow through opening and closing fractures and channels as a function of fluid overpressure. The numerical models were compared with structures in the field and we were able to identify first proxies for mechanical vein-hostrock properties and fluid overpressures versus tectonic stresses. Finally we propose a new classification of stylolites based on numerical models and observations in the Zechstein cores and continued to develop a new stress inversion tool to use stylolites to estimate depth of their formation.

  10. Dynamics of proteins aggregation. II. Dynamic scaling in confined media (United States)

    Zheng, Size; Shing, Katherine S.; Sahimi, Muhammad


    In this paper, the second in a series devoted to molecular modeling of protein aggregation, a mesoscale model of proteins together with extensive discontinuous molecular dynamics simulation is used to study the phenomenon in a confined medium. The medium, as a model of a crowded cellular environment, is represented by a spherical cavity, as well as cylindrical tubes with two aspect ratios. The aggregation process leads to the formation of β sheets and eventually fibrils, whose deposition on biological tissues is believed to be a major factor contributing to many neuro-degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis diseases. Several important properties of the aggregation process, including dynamic evolution of the total number of the aggregates, the mean aggregate size, and the number of peptides that contribute to the formation of the β sheets, have been computed. We show, similar to the unconfined media studied in Paper I [S. Zheng et al., J. Chem. Phys. 145, 134306 (2016)], that the computed properties follow dynamic scaling, characterized by power laws. The existence of such dynamic scaling in unconfined media was recently confirmed by experiments. The exponents that characterize the power-law dependence on time of the properties of the aggregation process in spherical cavities are shown to agree with those in unbounded fluids at the same protein density, while the exponents for aggregation in the cylindrical tubes exhibit sensitivity to the geometry of the system. The effects of the number of amino acids in the protein, as well as the size of the confined media, have also been studied. Similarities and differences between aggregation in confined and unconfined media are described, including the possibility of no fibril formation, if confinement is severe.

  11. Stochastic disks that roll (United States)

    Holmes-Cerfon, Miranda


    We study a model of rolling particles subject to stochastic fluctuations, which may be relevant in systems of nano- or microscale particles where rolling is an approximation for strong static friction. We consider the simplest possible nontrivial system: a linear polymer of three disks constrained to remain in contact and immersed in an equilibrium heat bath so the internal angle of the polymer changes due to stochastic fluctuations. We compare two cases: one where the disks can slide relative to each other and the other where they are constrained to roll, like gears. Starting from the Langevin equations with arbitrary linear velocity constraints, we use formal homogenization theory to derive the overdamped equations that describe the process in configuration space only. The resulting dynamics have the formal structure of a Brownian motion on a Riemannian or sub-Riemannian manifold, depending on if the velocity constraints are holonomic or nonholonomic. We use this to compute the trimer's equilibrium distribution with and without the rolling constraints. Surprisingly, the two distributions are different. We suggest two possible interpretations of this result: either (i) dry friction (or other dissipative, nonequilibrium forces) changes basic thermodynamic quantities like the free energy of a system, a statement that could be tested experimentally, or (ii) as a lesson in modeling rolling or friction more generally as a velocity constraint when stochastic fluctuations are present. In the latter case, we speculate there could be a "roughness" entropy whose inclusion as an effective force could compensate the constraint and preserve classical Boltzmann statistics. Regardless of the interpretation, our calculation shows the word "rolling" must be used with care when stochastic fluctuations are present.

  12. Hydration of Cd(II): molecular dynamics study | M. Mohammed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inclusion of the three-body correction was found to be crucial for the description of the system, and results thus obtained are in good agreement with experimental values. Radial ... KEY WORDS: Molecular dynamics, Umbrella sampling, Hydration structure, Cd(II), Water exchange, Three-body corrections. Bull. Chem.

  13. Adsorption dynamics and equilibrium studies of Zn (II) onto chitosan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Adsorption dynamics and equilibrium studies of Zn (II) onto chitosan. G KARTHIKEYAN*, K ANBALAGAN and N MUTHULAKSHMI ANDAL. Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural Institute – Deemed University, Gandhigram 624 302, India e-mail: MS received 3 June 2003; revised 12 ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Maier


    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the new and standardized European system of supervisory called Solvency II. In essence, asymmetric distribution of information between policyholder and insurer triggered this new regulation which aims at better protecting policyholders. Its three-pillar model is about to challenge both, insurers as well as policyholders. The first pillar includes quantitative aspects, the second pillar contains qualitative aspects and the third pillar comprises market transparency and reporting obligations. Underwriting risks, the default risk of a bank and market risks can be identified for the dynamic hybrid. Solvency II covers all these risks in the first pillar and insurers shall deposit sufficient risk-bearing capital. In our analysis, we first identify the dynamic hybrid specific risks under the Solvency II regime und then develop product modifications to reduce this risk.

  15. Sub-Airy disk angular resolution with high dynamic range in the near-infrared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richichi A.


    Full Text Available Lunar occultations (LO are a simple and effective high angular resolution method, with minimum requirements in instrumentation and telescope time. They rely on the analysis of the diffraction fringes created by the lunar limb. The diffraction phenomen occurs in space, and as a result LO are highly insensitive to most of the degrading effects that limit the performance of traditional single telescope and long-baseline interferometric techniques used for direct detection of faint, close companions to bright stars. We present very recent results obtained with the technique of lunar occultations in the near-IR, showing the detection of companions with very high dynamic range as close as few milliarcseconds to the primary star. We discuss the potential improvements that could be made, to increase further the current performance. Of course, LO are fixed-time events applicable only to sources which happen to lie on the Moon’s apparent orbit. However, with the continuously increasing numbers of potential exoplanets and brown dwarfs beign discovered, the frequency of such events is not negligible. I will list some of the most favorable potential LO in the near future, to be observed from major observatories.

  16. Herniated Disk (United States)

    ... It is often caused by natural aging and deterioration. To keep your disks and back in good ... Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and ...

  17. Impact of Vehicle Flexibility on IRVE-II Flight Dynamics (United States)

    Bose, David M.; Toniolo, Matthew D.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Hughes, Stephen J.; Dillman, Robert A.


    The Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment II (IRVE-II) successfully launched from Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on August 17, 2009. The primary objectives of this flight test were to demonstrate inflation and re-entry survivability, assess the thermal and drag performance of the reentry vehicle, and to collect flight data for refining pre-flight design and analysis tools. Post-flight analysis including trajectory reconstruction outlined in O Keefe3 demonstrated that the IRVE-II Research Vehicle (RV) met mission objectives but also identified a few anomalies of interest to flight dynamics engineers. Most notable of these anomalies was high normal acceleration during the re-entry pressure pulse. Deflection of the inflatable aeroshell during the pressure pulse was evident in flight video and identified as the likely cause of the anomaly. This paper provides a summary of further post-flight analysis with particular attention to the impact of aeroshell flexibility on flight dynamics and the reconciliation of flight performance with pre-flight models. Independent methods for estimating the magnitude of the deflection of the aeroshell experienced on IRVE-II are discussed. The use of the results to refine models for pre-flight prediction of vehicle performance is then described.

  18. DARWIN-HC: A Tool to Predict Hot Corrosion of Nickel-Based Turbine Disks, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hot Corrosion of turbine engine components has been studied for many years. The underlying mechan-isms of Type I Hot Corrosion and Type II Hot Corrosion are...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, Kevin; Keeton, Charles R.


    Motivated by debris disk studies, we investigate the gravitational microlensing of background starlight by a planetesimal disk around a foreground star. We use dynamical survival models to construct a plausible example of a planetesimal disk and study its microlensing properties using established ideas of microlensing by small bodies. When a solar-type source star passes behind a planetesimal disk, the microlensing light curve may exhibit short-term, low-amplitude residuals caused by planetesimals several orders of magnitude below Earth mass. The minimum planetesimal mass probed depends on the photometric sensitivity and the size of the source star, and is lower when the planetesimal lens is located closer to us. Planetesimal lenses may be found more nearby than stellar lenses because the steepness of the planetesimal mass distribution changes how the microlensing signal depends on the lens/source distance ratio. Microlensing searches for planetesimals require essentially continuous monitoring programs that are already feasible and can potentially set constraints on models of debris disks, the progeny of the supposed extrasolar analogues of Kuiper Belts.

  20. Dynamic Young Stars and their Disks: A Temporal View of NGC 2264 with Spitzer and CoRoT*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody Ann Marie


    Full Text Available Variability is a signature feature of young stars. Among the well known light curve phenomena are periodic variations attributed to surface spots and irregular changes associated with accretion or circumstellar disk material. While decades of photometric monitoring have provided a framework for classifying young star variability, we still know surprisingly little about its underlying mechanisms and connections to the surrounding disks. In the past few years, dedicated photometric monitoring campaigns from the ground and space have revolutionized our view of young stars in the time domain. We present a selection of optical and infrared time series from several recent campaigns, highlighting the Coordinated Synoptic Investigation of NGC 2264 (“CSI 2264”– a joint30-day effort with the Spitzer, CoRoT, and MOST telescopes. The extraordinary photometric precision, high cadence, and long time baseline of these observations is now enabling correlation of variability properties at very different wavelengths, corresponding to locations from the stellar surface to the inner 0.1 AU of the disk. We present some results of the CSI 2264 program, including new classes of optical/infrared behavior. Further efforts to tie observed variability features to physical models will provide insights into the inner disk environment at a time when planet formation may be underway.

  1. Separation of Trace Amount Cu (II Using Octadecyl Silica Membrane Disks - Nano Graphene Modified N, N -disalicylideneethylenediamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moghimi


    Full Text Available A simple, highly sensitive, accurate and selective method was presented for determination of trace amounts of Cu (II in water samples. The stability of an N, N´ -disalicylideneethylenediamine modified Nano Geraphene especially in concentrated hydrochloric acid was studied which used as a recycling and pre-concentration reagent for further uses of N, N´-disalicylideneethylenediamine modified Nano Geraphene. The method was based on N, N´ -disalicylideneethylenediamine modified Nano Gerapheneof Cu (II on surfactant coated C18, modified with a N, N´ -disalicylideneethylenediamine modified Nano Geraphene. The retained ions were then eluted with 4 ml of 4 M nitric acid and determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS at 283.3 nm for Cu. The influence of flow rates of sample and eluent solutions, pH, breakthrough volume, effect of foreign ions were investigated on chelation and recovery. (1.5 g of surfactant coated C18 adsorbs 40 mg of the Schiff’s base which in turn can retain 15.2±0.8mg of ion The limit of detection (3σ for Cu (II was found to be 3.20 ng l -1. The enrichment factor for both ions was 100. The mentioned method was successfully applied on determination of Cu in different water samples. The ions were also speciated by means of three- column system.

  2. Separation of Trace Amount Cu (II Using Octadecyl Silica Membrane Disks - Nano Graphene Modified N, N -disalicylideneethylenediamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moghimi


    Full Text Available A simple, highly sensitive, accurate and selective method was presented for determination of trace amounts of Cu (II in water samples. The stability of an N, N´ -disalicylideneethylenediamine modified Nano Geraphene especially in concentrated hydrochloric acid was studied which used as a recycling and pre-concentration reagent for further uses of N, N´-disalicylideneethylenediamine modified Nano Geraphene. The method was based on N, N´ -disalicylideneethylenediamine modified Nano Gerapheneof Cu (II on surfactant coated C18, modified with a N, N´ -disalicylideneethylenediamine modified Nano Geraphene. The retained ions were then eluted with 4 ml of 4 M nitric acid and determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS at 283.3 nm for Cu. The influence of flow rates of sample and eluent solutions, pH, breakthrough volume, effect of foreign ions were investigated on chelation and recovery. (1.5 g of surfactant coated C18 adsorbs 40 mg of the Schiff’s base which in turn can retain 15.2±0.8mg of ion The limit of detection (3σ for Cu (II was found to be 3.20 ng l -1. The enrichment factor for both ions was 100. The mentioned method was successfully applied on determination of Cu in different water samples. The ions were also speciated by means of three- column system


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, J.; Wisniewski, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Tsukagoshi, T. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Brown, J. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dong, R. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Muto, T. [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 1-24-2, Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8677 (Japan); Zhu, Z. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ohashi, N.; Kudo, T.; Egner, S.; Guyon, O. [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Kusakabe, N.; Akiyama, E. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Abe, L. [Laboratoire Hippolyte Fizeau, UMR6525, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, 28, avenue Valrose, F-06108 Nice Cedex 02 (France); Brandner, W.; Carson, J.; Feldt, M. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Brandt, T. [Astrophysics Department, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States); Currie, T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON (Canada); Grady, C. A., E-mail: [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96002 (United States); and others


    The formation scenario of a gapped disk, i.e., transitional disk, and its asymmetry is still under debate. Proposed scenarios such as disk-planet interaction, photoevaporation, grain growth, anticyclonic vortex, eccentricity, and their combinations would result in different radial distributions of the gas and the small (sub-μm size) and large (millimeter size) dust grains as well as asymmetric structures in a disk. Optical/near-infrared (NIR) imaging observations and (sub-)millimeter interferometry can trace small and large dust grains, respectively; therefore multi-wavelength observations could help elucidate the origin of complicated structures of a disk. Here we report Submillimeter Array observations of the dust continuum at 1.3 mm and {sup 12}CO J = 2 → 1 line emission of the pre-transitional protoplanetary disk around the solar-mass star PDS 70. PDS 70, a weak-lined T Tauri star, exhibits a gap in the scattered light from its disk with a radius of ∼65 AU at NIR wavelengths. However, we found a larger gap in the disk with a radius of ∼80 AU at 1.3 mm. Emission from all three disk components (the gas and the small and large dust grains) in images exhibits a deficit in brightness in the central region of the disk, in particular, the dust disk in small and large dust grains has asymmetric brightness. The contrast ratio of the flux density in the dust continuum between the peak position to the opposite side of the disk reaches 1.4. We suggest the asymmetries and different gap radii of the disk around PDS 70 are potentially formed by several (unseen) accreting planets inducing dust filtration.

  4. DARHT-II Long-Pulse Beam-Dynamics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Ekdahl, Carl; Bartsch, Richard; Bender, Howard; Briggs, Richard J; Broste, William; Carlson, Carl; Caudill, Larry; Chan, Kwok-Chi D; Chen Yu Jiuan; Dalmas, Dale; Durtschi, Grant; Eversole, Steven; Eylon, Shmuel; Fawley, William M; Frayer, Daniel; Gallegos, Robert J; Harrison, James; Henestroza, Enrique; Holzscheiter, M H; Houck, Timothy L; Hughes, Thomas P; Jacquez, Edward; Johnson, Douglas; Johnson, Jeffrey; Jones, Kenneth; McCuistian, Brian T; Meidinger, Alfred; Montoya, Nicholas; Mostrom, Chris; Moy, Kenneth; Nath, Subrata; Nielsen, Kurt; Oro, David; Rodriguez, Leroy; Rodriguez, Patrick; Rowton, Larry J; Sanchez, Manolito; Scarpetti, Raymond; Schauer, Martin; Schulze, Martin E; Simmons, David; Studebaker, Jan; Sturgess, Ronald; Sullivan, Gary; Swinney, Charles; Tang, Yan; Temple, Rodney; Tipton, Angela; Tom, C Y; Vernon Smith, H; Yu, Simon


    When completed, the DARHT-II linear induction accelerator (LIA) will produce a 2-kA, 18-MeV electron beam with more than 1500-ns current/energy "flat-top." In initial tests DARHT-II has already accelerated beams with current pulse lengths from 500-ns to 1200-ns full-width at half maximum (FWHM) with more than1.2-kA, 12.5-MeV peak current and energy. Experiments are now underway with a ~2000-ns pulse length, but reduced current and energy. These pulse lengths are all significantly longer than any other multi-MeV LIA, and they define a novel regime for high-current beam dynamics, especially with regard to beam stability. Although the initial tests demonstrated absence of BBU, the pulse lengths were too short to test the predicted protection against ion-hose instability. The present experiments are designed to resolve these and other beam-dynamics issues with a ~2000-ns pulse length beam.

  5. Explosive magnetorotational instability in Keplerian disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shtemler, Yu., E-mail:; Liverts, E., E-mail:; Mond, M., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)


    Differentially rotating disks under the effect of axial magnetic field are prone to a nonlinear explosive magnetorotational instability (EMRI). The dynamic equations that govern the temporal evolution of the amplitudes of three weakly detuned resonantly interacting modes are derived. As distinct from exponential growth in the strict resonance triads, EMRI occurs due to the resonant interactions of an MRI mode with stable Alfvén–Coriolis and magnetosonic modes. Numerical solutions of the dynamic equations for amplitudes of a triad indicate that two types of perturbations behavior can be excited for resonance conditions: (i) EMRI which leads to infinite values of the three amplitudes within a finite time, and (ii) bounded irregular oscillations of all three amplitudes. Asymptotic explicit solutions of the dynamic equations are obtained for EMRI regimes and are shown to match the numerical solutions near the explosion time.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmoquette, M. S.; Smith, L. J.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Gallagher, J. S.; Trancho, G.; Bastian, N.


    emission, and explains the large observed broad/narrow-line flux ratios. We have examined in more detail the discrete outflow channel identified within the inner wind in Paper I. The channel appears as a coherent, expanding cylindrical structure of length >120 pc and width 35-50 pc. The walls maintain an approximately constant (but subsonic) expansion velocity of ∼60 km s -1 , and are defined by peaks and troughs in the densities of the different line components. We hypothesize that as the hot wind fluid flows down the channel cavity, it interacts with the cooler, denser walls of the channel and with entrained material within the flow to produce broad-line emission, while the walls themselves emit primarily the narrow lines. We use the channel to examine further the relationship between the narrow and broad component emitting gas within the inner wind. Within the starburst energy injection zone, we find that turbulent motions (as traced by the broad component) appear to play an increasing role with height. Finally, we have argued that a point-like knot identified in GMOS position 4, exhibiting blueshifted (by ∼140 km s -1 ), broad (∼ -1 ) Hα emission and enhanced [S II]/Hα and [N II]/Hα ratios, is most likely an ejected luminous blue variable-type object.

  7. Investigation and Control of "Sphere-Like" Buckminsterfullerene C60 and "Disk-Like" Copper(II) Phthalocyanine (United States)

    McAfee, Terry Richard

    Due to the growing global need for cheap, flexible, and portable electronics, numerous research groups from mechanical and electrical engineering, material science, chemistry, and physics have increasingly turned to organic electronics research over the last ˜5--10 years. Largely, the focus of researchers in this growing field have sought to obtain the next record holding device, allowing a heuristic approach of trial and error to become dominant focus of research rather than a fundamental understanding. Rather than working with the latest high performance organic semiconducting materials and film processing techniques, I have chosen to investigate and control the fundamental self-assembly interactions of organic photovoltaic thin films using simplified systems. Specifically, I focus on organic photovoltaic research using two of the oldest and well studies semiconducting materials, namely "sphere-like" electron donor material Buckminsterfullerene C60 and "disklike" electron acceptor material Copper(II) Phthalocyanine. I manufactured samples using the well-known technique of physical vapor deposition using a high vacuum chamber that I designed and built to accommodate my need of precise material deposition control, with codeposition capability. Films were characterized using microscopy and spectroscopy techniques locally at NCSU, including Atomic Force Microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, as well as at National Laboratory based synchrotron x-ray techniques, including Carbon and Nitrogen k-edge Total Electron Yield and Transmission Near Edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, Carbon k-edge Resonant Soft x-ray Microscopy, Resonant Soft x-ray reflectivity, and Grazing Incidence Wide-Angle X-ray scattering.

  8. Dynamic Flight Simulation Utilizing High Fidelity CFD-Based Nonlinear Reduced Order Model, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nonlinear Dynamic Flight Simulation (NL-DFS) system will be developed in the Phase II project by combining the classical nonlinear rigid-body flight dynamics...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yun; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N. [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Yiheyuan Lu 5, Haidian Qu, Beijing 100871 (China); Stamatellos, D. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute for Mathematics, Physics and Astronomy, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Goodwin, S. P., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)


    Theory and simulations suggest that it is possible to form low-mass hydrogen-burning stars, brown dwarfs (BDs), and planetary-mass objects (PMOs) via disk fragmentation. As disk fragmentation results in the formation of several bodies at comparable distances to the host star, their orbits are generally unstable. Here, we study the dynamical evolution of these objects. We set up the initial conditions based on the outcomes of the smoothed-particle hydrodynamics simulations of Stamatellos and Whitworth, and for comparison we also study the evolution of systems resulting from lower-mass fragmenting disks. We refer to these two sets of simulations as set 1 and set 2, respectively. At 10 Myr, approximately half of the host stars have one companion left, and approximately 22% (set 1) to 9.8% (set 2) of the host stars are single. Systems with multiple secondaries in relatively stable configurations are common (about 30% and 44%, respectively). The majority of the companions are ejected within 1 Myr with velocities mostly below 5 km s{sup −1}, with some runaway escapers with velocities over 30 km s{sup −1}. Roughly 6% (set 1) and 2% (set 2) of the companions pair up into very low-mass binary systems, resulting in respective binary fractions of 3.2% and 1.2%. The majority of these pairs escape as very low-mass binaries, while others remain bound to the host star in hierarchical configurations (often with retrograde inner orbits). Physical collisions with the host star (0.43 and 0.18 events per host star for set 1 and set 2, respectively) and between companions (0.08 and 0.04 events per host star for set 1 and set 2, respectively) are relatively common and their frequency increases with increasing disk mass. Our study predicts observable properties of very low-mass binaries, low-mass hierarchical systems, the BD desert, and free-floating BDs and PMOs in and near young stellar groupings, which can be used to distinguish between different formation scenarios of very low

  10. Chemical evolution of the solar neighborhood. II. The age-metallicity relation and the history of star formation in the galactic disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twarog, B.A.


    The age-metallicty relation for the disk in the neighborhood of the Sun is derived from four-color and H..beta.. photometry of a large sample of southern F dwarfs, analyzed in combination with theoretical isochrones. It is found that the mean metallicity of the disk increased by about a factor of 5 between 12 and 5 billion years ago and has increased only slightly since then; this conclusion is independent of the helium abundance assumed for the models.

  11. ALMA observations of the nearby AGB star L2 Puppis. II. Gas disk properties derived from 12CO and 13CO J = 3-2 emission (United States)

    Homan, Ward; Richards, Anita; Decin, Leen; Kervella, Pierre; de Koter, Alex; McDonald, Iain; Ohnaka, Keiichi


    The circumstellar environment of the AGB star L2 Puppis was observed with ALMA in cycle 3, with a resolution of 15 × 18 mas. The molecular emission shows a differentially rotating disk, inclined to a nearly edge-on position. In the first paper in this series (Paper I) the molecular emission was analysed to accurately deduce the motion of the gas in the equatorial regions of the disk. In this work we model the optically thick 12CO J = 3-2 and the optically thin 13CO J = 3-2 rotational transition to constrain the physical conditions in the disk. To realise this effort we make use of the 3D NLTE radiative transfer code LIME. The temperature structure and velocity structure show a high degree of complexity, both radially and vertically. The radial H2 density profile in the disk plane is characterised by a power law with a slope of -3.1. We find a 12CO over 13CO abundance ratio of 10 inside the disk. Finally, estimations of the angular momentum in the disk surpass the expected available angular momentum of the star, strongly supporting the indirect detection of a compact binary companion reported in Paper I. We estimate the mass of the companion to be around 1 Jupiter mass.

  12. A New M Dwarf Debris Disk Candidate in a Young Moving Group Discovered with Disk Detective (United States)

    Silverberg, Steven M.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Wisniewski, John P.; Gagne, Jonathan; Bans, Alissa S.; Bhattacharjee, Shambo; Currie, Thayne R.; Debes, John R.; Biggs, Joseph R; Bosch, Milton


    We used the Disk Detective citizen science project and the BANYAN II Bayesian analysis tool to identify a new candidate member of a nearby young association with infrared excess. WISE J080822.18-644357.3, an M5.5-type debris disk system with significant excess at both 12 and 22 microns, is a likely member (approx.90% BANYAN II probability) of the approx.45 Myr old Carina association. Since this would be the oldest M dwarf debris disk detected in a moving group, this discovery could be an important constraint on our understanding of M dwarf debris disk evolution.

  13. Dynamic neutron scattering from conformational dynamics. II. Application using molecular dynamics simulation and Markov modeling. (United States)

    Yi, Zheng; Lindner, Benjamin; Prinz, Jan-Hendrik; Noé, Frank; Smith, Jeremy C


    Neutron scattering experiments directly probe the dynamics of complex molecules on the sub pico- to microsecond time scales. However, the assignment of the relaxations seen experimentally to specific structural rearrangements is difficult, since many of the underlying dynamical processes may exist on similar timescales. In an accompanying article, we present a theoretical approach to the analysis of molecular dynamics simulations with a Markov State Model (MSM) that permits the direct identification of structural transitions leading to each contributing relaxation process. Here, we demonstrate the use of the method by applying it to the configurational dynamics of the well-characterized alanine dipeptide. A practical procedure for deriving the MSM from an MD is introduced. The result is a 9-state MSM in the space of the backbone dihedral angles and the side-chain methyl group. The agreement between the quasielastic spectrum calculated directly from the atomic trajectories and that derived from the Markov state model is excellent. The dependence on the wavevector of the individual Markov processes is described. The procedure means that it is now practicable to interpret quasielastic scattering spectra in terms of well-defined intramolecular transitions with minimal a priori assumptions as to the nature of the dynamics taking place.

  14. Effect of Cement Asphalt Mortar Debonding on Dynamic Properties of CRTS II Slab Ballastless Track


    Ping Wang; Hao Xu; Rong Chen


    The debonding of cement emulsified asphalt mortar (CA mortar) is one of the main damage types in China railway track system II slab ballastless track. In order to analyze the influence of mortar debonding on the dynamic properties of CRTS II slab ballastless track, a vertical coupling vibration model for a vehicle-track-subgrade system was established on the base of wheel/rail coupling dynamics theory. The effects of different debonding lengths on dynamic response of vehicle and track system...

  15. The Fabulous Four Debris Disks (United States)

    Werner, Michael; Stapelfeldt, Karl


    This program is a comprehensive study of the four bright debris disks that were spatially resolved by IRAS: Beta Pictoris, Epsilon Eridani, Fomalhaut, and Vega. All SIRTF instruments and observing modes will be used. The program has three major objectives: (1) Study of the disk spatial structure from MIPS and IRAC imaging; (2) Study of the dust grain composition using the IRS and MIPS SED mode; and (3) companion searches using IRAC. The data from this program should lead to a detailed understanding of these four systems, and will provide a foundation for understanding all of the debris disks to be studied with SIRTF. Images and spectra will be compared with models for disk structure and dust properties. Dynamical features indicative of substellar companions' effects on the disks will be searched for. This program will require supporting observations of PSF stars, some of which have been included explicitly. In the majority of cases, the spectral observations require a preferred orientation to align the slits along the disk position angles. Detector saturation issues are still being worked for this program, and will lead to AOR modifications in subsequent submissions. The results from this program will be analyzed collaboratively by the IRAC, IRS, and MIPS teams and by general GTOs Jura and Werner.

  16. Fabrication of Natural Uranium UO2 Disks (Phase II): Texas A&M Work for Others Summary Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerczak, Tyler J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baldwin, Charles A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schmidlin, Joshua E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Henry, Jr, John James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The steps to fabricate natural UO2 disks for an irradiation campaign led by Texas A&M University are outlined. The process was initiated with stoichiometry adjustment of parent, U3O8 powder. The next stage of sample preparation involved exploratory pellet pressing and sintering to achieve the desired natural UO2 pellet densities. Ideal densities were achieved through the use of a bimodal powder size blend. The steps involved with disk fabrication are also presented, describing the coring and thinning process executed to achieve final dimensionality.

  17. ALMA observations of the nearby AGB star L2 Puppis II. Gas disk properties derived from 12CO and 13CO J = 3–2 emission


    Homan, Ward; Richards, Anita; Decin, Leen; Kervella , Pierre; de Koter, Alex; Mcdonald, Iain; Ohnaka, Keiichi


    The circumstellar environment of the AGB star L2 Puppis was observed with ALMA in cycle 3, with a resolution of 15 × 18 mas. The molecular emission shows a differentially rotating disk, inclined to a nearly edge-on position. In the first paper in this series (Paper I) the molecular emission was analysed to accurately deduce the motion of the gas in the equatorial regions of the disk. In this work we model the optically thick 12CO J = 3-2 and the optically thin 13CO J = 3-2 rotational transiti...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishin, Evgeni; Perets, Hagai B. [Physics Department, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 3200003 (Israel)


    One of the first stages of planet formation is the growth of small planetesimals and their accumulation into large planetesimals and planetary embryos. This early stage occurs long before the dispersal of most of the gas from the protoplanetary disk. At this stage gas–planetesimal interactions play a key role in the dynamical evolution of single intermediate-mass planetesimals (m{sub p} ∼ 10{sup 21}–10{sup 25} g) through gas dynamical friction (GDF). A significant fraction of all solar system planetesimals (asteroids and Kuiper-belt objects) are known to be binary planetesimals (BPs). Here, we explore the effects of GDF on the evolution of BPs embedded in a gaseous disk using an N-body code with a fiducial external force accounting for GDF. We find that GDF can induce binary mergers on timescales shorter than the disk lifetime for masses above m{sub p} ≳ 10{sup 22} g at 1 au, independent of the binary initial separation and eccentricity. Such mergers can affect the structure of merger-formed planetesimals, and the GDF-induced binary inspiral can play a role in the evolution of the planetesimal disk. In addition, binaries on eccentric orbits around the star may evolve in the supersonic regime, where the torque reverses and the binary expands, which would enhance the cross section for planetesimal encounters with the binary. Highly inclined binaries with small mass ratios, evolve due to the combined effects of Kozai–Lidov (KL) cycles with GDF which lead to chaotic evolution. Prograde binaries go through semi-regular KL evolution, while retrograde binaries frequently flip their inclination and ∼50% of them are destroyed.

  19. ALMA observations of the nearby AGB star L2 Puppis : II. Gas disk properties derived from 12CO and 13CO J = 3-2 emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, W.; Richards, A.; Decin, L.; Kervella, P.; de Koter, A.; McDonald, I.; Ohnaka, K.

    The circumstellar environment of the AGB star L2 Puppis was observed with ALMA in cycle 3, with a resolution of 15 × 18 mas. The molecular emission shows a differentially rotating disk, inclined to a nearly edge-on position. In the first paper in this series (Paper I) the molecular emission was

  20. Extraction and Determination of Trace Copper (II Using Octadecyl Silica Membrane Disks Modified 1-(2-Pyridyl Azo 2-Naphtol(Pan in Water Samples and Paraffin-Embedded Tissues from Liver Loggerhead Turtles Specimens by FAAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moghimi


    Full Text Available A simple and reproducible method for the rapid extraction and determination of trace amounts of copper(II ions using octadecyl-bonded silica membrane disks modified by 1-(2-Pyridyl Azo2-Naphtol(PANand Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was presented. The method was based on complex formation on the surface of the ENVI-18 DISKTM disks followed by stripping of the retained species by minimum amounts of appropriate organic solvents. The elution was efficient and quantitative. The effect of potential interfering ions, pH, ligand amount, stripping solvent, and sample flow rate were also investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the break-through volume was found to about 1000mL providing a preconcentration factor of 500. In the present study, we reported the application of preconcentration techniques still continues increasingly for trace metal determinations by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS for quantification of Cu in Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues from Liver loggerhead turtles. The maximum capacity of the disks was found to be 389± 4 µg for Cu2+.The limit of detection of the proposed method was 5ng per 1000mL.The method was applied to the extraction and recovery of copper in different water samples.

  1. Observational constraints on black hole accretion disks (United States)

    Liang, Edison P.


    We review the empirical constraints on accretion disk models of stellar-mass black holes based on recent multiwavelength observational results. In addition to time-averaged emission spectra, the time evolutions of the intensity and spectrum provide critical information about the structure, stability, and dynamics of the disk. Using the basic thermal Keplerian disk paradigm, we consider in particular generalizations of the standard optically thin disk models needed to accommodate the extremely rich variety of dynamical phenomena exhibited by black hole candidates ranging from flares of electron-positron annihilations and quasiperiodic oscillations in the X-ray intensity to X-ray novae activity. These in turn provide probes of the disk structure and global geometry. The goal is to construct a single unified framework to interpret a large variety of black hole phenomena. This paper will concentrate on the interface between basic theory and observational data modeling.

  2. Oscillations of disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Shoji


    This book presents the current state of research on disk oscillation theory, focusing on relativistic disks and tidally deformed disks. Since the launch of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in 1996, many high-frequency quasiperiodic oscillations (HFQPOs) have been observed in X-ray binaries. Subsequently, similar quasi-periodic oscillations have been found in such relativistic objects as microquasars, ultra-luminous X-ray sources, and galactic nuclei. One of the most promising explanations of their origin is based on oscillations in relativistic disks, and a new field called discoseismology is currently developing. After reviewing observational aspects, the book presents the basic characteristics of disk oscillations, especially focusing on those in relativistic disks. Relativistic disks are essentially different from Newtonian disks in terms of several basic characteristics of their disk oscillations, including the radial distributions of epicyclic frequencies. In order to understand the basic processes...

  3. Genome-wide dynamics of Pol II elongation and its interplay with promoter proximal pausing, chromatin, and exons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, Iris; Kwak, Hojoong; Lis, John T


    Production of mRNA depends critically on the rate of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation. To dissect Pol II dynamics in mouse ES cells, we inhibited Pol II transcription at either initiation or promoter-proximal pause escape with Triptolide or Flavopiridol, and tracked Pol II kinetically using

  4. Determination of static and dynamic reactivity effects in KNK II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essig, C.


    In the frame of a pre-study of the KNK II test program two series of experiments related to inherent safety characteristics of sodium cooled breeder reactors have been elaborated, which are one basis for the performance of experiments of the Loss Of Flow (LOF) type and the Loss Of Heat Sink (LOHS) type. Tests of this type at KNK II would -different from the earlier tests at RAPSODIE and EBR-II- provide a demonstration of the inherently safe performance in case of a significantly non-zero Doppler effect. With a suitable execution, the foreseen series of experiments allow, as explained in this report, a substantial separation of the reactivity contributions and the determination of reactivity effects, i.e. the time constants of the recouplings. The performance and evaluation of these experiments with respect to the inherent safety potential will once more underline the distinguished role of KNK II for the development of fast breeders [de

  5. The use of spinning-disk confocal microscopy for the intravital analysis of platelet dynamics in response to systemic and local inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig N Jenne

    Full Text Available Platelets are central players in inflammation and are an important component of the innate immune response. The ability to visualize platelets within the live host is essential to understanding their role in these processes. Past approaches have involved adoptive transfer of labelled platelets, non-specific dyes, or the use of fluorescent antibodies to tag platelets in vivo. Often, these techniques result in either the activation of the platelet, or blockade of specific platelet receptors. In this report, we describe two new methods for intravital visualization of platelet biology, intravenous administration of labelled anti-CD49b, which labels all platelets, and CD41-YFP transgenic mice, in which a percentage of platelets express YFP. Both approaches label endogenous platelets and allow for their visualization using spinning-disk confocal fluorescent microscopy. Following LPS-induced inflammation, we were able to measure a significant increase in both the number and size of platelet aggregates observed within the vasculature of a number of different tissues. Real-time observation of these platelet aggregates reveals them to be large, dynamic structures that are continually expanding and sloughing-off into circulation. Using these techniques, we describe for the first time, platelet recruitment to, and behaviour within numerous tissues of the mouse, both under control conditions and following LPS induced inflammation.

  6. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium stellar spectroscopy with 1D and 3D models - II. Chemical properties of the Galactic metal-poor disk and the halo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergemann, Maria; Collet, Remo; Schönrich, Ralph


    We have analysed high-resolution spectra of 328 stars and derived Mg abundances using non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) spectral line formation calculations and plane-parallel model stellar atmospheres derived from the mean stratification of 3D hydrodynamical surface convection simulations...... of late-type stars. The distribution of Mg abundances in the Galactic disk is analysed from the perspective of Galactic chemical evolution. We find that the trend of [Mg/Fe] shows a mild decline with decreasing metallicity below [Fe/H]~-1.2 and that a significant fraction of low-metallicity stars have [Mg....../Fe] ratios close to solar even at [Fe/H] ~ -2. This is at variance with results of classical abundance analyses based on local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and 1D model stellar atmospheres, which argue for a constant elevated [Mg/Fe] in metal-poor stars of the Galactic thick disk and halo....

  7. Dynamic and reversible self-assembly of photoelectrochemical complexes based on lipid bilayer disks, photosynthetic reaction centers, and single-walled carbon nanotubes. (United States)

    Boghossian, Ardemis A; Choi, Jong Hyun; Ham, Moon-Ho; Strano, Michael S


    An aqueous solution containing photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs), membrane scaffold proteins (MSPs), phospholipids, and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) solubilized with the surfactant sodium cholate (SC) reversibly self-assembles into a highly ordered structure upon dialysis of the latter. The resulting structure is photoelectrochemically active and consists of 4-nm-thick lipid bilayer disks (nanodisks, NDs) arranged parallel to the surface of the SWCNT with the RC housed within the bilayer such that its hole injecting site faces the nanotube surface. The structure can be assembled and disassembled autonomously with the addition or removal of surfactant. We model the kinetic and thermodynamic forces that drive the dynamics of this reversible self-assembly process. The assembly is monitored using spectrofluorimetry during dialysis and subsequent surfactant addition and used to fit a kinetic model to determine the forward and reverse rate constants of ND and ND-SWCNT formation. The calculated ND and ND-SWCNT forward rate constants are 79 mM(-1) s(-1) and 5.4 × 10(2) mM(-1) s(-1), respectively, and the reverse rate constants are negligible over the dialysis time scale. We find that the reaction is not diffusion-controlled since the ND-SWCNT reaction, which consists of entities with smaller diffusion coefficients, has a larger reaction rate constant. Using these rate parameters, we were able to develop a kinetic phase diagram for the formation of ND-SWCNT complexes, which indicates an optimal dialysis rate of approximately 8 × 10(-4) s(-1). We also fit the model to cyclic ND-SWCNT assembly and disassembly experiments and hence mimic the thermodynamic forces used in regeneration processes detailed previously. Such forces may form the basis of both synthetic and natural photoelectrochemical complexes capable of dynamic component replacement and repair.

  8. Variability of Disk Emission in Pre-Main Sequence and Related Stars. II. Variability in the Gas and Dust Emission of the Herbig Fe Star SAO 206462 (United States)

    Sitko, Michael L.; Day, Amanda N.; Kimes, Robin L.; Beerman, Lori C.; Martus, Cameron; Lynch, David K.; Russell, Ray W.; Grady, Carol A.; Schneider, Glenn; Lisse, Carey M.; hide


    We present thirteen epochs of near-infrared (0.8-5 microns) spectroscopic observations of the pre-transitional, "gapped" disk system in SAO 206462 (=HD 135344B). In all, six gas emission lines (Br(alpha) , Br(gamma), Pa(beta), Pa(delta), Pa(epsilon), and the 0.8446 microns line of O I) along with continuum measurements made near the standard J, H, K, and L photometric bands were measured. A mass accretion rate of approximately 2 x 10(exp 8)Solar Mass/yr was derived from the Br(gamma) and Pa(beta) lines. However, the fluxes of these lines varied by a factor of over two during the course of a few months. The continuum also varied, but by only approx.30%, and even decreased at a time when the gas emission was increasing. The H I line at 1.083 microns was also found to vary in a manner inconsistent with that of either the hydrogen lines or the dust. Both the gas and dust variabilities indicate significant changes in the region of the inner gas and the inner dust belt that may be common to many young disk systems. If planets are responsible for defining the inner edge of the gap, they could interact with the material on time scales commensurate with what is observed for the variations in the dust, while other disk instabilities (thermal, magneto-rotational) would operate there on longer time scales than we observe for the inner dust belt. For SAO 206462, the orbital period would likely be 1-3 years. If the changes are being induced in the disk material closer to the star than the gap, a variety of mechanisms (disk instabilities, interactions via planets) might be responsible for the changes seen. The He I feature is most likely due to a wind whose orientation changes with respect to the observer on time scales of a day or less. To further constrain the origin of the gas and dust emission will require multiple spectroscopic and interferometric observations on both shorter and longer time scales that have been sampled so far.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. H. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Watson, Dan M.; Manoj, P.; Forrest, W. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Furlan, Elise [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, 770 S. Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Najita, Joan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Sargent, Benjamin [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Dr., Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Hernández, Jesús [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, Apdo. Postal 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Adame, Lucía [Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Universidad S/N, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, C.P. 66451, México (Mexico); Espaillat, Catherine [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Megeath, S. T. [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Muzerolle, James, E-mail: [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others


    We present our investigation of 319 Class II objects in Orion A observed by Spitzer /IRS. We also present the follow-up observations of 120 of these Class II objects in Orion A from the Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX. We measure continuum spectral indices, equivalent widths, and integrated fluxes that pertain to disk structure and dust composition from IRS spectra of Class II objects in Orion A. We estimate mass accretion rates using hydrogen recombination lines in the SpeX spectra of our targets. Utilizing these properties, we compare the distributions of the disk and dust properties of Orion A disks with those of Taurus disks with respect to position within Orion A (Orion Nebular Cluster [ONC] and L1641) and with the subgroups by the inferred radial structures, such as transitional disks (TDs) versus radially continuous full disks (FDs). Our main findings are as follows. (1) Inner disks evolve faster than the outer disks. (2) The mass accretion rates of TDs and those of radially continuous FDs are statistically significantly displaced from each other. The median mass accretion rate of radially continuous disks in the ONC and L1641 is not very different from that in Taurus. (3) Less grain processing has occurred in the disks in the ONC compared to those in Taurus, based on analysis of the shape index of the 10 μ m silicate feature ( F {sub 11.3}/ F {sub 9.8}). (4) The 20–31 μ m continuum spectral index tracks the projected distance from the most luminous Trapezium star, θ {sup 1} Ori C. A possible explanation is UV ablation of the outer parts of disks.

  10. Disk Storage Server

    CERN Multimedia

    This model was a disk storage server used in the Data Centre up until 2012. Each tray contains a hard disk drive (see the 5TB hard disk drive on the main disk display section - this actually fits into one of the trays). There are 16 trays in all per server. There are hundreds of these servers mounted on racks in the Data Centre, as can be seen.

  11. Automated Computational Fluid Dynamics Design With Shape Optimization, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used as an analysis tool to help the designer gain greater understanding of the fluid flow phenomena involved in the components...

  12. Adsorption dynamics and equilibrium studies of Zn (II) onto chitosan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Batch equilibration studies are conducted to determine the nature of adsorption of zinc (II) over chitosan. The factors affecting the adsorption process like particle size, contact time, dosage, pH, effects of chloride and nitrate are identified. The influence of temperature and co-ions on the adsorption process is verified.

  13. Adsorption dynamics and equilibrium studies of Zn (II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Batch equilibration studies are conducted to determine the nature of adsorption of zinc (II) over chitosan. The factors affecting the adsorption process like particle size, contact time, dosage, pH, effects of chloride and nitrate are identified. The influence of temperature and co-ions on the adsorption process is verified.

  14. Chemical Abundances of Planetary Nebulae in the Substructures of M31. II. The Extended Sample and a Comparison Study with the Outer-disk Group (United States)

    Fang, Xuan; García-Benito, Rubén; Guerrero, Martín A.; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xiaowei; Morisset, Christophe; Karakas, Amanda I.; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo M.; Yuan, Haibo; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio


    We report deep spectroscopy of 10 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) using the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). Our targets reside in different regions of M31, including halo streams and the dwarf satellite M32, and kinematically deviate from the extended disk. The temperature-sensitive [O III] λ4363 line is observed in all PNe. For four PNe, the GTC spectra extend beyond 1 μm, enabling the explicit detection of the [S III] λ6312 and λλ9069, 9531 lines and thus determination of the [S III] temperature. Abundance ratios are derived and generally consistent with AGB model predictions. Our PNe probably all evolved from low-mass (stream. We thus speculate that our halo PNe formed in the Giant Stream’s progenitor through extended star formation. Alternatively, they might have formed from the same metal-rich gas as did the outer-disk PNe but were displaced into their present locations as a result of galactic interactions. These interpretations are, although speculative, qualitatively in line with the current picture, as inferred from previous wide-field photometric surveys, that M31's halo is the result of complex interactions and merger processes. The behavior of the N/O of the combined sample of the outer-disk and our halo/substructure PNe signifies that hot bottom burning might actually occur at <3 M ⊙ but careful assessment is needed. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias, installed at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, in the island of La Palma. The observations presented in this paper are associated with GTC programs #GTC66-16A and #GTC25-16B.

  15. Island universes structure and evolution of disk galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    DE JONG, R. S


    This book contains an up-to-date review of the structure and evolution of disk galaxies from both the observational and theoretical point of view. The book is the proceedings of the "Island Universes" conference held at the island of Terschelling, The Netherlands in July 2005, which attracted about 130 experts and students in the field. The conference was organized as a tribute to Dr. Piet C. van der Kruit for receiving the honorary Jacobus C. Kapteyn Professorship in Astronomy. The eight topical themes discussed at the meeting are reflected in these proceedings: 1) Properties of Stellar Disks, 2) Kinematics and Dynamics of Disk Galaxies, 3) Bars, Spiral Structure, and Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies, 4) The Outskirts and Environment of Disk Galaxies, 5) Interstellar Matter, 6) (Evolution of) Star Formation in Galactic Disks, 7) Disk Galaxies through Cosmic Time, and 8) Formation Models of Disk Galaxies. These proceedings are concluded with a conference summary reflecting on the most significant recent pro...

  16. Gas dynamics of H II regions. II. Two-dimensional axisymmetric calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenheimer, P.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Yorke, H.W.


    The evolution of H II regions is calculated with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical procedure under the assumption that the exciting star is born within a cool molecular cloud whose density is about 10 3 particles cm -3 . As the ionization of the cloud's edge is completed, a large pressure gradient is set up and ionized cloud material expands into the ionized low-density (1 particle cm -3 ) intercloud medium, with velocities larger than 30 km s -1 .The calculations are made under the simplifying assumptions that (i) within the H II region, ionization equilibrium holds at all times, (ii) the ionization front is a discontinuity, thus its detailed structure is not calculated, (iii) the temperature of each region (H II region, neutral cloud, and intercloud medium) is constant in time, (iv) all ionizing photons come radially from the exciting star. Four cases are calculated and compared with observations: (1) the edge of the cloud is overrun by a supersonic ionization front, (2) the initial Stroemgren sphere surrounding the star lies deep inside the cloud, thus the cloud's edge is ionized by a subsonic ionization front, (3) the ionization front breaks through two opposite faces of the same cloud simultaneously, (4) the flow encounters an isolated globule of density 10 3 particles cm -3 shortly after emerging from the molecular cloud.The phenomena here considered show how evolving H II regions are an important input of kinetic energy to the interstellar medium

  17. Chondrules and the Protoplanetary Disk (United States)

    Hewins, R. H.; Jones, Rhian; Scott, Ed


    Part I. Introduction: 1. Chondrules and the protoplanetary disk: An overview R. H. Hewins; Part. II. Chonrules, Ca-Al-Rich Inclusions and Protoplanetary Disks: 2. Astronomical observations of phenomena in protostellar disks L. Hartmann; 3. Overview of models of the solar nebula: potential chondrule-forming environments P. Cassen; 4. Large scale processes in the solar nebula A. P. Boss; 5. Turbulence, chondrules and planetisimals J. N. Cuzzi, A. R. Dobrovolskis and R. C. Hogan; 6. Chondrule formation: energetics and length scales J. T. Wasson; 7. Unresolved issues in the formation of chondrules and chondrites J. A. Wood; 8. Thermal processing in the solar nebula: constraints from refractory inclusions A. M. Davis and G. J. MacPherson; 9. Formation times of chondrules and Ca-Al-Rich inclusions: constraints from short-lived radionuclides T. D. Swindle, A. M. Davis, C. M. Hohenberg, G. J. MacPherson and L. E. Nyquist; 10. Formation of chondrules and chondrites in the protoplanetary nebula E. R. D. Scott, S. G. Love and A. N. Krot; Part III. Chondrule precursors and multiple melting: 11. Origin of refractory precursor components of chondrules K. Misawa and N. Nakamura; 12. Mass-independent isotopic effects in chondrites: the role of chemical processes M. H. Thiemens; 13. Agglomeratic chondrules: implications for the nature of chondrule precursors and formation by incomplete melting M. K. Weisberg and M. Prinz; 14. Constraints on chondrule precursors from experimental Data H. C. Connolly Jr. and R. H. Hewins; 15. Nature of matrix in unequilibrated chondrites and its possible relationship to chondrules A. J. Brearly; 16. Constraints on chondrite agglomeration from fine-grained chondrule Rims K. Metzler and A. Bischoff; 17. Relict grains in chondrules: evidence for chondrule recycling R. H. Jones; 18. Multiple heating of chondrules A. E. Rubin and A. N. Krot; 19. Microchondrule-bearing chondrule rims: constraints on chondrule formation A. N. Krot and A. E. Rubin; Part IV

  18. Dynamic characteristics of peripheral jet ACV. II - Pitching motion (United States)

    Mori, T.; Maeda, H.

    The dynamic pitching characteristics of peripheral jet ACV (Air Cushion Vehicle) which have a stability curtain are investigated analytically and experimentally. The measured values of moment, lift and cushion pressure are compared with numerical results noting applicability to the pitching motion. The response of ACV to the sinusoidal pitching oscillation of the ground is also studied.

  19. Patterns In Debris Disks: No Planets Required? (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc


    Debris disks like those around Fomalhaut and Beta Pictoris show striking dust patterns often attributed to hidden exoplanets. These patterns have been crucial for constraining the masses and orbits of these planets. But adding a bit of gas to our models of debris disks--too little gas to detect--seems to alter this interpretation. Small amounts of gas lead to new dynamical instabilities that may mimic the narrow eccentric rings and other structures planets would create in a gas-free disk. Can we still use dust patterns to find hidden exoplanets?

  20. Biosorption of nickel(II) from aqueous solution by brown algae: equilibrium, dynamic and thermodynamic studies. (United States)

    Pahlavanzadeh, H; Keshtkar, A R; Safdari, J; Abadi, Z


    The biosorption characteristics of nickel(II) ions using the brown algae (Cystoseria indica, Nizmuddinia zanardini, Sargassum glaucescens and Padina australis) were investigated. Experimental parameters affecting the biosorption process such as pH level, contact time, initial metal concentration and temperature were studied. The equilibrium data fitted very well to the Langmuir adsorption model in the concentration range of nickel(II) ions and at all the temperatures studied. Evaluation of the experimental data in terms of biosorption dynamics showed that the biosorption of nickel(II) onto algal biomass followed the pseudo-second-order dynamics well. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (Delta G degrees, Delta H degrees and DeltaS degrees) showed that the biosorption of nickel(II) ions were feasible, spontaneous and endothermic at the temperature ranges of 293-313 K. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Statistical ensembles and molecular dynamics studies of anisotropic solids. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, J.R.; Rahman, A.


    We have recently discussed how the Parrinello--Rahman theory can be brought into accord with the theory of the elastic and thermodynamic behavior of anisotropic media. This involves the isoenthalpic--isotension ensemble of statistical mechanics. Nose has developed a canonical ensemble form of molecular dynamics. We combine Nose's ideas with the Parrinello--Rahman theory to obtain a canonical form of molecular dynamics appropriate to the study of anisotropic media subjected to arbitrary external stress. We employ this isothermal--isotension ensemble in a study of a fcc→ close-packed structural phase transformation in a Lennard-Jones solid subjected to uniaxial compression. Our interpretation of the Nose theory does not involve a scaling of the time variable. This latter fact leads to simplifications when studying the time dependence of quantities

  2. Reading the Signatures of Extrasolar Planets in Debris Disks (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc J.


    An extrasolar planet sculpts the famous debris dish around Fomalhaut; probably ma ny other debris disks contain planets that we could locate if only we could better recognize their signatures in the dust that surrounds them. But the interaction between planets and debris disks involves both orbital resonances and collisions among grains and rocks in the disks --- difficult processes to model simultanemus]y. I will describe new 3-D models of debris disk dynamics that incorporate both collisions and resonant trapping of dust for the first time, allowing us to decode debris disk images and read the signatures of the planets they contain.

  3. Iwr1 facilitates RNA polymerase II dynamics during transcription elongation. (United States)

    Gómez-Navarro, Natalia; Peiró-Chova, Lorena; Estruch, Francisco


    Iwr1 is an RNA polymerase II (RNPII) interacting protein that directs nuclear import of the enzyme which has been previously assembled in the cytoplasm. Here we present genetic and molecular evidence that links Iwr1 with transcription. Our results indicate that Iwr1 interacts with RNPII during elongation and is involved in the disassembly of the enzyme from chromatin. This function is especially important in resolving problems posed by damage-arrested RNPII, as shown by the sensitivity of iwr1 mutants to genotoxic drugs and the Iwr1's genetic interactions with RNPII degradation pathway mutants. Moreover, absence of Iwr1 causes genome instability that is enhanced by defects in the DNA repair machinery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A High-mass Protobinary System with Spatially Resolved Circumstellar Accretion Disks and Circumbinary Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, S.; Kluska, J.; Kreplin, A.; Bate, M.; Harries, T. J.; Hone, E.; Anugu, A. [School of Physics, Astrophysics Group, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Hofmann, K.-H.; Weigelt, G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Monnier, J. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 311 West Hall, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); De Wit, W. J. [ESO, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 19 (Chile); Wittkowski, M., E-mail: [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)


    High-mass multiples might form via fragmentation of self-gravitational disks or alternative scenarios such as disk-assisted capture. However, only a few observational constraints exist on the architecture and disk structure of high-mass protobinaries and their accretion properties. Here, we report the discovery of a close (57.9 ± 0.2 mas = 170 au) high-mass protobinary, IRAS17216-3801, where our VLTI/GRAVITY+AMBER near-infrared interferometry allows us to image the circumstellar disks around the individual components with ∼3 mas resolution. We estimate the component masses to ∼20 and ∼18 M {sub ⊙} and find that the radial intensity profiles can be reproduced with an irradiated disk model, where the inner regions are excavated of dust, likely tracing the dust sublimation region in these disks. The circumstellar disks are strongly misaligned with respect to the binary separation vector, which indicates that the tidal forces did not have time to realign the disks, pointing toward a young dynamical age of the system. We constrain the distribution of the Br γ and CO-emitting gas using VLTI/GRAVITY spectro-interferometry and VLT/CRIRES spectro-astrometry and find that the secondary is accreting at a higher rate than the primary. VLT/NACO imaging shows L ′-band emission on (3–4)× larger scales than the binary separation, matching the expected dynamical truncation radius for the circumbinary disk. The IRAS17216-3801 system is ∼3× more massive and ∼5× more compact than other high-mass multiplies imaged at infrared wavelength and the first high-mass protobinary system where circumstellar and circumbinary dust disks could be spatially resolved. This opens exciting new opportunities for studying star–disk interactions and the role of multiplicity in high-mass star formation.

  5. [OI] in circumstellar disks (United States)

    Sandell, Goran


    In the far-infrared, [OI] 63 micron is the most sensitive probe of gas in protoplanetary disks and has even been detected in several young debris disks.We have now obtained velocity resolved spectra (velocity resolution 0.1 km/s) using the heterodyne receiver GREAT on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) of five of the brightest circumstellar disks in the [OI] 63 micron line. Four of these are protoplanetary disks (AB Aur, HL Tau, HD 100546 and HD 97048), while one is a disk around an FS CMa star, HD 50138. Since all the stars are surrounded by disks in Keplerian rotation, our observations allow us to explore where the [OI] emission originates and the physical conditions of the [OI] emitting layers. In this presentation we present preliminary results of our findings.

  6. Dynamical evolution of star-forming regions - II. Basic kinematics (United States)

    Parker, Richard J.; Wright, Nicholas J.


    We follow the dynamical evolution of young star-forming regions with a wide range of initial conditions and examine how the radial velocity dispersion, σ, evolves over time. We compare this velocity dispersion to the theoretically expected value for the velocity dispersion if a region were in virial equilibrium, σvir and thus assess the virial state (σ/σvir) of these systems. We find that in regions that are initially subvirial, or in global virial equilibrium but subvirial on local scales, the system relaxes to virial equilibrium within several million years, or roughly 25-50 crossing times, according to the measured virial ratio. However, the measured velocity dispersion, σ, appears to be a bad diagnostic of the current virial state of these systems as it suggests that they become supervirial when compared to the velocity dispersion estimated from the virial mass, σvir. We suggest that this discrepancy is caused by the fact that the regions are never fully relaxed, and that the early non-equilibrium evolution is imprinted in the one-dimensional velocity dispersion at these early epochs. If measured early enough (interquartile range (IQR) dispersion, with measures of spatial structure, places stronger constraints on the dynamical history of a region than using the velocity dispersion in isolation.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Stefan; Espaillat, Catherine; Wilner, David J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ireland, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Sitko, Michael L.; Swearingen, Jeremy R.; Werren, Chelsea [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Monnier, John D.; Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 918 Dennison Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific Inc., Oakland, CA 94602 (United States); Harries, Tim J. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Hoenig, Sebastian F. [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Russell, Ray W. [The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA 90009 (United States)


    Pre-transitional disks are protoplanetary disks with a gapped disk structure, potentially indicating the presence of young planets in these systems. In order to explore the structure of these objects and their gap-opening mechanism, we observed the pre-transitional disk V1247 Orionis using the Very Large Telescope Interferometer, the Keck Interferometer, Keck-II, Gemini South, and IRTF. This allows us to spatially resolve the AU-scale disk structure from near- to mid-infrared wavelengths (1.5-13 {mu}m), tracing material at different temperatures and over a wide range of stellocentric radii. Our observations reveal a narrow, optically thick inner-disk component (located at 0.18 AU from the star) that is separated from the optically thick outer disk (radii {approx}> 46 AU), providing unambiguous evidence for the existence of a gap in this pre-transitional disk. Surprisingly, we find that the gap region is filled with significant amounts of optically thin material with a carbon-dominated dust mineralogy. The presence of this optically thin gap material cannot be deduced solely from the spectral energy distribution, yet it is the dominant contributor at mid-infrared wavelengths. Furthermore, using Keck/NIRC2 aperture masking observations in the H, K', and L' bands, we detect asymmetries in the brightness distribution on scales of {approx}15-40 AU, i.e., within the gap region. The detected asymmetries are highly significant, yet their amplitude and direction changes with wavelength, which is not consistent with a companion interpretation but indicates an inhomogeneous distribution of the gap material. We interpret this as strong evidence for the presence of complex density structures, possibly reflecting the dynamical interaction of the disk material with sub-stellar mass bodies that are responsible for the gap clearing.

  8. On unified field theories, dynamical torsion and geometrical models: II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirilo-Lombardo, D.J.


    We analyze in this letter the same space-time structure as that presented in our previous reference (Part. Nucl, Lett. 2010. V.7, No.5. P.299-307), but relaxing now the condition a priori of the existence of a potential for the torsion. We show through exact cosmological solutions from this model, where the geometry is Euclidean RxO 3 ∼ RxSU(2), the relation between the space-time geometry and the structure of the gauge group. Precisely this relation is directly connected with the relation of the spin and torsion fields. The solution of this model is explicitly compared with our previous ones and we find that: i) the torsion is not identified directly with the Yang-Mills type strength field, ii) there exists a compatibility condition connected with the identification of the gauge group with the geometric structure of the space-time: this fact leads to the identification between derivatives of the scale factor a with the components of the torsion in order to allow the Hosoya-Ogura ansatz (namely, the alignment of the isospin with the frame geometry of the space-time), and iii) of two possible structures of the torsion the 'tratorial' form (the only one studied here) forbid wormhole configurations, leading only to cosmological instanton space-time in eternal expansion

  9. Hydration structure and water exchange dynamics of Fe(II) ion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computer simulation studies of the hydration structure and water exchange dynamics in the first hydration shell for Fe(II) in water are presented. The structure of the hydrated ion is discussed in terms of radial distribution functions, coordination numbers, and angular distributions. The average first-shell hydration structure is ...

  10. Selection-driven extinction dynamics for group II introns in Enterobacteriales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Leclercq

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs are one of the major driving forces of genome evolution, raising the question of the long-term dynamics underlying their evolutionary success. Some TEs were proposed to evolve under a pattern of periodic extinctions-recolonizations, in which elements recurrently invade and quickly proliferate within their host genomes, then start to disappear until total extinction. Depending on the model, TE extinction is assumed to be driven by purifying selection against colonized host genomes (Sel-DE model or by saturation of host genomes (Sat-DE model. Bacterial group II introns are suspected to follow an extinction-recolonization model of evolution, but whether they follow Sel-DE or Sat-DE dynamics is not known. Our analysis of almost 200 group II intron copies from 90 sequenced Enterobacteriales genomes confirms their extinction-recolonization dynamics: patchy element distributions among genera and even among strains within genera, acquisition of new group II introns through plasmids or other mobile genetic elements, and evidence for recent proliferations in some genomes. Distributions of recent and past proliferations and of their respective homing sites further provide strong support for the Sel-DE model, suggesting that group II introns are deleterious to their hosts. Overall, our observations emphasize the critical impact of host properties on TE dynamics.

  11. Reprocessing in Luminous Disks (United States)

    Bell, K. Robbins; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)


    We develop and investigate a procedure that accounts for disk reprocessing of photons that originate in the disk itself. Surface temperatures and simple, black body spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of protostellar disks are calculated. In disks that flare with radius, reprocessing of stellar photons results in temperature profiles considerably shallower than r(sup -3/4). Including the disk as a radiation source (as in the case of actively secreting disks) along with the stellar source further flattens the temperature profile. Disks that flare strongly near the star and then smoothly curve over and become shadowed at some distance ("decreasing curvature" disks) exhibit nearly power-law temperature profiles which result in power-law infrared SEDs with slopes in agreement with typical observations of young stellar objects. Disk models in which the photospheric thickness is controlled by the local opacity and in which the temperature decreases with radius naturally show this shape. Uniformly flaring models do not match observations as well; progressively stronger reprocessing at larger radii leads to SEDs that flatten toward the infrared or even have a second peak at the wavelength corresponding (through the Wien law) to the temperature of the outer edge of the disk. In FU Orionis outbursting systems, the dominant source of energy is the disk itself. The details of the reprocessing depend sensitively on the assumed disk shape and emitted temperature profile. The thermal instability outburst models of Bell Lin reproduce trends in the observed SEDs of Fuors with T varies as r(sup -3/4) in the inner disk (r approx. less than 0.25au corresponding to lambda approx. less than 10 microns) and T varies as r(sup -1/2) in the outer disk. Surface irradiation during outburst and quiescence is compared in the region of planet formation (1 - 10 au). The contrast between the two phases is diminished by the importance of the reprocessing of photons from the relatively high mass

  12. Exact Relativistic Magnetized Haloes around Rotating Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Gutiérrez-Piñeres


    Full Text Available The study of the dynamics of magnetic fields in galaxies is one of important problems in formation and evolution of galaxies. In this paper, we present the exact relativistic treatment of a rotating disk surrounded by a magnetized material halo. The features of the halo and disk are described by the distributional energy-momentum tensor of a general fluid in canonical form. All the relevant quantities and the metric and electromagnetic potentials are exactly determined by an arbitrary harmonic function only. For instance, the generalized Kuzmin-disk potential is used. The particular class of solutions obtained is asymptotically flat and satisfies all the energy conditions. Moreover, the motion of a charged particle on the halo is described. As far as we know, this is the first relativistic model describing analytically the magnetized halo of a rotating disk.

  13. On melting dynamics and the glass transition. II. Glassy dynamics as a melting process. (United States)

    Krzakala, Florent; Zdeborová, Lenka


    There are deep analogies between the melting dynamics in systems with a first-order phase transition and the dynamics from equilibrium in super-cooled liquids. For a class of Ising spin models undergoing a first-order transition--namely p-spin models on the so-called Nishimori line--it can be shown that the melting dynamics can be exactly mapped to the equilibrium dynamics. In this mapping the dynamical--or mode-coupling--glass transition corresponds to the spinodal point, while the Kauzmann transition corresponds to the first-order phase transition itself. Both in mean field and finite dimensional models this mapping provides an exact realization of the random first-order theory scenario for the glass transition. The corresponding glassy phenomenology can then be understood in the framework of a standard first-order phase transition.

  14. Global dynamics of magnetic reconnection in VINETA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlin, Hannes


    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental plasma process where a change in field line connectivity occurs in a current sheet at the boundary between regions of opposing magnetic fields. In this process, energy stored in the magnetic field is converted into kinetic and thermal energy, which provides a source of plasma heating and energetic particles. Magnetic reconnection plays a key role in many space and laboratory plasma phenomena, e.g. solar flares, Earth's magnetopause dynamics and instabilities in tokamaks. A new linear device (VINETAII) has been designed for the study of the fundamental physical processes involved in magnetic reconnection. The plasma parameters are such that magnetic reconnection occurs in a collision-dominated regime. A plasma gun creates a localized current sheet, and magnetic reconnection is driven by modulating the plasma current and the magnetic field structure. The plasma current is shown to flow in response to a combination of an externally induced electric field and electrostatic fields in the plasma, and is highly affected by axial sheath boundary conditions. Further, the current is changed by an additional axial magnetic field (guide field), and the current sheet geometry was demonstrated to be set by a combination of magnetic mapping and cross-field plasma diffusion. With increasing distance from the plasma gun, magnetic mapping results in an increase of the current sheet length and a decrease of the width. The control parameter is the ratio of the guide field to the reconnection magnetic field strength. Cross-field plasma diffusion leads to a radial expansion of the current sheet at low guide fields. Plasma currents are also observed in the azimuthal plane and were found to originate from a combination of the field-aligned current component and the diamagnetic current generated by steep in-plane pressure gradients in combination with the guide field. The reconnection rate, defined via the inductive electric field, is shown to be

  15. Complex dynamics in diatomic molecules. Part II: Quantum trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-D.; Weng, H.-J.


    The second part of this paper deals with quantum trajectories in diatomic molecules, which has not been considered before in the literature. Morse potential serves as a more accurate function than a simple harmonic oscillator for illustrating a realistic picture about the vibration of diatomic molecules. However, if we determine molecular dynamics by integrating the classical force equations derived from a Morse potential, we will find that the resulting trajectories do not consist with the probabilistic prediction of quantum mechanics. On the other hand, the quantum trajectory determined by Bohmian mechanics [Bohm D. A suggested interpretation of the quantum theory in terms of hidden variable. Phys. Rev. 1952;85:166-179] leads to the conclusion that a diatomic molecule is motionless in all its vibrational eigen-states, which also contradicts probabilistic prediction of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we point out that the quantum trajectory of a diatomic molecule completely consistent with quantum mechanics does exist and can be solved from the quantum Hamilton equations of motion derived in Part I, which is based on a complex-space formulation of fractal spacetime [El Naschie MS. A review of E-Infinity theory and the mass spectrum of high energy particle physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;19:209-36; El Naschie MS. E-Infinity theory - some recent results and new interpretations. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;29:845-853; El Naschie MS. The concepts of E-infinity. An elementary introduction to the cantorian-fractal theory of quantum physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;22:495-511; El Naschie MS. SU(5) grand unification in a transfinite form. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2007;32:370-374; Nottale L. Fractal space-time and microphysics: towards a theory of scale relativity. Singapore: World Scientific; 1993; Ord G. Fractal space time and the statistical mechanics of random works. Chaos, Soiltons and Fractals 1996;7:821-843] approach to quantum

  16. Magnetohydrodynamics of accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torkelsson, U.


    The thesis consists of an introduction and summary, and five research papers. The introduction and summary provides the background in accretion disk physics and magnetohydrodynamics. The research papers describe numerical studies of magnetohydrodynamical processes in accretion disks. Paper 1 is a one-dimensional study of the effect of magnetic buoyancy on a flux tube in an accretion disk. The stabilizing influence of an accretion disk corona on the flux tube is demonstrated. Paper 2-4 present numerical simulations of mean-field dynamos in accretion disks. Paper 11 verifies the correctness of the numerical code by comparing linear models to previous work by other groups. The results are also extended to somewhat modified disk models. A transition from an oscillatory mode of negative parity for thick disks to a steady mode of even parity for thin disks is found. Preliminary results for nonlinear dynamos at very high dynamo numbers are also presented. Paper 3 describes the bifurcation behaviour of the nonlinear dynamos. For positive dynamo numbers it is found that the initial steady solution is replaced by an oscillatory solution of odd parity. For negative dynamo numbers the solution becomes chaotic at sufficiently high dynamo numbers. Paper 4 continues the studies of nonlinear dynamos, and it is demonstrated that a chaotic solution appears even for positive dynamo numbers, but that it returns to a steady solution of mixed parity at very high dynamo numbers. Paper 5 describes a first attempt at simulating the small-scale turbulence of an accretion disk in three dimensions. There is only find cases of decaying turbulence, but this is rather due to limitations of the simulations than that turbulence is really absent in accretion disks

  17. Inference of RNA polymerase II transcription dynamics from chromatin immunoprecipitation time course data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciira wa Maina


    Full Text Available Gene transcription mediated by RNA polymerase II (pol-II is a key step in gene expression. The dynamics of pol-II moving along the transcribed region influence the rate and timing of gene expression. In this work, we present a probabilistic model of transcription dynamics which is fitted to pol-II occupancy time course data measured using ChIP-Seq. The model can be used to estimate transcription speed and to infer the temporal pol-II activity profile at the gene promoter. Model parameters are estimated using either maximum likelihood estimation or via Bayesian inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. The Bayesian approach provides confidence intervals for parameter estimates and allows the use of priors that capture domain knowledge, e.g. the expected range of transcription speeds, based on previous experiments. The model describes the movement of pol-II down the gene body and can be used to identify the time of induction for transcriptionally engaged genes. By clustering the inferred promoter activity time profiles, we are able to determine which genes respond quickly to stimuli and group genes that share activity profiles and may therefore be co-regulated. We apply our methodology to biological data obtained using ChIP-seq to measure pol-II occupancy genome-wide when MCF-7 human breast cancer cells are treated with estradiol (E2. The transcription speeds we obtain agree with those obtained previously for smaller numbers of genes with the advantage that our approach can be applied genome-wide. We validate the biological significance of the pol-II promoter activity clusters by investigating cluster-specific transcription factor binding patterns and determining canonical pathway enrichment. We find that rapidly induced genes are enriched for both estrogen receptor alpha (ERα and FOXA1 binding in their proximal promoter regions.

  18. DGSAT: Dwarf Galaxy Survey with Amateur Telescopes. II. A catalogue of isolated nearby edge-on disk galaxies and the discovery of new low surface brightness systems (United States)

    Henkel, C.; Javanmardi, B.; Martínez-Delgado, D.; Kroupa, P.; Teuwen, K.


    The connection between the bulge mass or bulge luminosity in disk galaxies and the number, spatial and phase space distribution of associated dwarf galaxies is a discriminator between cosmological simulations related to galaxy formation in cold dark matter and generalised gravity models. Here, a nearby sample of isolated Milky Way-class edge-on galaxies is introduced, to facilitate observational campaigns to detect the associated families of dwarf galaxies at low surface brightness. Three galaxy pairs with at least one of the targets being edge-on are also introduced. Approximately 60% of the catalogued isolated galaxies contain bulges of different size, while the remaining objects appear to be bulgeless. Deep images of NGC 3669 (small bulge, with NGC 3625 at the edge of the image) and NGC 7814 (prominent bulge), obtained with a 0.4 m aperture, are also presented, resulting in the discovery of two new dwarf galaxy candidates, NGC 3669-DGSAT-3 and NGC 7814-DGSAT-7. Eleven additional low surface brightness galaxies are identified, previously notified with low quality measurement flags in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Integrated magnitudes, surface brightnesses, effective radii, Sersic indices, axis ratios, and projected distances to their putative major hosts are displayed. At least one of the galaxies, NGC 3625-DGSAT-4, belongs with a surface brightness of μr ≈ 26 mag arcsec-2 and effective radius >1.5 kpc to the class of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs). NGC 3669-DGSAT-3, the galaxy with the lowest surface brightness in our sample, may also be an UDG.

  19. Copper(II) ions increase plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 dynamics in key structural regions that govern stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucci, Joel C; Trelle, Morten Beck; McClintock, Carlee S


    (II) on PAI-1. We utilize backbone amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry to assess PAI-1 dynamics in the presence and absence of Cu(II) ions with and without the SMB domain of VN. We show that Cu(II) produces an increase in dynamics in regions important for the function and overall...... dimension to the mechanisms for regulation of PAI-1 stability and function....

  20. Protostars, multiplicity, and disk evolution in the Corona Australis region: a Herschel Gould Belt Study (United States)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, A.; Henning, T.; Linz, H.; André, P.; Stutz, A.; Eiroa, C.; White, G. J.


    Context. The CrA region and the Coronet cluster form a nearby (138 pc), young (1-2 Myr) star-forming region that hosts a moderate population of Class I, II, and III objects. Aims: We study the structure of the cluster and the properties of the protostars and protoplanetary disks in the region. Methods: We present Herschel PACS photometry at 100 and 160 μm, obtained as part of the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. The Herschel maps reveal the cluster members within the cloud with high sensitivity and high dynamic range. Results: Many of the cluster members are detected, including some embedded, very low-mass objects, several protostars (some of them extended), and substantial emission from the surrounding molecular cloud. Herschel also reveals some striking structures, such as bright filaments around the IRS 5 protostar complex and a bubble-shaped rim associated with the Class I object IRS 2. The disks around the Class II objects display a wide range of mid- and far-IR excesses consistent with different disk structures. We have modeled the disks with the RADMC radiative transfer code to quantify their properties. Some of them are consistent with flared, massive, relatively primordial disks (S CrA, T CrA). Others display significant evidence for inside-out evolution, consistent with the presence of inner holes/gaps (G-85, G-87). Finally, we found disks with a dramatic small dust depletion (G-1, HBC 677) that, in some cases, could be related to truncation or to the presence of large gaps in a flared disk (CrA-159). The derived masses for the disks around the low-mass stars are found to be below the typical values in Taurus, in agreement with previous Spitzer observations. Conclusions: The Coronet cluster presents itself as an interesting compact region that contains both young protostars and very evolved disks. The Herschel data provide sufficient spatial resolution to detect small-scale details, such as filamentary structures or spiral arms associated with multiple star

  1. Dynamics of Long-Distance Hydrogen-Bond Networks in Photosystem II. (United States)

    Guerra, Federico; Siemers, Malte; Mielack, Christopher; Bondar, Ana-Nicoleta


    Photosystem II uses the energy of absorbed light to split water molecules, generating molecular oxygen, electrons and protons. The four protons generated during each reaction cycle are released to the lumen via mechanisms that are poorly understood. Given the complexity of photosystem II, which consists of multiple protein subunits and cofactor molecules and hosts numerous waters, a fundamental issue is finding transient networks of hydrogen bonds that bridge potential proton donor and acceptor groups. Here, we address this issue by performing all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of wild type and mutant photosystem II monomers, which we analyze using a new protocol designed to facilitate efficient analysis of hydrogen-bond networks. Our computations reveal that local protein/water hydrogen-bond networks can assemble transiently in photosystem II, such that the reaction center connects to the lumen. The dynamics of the hydrogen-bond networks couple to the protonation state of specific carboxylate groups, and are altered in a mutant with defective proton transfer. Simulations on photosystem II without its extrinsic PsbO subunit provide a molecular interpretation of the elusive functional role of this subunit.

  2. Dynamic modeling and simulation of EBR-II steam generator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkan, R.C.; Upadhyaya, B.R.


    This paper presents a low order dynamic model of the Experimental breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) steam generator system. The model development includes the application of energy, mass and momentum balance equations in state-space form. The model also includes a three-element controller for the drum water level control problem. The simulation results for low-level perturbations exhibit the inherently stable characteristics of the steam generator. The predictions of test transients also verify the consistency of this low order model

  3. Effect of Cement Asphalt Mortar Debonding on Dynamic Properties of CRTS II Slab Ballastless Track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang


    Full Text Available The debonding of cement emulsified asphalt mortar (CA mortar is one of the main damage types in China railway track system II slab ballastless track. In order to analyze the influence of mortar debonding on the dynamic properties of CRTS II slab ballastless track, a vertical coupling vibration model for a vehicle-track-subgrade system was established on the base of wheel/rail coupling dynamics theory. The effects of different debonding lengths on dynamic response of vehicle and track system were analyzed by using the finite element software. The results show that the debonding of CA mortar layer will increase the dynamic response of track. If the length of debonding exceeds 1.95 m, the inflection point will appear on the vertical displacement curve of track. The vertical vibration acceleration of slab increases 4.95 times and the vertical dynamic compressive stress of CA mortar near the debonding region increases 15 times when the debonding length reaches 3.9 m. Considering the durability of ballastless track, once the length of debonding reaches 1.95 m, the mortar debonding should be repaired.

  4. Instability of counter-rotating stellar disks (United States)

    Hohlfeld, R. G.; Lovelace, R. V. E.


    We use an N-body simulation, constructed using GADGET-2, to investigate an accretion flow onto an astrophysical disk that is in the opposite sense to the disk's rotation. In order to separate dynamics intrinsic to the counter-rotating flow from the impact of the flow onto the disk, we consider an initial condition in which the counter-rotating flow is in an annular region immediately exterior the main portion of the astrophysical disk. Such counter-rotating flows are seen in systems such as NGC 4826 (known as the "Evil Eye Galaxy"). Interaction between the rotating and counter-rotating components is due to two-stream instability in the boundary region. A multi-armed spiral density wave is excited in the astrophysical disk and a density distribution with high azimuthal mode number is excited in the counter-rotating flow. Density fluctuations in the counter-rotating flow aggregate into larger clumps and some of the material in the counter-rotating flow is scattered to large radii. Accretion flow processes such as this are increasingly seen to be of importance in the evolution of multi-component galactic disks.

  5. Empirical Temperature Measurement in Protoplanetary Disks (United States)

    Weaver, Erik; Isella, Andrea; Boehler, Yann


    The accurate measurement of temperature in protoplanetary disks is critical to understanding many key features of disk evolution and planet formation, from disk chemistry and dynamics, to planetesimal formation. This paper explores the techniques available to determine temperatures from observations of single, optically thick molecular emission lines. Specific attention is given to issues such as the inclusion of optically thin emission, problems resulting from continuum subtraction, and complications of real observations. Effort is also made to detail the exact nature and morphology of the region emitting a given line. To properly study and quantify these effects, this paper considers a range of disk models, from simple pedagogical models to very detailed models including full radiative transfer. Finally, we show how the use of the wrong methods can lead to potentially severe misinterpretations of data, leading to incorrect measurements of disk temperature profiles. We show that the best way to estimate the temperature of emitting gas is to analyze the line peak emission map without subtracting continuum emission. Continuum subtraction, which is commonly applied to observations of line emission, systematically leads to underestimation of the gas temperature. We further show that once observational effects such as beam dilution and noise are accounted for, the line brightness temperature derived from the peak emission is reliably within 10%–15% of the physical temperature of the emitting region, assuming optically thick emission. The methodology described in this paper will be applied in future works to constrain the temperature, and related physical quantities, in protoplanetary disks observed with ALMA.

  6. Global Simulations of the Inner Regions of Protoplanetary Disks with Comprehensive Disk Microphysics (United States)

    Bai, Xue-Ning


    The gas dynamics of weakly ionized protoplanetary disks (PPDs) are largely governed by the coupling between gas and magnetic fields, described by three non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) effects (Ohmic, Hall, ambipolar). Previous local simulations incorporating these processes have revealed that the inner regions of PPDs are largely laminar and accompanied by wind-driven accretion. We conduct 2D axisymmetric, fully global MHD simulations of these regions (˜1-20 au), taking into account all non-ideal MHD effects, with tabulated diffusion coefficients and approximate treatment of external ionization and heating. With the net vertical field aligned with disk rotation, the Hall-shear instability strongly amplifies horizontal magnetic field, making the overall dynamics dependent on initial field configuration. Following disk formation, the disk likely relaxes into an inner zone characterized by asymmetric field configuration across the midplane, which smoothly transitions to a more symmetric outer zone. Angular momentum transport is driven by both MHD winds and laminar Maxwell stress, with both accretion and decretion flows present at different heights, and modestly asymmetric winds from the two disk sides. With anti-aligned field polarity, weakly magnetized disks settle into an asymmetric field configuration with supersonic accretion flow concentrated at one side of the disk surface, and highly asymmetric winds between the two disk sides. In all cases, the wind is magneto-thermal in nature, characterized by a mass loss rate exceeding the accretion rate. More strongly magnetized disks give more symmetric field configuration and flow structures. Deeper far-UV penetration leads to stronger and less stable outflows. Implications for observations and planet formation are also discussed.

  7. Global Simulations of the Inner Regions of Protoplanetary Disks with Comprehensive Disk Microphysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xue-Ning, E-mail: [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    The gas dynamics of weakly ionized protoplanetary disks (PPDs) are largely governed by the coupling between gas and magnetic fields, described by three non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) effects (Ohmic, Hall, ambipolar). Previous local simulations incorporating these processes have revealed that the inner regions of PPDs are largely laminar and accompanied by wind-driven accretion. We conduct 2D axisymmetric, fully global MHD simulations of these regions (∼1–20 au), taking into account all non-ideal MHD effects, with tabulated diffusion coefficients and approximate treatment of external ionization and heating. With the net vertical field aligned with disk rotation, the Hall-shear instability strongly amplifies horizontal magnetic field, making the overall dynamics dependent on initial field configuration. Following disk formation, the disk likely relaxes into an inner zone characterized by asymmetric field configuration across the midplane, which smoothly transitions to a more symmetric outer zone. Angular momentum transport is driven by both MHD winds and laminar Maxwell stress, with both accretion and decretion flows present at different heights, and modestly asymmetric winds from the two disk sides. With anti-aligned field polarity, weakly magnetized disks settle into an asymmetric field configuration with supersonic accretion flow concentrated at one side of the disk surface, and highly asymmetric winds between the two disk sides. In all cases, the wind is magneto-thermal in nature, characterized by a mass loss rate exceeding the accretion rate. More strongly magnetized disks give more symmetric field configuration and flow structures. Deeper far-UV penetration leads to stronger and less stable outflows. Implications for observations and planet formation are also discussed.

  8. Ultrafast dynamics of type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komolibus, K.; Piwonski, T.; Gradkowski, K.; Reyner, C. J.; Liang, B.; Huffaker, D. L.; Huyet, G.; Houlihan, J.


    In this paper, room temperature two-colour pump-probe spectroscopy is employed to study ultrafast carrier dynamics in type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dots. Our results demonstrate a strong dependency of carrier capture/escape processes on applied reverse bias voltage, probing wavelength and number of injected carriers. The extracted timescales as a function of both forward and reverse bias may provide important information for the design of efficient solar cells and quantum dot memories based on this material. The first few picoseconds of the dynamics reveal a complex behaviour with an interesting feature, which does not appear in devices based on type-I materials, and hence is linked to the unique carrier capture/escape processes possible in type-II structures

  9. Disk Defect Data (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — How Data Was Acquired: The data presented is from a physical simulator that simulated engine disks. Sample Rates and Parameter Description: All parameters are...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A. [On sabbatical leave from the Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, UNAM, Campus Morelia, Michoacan, C.P. 58089, Mexico. (Mexico); Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel, E-mail: [Argelander Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)


    We analyze the relationship between maximum cluster mass and surface densities of total gas ({Sigma}{sub gas}), molecular gas ({Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}}), neutral gas ({Sigma}{sub H{sub I}}), and star formation rate ({Sigma}{sub SFR}) in the grand-design galaxy M51, using published gas data and a catalog of masses, ages, and reddenings of more than 1800 star clusters in its disk, of which 223 are above the cluster mass distribution function completeness limit. By comparing the two-dimensional distribution of cluster masses and gas surface densities, we find for clusters older than 25 Myr that M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub H{sub I}{sup 0.4{+-}0.2}}, whereM{sub 3rd} is the median of the five most massive clusters. There is no correlation with{Sigma}{sub gas},{Sigma}{sub H2}, or{Sigma}{sub SFR}. For clusters younger than 10 Myr, M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub H{sub I}{sup 0.6{+-}0.1}} and M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub gas}{sup 0.5{+-}0.2}; there is no correlation with either {Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}} or{Sigma}{sub SFR}. The results could hardly be more different from those found for clusters younger than 25 Myr in M33. For the flocculent galaxy M33, there is no correlation between maximum cluster mass and neutral gas, but we have determined M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub gas}{sup 3.8{+-}0.3}, M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}{sup 1.2{+-}0.1}}, and M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub SFR}{sup 0.9{+-}0.1}. For the older sample in M51, the lack of tight correlations is probably due to the combination of strong azimuthal variations in the surface densities of gas and star formation rate, and the cluster ages. These two facts mean that neither the azimuthal average of the surface densities at a given radius nor the surface densities at the present-day location of a stellar cluster represent the true surface densities at the place and time of cluster formation. In the case of the younger sample, even if the clusters have not yet

  11. Verbatim Floppy Disk

    CERN Multimedia


    Introduced under the name "Verbatim", Latin for "literally", these disks that sized more than 5¼ inches have become almost universal on dedicated word processing systems and personal computers. This format was replaced more slowly by the 3½-inch format, introduced for the first time in 1982. Compared to today, these large format disks stored very little data. In reality, they could only contain a few pages of text.

  12. Dynamic bookmarking of primary response genes by p300 and RNA polymerase II complexes. (United States)

    Byun, Jung S; Wong, Madeline M; Cui, Wenwu; Idelman, Gila; Li, Quentin; De Siervi, Adriana; Bilke, Sven; Haggerty, Cynthia M; Player, Audrey; Wang, Yong Hong; Thirman, Michael J; Kaberlein, Joseph J; Petrovas, Constantinos; Koup, Richard A; Longo, Dan; Ozato, Keiko; Gardner, Kevin


    Profiling the dynamic interaction of p300 with proximal promoters of human T cells identified a class of genes that rapidly coassemble p300 and RNA polymerase II (pol II) following mitogen stimulation. Several of these p300 targets are immediate early genes, including FOS, implicating a prominent role for p300 in the control of primary genetic responses. The recruitment of p300 and pol II rapidly transitions to the assembly of several elongation factors, including the positive transcriptional elongation factor (P-TEFb), the bromodomain-containing protein (BRD4), and the elongin-like eleven nineteen lysine-rich leukemia protein (ELL). However, transcription at many of these rapidly induced genes is transient, wherein swift departure of P-TEFb, BRD4, and ELL coincides with termination of transcriptional elongation. Unexpectedly, both p300 and pol II remain accumulated or "bookmarked" at the proximal promoter long after transcription has terminated, demarking a clear mechanistic separation between the recruitment and elongation phases of transcription in vivo. The bookmarked pol II is depleted of both serine-2 and serine-5 phosphorylation of its C-terminal domain and remains proximally positioned at the promoter for hours. Surprisingly, these p300/pol II bookmarked genes can be readily reactivated, and elongation factors can be reassembled by subsequent addition of nonmitogenic agents that, alone, have minimal effects on transcription in the absence of prior preconditioning by mitogen stimulation. These findings suggest that p300 is likely to play an important role in biological processes in which transcriptional bookmarking or preconditioning influences cellular growth and development through the dynamic priming of genes for response to rechallenge by secondary stimuli.

  13. Exploring the molecular origins of protein dynamics in the active site of human carbonic anhydrase II. (United States)

    Hill, Sarah E; Bandaria, Jigar N; Fox, Michelle; Vanderah, Elizabeth; Kohen, Amnon; Cheatum, Christopher M


    We present three-pulse vibrational echo measurements of azide ion bound to the active site Zn of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) and of two separate active-site mutants Thr199 --> Ala (T199A) and Leu198 --> Phe (L198F). Because structural motions of the protein active site influence the frequency of bound ligands, the differences in the time scales of the frequency-frequency correlation functions (FFCFs) obtained from global fits to each set of data allow us to make inferences about the time scales of the active site dynamics of HCA II. Surprisingly, the deletion of a potential electrostatic interaction in results in very little change in the FFCF, but the insertion of the bulky phenylalanine ring in causes much faster dynamics. We conclude that the fast, sub-picosecond time scale in the correlation function is attributable to hydrogen bond dynamics, and the slow, apparently static contribution is due to the conformational flexibility of Zn-bound azide in the active site.

  14. Mass distributions in disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinsson, Thomas; Verheijen, Marc; Bershady, Matthew; Westfall, Kyle; Andersen, David; Swaters, Rob

    We present results on luminous and dark matter mass distributions in disk galaxies from the DiskMass Survey. As expected for normal disk galaxies, stars dominate the baryonic mass budget in the inner region of the disk; however, at about four optical scale lengths (hR ) the atomic gas starts to

  15. 2TB hard disk drive

    CERN Multimedia

    This particular object was used up until 2012 in the Data Centre. It slots into one of the Disk Server trays. Hard disks were invented in the 1950s. They started as large disks up to 20 inches in diameter holding just a few megabytes (link is external). They were originally called "fixed disks" or "Winchesters" (a code name used for a popular IBM product). They later became known as "hard disks" to distinguish them from "floppy disks (link is external)." Hard disks have a hard platter that holds the magnetic medium, as opposed to the flexible plastic film found in tapes and floppies.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M. M.


    Accretion disks around black hole, neutron star, and white dwarf systems are thought to sometimes tilt, retrogradely precess, and produce hump-shaped modulations in light curves that have a period shorter than the orbital period. Although artificially rotating numerically simulated accretion disks out of the orbital plane and around the line of nodes generate these short-period superhumps and retrograde precession of the disk, no numerical code to date has been shown to produce a disk tilt naturally. In this work, we report the first naturally tilted disk in non-magnetic cataclysmic variables using three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Our simulations show that after many hundreds of orbital periods, the disk has tilted on its own and this disk tilt is without the aid of radiation sources or magnetic fields. As the system orbits, the accretion stream strikes the bright spot (which is on the rim of the tilted disk) and flows over and under the disk on different flow paths. These different flow paths suggest the lift force as a source to disk tilt. Our results confirm the disk shape, disk structure, and negative superhump period and support the source to disk tilt, source to retrograde precession, and location associated with X-ray and He II emission from the disk as suggested in previous works. Our results identify the fundamental negative superhump frequency as the indicator of disk tilt around the line of nodes.

  17. Accretion disk boundary layers in cataclysmic variables. 1: Optically thick boundary layers (United States)

    Popham, Robert; Narayan, Ramesh


    We develop numerical models of accretions disks in cataclysmic variables (CVs), including and emphasizing the boundary layer region where the accretion disk meets the accreting white dwarf. We confine ourselves to solutions where the boundary layer region is vertically optically thick, and find that these solutions share several common features. The angular and radial velocities of the accreting material drop rapidly in a dynamical boundary layer, which has a radial width approximately 1%-3% of the white dwarf radius. The energy dissipated in this region diffuses through the inner part of the disk and is radiated from the disk surface in a thermal boundary layer, which has a radial width comparable to the disk thickness, approximately 5%-15% of the white dwarf radius. We examine the dependence of the boundary layer structure on the mass accretion rate, the white dwarf mass and rotation rate, and the viscosity parameter alpha. We delineate the boundary between optically thick and optically thin boundary layer solutions as a function of these parameters and suggest that by means of a careful comparison with observations it may be possible to estimate alpha in CVs. We derive an expression for the total boundary layer luminosities as a function of the parameters and show that it agrees well with the luminosites of our numerical solutions. Finally, we calcuate simple blackbody continuum spectra of the boundary layer and disk emission for our solutions and compare these to soft X-ray, EUV, and He II emission-line observations of CVs. We show that, through such comparisons, it may be possible to determine the rotation rates of the accreting stars in CVs, and perhaps also the white dwarf masses and the accretion rates. The spectra are quite insensitive to alpha, so the uncertainty in this parameter does not affect such comparisons.

  18. Coupling Protein Dynamics with Proton Transport in Human Carbonic Anhydrase II. (United States)

    Taraphder, Srabani; Maupin, C Mark; Swanson, Jessica M J; Voth, Gregory A


    The role of protein dynamics in enzyme catalysis is one of the most highly debated topics in enzymology. The main controversy centers around what may be defined as functionally significant conformational fluctuations and how, if at all, these fluctuations couple to enzyme catalyzed events. To shed light on this debate, the conformational dynamics along the transition path surmounting the highest free energy barrier have been herein investigated for the rate limiting proton transport event in human carbonic anhydrase (HCA) II. Special attention has been placed on whether the motion of an excess proton is correlated with fluctuations in the surrounding protein and solvent matrix, which may be rare on the picosecond and subpicosecond time scales of molecular motions. It is found that several active site residues, which do not directly participate in the proton transport event, have a significant impact on the dynamics of the excess proton. These secondary participants are shown to strongly influence the active site environment, resulting in the creation of water clusters that are conducive to fast, moderately slow, or slow proton transport events. The identification and characterization of these secondary participants illuminates the role of protein dynamics in the catalytic efficiency of HCA II.

  19. Molecular-dynamics simulations with explicit hydrodynamics II: on the collision of polymers with molecular obstacles. (United States)

    Kenward, M; Slater, G W


    We present a study of the dynamics of single polymers colliding with molecular obstacles using Molecular-dynamics simulations. In concert with these simulations we present a generalized polymer-obstacle collision model which is applicable to a number of collision scenarios. The work focusses on three specific problems: i) a polymer driven by an external force colliding with a fixed microscopic post; ii) a polymer driven by a (plug-like) fluid flow colliding with a fixed microscopic post; and iii) a polymer driven by an external force colliding with a free polymer. In all three cases, we present a study of the length-dependent dynamics of the polymers involved. The simulation results are compared with calculations based on our generalized collision model. The generalized model yields analytical results in the first two instances (cases i) and ii)), while in the polymer-polymer collision example (case iii)) we obtain a series solution for the system dynamics. For the case of a polymer-polymer collision we find that a distinct V-shaped state exists as seen in experimental systems, though normally associated with collisions with multiple polymers. We suggest that this V-shaped state occurs due to an effective hydrodynamic counter flow generated by a net translational motion of the two-chain system.

  20. Source to Accretion Disk Tilt


    Montgomery, M. M.; Martin, E. L.


    Many different system types retrogradely precess, and retrograde precession could be from a tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk. However, a source to cause and maintain disk tilt is unknown. In this work, we show that accretion disks can tilt due to a force called lift. Lift results from differing gas stream supersonic speeds over and under an accretion disk. Because lift acts at the disk's center of pressure, a torque is applied around a rotation axis passing through...

  1. Comparison of Disk Diffusionand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Rezazadeh


    Full Text Available Background: Increasing prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in different communities is clearly visible. Because of this, treatment of patients with infections caused by those bacteria has fallen into critical troubles .Current study, therefore, is aimed to compare phenotypic (disk diffusion and genotypic (PCR methods for fast diagnosis of methicillin-resistant strains, isolated from patients of Arak Central Hospital Materials and Methods:In a cross sectional study whithin one year of period , a total of 100 samples were taken and tested from the patients of Arak hospital (located in the central part of Iran . Isolates' sensitivity to Cefoxitin Disk and Oxacillin was confirmed through disk diffusion. Using PCR , the isolates were tested for the presence of mecA gene. Results were compared from the points of sensitivity and specificity by application of chi square test in SPSS software.. Results: Seventy five 75% out of the total 100 samples (through oxacillin disk diffusion method , already isolated from patients were resistant to oxacillin. Meanwhile, 83(83% of cefoxitin disk diffusion method samples’ were resistant to cefoxitin. Three resistant samples to cefoxitin were negative for mecA gene and 80 (80% samples were positive for mecA gene using PCR. Sensitivity were respectively 93.75% , 100% , and specificity were 100% and 100% , 85% , 100 Conclusion: Findings indicate that oxacillin disk diffusion method is a simple phenotypic method, however, it has lower sensitivity compared to cefoxitin disk diffusion and polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods. Therfore, it is not recommended for detection of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Existence of strains resistant to cefoxitin without mecA gene, shows the outset of another type of resistance or mutation in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA .

  2. Studies of Gas Disks in Binary Systems (United States)

    de Val-Borro, Miguel

    There are over 300 exoplanets detected through radial velocity surveys and photometric studies showing a tremendous variety of masses, compositions and orbital parameters. Understanding the way these planets formed and evolved within the circumstellar disks they were initially embedded in is a crucial issue. In the first part of this thesis we study the physical interaction between a gaseous protoplanetary disk and an embedded planet using numerical simulations. In order to trust the results from simulations it is important to compare different methods. However, the standard test problems for hydrodynamic codes differ considerably from the case of a protoplanetary disk interacting with an embedded planet. We have carried out a code comparison in which the problem of a massive planet in a protoplanetary disk was studied with various numerical schemes. We compare the surface density, potential vorticity and azimuthally averaged density profiles at several times. There is overall good agreement between our codes for Neptune and Jupiter-sized planets. We performed simulations for each planet in an inviscid disk and including physical viscosity. The surface density profiles agree within about 5% for the grid-based schemes while the particle codes have less resolution in the low density regions and weaker spiral wakes. In Paper II, we study hydrodynamical instabilities in disks with planets. Vortices are generated close to the gap in our numerical models in agreement with the linear modal analysis. The vortices exert strong perturbations on the planet as they move along the gap and can change its migration rate. In addition, disk viscosity can be modified by the presence of vortices. The last part of this thesis studies the mass transfer in symbiotic binaries and close T Tauri binary systems. Our simulations of gravitationally focused wind accretion in binary systems show the formation of stream flows and enhanced accretion rates onto the compact component.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Min-Kai; Kratter, Kaitlin M., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)


    Low mass, self-gravitating accretion disks admit quasi-steady, “gravito-turbulent” states in which cooling balances turbulent viscous heating. However, numerical simulations show that gravito-turbulence cannot be sustained beyond dynamical timescales when the cooling rate or corresponding turbulent viscosity is too large. The result is disk fragmentation. We motivate and quantify an interpretation of disk fragmentation as the inability to maintain gravito-turbulence due to formal secondary instabilities driven by: (1) cooling, which reduces pressure support; and/or (2) viscosity, which reduces rotational support. We analyze the axisymmetric gravitational stability of viscous, non-adiabatic accretion disks with internal heating, external irradiation, and cooling in the shearing box approximation. We consider parameterized cooling functions in 2D and 3D disks, as well as radiative diffusion in 3D. We show that generally there is no critical cooling rate/viscosity below which the disk is formally stable, although interesting limits appear for unstable modes with lengthscales on the order of the disk thickness. We apply this new linear theory to protoplanetary disks subject to gravito-turbulence modeled as an effective viscosity, and cooling regulated by dust opacity. We find that viscosity renders the disk beyond ∼60 au dynamically unstable on radial lengthscales a few times the local disk thickness. This is coincident with the empirical condition for disk fragmentation based on a maximum sustainable stress. We suggest turbulent stresses can play an active role in realistic disk fragmentation by removing rotational stabilization against self-gravity, and that the observed transition in behavior from gravito-turbulent to fragmenting may reflect instability of the gravito-turbulent state itself.

  4. Flight Test of a 40-Foot Nominal Diameter Disk-Gap-Band Parachute Deployed at a Mach Number of 3.31 and a Dynamic Pressure of 10.6 Pounds per Square Foot (United States)

    Eckstrom, Clinton V.


    A 40-foot-nominal-diameter (12.2 meter) disk-gap-band parachute was flight tested as part of the NASA supersonic high altitude parachute experiment (SHAPE) program. The test parachute (which included an experimental energy absorber in the attachment riser) was deployed from an instrumented payload by means of a deployment mortar when the payload was at a Mach number of 3.31 and a free-stream dynamic pressure of 10.6 pounds per square foot (508 newtons per square meter). The parachute deployed properly, the canopy inflating to a full-open condition at 1.03 seconds after mortar firing. The first full inflation of the canopy was immediately followed by a partial collapse with subsequent oscillations of the frontal area from about 30 to 75 percent of the full-open frontal area. After 1.07 seconds of operation, a large tear appeared in the cloth near the canopy apex. This tear was followed by two additional tears shortly thereafter. It was later determined that a section of the canopy cloth was severely weakened by the effects of aerodynamic heating. As a result of the damage to the disk area of the canopy, the parachute performance was significantly reduced; however, the parachute remained operationally intact throughout the flight test and the instrumented payload was recovered undamaged.

  5. Relativistic, accreting disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, M.A; Jaroszynski, M.; Sikora, M.


    An analytic theory of the hydrodynamical structure of accreting disks (without self-gravitation but with pressure) orbiting around and axially symmetric, stationary, compact body (e.g. black hole) is presented. The inner edge of the marginally stable accreting disk (i.e. disk with constant angular momentum density) has a sharp cusp located on the equatorial plane between rsub(ms) and rsub(mb). The existence of the cusp is also typical for any angular momentum distribution. The physical importance of the cusp follows from the close analogy with the case of a close binary system (L 1 Lagrange point on the Roche lobe). The existence of the cusp is thus a crucial phenomenon in such problems as boundary condition for the viscous stresses, accretion rate etc. (orig.) [de

  6. Premixed direct injection disk (United States)

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho


    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  7. Crystal structure and encapsulation dynamics of ice II-structured neon hydrate (United States)

    Yu, Xiaohui; Zhu, Jinlong; Du, Shiyu; Xu, Hongwu; Vogel, Sven C.; Han, Jiantao; Germann, Timothy C.; Zhang, Jianzhong; Jin, Changqing; Francisco, Joseph S.; Zhao, Yusheng


    Neon hydrate was synthesized and studied by in situ neutron diffraction at 480 MPa and temperatures ranging from 260 to 70 K. For the first time to our knowledge, we demonstrate that neon atoms can be enclathrated in water molecules to form ice II-structured hydrates. The guest Ne atoms occupy the centers of D2O channels and have substantial freedom of movement owing to the lack of direct bonding between guest molecules and host lattices. Molecular dynamics simulation confirms that the resolved structure where Ne dissolved in ice II is thermodynamically stable at 480 MPa and 260 K. The density distributions indicate that the vibration of Ne atoms is mainly in planes perpendicular to D2O channels, whereas their distributions along the channels are further constrained by interactions between adjacent Ne atoms. PMID:25002464

  8. JPDYN-IV: a computer code for JPDR-II dynamics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokobayashi, Masao; Ishizuka, Makoto; Kishi, Akimasa; Wakabayashi, Yoshimune.


    The computer code JPDYN-IV developed is for analyzing dynamic characteristics of the JPDR-II BWR plant. It treats transient phenomena caused by various perturbations in normal operation of the reactor plant. The code features (1) a void map scheme to take into consideration the effect of a non-uniform void fraction distribution, (2) the treatment of a pressure change due to behavior of the stagnant water, and (3) a set of algebraic equations for analytical estimation of the flow rate in each region. Performance of the code was examined by way of the measured data in commissioning test of the JPDR-II up to 50% power. In the transient behavior caused by small perturbations, the calculated results agree well with the measured ones. For large perturbations, though the data are limitted, the agreement between calculation and measurement shows wide applicability of the code. (author)

  9. Hydrodynamical processes in planet-forming accretion disks (United States)

    Lin, Min-Kai

    Understanding the physics of accretion flows in circumstellar disk provides the foundation to any theory of planet formation. The last few years have witnessed dramatic a revision in the fundamental fluid dynamics of protoplanetary accretion disks. There is growing evidence that the key to answering some of the most pressing questions, such as the origin of disk turbulence, mass transport, and planetesimal formation, may lie within, and intimately linked to, purely hydrodynamical processes in protoplanetary disks. Recent studies, including those from the proposal team, have discovered and highlighted the significance of several new hydrodynamical instabilities in the planet-forming regions of these disks. These include, but not limited to: the vertical shear instability, active between 10 to 100 AU; the zombie vortex instability, operating in regions interior to about 1AU; and the convective over-stability at intermediate radii. Secondary Rossbywave and elliptic instabilities may also be triggered, feeding off the structures that emerge from the above primary instabilities. The result of these hydrodynamic processes range from small-scale turbulence that transports angular momentum, to large-scale vortices that concentrate dust particles and enhance planetesimal formation. Hydrodynamic processes pertain to a wide range of disk conditions, meaning that at least one of these processes are active at any given disk location and evolutionary epoch. This remains true even after planet formation, which affects their subsequent orbital evolution. Hydrodynamical processes also have direct observable consequences. For example, vortices have being invoked to explain recent ALMA images of asymmetric `dust-traps' in transition disks. Hydrodynamic activities thus play a crucial role at every stage of planet formation and disk evolution. We propose to develop theoretical models of the above hydrodynamic processes under physical disk conditions by properly accounting for disk

  10. Probing Protoplanetary Disks: From Birth to Planets (United States)

    Cox, Erin Guilfoil


    Disks are very important in the evolution of protostars and their subsequent planets. How early disks can form has implications for early planet formation. In the youngest protostars (i.e., Class 0 sources) magnetic fields can control disk growth. When the field is parallel to the collapsing core’s rotation axis, infalling material loses angular momentum and disks form in later stages. Sub-/millimeter polarization continuum observations of Class 0 sources at ~1000 au resolution support this idea. However, in the inner (~100 au), denser regions, it is unknown if the polarization only traces aligned dust grains. Recent theoretical studies have shown that self-scattering of thermal emission in the disk may contribute significantly to the polarization. Determining the scattering contribution in these sources is important to disentangle the magnetic field. At older times (the Class II phase), the disk structure can both act as a modulator and signpost of planet formation, if there is enough of a mass reservoir. In my dissertation talk, I will present results that bear on disk evolution at both young and late ages. I will present 8 mm polarization results of two Class 0 protostars (IRAS 4A and IC348 MMS) from the VLA at ~50 au resolution. The inferred magnetic field of IRAS 4A has a circular morphology, reminiscent of material being dragged into a rotating structure. I will show results from SOFIA polarization data of the area surrounding IRAS 4A at ~4000 au. I will also present ALMA 850 micron polarization data of ten protostars in the Perseus Molecular Cloud. Most of these sources show very ordered patterns and low (~0.5%) polarization in their inner regions, while having very disordered patterns and high polarization patterns in their extended emission that may suggest different mechanisms in the inner/outer regions. Finally, I will present results from our ALMA dust continuum survey of protoplanetary disks in Rho Ophiuchus; we measured both the sizes and fluxes of

  11. Inter-cage dynamics in structure I, II, and H fluoromethane hydrates as studied by NMR and molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, Alondra Torres [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Separation Technology Group, Den Dolech 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kroon, Maaike C. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Separation Technology Group, Den Dolech 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Peters, Cor J. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Separation Technology Group, Den Dolech 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); The Petroleum Institute, Chemical Engineering Department, P. O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Moudrakovski, Igor L.; Ratcliffe, Christopher I.; Ripmeester, John A., E-mail: [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Alavi, Saman [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada)


    Prospective industrial applications of clathrate hydrates as materials for gas separation require further knowledge of cavity distortion, cavity selectivity, and defects induction by guest-host interactions. The results presented in this contribution show that under certain temperature conditions the guest combination of CH{sub 3}F and a large polar molecule induces defects on the clathrate hydrate framework that allow intercage guest dynamics. {sup 13}C NMR chemical shifts of a CH{sub 3}F/CH{sub 4}/TBME sH hydrate and a temperature analysis of the {sup 2}H NMR powder lineshapes of a CD{sub 3}F/THF sII and CD{sub 3}F/TBME sH hydrate, displayed evidence that the populations of CH{sub 4} and CH{sub 3}F in the D and D{sup ′} cages were in a state of rapid exchange. A hydrogen bonding analysis using molecular dynamics simulations on the TBME/CH{sub 3}F and TBME/CH{sub 4} sH hydrates showed that the presence of CH{sub 3}F enhances the hydrogen bonding probability of the TBME molecule with the water molecules of the cavity. Similar results were obtained for THF/CH{sub 3}F and THF/CH{sub 4} sII hydrates. The enhanced hydrogen bond formation leads to the formation of defects in the water hydrogen bonding lattice and this can enhance the migration of CH{sub 3}F molecules between adjacent small cages.

  12. The Stability of Galaxy Disks (United States)

    Westfall, K. B.; Andersen, D. R.; Bershady, M. A.; Martinsson, T. P. K.; Swaters, R. A.; Verheijen, M. A. W.


    We calculate the stellar surface mass density (Σ*) and two-component (gas+stars) disk stability (QRW) for 25 late-type galaxies from the DiskMass Survey. These calculations are based on fits of a dynamical model to our ionized-gas and stellar kinematic data performed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the Bayesian posterior. Marginalizing over all galaxies, we find a median value of QRW = 2.0±0.9 at 1.5 scale lengths. We also find that QRW is anti-correlated with the star-formation rate surface density (Σ*), which can be predicted using a closed set of empirical scaling relations. Finally, we find that the star-formation efficiency (Σ*/Σg) is correlated with Σ* and weakly anti-correlated with QRW. The former is consistent with an equilibrium prediction of Σ*/Σg ∝ Σ*1/2. Despite its order-of-magnitude range, we find no correlation of Σ*/ΣgΣ*1/2 with any other physical quantity derived by our study.

  13. Static and dynamic behaviors of plasma detachment in divertor simulator NAGDIS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, S.; Ohno, N.; Uesugi, Y.; Nishijima, D.; Motoyama, M.; Hattori, N.; Arakawa, H.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Pigarov, A.; Wenzel, U.


    We have performed comprehensive investigation on the static and dynamic behaviors in detached recombining plasmas in the linear divertor plasma simulator, NAGDIS-II. For the stationary plasma detachment, the transition from electron-ion recombination (EIR) to molecular activated recombination (MAR) has been observed by injecting hydrogen gas to high density He plasmas. The particle loss rate due to MAR is found to be comparable to that of EIR. We have also performed experiments on injection of a plasma heat pulse produced by rf heating to the detached recombining He plasma to demonstrate the dynamic behavior of the volumetric plasma recombination. Negative spikes in Balmer series line emissions were observed similar to the so called negative ELM observed in tokamak divertors, which were analyzed with collisional-radiative model in detail. Rapid increase of the ion flux to the target plate was observed associated with the re-ionization of the highly excited atoms generated by EIR. (author)

  14. Conspray dynamic sleeve piston coal feeder. Phase II. Verification tests. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report details the performance of Phase II: Verification Tests of the Conspray dynamic sleeve piston coal feeder. The machine performed for 200 hours at 700 psi backpressure, utilizing a 70% to 200 mesh Utah bituminous coal as feedstock. All test work was satisfactorily completed. A post-test inspection was performed. A report of component wear and failures incurred in testing is included as well as suggestions for machine upgrades. The overall conclusion is that the dynamic sleeve piston feeder has proven its ability to operate safely and reliably. When problems have occurred, the machine has demonstrated inherent safety by shutting down without endangering process or personnel. With the recommended improvements incorporated into the feeder, the unit will be ready for installation on a pilot scale coal gasifier. 9 figures, 11 tables.

  15. Experimental and numerical determination of the dynamic properties of the reactor building of Atucha II NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceballos, M.A.; Car, E.J.; Prato, T.A.; Prato, C.A.; Alvarez, L.M.; Godoy, A.R.


    Determination of the dynamic properties of the reactor building of Atucha II NPP is carried out in order to: i) Obtain valuable information for seismic qualification of the plant, and ii) Assess some procedures for testing and analysis that are used in the process of seismic evaluation of existing nuclear facilities founded on Quaternary soil deposits. Both steady state and impulsive dynamic tests were performed but attention is centered here in tile techniques used to determine natural frequencies and modal damping ratios with impulsive tests. Numerical analyses were performed by means of a 3-D model model of the superstructure together with foundation stiffness coefficients derived in a separate paper from steady state vibration tests, and also from analysis with a 2-D F.E. model of the soil layers capable of approximating the 3-D features of the problem. The computed foundation stiffness coefficients are compared both with those obtained from the tests and from an axisymmetric F.E. model; results indicate that foundation stiffness coefficients calculated with F.E. models with soil parameters given by laboratory tests performed on cored samples are significantly lower than those given by the steady state vibration tests. (author)


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Espaillat, C.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.


    We have analyzed nearly all images of the Taurus star-forming region at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm that were obtained during the cryogenic mission of the Spitzer Space Telescope (46 deg 2 ) and have measured photometry for all known members of the region that are within these data, corresponding to 348 sources, or 99% of the known stellar population. By combining these measurements with previous observations with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph and other facilities, we have classified the members of Taurus according to whether they show evidence of circumstellar disks and envelopes (classes I, II, and III). Through these classifications, we find that the disk fraction in Taurus, N(II)/N(II+III), is ∼75% for solar-mass stars and declines to ∼45% for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (0.01-0.3 M sun ). This dependence on stellar mass is similar to that measured for Chamaeleon I, although the disk fraction in Taurus is slightly higher overall, probably because of its younger age (1 Myr versus 2-3 Myr). In comparison, the disk fraction for solar-mass stars is much lower (∼20%) in IC 348 and σ Ori, which are denser than Taurus and Chamaeleon I and are roughly coeval with the latter. These data indicate that disk lifetimes for solar-mass stars are longer in star-forming regions that have lower stellar densities. Through an analysis of multiple epochs of Spitzer photometry that are available for ∼200 Taurus members, we find that stars with disks exhibit significantly greater mid-infrared (mid-IR) variability than diskless stars, which agrees with the results of similar variability measurements for a smaller sample of stars in Chamaeleon I. The variability fraction for stars with disks is higher in Taurus than in Chamaeleon I, indicating that the IR variability of disks decreases with age. Finally, we have used our data in Taurus to refine the observational criteria for primordial, evolved, and transitional disks. The ratio of the number of evolved and

  17. Identifying Likely Disk-hosting M dwarfs with Disk Detective (United States)

    Silverberg, Steven; Wisniewski, John; Kuchner, Marc J.; Disk Detective Collaboration


    M dwarfs are critical targets for exoplanet searches. Debris disks often provide key information as to the formation and evolution of planetary systems around higher-mass stars, alongside the planet themselves. However, less than 300 M dwarf debris disks are known, despite M dwarfs making up 70% of the local neighborhood. The Disk Detective citizen science project has identified over 6000 new potential disk host stars from the AllWISE catalog over the past three years. Here, we present preliminary results of our search for new disk-hosting M dwarfs in the survey. Based on near-infrared color cuts and fitting stellar models to photometry, we have identified over 500 potential new M dwarf disk hosts, nearly doubling the known number of such systems. In this talk, we present our methodology, and outline our ongoing work to confirm systems as M dwarf disks.

  18. Type II Intertrochanteric Fractures: Proximal Femoral Nailing (PFN Versus Dynamic Hip Screw(DHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Jonnes


    Full Text Available Background: Intertrochanteric fracture is one of the most common fractures of the hip especially in the elderly with osteoporotic bones, usually due to low-energy trauma like simple falls. Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS is still considered the gold standard for treating intertrochanteric fractures by many. Not many studies compare the DHS with Proximal femoral nail (PFN, in Type II intertrochanteric fractures (Boyd and Griffin classification. This study was done to compare the functional and radiological outcome of PFN with DHS in treatment of Type II intertrochanteric fractures.   Methods: From October 2012 to March 2015, a prospective comparative study was done where 30 alternative cases of type II intertrochanteric fractures of hip were operated using PFN or DHS. Intraoperative complications were noted. Functional outcome was assessed using Harris Hip Score and radiological findings were compared at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Results: The average age of the patients was 60 years. In our series we found that patients with DHS had increased intraoperative blood loss (159ml, longer duration of surgery (105min, and required longer time for mobilization while patients who underwent PFN had lower intraoperative blood loss (73ml, shorter duration of surgery (91min, and allowed early mobilization. The average limb shortening in DHS group was 9.33 mm as compared with PFN group which was only 4.72 mm. The patients treated with PFN started early ambulation as they had better Harris Hip Score in the early post-op period. At the end of 12th month, there was not much difference in the functional outcome between the two groups. Conclusion: PFN is better than DHS in type II inter-trochanteric fractures in terms of decreased blood loss, reduced duration of surgery, early weight bearing and mobilization, reduced hospital stay, decreased risk of infection and decreased complications.

  19. Hybrid infrared scene projector (HIRSP): a high dynamic range infrared scene projector, part II (United States)

    Cantey, Thomas M.; Bowden, Mark; Cosby, David; Ballard, Gary


    This paper is a continuation of the merging of two dynamic infrared scene projector technologies to provide a unique and innovative solution for the simulation of high dynamic temperature ranges for testing infrared imaging sensors. This paper will present some of the challenges and performance issues encountered in implementing this unique projector system into a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) simulation facility. The projection system combines the technologies of a Honeywell BRITE II extended voltage range emissive resistor array device and an optically scanned laser diode array projector (LDAP). The high apparent temperature simulations are produced from the luminescent infrared radiation emitted by the high power laser diodes. The hybrid infrared projector system is being integrated into an existing HWIL simulation facility and is used to provide real-world high radiance imagery to an imaging infrared unit under test. The performance and operation of the projector is presented demonstrating the merit and success of the hybrid approach. The high dynamic range capability simulates a 250 Kelvin apparent background temperature to 850 Kelvin maximum apparent temperature signatures. This is a large increase in radiance projection over current infrared scene projection capabilities.

  20. Quantifying histone and RNA polymerase II post-translational modification dynamics in mother and daughter cells. (United States)

    Stasevich, Timothy J; Sato, Yuko; Nozaki, Naohito; Kimura, Hiroshi


    Post-translational histone modifications are highly correlated with transcriptional activity, but the relative timing of these marks and their dynamic interplay during gene regulation remains controversial. To shed light on this problem and clarify the connections between histone modifications and transcription, we demonstrate how FabLEM (Fab-based Live Endogenous Modification labeling) can be used to simultaneously track histone H3 Lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9ac) together with RNA polymerase II Serine 2 and Serine 5 phosphorylation (RNAP2 Ser2ph/Ser5ph) in single living cells and their progeny. We provide a detailed description of the FabLEM methodology, including helpful tips for preparing and loading fluorescently conjugated antigen binding fragments (Fab) into cells for optimal results. We also introduce simple procedures for analyzing and visualizing FabLEM data, including color-coded scatterplots to track correlations between modifications through the cell cycle and temporal cross-correlation analysis to dissect modification dynamics. Using these methods, we find significant correlations that span cell generations, with a relatively strong correlation between H3K9ac and Ser5ph that appears to peak a few hours before mitosis and may reflect the bookmarking of genes for efficient re-initiation following mitosis. The techniques we have developed are broadly applicable and should help clarify how histone modifications dynamically contribute to gene regulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Natta, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Scholz, A., E-mail: [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)


    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  2. Exploring Our Galaxy's Thick Disk (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    What is the structure of the Milky Ways disk, and how did it form? A new study uses giant stars to explore these questions.A View from the InsideSchematic showing an edge-on, not-to-scale view of what we think the Milky Ways structurelookslike. The thick disk is shown in yellow and the thin disk is shown in green. [Gaba p]Spiral galaxies like ours are often observed to have disks consisting of two components: a thin disk that lies close to the galactic midplane, and a thick disk that extends above and below this. Past studies have suggested that the Milky Ways disk hosts the same structure, but our position embedded in the Milky Way makes this difficult to confirm.If we can measure the properties of a broad sample of distant tracer stars and use this to better understand the construction of the Milky Ways disk, then we can start to ask additional questions like, how did the disk components form? Formation pictures for the thick disk generally fall into two categories:Stars in the thick disk formed within the Milky Way either in situ or by migrating to their current locations.Stars in the thick disk formed in satellite galaxies around the Milky Way and then accreted when the satellites were disrupted.Scientists Chengdong Li and Gang Zhao (NAO Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences) have now used observations of giant stars which can be detected out to great distances due to their brightness to trace the properties of the Milky Ways thick disk and address the question of its origin.Best fits for the radial (top) and vertical (bottom) metallicity gradients of the thick-disk stars. [Adapted from Li Zhao 2017]Probing OriginsLi and Zhao used data from the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) in China to examine a sample of 35,000 giant stars. The authors sorted these stars into different disk components halo, thin disk, and thick disk based on their kinematic properties, and then explored how the orbital and

  3. Workload-Adaptive Management of Energy-Smart Disk Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otoo, Ekow; Rotem, Doron; Tsao, Shih-Chiang


    Recent studies have identified disk storage systems as one of the major consumers of power in data centers. Many disk power management (DPM) schemes were suggested where the power consumed by disks is reduced by spinning them down during long idle periods. Spinning the disks down and up results in additional energy and response time costs. For that reason, DPM schemes are effective only if the disks experience relatively long idle periods and the scheme does not introduce a severe response time penalty. In this paper we introduce a dynamic block exchange algorithm which switches data between disks based on the observed workload such that frequently accessed blocks end up residing on a few"hot" disks thus allowing the majority of disks to experience longer idle periods. We validate the effectiveness of the algorithm with trace-driven simulations showing power savings of up to 60percent with very small response time penalties.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Kanagawa University, 2946 Tsuchiya, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1293 (Japan); Maaskant, K. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Okamoto, Y. K. [Institute of Astrophysics and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Kataza, H. [Department of Infrared Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Yamashita, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Miyata, T.; Sako, S.; Kamizuka, T. [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Fujiyoshi, T.; Fujiwara, H. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, Hawaii 96720 (United States); Sakon, I.; Onaka, T. [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mulders, G. D. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lopez-Rodriguez, E.; Packham, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)


    We imaged circumstellar disks around 22 Herbig Ae/Be stars at 25 μm using Subaru/COMICS and Gemini/T-ReCS. Our sample consists of an equal number of objects from each of the two categories defined by Meeus et al.; 11 group I (flaring disk) and II (flat disk) sources. We find that group I sources tend to show more extended emission than group II sources. Previous studies have shown that the continuous disk is difficult to resolve with 8 m class telescopes in the Q band due to the strong emission from the unresolved innermost region of the disk. This indicates that the resolved Q-band sources require a hole or gap in the disk material distribution to suppress the contribution from the innermost region of the disk. As many group I sources are resolved at 25 μm, we suggest that many, but not all, group I Herbig Ae/Be disks have a hole or gap and are (pre-)transitional disks. On the other hand, the unresolved nature of many group II sources at 25 μm supports the idea that group II disks have a continuous flat disk geometry. It has been inferred that group I disks may evolve into group II through the settling of dust grains into the mid-plane of the protoplanetary disk. However, considering the growing evidence for the presence of a hole or gap in the disk of group I sources, such an evolutionary scenario is unlikely. The difference between groups I and II may reflect different evolutionary pathways of protoplanetary disks.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, M.; Maaskant, K.; Okamoto, Y. K.; Kataza, H.; Yamashita, T.; Miyata, T.; Sako, S.; Kamizuka, T.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Fujiwara, H.; Sakon, I.; Onaka, T.; Mulders, G. D.; Lopez-Rodriguez, E.; Packham, C.


    We imaged circumstellar disks around 22 Herbig Ae/Be stars at 25 μm using Subaru/COMICS and Gemini/T-ReCS. Our sample consists of an equal number of objects from each of the two categories defined by Meeus et al.; 11 group I (flaring disk) and II (flat disk) sources. We find that group I sources tend to show more extended emission than group II sources. Previous studies have shown that the continuous disk is difficult to resolve with 8 m class telescopes in the Q band due to the strong emission from the unresolved innermost region of the disk. This indicates that the resolved Q-band sources require a hole or gap in the disk material distribution to suppress the contribution from the innermost region of the disk. As many group I sources are resolved at 25 μm, we suggest that many, but not all, group I Herbig Ae/Be disks have a hole or gap and are (pre-)transitional disks. On the other hand, the unresolved nature of many group II sources at 25 μm supports the idea that group II disks have a continuous flat disk geometry. It has been inferred that group I disks may evolve into group II through the settling of dust grains into the mid-plane of the protoplanetary disk. However, considering the growing evidence for the presence of a hole or gap in the disk of group I sources, such an evolutionary scenario is unlikely. The difference between groups I and II may reflect different evolutionary pathways of protoplanetary disks

  6. Vibrational dynamics of plant light-harvesting complex LHC II investigated by quasi- and inelastic neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golub Maksym


    Full Text Available Vibrational dynamics of the light-harvesting complex II (LHC II from spinach was investigated by quasi- and inelastic neutron scattering (QENS and INS at three different temperatures of 80, 160, and 285 K. QENS/INS spectra of solubilised LHC II and of the corresponding buffer solution were obtained separately and exhibit characteristic inelastic features. After subtraction of the buffer contribution, the INS spectrum of LHC II reveals a distinct Boson peak at ∼ 2.5 meV at 80 K that shifts towards lower energies if the temperature is increased to 285 K. This effect is interpreted in terms of a “softening” of the protein matrix along with the dynamical transition at ∼ 240 K. Our findings indicate that INS is a valuable method to obtain the density of vibrational states not only at cryogenic, but also at physiological temperatures.

  7. DVD - digital versatile disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, R.


    An international standard has emerged for the first true multimedia format. Digital Versatile Disk (by its official name), you may know it as Digital Video Disks. DVD has applications in movies, music, games, information CD-ROMS, and many other areas where massive amounts of digital information is needed. Did I say massive amounts of data? Would you believe over 17 gigabytes on a single piece of plastic the size of an audio-CD? That`s the promise, at least, by the group of nine electronics manufacturers who have agreed to the format specification, and who hope to make this goal a reality by 1998. In this major agreement, which didn`t come easily, the manufacturers will combine Sony and Phillip`s one side double-layer NMCD format with Toshiba and Matsushita`s double sided Super-Density disk. By Spring of this year, they plan to market the first 4.7 gigabyte units. The question is: Will DVD take off? Some believe that read-only disks recorded with movies will be about as popular as video laser disks. They say that until the eraseable/writable DVD arrives, the consumer will most likely not buy it. Also, DVD has a good market for replacement of CD- Roms. Back in the early 80`s, the international committee deciding the format of the audio compact disk decided its length would be 73 minutes. This, they declared, would allow Beethoven`s 9th Symphony to be contained entirely on a single CD. Similarly, today it was agreed that playback length of a single sided, single layer DVD would be 133 minutes, long enough to hold 94% of all feature-length movies. Further, audio can be in Dolby`s AC-3 stereo or 5.1 tracks of surround sound, better than CD-quality audio (16-bits at 48kHz). In addition, there are three to five language tracks, copy protection and parental ``locks`` for R rated movies. DVD will be backwards compatible with current CD-ROM and audio CD formats. Added versatility comes by way of multiple aspect rations: 4:3 pan-scan, 4:3 letterbox, and 16:9 widescreen. MPEG

  8. Gas Debris Disks: A New Way to Produce Dust Patterns (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc J.


    Debris disks like those around Fomalhaut and Beta Pictoris show striking dust patterns often attributed to planets. But adding a bit of gas to our models of these disks--too little to detect-could alter this interpretation. Small amounts of gas lead to new dynamical instabilities that may mimic the narrow eccentric rings and other structures planets would create in a gas-free disk. rll discuss these phenomena and whether or not we can still use dust patterns as indicators of hidden exoplanets.

  9. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in type-II ZnO-SnO heterostructure thin films (United States)

    Li, Zhong-guo; Cao, Hongtao; Song, Anran; Liang, Lingyan; Wu, Xingzhi; Yang, Junyi; Song, Ying-lin


    We investigate the carrier relaxation and charge transfer dynamics in type-II ZnO-SnO heterojunction thin films using wavelength-dependent femtosecond transient absorption measurements. Under SnO-selective excitation conditions, absorption signals related to ZnO are observed on a subpicosecond time scale, which indicates ultrafast electron transfer from SnO to ZnO. The spatial separation of electrons and holes across the ZnO-SnO interface leads to a long-lived carrier decay process with a lifetime of ˜4 ns, 2 times longer than resonant excitation of both ZnO and SnO in the heterostructures. Our results provide a framework for understanding the photophysics of tin oxide semiconductor heterostructures.

  10. Simulated DIsk Galaxies over Cosmic Time (United States)

    Bird, Jonathan C.


    We analyze the evolution of vertical disk structure and the stellar age-velocity relations in a series of high-resolution, cosmological SPH simulations. We compare current MW observations with detailed mock observations of the simulated galaxies at z=0, accounting for the latest constraints on the solar position and the selection functions of modern surveys. We show that the particular implementation of these mock observations becomes an increasingly crucial component of any quantitative comparison between theory and data; a point that will only be emphasized in the GAIA era. At z=0, our fiducial simulation reproduces the stellar age-velocity relationship measured in the solar neighborhood. Present-day simulated mono-age populations also have velocity dispersions nearly independent of height, matching the puzzling isothermal nature of mono-abundance populations in the MW. We identify two main ingredients governing the evolution of these quantities: ``upside-down'' formation and scattering processes. The galaxy forms upside-down in the sense thatprogressively younger stellar populations are born with increasingly smaller vertical velocity dispersion, tracing the kinematics of the collapsing gas disk from which they form. After birth, the evolution in stellar structure and kinematics is largely governed by scattering processes. We demonstrate that ``upside-down'' disk growth is necessary to simultaneously match: (1) the observed evolution of gas and stellar kinematics in disk galaxies from z~2 to now, (2) the cosmic star formation rate, and (3) the dynamical properties of intermediate age stars in the MW observed today.

  11. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Gas Fuelling of Spiral Galaxies in the Local Universe II. - Direct Measurement of the Dependencies on Redshift and Host Halo Mass of Stellar Mass Growth in Central Disk Galaxies (United States)

    Grootes, M. W.; Dvornik, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Tuffs, R. J.; Popescu, C. C.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Liske, J.; Brown, M. J. I.; Holwerda, B. W.; Wang, L.


    We present a detailed analysis of the specific star formation rate - stellar mass (sSFR - M*) of z ≤ 0.13 disk central galaxies using a morphologically selected mass-complete sample (M* ≥ 109.5M⊙). Considering samples of grouped and ungrouped galaxies, we find the sSFR - M* relations of disk-dominated central galaxies to have no detectable dependence on host dark-matter halo (DMH) mass, even where weak-lensing measurements indicate a difference in halo mass of a factor ≳ 5. We further detect a gradual evolution of the sSFR - M* relation of non-grouped (field) central disk galaxies with redshift, even over a Δz ≈ 0.04 (≈5 . 108yr) interval, while the scatter remains constant. This evolution is consistent with extrapolation of the "main-sequence-of-star-forming-galaxies" from previous literature that uses larger redshift baselines and coarser sampling. Taken together, our results present new constraints on the paradigm under which the SFR of galaxies is determined by a self-regulated balance between gas inflows and outflows, and consumption of gas by star-formation in disks, with the inflow being determined by the product of the cosmological accretion rate and a fuelling-efficiency - \\dot{M}_{b,halo}ζ. In particular, maintaining the paradigm requires \\dot{M}_{b,halo}ζ to be independent of the mass Mhalo of the host DMH. Furthermore, it requires the fuelling-efficiency ζ to have a strong redshift dependence (∝(1 + z)2.7 for M* = 1010.3M⊙ over z = 0 - 0.13), even though no morphological transformation to spheroids can be invoked to explain this in our disk-dominated sample. The physical mechanisms capable of giving rise to such dependencies of ζ on Mhalo and z for disks are unclear.

  12. Real-time dynamics of RNA Polymerase II clustering in live human cells (United States)

    Cisse, Ibrahim


    Transcription is the first step in the central dogma of molecular biology, when genetic information encoded on DNA is made into messenger RNA. How this fundamental process occurs within living cells (in vivo) is poorly understood,[1] despite extensive biochemical characterizations with isolated biomolecules (in vitro). For high-order organisms, like humans, transcription is reported to be spatially compartmentalized in nuclear foci consisting of clusters of RNA Polymerase II, the enzyme responsible for synthesizing all messenger RNAs. However, little is known of when these foci assemble or their relative stability. We developed an approach based on photo-activation localization microscopy (PALM) combined with a temporal correlation analysis, which we refer to as tcPALM. The tcPALM method enables the real-time characterization of biomolecular spatiotemporal organization, with single-molecule sensitivity, directly in living cells.[2] Using tcPALM, we observed that RNA Polymerase II clusters form transiently, with an average lifetime of 5.1 (+/- 0.4) seconds. Stimuli affecting transcription regulation yielded orders of magnitude changes in the dynamics of the polymerase clusters, implying that clustering is regulated and plays a role in the cells ability to effect rapid response to external signals. Our results suggest that the transient crowding of enzymes may aid in rate-limiting steps of genome regulation.

  13. Study of the adsorption of mercury (II) on lignocellulosic materials under static and dynamic conditions. (United States)

    Arias Arias, Fabian E; Beneduci, Amerigo; Chidichimo, Francesco; Furia, Emilia; Straface, Salvatore


    WHO has declared mercury as one of the most dangerous pollutants for human health. Unfortunately, several cases of rivers and aquifers contaminated by mercury inevitably poses the problem on how to remediate them. Considerable efforts are being addressed to develop cost-effective methodologies, among which the use of low-cost adsorbing materials. In this paper, the adsorption performances of an alternative lignocellulosic material derived from the Spanish broom plant, are presented. This plant is widely diffused in the world and its usage for Hg(II) removal from water in real working conditions requires only minimal pretreatment steps. A thoroughly investigation on the kinetics and thermodynamics of Hg(II) adsorption on Spanish broom is presented, by using Hg(II) polluted aqueous solutions specifically prepared in order to simulate typical groundwater conditions. Several batch experiments, under static conditions, were carried out in order to evaluate the effect of pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, temperature. A maximum adsorption capacity of 20 mg L -1 can be obtained at pH 5, following a pseudo second order kinetics. Moreover, adsorption experiments in dynamic conditions were carried out using Spanish broom filters. Interestingly, a systematic, unconventional double S-shape breakthrough curve was observed under different experimental conditions, revealing the occurrence of two adsorption processes with different time scales. This behavior has been fitted by a bimodal Thomas model which, unlike the single Thomas fitting, gives satisfactory results with the introduction of a new parameter related to the fraction of surface active sites involved in the adsorption processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ALMA observations of the nearby AGB star L$_{\\rm 2}$ Puppis. II. Gas disk properties derived from $^{\\rm 12}$CO and $^{\\rm13}$CO $J=$3$-$2 emission


    Homan, Ward; Richards, Anita; Decin, Leen; Kervella, Pierre; de Koter, Alex; McDonald, Iain; Ohnaka, Keiichi


    The circumstellar environment of the AGB star L$_{\\rm 2}$ Puppis was observed with ALMA in cycle 3, with a resolution of $15 \\times 18 \\rm\\ mas$. The molecular emission shows a differentially rotating disk, inclined to a nearly edge-on position. In the first paper in this series (paper I) the molecular emission was analysed to accurately deduce the motion of the gas in the equatorial regions of the disk. In this work we model the optically thick $^{\\rm 12}$CO $J=$3$-$2 and the optically thin ...

  15. Genome-wide dynamics of Pol II elongation and its interplay with promoter proximal pausing, chromatin, and exons. (United States)

    Jonkers, Iris; Kwak, Hojoong; Lis, John T


    Production of mRNA depends critically on the rate of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation. To dissect Pol II dynamics in mouse ES cells, we inhibited Pol II transcription at either initiation or promoter-proximal pause escape with Triptolide or Flavopiridol, and tracked Pol II kinetically using GRO-seq. Both inhibitors block transcription of more than 95% of genes, showing that pause escape, like initiation, is a ubiquitous and crucial step within the transcription cycle. Moreover, paused Pol II is relatively stable, as evidenced from half-life measurements at ∼3200 genes. Finally, tracking the progression of Pol II after drug treatment establishes Pol II elongation rates at over 1000 genes. Notably, Pol II accelerates dramatically while transcribing through genes, but slows at exons. Furthermore, intergenic variance in elongation rates is substantial, and is influenced by a positive effect of H3K79me2 and negative effects of exon density and CG content within genes.DOI: Copyright © 2014, Jonkers et al.

  16. The DiskMass Survey. VII. The distribution of luminous and dark matter in spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinsson, Thomas P. K.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.

    We present dynamically-determined rotation-curve mass decompositions of 30 spiral galaxies, which were carried out to test the maximum-disk hypothesis and to quantify properties of their dark-matter halos. We used measured vertical velocity dispersions of the disk stars to calculate dynamical mass

  17. The DiskMass Survey : VII. The distribution of luminous and dark matter in spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinsson, Thomas P. K.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.

    We present dynamically- determined rotation- curve mass decompositions of 30 spiral galaxies, which were carried out to test the maximum- disk hypothesis and to quantify properties of their dark- matter halos. We used measured vertical velocity dispersions of the disk stars to calculate dynamical

  18. The DiskMass Survey. VII. The distribution of luminous and dark matter in spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinsson, T.P.K.; Verheijen, M.; Westfall, K.; Bershady, M.; Andersen, D.; Swaters, R.


    We present dynamically-determined rotation-curve mass decompositions of 30 spiral galaxies, which were carried out to test the maximum-disk hypothesis and to quantify properties of their dark-matter halos. We used measured vertical velocity dispersions of the disk stars to calculate dynamical mass

  19. Structural Dynamics of the Oxygen-Evolving Complex of Photosystem II in Water-Splitting Action. (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew J; Jain, Prashant K


    Oxygenic photosynthesis in nature occurs via water splitting catalyzed by the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II. To split water, the OEC cycles through a sequence of oxidation states (S i , i = 0-4), the structural mechanism of which is not fully understood under physiological conditions. We monitored the OEC in visible-light-driven water-splitting action by using in situ, aqueous-environment surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In the unexplored low-frequency region of SERS, we found dynamic vibrational signatures of water binding and splitting. Specific snapshots in the dynamic SERS correspond to intermediate states in the catalytic cycle, as determined by density functional theory and isotopologue comparisons. We assign the previously ambiguous protonation configuration of the S 0 -S 3 states and propose a structural mechanism of the OEC's catalytic cycle. The findings address unresolved questions about photosynthetic water splitting and introduce spatially resolved, low-frequency SERS as a chemically sensitive tool for interrogating homogeneous catalysis in operando.

  20. The dynamics of gas-puff imploding plasmas on the NRL Gamble II generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephanakis, S.J.; Boller, J.R.; Hinshelwood, D.D.; McDonald, S.W.; Mehlman, C.G.; Ottinger, P.F.; Young, F.C.


    The experimental study of imploding plasma loads on the NRL Gamble II generator was initiated more than a year ago. Preliminary results including scaling laws for K-line radiation output from neon puffs and the effect of plasma erosion opening switches (PEOS's) on the x-ray yields and the pinch quality were reported upon during the past year. In order to better understand the implosion dynamics of such plasmas, time-resolved photographs have been taken of the implosion history. In contrast with time-integrated x-ray pinhole photographs, the time-resolved visible-light pictures indicate that the implosion phase is essentially instability-free, while pinching and flaring occur at late times during the blow-up phase. Furthermore, these visible-light framing photographs clearly show that the discharge is flared out toward the anode at early times and becomes cylindrical at implosion. This so-called ''zipper-effect'' has been seen in previous argon-puff experiments and is due to the non-uniform initial distribution of gas across the anode-cathode gap. The authors present comparisons of time-resolved photographs taken both in visible and x-ray light along with x-ray spectra taken with and without PEOS's. The implications of these data are discussed in view of the present theoretical understanding of the plasma implosion dynamics

  1. The dynamics of gas-puff imploding plasmas on the NRL Gamble II Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephanakis, S.J.; Boller, J.R.; Hinshelwood, D.D.; McDonald, S.W.; Mehlman, C.G.; Ottinger, P.F.; Young, F.C.


    The experimental study of imploding plasma loads on the NRL Gamble II generator was initiated more than a year ago. Preliminary results including scaling laws for K-line radiation output from neon puffs and the effect of plasma erosion opening switches (PEOS's) on the x-ray yields and the pinch quality were reported upon during the past year. In order to better understand the implosion dynamics of such plasmas, time-resolved photographs have been taken of the implosion history. In contrast with time-integrated x-ray pinhole photographs, the time-resolved visible-light pictures indicate that the implosion phase is essentially instability-free, while pinching and flaring occur at late times during the blow-up phase. Furthermore, these visible-light framing photographs clearly show that the discharge is flared out toward the anode at early times and becomes cylindrical at implosion. This so-called ''zipper-effect'' has been seen in previous argon-puff experiments and is due to the non-uniform initial distribution of gas across the anode-cathode gap. The authors present comparisons of time-resolved photographs taken both in visible and x-ray light along with x-ray spectra taken with and without PEOS's. The implications of these data are discussed in view of the present theoretical understanding of the plasma implosion dynamics

  2. Magnetic Resonance Classification System of Cervical Intervertebral Disk Degeneration: Its Validity and Meaning. (United States)

    Suzuki, Akinobu; Daubs, Michael D; Hayashi, Tetsuo; Ruangchainikom, Monchai; Xiong, Chenjie; Phan, Kevin; Scott, Trevor P; Wang, Jeffery C


    Retrospective analysis of kinetic magnetic resonance images (kMRIs). (1) To analyze the changes seen on MRI related to disk degeneration and to develop a new grading system for cervical disk degeneration. (2) To evaluate the reliability and validity of the grading system. Few have studied the relationship between changes seen on MRI with cervical disk degeneration and the chronological order of disk degeneration. A few grading systems for cervical disk degeneration have been reported; however, there have been problems related to subjectivity and lack of a clear, reliable algorithm. A total of 300 cervical intervertebral disks were graded for nucleus color, structure, disk bulge, and disk height. On the basis of the analysis, a new grading system consisting of 4 grades (grade 0-III) and algorithm were developed. Intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities were assessed. A total of 2802 intervertebral disks were then evaluated using the grading system to correlate disk degeneration grades with patient age and function and to evaluate the validity of the new system. On the basis of cross-table analysis, disk degeneration presents in the following order: (1) decrease and/or change of nucleus intensity; (2) loss of distinction between nucleus and annulus; (3) positive disk bulge; and (4) disk height decrease. The κ-coefficients for intraobserver and interobserver agreements were 0.96 and 0.90, respectively. Severe disk degeneration is most common at C5/C6 followed by C6/C7 and C4/C5, and total disk degeneration grade is correlated with age (R=0.467). There was a decrease of angular motion in grades I-III and an increase in translational motion and decrease of space available for the cord in grades II-III. We developed a new classification system of cervical disk degeneration based on analysis of the changes seen on MRI. Reliability tests indicated high reproducibility of this system, and further analysis confirmed its validity and clinical significance.

  3. Thermal-Fluid Transport Phenomena between Twin Rotating Parallel Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Torii


    Full Text Available This paper investigates thermal-fluid transport phenomena in laminar flow between twin rotating parallel disks from whose center a circular jet is impinged on the heated horizontal bottom disk surface. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the Reynolds number, rotation speed, and disk spacing on both the formations of velocity and thermal fields and the heat transfer rate along the heated wall surface. The governing equations are discretized by means of a finite-difference technique and are numerically solved to determine the distributions of velocity vector and fluid temperature under the appropriate boundary conditions. It is found from the study that (i the recirculation zone which appears on the bottom disk moves along the outward direction with an increase in the Reynolds number, (ii when the Reynolds number is increased, heat transfer performance is intensified over the whole disk surface and the minimum value of the heat transfer rate moves in the downstream direction, and (iii the heat transfer rate is induced due to the disk rotation, whose effect becomes larger due to the upper disk rotation.

  4. Indian Summer Monsoon dynamics during Termination II and MIS 5e (United States)

    Magiera, Matthias; Erhardt, Andrea M.; Hartland, Adam; Kwiecien, Ola; Cheng, Hai; Immenhauser, Adrian; Turchyn, Alexandra; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.


    The interpretation of speleothem oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) as proxy for Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) dynamics is ambiguous, due to multiple influencing factors. Here we combine δ18O and calcium isotope δ44Ca analyses with elemental data to delineate regional shifts in moisture source, local rainfall amount, and changes in ISM intensity and length during Termination II and MIS 5e. Oxygen isotope ratios reflect a mixed signal of moisture source dynamics and rainfall amount; δ44Ca and Mg/Ca ratios are interpreted as proxies for local effective moisture and prior calcite precipitation (PCP) in the epikarst. The age of stalagmite MAW-3 from Mawmluh Cave, NE India, is constraint by six U-series dates. 108 samples, obtained at 0.4 mm resolution from the 70 mm long speleothem sample, have been analysed for δ18O, δ44Ca and Mg/Ca. Oxygen isotope ratios were measured on a ThermoFisher Scientific MAT 253 at Ruhr-University Bochum. Elemental ratios were measured on a quadrupole ICP-MS at Waikato University. Calcium isotope ratios were analyzed on a ThermoFisher Scientific Triton at University of Cambridge. MAW-3 grew from 136 kyrs BP to 96 kyrs BP, covering Termination II and MIS 5e. Oxygen isotope values are high (ca. +0.91 ‰) during Termination II, reach a minimum during MIS 5e (-3.5 ‰), and rise again to -0.2 ‰ at the end of MIS 5e. Calcium isotope ratios range from -0.32 ‰ to -0.70 ‰ and show a positive correlation (R2= 0.7) with δ18O. High δ18O values during Termination II reflect reduced atmospheric circulation and/or a proximal moisture source (Bay of Bengal), implying lowered ISM intensity. A positive correlation of δ18O with δ44Ca suggests concurrent changes of moisture source location and local rainfall amount, with a proximal moisture source and reduced effective rainfall during periods of weak ISM. Elevated Mg/Ca ratios at such intervals corroborate PCP occurrence, which reflects dry conditions. The beginning of MIS 5e (ca. 132 kyrs BP) is

  5. Audit: Automated Disk Investigation Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Karabiyik


    Full Text Available Software tools designed for disk analysis play a critical role today in forensics investigations. However, these digital forensics tools are often difficult to use, usually task specific, and generally require professionally trained users with IT backgrounds. The relevant tools are also often open source requiring additional technical knowledge and proper configuration. This makes it difficult for investigators without some computer science background to easily conduct the needed disk analysis. In this paper, we present AUDIT, a novel automated disk investigation toolkit that supports investigations conducted by non-expert (in IT and disk technology and expert investigators. Our proof of concept design and implementation of AUDIT intelligently integrates open source tools and guides non-IT professionals while requiring minimal technical knowledge about the disk structures and file systems of the target disk image.

  6. Unstable Planetary Systems Emerging Out of Gas Disks (United States)

    Matsumura, Soko; Thommes, Edward W.; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A.


    The discovery of over 400 extrasolar planets allows us to statistically test our understanding of the formation and dynamics of planetary systems via numerical simulations. Traditional N-body simulations of multiple-planet systems without gas disks have successfully reproduced the eccentricity (e) distribution of the observed systems by assuming that the planetary systems are relatively closely packed when the gas disk dissipates, so that they become dynamically unstable within the stellar lifetime. However, such studies cannot explain the small semimajor axes a of extrasolar planetary systems, if planets are formed, as the standard planet formation theory suggests, beyond the ice line. In this paper, we numerically study the evolution of three-planet systems in dissipating gas disks, and constrain the initial conditions that reproduce the observed a and e distributions simultaneously. We adopt initial conditions that are motivated by the standard planet formation theory, and self-consistently simulate the disk evolution and planet migration, by using a hybrid N-body and one-dimensional gas disk code. We also take into account eccentricity damping, and investigate the effect of saturation of corotation resonances on the evolution of planetary systems. We find that the a distribution is largely determined in a gas disk, while the e distribution is determined after the disk dissipation. We also find that there may be an optimum disk mass which leads to the observed a-e distribution. Our simulations generate a larger fraction of planetary systems trapped in mean-motion resonances (MMRs) than the observations, indicating that the disk's perturbation to the planetary orbits may be important to explain the observed rate of MMRs. We also find a much lower occurrence of planets on retrograde orbits than the current observations of close-in planets suggest.

  7. IBM 3390 Hard Disk Platter

    CERN Multimedia


    The 3390 disks rotated faster than those in the previous model 3380. Faster disk rotation reduced rotational delay (ie. the time required for the correct area of the disk surface to move to the point where data could be read or written). In the 3390's initial models, the average rotational delay was reduced to 7.1 milliseconds from 8.3 milliseconds for the 3380 family.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Grant M.; Kenyon, Scott J.


    We use published optical spectral and infrared (IR) excess data from nine young clusters and associations to study the stellar mass dependent dispersal of circumstellar disks. All clusters older than ∼3 Myr show a decrease in disk fraction with increasing stellar mass for solar to higher mass stars. This result is significant at about the 1σ level in each cluster. For the complete set of clusters we reject the null hypothesis-that solar and intermediate-mass stars lose their disks at the same rate-with 95%-99.9% confidence. To interpret this behavior, we investigate the impact of grain growth, binary companions, and photoevaporation on the evolution of disk signatures. Changes in grain growth timescales at fixed disk temperature may explain why early-type stars with IR excesses appear to evolve faster than their later-type counterparts. Little evidence that binary companions affect disk evolution suggests that photoevaporation is the more likely mechanism for disk dispersal. A simple photoevaporation model provides a good fit to the observed disk fractions for solar and intermediate-mass stars. Although the current mass-dependent disk dispersal signal is not strong, larger and more complete samples of clusters with ages of 3-5 Myr can improve the significance and provide better tests of theoretical models. In addition, the orbits of extra-solar planets can constrain models of disk dispersal and migration. We suggest that the signature of stellar mass dependent disk dispersal due to photoevaporation may be present in the orbits of observed extra-solar planets. Planets orbiting hosts more massive than ∼1.6 M sun may have larger orbits because the disks in which they formed were dispersed before they could migrate.

  9. Flight Test of a 40-Foot Nominal-Diameter Disk-Gap-Band Parachute Deployed at a Mach Number of 1.91 and a Dynamic Pressure of 11.6 Pounds per Square Foot (United States)

    Eckstrom, Clinton V.; Preisser, John S.


    A 40-foot (12.2 meter) nominal-diameter disk-gap-band parachute was flight tested as part of the NASA Supersonic Planetary Entry Decelerator Program (SPED-I). The test parachute was ejected by a deployment mortar from an instrumented payload at an altitude of 140,000 feet (42.5 kilometers). The payload was at a Mach number of 1.91 and the dynamic pressure was 11.6 pounds per square foot (555 newtons per square meter) at the time the parachute deployment mortar was fired. The parachute reached suspension line stretch in 0.43 second with a resultant snatch force loading of 1990 pounds (8850 newtons). The maximum parachute opening load of 6500 pounds (28,910 newtons) came 0.61 second later at a total elapsed time from mortar firing of 1.04 seconds. The first full inflation occurred at 1.12 seconds and stable inflation was achieved at approximately 1.60 seconds. The parachute had an average axial-force coefficient of 0.53 during the deceleration period. During the steady-state descent portion of the flight test, the average effective drag coefficient was also 0.53 and pitch-yaw oscillations of the canopy averaged less than 10 degrees in the altitude region above 100,000 feet (30.5 meters).

  10. Disk storage at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Mascetti, L; Chan, B; Espinal, X; Fiorot, A; Labrador, H Gonz; Iven, J; Lamanna, M; Presti, G Lo; Mościcki, JT; Peters, AJ; Ponce, S; Rousseau, H; van der Ster, D


    CERN IT DSS operates the main storage resources for data taking and physics analysis mainly via three system: AFS, CASTOR and EOS. The total usable space available on disk for users is about 100 PB (with relative ratios 1:20:120). EOS actively uses the two CERN Tier0 centres (Meyrin and Wigner) with 50:50 ratio. IT DSS also provide sizeable on-demand resources for IT services most notably OpenStack and NFS-based clients: this is provided by a Ceph infrastructure (3 PB) and few proprietary servers (NetApp). We will describe our operational experience and recent changes to these systems with special emphasis to the present usages for LHC data taking, the convergence to commodity hardware (nodes with 200-TB each with optional SSD) shared across all services. We also describe our experience in coupling commodity and home-grown solution (e.g. CERNBox integration in EOS, Ceph disk pools for AFS, CASTOR and NFS) and finally the future evolution of these systems for WLCG and beyond.

  11. [Disk calcifications in children]. (United States)

    Schmit, P; Fauré, C; Denarnaud, L


    It is not unusual for intervertebral disk calcifications to be detected in pediatric practice, the 150 or so cases reported in the literature probably representing only a small proportion of lesions actually diagnosed. Case reports of 33 children with intervertebral disk calcifications were analyzed. In the majority of these patients (31 of 33) a diagnosis of "idiopathic" calcifications had been made, the cervical localization of the lesions being related to repeated ORL infections and/or trauma. A pre-existing pathologic factor was found in two cases (one child with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis treated by corticoids and one child with Williams and Van Beuren's syndrome). An uncomplicated course was noted in 31 cases, the symptomatology (pain, spinal stiffness and febricula) improving after several days. Complications developed in two cases: one child had very disabling dysphagia due to an anteriorly protruding cervical herniated disc and surgery was necessary; the other child developed cervicobrachial neuralgia due to herniated disc protrusion into the cervical spinal canal, but symptoms regressed within several days although calcifications persisted unaltered. These findings and the course of the rare complications documented in the literature suggest the need for the most conservative treatment possible in cases of disc calcifications in children.

  12. Disk MHD generator study (United States)

    Retallick, F. D.


    Directly-fired, separately-fired, and oxygen-augmented MHD power plants incorporating a disk geometry for the MHD generator were studied. The base parameters defined for four near-optimum-performance MHD steam power systems of various types are presented. The finally selected systems consisted of (1) two directly fired cases, one at 1920 K (2996F) preheat and the other at 1650 K (2500 F) preheat, (2) a separately-fired case where the air is preheated to the same level as the higher temperature directly-fired cases, and (3) an oxygen augmented case with the same generator inlet temperature of 2839 (4650F) as the high temperature directly-fired and separately-fired cases. Supersonic Mach numbers at the generator inlet, gas inlet swirl, and constant Hall field operation were specified based on disk generator optimization. System pressures were based on optimization of MHD net power. Supercritical reheat stream plants were used in all cases. Open and closed cycle component costs are summarized and compared.

  13. Sparse aperture masking at the VLT. II. Detection limits for the eight debris disks stars β Pic, AU Mic, 49 Cet, η Tel, Fomalhaut, g Lup, HD 181327 and HR 8799 (United States)

    Gauchet, L.; Lacour, S.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Ehrenreich, D.; Bonnefoy, M.; Girard, J. H.; Boccaletti, A.


    Context. The formation of planetary systems is a common, yet complex mechanism. Numerous stars have been identified to possess a debris disk, a proto-planetary disk or a planetary system. The understanding of such formation process requires the study of debris disks. These targets are substantial and particularly suitable for optical and infrared observations. Sparse aperture masking (SAM) is a high angular resolution technique strongly contributing to probing the region from 30 to 200 mas around the stars. This area is usually unreachable with classical imaging, and the technique also remains highly competitive compared to vortex coronagraphy. Aims: We aim to study debris disks with aperture masking to probe the close environment of the stars. Our goal is either to find low-mass companions, or to set detection limits. Methods: We observed eight stars presenting debris disks (β Pictoris, AU Microscopii, 49 Ceti, η Telescopii, Fomalhaut, g Lupi, HD 181327, and HR 8799) with SAM technique on the NaCo instrument at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). Results: No close companions were detected using closure phase information under 0.5'' of separation from the parent stars. We obtained magnitude detection limits that we converted to Jupiter masses detection limits using theoretical isochrones from evolutionary models. Conclusions: We derived upper mass limits on the presence of companions in the area of a few times the telescope's diffraction limits around each target star. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) during runs 087.C-0450(A), 087.C-0450(B) 087.C-0750(A), 088.C-0358(A).All magnitude detection limits maps are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  14. Dynamic response of the EBR-II secondary sodium system to postulated leaks of steam and water into sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, S.; Chopra, P.S.; Stone, C.C.


    The paper presents evaluations of the dynamic response of a steam generator system to postulated leaks of steam and water into sodium. This work is part of a comprehensive fail-safe analysis of the EBR-II steam generator system

  15. Nonlinear vibrations analysis of rotating drum-disk coupling structure (United States)

    Chaofeng, Li; Boqing, Miao; Qiansheng, Tang; Chenyang, Xi; Bangchun, Wen


    A dynamic model of a coupled rotating drum-disk system with elastic support is developed in this paper. By considering the effects of centrifugal and Coriolis forces as well as rotation-induced hoop stress, the governing differential equation of the drum-disk is derived by Donnell's shell theory. The nonlinear amplitude-frequency characteristics of coupled structure are studied. The results indicate that the natural characteristics of the coupling structure are sensitive to the supporting stiffness of the disk, and the sensitive range is affected by rotating speeds. The circumferential wave numbers can affect the characteristics of the drum-disk structure. If the circumferential wave number n = 1 , the vibration response of the drum keeps a stable value under an unbalanced load of the disk, there is no coupling effect if n ≠ 1 . Under the excitation, the nonlinear hardening characteristics of the forward traveling wave are more evident than that of the backward traveling wave. Moreover, because of the coupling effect of the drum and the disk, the supporting stiffness of the disk has certain effect on the nonlinear characteristics of the forward and backward traveling waves. In addition, small length-radius and thickness-radius ratios have a significant effect on the nonlinear characteristics of the coupled structure, which means nonlinear shell theory should be adopted to design rotating drum's parameter for its specific structural parameters.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, Christopher; Batygin, Konstantin; Adams, Fred C.


    Star formation proceeds via the collapse of a molecular cloud core over multiple dynamical timescales. Turbulence within cores results in a spatially non-uniform angular momentum of the cloud, causing a stochastic variation in the orientation of the disk forming from the collapsing material. In the absence of star-disk angular momentum coupling, such disk-tilting would provide a natural mechanism for the production of primordial spin-orbit misalignments in the resulting planetary systems. However, owing to high accretion rates in the embedded phase of star formation, the inner edge of the circumstellar disk extends down to the stellar surface, resulting in efficient gravitational and accretional angular momentum transfer between the star and the disk. Here, we demonstrate that the resulting gravitational coupling is sufficient to suppress any significant star-disk misalignment, with accretion playing a secondary role. The joint tilting of the star-disk system leads to a stochastic wandering of star-aligned bipolar outflows. Such wandering widens the effective opening angle of stellar outflows, allowing for more efficient clearing of the remainder of the protostar's gaseous envelope. Accordingly, the processes described in this work provide an additional mechanism responsible for sculpting the stellar initial mass function

  17. Driving of Accretion Disk Variability by the Disk Dynamo (United States)

    Hogg, J. Drew; Reynolds, Christopher S.


    Variability is a ubiquitous feature of emission from accreting objects, but many questions remain as to how the variability is driven and how it relates to the underlying accretion physics. In this talk I will discuss recent results from a long, semi-global MHD simulation of a thin accretion disk around a black hole used to perform a detailed study of the fluctuations in the internal disk stress and the influence these fluctuations have on the accretion flow. In the simulation, low frequency fluctuations of the effective α-parameter in the disk are linked to oscillations of the disk dynamo. These fluctuations in the effective alpha parameter drive “propagating fluctuations” in mass accretion rate through the disk that qualitatively resemble the variability from astrophysical black hole systems. The mass accretion rate has several of the ubiquitous phenomenological properties of black hole variability, including log-normal flux distributions, RMS-flux relationships, and radial coherence.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. H.; Watson, Dan M.; Manoj, P.; Forrest, W. J.; Arnold, Laura [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Najita, Joan; Furlan, Elise [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Sargent, Benjamin [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Espaillat, Catherine [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Muzerolle, James [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Megeath, S. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Green, Joel D., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 1 University Station, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)


    Transitional disks are protoplanetary disks around young stars, with inner holes or gaps which are surrounded by optically thick outer, and often inner, disks. Here we present observations of 62 new transitional disks in the Orion A star-forming region. These were identified using the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph and followed up with determinations of stellar and accretion parameters using the Infrared Telescope Facility's SpeX. We combine these new observations with our previous results on transitional disks in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, Ophiuchus, and Perseus, and with archival X-ray observations. This produces a sample of 105 transitional disks of ''cluster'' age 3 Myr or less, by far the largest hitherto assembled. We use this sample to search for trends between the radial structure in the disks and many other system properties, in order to place constraints on the possible origins of transitional disks. We see a clear progression of host-star accretion rate and the different disk morphologies. We confirm that transitional disks with complete central clearings have median accretion rates an order of magnitude smaller than radially continuous disks of the same population. Pre-transitional disks-those objects with gaps that separate inner and outer disks-have median accretion rates intermediate between the two. Our results from the search for statistically significant trends, especially related to M-dot , strongly support that in both cases the gaps are far more likely to be due to the gravitational influence of Jovian planets or brown dwarfs orbiting within the gaps, than to any of the photoevaporative, turbulent, or grain-growth processes that can lead to disk dissipation. We also find that the fraction of Class II YSOs which are transitional disks is large, 0.1-0.2, especially in the youngest associations.

  19. Stripping a debris disk by gravitational interaction with an inner planet (United States)

    Morey, E.; Lestrade, J.-F.


    Debris disks are detected through scattered light or thermal emission of their dust, produced by collisions or erosion of planetesimals. The rate of collisions depends on the number density of planetesimals and on the dynamical excitation and geometry of the disk. We have studied a debris disk gravitationally perturbed by a single inner planet, by using a numerical integration over a large parameter space for both the orbital elements of the planet and the disk geometry. We discuss our findings in the context of observed orbital elements for exoplanets and plausible disk geometries. We have studied whether or not a disk can be significantly disrupted, and stripped of its planetesimals, because of this interaction. We have focused on how the depletion of the disk depends on the masses of the central star and planet. We have found that this dependence is not monotonous, except for low mass stars.

  20. On the Processing of Spalling Experiments. Part II: Identification of Concrete Fracture Energy in Dynamic Tension (United States)

    Lukić, Bratislav B.; Saletti, Dominique; Forquin, Pascal


    This paper presents a second part of the study aimed at investigating the fracture behavior of concrete under high strain rate tensile loading. The experimental method together with the identified stress-strain response of three tests conducted on ordinary concrete have been presented in the paper entitled Part I (Forquin and Lukić in Journal of Dynamic Behavior of Materials, 2017. In the present paper, Part II, the investigation is extended towards directly determining the specific fracture energy of each observed fracture zone by visualizing the dynamic cracking process with a temporal resolution of 1 µs. Having access to temporal displacement fields of the sample surface, it is possible to identify the fracture opening displacement (FOD) and the fracture opening velocity of any principle (open) and secondary (closed) fracture at each measurement instance, that may or may not lead to complete physical failure of the sample. Finally, the local Stress-FOD curves were obtained for each observed fracture zone, opposed to previous works where indirect measurements were used. The obtained results indicated a much lower specific fracture energy compared to the results often found in the literature. Furthermore, numerical simulations were performed with a damage law to evaluate the validity of the proposed experimental data processing and compare it to the most often used one in the previous works. The results showed that the present method can reliably predict the specific fracture energy needed to open one macro-fracture and suggested that indirect measurement techniques can lead to an overestimate of specific fracture energy due to the stringent assumption of linear elasticity up-to the peak and the inability of having access to the real post-peak change of axial stress.

  1. Disks around young stellar objects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    flattened disk around the central young stellar object and planets form in these disks by processes that involve growth of dust grains and their sedimentation, collisions and coag- ulation of planetesimals, accretion of gaseous material and gravitational instabilities on various time-scales as proposed in different models.

  2. Disk Masses in the Embedded and T Tauri Phases of Stellar Evolution (United States)

    Vorobyov, E. I.


    Motivated by a growing concern that masses of circumstellar disks may have been systematically underestimated by conventional observational methods, we present a numerical hydrodynamics study of time-averaged disk masses (langM drang) around low-mass Class 0, Class I, and Class II objects. Mean disk masses (\\overline{M}_d) are then calculated by weighting the time-averaged disk masses according to the corresponding stellar masses using a power-law weight function with a slope typical for the Kroupa initial mass function of stars. Two distinct types of disks are considered: self-gravitating disks, in which mass and angular momentum are redistributed exclusively by gravitational torques, and viscous disks, in which both the gravitational and viscous torques are at work. We find that self-gravitating disks have mean masses that are slowly increasing along the sequence of stellar evolution phases. More specifically, Class 0/I/II self-gravitating disks have mean masses \\overline{M}_d=0.09, 0.10, and 0.12 M sun, respectively. Viscous disks have similar mean masses (\\overline{M}_d=0.10-0.11 M sun) in the Class 0/I phases but almost a factor of 2 lower mean mass in the Class II phase (\\overline{M}_d,CII=0.06 M_⊙). In each evolution phase, time-averaged disk masses show a large scatter around the mean value. Our obtained mean disk masses are larger than those recently derived by Andrews & Williams and Brown et al., regardless of the physical mechanisms of mass transport in the disk. The difference is especially large for Class II disks, for which we find \\overline{M}_d,CII=0.06-0.12 M sun but Andrews & Williams report median masses of the order 3 × 10-3 M sun. When Class 0/I/II systems are considered altogether, a least-squares best fit yields the following relation between the time-averaged disk and stellar masses, langM drang = (0.2 ± 0.05)langM *rang1.3±0.15. The dependence of langM drang on langM *rang becomes progressively steeper along the sequence of

  3. Dynamics of ligand exchange mechanism at Cu(II) in water: An ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics study with extended quantum mechanical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moin, Syed Tarique; Hofer, Thomas S.; Weiss, Alexander K. H.; Rode, Bernd M.


    Ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics (QMCF-MD) were successfully applied to Cu(II) embedded in water to elucidate structure and to understand dynamics of ligand exchange mechanism. From the simulation studies, it was found that using an extended large quantum mechanical region including two shells of hydration is required for a better description of the dynamics of exchanging water molecules. The structural features characterized by radial distribution function, angular distribution function and other analytical parameters were consistent with experimental data. The major outcome of this study was the dynamics of exchange mechanism and reactions in the first hydration shell that could not be studied so far. The dynamical data such as mean residence time of the first shell water molecules and other relevant data from the simulations are close to the results determined experimentally. Another major characteristic of hydrated Cu(II) is the Jahn-Teller distortion which was also successfully reproduced, leading to the final conclusion that the dominating aqua complex is a 6-coordinated species. The ab initio QMCF-MD formalism proved again its capabilities of unraveling even ambiguous properties of hydrated species that are far difficult to explore by any conventional quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach or experiment

  4. Clinical significance of nuclide renal dynamic imaging and urine microalbumin inspection of type II diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Jin Yaoge; Shi Xueying; Gao Yong


    To investigate clinical value of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine microalbumin in early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy, GFR in 60 patients with type II diabetes mellitus and a control group of 20 were determined using 99 Tc m DTPA renal dynamic imaging and urine microalbumin. The following results were obtained.Among the 60 patients with diabetes, 5 patients had increased GFRs of, 142.0±13.6 mg/min, which was 35% higher than that of controls and differed significantly from the control (P<0.01); 20 patients had GFRs of 102.2±10.2 mg/min, which differed little from the control; and 35 patients had declined GFRs of 57.2±18.0 mg/min, which was 54.3% lowered than the control and differed significantly from the control (P<0.01). The urine microalbumin in diabetes patients was significantly higher than the control. In conclusion, the GFR is a good index of the early kidney injury in diabetic patients. The combined detection of GFR and urine microalbumin can improve the early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy, and may help to monitor the treatment response and assess prognosis. (authors)

  5. Structure and dynamics of hydrated Fe(II) and Fe(III) ions. Quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remsungnen, T.


    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) and combined em ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical molecular dynamics (QM/MM-MD) simulations have been performed to investigate structural, dynamical and energetical properties of Fe(II), and Fe(III) transition metal ions in aqueous solution. In the QM/MM-MD simulations the ion and its first hydration sphere were treated at the Hartree-Fock ab initio quantum mechanical level, while ab initio generated pair plus three-body potentials were employed for the remaining system. For the classical MD simulation the pair plus three-body potential were employed for all ion-water interactions. The coordination number of the first hydration shell is 100 % of 6 in both cases. The number of waters in the second hydration shell obtained from classical simulations are 13.4 and 15.1 for Fe(II) and Fe(III), respectively, while QM/MM-MD gives the values of 12.4 and 13.4 for Fe(II) and Fe(III). The energies of hydration obtained from MD and QM/MM-MD for Fe(II) are 520 and 500 kcal/mol, and for Fe(III) 1160 and 1100 kcal/mol respectively. The mean residence times of water in the second shell obtained from QM/MM-MD are 24 and 48 ps for Fe(II) and Fe(III), respectively. In contrast to the data obtained from classical MD simulation, the QM/MM-MD values are all in good agreement with the experimental data available. These investigations and results clearly indicate that many-body effects are essential for the proper description of all properties of the aqueous solution of both Fe(II) and Fe(III) ions. (author)

  6. Flight Dynamic Simulation with Nonlinear Aeroelastic Interaction using the ROM-ROM Procedure, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc. proposes to develop an integrated flight dynamics simulation capability with nonlinear aeroelastic interactions by combining a flight dynamics...

  7. Angular Momentum Transport in Protoplanetary and Black Hole Accretion Disks: The Role of Parasitic Modes in the Saturation of MHD Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias


    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is considered a key process for driving efficient angular momentum transport in astrophysical disks. Understanding its nonlinear saturation constitutes a fundamental problem in modern accretion disk theory. The large dynamical range in physical conditions i...

  8. Copper(II) adsorption on the kaolinite(001) surface: Insights from first-principles calculations and molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Xiang-Ping, E-mail:; Wang, Juan, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Several issues about Cu(II) adsorption on the kaolinite (0 0 1) surface were solved. • Complexation of water molecules with Cu(II) was considered for adsorption complex. • Charge transfer and bonding mechanism of Cu–O{sub s} (surface oxygen) were explored. - Abstract: The adsorption behavior of Cu(II) on the basal hydroxylated kaolinite(001) surface in aqueous environment was investigated by first-principles calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. Structures of possible monodentate and bidentate inner-sphere adsorption complexes of Cu(II) were examined, and the charge transfer and bonding mechanism were analyzed. Combining the binding energy of complex, the radial distribution function of Cu(II) with oxygen and the extended X-ray absorption fine structure data, monodentate complex on site of surface oxygen with “upright” hydrogen and bidentate complex on site of two oxygens (one with “upright” hydrogen and one with “lying” hydrogen) of single Al center have been found to be the major adsorption species of Cu(II). Both adsorption species are four-coordinated with a square planar geometry. The distribution of surface hydroxyls with “lying” hydrogen around Cu(II) plays a key role in the structure and stability of adsorption complex. Upon the Mulliken population analysis and partial density of states, charge transfer occurs with Cu(II) accepting some electrons from both surface oxygens and aqua oxygens, and the bonding Cu 3d-O 2p state filling is primarily responsible for the strong covalent interaction of Cu(II) with surface oxygen.

  9. Dynamic range of Nef-mediated evasion of HLA class II-restricted immune responses in early HIV-1 infection. (United States)

    Mahiti, Macdonald; Brumme, Zabrina L; Jessen, Heiko; Brockman, Mark A; Ueno, Takamasa


    HLA class II-restricted CD4(+) T lymphocytes play an important role in controlling HIV-1 replication, especially in the acute/early infection stage. But, HIV-1 Nef counteracts this immune response by down-regulating HLA-DR and up-regulating the invariant chain associated with immature HLA-II (Ii). Although functional heterogeneity of various Nef activities, including down-regulation of HLA class I (HLA-I), is well documented, our understanding of Nef-mediated evasion of HLA-II-restricted immune responses during acute/early infection remains limited. Here, we examined the ability of Nef clones from 47 subjects with acute/early progressive infection and 46 subjects with chronic progressive infection to up-regulate Ii and down-regulate HLA-DR and HLA-I from the surface of HIV-infected cells. HLA-I down-regulation function was preserved among acute/early Nef clones, whereas both HLA-DR down-regulation and Ii up-regulation functions displayed relatively broad dynamic ranges. Nef's ability to down-regulate HLA-DR and up-regulate Ii correlated positively at this stage, suggesting they are functionally linked in vivo. Acute/early Nef clones also exhibited higher HLA-DR down-regulation and lower Ii up-regulation functions compared to chronic Nef clones. Taken together, our results support enhanced Nef-mediated HLA class II immune evasion activities in acute/early compared to chronic infection, highlighting the potential importance of these functions following transmission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation between T2 relaxation time and intervertebral disk degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, Hiroyuki; Takebayashi, Tsuneo; Yoshimoto, Mitsunori; Terashima, Yoshinori; Tsuda, Hajime; Ida, Kazunori; Yamashita, Toshihiko [Sapporo Medical University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)


    Magnetic resonance T2 mapping allows for the quantification of water and proteoglycan content within tissues and can be used to detect early cartilage abnormalities as well as to track the response to therapy. The goal of the present study was to use T2 mapping to quantify intervertebral disk water content according to the Pfirrmann classification. This study involved 60 subjects who underwent lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (a total of 300 lumbar disks). The degree of disk degeneration was assessed in the midsagittal section on T2-weighted images according to the Pfirrmann classification (grades I to V). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed among grades to determine the cut-off values. In the nucleus pulposus, T2 values tended to decrease with increasing grade, and there was a significant difference in T2 values between each grade from grades I to IV. However, there was no significant difference in T2 values in the anterior or posterior annulus fibrosus. T2 values according to disk degeneration level classification were as follows: grade I (>116.8 ms), grade II (92.7-116.7 ms), grade III (72.1-92.6 ms), grade IV (<72.0 ms). T2 values decreased with increasing Pfirrmann classification grade in the nucleus pulposus, likely reflecting a decrease in proteoglycan and water content. Thus, T2 value-based measurements of intervertebral disk water content may be useful for future clinical research on degenerative disk diseases. (orig.)

  11. Flight Test of a 40-Foot Nominal Diameter Disk-Gap-Band Parachute Deployed at a Mach Number of 2.72 and a Dynamic Pressure of 9.7 Pounds per Square Foot (United States)

    Eckstrom, Clinton V.; Preisser, John S.


    A 40-foot-nominal-diameter (12.2 meter) disk-gap-band parachute was flight tested as part of the NASA Supersonic Planetary Entry Decelerator (SPED-I) Program. The test parachute was deployed from an instrumented payload by means of a deployment mortar when the payload was at an altitude of 158,500 feet (48.2 kilometers), a Mach number of 2.72, and a free-stream dynamic pressure of 9.7 pounds per foot(exp 2) (465 newtons per meter(exp 2)). Suspension line stretch occurred 0.46 second after mortar firing and the resulting snatch force loading was -8.lg. The maximum acceleration experienced by the payload due to parachute opening was -27.2g at 0.50 second after the snatch force peak for a total elapsed time from mortar firing of 0.96 second. Canopy-shape variations occurred during the higher Mach number portion of the flight test (M greater than 1.4) and the payload was subjected to large amplitude oscillatory loads. A calculated average nominal axial-force coefficient ranged from about 0.25 immediately after the first canopy opening to about 0.50 as the canopy attained a steady inflated shape. One gore of the test parachute was damaged when the deployment bag with mortar lid passed through it from behind approximately 2 seconds after deployment was initiated. Although the canopy damage caused by the deployment bag penetration had no apparent effect on the functional capability of the test parachute, it may have affected parachute performance since the average effective drag coefficient of 0.48 was 9 percent less than that of a previously tested parachute of the same configuration.

  12. Flight Test of a 30-Foot Nominal-Diameter Disk-Gap-Band Parachute Deployed at Mach 1.56 and Dynamic Pressure of 11.4 Pounds per Square Foot (United States)

    Eckstrom, Clinton V.; Preisser, John S.


    A 30-foot (9.1 meter) nominal-diameter disk-gap-band parachute (reference area 707 sq ft (65.7 m(exp 2)) was flight tested with a 200-pound (90.7 kg) instrumented payload as part of the NASA Planetary Entry Parachute Program. A deployment mortar ejected the test parachute when the payload was at a Mach number of 1.56 and a dynamic pressure of 11.4 lb/sq ft (546 newtons per m 2 ) at an altitude of 127,500 feet (38.86 km). The parachute reached suspension line stretch in 0.37 second resulting in a snatch force loading of 1270 pounds (5650 N). Canopy inflation began 0.10 second after line stretch. A delay in the opening process occurred and was apparently due to a momentary interference of the glass-fiber shroud used in packing the parachute bag in the mortar. Continuous canopy inflation began 0.73 second after initiation of deployment and 0.21 second later full inflation was attained for a total elapsed time from mortar fire of 0.94 second. The maximum opening load of 3915 pounds (17,400 newtons) occurred at the time the canopy was first fully opened. The parachute exhibited an average drag coefficient of 0.52 during the deceleration period and pitch-yaw oscillations of the canopy were less than 5 degrees. During the steady-state descent portion of the test period, the average effective drag coefficient was about 0.47 (based on vertical descent velocity and total system weight).

  13. Hydrogen Cyanide In Protoplanetary Disks (United States)

    Walker, Ashley L.; Oberg, Karin; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore


    The chemistry behind star and planet formation is extremely complex and important in the formation of habitable planets. Life requires molecules containing carbon, oxygen, and importantly, nitrogen. Hydrogen cyanide, or HCN, one of the main interstellar nitrogen carriers, is extremely dangerous here on Earth. However, it could be used as a vital tool for tracking the chemistry of potentially habitable planets. As we get closer to identifying other habitable planets, we must understand the beginnings of how those planets are formed in the early protoplanetary disk. This project investigates HCN chemistry in different locations in the disk, and what this might mean for forming planets at different distances from the star. HCN is a chemically diverse molecule. It is connected to the formation for other more complex molecules and is commonly used as a nitrogen tracer. Using computational chemical models we look at how the HCN abundance changes at different locations. We use realistic and physically motivated conditions for the gas in the protoplanetary disk: temperature, density, and radiation (UV flux). We analyze the reaction network, formation, and destruction of HCN molecules in the disk environment. The disk environment informs us about stability of habitable planets that are created based on HCN molecules. We reviewed and compared the difference in the molecules with a variety of locations in the disk and ultimately giving us a better understanding on how we view protoplanetary disks.

  14. Barium nucleosynthesis in the disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twarog, B.A.


    The history of Ba production in the disk is discussed, particularly with regard to the apparent constancy of the production rate of Ba relative to Fe over the lifetime of the disk. An infall model of the chemical evolution of Ba/Fe within the disk is constructed under the assumption that the mass function and star formation rate are independent of time and Ba is produced as purely a secondary element. The model not only satisfies the present constraints for the disk, but produces a (Ba/H)-(Fe/H) relation which is consistent with the available observational data. It is shown that the apparent constancy of the Ba/Fe ratio is an artifact of (1) an inadequate and insufficiently accurated data sample, and (2) secondary production of Ba within the disk which is 20 to 80 times less efficient relative to Fe than the production ratio for the halo. The model predicts that stars formed during the transition period between halo and disk should show a Ba/Fe excess relative to the Sun of about a factor of 2. It is concluded that the possible sources of the Ba/Fe overproduction in the halo relative to the disk are incompatible with present theoretical limits on the mass ranges for iron and barium production by stars.

  15. Molecular Gas in Disks around Young Stars with ALMA (United States)

    Hughes, A. Meredith; Factor, Samuel; Lieman-Sifry, Jesse; Flaherty, Kevin; Daley, Cail; Mann, Rita; Roberge, Aki; Di Francesco, James; Williams, Jonathan; Ricci, Luca; Matthews, Brenda; Bally, John; Johnstone, Doug; Kospal, Agnes; Moor, Attila; Kamp, Inga; Wilner, David; Andrews, Sean; Kastner, Joel H.; Abraham, Peter


    Molecular gas is a critical component of the planet formation process. In this poster, we present two analyses of the molecular gas component of circumstellar disks at extremes (young, old) of the pre-main sequence phase.(1) We characterize the molecular gas content of the disk around d216-0939, a pre-main sequence star in the Orion Nebula Cluster, using ALMA observations of CO(3-2), HCO+(4-3), and HCN(4-3) observed at 0.5" resolution. We model the density and temperature structure of the disk, returning abundances generally consistent with chemical modeling of protoplanetary disks, and obtain a dynamical mass measurement of the central star of 2.2+/-0.4 M_sun, which is inconsistent with the previously determined spectral type of K5. We also report the detection of a spatially unresolved high-velocity blue-shifted excess emission feature with a measurable position offset from the central star, consistent with an object in Keplerian orbit at 60+/-20 au. The feature is due to a local temperature and/or density enhancement consistent with either a hydrodynamic vortex or the expected signature of the envelope of a forming protoplanet within the disk, providing evidence that planet formation is ongoing within this massive and relatively isolated Orion proplyd. This work is published in Factor et al. (2017). (2) We present ~0.4" resolution images of CO(3-2) and associated continuum emission from the gas-bearing debris disk around the nearby A star 49 Ceti, observed with ALMA. We analyze the ALMA visibilities in tandem with the broadband spectral energy distribution to measure the radial surface density profiles of dust and gas emission from the system. The radial extent of the gas disk (~220 au) is smaller than that of the dust disk (~300 au), consistent with recent observations of other gas-bearing debris disks. While there are so far only three broad debris disks with well characterized radial dust profiles at millimeter wavelengths, 49 Ceti’s disk shows a markedly

  16. 8-inch IBM floppy disk

    CERN Multimedia


    The 8-inch floppy disk was a magnetic storage disk for the data introduced commercially by IBM in 1971. It was designed by an IBM team as an inexpensive way to load data into the IBM System / 370. Plus it was a read-only bare disk containing 80 KB of data. The first read-write version was introduced in 1972 by Memorex and could contain 175 KB on 50 tracks (with 8 sectors per track). Other improvements have led to various coatings and increased capacities. Finally, it was surpassed by the mini diskette of 5.25 inches introduced in 1976.

  17. I. Advances in NMR Signal Processing. II. Spin Dynamics in Quantum Dissipative Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yung-Ya [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Part I. Advances in IVMR Signal Processing. Improvements of sensitivity and resolution are two major objects in the development of NMR/MRI. A signal enhancement method is first presented which recovers signal from noise by a judicious combination of a priordmowledge to define the desired feasible solutions and a set theoretic estimation for restoring signal properties that have been lost due to noise contamination. The effect of noise can be significantly mitigated through the process of iteratively modifying the noisy data set to the smallest degree necessary so that it possesses a collection of prescribed properties and also lies closest to the original data set. A novel detection-estimation scheme is then introduced to analyze noisy and/or strongly damped or truncated FIDs. Based on exponential modeling, the number of signals is detected based on information estimated using the matrix pencil method. theory and the spectral parameters are Part II. Spin Dynamics in body dipole-coupled systems Quantum Dissipative Systems. Spin dynamics in manyconstitutes one of the most fundamental problems in magnetic resonance and condensed-matter physics. Its many-spin nature precludes any rigorous treatment. ‘Therefore, the spin-boson model is adopted to describe in the rotating frame the influence of the dipolar local fields on a tagged spin. Based on the polaronic transform and a perturbation treatment, an analytical solution is derived, suggesting the existence of self-trapped states in the. strong coupling limit, i.e., when transverse local field >> longitudinal local field. Such nonlinear phenomena originate from the joint action of the lattice fluctuations and the reaction field. Under semiclassical approximation, it is found that the main effect of the reaction field is the renormalization of the Hamiltonian of interest. Its direct consequence is the two-step relaxation process: the spin is initially localized in a quasiequilibrium state, which is later detrapped by

  18. Structure and dynamics of solvated Ba(II) in dilute aqueous solution - an ab initio QM/MM MD approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, Thomas S.; Rode, Bernd M.; Randolf, Bernhard R.


    Structural properties of the hydrated Ba(II) ion have been investigated by ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at double zeta HF quantum mechanical level. The first shell coordination number was found to be 9.3, and several other structural parameters such as angular distribution functions, radial distribution functions and tilt- and θ-angle distributions allowed the full characterization of the hydration structure of the Ba(II) ion in dilute aqueous solution. Velocity autocorrelation functions were used to calculate librational and vibrational motions, ion-ligand motions as well as reorientation times. Different dynamical parameters such as water reorientation, mean ligand residence time, the number of ligand exchange processes and rate constants were also analyzed and the ligand exchange rate constant for the first shell was determined as k = 5.3 x 10 10 s -1

  19. Molecular Dynamics Simulations to Provide Insights into Epitopes Coupled to the Soluble and Membrane-Bound MHC-II Complexes (United States)

    Bello, Martiniano; Correa-Basurto, Jose


    Epitope recognition by major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) is essential for the activation of immunological responses to infectious diseases. Several studies have demonstrated that this molecular event takes place in the MHC-II peptide-binding groove constituted by the α and β light chains of the heterodimer. This MHC-II peptide-binding groove has several pockets (P1-P11) involved in peptide recognition and complex stabilization that have been probed through crystallographic experiments and in silico calculations. However, most of these theoretical calculations have been performed without taking into consideration the heavy chains, which could generate misleading information about conformational mobility both in water and in the membrane environment. Therefore, in absence of structural information about the difference in the conformational changes between the peptide-free and peptide-bound states (pMHC-II) when the system is soluble in an aqueous environment or non-covalently bound to a cell membrane, as the physiological environment for MHC-II is. In this study, we explored the mechanistic basis of these MHC-II components using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in which MHC-II was previously co-crystallized with a small epitope (P7) or coupled by docking procedures to a large (P22) epitope. These MD simulations were performed at 310 K over 100 ns for the water-soluble (MHC-IIw, MHC-II-P7w, and MHC-II-P22w) and 150 ns for the membrane-bound species (MHC-IIm, MHC-II-P7m, and MHC-II-P22m). Our results reveal that despite the different epitope sizes and MD simulation environments, both peptides are stabilized primarily by residues lining P1, P4, and P6-7, and similar noncovalent intermolecular energies were observed for the soluble and membrane-bound complexes. However, there were remarkably differences in the conformational mobility and intramolecular energies upon complex formation, causing some differences with respect to how the two peptides are

  20. Spin-down of a rotating air hockey disk (United States)

    Weidman, Patrick; Julien, Keith


    We extend the work of Weidman (APS, DFD 2008) on the steady float height of a rotating disk to formulate and solve for the unsteady behavior of spin-down to rest. A similarity reduction of the Navier-Stokes equations reduces the problem to a coupled pair of partial differential equations in space and time. For a disk of fixed radius and density, the PDE's must be solved taking into account constraints imposed by the aerodynamic torque and aerodynamic lift. Thus the full solution for the unsteady azimuthal and axial dynamics of the disk can be obtained for given initial values of disk Reynolds number R = W h / ν and dimensionless disk rotation speed S =√{ 2} Ωh / W , where h is the float height, W is the fluid levitation velocity, Ω is the disk rotation rate, and ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. Integrations reveal interesting families of solutions when plotted over steady solution curves in R- S parameter space and vindicate the quasi-steady spin-down theory reported in earlier work, valid only in a restricted region of parameter space.

  1. Interaction of a Supernova with a Circumstellar Disk (United States)

    McDowell, Austin T.; Duffell, Paul C.; Kasen, Daniel


    Interaction between a supernova (SN) ejecta and a dense circumstellar medium (CSM) can power a luminous light curve and create narrow emission lines in the spectra. While theoretical studies of interaction often assume a spherically symmetric CSM, there are observational indications that the gas surrounding some SNe has a disk-like geometry. Here, we use moving-mesh hydrodynamics simulations to study the interaction of an SN with a disk and determine how the dynamics and observable signatures may depend on the disk mass, thickness, and radial extent. We find that simple modifications to standard spherically-symmetric scaling laws can be used to describe the propagation and heating rate of the interaction shock. We use the resulting shock heating rates to derive approximate bolometric light curves, and provide analytic formulas that can be used to generate simple synthetic light curves for general supernova-disk interactions. For certain disk parameters and explosion energies, we are able to produce luminosities akin to those seen in super-luminous SNe. Because the SN ejecta can flow around and engulf the CSM disk, the interaction region may become embedded and, from certain viewing angles, the narrow emission lines indicative of interaction may be hidden.

  2. The opacity of spiral galaxy disks VI. Extinction, stellar light and color

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, BW; Gonzalez, RA; van der Kruit, PC; Allen, RJ


    In this paper we explore the relation between dust extinction and stellar light distribution in disks of spiral galaxies. Extinction influences our dynamical and photometric perception of disks, since it can distort our measurement of the contribution of the stellar component. To characterize the

  3. YSO inner disk chemistry - pushing the IRS limits (United States)

    Lahuis, Fred; Blake, Geoffrey; Boogert, Adwin; Dullemond, Cornelis; Evans, Neal; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Pontoppidan, Klaus; van Dishoeck, Ewine


    The aim of this proposal is to observe molecular absorption bands at 13-15 micron of gaseous acetylene (C2H2), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the planet-forming zones of a sample of nearly edge-on disk sources. These molecules are predicted to be among the most abundant organic molecules in hot gas and the precursors of much more complex, prebiotic species. In addition to being unique probes of inner disk chemistry, the molecular bands also provide a direct measure of the temperature and density of the warm gas in the planet-forming zones of disks. The presence of warm C2H2, HCN, and CO2 gas has already been reported in two proto-planetary disks. However, in existing IRS observations of other disks, the bands of these molecules are expected to lie just below the detection limit allowed by the achieved dynamic range. We have designed a new observing strategy designed to push the achievable dynamic range of the SH module by at least a factor of 3-5 to conduct the most sensitive search possible in sixteen disks. The targets have been selected on basis of deep absorption at 4.7 micron due to warm CO gas in the inner disk. The data will most certainly be the driving force for further development of optimal extraction algorithms (developed as part of the c2d legacy program) to obtain the highest S/N spectra of which the IRS is capable.

  4. Tracing the evolution of protoplanetary disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, Koen Maarten


    This thesis presents new insights of protoplanetary disk evolution. It focuses on the characterisation of several elements in the earliest phases of planet formation in protoplanetary disks: the connection between the SED and disk gaps (Chapters 2, 3 and 4), PAHs in the gas flows in disk gaps

  5. The Inner Regions of Disk Galaxies: A Constant Baryonic Fraction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelli, Federico

    For disk galaxies (spirals and irregulars), the inner circular-velocity gradient (inner steepness of the rotation curve) correlates with the central surface brightness with a slope of ~0.5. This implies that the central dynamical mass density scales almost linearly with the central baryonic density.

  6. The Vertical Variation of HI Velocity Dispersion in Disk Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Stephan Pieter Cornelis; Freeman, Ken; van der Kruit, Pieter C.


    One of the key assumptions in dynamical applications of the HI velocity dispersion in disk galaxies (e.g. to the flattening of the dark halo) has always been the isothermal nature of the HI distribution. There is no physical reason for this assumption: it is made because until now it has not been

  7. Simulation technique for hard-disk models in two dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraser, Diane P.; Zuckermann, Martin J.; Mouritsen, Ole G.


    A method is presented for studying hard-disk systems by Monte Carlo computer-simulation techniques within the NpT ensemble. The method is based on the Voronoi tesselation, which is dynamically maintained during the simulation. By an analysis of the Voronoi statistics, a quantity is identified...

  8. Generalized Langevin equation with colored noise description of the stochastic oscillations of accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Leung, Chun Sing; Mocanu, Gabriela


    We consider a description of the stochastic oscillations of the general relativistic accretion disks around compact astrophysical objects interacting with their external medium based on a generalized Langevin equation with colored noise and on the fluctuation-dissipation theorems. The former accounts for the general memory and retarded effects of the frictional force. The presence of the memory effects influences the response of the disk to external random interactions, and it modifies the dynamical behavior of the disk, as well as the energy dissipation processes. The generalized Langevin equation of the motion of the disk in the vertical direction is studied numerically, and the vertical displacements, velocities, and luminosities of the stochastically perturbed disks are explicitly obtained for both the Schwarzschild and the Kerr cases. The power spectral distribution of the disk luminosity is also obtained. As a possible astrophysical application of the formalism we investigate the possibility that the intra-day variability of the active galactic nuclei may be due to the stochastic disk instabilities. The perturbations due to colored/nontrivially correlated noise induce a complicated disk dynamics, which could explain some astrophysical observational features related to disk variability. (orig.)

  9. Generalized Langevin equation with colored noise description of the stochastic oscillations of accretion disks (United States)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Leung, Chun Sing; Mocanu, Gabriela


    We consider a description of the stochastic oscillations of the general relativistic accretion disks around compact astrophysical objects interacting with their external medium based on a generalized Langevin equation with colored noise and on the fluctuation-dissipation theorems. The former accounts for the general memory and retarded effects of the frictional force. The presence of the memory effects influences the response of the disk to external random interactions, and it modifies the dynamical behavior of the disk, as well as the energy dissipation processes. The generalized Langevin equation of the motion of the disk in the vertical direction is studied numerically, and the vertical displacements, velocities, and luminosities of the stochastically perturbed disks are explicitly obtained for both the Schwarzschild and the Kerr cases. The power spectral distribution of the disk luminosity is also obtained. As a possible astrophysical application of the formalism we investigate the possibility that the intra-day variability of the active galactic nuclei may be due to the stochastic disk instabilities. The perturbations due to colored/nontrivially correlated noise induce a complicated disk dynamics, which could explain some astrophysical observational features related to disk variability.

  10. Photosystem II function and dynamics in three widely used Arabidopsis thaliana accessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Yin

    Full Text Available Columbia-0 (Col-0, Wassilewskija-4 (Ws-4, and Landsberg erecta-0 (Ler-0 are used as background lines for many public Arabidopsis mutant collections, and for investigation in laboratory conditions of plant processes, including photosynthesis and response to high-intensity light (HL. The photosystem II (PSII complex is sensitive to HL and requires repair to sustain its function. PSII repair is a multistep process controlled by numerous factors, including protein phosphorylation and thylakoid membrane stacking. Here we have characterized the function and dynamics of PSII complex under growth-light and HL conditions. Ws-4 displayed 30% more thylakoid lipids per chlorophyll and 40% less chlorophyll per carotenoid than Col-0 and Ler-0. There were no large differences in thylakoid stacking, photoprotection and relative levels of photosynthetic complexes among the three accessions. An increased efficiency of PSII closure was found in Ws-4 following illumination with saturation flashes or continuous light. Phosphorylation of the PSII D1/D2 proteins was reduced by 50% in Ws-4 as compared to Col-0 and Ler-0. An increase in abundance of the responsible STN8 kinase in response to HL treatment was found in all three accessions, but Ws-4 displayed 50% lower levels than Col-0 and Ler-0. Despite this, the HL treatment caused in Ws-4 the lagest extent of PSII inactivation, disassembly, D1 protein degradation, and the largest decrease in the size of stacked thylakoids. The dilution of chlorophyll-protein complexes with additional lipids and carotenoids in Ws-4 may represent a mechanism to facilitate lateral protein traffic in the membrane, thus compensating for the lack of a full complement of STN8 kinase. Nevertheless, additional PSII damage occurs in Ws-4, which exceeds the D1 protein synthesis capacity, thus leading to enhanced photoinhibition. Our findings are valuable for selection of appropriate background line for PSII characterization in Arabidopsis

  11. Static and dynamical properties of II-VI and III-V group binary solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, D S; Singh, D V


    In this paper, we extend to II-VI and III-V group binary solids of zinc blende (ZB) structure with conduction d-electrons the calculation of static and dynamical properties such as bulk modulus (B) and cohesive energy or total energy (E coh ) using the plasma oscillation theory of solids formalism already employed for ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors. The present method is not limited to tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors and ternary chalcopyrites, but can be used for all semiconducting compounds. We have applied an extended formula on ZB structured binary semiconductors and found better agreement with the experimental data as compared to the values evaluated by previous researchers. The bulk modulus and cohesive energy of ZB-type structure compounds exhibit a linear relationship when plotted on a log-log scale against the plasmon energy ℎω p (in eV), but fall on a straight line. The results for bulk modulus differ from experimental values by the following amounts: ZnS 0.36%, ZnSe 10%, ZnTe 0.62%, CdS 1.8%, CdSe 7.4% and CdTe 1.6%, AlP 2.6%, AlAs 5.3%, AlSb 4.0%, GaP 0%, AlAs 0%, AlS 4.4%, InP 0%, InAs 0% and InSb 2.1%; and the results for cohesive energy differ from experimental values by the following amounts: ZnS 0.16%, ZnSe 0.73%, ZnTe 0.6%, CdS 7.6%, CdSe 3.5%, CdTe 2.5%, AlP 2.0%, AlAs 3.0%, AlSb 11.1%, GaP 14.6%, AlAs 17.0%, AlSb 8.7%, InP 4.3%, InAs 5.5% and InSb 0.6%.

  12. SDMS-based Disk Encryption Method


    An, Dokjun; Ri, Myongchol; Choe, Changil; Han, Sunam; Kim, Yongmin


    We propose a disk encryption method, called secure disk mixed system (SDMS) in this paper, for data protection of disk storages such as USB flash memory, USB hard disk and CD/DVD. It is aimed to solve temporal and spatial limitation problems of existing disk encryption methods and to control security performance flexibly according to the security requirement of system. SDMS stores data by encrypting with different encryption key per sector and updates sector encryption keys each time data is ...

  13. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap


    We consider new versions of the two-center problem where the input consists of a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. We give exact and approximation algorithms for these versions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap


    We give exact and approximation algorithms for two-center problems when the input is a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in D intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Ruiz, M.; Aceves, H. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Astronomía, Apdo.Postal 106, Ensenada, B.C. 22860 México (Mexico); Chavez, C. E., E-mail: [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, 66451, México (Mexico)


    We study the effect of a massive planetesimal disk on the dynamical stability of the outer planets in a system representing the early solar system assuming, as has been suggested recently, that these planets were initially locked in a compact and multiresonant configuration as a result of gas-driven migration in a protoplanetary disk. The planetesimal disk is represented by an ensemble of 2000 lunar mass bodies for which the gravitational interaction is calculated self-consistently using the Mercury6.5 code. Several initial multiresonant configurations and planetesimal disk models are considered. Under such conditions a strong dynamical instability, manifested as a rapid giant planet migration and planetesimal disk dispersal, develops on a timescale of less than 40 Myr in most cases. Dynamical disk heating due to the gravitational interactions among planetesimals leads to more frequent interactions between the planetesimals and the ice giants, in comparison to models in which planetesimal–planetesimal interactions are neglected. The number of particles used to represent the planetesimal disk has implications for our results, and although our studies represent the first self-consistent calculations of unstable planetesimal-driven migration, our results point toward the need for using more realistic treatments of the planetesimal disk. Finally, in the framework of our model, we discuss the possible implications of our results on the early evolution of the solar system.

  16. Ultrafast disk lasers and amplifiers (United States)

    Sutter, Dirk H.; Kleinbauer, Jochen; Bauer, Dominik; Wolf, Martin; Tan, Chuong; Gebs, Raphael; Budnicki, Aleksander; Wagenblast, Philipp; Weiler, Sascha


    Disk lasers with multi-kW continuous wave (CW) output power are widely used in manufacturing, primarily for cutting and welding applications, notably in the automotive industry. The ytterbium disk technology combines high power (average and/or peak power), excellent beam quality, high efficiency, and high reliability with low investment and operating costs. Fundamental mode picosecond disk lasers are well established in micro machining at high throughput and perfect precision. Following the world's first market introduction of industrial grade 50 W picosecond lasers (TruMicro 5050) at the Photonics West 2008, the second generation of the TruMicro series 5000 now provides twice the average power (100 W at 1030 nm, or 60 W frequency doubled, green output) at a significantly reduced footprint. Mode-locked disk oscillators achieve by far the highest average power of any unamplified lasers, significantly exceeding the 100 W level in laboratory set-ups. With robust long resonators their multi-microjoule pulse energies begin to compete with typical ultrafast amplifiers. In addition, significant interest in disk technology has recently come from the extreme light laser community, aiming for ultra-high peak powers of petawatts and beyond.

  17. Magnetorotational Instability in Eccentric Disks (United States)

    Chan, Chi-Ho; Krolik, Julian H.; Piran, Tsvi


    Eccentric disks arise in such astrophysical contexts as tidal disruption events, but it is unknown whether the magnetorotational instability (MRI), which powers accretion in circular disks, operates in eccentric disks as well. We examine the linear evolution of unstratified, incompressible MRI in an eccentric disk orbiting a point mass. We consider vertical modes of wavenumber k on a background flow with uniform eccentricity e and vertical Alfvén speed {v}{{A}} along an orbit with mean motion n. We find two mode families, one with dominant magnetic components, the other with dominant velocity components. The former is unstable at {(1-e)}3 {f}2≲ 3, where f\\equiv {{kv}}{{A}}/n, and the latter at e ≳ 0.8. For f 2 ≲ 3, MRI behaves much like in circular disks, but the growth per orbit declines slowly with increasing e; for f 2 ≳ 3, modes grow by parametric amplification, which is resonant for 0 energy transport happen chiefly near pericenter, where orbital shear dominates magnetic tension.

  18. An Automated High Aspect Ratio Mesher for Computational Fluid Dynamics, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are routinely used while designing, analyzing, and optimizing air- and spacecraft. An important component of CFD...

  19. Modeling Unsteady Cavitation Effects and Dynamic Loads in Cryogenic Systems, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There currently are no analytical or CFD tools that can reliably predict unsteady cavitation dynamics in liquid rocket turbopumps. Cavitation effects, particularly...

  20. Adjoint sensitivity analysis of dynamic reliability models based on Markov chains - II: Application to IFMIF reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacuci, D. G.; Cacuci, D. G.; Balan, I.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.


    In Part II of this work, the adjoint sensitivity analysis procedure developed in Part I is applied to perform sensitivity analysis of several dynamic reliability models of systems of increasing complexity, culminating with the consideration of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) accelerator system. Section II presents the main steps of a procedure for the automated generation of Markov chains for reliability analysis, including the abstraction of the physical system, construction of the Markov chain, and the generation and solution of the ensuing set of differential equations; all of these steps have been implemented in a stand-alone computer code system called QUEFT/MARKOMAG-S/MCADJSEN. This code system has been applied to sensitivity analysis of dynamic reliability measures for a paradigm '2-out-of-3' system comprising five components and also to a comprehensive dynamic reliability analysis of the IFMIF accelerator system facilities for the average availability and, respectively, the system's availability at the final mission time. The QUEFT/MARKOMAG-S/MCADJSEN has been used to efficiently compute sensitivities to 186 failure and repair rates characterizing components and subsystems of the first-level fault tree of the IFMIF accelerator system. (authors)


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. H.; Watson, Dan M.; Manoj, P.; Forrest, W. J.; Sargent, B.; McClure, M. K.; Green, J. D.; Harrold, Samuel T.; Furlan, E.; Najita, J.; Espaillat, C.; Calvet, N.; Luhman, K. L.


    We present 5-40 μm Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of a collection of transitional disks, objects for which the spectral energy distribution (SED) indicates central clearings (holes) or gaps in the dust distribution, in the Chamaeleon I star-forming region. Like their counterparts in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region that we have previously observed, the spectra of these young objects (1-3 Myr old) reveal that the central clearings or gaps are very sharp-edged, and are surrounded by optically thick dusty disks similar to those around other classical T Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon I association. Also like the Taurus transitional disks, the Chamaeleon I transitional disks have extremely large depletion factors for small dust grains in their gaps, compared to the full accretion disks whose SEDs are represented by the median SED of Class II objects in the region. We find that the fraction of transitional disks in the Chamaeleon I cloud is somewhat higher than that in the Taurus-Auriga cloud, possibly indicating that the frequency of transitional disks, on average, increases with cluster age. We also find a significant correlation between the stellar mass and the radius of the outer edge of the gap. We discuss the disk structures implied by the spectra and the constraints they place on gap-formation mechanisms in protoplanetary disks.

  2. The role of intrinsic disorder and dynamics in the assembly and function of the type II secretion system. (United States)

    Gu, Shuang; Shevchik, Vladimir E; Shaw, Rosie; Pickersgill, Richard W; Garnett, James A


    Many Gram-negative commensal and pathogenic bacteria use a type II secretion system (T2SS) to transport proteins out of the cell. These exported proteins or substrates play a major role in toxin delivery, maintaining biofilms, replication in the host and subversion of host immune responses to infection. We review the current structural and functional work on this system and argue that intrinsically disordered regions and protein dynamics are central for assembly, exo-protein recognition, and secretion competence of the T2SS. The central role of intrinsic disorder-order transitions in these processes may be a particular feature of type II secretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gravitational Instabilities in a Young Protoplanetary Disk with Embedded Objects (United States)

    Desai, Karna M.; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Durisen, Richard H.


    dynamically similar to the radial migration of stars in the Milky Way (MW). In MW, the CR of transient spiral arms can cause radial migration of stars.Also, to determine the effects of a companion, I studied GIs in a circumbinary disk with a 0.2 M⊙ brown dwarf companion.

  4. Debris Disks And The Search For Life In The Universe (United States)

    Cataldi, Gianni


    Circumstellar debris disks are the extrasolar analogues of the asteroid belt and the Kuiper belt. These disks consist of comets and leftover planetesimals that continuously collide to produce copious amounts of circumstellar dust that can be observed as infrared excess or in resolved imaging. As an obvious outcome of the planet formation process, debris disks can help us constrain planet formation theories and learn about the history of our own solar system. Structures in the disks such as gaps or warps can hint at the presence of planets. Thus, the study of debris disks is an important branch of exoplanetary science. In this thesis, some aspects of debris disks are considered in detail. A handful of debris disks show observable amounts of gas besides the dust. One such case is the edge-on debris disk around the young A-type star β Pictoris, where the gas is thought to be of secondary origin, i.e. derived from the dust itself. By observing this gas, we can thus learn something about the dust, and therefore about the building blocks of planets. In paper I, spectrally resolved observations of C II emission with Herschel/HIFI are presented. The line profile is used to constrain the spatial distribution of carbon gas in the disk, which helps understanding the gas producing mechanism. In paper II, we analyse C II and O I emission detected with Herschel/PACS and find that the oxygen must be located in a relatively dense region, possibly similar to the CO clump seen by ALMA. An upcoming analysis of our ALMA C I observations will give us a clearer picture of the system. Another famous debris disk is found around the nearby, 440 Myr old A-star Fomalhaut. Its morphology is that of an eccentric debris belt with sharp edges, suggesting shaping by a planet. However, gas-dust interactions may result in a similar morphology without the need to invoke planets. We test this possibility in paper III by analysing non-detections of C II and O I emission by Herschel/PACS. We find that

  5. Making System Dynamics Cool II : New Hot Teaching and Testing Cases of Increasing Complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.


    This follow-up paper presents several actual cases for testing and teaching System Dynamics. The cases were developed between April 2009 and January 2010 for the Introductory System Dynamics courses at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. They can be used for teaching and testing

  6. Dust in protoplanetary disks: observations*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters L.B.F.M.


    Full Text Available Solid particles, usually referred to as dust, are a crucial component of interstellar matter and of planet forming disks surrounding young stars. Despite the relatively small mass fraction of ≈1% (in the solar neighborhood of our galaxy; this number may differ substantially in other galaxies that interstellar grains represent of the total mass budget of interstellar matter, dust grains play an important role in the physics and chemistry of interstellar matter. This is because of the opacity dust grains at short (optical, UV wavelengths, and the surface they provide for chemical reactions. In addition, dust grains play a pivotal role in the planet formation process: in the core accretion model of planet formation, the growth of dust grains from the microscopic size range to large, cm-sized or larger grains is the first step in planet formation. Not only the grain size distribution is affected by planet formation. Chemical and physical processes alter the structure and chemical composition of dust grains as they enter the protoplanetary disk and move closer to the forming star. Therefore, a lot can be learned about the way stars and planets are formed by observations of dust in protoplanetary disks. Ideally, one would like to measure the dust mass, the grain size distribution, grain structure (porosity, fluffiness, the chemical composition, and all of these as a function of position in the disk. Fortunately, several observational diagnostics are available to derive constrains on these quantities. In combination with rapidly increasing quality of the data (spatial and spectral resolution, a lot of progress has been made in our understanding of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks. An excellent review of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks can be found in Testi et al. (2014.

  7. Debris Disk Studies with the ngVLA (United States)

    Wilner, David; Matthews, Brenda; Matra, Luca; Kennedy, Grant; Wyatt, Mark; Greaves, Jane


    We discuss the potential for the ngVLA to advance understanding of debris disks around main-sequence stars. Since the dust-producing planetesimals that replenish these disks through collisions persist only in stable regions like belts and resonances, their locations and physical properties encode essential information about the formation of exoplanetary systems and their dynamical evolution. Observations at long millimeter wavelengths can play a special role because the large grains that dominate the emission are faithful tracers of the dust-producing planetesimals, unlike small grains seen at shorter wavelengths that are rapidly redistributed by stellar radiation and winds. Sensitive observations of debris disks with the ngVLA can (1) reveal structures resulting from otherwise inaccessible planets on wide orbits, (2) test collisional models using spectral slopes to constrain mm/cm grain size distributions, and (3) for select sources, probe the water content of exocomets using the 21 cm HI line.

  8. Adsorption of Zn(II) on the kaolinite(001) surfaces in aqueous environment: A combined DFT and molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiang; Kong, Xiang-Ping; Zhang, Bao-Hua; Wang, Juan, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Zn(II) adsorption on two types of neutral kaolinite(001) surfaces is investigated. • Surface “Ou” is found the preferred site for mono- and bi-dentate complexes. • Both Zn(II) and surface oxygen accept electrons from aqua oxygens. • Coupling of O 2p with Zn sp{sup 3}d{sup 2} (or sp{sup 3}) hybridization states is the bonding nature. - Abstract: Adsorption of Zn(II) on two types of neutral (001) surfaces of kaolinite, tetrahedral Si(t) and octahedral Al(o), was studied by means of DFT calculations and classical molecular dynamics simulations. The position and structure for both outer-sphere and mono-/bi-dentate inner-sphere complexes of Zn(II) in aqueous environment were examined, with binding energy and radial distribution function calculated. Outer-sphere complex on the Si(t) surface, monodentate inner-sphere complex of “O{sub u}” (surface oxygen with “upright” hydrogen) site and bidentate complex of “O{sub u}-O{sub u}” site of neighboring Al centers on the Al(o) surface are considered to be the dominant adsorption species. The outer-sphere complex is found six-coordinated with distorted octahedral geometry, while both the inner-sphere complexes exhibit the tetrahedral structure with coordination number of four. Hydrogen bonding interactions between oxygen or hydrogen of the kaolinite(001) surfaces and the aqua ligands of Zn(II) act as the key role for the structure and stability of adsorption complexes. Upon the Mulliken population analysis and partial density of states, both Zn(II) and surface oxygen accept electrons from aqua oxygens, and coupling of O 2p with the sp{sup 3}d{sup 2} or sp{sup 3} hybridization states of Zn(II) is the primary bonding nature of Zn(II) with oxygen in outer- and inner-sphere complexes, respectively.

  9. Black-Hole Accretion Disks --- Towards a New Paradigm --- (United States)

    Kato, S.; Fukue, J.; Mineshige, S.


    Part I: Concepts of Accretion Disks: Chap. 1: Introduction, 1.1 Accretion Energy - Historical Origin, { Accretion-Disk Paradigm - Active Universe, 1.3 Accretion-Powered Objects - Observational Reviews, 1.4 X-Ray Binaries and Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources, 1.5 Active Galactic Nuclei, 1.6 Present Paradigm, Chap. 2: Physical Processes Related to Accretion, 2.1 Eddington Luminosity, 2.2 Bondi Accretion, 2.3 Viscous Process, 2.4 Magnetic Instabilities, 2.5 Relativistic Effects Part II: Classical Picture: Chap. 3: Classical Models, 3.1 Viscous Accretion Disks, 3.2 Standard Disks, 3.3 Optically Thin Disks, 3.4 Accretion Disk Coronae, 3.5 Relativistic Standard Disks, 3.6 Relativistic Tori Chap. 4: Secular and Thermal Instabilities, 4.1 Secular Instability, 4.2 Thermal Instability, 4.3 Stability Examination on dot{M}-Σ and T-Σ Planes, 4.4 Mathematical Derivation of the Stability Criterion, Chap. 5: Dwarf-Nova Type Instability, 5.1 Thermal-Ionization Instability, 5.2 Time Evolution of Disks in X-Ray Novae Chap. 6: Observability of Relativistic Effects, 6.1 Ray Tracing, 6.2 Imaging - Black Hole Silhouette, 6.3 Spectroscopy - Continuum and Line, 6.4 Photometry - Light Curve Diagnosis, 6.5 Other Effects - Lensing and Jets, Part III: Modern Picture: Chap. 7: Equations to Construct Generalized Models, 7.1 Basic Equations and Importance of Advection, 7.2 One-Temperature Disks, 7.3 Two-Temperature Disks, 7.4 Time-Dependent Equations Chap. 8: Transonic Nature of Accretion Flows, 8.1 Topology of Black-Hole Accretion, 8.2 Regularity Condition at a Critical Radius, 8.3 Topology around the Critical Radius in Isothermal Disks, 8.4 Numerical Examples of Transonic Flows, 8.5 Transonic Flows with Standing Shocks Chap. 9: Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flows, 9.1 Advection-Dominated Accretion Flow, 9.2 Radial Structure of Advection-Dominated Flow, 9.3 Radiation Spectra of Advection-Dominated Flow, 9.4 Stability of Advection-Dominated Flow, 9.5 Multi-Dimensional Effects, Chap. 10: Slim

  10. 3D Modeling of Accretion Disks and Circumbinary Envelopes in Close Binaries (United States)

    Bisikalo, D.


    A number of observations prove the complex flow structure in close binary stars. The gas dynamic structure of the flow is governed by the stream of matter from the inner Lagrange point, the accretion disk, the circum-disk halo, and the circumbinary envelope. Observations reflect the current state of a binary system and for their interpretation one should consider the gas dynamics of flow patterns. Three-dimensional numerical gasdynamical modeling is used to study the gaseous flow structure and dynamics in close binaries. It is shown that the periodic variations of the positions of the disk and the bow shock formed when the inner parts of the circumbinary envelope flow around the disk result in variations in both the rate of angular-momentum transfer to the disk and the flow structure near the Lagrange point L3. All these factors lead to periodic ejections of matter from the accretion disk and circum-disk halo into the outer layers of the circumbinary envelope. The results of simulations are used to estimate the physical parameters of the circumbinary envelope, including 3D matter distribution in it, and the matter-flow configuration and dynamics. The envelope becomes optically thick for systems with high mass-exchange rates, M⊙=10-8 Msun/year, and has a significant influence on the binary's observed features. The uneven phase distributions of the matter and density variations due to periodic injections of matter into the envelope are important for interpretations of observations of CBSs.

  11. Study of thermodynamics and dynamics of removing Cu(II) by biosorption membrane of Penicillium biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xin [Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioprocess, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Su, Haijia, E-mail: [Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioprocess, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Tan, Tianwei; Xiao, Gang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioprocess, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)


    Based on the integration of biosorption and membrane-separation, a novel biosorption membrane with good mechanical property was prepared by immobilizing Penicillium biomass with cross-linked chitosan on fabric. The ability of the low cost biosorption membrane to remove Cu(II) ions from a solution was studied through batch and continuous experiments. Langmuir adsorption isotherm models were found to accurately fit the batch experimental data (R{sup 2} > 0.99) indicating that sorption was of monolayer-mode. The uptake of Cu(II) could reach 38 mg/g at its initial concentration of 200 mg/L in the solution. Continuous biosorption was investigated in a column and the effects of the height, flow rate and initial concentration of Cu(II) were studied. The Bed Depth Service Time model (BDST) was applied to simulate column adsorption data. The breakthrough time at different flow rates and initial concentrations was accurately predicted by the model (error < 8%). The uptake of Cu(II) could reach 38.3 mg/g at height 30 cm, flow rate 5 mL/min, initial concentration of Cu(II) 200 mg/L. The biosorption membrane was regenerated by washing with 0.05 mol/L solution of HCl, and breakthrough curves remained fairly unchanged after 10 cycles of adsorption-desorption.

  12. The dynamics of magnetic vortices in type II superconductors with pinning sites studied by the time dependent Ginzburg–Landau model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter, E-mail: [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Richard Petersens Plads, Bldg. 324, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby DK-2800 (Denmark); Pedersen, Niels Falsig [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Richard Petersens Plads, Bldg. 324, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby DK-2800 (Denmark); Ögren, Magnus [School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro SE-70182 (Sweden)


    We investigate the dynamics of magnetic vortices in type II superconductors with normal state pinning sites using the Ginzburg–Landau equations. Simulation results demonstrate hopping of vortices between pinning sites, influenced by external magnetic fields and external currents. The system is highly nonlinear and the vortices show complex nonlinear dynamical behaviour.

  13. Gas dynamics in the inner few AU around the Herbig B[e] star MWC297. Indications of a disk wind from kinematic modeling and velocity-resolved interferometric imaging (United States)

    Hone, Edward; Kraus, Stefan; Kreplin, Alexander; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Weigelt, Gerd; Harries, Tim; Kluska, Jacques


    Aims: Circumstellar accretion disks and outflows play an important role in star formation. By studying the continuum and Brγ-emitting region of the Herbig B[e] star MWC297 with high-spectral and high-spatial resolution we aim to gain insight into the wind-launching mechanisms in young stars. Methods: We present near-infrared AMBER (R = 12 000) and CRIRES (R = 100 000) observations of the Herbig B[e] star MWC297 in the hydrogen Brγ-line. Using the VLTI unit telescopes, we obtained a uv-coverage suitable for aperture synthesis imaging. We interpret our velocity-resolved images as well as the derived two-dimensional photocenter displacement vectors, and fit kinematic models to our visibility and phase data in order to constrain the gas velocity field on sub-AU scales. Results: The measured continuum visibilities constrain the orientation of the near-infrared-emitting dust disk, where we determine that the disk major axis is oriented along a position angle of 99.6 ± 4.8°. The near-infrared continuum emission is 3.6 × more compact than the expected dust-sublimation radius, possibly indicating the presence of highly refractory dust grains or optically thick gas emission in the inner disk. Our velocity-resolved channel maps and moment maps reveal the motion of the Brγ-emitting gas in six velocity channels, marking the first time that kinematic effects in the sub-AU inner regions of a protoplanetary disk could be directly imaged. We find a rotation-dominated velocity field, where the blue- and red-shifted emissions are displaced along a position angle of 24° ± 3° and the approaching part of the disk is offset west of the star. The visibility drop in the line as well as the strong non-zero phase signals can be modeled reasonably well assuming a Keplerian velocity field, although this model is not able to explain the 3σ difference that we measure between the position angle of the line photocenters and the position angle of the dust disk. We find that the fit can be

  14. Ultrafast superresolution fluorescence imaging with spinning disk confocal microscope optics. (United States)

    Hayashi, Shinichi; Okada, Yasushi


    Most current superresolution (SR) microscope techniques surpass the diffraction limit at the expense of temporal resolution, compromising their applications to live-cell imaging. Here we describe a new SR fluorescence microscope based on confocal microscope optics, which we name the spinning disk superresolution microscope (SDSRM). Theoretically, the SDSRM is equivalent to a structured illumination microscope (SIM) and achieves a spatial resolution of 120 nm, double that of the diffraction limit of wide-field fluorescence microscopy. However, the SDSRM is 10 times faster than a conventional SIM because SR signals are recovered by optical demodulation through the stripe pattern of the disk. Therefore a single SR image requires only a single averaged image through the rotating disk. On the basis of this theory, we modified a commercial spinning disk confocal microscope. The improved resolution around 120 nm was confirmed with biological samples. The rapid dynamics of micro-tubules, mitochondria, lysosomes, and endosomes were observed with temporal resolutions of 30-100 frames/s. Because our method requires only small optical modifications, it will enable an easy upgrade from an existing spinning disk confocal to a SR microscope for live-cell imaging. © 2015 Hayashi and Okada. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (

  15. Binary pulsars as probes of a Galactic dark matter disk (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea; Zavala, Jesús; Blas, Diego


    As a binary pulsar moves through a wind of dark matter particles, the resulting dynamical friction modifies the binary's orbit. We study this effect for the double disk dark matter (DDDM) scenario, where a fraction of the dark matter is dissipative and settles into a thin disk. For binaries within the dark disk, this effect is enhanced due to the higher dark matter density and lower velocity dispersion of the dark disk, and due to its co-rotation with the baryonic disk. We estimate the effect and compare it with observations for two different limits in the Knudsen number (Kn). First, in the case where DDDM is effectively collisionless within the characteristic scale of the binary (Kn ≫ 1) and ignoring the possible interaction between the pair of dark matter wakes. Second, in the fully collisional case (Kn ≪ 1), where a fluid description can be adopted and the interaction of the pair of wakes is taken into account. We find that the change in the orbital period is of the same order of magnitude in both limits. A comparison with observations reveals good prospects to probe currently allowed DDDM models with timing data from binary pulsars in the near future. We finally comment on the possibility of extending the analysis to the intermediate (rarefied gas) case with Kn ∼ 1.

  16. CRAB-II: a computer program to predict hydraulics and scram dynamics of LMFBR control assemblies and its validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.; Baker, L.A.; Willis, J.M.; Engel, F.C.; Nee, D.Y.


    This paper presents an analytical method, the computer code CRAB-II, which calculates the hydraulics and scram dynamics of LMFBR control assemblies of the rod bundle type and its validation against prototypic data obtained for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) primary control assemblies. The physical-mathematical model of the code is presented, followed by a description of the testing of prototypic CRBR control assemblies in water and sodium to characterize, respectively, their hydraulic and scram dynamics behavior. Comparison of code predictions against the experimental data are presened in detail; excellent agreement was found. Also reported are experimental data and empirical correlations for the friction factor of the absorber bundle in the entire flow range (laminar to turbulent) which represent an extension of the state-of-the-art, since only fuel and blanket assemblies friction factor correlations were previously reported in the open literature

  17. Compressible Kolmogorov flow in strongly coupled dusty plasma using molecular dynamics and computational fluid dynamics. II. A comparative study (United States)

    Gupta, Akanksha; Ganesh, Rajaraman; Joy, Ashwin


    In this paper, we perform comparative studies of compressible Kolmogorov flow in the two-dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasma by means of atomistic or molecular dynamics (MD) and continuum or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. Recently, using MD simulation, generation of molecular shear heat at the atomistic level is shown to reduce the average coupling strength of the system and destruct the vortical structures. To suppress the molecular heat, a novel method of a thermostat, namely, the configurational thermostat is introduced by which the microscale heat generated by the shear flow has shown to be thermostatted out efficiently without compromising the large scale vortex dynamics. While using a configurational thermostat, it has been found that the growth rate obtained from both the studies is the same with the marginal difference. To make the comparison with the continuum fluid model, we perform the same study using the generalised hydrodynamic model, wherein molecular shear heating phenomena is completely absent, however, viscous dissipation is there at the macroscale level. For this purpose, an Advanced Generalised SPECTral Code has been developed to study the linear and nonlinear aspects of the Kolmogorov flow in the incompressible and compressible limit for viscoelastic fluids. All the phenomenological parameters used in CFD simulations have been calculated from MD simulations. Code is benchmarked against the eigen value solver in the linear regime. Linear growth-rates calculated from the phenomenological fluid model is found to be close to that obtained from MD simulation for the same set of input parameters. The transition from laminar to turbulent flow has been found at a critical value of Reynolds number Rc in both the macroscopic (CFD) and microscopic (MD) simulation. Rc in MD is smaller than the one obtained by CFD simulation. In the nonlinear regime of CFD, the mode becomes unstable and vortex formation happens earlier than in MD. The

  18. Molecular dynamics simulations of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B: II. Substrate-enzyme interactions and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.j.; Frimurer, T. M.; Andersen, J. N.


    Molecular dynamics simulations of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) complexed with the phosphorylated peptide substrate DADEpYL and the free substrate have been conducted to investigate 1) the physical forces involved in substrate-protein interactions, 2) the importance of enzyme...... for catalysis. Analysis of the individual enzyme-substrate interaction energies revealed that mainly electrostatic forces contribute to binding. Indeed, calculation of the electrostatic field of the enzyme reveals that only the field surrounding the binding pocket is positive, while the remaining protein...

  19. [Total cervical disk replacement--implant-specific approaches: keel implant (Prodisc-C intervertebral disk prosthesis)]. (United States)

    Korge, Andreas; Siepe, Christoph J; Heider, Franziska; Mayer, H Michael


    Dynamic intervertebral support of the cervical spine via an anterolateral approach using a modular artificial disk prosthesis with end-plate fixation by central keel fixation. Cervical median or mediolateral disk herniations, symptomatic cervical disk disease (SCDD) with anterior osseous, ligamentous and/or discogenic narrowing of the spinal canal. Cervical fractures, tumors, osteoporosis, arthrogenic neck pain, severe facet degeneration, increased segmental instability, ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), severe osteopenia, acute and chronic systemic, spinal or local infections, systemic and metabolic diseases, known implant allergy, pregnancy, severe adiposity (body mass index > 36 kg/m2), reduced patient compliance, alcohol abuse, drug abuse and dependency. Exposure of the anterior cervical spine using the minimally invasive anterolateral approach. Intervertebral fixation of retainer screws. Intervertebral diskectomy. Segmental distraction with vertebral body retainer and vertebral distractor. Removal of end-plate cartilage. Microscopically assisted decompression of spinal canal. Insertion of trial implant to determine appropriate implant size, height and position. After biplanar image intensifier control, drilling for keel preparation using drill guide and drill bit, keel-cut cleaner to remove bone material from the keel cut, radiologic control of depth of the keel cut using the corresponding position gauge. Implantation of original implant under lateral image intensifier control. Removal of implant inserter. Functional postoperative care and mobilization without external support, brace not used routinely, soft brace possible for 14 days due to postoperative pain syndromes. Implantation of 100 cervical Prodisc-C disk prostheses in 78 patients (average age 48 years) at a single center. Clinical and radiologic follow-up 24 months postoperatively. Significant improvement based on visual analog scale and Neck Disability Index. Radiologic

  20. Planetary systems in polarized light: Debris disk observations and instrumentation (United States)

    Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.

    Understanding planet formation is one of the major challenges of modern astronomy. Polarimetry is a powerful tool with which we can confront this challenge. In particular, polarimetric observations can be useful for imaging debris disks and characterizing exoplanet atmospheres. With that in mind, this thesis has been constructed with two main aspects: i) observational studies of two debris disk systems, beta Pic and HD 157587, using the Gemini Planet Imager and ii) the characterization and testing of a new type of diffraction grating, called a polarization grating, that we plan to use for future observations of exoplanet atmospheres. The Gemini Planet Imager is a high-contrast imager that includes a polarimetry mode designed to image circumstellar disks. Here we detail the development of new data analysis techniques that reduce systematics and noise in processed GPI data. We apply these techniques to observations of the beta Pic and HD 157587 debris disks and then fit each disk image to a geometric disk model. The beta Pic disk model's morphology cannot be explained by interactions with the planet beta Pic b, and the presence of a second planet could be invoked to explain the discrepancy. In the case of HD 157587, the disk model's geometric centre is offset from the location of the star, which could be explained by a perturbing planet. Characterization of the planets' interactions with their debris disks is a critical method to gain more information about these two systems. The second component of this thesis focuses on polarization gratings, thin film optical devices that can simultaneously act as polarizing beam splitters and as spectral dispersive elements. Moreover, they can be designed for high diffraction efficiency across a broad wavelength range. These features make polarization gratings useful for many types of astronomical observations. We have carried out laboratory and on-sky test observations using a polarization grating optimized for visible

  1. Continuation Methods and Non-Linear/Non-Gaussian Estimation for Flight Dynamics, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose herein to augment current NASA spaceflight dynamics programs with algorithms and software from three domains. First, we use parameter continuation methods...

  2. The Role of the Cooling Prescription for Disk Fragmentation: Numerical Convergence and Critical Cooling Parameter in Self-gravitating Disks (United States)

    Baehr, Hans; Klahr, Hubert


    Protoplanetary disks fragment due to gravitational instability when there is enough mass for self-gravitation, described by the Toomre parameter, and when heat can be lost at a rate comparable to the local dynamical timescale, described by {t}{{c}}=β {{{Ω }}}-1. Simulations of self-gravitating disks show that the cooling parameter has a rough critical value at {β }{{crit}}=3. When below {β }{{crit}}, gas overdensities will contract under their own gravity and fragment into bound objects while otherwise maintaining a steady state of gravitoturbulence. However, previous studies of the critical cooling parameter have found dependences on simulation resolution, indicating that the simulation of self-gravitating protoplanetary disks is not so straightforward. In particular, the simplicity of the cooling timescale tc prevents fragments from being disrupted by pressure support as temperatures rise. We alter the cooling law so that the cooling timescale is dependent on local surface density fluctuations, which is a means of incorporating optical depth effects into the local cooling of an object. For lower resolution simulations, this results in a lower critical cooling parameter and a disk that is more stable to gravitational stresses, suggesting that the formation of large gas giants planets in large, cool disks is generally suppressed by more realistic cooling. At our highest resolution, however, the model becomes unstable to fragmentation for cooling timescales up to β =10.

  3. Disks around young stellar objects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Star formation; young stellar objects; circumstellar disks; exoplanets. Abstract. By 1939, when Chandrasekhar's classic monograph on the theory of Stellar Structure was published, although the need for recent star formation was fully acknowledged, no one had yet recognized an object that could be called a star ...

  4. Three types of galaxy disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohlen, M.; Erwin, P.; Trujillo, I.; Beckman, J. E.; Knapen, JH; Mahoney, TJ; Vazdekis, A


    We present our new scheme for the classification of radial stellar surface brightness profiles for disk galaxies. We summarize the current theoretical attempts to understand their origin and give an example of an application by comparing local galaxies with their counterparts at high redshift (z

  5. Disk Operating System User's Guide (United States)


    This document serves the purpose of bringing together in one place most of the information a user needs to use the DDP-516 Disk Operating System, (DOS). DOS is a core resident, one user, console-oriented operating system which allows the user to cont...

  6. High-NaCl intake impairs dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow in ANG II-infused rats. (United States)

    Saeed, Aso; Dibona, Gerald F; Marcussen, Niels; Guron, Gregor


    The aim of this study was to investigate dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) in ANG II-infused rats and the influence of high-NaCl intake. Sprague-Dawley rats received ANG II (250 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) sc) or saline vehicle (sham) for 14 days after which acute renal clearance experiments were performed during thiobutabarbital anesthesia. Rats (n = 8-10 per group) were either on a normal (NNa; 0.4% NaCl)- or high (HNa; 8% NaCl)-NaCl diet. Separate groups were treated with 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (tempol; 1 M in drinking water). Transfer function analysis from arterial pressure to RBF in the frequency domain was used to examine the myogenic response (MR; 0.06-0.09 Hz) and the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism (TGF; 0.03-0.06 Hz). MAP was elevated in ANG II-infused rats compared with sham groups (P < 0.05). RBF in ANG II HNa was reduced vs. sham NNa and sham HNa (6.0 ± 0.3 vs. 7.9 ± 0.3 and 9.1 ± 0.3 ml·min(-1)·g kidney wt(-1), P < 0.05). transfer function gain in ANG II HNa was significantly elevated in the frequency range of the MR (1.26 ± 0.50 dB, P < 0.05 vs. all other groups) and in the frequency range of the TGF (-0.02 ± 0.50 dB, P < 0.05 vs. sham NNa and sham HNa). Gain values in the frequency range of the MR and TGF were significantly reduced by tempol in ANG II-infused rats on HNa diet. In summary, the MR and TGF components of RBF autoregulation were impaired in ANG II HNa, and these abnormalities were attenuated by tempol, suggesting a pathogenetic role for superoxide in the impaired RBF autoregulatory response.

  7. Intercalative interaction of asymmetric copper(II) complex with DNA: experimental, molecular docking, molecular dynamics and TDDFT studies. (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Deng, Suwen; Huang, Jianyin; Lu, Yanmei; Le, Xueyi; Zheng, Wenxu


    The intercalative interactions of small molecules with DNA are important in a variety of biological processes including mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and chemotherapy. A comprehensive research protocol including experiments and calculations was employed to investigate the intercalative interaction between metallointercalator copper(II) complex and DNA. The intercalative binding mode has been validated by UV spectra, fluorescence spectra, CD spectra and viscosity measurements. The classical molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to investigate the intercalative interaction between asymmetric copper(II) complex and DNA. An analytical method was proposed to simulate the dynamically changing absorption spectra of intercalator/DNA system. According to the established model, the changing process of the electronic absorption spectra for intercalator/DNA system can be predicted accurately. A rational explanation for the change law of absorption spectra has been proposed. Moreover, the analyses of the frontier orbital reveal that the red shift of the absorption spectra is due to the increase of π orbital energy caused by the coupling of the π orbital of the intercalated ligand with the π orbital of DNA. This cause of red shift of spectra is completely different from the previous inference. All these insights are of crucial importance for correctly analyzing the absorption spectra of intercalative interaction, as well as for explaining the macroscopic phenomena observed in experiments at the molecular level. © 2013.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Eiji; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Masahiko; Iguchi, Satoru, E-mail:, E-mail: [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)


    We reprocess the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) long-baseline science verification data taken toward HL Tauri. Assuming the observed gaps are opened up by currently forming, unseen bodies, we estimate the mass of such hypothetical bodies based on the following two approaches: the Hill radius analysis and a more elaborate approach developed from the angular momentum transfer analysis in gas disks. For the former, the measured gap widths are used for estimating the mass of the bodies, while for the latter, the measured gap depths are utilized. We show that their masses are comparable to or less than the mass of Jovian planets. By evaluating Toomre’s gravitational instability (GI) condition and cooling effect, we find that the GI might be a mechanism to form the bodies in the outer region of the disk. As the disk might be gravitationally unstable only in the outer region of the disk, inward planetary migration would be needed to construct the current architecture of the observed disk. We estimate the gap-opening mass and show that type II migration might be able to play such a role. Combining GIs with inward migration, we conjecture that all of the observed gaps may be a consequence of bodies that might have originally formed at the outer part of the disk, and have subsequently migrated to the current locations. While ALMA’s unprecedented high spatial resolution observations can revolutionize our picture of planet formation, more dedicated observational and theoretical studies are needed to fully understand the HL Tauri images.

  9. Accretion disk viscosity and internal waves in disks (United States)

    Huang, Min


    Recently, Vishniac, Jin and Diamond suggested that internal waves in accretion disks play a critical role in generating magnetic fields, and consequently are indirectly responsible for angular momentum transfer in thin, conducting, and non-self-gravitational disk systems. A project in which we will construct a quantitative model of the internal wave spectrum in accretion disks is started. It includes two aspects of work. The physical properties of the waves in a thin, non-self-gravitational, and non-magnetized accretion disk with realistic vertical structure is cataloged and examined. Besides the low frequency internal waves discovered by Vishniac and Diamond, it was found that sound waves with low frequency and low axisymmetry (with small absolute value of m) are capable of a driving dynamo because they are (1) well confined in a layer with thickness 2(absolute value of m)H where H is the disk scale height; (2) highly dispersive so they may survive the strong dissipation caused by the coherent nonlinear interaction their high frequency partners experience; and (3) elliptically polarized because they are confined in the z-direction. As a first step towards constructing a quantitative theory of this dynamo effect, a framework of calculating resonant nonlinear interaction among waves in disk is established. We are developing a numerical code which will compute the steady spectrum of the wave field in this framework. For simplicity, we only include the low frequency internal waves suggested by Vishniac and Diamond in the present stage. In the vicinity of the static state, the time step whose length is determined by the evolution of the modes with the largest amplitudes is too large for the modes with smaller amplitudes and overshooting occurs. Through nonlinear coupling, this overshooting is amplified and appears as a numerical instability affecting the evolution of the large amplitude modes. Shorter time steps may delay the appearance of the instability but not cure

  10. Torques Induced by Scattered Pebble-flow in Protoplanetary Disks (United States)

    Benítez-Llambay, Pablo; Pessah, Martin E.


    Fast inward migration of planetary cores is a common problem in the current planet formation paradigm. Even though dust is ubiquitous in protoplanetary disks, its dynamical role in the migration history of planetary embryos has not been assessed. In this Letter, we show that the scattered pebble-flow induced by a low-mass planetary embryo leads to an asymmetric dust-density distribution that is able to exert a net torque. By analyzing a large suite of multifluid hydrodynamical simulations addressing the interaction between the disk and a low-mass planet on a fixed circular orbit, and neglecting dust feedback onto the gas, we identify two different regimes, gas- and gravity-dominated, where the scattered pebble-flow results in almost all cases in positive torques. We collect our measurements in a first torque map for dusty disks, which will enable the incorporation of the effect of dust dynamics on migration into population synthesis models. Depending on the dust drift speed, the dust-to-gas mass ratio/distribution, and the embryo mass, the dust-induced torque has the potential to halt inward migration or even induce fast outward migration of planetary cores. We thus anticipate that dust-driven migration could play a dominant role during the formation history of planets. Because dust torques scale with disk metallicity, we propose that dust-driven outward migration may enhance the occurrence of distant giant planets in higher-metallicity systems.

  11. Biochemical and molecular dynamic simulation analysis of a weak coiled coil association between kinesin-II stalks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harinath Doodhi

    Full Text Available DEFINITION: Kinesin-2 refers to the family of motor proteins represented by conserved, heterotrimeric kinesin-II and homodimeric Osm3/Kif17 class of motors. BACKGROUND: Kinesin-II, a microtubule-based anterograde motor, is composed of three different conserved subunits, named KLP64D, KLP68D and DmKAP in Drosophila. Although previous reports indicated that coiled coil interaction between the middle segments of two dissimilar motor subunits established the heterodimer, the molecular basis of the association is still unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we present a detailed heterodimeric association model of the KLP64D/68D stalk supported by extensive experimental analysis and molecular dynamic simulations. We find that KLP64D stalk is unstable, but forms a weak coiled coil heteroduplex with the KLP68D stalk when coexpressed in bacteria. Local instabilities, relative affinities between the C-terminal stalk segments, and dynamic long-range interactions along the stalks specify the heterodimerization. Thermal unfolding studies and independent simulations further suggest that interactions between the C-terminal stalk fragments are comparatively stable, whereas the N-terminal stalk reversibly unfolds at ambient temperature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results obtained in this study suggest that coiled coil interaction between the C-terminal stalks of kinesin-II motor subunits is held together through a few hydrophobic and charged interactions. The N-terminal stalk segments are flexible and could uncoil reversibly during a motor walk. This supports the requirement for a flexible coiled coil association between the motor subunits, and its role in motor function needs to be elucidated.

  12. Biochemical and Molecular Dynamic Simulation Analysis of a Weak Coiled Coil Association between Kinesin-II Stalks (United States)

    Doodhi, Harinath; Jana, Swadhin C.; Devan, Pavithra; Mazumdar, Shyamalava; Ray, Krishanu


    Definition Kinesin-2 refers to the family of motor proteins represented by conserved, heterotrimeric kinesin-II and homodimeric Osm3/Kif17 class of motors. Background Kinesin-II, a microtubule-based anterograde motor, is composed of three different conserved subunits, named KLP64D, KLP68D and DmKAP in Drosophila. Although previous reports indicated that coiled coil interaction between the middle segments of two dissimilar motor subunits established the heterodimer, the molecular basis of the association is still unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we present a detailed heterodimeric association model of the KLP64D/68D stalk supported by extensive experimental analysis and molecular dynamic simulations. We find that KLP64D stalk is unstable, but forms a weak coiled coil heteroduplex with the KLP68D stalk when coexpressed in bacteria. Local instabilities, relative affinities between the C-terminal stalk segments, and dynamic long-range interactions along the stalks specify the heterodimerization. Thermal unfolding studies and independent simulations further suggest that interactions between the C-terminal stalk fragments are comparatively stable, whereas the N-terminal stalk reversibly unfolds at ambient temperature. Conclusions/Significance Results obtained in this study suggest that coiled coil interaction between the C-terminal stalks of kinesin-II motor subunits is held together through a few hydrophobic and charged interactions. The N-terminal stalk segments are flexible and could uncoil reversibly during a motor walk. This supports the requirement for a flexible coiled coil association between the motor subunits, and its role in motor function needs to be elucidated. PMID:23029351

  13. Optimization of the Processing of Mo Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotsch, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stepinski, Dominique [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakhtang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harvey, James [NorthStar Medical Technologies, LLC, Madison, WI (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The objective of this work is to decrease the processing time for irradiated disks of enriched Mo for the production of 99Mo. Results are given for the dissolution of nonirradiated Mo disks, optimization of the process for large-scale dissolution of sintered disks, optimization of the removal of the main side products (Zr and Nb) from dissolved targets, and dissolution of irradiated Mo disks.

  14. Static structure of active Brownian hard disks (United States)

    de Macedo Biniossek, N.; Löwen, H.; Voigtmann, Th; Smallenburg, F.


    We explore the changes in static structure of a two-dimensional system of active Brownian particles (ABP) with hard-disk interactions, using event-driven Brownian dynamics simulations. In particular, the effect of the self-propulsion velocity and the rotational diffusivity on the orientationally-averaged fluid structure factor is discussed. Typically activity increases structural ordering and generates a structure factor peak at zero wave vector which is a precursor of motility-induced phase separation. Our results provide reference data to test future statistical theories for the fluid structure of active Brownian systems. This manuscript was submitted for the special issue of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter associated with the Liquid Matter Conference 2017.

  15. Growing and moving planets in disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan


    Planets form in disks that are commonly found around young stars. The intimate relationship that exists between planet and disk can account for a lot of the exotic extrasolar planetary systems known today. In this thesis we explore disk-planet interaction using numerical hydrodynamical simulations.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M. M.; Martin, E. L.


    Many different system types retrogradely precess, and retrograde precession could be from a tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk. However, a source that causes and maintains disk tilt is unknown. In this work, we show that accretion disks can tilt due to a force called lift. Lift results from differing gas stream supersonic speeds over and under an accretion disk. Because lift acts at the disk's center of pressure, a torque is applied around a rotation axis passing through the disk's center of mass. The disk responds to lift by pitching around the disk's line of nodes. If the gas stream flow ebbs, then lift also ebbs and the disk attempts to return to its original orientation. To first approximation, lift does not depend on magnetic fields or radiation sources but does depend on the mass and the surface area of the disk. Also, for disk tilt to be initiated, a minimum mass transfer rate must be exceeded. For example, a 10 -11 M sun disk around a 0.8 M sun compact central object requires a mass transfer rate greater than ∼ 8 x 10 -11 M sun yr -1 , a value well below the known mass transfer rates in cataclysmic variable dwarf novae systems that retrogradely precess and exhibit negative superhumps in their light curves and a value well below mass transfer rates in protostellar-forming systems.

  17. Dynamic quantum crystallography: lattice-dynamical models refined against diffraction data. II. Applications to L-alanine, naphthalene and xylitol. (United States)

    Hoser, Anna A; Madsen, Anders Ø


    In the first paper of this series [Hoser & Madsen (2016). Acta Cryst. A72, 206-214], a new approach was introduced which enables the refinement of frequencies of normal modes obtained from ab initio periodic computations against single-crystal diffraction data. In this contribution, the performance of this approach is tested by refinement against data in the temperature range from 23 to 205 K on the molecular crystals of L-alanine, naphthalene and xylitol. The models, which are lattice-dynamical models derived at the Γ point of the Brillouin zone, are able to describe the atomic vibrations of L-alanine and naphthalene to a level where the residual densities are similar to those obtained from the independent atom model. For the more flexible molecule xylitol, larger deviations are found. Hydrogen ADPs (anisotropic displacement parameters) derived from the models are in similar or better agreement with neutron diffraction results than ADPs obtained by other procedures. The heat capacity calculated after normal mode refinement for naphthalene is in reasonable agreement with the heat capacity obtained from calorimetric measurements (to less than 1 cal mol -1  K -1 below 300 K), with deviations at higher temperatures indicating anharmonicity. Standard uncertainties and correlation of the refined parameters have been derived based on a Monte Carlo procedure. The uncertainties are quite small and probably underestimated.

  18. Dynamics of the membrane-cytoskeleton interface in MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation. (United States)

    Bretou, Marine; Kumari, Anita; Malbec, Odile; Moreau, Hélène D; Obino, Dorian; Pierobon, Paolo; Randrian, Violaine; Sáez, Pablo J; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria


    Antigen presentation refers to the ability of cells to show MHC-associated determinants to T lymphocytes, leading to their activation. MHC class II molecules mainly present peptide-derived antigens that are internalized by endocytosis in antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Here, we describe how the interface between cellular membranes and the cytoskeleton regulates the various steps that lead to the presentation of exogenous antigens on MHC class II molecules in the two main types of APCs: dendritic cells (DCs) and B lymphocytes. This includes antigen uptake, processing, APC migration, and APC-T cell interactions. We further discuss how the interaction between APC-specific molecules and cytoskeleton elements allows the coordination of antigen presentation and cell migration in time and space. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman


    In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (~15–20cm) of a single bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final Ki parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion study

  20. Dynamical Simulation of Recycling and Particle Fueling in TJ-II Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Bruna, D.; Ferreira, J. A.; Tabares, F. L.; Castejon, F.; Guasp, J.


    With the aim of improving the calculation tools for transport analysis in TJ-II plasmas, in this work we analyze the simplified model for a kinetic equation that ASTRA uses to calculate the neutral particle distribution in the plasma. Next, we act on the boundary conditions for this kinetic equation (particularly on the neutral density in the plasma boundary) so we can simulate the recycling conditions for the TJ-II in a simple way. With the resulting transport models we can easily analyze the sensibility of these plasmas to the cold gas puffing depending on the recycling conditions. These transport models evidence the problem of density control in the TJ-II. Likewise, we estimate the importance of recycling in the plasmas heated by energetic neutral beam injection. The experimentally observed increments in density when the energetic neutrals are injected would respond, according to the calculations here presented, to a large increment of the neutrals influx that cannot be explained by the beam itself. (Author) 22 refs

  1. Studies on femtosecond fluorescence dynamics of photosystem II Particle complex at low temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Xiao; He, Jun Fang; Cai, Xia; Peng Jun Fang; Kuang Ting Yun


    In order to understanding the diversity of energy transfer in PS II at different temperatures, PS II particle complex purified from spinach was investigated with femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in the case of excitation 507 nm at 83 K, 160 K, 273 K. The data were analyzed by Gauss analysis and fluorescence decay time- fitting. Some results were achieved. (1) Increase of the temperature results in a broadening of the fluorescence emission spectra due to the temperature-dependent expressions for nonradiative transitions between two electronic states. (2) There are at least several characteristic Chl molecules exist in PS II particle complex, i.e. Chl b/sub 639//sup 640/, Chl b/sub 640//sup 645/, Chl a/sub 660//sup 663/, Chl a/sub 667//sup 668/, Chl a/sub 673//sup 676/, Chl a/sub 680 //sup 681/, Chl a/sub 680/681//sup 682/, Chl a/sub 684,685//sup 668 /689/, Chl a/sub 688//sup 698/, (Chl a/b/sub a//sup e/: a represents the peak of absorption, e represents the peak of emission). (3) Though the ...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffell, Paul C.; MacFadyen, Andrew I.; Farris, Brian D.; Haiman, Zoltan; D'Orazio, Daniel J.


    Most standard descriptions of Type II migration state that massive, gap-opening planets must migrate at the viscous drift rate. This is based on the idea that the disk is separated into an inner and outer region and gas is considered unable to cross the gap. In fact, gas easily crosses the gap on horseshoe orbits, nullifying this necessary premise which would set the migration rate. In this work, it is demonstrated using highly accurate numerical calculations that the actual migration rate is dependent on disk and planet parameters, and can be significantly larger or smaller than the viscous drift rate. In the limiting case of a disk much more massive than the secondary, the migration rate saturates to a constant that is sensitive to disk parameters and is not necessarily of the order of the viscous rate. In the opposite limit of a low-mass disk, the migration rate decreases linearly with disk mass. Steady-state solutions in the low disk mass limit show no pile-up outside the secondary's orbit, and no corresponding drainage of the inner disk

  3. High-Contrast Near-Infrared Imaging Polarimetry of the Protoplanetary Disk around RY Tau (United States)

    Takami, Michihiro; Karr, Jennifer L.; Hashimoto, Jun; Kim, Hyosun; Wisenewski, John; Henning, Thomas; Grady, Carol; Kandori, Ryo; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Kudo, Tomoyuki; hide


    We present near-infrared coronagraphic imaging polarimetry of RY Tau. The scattered light in the circumstellar environment was imaged at H-band at a high resolution (approx. 0.05) for the first time, using Subaru-HiCIAO. The observed polarized intensity (PI) distribution shows a butterfly-like distribution of bright emission with an angular scale similar to the disk observed at millimeter wavelengths. This distribution is offset toward the blueshifted jet, indicating the presence of a geometrically thick disk or a remnant envelope, and therefore the earliest stage of the Class II evolutionary phase. We perform comparisons between the observed PI distribution and disk models with: (1) full radiative transfer code, using the spectral energy distribution (SED) to constrain the disk parameters; and (2) monochromatic simulations of scattered light which explore a wide range of parameters space to constrain the disk and dust parameters. We show that these models cannot consistently explain the observed PI distribution, SED, and the viewing angle inferred by millimeter interferometry. We suggest that the scattered light in the near-infrared is associated with an optically thin and geometrically thick layer above the disk surface, with the surface responsible for the infrared SED. Half of the scattered light and thermal radiation in this layer illuminates the disk surface, and this process may significantly affect the thermal structure of the disk.

  4. Small-scale topology of solar atmosphere dynamics : II : granulation, K2v grains and waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekzema, N.M.; Rutten, R.J.


    We continue studying the small-scale topology of dynamical phenomena in the quiet-sun internetwork atmosphere throug statistical estimation of the co-location probability of different fine-structure elements and wave modes.In this paper we chart spatial alignments between the granular brig tness

  5. Comparative study of normal and branched alkane monolayer films adsorbed on a solid surface. II. Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Ann Dorrit; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Diama, A.


    on very different time scales: 1-40 ps (DCS) and 0.1-4 ns (HFBS). The MD simulations were done on corresponding time scales and were used to interpret the neutron spectra. The authors found that the dynamics of the two monolayers are qualitatively similar on the respective time scales...

  6. Reversible structural transformations in a Co(II)-based 2D dynamic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The selective water uptake over alcohols along with visible colour change demonstrates the potential of the present compound in bio-alcohol purification. Keywords. Metal-organic frameworks; coordination polymers; selective uptake; dynamic framework. 1. Introduction. The limited natural resources like gas and oil have.

  7. Critical Analysis of Underground Coal Gasification Models. Part II: Kinetic and Computational Fluid Dynamics Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Żogała


    Originality/value: This paper presents state of art in the field of coal gasification modeling using kinetic and computational fluid dynamics approach. The paper also presents own comparative analysis (concerned with mathematical formulation, input data and parameters, basic assumptions, obtained results etc. of the most important models of underground coal gasification.

  8. Instabilities at planetary gap edges in 3D self-gravitating disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Min-Kai


    Full Text Available Numerical simulations are presented to study the stability of gaps opened by giant planets in 3D self-gravitating disks. In weakly self-gravitating disks, a few vortices develop at the gap edge and merge on orbital time-scales. The result is one large but weak vortex with Rossby number -0.01. In moderately self-gravitating disks, more vortices develop and their merging is resisted on dynamical time-scales. Self-gravity can sustain multi-vortex configurations, with Rossby number -0.2 to -0.1, over a time-scale of order 100 orbits. Self-gravity also enhances the vortex vertical density stratification, even in disks with initial Toomre parameter of order 10. However, vortex formation is suppressed in strongly self-gravitating disks and replaced by a global spiral instability associated with the gap edge which develops during gap formation.

  9. When may unstable gravitating disk be considered an infinitely thin gravitating disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyachenko, V.L.; Fridman, A.M. (AN SSSR, Irkutsk. Sibirskij Inst. Zemnogo Magnetizma Ionosfery i Rasprostraneniya Radiovoln; AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)


    It is shown that the model of an infinitely thin gravitating disk is valid for investigation of its stability only if a massive halo is present. Conditions for main parameters of the disk and halo are obtained when, firstly, most unstable wavelengths are much larger than the disk thickness (approximation of an infinitely thin disk) and, secondary, the contribution of a halo to the perturbed gravitational potential can be neglected. Density distributions of the disk and halo are obtained.

  10. MIT miniaturized disk bend test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harling, O.K.; Lee, M.; Sohn, D.S.; Kohse, G.; Lau, C.W.


    A miniaturized disk bend test (MDBT) using transmission electron microscopy specimens for the determination of various mechanical properties is being developed at MIT. Recent progress in obtaining strengths and ductilities of highly irradiated metal alloys is reviewed. Other mechanical properties can also be obtained using the MDBT approach. Progress in fatigue testing and in determination of the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature is reviewed briefly. 11 figures

  11. Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurements in Diagnostics of Turbocharged Marine Internal Combustion Engines Part II Dynamic Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczewski Zbigniew


    Full Text Available The second part of the article describes the technology of marine engine diagnostics making use of dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. Little-known achievements of Prof. S. Rutkowski of the Naval College in Gdynia (now: Polish Naval Academy in this area are presented. A novel approach is proposed which consists in the use of the measured exhaust gas temperature dynamics for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the enthalpy flux of successive pressure pulses of the exhaust gas supplying the marine engine turbocompressor. General design assumptions are presented for the measuring and diagnostic system which makes use of a sheathed thermocouple installed in the engine exhaust gas manifold. The corrected thermal inertia of the thermocouple enables to reproduce a real time-history of exhaust gas temperature changes.

  12. Relativistic three-particle dynamical equations: II. Application to the trinucleon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S.K.; Tomio, L.


    The contribution of relativistic dynamics on the neutron-deuteron scattering length and triton binding energy is calculated employing five sets tri nucleon potential models and four types of three-dimensional relativistic three-body equations suggested in the preceding paper. The relativistic correction to binding energy may vary a lot and even change sign depending on the relativistic formulation employed. The deviations of these observables from those obtained in nonrelativistic models follow the general universal trend of deviations introduced by off- and on-shell variations of two- and three-nucleon potentials in a nonrelativistic model calculation. Consequently, it will be difficult to separate unambiguously the effect of off-and on-shell variations of two and three-nucleon potentials on low-energy three-nucleon observables from the effect of relativistic dynamics. (author)

  13. Regression of lumbar disk herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Yu Evzikov


    Full Text Available Compression of the spinal nerve root, giving rise to pain and sensory and motor disorders in the area of its innervation is the most vivid manifestation of herniated intervertebral disk. Different treatment modalities, including neurosurgery, for evolving these conditions are discussed. There has been recent evidence that spontaneous regression of disk herniation can regress. The paper describes a female patient with large lateralized disc extrusion that has caused compression of the nerve root S1, leading to obvious myotonic and radicular syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging has shown that the clinical manifestations of discogenic radiculopathy, as well myotonic syndrome and morphological changes completely regressed 8 months later. The likely mechanism is inflammation-induced resorption of a large herniated disk fragment, which agrees with the data available in the literature. A decision to perform neurosurgery for which the patient had indications was made during her first consultation. After regression of discogenic radiculopathy, there was only moderate pain caused by musculoskeletal diseases (facet syndrome, piriformis syndrome that were successfully eliminated by minimally invasive techniques. 

  14. Fullerenes and disk-fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deza, M; Dutour Sikirić, M; Shtogrin, M I


    A geometric fullerene, or simply a fullerene, is the surface of a simple closed convex 3-dimensional polyhedron with only 5- and 6-gonal faces. Fullerenes are geometric models for chemical fullerenes, which form an important class of organic molecules. These molecules have been studied intensively in chemistry, physics, crystallography, and so on, and their study has led to the appearance of a vast literature on fullerenes in mathematical chemistry and combinatorial and applied geometry. In particular, several generalizations of the notion of a fullerene have been given, aiming at various applications. Here a new generalization of this notion is proposed: an n-disk-fullerene. It is obtained from the surface of a closed convex 3-dimensional polyhedron which has one n-gonal face and all other faces 5- and 6-gonal, by removing the n-gonal face. Only 5- and 6-disk-fullerenes correspond to geometric fullerenes. The notion of a geometric fullerene is therefore generalized from spheres to compact simply connected two-dimensional manifolds with boundary. A two-dimensional surface is said to be unshrinkable if it does not contain belts, that is, simple cycles consisting of 6-gons each of which has two neighbours adjacent at a pair of opposite edges. Shrinkability of fullerenes and n-disk-fullerenes is investigated. Bibliography: 87 titles

  15. Dynamical Monte Carlo study of equilibrium polymers. II. The role of rings


    Wittmer, JP; Schoot, van der, PPAM Paul; Milchev, A; Barrat, JL


    We investigate by means of a number of different dynamical Monte Carlo simulation methods the self-assembly of equilibrium polymers in dilute, semidilute and concentrated solutions under good-solvent conditions. In our simulations, both linear chains and closed loops compete for the monomers, expanding on earlier work in which loop formation was disallowed. Our findings show that the conformational properties of the linear chains, as well as the shape of their size distribution function, are ...

  16. Polarimetric Imaging of Large Cavity Structures in the Pre-transitional Protoplanetary Disk Around PDS 70: Observations of the Disk (United States)

    Hashimoto, J.; Dong, R.; Kudo, T.; Honda, M.; McClure, M. K.; Zhu, Z.; Muto, T.; Wisniewski, J.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; hide


    We present high-resolution H-band polarized intensity (FWHM=0".1:14AU) and L'-band imaging data(FWHM= 0".11:15 AU) of the circumstellar disk around the weak-lined T Tauri star PDS 70 in Centaurus at a radial distance of 28 AU (0".2) up to 210 AU (1".5). In both images, a giant inner gap is clearly resolved for the first time, and the radius of the gap is approx.70 AU. Our data show that the geometric center of the disk shifts by approx.6 AU toward the minor axis. We confirm that the brown dwarf companion candidate to the north of PDS 70 is a background star based on its proper motion. As a result of spectral energy distribution fitting by Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling, we infer the existence of an optically thick inner disk at a few AU. Combining our observations and modeling, we classify the disk of PDS 70 as a pre-transitional disk. Furthermore, based on the analysis of L'-band imaging data, we put an upper limit of approx.30 to approx.50 M(sub J) on the mass of companions within the gap. Taking into account the presence of the large and sharp gap, we suggest that the gap could be formed by dynamical interactions of sub-stellar companions or multiple unseen giant planets in the gap. Key words: planetary systems - polarization - protoplanetary disks - stars: individual (PDS 70) - stars: pre-main sequence.

  17. Approximate but accurate quantum dynamics from the Mori formalism. II. Equilibrium time correlation functions (United States)

    Montoya-Castillo, Andrés; Reichman, David R.


    The ability to efficiently and accurately calculate equilibrium time correlation functions of many-body condensed phase quantum systems is one of the outstanding problems in theoretical chemistry. The Nakajima-Zwanzig-Mori formalism coupled to the self-consistent solution of the memory kernel has recently proven to be highly successful for the computation of nonequilibrium dynamical averages. Here, we extend this formalism to treat symmetrized equilibrium time correlation functions for the spin-boson model. Following the first paper in this series [A. Montoya-Castillo and D. R. Reichman, J. Chem. Phys. 144, 184104 (2016)], we use a Dyson-type expansion of the projected propagator to obtain a self-consistent solution for the memory kernel that requires only the calculation of normally evolved auxiliary kernels. We employ the approximate mean-field Ehrenfest method to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. Via comparison with numerically exact results for the correlation function Cz z(t ) =Re ⟨σz(0 ) σz(t ) ⟩ , we show that the current scheme affords remarkable boosts in accuracy and efficiency over bare Ehrenfest dynamics. We further explore the sensitivity of the resulting dynamics to the choice of kernel closures and the accuracy of the initial canonical density operator.

  18. Effect of Piers Shape on the Dynamic Structural Responses of Prestressed Concrete Bridge: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fadhil Naser


    Full Text Available Pier of bridge is usually used as a general term for any type of substructure located between horizontal spans and foundations. Piers give vertical supports for spans at intermediate points and perform two main functions. The objective of this study is to inspect the effect of piers shape on the dynamic structural performance by adopting theoretical dynamic analysis. The results of dynamic analysis of 25 bridges models show that the maximum value of natural frequency is equal to 5.64Hz in two circles piers bridge model. Therefore, this type of model has good stiffness and bearing capacity. The two square piers model, the one circle pier model, and the two circles piers model appear good stiffness because of the natural frequencies (5.30Hz, 5.52Hz, and 5.64Hz are more than the maximum forced frequencies (4.52Hz, 5.45Hz, and 4.52Hz respectively. According to the comparison between all models results, the two circles piers model has the higher stiffness because of this model has the maximum value of natural frequency (5.64Hz and it is more than all forced vibration frequencies of all others models. Therefore, this study recommends that using the bridge model of two circles piers in the bridges construction that consists of three spans (30m+40m+30m with section of box girder.

  19. Effect of Piers Shape on the Dynamic Structural Responses of Prestressed Concrete Bridge: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fadhil Naser


    Full Text Available Pier of bridge is usually used as a general term for any type of substructure located between horizontal spans and foundations. Piers give vertical supports for spans at intermediate points and perform two main functions. The objective of this study is to inspect the effect of piers shape on the dynamic structural performance by adopting theoretical dynamic analysis. The results of dynamic analysis of 25 bridges models show that the maximum value of natural frequency is equal to 5.64Hz in two circles piers bridge model. Therefore, this type of model has good stiffness and bearing capacity. The two square piers model, the one circle pier model, and the two circles piers model appear good stiffness because of the natural frequencies (5.30Hz, 5.52Hz, and 5.64Hz are more than the maximum forced frequencies (4.52Hz, 5.45Hz, and 4.52Hz respectively. According to the comparison between all models results, the two circles piers model has the higher stiffness because of this model has the maximum value of natural frequency (5.64Hz and it is more than all forced vibration frequencies of all others models. Therefore, this study recommends that using the bridge model of two circles piers in the bridges construction that consists of three spans (30m+40m+30m with section of box girder.

  20. Impurity Dynamics under Neutral Beam Injection at TJ-II (simulation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Fuentes, C.; Liniers, M.


    In this study the simulations of plasma transport under NBI for TJ-II, previously performed, are extended. Since than a considerable number of important modifications have been introduced in the model: change of magnetic configuration, use of experimental initial profiles, expansion of the Data base from NBI calculations and, mainly, a detailed handling of impurities with inclusion of sputtering effects. Moreover there is now a particular emphasis on the analysis of the conditions for discharge collapse and on the possible effects of single beam injection. This analysis of impurity behaviour with sputtering shows that in the expected usual cases there is no radioactive collapse and that if the recycling coefficients remain lower the unity it is always possible to find a strategy for external gas puffing leading to a stationary state, with densities below the limit and efficient NBI absorption (>50%). The radioactive collapse can appear either at high densities (central value higher than 1.4x10''20 m''3), excessive influx of impurities (i. e. with sputtering rates higher than twice the expected values) o for insufficient injected beam power (less than 45 kW). The present study analyses only the 100 4 4 6 4 configuration of TJ-II, but future works will start a systematic scan of configuration using this same model. (Author) 12 Refs


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantó, J.; Sánchez-Salcedo, F. J.; Esquivel, A.; Raga, A. C.


    We develop an analytical model for the accretion and gravitational drag on a point mass that moves hypersonically in the midplane of a gaseous disk with a Gaussian vertical density stratification. Such a model is of interest for studying the interaction between a planet and a protoplanetary disk, as well as the dynamical decay of massive black holes in galactic nuclei. The model assumes that the flow is ballistic, and gives fully analytical expressions for both the accretion rate onto the point mass and the gravitational drag it suffers. The expressions are further simplified by taking the limits of a thick and of a thin disk. The results for the thick disk reduce correctly to those for a uniform density environment. We find that for a thin disk (small vertical scaleheight compared to the gravitational radius), the accretion rate is proportional to the mass of the moving object and to the surface density of the disk, while the drag force is independent of the velocity of the object. The gravitational deceleration of the hypersonic perturber in a thin disk was found to be independent of its parameters (i.e., mass or velocity) and depends only on the surface mass density of the disk. The predictions of the model are compared to the results of three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, with reasonable agreement.

  2. Higher order explicit solutions for nonlinear dynamic model of column buckling using variational approach and variational iteration algorithm-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheri, Saman; Nikkar, Ali [University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    This paper deals with the determination of approximate solutions for a model of column buckling using two efficient and powerful methods called He's variational approach and variational iteration algorithm-II. These methods are used to find analytical approximate solution of nonlinear dynamic equation of a model for the column buckling. First and second order approximate solutions of the equation of the system are achieved. To validate the solutions, the analytical results have been compared with those resulted from Runge-Kutta 4th order method. A good agreement of the approximate frequencies and periodic solutions with the numerical results and the exact solution shows that the present methods can be easily extended to other nonlinear oscillation problems in engineering. The accuracy and convenience of the proposed methods are also revealed in comparisons with the other solution techniques.

  3. Electron beam dynamics in the long-pulse, high-current DARHT-II linear induction accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abeyta, Epifanio O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aragon, Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Archuleta, Rita [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cook, Gerald [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dalmas, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Esquibel, Kevin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gallegos, Robert A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garnett, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harrison, James F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Jeffrey B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jacquez, Edward B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mccuistian, Brian T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Montoya, Nicholas A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nath, Subrato [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nielsen, Kurt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oro, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prichard, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowton, Lawrence [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sanchez, Manolito [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scarpetti, Raymond [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schauer, Martin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seitz, Gerald [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schulze, Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bender, Howard A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Broste, William B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlson, Carl A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Frayer, Daniel K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Douglas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tom, C Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hughes, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anaya, Richard [LLNL; Caporaso, George [LLNL; Chambers, Frank [LLNL; Chen, Yu - Jiuan [LLNL; Falabella, Steve [LLNL; Guethlein, Gary [LLNL; Raymond, Brett [LLNL; Richardson, Roger [LLNL; Trainham, C [NSTEC/STL; Watson, Jim [LLNL; Weir, John [LLNL; Genoni, Thomas [VOSS; Toma, Carsten [VOSS


    The DARHT-II linear induction accelerator (LIA) now accelerates 2-kA electron beams to more than 17 MeV. This LIA is unique in that the accelerated current pulse width is greater than 2 microseconds. This pulse has a flat-top region where the final electron kinetic energy varies by less than 1% for more than 1.5 microseconds. The long risetime of the 6-cell injector current pulse is 0.5 {micro}s, which can be scraped off in a beam-head cleanup zone before entering the 68-cell main accelerator. We discuss our experience with tuning this novel accelerator; and present data for the resulting beam transport and dynamics. We also present beam stability data, and relate these to previous stability experiments at lower current and energy.

  4. Electron beam dynamics in the long-pulse, high-current DARHT-II linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekdahl, Carl A.; Abeyta, Epifanio O.; Aragon, Paul; Archuleta, Rita; Cook, Gerald; Dalmas, Dale; Esquibel, Kevin; Gallegos, Robert A.; Garnett, Robert; Harrison, James F.; Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Jacquez, Edward B.; Mccuistian, Brian T.; Montoya, Nicholas A.; Nath, Subrato; Nielsen, Kurt; Oro, David; Prichard, Benjamin; Rowton, Lawrence; Sanchez, Manolito; Scarpetti, Raymond; Schauer, Martin M.; Seitz, Gerald; Schulze, Martin; Bender, Howard A.; Broste, William B.; Carlson, Carl A.; Frayer, Daniel K.; Johnson, Douglas E.; Tom, C.Y.; Williams, John; Hughes, Thomas; Anaya, Richard; Caporaso, George; Chambers, Frank; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Falabella, Steve; Guethlein, Gary; Raymond, Brett; Richardson, Roger; Trainham, C.; Watson, Jim; Weir, John; Genoni, Thomas; Toma, Carsten


    The DARHT-II linear induction accelerator (LIA) now accelerates 2-kA electron beams to more than 17 MeV. This LIA is unique in that the accelerated current pulse width is greater than 2 microseconds. This pulse has a flat-top region where the final electron kinetic energy varies by less than 1% for more than 1.5 microseconds. The long risetime of the 6-cell injector current pulse is 0.5 (micro)s, which can be scraped off in a beam-head cleanup zone before entering the 68-cell main accelerator. We discuss our experience with tuning this novel accelerator; and present data for the resulting beam transport and dynamics. We also present beam stability data, and relate these to previous stability experiments at lower current and energy.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hirohito; Chiba, Masashi


    We investigate the dynamical effects of dark matter subhalos on the structure and evolution of a galactic disk, using the semi-analytic method that includes approximated and empirical relations as achieved in detailed numerical simulations of the cold dark matter model. We calculate the upper limit for the size of a galactic disk at a specific redshift z, based on the orbital properties of subhalos characterized by their pericentric distances from the center of a host halo. We find that this possibly largest size of a disk as determined by the smallest pericentric distances of subhalos shows the characteristic properties, which are basically in agreement with an observed galactic disk at low and high z. Namely, it is found that a massive disk can have a larger size than a less massive one, because of its stability against the destruction effect of subhalos. Also, with fixed mass, the size of a galactic disk at low z can be larger than that at high z, reflecting the orbital evolution of subhalos with respect to a host halo. These results suggest that the presence and structure of a galactic disk may be dynamically limited by the interaction with dark matter substructures, especially at high z.

  6. Photosystem II cycle activity and alternative electron transport in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under dynamic light conditions and nitrogen limitation. (United States)

    Wagner, Heiko; Jakob, Torsten; Lavaud, Johann; Wilhelm, Christian


    Alternative electron sinks are an important regulatory mechanism to dissipate excessively absorbed light energy particularly under fast changing dynamic light conditions. In diatoms, the cyclic electron transport (CET) around Photosystem II (PS II) is an alternative electron transport pathway (AET) that contributes to avoidance of overexcitation under high light illumination. The combination of nitrogen limitation and high-intensity irradiance regularly occurs under natural conditions and is expected to force the imbalance between light absorption and the metabolic use of light energy. The present study demonstrates that under N limitation, the amount of AET and the activity of CETPSII in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were increased. Thereby, the activity of CETPSII was linearly correlated with the amount of AET rates. It is concluded that CETPSII significantly contributes to AET in P. tricornutum. Surprisingly, CETPSII was found to be activated already at the end of the dark period under N-limited conditions. This coincided with a significantly increased degree of reduction of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool. The analysis of the macromolecular composition of cells of P. tricornutum under N-limited conditions revealed a carbon allocation in favor of carbohydrates during the light period and their degradation during the dark phase. A possible linkage between the activity of CETPSII and degree of reduction of the PQ pool on the one side and the macromolecular changes on the other is discussed.

  7. Structure, dynamics, and energetics of the primary photochemistry of photosystem II of oxygenic photosynthesis. (United States)

    Diner, Bruce A; Rappaport, Fabrice


    Recent progress in two-dimensional and three-dimensional electron and X-ray crystallography of Photosystem II (PSII) core complexes has led to major advances in the structural definition of this integral membrane protein complex. Despite the overall structural and kinetic similarity of the PSII reaction centers to their purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterial homologues, the different cofactors and subtle differences in their spatial arrangement result in significant differences in the energetics and mechanism of primary charge separation. In this review we discuss some of the recent spectroscopic, structural, and mutagenic work on the primary and secondary electron transfer reactions in PSII, stressing what is experimentally novel, what new insights have appeared, and where questions of interpretation remain.

  8. Acute superior oblique palsy in monkeys: II. Changes in dynamic properties during vertical saccades. (United States)

    Shan, Xiaoyan; Ying, Howard S; Tian, Jing; Quaia, Christian; Walker, Mark F; Optican, Lance M; Tamargo, Rafael J; Zee, David S


    To investigate vertical and torsional eye motion during and immediately after vertical saccades with acute acquired superior oblique palsy (SOP) in monkeys. The trochlear nerve was severed intracranially in two rhesus monkeys. After surgery, the paretic eye was patched for 6 to 9 days, and then binocular viewing was allowed. Three-axis eye movements (horizontal, vertical, and torsion) were measured with binocular, dual search coils. Eye movements were recorded before surgery and then beginning 2 to 3 days after surgery during 20 degrees vertical saccades over a +/-20 degrees horizontal and vertical range. The main findings were: (1) Saccade amplitude in the paretic eye (PE) was smaller than that of the normal eye (NE), especially for downward saccades with the PE in adduction; (2) vertical drift was backward after upward saccades with the PE in adduction or abduction, onward after downward saccades with the PE in adduction, but backward for downward saccades with the PE in abduction, drift time constants averaged 35 ms; (3) peak dynamic blip intrasaccadic torsion increased (relative extorsion), the most for upward saccades with the PE in abduction; (4) postsaccadic torsional drift increased (relative intorsion), the most for downward saccades with the PE in adduction; and (5) the peak velocity-amplitude relationship in vertical saccades was little affected, but the ratio between the peak velocity of the two eyes was a consistent indicator of the palsy. Rhesus monkeys with acute acquired SOP show characteristic changes in vertical and torsional movements during and immediately after vertical saccades that help define the ocular motor signature of denervation of the SO muscle. These dynamic changes were largely unrelated to the changes in static alignment over time, suggesting that static and dynamic disturbances in SOP are influenced by separate central mechanisms.

  9. [Value of transcutaneous staged dynamic oximetry of stage II arteritis of the leg]. (United States)

    Grard, C; Desmytterre, J; Vinckier, L; Hatron, P Y; Roux, J P; Warembourg, H; Devulder, B


    The clinical and prognostic value of transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurements at rest has been established in Leriche Stage III and IV occlusive peripheral arterial disease but is controversial in Stage II because there is an overlap of transcutaneous pO2 (Tc pO2) values with those of normal subjects. The authors report the results of Tc pO2 measurements during exercise testing in a group of patients with Stage II occlusive arterial disease of the lower limbs. Seventy-eight patients with an average age of 53 years (range 40 to 65 years) whose claudication perimeter and site of pain had been carefully assessed and who had also recently undergone Doppler arterial examination and arteriography and 35 control subjects with an average age of 54 years (range 45 to 70 years) were studied. The Tc pO2 was continuously measured with a multimodular Kontron Supermon at 4 different sites simultaneously: precordium (reference probe), thigh, calf and foot in the dorsal recumbent position after 30 minutes rest, during a standardised exercise stress test at 50 watts and during the recovery phase. The results were expressed as ratio of tissue oxygenation (RTO): thigh, calf or foot Tc pO2/precordial Tc pO2 X 100 in order to take into account the patients cardiorespiratory status and adaptation to exercise. The RTO in normal subjects remained at the upper limits of the resting value throughout exercise and then returned slowly to basal values during the recovery phase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Light detection and ranging measurements of wake dynamics. Part II: two-dimensional scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trujillo, Juan-José; Bingöl, Ferhat; Larsen, Gunner Chr.


    the instantaneous transversal wake position which is quantitatively compared with the prediction of the Dynamic Wake Meandering model. The results, shown for two 10-min time series, suggest that the conjecture of the wake behaving as a passive tracer is a fair approximation; this corroborates and expands...... the results of one-dimensional measurements already presented in the first part of this paper. Consequently, it is now possible to separate the deterministic and turbulent parts of the wake wind field, thus enabling capturing the wake in the meandering frame of reference. The results correspond, qualitatively...

  11. Lagrangian methods in plasma dynamics. II - Construction of Lagrangians for plasmas (United States)

    Dougherty, J. P.


    Consideration of the construction of suitable Lagrangian functions for the dynamics of a cold plasma in such a way as to retain the relativistically covariant formalism. In one method, this is achieved by the introduction of a set of three variables which label the world lines of the particles. A second method results in a Clebsch-type representation. Sturrock's relativistic Lagrangian and Low's hot plasma Lagrangian are also briefly discussed in the context of the present work. The behavior of the canonical stress tensor is considered. The applicability of many of the general results in part I (Dougherty, 1970) is ensured by establishing the existence of the Lagrangian function.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popescu


    Full Text Available Through the present paper, the author presents the results of the dynamic analysis with MSC ADAMS of the mechanism with a crimping device with 12 tightening cams, designed and used in the technological process of assembly of the indigenous electrical detonators. In this sense, the mechanism with multiple cams is considered a mechanical system and is treated as an assembly of rigid bodies connected by mechanical connections and elastic elements. For shaping and simulation of the mechanism with multiple cams using ADAMS program, the author got through the following stages: construction of the pattern, its testing and simulation, validation, finishing, parametrization, optimization of the pattern.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondin, John M.


    We investigate the flip-flop instability observed in two-dimensional planar hydrodynamic simulations of Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion in the case of an accreting object with a radius much smaller than the nominal accretion radius, as one would expect in astrophysically relevant situations. Contrary to previous results with larger accretors, accretion from a homogenous medium onto a small accretor is characterized by a robust, quasi-Keplerian accretion disk. For gas with a ratio of specific heats of 5/3, such a disk remains locked in one direction for a uniform ambient medium. The accretion flow is more variable for gas with a ratio of specific heats of 4/3, with more dynamical interaction of the disk flow with the bow shock leading to occasional flips in the direction of rotation of the accretion disk. In both cases the accretion of angular momentum is determined by the flow pattern behind the accretion shock rather than by the parameters of the upstream flow.

  14. A unified stochastic formulation of dissipative quantum dynamics. II. Beyond linear response of spin baths (United States)

    Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Cao, Jianshu


    We use the "generalized hierarchical equation of motion" proposed in Paper I [C.-Y. Hsieh and J. Cao, J. Chem. Phys. 148, 014103 (2018)] to study decoherence in a system coupled to a spin bath. The present methodology allows a systematic incorporation of higher-order anharmonic effects of the bath in dynamical calculations. We investigate the leading order corrections to the linear response approximations for spin bath models. Two kinds of spin-based environments are considered: (1) a bath of spins discretized from a continuous spectral density and (2) a bath of localized nuclear or electron spins. The main difference resides with how the bath frequency and the system-bath coupling parameters are distributed in an environment. When discretized from a continuous spectral density, the system-bath coupling typically scales as ˜1 /√{NB } where NB is the number of bath spins. This scaling suppresses the non-Gaussian characteristics of the spin bath and justifies the linear response approximations in the thermodynamic limit. For the nuclear/electron spin bath models, system-bath couplings are directly deduced from spin-spin interactions and do not necessarily obey the 1 /√{NB } scaling. It is not always possible to justify the linear response approximations in this case. Furthermore, if the spin-spin Hamiltonian is highly symmetrical, there exist additional constraints that generate highly non-Markovian and persistent dynamics that is beyond the linear response treatments.

  15. The AquaDEB project: Physiological flexibility of aquatic animals analysed with a generic dynamic energy budget model (phase II) (United States)

    Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; van der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.


    This second special issue of the Journal of Sea Research on development and applications of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory concludes the European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011). In this introductory paper we summarise the progress made during the running time of this 5 years' project, present context for the papers in this volume and discuss future directions. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB were (i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs and fish) to environmental variability within the context of DEB theory for metabolic organisation, and (ii) to evaluate the inter-relationships between different biological levels (individual, population, ecosystem) and temporal scales (life cycle, population dynamics, evolution). AquaDEB phase I focussed on quantifying bio-energetic processes of various aquatic species ( e.g. molluscs, fish, crustaceans, algae) and phase II on: (i) comparing of energetic and physiological strategies among species through the DEB parameter values and identifying the factors responsible for any differences in bioenergetics and physiology; (ii) considering different scenarios of environmental disruption (excess of nutrients, diffuse or massive pollution, exploitation by man, climate change) to forecast effects on growth, reproduction and survival of key species; (iii) scaling up the models for a few species from the individual level up to the level of evolutionary processes. Apart from the three special issues in the Journal of Sea Research — including the DEBIB collaboration (see vol. 65 issue 2), a theme issue on DEB theory appeared in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (vol 365, 2010); a large number of publications were produced; the third edition of the DEB book appeared (2010); open-source software was substantially expanded (over 1000 functions); a large open-source systematic collection of ecophysiological data and DEB parameters has been set up; and a series of DEB

  16. Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory. (United States)

    Abramowicz, Marek A; Fragile, P Chris


    This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks), Shakura-Sunyaev (thin) disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs). After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs).

  17. Stochastic charging of dust grains in protoplanetary disks (United States)

    Sharmin Ashrafi, Khandaker; Esparza, Samuel; Xiang, Chuchu; Matthews, Lorin; Carballido, Augusto; Hyde, Truell


    Micron-sized dust grains are abundant in the early stages of protoplanetary disks. Not only do such solid particles provide the seeds for planetesimal formation through collisional growth and collective effects, they also modify the overall ionization levels of the surrounding plasma through the accumulation of charge. If the local dust density is large enough that charge is removed from the nebular gas through deposition on grain surfaces, magnetic fields can detach from the gas making the MRI process inoperative. For highly porous dust aggregates, MRI quenching can become even more efficient since porous aggregates accumulate charge more efficiently than do compact spherical grains having the same mass. The primary goal of this work is to develop a numerical model of dust coagulation and charging in a magnetized protoplanetary disk to answer the question: What role does the porosity and/or electrical charge state of dust aggregates play in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) structure of protoplanetary disks? The collisional charging of a grain is affected by its surface area and morphology. Here we compare the electron and ion currents incident on micron and submicron aggregate grains made of spherical monomers to the currents incident on spherical grains of equivalent mass. The electrons and ions are absorbed on the dust grain surface at random times; as a result charge fluctuates stochastically. We calculate the average charge and charge probability distribution for (i) aggregates composed of monomers of 10 nm, 20 nm and 50 nm monomers with an effective aggregate radius of 0.1 m, and (ii) aggregates consisting of up to 100 monomers with monomer radius of 0.1 micron. The implications of our results for non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics in protoplanetary disks are briefly discussed in terms of the effect of disk ionization fraction and chemical networks.

  18. A study of the cavity polariton under strong excitation:dynamics and nonlinearities in II-VI micro-cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Markus


    This work contains an experimental study of the photoluminescence dynamics of cavity polaritons in strong coupling micro-cavities based on II-VI semiconductor compounds. The small exciton size and the strong exciton binding energy in these materials allowed us to study the strong coupling regime between photon and exciton up to high excitation densities, exploring the linear and non-linear emission regimes. Our main experimental techniques are picosecond time-resolved and angular photoluminescence spectroscopy. In the linear regime and for a negative photon-exciton detuning, we observe a suppression of the polariton relaxation by the emission of acoustic phonons leading to a non-equilibrium polariton distribution on the lower branch. This 'bottleneck' effect, which has already been described for polaritons in bulk semiconductors, results from the pronounced photon like character of the polaritons near k(parallel) = 0 in this configuration. At high excitation densities, non-linear relaxation processes, namely final state stimulation of the relaxation and polariton-polariton scattering, bypass this bottleneck giving rise to a very rapid relaxation down to the bottom of the band. We show that this dramatic change in the relaxation dynamics is finally responsible of the super-linear increase of the polariton emission from these states. (author) [fr

  19. Morse oscillator propagator in the high temperature limit II: Quantum dynamics and spectroscopy (United States)

    Toutounji, Mohamad


    This paper is a continuation of Paper I (Toutounji, 2017) of which motivation was testing the applicability of Morse oscillator propagator whose analytical form was derived by Duru (1983). This is because the Morse oscillator propagator was reported (Duru, 1983) in a triple-integral form of a functional of modified Bessel function of the first kind, which considerably limits its applicability. For this reason, I was prompted to find a regime under which Morse oscillator propagator may be simplified and hence be expressed in a closed-form. This was well accomplished in Paper I. Because Morse oscillator is of central importance and widely used in modelling vibrations, its propagator applicability will be extended to applications in quantum dynamics and spectroscopy as will be reported in this paper using the off-diagonal propagator of Morse oscillator whose analytical form is derived.

  20. Molecular dynamics of shock waves in one-dimensional chains. II. Thermalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, G.K.; Holian, B.L.; Petschek, R.G.


    The thermalization behavior behind a shock front in one-dimensional chains has been studied in a series of molecular-dynamics computer experiments. We have found that a shock wave generated in a chain initially at finite temperature has essentially the same characteristics as in a chain initially at zero temperature. We also find that the final velocity distribution function for particles behind the shock front is not the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for an equilibrium system of classical particles. For times long after the shock has passed, we propose a nonequilibrium velocity distribution which is based upon behavior in the harmonic and hard-rod limits and agrees with our numerical results. Temperature profiles for both harmonic and anharmonic chains are found to exhibit a long-time tail that decays inversely with time. Finally, we have run a computer experiment to generate what qualitatively resembles solitons in Toda chains by means of shock waves

  1. Nitrogen dynamics in soil management systems: II - mineralization and nitrification rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Garcia Cardoso


    Full Text Available Nitrogen is the main limiting factor in crop productivity and thereby soil management systems may change the mineralization and nitrification rates. In an experiment on soil management systems implemented in 1988 at the experimental station Fundação ABC, Ponta Grossa, in the central South region of the State of Paraná, inorganic N dynamics were examined to find a soil management strategy with a view to a sustainable environment. The objective of this study was to calculate the net mineralization and nitrification rates of soil N and the correlation with soil pH under management systems. Randomized complete block design was used, in split plots, in three replications. The following soil management systems (SMSs were adopted in the plots: 1 conventional tillage (CT; 2 minimum tillage (MT; 3 no-tillage with chisel plow every three years (NT CH; and 4 continuous no-tillage (CNT. To evaluate the dynamics of inorganic N, samples were collected from sub-plots at different times (11 sampling times - T1 to T11. In the CNT and NT CH, the net mineralization rates were higher in the MT and CT systems in the 0-2.5 cm soil layer, while the nitrification rate was higher in the 2.5-5 cm layer. Soon after implementing the white oat management, the mineralization and nitrification rates in all soil layers were higher in the MT and CT systems. In the period of soybean development, in the 0-2.5 and 2.5-5 cm soil layers, the mineralization and nitrification rates were higher in the CNT and NT CH than in the MT and CT systems.

  2. Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of amine-substituted bipyridyl ruthenium(II) complexes (United States)

    Song, Hongwei; Wang, Xian; Yang, WenWen; He, Guiying; Kuang, Zhuoran; Li, Yang; Xia, Andong; Zhong, Yu-Wu; Kong, Fan'ao


    The excited state properties of a series of ruthenium(II) amine-substituted bipyridyl complexes, [Ru(bpy)n(NNbpy)3-n]2+, were investigated by steady-state and transient absorption spectroscopy, as well as quantum chemical calculations. The steady-state absorption spectra of these complexes in CH3CN show a distinct red-shift of the 1MLCT absorption with increasing numbers of amine substituent, whereas the emission spectra indicate an energy gap order of [Ru(bpy)3]2+ > [Ru(bpy)2(NNbpy)]2+ > [Ru(NNbpy)3]2+ > [Ru(bpy)(NNbpy)2]2+. Nanosecond, femtosecond transient absorption and electrochemical measurements suggest that NNbpy ligand has a strong influence on the electronic and emission properties of these complexes, due to electron-rich amine substituent. We illustrate how the numbers of amine substituent modulate the spectroscopic properties of transition metal complexes, which is related to the design of new electro-active systems with novel photoelectrochemical properties.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, Geoffrey S.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Ménard, Francois; Duchêne, Gaspard; Pinte, Christophe; Phillips, Neil


    We present deep 1.2 mm photometry of 37 stars in the young (5 Myr) Upper Scorpius OB association, sensitive to ∼4 × 10 –3 M Jup of cool millimeter dust. Disks around four low- and solar-mass stars are detected, as well as one debris disk around an intermediate-mass star, with dust masses ranging from 3.6 × 10 –3 to 1.0 × 10 –1 M Jup . The source with the most massive disk exhibits a transition-disk spectral energy distribution. Combining our results with previous studies, we find that the millimeter-detection fraction of Class II sources has significantly decreased from younger ages, and comparison with near-infrared and Hα measurements indicates that the present disks have undergone significant evolution in composition or structure at all radii. The disks of Upper Scorpius represent the tail-end of the depletion of primordial disks; while a few near-solar-mass stars may still sustain giant planet formation, this process has finished around higher mass stars.

  4. Evidence for large temperature fluctuations in quasar accretion disks from spectral variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, John J.; Anderson, Scott F.; Agol, Eric; Dexter, Jason


    The well-known bluer-when-brighter trend observed in quasar variability is a signature of the complex processes in the accretion disk and can be a probe of the quasar variability mechanism. Using a sample of 604 variable quasars with repeat spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II (SDSS), we construct difference spectra to investigate the physical causes of this bluer-when-brighter trend. The continuum of our composite difference spectrum is well fit by a power law, with a spectral index in excellent agreement with previous results. We measure the spectral variability relative to the underlying spectra of the quasars, which is independent of any extinction, and compare to model predictions. We show that our SDSS spectral variability results cannot be produced by global accretion rate fluctuations in a thin disk alone. However, we find that a simple model of an inhomogeneous disk with localized temperature fluctuations will produce power-law spectral variability over optical wavelengths. We show that the inhomogeneous disk will provide good fits to our observed spectral variability if the disk has large temperature fluctuations in many independently varying zones, in excellent agreement with independent constraints from quasar microlensing disk sizes, their strong UV spectral continuum, and single-band variability amplitudes. Our results provide an independent constraint on quasar variability models and add to the mounting evidence that quasar accretion disks have large localized temperature fluctuations.

  5. Erasing Data and Recycling of Optical Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Fujita


    Full Text Available Optical disks, DVDs and CDs, are convenient recording media on which to safely store data for a long period of time. However, the complete data erasure from recorded media is also important for the security of the data. After erasure of data from optical disks, recycling the material is needed in order to recover the valuable components of the optical disks. Here, data erasure methods for optical disks are discussed in the view of material recycling. The main finding of the study is that the explosion of optical disks in water is a very suitable method for complete erasure of data on the disks as well as recycling of their materials.

  6. Astrophysical disks Collective and Stochastic Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexei M; Kovalenko, Ilya G


    The book deals with collective and stochastic processes in astrophysical discs involving theory, observations, and the results of modelling. Among others, it examines the spiral-vortex structure in galactic and accretion disks , stochastic and ordered structures in the developed turbulence. It also describes sources of turbulence in the accretion disks, internal structure of disk in the vicinity of a black hole, numerical modelling of Be envelopes in binaries, gaseous disks in spiral galaxies with shock waves formation, observation of accretion disks in a binary system and mass distribution of luminous matter in disk galaxies. The editors adaptly brought together collective and stochastic phenomena in the modern field of astrophysical discs, their formation, structure, and evolution involving the methodology to deal with, the results of observation and modelling, thereby advancing the study in this important branch of astrophysics and benefiting Professional Researchers, Lecturers, and Graduate Students.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayat Aprilita


    Full Text Available Poly(styrene/divinylbenzene (PS/DVB monolithic disk was prepared by in situ free-radical copolymerization of styrene and divinylbenzene in the presence of decanol and tetrahydrofuran as porogens. PS/DVB monolithic disks were produced in two different lengths 1.5 mm and 3 mm. The disks were used in reversed phase chromatography of proteins with 0.2 % trifuoroacetic acid (TFA and 0.2 % TFA in acetonitrile as mobile phase A and B, respectively. The effect of gradient rate, flow rate, temperature and disk length on the separation of proteins were also studied. PS/DVB monolithic disks allow the rapid separation of proteins in reversed phase chromatography. Keywords: monolithic disk, poly(styrene/divinylbenzene, proteins

  8. Grain surface chemistry in protoplanetary disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboussin, Laura


    Planetary formation occurs in the protoplanetary disks of gas and dust. Although dust represents only 1% of the total disk mass, it plays a fundamental role in disk chemical evolution since it acts as a catalyst for the formation of molecules. Understanding this chemistry is therefore essential to determine the initial conditions from which planets form. During my thesis, I studied grain-surface chemistry and its impact on the chemical evolution of molecular cloud, initial condition for disk formation, and protoplanetary disk. Thanks to numerical simulations, using the gas-grain code Nautilus, I showed the importance of diffusion reactions and gas-grain interactions for the abundances of gas-phase species. Model results combined with observations also showed the effects of the physical structure (in temperature, density, AV) on the molecular distribution in disks. (author)

  9. Chemistry in an evolving protoplanetary disk: Effects on terrestrial planet composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, John; Fischer, Debra; Madhusudhan, Nikku


    The composition of planets is largely determined by the chemical and dynamical evolution of the disk during planetesimal formation and growth. To predict the diversity of exoplanet compositions, previous works modeled planetesimal composition as the equilibrium chemical composition of a protoplanetary disk at a single time. However, planetesimals form over an extended period of time, during which elements sequentially condense out of the gas as the disk cools and are accreted onto planetesimals. To account for the evolution of the disk during planetesimal formation, we couple models of disk chemistry and dynamics with a prescription for planetesimal formation. We then follow the growth of these planetesimals into terrestrial planets with N-body simulations of late-stage planet formation to evaluate the effect of sequential condensation on the bulk composition of planets. We find that our model produces results similar to those of earlier models for disks with C/O ratios close to the solar value (0.54). However, in disks with C/O ratios greater than 0.8, carbon-rich planetesimals form throughout a much larger radial range of the disk. Furthermore, our model produces carbon-rich planetesimals in disks with C/O ratios as low as ∼0.65, which is not possible in the static equilibrium chemistry case. These results suggest that (1) there may be a large population of short-period carbon-rich planets around moderately carbon-enhanced stars (0.65 < C/O < 0.8) and (2) carbon-rich planets can form throughout the terrestrial planet region around carbon-rich stars (C/O > 0.8).

  10. Photosystem II functionality in barley responds dynamically to changes in leaf manganese status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidsel Birkelund Schmidt


    Full Text Available A catalytic manganese (Mn cluster is required for the oxidation of water in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC of photosystem II (PSII in plants. Despite this essential role of Mn in generating the electrons driving photosynthesis, limited information is available on how Mn deficiency affects PSII functionality. We have here used parameters derived from measurements of fluorescence induction kinetics (OJIP transients, non-photochemical quenching and PSII subunit composition to investigate how latent Mn deficiency changes the photochemistry in two barley genotypes differing in Mn efficiency. Mn deficiency caused dramatic reductions in the quantum yield of PSII and led to the appearance of two new inflection points, the K step and the D dip, in the OJIP fluorescence transients, indicating severe damage to the OEC. In addition, Mn deficiency decreased the ability to induce non-photochemical quenching (NPQ in the light, rendering the plants incapable of dissipating excess energy in a controlled way. Thus, the Mn deficient plants became severely affected in their ability to recover from high light-induced photoinhibition, especially under strong Mn deficiency. Interestingly, the Mn-efficient genotype was able to maintain a higher non-photochemical quenching than the Mn-inefficient genotype when exposed to mild Mn deficiency. However, during severe Mn deficiency, there were no differences between the two genotypes, suggesting a general loss of the ability to disassemble and repair PSII. The pronounced defects of PSII activity were supported by a dramatic decrease in the abundance of the OEC protein subunits, PsbP and PsbQ in response to Mn deficiency for both genotypes. We conclude that regulation of photosynthetic performance by means of maintaining and inducing NPQ mechanisms contribute to genotypic differences in the Mn efficiency of barley genotypes growing under conditions with mild Mn deficiency.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchev, I.; Streich, D.; Scannapieco, C.; De Jong, R. S.; Steinmetz, M. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Martig, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)


    Recent spectroscopic observations in the Milky Way suggest that the chemically defined thick disk (stars that have high [α/Fe] ratios and are thus old) has a significantly smaller scale-length than the thin disk. This is in apparent contradiction with observations of external edge-on galaxies, where the thin and thick components have comparable scale-lengths. Moreover, while observed disks do not flare (scale-height does not increase with radius), numerical simulations suggest that disk flaring is unavoidable, resulting from both environmental effects and secular evolution. Here we address these problems by studying two different suites of simulated galactic disks formed in the cosmological context. We show that the scale-heights of coeval populations always increase with radius. However, the total population can be decomposed morphologically into thin and thick disks, which do not flare. We relate this to the disk inside-out formation, where younger populations have increasingly larger scale-lengths and flare at progressively larger radii. In this new picture, thick disks are composed of the imbedded flares of mono-age stellar populations. Assuming that disks form inside out, we predict that morphologically defined thick disks must show a decrease in age (or [α/Fe] ratios) with radius and that coeval populations should always flare. This also explains the observed inversion in the metallicity and [α/Fe] gradients for stars away from the disk midplane in the Milky Way. The results of this work are directly linked to, and can be seen as evidence of, inside-out disk growth.

  12. Theory of Disk Accretion onto Magnetic Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Dong


    Full Text Available Disk accretion onto magnetic stars occurs in a variety of systems, including accreting neutron stars (with both high and low magnetic fields, white dwarfs, and protostars. We review some of the key physical processes in magnetosphere-disk interaction, highlighting the theoretical uncertainties. We also discuss some applications to the observations of accreting neutron star and protostellar systems, as well as possible connections to protoplanetary disks and exoplanets.

  13. Circumstellar Gas in Young Planetary Debris Disks (United States)

    Roberge, A.

    Circumstellar (CS) disks orbiting young stars fall into two categories: primordial disks, composed of unprocessed interstellar dust and gas, and debris disks, produced by the destruction of solid planetary bodies. In the first class, the most abundant gas is H_2; in the second, it appears that the H_2 gas has disappeared, possibly through incorporation into gas giant planets. The lifetime of H_2 gas in a CS disk is therefore of great importance, as it dictates the timescale for the formation of giant planets. FUSE observations of H_2 in CS disk systems have shown that FUV absorption spectroscopy may sensitively probe for small amounts of gas along the line of sight to the star. Most importantly, the FUSE non-detection of H_2 gas in the Beta Pictoris disk suggests that the primordial gas lifetime is less than about 12 Myr, and that gas giant planets must form very quickly. However, this suggestion is based on one system, and needs to be tested in additional systems with a range of ages, especially since there are indications that age is not the only factor in the evolution of a CS disk. We propose for FUSE observations of 3 additional debris disk systems, Fomalhaut, HD3003, and HD2884. Fomalhaut is an intermediate age debris disk, one of the Fabulous Four CS disks first discovered in 1984. The other two disks are younger, with ages similar to that of Beta Pic. All three stars are brighter in the FUV than Beta Pic, permitting us to sensitively probe for traces of H_2 gas. We will also measure the amount of secondary atomic gas produced from planetary bodies in these disks, in an effort to understand the entire evolution of CS gas in young planetary systems.

  14. Flow between caoxial rotating disks: with and without externally applied magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Bhatnagar


    when such a fluid is confined between two infinite rotating coaxial disks. The governing system of a pair of non-linear ordinary differential equation is solved by treating Reynolds number to small. The three cases discussed are: (I one disks is held at rest while other rotates with a constant angular velocity, (ii one disk rorates faster than the other but in the same sense and (iii the disks rotate in opposite senses and with different angular velocities. The radial, tranverse and axial components of the velocity field are plotted for the above three cases for different values of the Reynolds number. The results obtained for a viscoelastic fluid are compared with those for a Newtonian fluid. The velocity field for case (i is also computed when a magnetic field is applied in a direction perpendicular to the discs and the results are compared with the case when magnetic field is absent. Some interesting features are observed for a viscoelastic fluid.

  15. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of multi-base seismically isolated structures with uplift potential II: verification examples (United States)

    Roussis, Panayiotis C.; Tsopelas, Panos C.; Constantinou, Michael C.


    The work presented in this paper serves as numerical verification of the analytical model developed in the companion paper for nonlinear dynamic analysis of multi-base seismically isolated structures. To this end, two numerical examples have been analyzed using the computational algorithm incorporated into program 3D-BASIS-ME-MB, developed on the basis of the newly-formulated analytical model. The first example concerns a seven-story model structure that was tested on the earthquake simulator at the University at Buffalo and was also used as a verification example for program SAP2000. The second example concerns a two-tower, multi-story structure with a split-level seismic-isolation system. For purposes of verification, key results produced by 3D-BASIS-ME-MB are compared to experimental results, or results obtained from other structural/finite element programs. In both examples, the analyzed structure is excited under conditions of bearing uplift, thus yielding a case of much interest in verifying the capabilities of the developed analysis tool.

  16. Interfacial electron transfer dynamics of ru(II)-polypy6ridine sensitized TiO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubikova, Elena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martin, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Enrique R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Snoeberger, Robert C [YALE UNIV.; Batista, Victor S [YALE UNIV.


    Quantum dynamics simulations combined with density functional theory calculations are applied to study interfacial electron transfer (IET) from pyridine-4-phosphonic acid, [Ru(tpy)(tpy(PO{sub 3}H{sub 2}))]{sup 2+} and [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(H{sub 2}O)-Ru(tpy)(tpy(PO{sub 3}H{sub 2}))]{sup 4+} into the (101) surface of anatase TiO{sub 2}. IET rate from pyridine-4-phosphonic acid attached to the nanoparticle in bidentate mode ({tau} {approx} 100 fs) is an order of magnitude faster than the IET rate of the adsorbate attached in the monodentate mode ({tau} {approx} 1 ps). Upon excitation with visible light, [Ru(tpy)(tpy(PO{sub 3}H{sub 2}))]{sup 2+} attached to TiO{sub 2} in bidentate binding mode will undergo IET with the rate of {approx} 1-10 ps, which is competitive with the excited state decay into the ground state. The probability of electron injection from [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(H{sub 2}O)-Ru(tpy)(tpy(PO{sub 3}H{sub 2}))]{sup 4+} is rather low, as the excitation with visible light localizes the excited electron in the tpy-tpy bridge, which does not have favorable coupling with the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle. The results are relevant to better understanding of the adsorbate features important for promoting efficient interfacial electron transfer into the semiconductor.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassis, Konstantinos; Willacy, Karen; Yorke, Harold W.; Turner, Neal J.


    We study the effect that non-equilibrium chemistry in dynamical models of collapsing molecular cloud cores has on measurements of the magnetic field in these cores, the degree of ionization, and the mean molecular weight of ions. We find that OH and CN, usually used in Zeeman observations of the line-of-sight magnetic field, have an abundance that decreases toward the center of the core much faster than the density increases. As a result, Zeeman observations tend to sample the outer layers of the core and consistently underestimate the core magnetic field. The degree of ionization follows a complicated dependence on the number density at central densities up to 10 5 cm –3 for magnetic models and 10 6 cm –3 in non-magnetic models. At higher central densities, the scaling approaches a power law with a slope of –0.6 and a normalization which depends on the cosmic-ray ionization rate ζ and the temperature T as (ζT) 1/2 . The mean molecular weight of ions is systematically lower than the usually assumed value of 20-30, and, at high densities, approaches a value of 3 due to the asymptotic dominance of the H + 3 ion. This significantly lower value implies that ambipolar diffusion operates faster.

  18. Chaos and universality in the dynamics of inflationary cosmologies. II. The role of nonextensive statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, H.P. de; Damiao Soares, I.; Tonini, E.V.


    We discuss universal statistical patterns in the chaotic dynamics of closed inflationary cosmologies, associated with the presence of a saddle-center critical point in the phase space of the models. We extend and complete the analysis made in a previous paper [H. P. de Oliveira, S. L. Sautu, I. Damiao Soares, and E. V. Tonini, Phys. Rev. D 60, 121301 (1999)], including also other inflationary models. The statistical distribution connected to orbits that visit a neighborhood of the saddle center is shown to be in the realm of Tsallis nonextensive statistics that generalizes the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics for systems in which long-range interactions are present. The value of the entropic index q of the distribution function determines the dimension of the fractal basin boundaries in the ensemble of initial conditions, with respect to the code recollapse/escape into inflation. In a regime of high nonintegrability, this distribution is universal in the sense that it is scale invariant, independent of the parameters of the model and independent of the particular system where the saddle-center is present. Also it does not depend on the specific model where the saddle-center is present. The consequences for the physics of the early stages of inflation are discussed


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, R.; Soler, R.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Zaqarashvili, T. V., E-mail: [Institute of Physics, IGAM, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5, 8010, Graz (Austria)


    Coronal rain clumps and prominence knots are dense condensations with chromospheric to transition region temperatures that fall down in the much hotter corona. Their typical speeds are in the range 30–150 km s{sup −1} and of the order of 10–30 km s{sup −1}, respectively, i.e., they are considerably smaller than free-fall velocities. These cold blobs contain a mixture of ionized and neutral material that must be dynamically coupled in order to fall together, as observed. We investigate this coupling by means of hydrodynamic simulations in which the coupling arises from the friction between ions and neutrals. The numerical simulations presented here are an extension of those of Oliver et al. to the partially ionized case. We find that, although the relative drift speed between the two species is smaller than 1 m s{sup −1} at the blob center, it is sufficient to produce the forces required to strongly couple charged particles and neutrals. The ionization degree has no discernible effect on the main results of our previous work for a fully ionized plasma: the condensation has an initial acceleration phase followed by a period with roughly constant velocity, and, in addition, the maximum descending speed is clearly correlated with the ratio of initial blob to environment density.

  20. Young Debris Disks With Newly Discovered Emission Features (United States)

    Ballering, N.


    We analyzed the Spitzer/IRS spectra of young A and F stars that host debris disks with previously unidentified silicate emission features. Such features probe small, warm dust grains in the inner regions of these young systems where terrestrial planet formation may be proceeding (Lisse et al. 2009). For most systems, these regions are too near their host star to be directly seen with high-contrast imaging and too warm to be imaged with submillimeter interferometers. Mid-infrared excess spectra - originating from the thermal emission of the debris disk dust - remain the best data to constrain the properties of the debris in these regions. For each target, we fit physically-motivated model spectra to the data. Typical spectra of unresolved debris disks are featureless and suffer severe degeneracies between the dust location and the grain properties; however, spectra with solid-state emission features provide significantly more information, allowing for a more accurate determination of the dust size, composition, and location (e.g. Chen et al. 2006; Olofsson et al. 2012). Our results shed light on the dynamic properties occurring in the terrestrial regions of these systems. For instance, the sizes of the smallest grains and the nature of the grain size distribution reveal whether the dust originates from steady-state collisional cascades or from stochastic collisions. The properties of the dust grains - such as their crystalline or amorphous structure - can inform us of grain processing mechanisms in the disk. The location of this debris illuminates where terrestrial planet forming activity is occurring. We used results from the Beta Pictoris - which has a well-resolved debris disk with emission features (Li et al. 2012) - to place our results in context. References: Chen et al. 2006, ApJS, 166, 351 Li et al. 2012, ApJ, 759, 81 Lisse et al. 2009, ApJ, 701, 2019 Olofsson et al. 2012, A&A, 542, A90

  1. NMR investigation of dynamic processes in complexes of nickel(II) and zinc(II) with iminodiacetate, n-methyliminodiacetate and n-ethyliminodiacetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.R.


    Analysis of oxygen-17 bulk water relaxation rates with an aqueous solution of 1:1 Ni(II):ida reveals that two rate-limiting processes are involved with solvent exchange. Analysis of carbon-13 longitudinal relaxation rates of the bis-ligand complexes with zinc(II) are used to determine molecular tumbling rates and methyl rotation rates. The carbon-13 transverse relaxation rates for the carbons in the bis-ligand complex with Ni(II) are adequately fitted to the Solomon-Bloembergen equation. Three carboxylate carbon peaks are seen with the 13 C spectrum of the 1:2 Ni(II):ida complex, which coalesce into a single peak above about 360 K. The mechanism and rate of ligand exchange are determined for the complexes Zn(II)L 2 -2 (L = mida, eida) in aqueous solution by total lineshape analysis of the proton spectrum at 500 MHz

  2. Contribution to the pathogenesis of slipped disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlbach, W.


    The article describes the various types of slipped disk, such as spondylolisthesis, pseudo-spondylolisthesis and retrolisthesis, and their widely different basic features of anatomic pathology. (orig.) [de

  3. Hard disks with SCSI interface

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, O Yu


    The testing of 20 models of hard SCSI-disks is carried out: the Fujitsu MAE3091LP; the IBM DDRS-39130, DGHS-318220, DNES-318350, DRHS-36V and DRVS-18V; the Quantum Atlas VI 18.2; the Viking 11 9.1; the Seagate ST118202LW, ST118273LW, ST118273W, ST318203LW, ST318275LW, ST34520W, ST39140LW and ST39173W; and the Western Digital WDE9100-0007, WDE9100-AV0016, WDE9100-AV0030 and WDE9180-0048. All tests ran under the Windows NT 4.0 workstation operating system with Service Pack 4, under video mode with 1024*768 pixel resolution, 32- bit colour depth and V-frequency equal to 85 Hz. The detailed description and characteristics of SCSI stores are presented. Test results (ZD Winstone 99 and ZD WinBench 99 tests) are given in both table and diagram (disk transfer rate) forms. (0 refs).

  4. SDP_golofs01_3: Stellar Disk Evolution (United States)

    Olofsson, G.


    n a collaboration between the HSC, P. Harvey (Mission Scientist) and the three instrument consortia we propose to apply the full power of Herschel to investigate the properties of circum-stellar disks. The versatility of Herschel allows us to address several key questions: How do the disks evolve with time? Planets clearly form out of circum-stellar disks and there is growing evidence that the time scale is short, 1 - 10 Myr, for the main accretion phase. During this time period, the stellar radiation and stellar winds clean the disks from most of their dust and gas, eventually making them transparent. However, collisions and evaporation from comet- like bodies will continue to produce dust and gas. This activity declines with time, and we will pursue this scenario by observing a sample of IR excess stars of known age, ranging from a few million years to the age of the sun. Are there analogues to our Kuiper belt around nearby stars? The Kuiper belt is a dust belt surrounding the Sun, located outside the orbit of Neptune, which has a key role in stabilizing orbits of the KE-objects and this dynamical aspect makes it particularly interesting to search for stars that may host KE-belt analogues. Herschel offers a unique sensitivity beyond 100 m and we propose an extensive survey of nearby stars seeking cold dust emission. What will a closer IR look at the "Fabulous Four" (and some other resolved disks) reveal? Several nearby MS stars with IR excesses have circumstellar dust structures that can be resolved by Herschel. Imaging these structures in the six PACS+SPIRE bands will enable us to explore the dust properties, notably the size distribution and albedo.. What is the composition of young disks? We propose a detailed spectroscopic investigation of four bright disks, including a full spectral scan with PACS, an FTS scan at full resolution and HIFI observations of selected frequencies. The aim is to constrain the properties of both the dust and gas components.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savcheva, A.; McKillop, S.; McCauley, P.; Su, Y.; DeLuca, E. E.; Pariat, E.; Hanson, E.


    A long-established goal of solar physics is to build understanding of solar eruptions and develop flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) forecasting models. In this paper, we continue our investigation of nonlinear forces free field (NLFFF) models by comparing topological properties of the solutions to the evolution of the flare ribbons. In particular, we show that data-constrained NLFFF models of three erupting sigmoid regions (SOL2010-04-08, SOL2010-08-07, and SOL2012-05-12) built to reproduce the active region magnetic field in the pre-flare state can be rendered unstable and the subsequent sequence of unstable solutions produces quasi-separatrix layers that match the flare ribbon evolution as observed by SDO/AIA. We begin with a best-fit equilibrium model for the pre-flare active region. We then add axial flux to the flux rope in the model to move it across the stability boundary. At this point, the magnetofrictional code no longer converges to an equilibrium solution. The flux rope rises as the solutions are iterated. We interpret the sequence of magnetofrictional steps as an evolution of the active region as the flare/CME begins. The magnetic field solutions at different steps are compared with the flare ribbons. The results are fully consistent with the three-dimensional extension of the standard flare/CME model. Our ability to capture essential topological features of flaring active regions with a non-dynamic magnetofrictional code strongly suggests that the pre-flare, large-scale topological structures are preserved as the flux rope becomes unstable and lifts off

  6. The VLA view of the HL Tau Disk - Disk Mass, Grain Evolution, and Early Planet Formation


    Carrasco-Gonzalez, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Chandler, Claire J.; Linz, Hendrik; Perez, Laura; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Galvan-Madrid, Roberto; Anglada, Guillem; Birnstiel, Til; van Boekel, Roy; Flock, Mario; Klahr, Hubert; Macias, Enrique; Menten, Karl; Osorio, Mayra


    The first long-baseline ALMA campaign resolved the disk around the young star HL Tau into a number of axisymmetric bright and dark rings. Despite the very young age of HL Tau these structures have been interpreted as signatures for the presence of (proto)planets. The ALMA images triggered numerous theoretical studies based on disk-planet interactions, magnetically driven disk structures, and grain evolution. Of special interest are the inner parts of disks, where terrestrial planets are expec...

  7. Constraining the disk masses of the class I binary protostar GV Tau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehan, Patrick D.; Eisner, Josh A., E-mail: [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)


    We present new spatially resolved 1.3 mm imaging with CARMA of the GV Tau system. GV Tau is a Class I binary protostar system in the Taurus Molecular Cloud, the components of which are separated by 1.''2. Each protostar is surrounded by a protoplanetary disk, and the pair may be surrounded by a circumbinary envelope. We analyze the data using detailed radiative transfer modeling of the system. We create synthetic protostar model spectra, images, and visibilities and compare them with CARMA 1.3 mm visibilities, a Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared scattered light image, and broadband spectral energy distributions from the literature to study the disk masses and geometries of the GV Tau disks. We show that the protoplanetary disks around GV Tau fall near the lower end of estimates of the Minimum Mass Solar Nebula, and may have just enough mass to form giant planets. When added to the sample of Class I protostars from Eisner, we confirm that Class I protostars are on average more massive than their Class II counterparts. This suggests that substantial dust grain processing occurs between the Class I and Class II stages, and may help to explain why the Class II protostars do not appear to have, on average, enough mass in their disks to form giant planets.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espaillat, C.; Andrews, S.; Qi, C.; Wilner, D.; Ingleby, L.; Calvet, N.; Hernández, J.; Furlan, E.; D'Alessio, P.; Muzerolle, J.


    Two decades ago 'transitional disks' (TDs) described spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of T Tauri stars with small near-IR excesses, but significant mid- and far-IR excesses. Many inferred this indicated dust-free holes in disks possibly cleared by planets. Recently, this term has been applied disparately to objects whose Spitzer SEDs diverge from the expectations for a typical full disk (FD). Here, we use irradiated accretion disk models to fit the SEDs of 15 such disks in NGC 2068 and IC 348. One group has a 'dip' in infrared emission while the others' continuum emission decreases steadily at all wavelengths. We find that the former have an inner disk hole or gap at intermediate radii in the disk and we call these objects 'transitional disks' and 'pre-transitional disks' (PTDs), respectively. For the latter group, we can fit these SEDs with FD models and find that millimeter data are necessary to break the degeneracy between dust settling and disk mass. We suggest that the term 'transitional' only be applied to objects that display evidence for a radical change in the disk's radial structure. Using this definition, we find that TDs and PTDs tend to have lower mass accretion rates than FDs and that TDs have lower accretion rates than PTDs. These reduced accretion rates onto the star could be linked to forming planets. Future observations of TDs and PTDs will allow us to better quantify the signatures of planet formation in young disks.

  9. Gravitational potential energy of a disk-sphere pair of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballabh, G.M.


    Algebraic expressions are obtained for the interaction potential energy of a pair of galaxies in which one is disk shaped and the other spherical. The density distribution in the disk galaxy is represented by a polynomial in ascending powers of the distance from the centre of the disk while the density distribution in the spherical galaxy is represented by the superposition of spherical polytropes of integral indices. The basic functions required for obtaining the interaction potential energy of a coplanar disk-sphere pair of galaxies are tabulated. The forces of attraction between a coplanar disk-sphere pair of galaxies are shown graphically for two density models of disk and spherical galaxies. An overlapping coplanar disk-sphere pair of galaxies attract just like two mass-points at a certain separation, rsub(c), of their centres. The force of attraction is less than that of two mass-points having masses equal to the masses of the two galaxies, if the separation of the centres is less than rsub(c), and greater if the separation is greater than rsub(c). For a typical coplanar disk-sphere pair of galaxies (the density of the disk is represented by Model II and of the sphere by a polytropic index n=4) of equal radii, the following is noted. At a separation of 0.79 R, R being the common radius of the two galaxies, the force of attraction between the pair is the same as if the entire mass of each galaxy is concentrated at its centre. The mass-point model for the two galaxies will overestimate the force of attraction by more than a factor of 10 if the separation is less than 0.36 R. For separation greater than the radii of the galaxies the mass-point model will underestimate the force but the departure in this case is less than 33%. (Auth.)

  10. Forming Disk Galaxies in Wet Major Mergers. I. Three Fiducial Examples (United States)

    Athanassoula, E.; Rodionov, S. A.; Peschken, N.; Lambert, J. C.


    Using three fiducial N-body+SPH simulations, we follow the merging of two disk galaxies that each have a hot gaseous halo component, and examine whether the merger remnant can be a spiral galaxy. The stellar progenitor disks are destroyed by violent relaxation during the merging and most of their stars form a classical bulge, while the remaining stars, as well as stars born during the merging times, form a thick disk and its bar. A new stellar disk forms subsequently and gradually in the remnant from the gas accreted mainly from the halo. It is vertically thin and well extended in its equatorial plane. A bar starts forming before the disk is fully in place, which is contrary to what is assumed in idealized simulations of isolated bar-forming galaxies, and has morphological features such as ansae and boxy/peanut bulges. Stars of different ages populate different parts of the box/peanut. A disky pseudobulge also forms, so that by the end of the simulation all three types of bulges coexist. The oldest stars are found in the classical bulge, followed by those of the thick disk, then by those in the thin disk. The youngest stars are in the spiral arms and the disky pseudobulge. The disk surface density profiles are of type II (exponential with downbending); the circular velocity curves are flat and show that the disks are submaximum in these examples: two clearly so and one near-borderline between maximum and submaximum. On average, only roughly between 10% and 20% of the stellar mass is in the classical bulge of the final models, I.e., much less than in previous simulations.

  11. The Architecture of the LkCa 15 Transitional Disk Revealed By High-Contrast Imaging (United States)

    Thalmann, C.; Mulders, G. D.; Hodapp, K.; Janson, M.; Grady, C.A.; Min, M.; de Juan Ovelar, M.; Carson, J.; Brandt, T.; Bonnefoy, M.; hide


    We present four new epochs of Ks-band images of the young pre-transitional disk around LkCa 15 and perform extensive forward modeling to derive the physical parameters of the disk. We find indications of strongly anisotropic scattering (Henyey-Greenstein g = 0.67 (+0.18/-0.11)) and a significantly tapered gap edge ("round wall") but see no evidence that the inner disk, whose existence is predicted by the spectral energy distribution, shadows the outer regions of the disk visible in our images.We marginally confirm the existence of an offset between the disk center and the star along the line of nodes; however, the magnitude of this offset (x = 27 (+19/-20) mas) is notably lower than that found in our earlier H-band images. Intriguingly, we also find an offset of y = 69 (+49/-25) mas perpendicular to the line of nodes at high significance. If confirmed by future observations, this would imply a highly elliptical - or otherwise asymmetric - disk gap with an effective eccentricity of e ˜ 0.3. Such asymmetry would most likely be the result of dynamical sculpting by one or more unseen planets in the system. Finally, we find that the bright arc of scattered light we see in direct imaging observations originates from the near side of the disk and appears brighter than the far side because of strong forward scattering.

  12. Probing polyproline structure and dynamics by photoinduced electron transfer provides evidence for deviations from a regular polyproline type II helix. (United States)

    Doose, Sören; Neuweiler, Hannes; Barsch, Hannes; Sauer, Markus


    Polyprolines are well known for adopting a regular polyproline type II helix in aqueous solution, rendering them a popular standard as molecular ruler in structural molecular biology. However, single-molecule spectroscopy studies based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) have revealed deviations of experimentally observed end-to-end distances of polyprolines from theoretical predictions, and it was proposed that the discrepancy resulted from dynamic flexibility of the polyproline helix. Here, we probe end-to-end distances and conformational dynamics of poly-l-prolines with 1-10 residues using fluorescence quenching by photoinduced-electron transfer (PET). A single fluorophore and a tryptophan residue, introduced at the termini of polyproline peptides, serve as sensitive probes for distance changes on the subnanometer length scale. Using a combination of ensemble fluorescence and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we demonstrate that polyproline samples exhibit static structural heterogeneity with subpopulations of distinct end-to-end distances that do not interconvert on time scales from nano- to milliseconds. By observing prolyl isomerization through changes in PET quenching interactions, we provide experimental evidence that the observed heterogeneity can be explained by interspersed cis isomers. Computer simulations elucidate the influence of trans/cis isomerization on polyproline structures in terms of end-to-end distance and provide a structural justification for the experimentally observed effects. Our results demonstrate that structural heterogeneity inherent in polyprolines, which to date are commonly applied as a molecular ruler, disqualifies them as appropriate tool for an accurate determination of absolute distances at a molecular scale.

  13. Gold nanoparticle-based simple colorimetric and ultrasensitive dynamic light scattering assay for the selective detection of Pb(II) from paints, plastics, and water samples. (United States)

    Beqa, Lule; Singh, Anant Kumar; Khan, Sadia Afrin; Senapati, Dulal; Arumugam, Sri Ranjini; Ray, Paresh Chandra


    Pb (II) is a common water pollutant with high toxicity. According to the CDC, about 310,000 U.S. children of ages 1-5 have high levels of lead in their blood that it is due to the exposure to lead from plastic toys and other products. As a result, the development of ultrasensitive assays for the real-time detection of Pb(II) from plastic toys and paints is very important for water controlling, clinical toxicology and industrial processes. Driven by the need to detect trace amounts of Pb(II) from water samples, we report a label-free, highly selective and ultra sensitive glutathione modified gold nanoparticle based dynamic light scattering (DLS) probe for Pb(II) recognition in 100 ppt level from aqueous solution with excellent discrimination against other heavy metals. The sensitivity of our assay to detect Pb(II) level in water is almost 2 orders of magnitude higher than the EPA standard limit. We have also demonstrated that our DLS assay is capable of measuring the amount of Pb(II) in paint, plastic toys, and water from MS river. A possible mechanism and operating principles of our DLS assay have been discussed. Ultimately, this nanotechnology driven assay could have enormous potential applications in rapid, on-site monitoring of Pb(II) from day-to-day sample.

  14. Luminescence dynamics in type-II GaAs/AlAs superlattices near the type-I to type-II crossover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Kalt, H.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    We report on a study of the time-resolved luminescence of type-II GaAs/AlAs superlattices near the type-I to type-II crossover. In spite of the slight type-II band alignment, the luminescence is dominated by the type-I transition. This is due to the inhomogeneous broadening of the type-I transition...... and the weak type-II oscillator strength, leading to a dominant luminescence of deeply localized type-I states. The relaxation within these localized states is found to be in agreement with a hopping model. At higher temperatures and excitation densities, the AlAs X minima act as an electron reservoir, leading...

  15. Improved MR imaging of the cervical spine, 2; Study of disk protrusion in the cervical spine in flexion-versus-extension views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanno, Munehiko; Kyomasu, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Masafumi (Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)) (and others)


    Comparative study of incidence of disk protrusion was performed on the basis of MR imaging in a state of flexion versus extension. The results showed that the incidnece of disk protrusion at each disk level was generally higher on the extension images than on the flexion images at the corresponding levels. The degree of difference in the incidence of the disk protrusion on flexion and extension was the greatest at the mid-cervical level spine. Based on the results with respect to features of the cervical spine in extension and flexion, it appears that the difference in incidence of disk protrusion is probably caused by movement in response to bending of the cervical spine. These results may provide information concerning the dynamic of cervical disks and may partly explain cases in which patients have symptoms of cervical myelopathy and/or radiculopathy but have no disk protrusion on images in the neutral position. (author).

  16. Reducing the Flexibility of Type II Dehydroquinase for Inhibition: A Fragment-Based Approach and Molecular Dynamics Study. (United States)

    Peón, Antonio; Robles, Adrián; Blanco, Beatriz; Convertino, Marino; Thompson, Paul; Hawkins, Alastair R; Caflisch, Amedeo; González-Bello, Concepción


    A multidisciplinary approach was used to identify and optimize a quinazolinedione-based ligand that would decrease the flexibility of the substrate-covering loop (catalytic loop) of the type II dehydroquinase from Helicobacter pylori. This enzyme, which is essential for the survival of this bacterium, is involved in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. A computer-aided fragment-based protocol (ALTA) was first used to identify the aromatic fragments able to block the interface pocket that separates two neighboring enzyme subunits and is located at the active site entrance. Chemical modification of its non-aromatic moiety through an olefin cross-metathesis and Seebach's self-reproduction of chirality synthetic principle allowed the development of a quinazolinedione derivative that disables the catalytic loop plasticity, which is essential for the enzyme's catalytic cycle. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the ligand would force the catalytic loop into an inappropriate arrangement for catalysis by strong interactions with the catalytic tyrosine and by expelling the essential arginine out of the active site. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Scaling Ratios and Triangles in Siegel Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buff, Xavier; Henriksen, Christian


    Let f(z)=e^{2i\\pi \\theta} + z^2, where \\theta is a quadratic irrational. McMullen proved that the Siegel disk for f is self-similar about the critical point, and we show that if \\theta = (\\sqrt{5}-1)/2 is the golden mean, then there exists a triangle contained in the Siegel disk, and with one...

  18. Circumstellar disks around binary stars in Taurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akeson, R. L.; Jensen, E. L. N.


    We have conducted a survey of 17 wide (>100 AU) young binary systems in Taurus with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at two wavelengths. The observations were designed to measure the masses of circumstellar disks in these systems as an aid to understanding the role of multiplicity in star and planet formation. The ALMA observations had sufficient resolution to localize emission within the binary system. Disk emission was detected around all primaries and 10 secondaries, with disk masses as low as 10 –4 M ☉ . We compare the properties of our sample to the population of known disks in Taurus and find that the disks from this binary sample match the scaling between stellar mass and millimeter flux of F mm ∝M ∗ 1.5--2.0 to within the scatter found in previous studies. We also compare the properties of the primaries to those of the secondaries and find that the secondary/primary stellar and disk mass ratios are not correlated; in three systems, the circumsecondary disk is more massive than the circumprimary disk, counter to some theoretical predictions.

  19. Circumstellar disks around binary stars in Taurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akeson, R. L. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, IPAC/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jensen, E. L. N. [Swarthmore College, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States)


    We have conducted a survey of 17 wide (>100 AU) young binary systems in Taurus with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at two wavelengths. The observations were designed to measure the masses of circumstellar disks in these systems as an aid to understanding the role of multiplicity in star and planet formation. The ALMA observations had sufficient resolution to localize emission within the binary system. Disk emission was detected around all primaries and 10 secondaries, with disk masses as low as 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉}. We compare the properties of our sample to the population of known disks in Taurus and find that the disks from this binary sample match the scaling between stellar mass and millimeter flux of F{sub mm}∝M{sub ∗}{sup 1.5--2.0} to within the scatter found in previous studies. We also compare the properties of the primaries to those of the secondaries and find that the secondary/primary stellar and disk mass ratios are not correlated; in three systems, the circumsecondary disk is more massive than the circumprimary disk, counter to some theoretical predictions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)


    A “minimum model” for debris disks consists of a narrow ring of parent bodies, secularly forced by a single planet on a possibly eccentric orbit, colliding to produce dust grains that are perturbed by stellar radiation pressure. We demonstrate how this minimum model can reproduce a wide variety of disk morphologies imaged in scattered starlight. Five broad categories of disk shape can be captured: “rings,” “needles,” “ships-and-wakes,” “bars,” and “moths (a.k.a. fans),” depending on the viewing geometry. Moths can also sport “double wings.” We explain the origin of morphological features from first principles, exploring the dependence on planet eccentricity, disk inclination dispersion, and the parent body orbital phases at which dust grains are born. A key determinant in disk appearance is the degree to which dust grain orbits are apsidally aligned. Our study of a simple steady-state (secularly relaxed) disk should serve as a reference for more detailed models tailored to individual systems. We use the intuition gained from our guidebook of disk morphologies to interpret, informally, the images of a number of real-world debris disks. These interpretations suggest that the farthest reaches of planetary systems are perturbed by eccentric planets, possibly just a few Earth masses each.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene


    A “minimum model” for debris disks consists of a narrow ring of parent bodies, secularly forced by a single planet on a possibly eccentric orbit, colliding to produce dust grains that are perturbed by stellar radiation pressure. We demonstrate how this minimum model can reproduce a wide variety of disk morphologies imaged in scattered starlight. Five broad categories of disk shape can be captured: “rings,” “needles,” “ships-and-wakes,” “bars,” and “moths (a.k.a. fans),” depending on the viewing geometry. Moths can also sport “double wings.” We explain the origin of morphological features from first principles, exploring the dependence on planet eccentricity, disk inclination dispersion, and the parent body orbital phases at which dust grains are born. A key determinant in disk appearance is the degree to which dust grain orbits are apsidally aligned. Our study of a simple steady-state (secularly relaxed) disk should serve as a reference for more detailed models tailored to individual systems. We use the intuition gained from our guidebook of disk morphologies to interpret, informally, the images of a number of real-world debris disks. These interpretations suggest that the farthest reaches of planetary systems are perturbed by eccentric planets, possibly just a few Earth masses each.

  2. A Primer on Unifying Debris Disk Morphologies (United States)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene


    A “minimum model” for debris disks consists of a narrow ring of parent bodies, secularly forced by a single planet on a possibly eccentric orbit, colliding to produce dust grains that are perturbed by stellar radiation pressure. We demonstrate how this minimum model can reproduce a wide variety of disk morphologies imaged in scattered starlight. Five broad categories of disk shape can be captured: “rings,” “needles,” “ships-and-wakes,” “bars,” and “moths (a.k.a. fans),” depending on the viewing geometry. Moths can also sport “double wings.” We explain the origin of morphological features from first principles, exploring the dependence on planet eccentricity, disk inclination dispersion, and the parent body orbital phases at which dust grains are born. A key determinant in disk appearance is the degree to which dust grain orbits are apsidally aligned. Our study of a simple steady-state (secularly relaxed) disk should serve as a reference for more detailed models tailored to individual systems. We use the intuition gained from our guidebook of disk morphologies to interpret, informally, the images of a number of real-world debris disks. These interpretations suggest that the farthest reaches of planetary systems are perturbed by eccentric planets, possibly just a few Earth masses each.

  3. Protoplanetary disks and exoplanets in scattered light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, T.


    High-contrast imaging facilitates the direct detection of protoplanetary disks in scattered light and self-luminous exoplanets on long-period orbits. The combined power of extreme adaptive optics and differential imaging techniques delivers high spatial resolution images of disk morphologies down to

  4. 10 MB disk platter from CDC 7638

    CERN Multimedia


    This magnetic disk was one of three which interfaced with various Control Data machines. This single platter came from a Control Data 7638 Disk Storage Subsystem and could contain up to 10MB - about the size of a few MP4's on your iPod.

  5. Recent development of disk lasers at TRUMPF (United States)

    Schad, Sven-Silvius; Gottwald, Tina; Kuhn, Vincent; Ackermann, Matthias; Bauer, Dominik; Scharun, Michael; Killi, Alexander


    The disk laser is one of the most important laser concepts for today's industrial laser market. Offering high brilliance at low cost, high optical efficiency and great application flexibility the disk laser paved the way for many industrial laser applications. Over the past years power and brightness increased and the disk laser turned out to be a very versatile laser source, not only for welding but also for cutting. Both, the quality and speed of cutting are superior to CO2-based lasers for a vast majority of metals, and, most important, in a broad thickness range. In addition, due to the insensitivity against back reflections the disk laser is well suited for cutting highly reflective metal such as brass or copper. These advantages facilitate versatile cutting machines and explain the high and growing demand for disk lasers for applications besides welding applications that can be observed today. From a today's perspective the disk principle has not reached any fundamental limits regarding output power per disk or beam quality, and offers numerous advantages over other high power resonator concepts, especially over fiber lasers or direct diode lasers. This paper will give insight in the latest progress in kilowatt class cw disk laser technology at TRUMPF and will discuss recent power scaling results as well.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsakos, Titos; Königl, Arieh [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and The Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)


    Many of the observed spin–orbit alignment properties of exoplanets can be explained in the context of the primordial disk misalignment model, in which an initially aligned protoplanetary disk is torqued by a distant stellar companion on a misaligned orbit, resulting in a precessional motion that can lead to large-amplitude oscillations of the spin–orbit angle. We consider a variant of this model in which the companion is a giant planet with an orbital radius of a few astronomical units. Guided by the results of published numerical simulations, we model the dynamical evolution of this system by dividing the disk into inner and outer parts—separated at the location of the planet—that behave as distinct, rigid disks. We show that the planet misaligns the inner disk even as the orientation of the outer disk remains unchanged. In addition to the oscillations induced by the precessional motion, whose amplitude is larger the smaller the initial inner-disk-to-planet mass ratio, the spin–orbit angle also exhibits a secular growth in this case—driven by ongoing mass depletion from the disk—that becomes significant when the inner disk’s angular momentum drops below that of the planet. Altogether, these two effects can produce significant misalignment angles for the inner disk, including retrograde configurations. We discuss these results within the framework of the Stranded Hot Jupiter scenario and consider their implications, including the interpretation of the alignment properties of debris disks.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Ida, Shigeru


    Planetary migration is one of the most serious problems to systematically understand the observations of exoplanets. We clarify that the theoretically predicted type II, migration (like type I migration) is too fast, by developing detailed analytical arguments in which the timescale of type II migration is compared with the disk lifetime. In the disk-dominated regime, the type II migration timescale is characterized by a local viscous diffusion timescale, while the disk lifetime is characterized by a global diffusion timescale that is much longer than the local one. Even in the planet-dominated regime where the inertia of the planet mass reduces the migration speed, the timescale is still shorter than the disk lifetime except in the final disk evolution stage where the total disk mass decays below the planet mass. This suggests that most giant planets plunge into the central stars within the disk lifetime, and it contradicts the exoplanet observations that gas giants are piled up at r ∼> 1 AU. We examine additional processes that may arise in protoplanetary disks: dead zones, photoevaporation of gas, and gas flow across a gap formed by a type II migrator. Although they make the type II migration timescale closer to the disk lifetime, we show that none of them can act as an effective barrier for rapid type II migration with the current knowledge of these processes. We point out that gas flow across a gap and the fraction of the flow accreted onto the planets are uncertain and they may have the potential to solve the problem. Much more detailed investigation for each process may be needed to explain the observed distribution of gas giants in extrasolar planetary systems

  8. Modeling of end-pumped Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers with nonuniform temperature distribution. (United States)

    Zhu, Guangzhi; Zhu, Xiao; Zhu, Changhong; Shang, Jianli; Wan, Hailin; Guo, Fei; Qi, Lijun


    A plane wave model with nonuniform temperature distribution in the thin-disk crystal is developed to describe the dynamic behavior of an end-pumped Yb:YAG thin-disk laser. A set of couple-rate equations and 2D stationary heat-conduction equations are derived. The stable temperature distribution in the disk crystal is calculated using a numerical iterative method. The analytic expression is capable of dealing with more practical laser systems than previous works on this subject as it allows for nonuniform temperature distribution in the disk crystal. Based on these results, we examined laser output intensity as a function of pump intensity, dopant concentration, resonator coupler reflectivity, crystal thickness and temperature of cooling liquid.

  9. Critical state in disk-shaped superconductors (United States)

    Däumling, M.; Larbalestier, D. C.


    We have calculated the magnetic fields and currents occurring in a disk-shaped superconductor (radius >>thickness) in the critical state in a self-consistent way using finite-element analysis. We find that the field shielded (or trapped) in the center of the disk is roughly equal to Jcd, where d is the thickness of the disk. The shielding currents also create radial fields which are or order Jcd/2 on the disk surface. For low applied fields Happltelsa applied field. The field dependence of the calculated magnetic moment in the self-field dominated regime is independent of whether Jc is weakly or strongly (~1/H) dependent on field. The calculations were validated by comparison to both magnetic and resistive measurements on a disk-shaped section in Nb3Sn tape.

  10. Time Domain Astrochemistry in Protoplanetary Disks (United States)

    Cleeves, Lauren Ilsedore


    The chemistry of protoplanetary disks sets the initial composition of newly formed planets and may regulate the efficiency by which planets form. Disk chemical abundances typically evolve over timescales spanning thousands if not millions of years. Consequently, it was a surprise when ALMA observations taken over the course of a single year showed significantly variable emission in H13CO+ relative to the otherwise constant thermal dust emission in the IM Lup protoplanetary disk. HCO+ is a known X-ray sensitive molecule, and by using simple time-evolving chemical models including stellar activity, we demonstrate that stellar X-ray flares are a viable explanation for the observed H13CO+ variability. If this link between chemistry and stellar activity is confirmed, simultaneous observations can provide a new tool to measure (and potentially map) fundamental disk parameters, such as electron density, as the light from X-ray flares propagates across the disk.

  11. Continuum Reverberation Mapping of AGN Accretion Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fausnaugh, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA (United States); Peterson, Bradley M. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Starkey, David A. [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Scotland (United Kingdom); Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Horne, Keith, E-mail: [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Scotland (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the AGN STORM Collaboration


    We show recent detections of inter-band continuum lags in three AGN (NGC 5548, NGC 2617, and MCG+08-11-011), which provide new constraints on the temperature profiles and absolute sizes of the accretion disks. We find lags larger than would be predicted for standard geometrically thin, optically thick accretion disks by factors of 2.3–3.3. For NGC 5548, the data span UV through optical/near-IR wavelengths, and we are able to discern a steeper temperature profile than the T ~ R{sup −3/4} expected for a standard thin disk. Using a physical model, we are also able to estimate the inclinations of the disks for two objects. These results are similar to those found from gravitational microlensing of strongly lensed quasars, and provide a complementary approach for investigating the accretion disk structure in local, low luminosity AGN.

  12. Disk Evolution and the Fate of Water (United States)

    Hartmann, Lee; Ciesla, Fred; Gressel, Oliver; Alexander, Richard


    We review the general theoretical concepts and observational constraints on the distribution and evolution of water vapor and ice in protoplanetary disks, with a focus on the Solar System. Water is expected to freeze out at distances greater than 1-3 AU from solar-type central stars; more precise estimates are difficult to obtain due to uncertainties in the complex processes involved in disk evolution, including dust growth, settling, and radial drift, and the level of turbulence and viscous dissipation within disks. Interferometric observations are now providing constraints on the positions of CO snow lines, but extrapolation to the unresolved regions where water ice sublimates will require much better theoretical understanding of mass and angular momentum transport in disks as well as more refined comparison of observations with sophisticated disk models.

  13. Development of Powered Disk Type Sugar Cane Stubble Saver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radite P.A.S.


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to design, fabricate and test a prototype of sugar cane stubble saver based on powered disk mechanism. In this research, a heavy duty disk plow or disk harrow was used as a rotating knife to cut the sugarcane stubble. The parabolic disk was chosen because it is proven reliable as soil working tools and it is available in the market as spare part of disk plow or disk harrow unit. The prototype was mounted on the four wheel tractor’s three point hitch, and powered by PTO of the tractor. Two kinds of disks were used in these experiments, those were disk with regular edge or plain disk and disk with scalloped edge or scalloped disk. Both disks had diameter of 28 inch. Results of field test showed that powered disk mechanism could satisfy cut sugar cane’s stubble. However, scalloped disk type gave smoother stubble cuts compared to that of plain disk. Plain disk type gave broken stubble cut. Higher rotation (1000 rpm resulted better cuts as compared to lower rotation (500 rpm both either on plain disk and scalloped disk. The developed prototype could work below the soil surface at depth of 5 to 10 cm. With tilt angle setting 20O and disk angle 45O the width of cut was about 25 cm.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Sean N.; Armitage, Philip J.; Gorelick, Noel


    We study the final architecture of planetary systems that evolve under the combined effects of planet-planet and planetesimal scattering. Using N-body simulations we investigate the dynamics of marginally unstable systems of gas and ice giants both in isolation and when the planets form interior to a planetesimal belt. The unstable isolated systems evolve under planet-planet scattering to yield an eccentricity distribution that matches that observed for extrasolar planets. When planetesimals are included the outcome depends upon the total mass of the planets. For M tot ∼> 1 M J the final eccentricity distribution remains broad, whereas for M tot ∼ J a combination of divergent orbital evolution and recircularization of scattered planets results in a preponderance of nearly circular final orbits. We also study the fate of marginally stable multiple planet systems in the presence of planetesimal disks, and find that for high planet masses the majority of such systems evolve into resonance. A significant fraction leads to resonant chains that are planetary analogs of Jupiter's Galilean satellites. We predict that a transition from eccentric to near-circular orbits will be observed once extrasolar planet surveys detect sub-Jovian mass planets at orbital radii of a ≅ 5-10 AU.

  15. The Chemistry of Protostellar Jet-Disk Systems (United States)

    Codella, Claudio


    The birth of a Sun-like star is a complex game played by several participants whose respective roles are not yet entirely clear. On the one hand, the star-to-be accretes matter from a collapsing envelope. The gravitational energy released in the process heats up the material surrounding the protostar, creating warm regions enriched by interstellar complex organic molecules (iCOMs, at least 6 atoms) called hot-corinos. On the other hand, the presence of angular momentum and magnetic fields leads to two consequences: (i) the formation of circumstellar disks; and (ii) substantial episodes of matter ejection, as e.g. collimated jets. Thanks to the combination of the high-sensitivities and high-angular resolu- tions provided by the advent of new telescopes such as ALMA and NOEMA, it is now possible to image in details the earliest stages of the Sun-like star formation, thus inspecting the inner ( effects connected with the accreting disk. In other words, it is time to study the protostellar jet-disk system as a whole. Several still unanswered questions can be addressed. What is the origin of the chemically enriched hot corinos: are they jet-driven shocked regions? What is the origin of the ejections: are they due to disk or stellar winds? Shocks are precious tool to attack these questions, given they enrich the gas phase with the species deposited onto the dust mantles and/or locked in the refractory dust cores. Basically, we have to deal with two kind of shocks: (i) high-velocity shocks produced by protostellar jets, and (ii) slow accretion shocks located close to the centrifugal barrier of the accretion disks. Both shocks are factories of iCOMs, which can be then efficiently used to follow both the kinematics and the chemistry of the inner protostellar systems. With this in mind, we will discuss recent results obtained in the framework of different observational campaigns at mm and sub-mm wavelengths.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, Chris W.; Bullock, James S.; Kaplinghat, Manoj


    Massive satellite accretions onto early galactic disks can lead to the deposition of dark matter in disk-like configurations that co-rotate with the galaxy. This phenomenon has potentially dramatic consequences for dark matter detection experiments. We utilize focused, high-resolution simulations of accretion events onto disks designed to be Galaxy analogues, and compare the resultant disks to the morphological and kinematic properties of the Milky Way's thick disk in order to bracket the range of co-rotating accreted dark matter. In agreement with previous results, we find that the Milky Way's merger history must have been unusually quiescent compared to median Λ cold dark matter expectations and, therefore, its dark disk must be relatively small: the fraction of accreted dark disk material near the Sun is about 20% of the host halo density or smaller and the co-rotating dark matter fraction near the Sun, defined as particles moving with a rotational velocity lag less than 50 km s -1 , is enhanced by about 30% or less compared to a standard halo model. Such a dark disk could contribute dominantly to the low energy (of order keV for a dark matter particle with mass 100 GeV) nuclear recoil event rate of direct detection experiments, but it will not change the likelihood of detection significantly. These dark disks provide testable predictions of weakly interacting massive particle dark matter models and should be considered in detailed comparisons to experimental data. Our findings suggest that the dark disk of the Milky Way may provide a detectable signal for indirect detection experiments, contributing up to about 25% of the dark matter self-annihilation signal in the direction of the center of the Galaxy, lending the signal a noticeably oblate morphology.

  17. Scalable high-performance algorithm for the simulation of exciton-dynamics. Application to the light harvesting complex II in the presence of resonant vibrational modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreisbeck, Christoph; Kramer, Tobias; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán


    the exciton dynamics within a density-matrix formalism are known, but are restricted to small systems with less than ten sites due to their computational complexity. To study the excitonic energy transfer in larger systems, we adapt and extend the exact hierarchical equation of motion (HEOM) method to various...... high-performance many-core platforms using the Open Compute Language (OpenCL). For the light-harvesting complex II (LHC II) found in spinach, the HEOM results deviate from predictions of approximate theories and clarify the time-scale of the transfer-process. We investigate the impact of resonantly...

  18. Evaluation of hydrogen bond networks in cellulose Iβ and II crystals using density functional theory and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics. (United States)

    Hayakawa, Daichi; Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; Mazeau, Karim; Ueda, Kazuyoshi


    Crystal models of cellulose Iβ and II, which contain various hydrogen bonding (HB) networks, were analyzed using density functional theory and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations. From the CPMD trajectories, the power spectra of the velocity correlation functions of hydroxyl groups involved in hydrogen bonds were calculated. For the Iβ allomorph, HB network A, which is dominant according to the neutron diffraction data, was stable, and the power spectrum represented the essential features of the experimental IR spectra. In contrast, network B, which is a minor structure, was unstable because its hydroxymethyl groups reoriented during the CPMD simulation, yielding a different crystal structure to that determined by experiments. For the II allomorph, a HB network A is proposed based on diffraction data, whereas molecular modeling identifies an alternative network B. Our simulations showed that the interaction energies of the cellulose II (B) model are slightly more favorable than model II(A). However, the evaluation of the free energy should be waited for the accurate determination from the energy point of view. For the IR calculation, cellulose II (B) model reproduces the spectra better than model II (A). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An ALMA continuum survey of circumstellar disks in the upper Scorpius OB association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, John M.; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    We present ALMA 880 μm continuum observations of 20 K- and M-type stars in the Upper Scorpius OB association (Upper Sco) that are surrounded by protoplanetary disks. These data are used to measure the dust content in disks around low-mass stars (0.1-1.6 M {sub ☉}) at a stellar age of 5-11 Myr. Thirteen sources were detected in the 880 μm dust continuum at ≥3σ with inferred dust masses between 0.3 and 52 M {sub ⊕}. The dust masses tend to be higher around the more massive stars, but the significance is marginal in that the probability of no correlation is p ≈ 0.03. The evolution in the dust content in disks was assessed by comparing the Upper Sco observations with published continuum measurements of disks around ∼1-2 Myr stars in the Class II stage in the Taurus molecular cloud. While the dust masses in the Upper Sco disks are on average lower than in Taurus, any difference in the dust mass distributions is significant at less than 3σ. For stellar masses between 0.49 M {sub ☉} and 1.6 M {sub ☉}, the mean dust mass in disks is lower in Upper Sco relative to Taurus by Δlog M {sub dust} = 0.44 ± 0.26.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balog, Zoltan [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany); Siegler, Nick [NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Rieke, G. H.; Su, K. Y. L.; Gáspár, András [Steward Observatory, 933 N. Cherry Ave, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kiss, L. L. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Center for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, P.O. Box 67, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Muzerolle, James [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Bell, Cameron P. M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093, Zürich (Switzerland); Vinkó, J. [Dept. of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Young, E. T., E-mail: [NASA Ames SOFIA Science Center, N211, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)


    We present new deep UBVRI images and high-resolution multi-object optical spectroscopy of the young (∼6–10 Myr old), relatively nearby (800 pc) open cluster IC 2395. We identify nearly 300 cluster members and use the photometry to estimate their spectral types, which extend from early B to middle M. We also present an infrared imaging survey of the central region using the IRAC and MIPS instruments on board the Spitzer Space Telescope , covering the wavelength range from 3.6 to 24 μ m. Our infrared observations allow us to detect dust in circumstellar disks originating over a typical range of radii from ∼0.1 to ∼10 au from the central star. We identify 18 Class II, 8 transitional disk, and 23 debris disk candidates, respectively, 6.5%, 2.9%, and 8.3% of the cluster members with appropriate data. We apply the same criteria for transitional disk identification to 19 other stellar clusters and associations spanning ages from ∼1 to ∼18 Myr. We find that the number of disks in the transitional phase as a fraction of the total with strong 24 μ m excesses ([8] – [24] ≥ 1.5) increases from (8.4 ± 1.3)% at ∼3 Myr to (46 ± 5)% at ∼10 Myr. Alternative definitions of transitional disks will yield different percentages but should show the same trend.

  1. Colors of Inner Disk Classical Kuiper Belt Objects (United States)

    Romanishin, W.; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.


    We present new optical broadband colors, obtained with the Keck 1 and Vatican Advanced Technology telescopes, for six objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt. Objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt are of interest as they may represent the surviving members of the primordial Kuiper Belt that formed interior to the current position of the 3:2 resonance with Neptune, the current position of the plutinos, or, alternatively, they may be objects formed at a different heliocentric distance that were then moved to their present locations. The six new colors, combined with four previously published, show that the ten inner belt objects with known colors form a neutral clump and a reddish clump in B-R color. Nonparametric statistical tests show no significant difference between the B-R color distribution of the inner disk objects compared to the color distributions of Centaurs, plutinos, or scattered disk objects. However, the B-R color distribution of the inner classical Kuiper Belt Objects does differ significantly from the distribution of colors in the cold (low inclination) main classical Kuiper Belt. The cold main classical objects are predominately red, while the inner classical belt objects are a mixture of neutral and red. The color difference may reveal the existence of a gradient in the composition and/or surface processing history in the primordial Kuiper Belt, or indicate that the inner disk objects are not dynamically analogous to the cold main classical belt objects.

  2. Microstructure Modeling of 3rd Generation Disk Alloy (United States)

    Jou, Herng-Jeng


    The objective of this initiative, funded by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, is to model, validate, and predict, with high fidelity, the microstructural evolution of third-generation high-refractory Ni-based disc superalloys during heat treating and service conditions. This initiative is a natural extension of the DARPA-AIM (Accelerated Insertion of Materials) initiative with GE/Pratt-Whitney and with other process simulation tools. Strong collaboration with the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is a key component of this initiative and the focus of this program is on industrially relevant disk alloys and heat treatment processes identified by GRC. Employing QuesTek s Computational Materials Dynamics technology and PrecipiCalc precipitation simulator, physics-based models are being used to achieve high predictive accuracy and precision. Combining these models with experimental data and probabilistic analysis, "virtual alloy design" can be performed. The predicted microstructures can be optimized to promote desirable features and concurrently eliminate nondesirable phases that can limit the reliability and durability of the alloys. The well-calibrated and well-integrated software tools that are being applied under the proposed program will help gas turbine disk alloy manufacturers, processing facilities, and NASA, to efficiently and effectively improve the performance of current and future disk materials.

  3. Fast vortex oscillations in a ferrimagnetic disk near the angular momentum compensation point (United States)

    Kim, Se Kwon; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav


    We theoretically study the oscillatory dynamics of a vortex core in a ferrimagnetic disk near its angular momentum compensation point, where the spin density vanishes but the magnetization is finite. Due to the finite magnetostatic energy, a ferrimagnetic disk of suitable geometry can support a vortex as a ground state similar to a ferromagnetic disk. In the vicinity of the angular momentum compensation point, the dynamics of the vortex resemble those of an antiferromagnetic vortex, which is described by equations of motion analogous to Newton's second law for the motion of particles. Owing to the antiferromagnetic nature of the dynamics, the vortex oscillation frequency can be an order of magnitude larger than the frequency of a ferromagnetic vortex, amounting to tens of GHz in common transition-metal based alloys. We show that the frequency can be controlled either by applying an external field or by changing the temperature. In particular, the latter property allows us to detect the angular momentum compensation temperature, at which the lowest eigenfrequency attains its maximum, by performing ferromagnetic resonance measurements on the vortex disk. Our work proposes a ferrimagnetic vortex disk as a tunable source of fast magnetic oscillations and a useful platform to study the properties of ferrimagnets.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarcello, M. G.; Drake, J. J.; Wright, N. J.; Hora, J. L.; Aldcroft, T.; Fruscione, A.; Kashyap, V. L.; Drew, J. E.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Naylor, T.; King, R.; García-Alvarez, D.


    The formation of stars in massive clusters is one of the main modes of the star formation process. However, the study of massive star-forming regions is hampered by their typically large distances to the Sun. One exception to this is the massive star-forming region Cygnus OB2 in the Cygnus X region, at the distance of ∼1400 pc. Cygnus OB2 hosts very rich populations of massive and low-mass stars, being the best target in our Galaxy to study the formation of stars, circumstellar disks, and planets in the presence of massive stars. In this paper, we combine a wide and deep set of photometric data, from the r band to 24 μm, in order to select the disk-bearing population of stars in Cygnus OB2 and identify the class I, class II, and stars with transition and pre-transition disks. We selected 1843 sources with infrared excesses in an area of 1° × 1° centered on Cyg OB2 in several evolutionary stages: 8.4% class I, 13.1% flat-spectrum sources, 72.9% class II, 2.3% pre-transition disks, and 3.3% transition disks. The spatial distribution of these sources shows a central cluster surrounded by an annular overdensity and some clumps of recent star formation in the outer region. Several candidate subclusters are identified, both along the overdensity and in the rest of the association

  5. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk for Educators (United States)

    Foxworth, Suzanne; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Allen, J.; Kascak, A.


    NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has the unique responsibility to curate NASA's extraterrestrial samples from past and future missions. Curation includes documentation, preservation, preparation and distribution of samples for research, education and public outreach. Between 1969 and 1972 six Apollo missions brought back 382 kilograms of lunar rocks, core and regolith samples, from the lunar surface. JSC also curates meteorites collected from a US cooperative effort among NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Smithsonian Institution that funds expeditions to Antarctica. The meteorites that are collected include rocks from Moon, Mars, and many asteroids including Vesta. The sample disks for educational use include these different samples. Active relevant learning has always been important to teachers and the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program provides this active style of learning for students and the general public. The Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disks permit students to conduct investigations comparable to actual scientists. The Lunar Sample Disk contains 6 samples; Basalt, Breccia, Highland Regolith, Anorthosite, Mare Regolith and Orange Soil. The Meteorite Sample Disk contains 6 samples; Chondrite L3, Chondrite H5, Carbonaceous Chondrite, Basaltic Achondrite, Iron and Stony-Iron. Teachers are given different activities that adhere to their standards with the disks. During a Sample Disk Certification Workshop, teachers participate in the activities as students gain insight into the history, formation and geologic processes of the moon, asteroids and meteorites.

  6. Time-Dependent Variations of Accretion Disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Weon Na


    Full Text Available In dward nova we assume the primary star as a white dwarf and the secondary as the late type star which filled Roche lobe. Mass flow from the secondary star leads to the formation of thin accretion disk around the white dwarf. We use the α parameter as viscosity to maintain the disk form and propose that the outburst in dwarf nova cause the steep increase of source term. With these assumptions we solve the basic equations of stellar structure using Newton-Raphson method. We show the physical parameters like temperature, density, pressure, opacity, surface density, height and flux to the radius of disk. Changing the value of α, we compare several parameters when mass flow rate is constant with those of when luminosity of disk is brightest. At the same time, we obtain time-dependent variations of luminosity and mass of disk. We propose the suitable range of α is 0.15-0.18 to the difference of luminosity. We compare several parameters of disk with those of the normal late type stars which have the same molecular weight of disk is lower. Maybe the outburst in dwarf nova is due to the variation of the α value instead of increment of mass flow from the secondary star.

  7. (18)F-alfatide II and (18)F-FDG dual-tracer dynamic PET for parametric, early prediction of tumor response to therapy. (United States)

    Guo, Jinxia; Guo, Ning; Lang, Lixin; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Xie, Qingguo; Li, Quanzheng; Eden, Henry S; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan


    A single dynamic PET acquisition using multiple tracers administered closely in time could provide valuable complementary information about a tumor's status under quasiconstant conditions. This study aimed to investigate the utility of dual-tracer dynamic PET imaging with (18)F-alfatide II ((18)F-AlF-NOTA-E[PEG4-c(RGDfk)]2) and (18)F-FDG for parametric monitoring of tumor responses to therapy. We administered doxorubicin to one group of athymic nude mice with U87MG tumors and paclitaxel protein-bound particles to another group of mice with MDA-MB-435 tumors. To monitor therapeutic responses, we performed dual-tracer dynamic imaging, in sessions that lasted 90 min, starting with injection via the tail vein catheters with (18)F-alfatide II, followed 40 min later by (18)F-FDG. To achieve signal separation of the 2 tracers, we fit a 3-compartment reversible model to the time-activity curve of (18)F-alfatide II for the 40 min before (18)F-FDG injection and then extrapolated to 90 min. The (18)F-FDG tumor time-activity curve was isolated from the 90-min dual-tracer tumor time-activity curve by subtracting the fitted (18)F-alfatide II tumor time-activity curve. With separated tumor time-activity curves, the (18)F-alfatide II binding potential (Bp = k3/k4) and volume of distribution (VD) and (18)F-FDG influx rate ((K1 × k3)/(k2 + k3)) based on the Patlak method were calculated to validate the signal recovery in a comparison with 60-min single-tracer imaging and to monitor therapeutic response. The transport and binding rate parameters K1-k3 of (18)F-alfatide II, calculated from the first 40 min of the dual-tracer dynamic scan, as well as Bp and VD correlated well with the parameters from the 60-min single-tracer scan (R(2) > 0.95). Compared with the results of single-tracer PET imaging, (18)F-FDG tumor uptake and influx were recovered well from dual-tracer imaging. On doxorubicin treatment, whereas no significant changes in static tracer uptake values of (18)F-alfatide II

  8. 18F-Alfatide II and 18F-FDG Dual Tracer Dynamic PET for Parametric, Early Prediction of Tumor Response to Therapy (United States)

    Guo, Jinxia; Guo, Ning; Lang, Lixin; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Xie, Qingguo; Li, Quanzheng; Eden, Henry S.; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan


    A single dynamic PET acquisition using multiple tracers administered closely in time could provide valuable complementary information about a tumor’s status under quasi-constant conditions. This study aims to investigate the utility of dual-tracer dynamic PET imaging with 18F-Alfatide II (18F-AlF-NOTA-E[PEG4-c(RGDfk)]2) and 18F-FDG for parametric monitoring of tumor responses to therapy. Methods We administered doxorubicin to one group of athymic nude mice with U87MG tumors and Abraxane to another group of mice with MDA-MB-435 tumors. To monitor therapeutic responses, we performed dual-tracer dynamic imaging, in sessions that lasted 90 min, starting by injecting the mice via tail vein catheters with 18F-Alfatide II, followed 40 minutes later by 18F-FDG. To achieve signal separation of the two tracers, we fit a three-compartment reversible model to the time activity curve (TAC) of 18F-Alfatide II for the 40 min prior to 18F-FDG injection, and then extrapolated to 90 min. The 18F-FDG tumor TAC was isolated from the 90 min dual tracer tumor TAC by subtracting the fitted 18F-Alfatide II tumor TAC. With separated tumor TACs, the 18F-Alfatide II binding potential (Bp=k3/k4) and volume of distribution (VD), and 18F-FDG influx rate ((K1×k3)/(k2 + k3)) based on the Patlak method were calculated to validate the signal recovery in a comparison with 60-min single tracer imaging and to monitor therapeutic response. Results The transport and binding rate parameters K1-k3 of 18F-Alfatide II, calculated from the first 40 min of dual tracer dynamic scan, as well as Bp and VD, correlated well with the parameters from the 60 min single tracer scan (R2 > 0.95). Compared with the results of single tracer PET imaging, FDG tumor uptake and influx were recovered well from dual tracer imaging. Upon doxorubicin treatment, while no significant changes in static tracer uptake values of 18F-Alfatide II or 18F-FDG were observed, both 18F-Alfatide II Bp and 18F-FDG influx from kinetic

  9. Thermodynamics of the dead zone inner edge in protoplanetary disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Julien


    The dead zone, a quiescent region enclosed in the turbulent flow of a protoplanetary disk, seems to be a promising site for planet formation. Indeed, the development of a density maximum at the dead zone inner edge, that has the property to trap the infalling dust, is a natural outcome of the accretion mismatch at this interface. Moreover, the flow here may be unstable and organize itself into vortical structures that efficiently collect dust grains. The inner edge location is however loosely constrained. In particular, it depends on the thermodynamical prescriptions of the disk model that is considered. It has been recently proposed that the inner edge is not static and that the variations of young stars accretion luminosity are the signature of this interface displacements. This thesis address the question of the impact of the gas thermodynamics onto its dynamics around the dead zone inner edge. MHD simulations including the complex interplay between thermodynamical processes and the dynamics confirmed the dynamical behaviour of the inner edge. A first measure of the interface velocity has been realised. This result has been compared to the predictions of a mean field model. It revealed the crucial role of the energy transport by density waves excited at the interface. These simulations also exhibit a new intriguing phenomenon: vortices forming at the interface follow a cycle of formation-migration-destruction. This vortex cycle may compromise the formation of planetesimals at the inner edge. This thesis claims that thermodynamical processes are at the heart of how the region around the dead zone inner edge in protoplanetary disks works. (author) [fr

  10. Latest advances in high brightness disk lasers (United States)

    Kuhn, Vincent; Gottwald, Tina; Stolzenburg, Christian; Schad, Sven-Silvius; Killi, Alexander; Ryba, Tracey


    In the last decade diode pumped solid state lasers have become an important tool for many industrial materials processing applications. They combine ease of operation with efficiency, robustness and low cost. This paper will give insight in latest progress in disk laser technology ranging from kW-class CW-Lasers over frequency converted lasers to ultra-short pulsed lasers. The disk laser enables high beam quality at high average power and at high peak power at the same time. The power from a single disk was scaled from 1 kW around the year 2000 up to more than 10 kW nowadays. Recently was demonstrated more than 4 kW of average power from a single disk close to fundamental mode beam quality (M²=1.38). Coupling of multiple disks in a common resonator results in even higher power. As an example we show 20 kW extracted from two disks of a common resonator. The disk also reduces optical nonlinearities making it ideally suited for short and ultrashort pulsed lasers. In a joint project between TRUMPF and IFSW Stuttgart more than 1.3 kW of average power at ps pulse duration and exceptionally good beam quality was recently demonstrated. The extremely low saturated gain makes the disk laser ideal for internal frequency conversion. We show >1 kW average power and >6 kW peak power in multi ms pulsed regime from an internally frequency doubled disk laser emitting at 515 nm (green). Also external frequency conversion can be done efficiently with ns pulses. >500 W of average UV power was demonstrated.

  11. Energy transfer dynamics in trimers and aggregates of light-harvesting complex II probed by 2D electronic spectroscopy. (United States)

    Enriquez, Miriam M; Akhtar, Parveen; Zhang, Cheng; Garab, Győző; Lambrev, Petar H; Tan, Howe-Siang


    The pathways and dynamics of excitation energy transfer between the chlorophyll (Chl) domains in solubilized trimeric and aggregated light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) are examined using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES). The LHCII trimers and aggregates exhibit the unquenched and quenched excitonic states of Chl a, respectively. 2DES allows direct correlation of excitation and emission energies of coupled states over population time delays, hence enabling mapping of the energy flow between Chls. By the excitation of the entire Chl b Qy band, energy transfer from Chl b to Chl a states is monitored in the LHCII trimers and aggregates. Global analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) spectra reveals that energy transfer from Chl b to Chl a occurs on fast and slow time scales of 240-270 fs and 2.8 ps for both forms of LHCII. 2D decay-associated spectra resulting from the global analysis identify the correlation between Chl states involved in the energy transfer and decay at a given lifetime. The contribution of singlet-singlet annihilation on the kinetics of Chl energy transfer and decay is also modelled and discussed. The results show a marked change in the energy transfer kinetics in the time range of a few picoseconds. Owing to slow energy equilibration processes, long-lived intermediate Chl a states are present in solubilized trimers, while in aggregates, the population decay of these excited states is significantly accelerated, suggesting that, overall, the energy transfer within the LHCII complexes is faster in the aggregated state.

  12. Herschel's "Cold Debris Disks": Background Galaxies or Quiescent Rims of Planetary Systems? (United States)

    Krivov, A. V.; Eiroa, C.; Loehne, T.; Marshall, J. P.; Montesinos, B.; DelBurgo, C.; Absil, O.; Ardila, D.; Augereau, J.-C.; Bayo, A.; hide


    Infrared excesses associated with debris disk host stars detected so far peak at wavelengths around approx, 100 micron or shorter. However, 6 out of 31 excess sources studied in the Herschel Open Time Key Programme, DUNES, have been seen to show significant-and in some cases extended-excess emission at 160 micron, which is larger than the 100 micron excess. This excess emission has been attributed to circumstellar dust and has been suggested to stem from debris disks colder than those known previously. Since the excess emission of the cold disk candidates is extremely weak, challenging even the unrivaled sensitivity of Herschel, it is prudent to carefully consider whether some or even all of them may represent unrelated galactic or extragalactic emission, or even instrumental noise. We re-address these issues using several distinct methods and conclude that it is highly unlikely that none of the candidates represents a true circumstellar disk. For true disks, both the dust temperatures inferred from the spectral energy distributions and the disk radii estimated from the images suggest that the dust is nearly as cold as a blackbody. This requires the grains to be larger than approx. 100 micron, even if they are rich in ices or are composed of any other material with a low absorption in the visible. The dearth of small grains is puzzling, since collisional models of debris disks predict that grains of all sizes down to several times the radiation pressure blowout limit should be present. We explore several conceivable scenarios: transport-dominated disks, disks of low dynamical excitation, and disks of unstirred primordial macroscopic grains. Our qualitative analysis and collisional simulations rule out the first two of these scenarios, but show the feasibility of the third one. We show that such disks can indeed survive for gigayears, largely preserving the primordial size distribution. They should be composed of macroscopic solids larger than millimeters, but

  13. Magnetically Induced Disk Winds and Transport in the HL Tau Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Flock, Mario; Turner, Neal J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Okuzumi, Satoshi, E-mail: [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)


    The mechanism of angular momentum transport in protoplanetary disks is fundamental to understanding the distributions of gas and dust in the disks. The unprecedented ALMA observations taken toward HL Tau at high spatial resolution and subsequent radiative transfer modeling reveal that a high degree of dust settling is currently achieved in the outer part of the HL Tau disk. Previous observations, however, suggest a high disk accretion rate onto the central star. This configuration is not necessarily intuitive in the framework of the conventional viscous disk model, since efficient accretion generally requires a high level of turbulence, which can suppress dust settling considerably. We develop a simplified, semi-analytical disk model to examine under what condition these two properties can be realized in a single model. Recent, non-ideal MHD simulations are utilized to realistically model the angular momentum transport both radially via MHD turbulence and vertically via magnetically induced disk winds. We find that the HL Tau disk configuration can be reproduced well when disk winds are properly taken into account. While the resulting disk properties are likely consistent with other observational results, such an ideal situation can be established only if the plasma β at the disk midplane is β {sub 0} ≃ 2 × 10{sup 4} under the assumption of steady accretion. Equivalently, the vertical magnetic flux at 100 au is about 0.2 mG. More detailed modeling is needed to fully identify the origin of the disk accretion and quantitatively examine plausible mechanisms behind the observed gap structures in the HL Tau disk.

  14. Digital cineangiography using parallel transfer disk in neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, P.D.; Murray, R.C. Jr.


    Using parallel transfer disk technology, digitally subtracted images now can be acquired for immediate review at rates up to 30 frames per second. The authors have performed 5 studies on 50 patients using 30 frame per second digital acquisition. Imaged were eight carotid-cavernous fistulas, three aneurysms, 21 arteriovenous malformations, 11 cases of stroke or transient ischemic attack, and eight miscellaneous conditions. When compared with plain film acquisitions at two exposures per second, the digital study gave additional diagnostic information in 32 cases. The increased frame storage capacity and the availability of immediate subtraction with digital cineangiography represent a significant advance in the evaluation of flow dynamics in diagnostic and therapeutic neuranogiography


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalas, Paul G.; Wang, Jason J.; Duchene, Gaspard; Dong, Ruobing; Graham, James R.; Rosa, Robert J. De [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley CA 94720-3411 (United States); Rajan, Abhijith; Patience, Jennifer [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Chilcote, Jeffrey [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Chen, Christine [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Fitzgerald, Michael P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Macintosh, Bruce [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Murray-Clay, Ruth [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Matthews, Brenda; Marois, Christian; Draper, Zachary H.; Lawler, Samantha [National Research Council of Canada Herzberg, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Rameau, Julien; Doyon, René [Institut de Recherche sur les Exoplanetes, Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); and others


    We present the first scattered light detections of the HD 106906 debris disk using the Gemini/Gemini Planet Imager in the infrared and Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys in the optical. HD 106906 is a 13 Myr old F5V star in the Sco–Cen association, with a previously detected planet-mass candidate HD 106906b projected 650 AU from the host star. Our observations reveal a near edge-on debris disk that has a central cleared region with radius ∼50 AU, and an outer extent >500 AU. The HST data show that the outer regions are highly asymmetric, resembling the “needle” morphology seen for the HD 15115 debris disk. The planet candidate is oriented ∼21° away from the position angle of the primary’s debris disk, strongly suggesting non-coplanarity with the system. We hypothesize that HD 106906b could be dynamically involved in the perturbation of the primary’s disk, and investigate whether or not there is evidence for a circumplanetary dust disk or cloud that is either primordial or captured from the primary. We show that both the existing optical properties and near-infrared colors of HD 106906b are weakly consistent with this possibility, motivating future work to test for the observational signatures of dust surrounding the planet.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang Hsien; Li ZhiYun


    Young stars are strongly magnetized. They interact with circumstellar disks through a shared magnetosphere. The interaction can have powerful effects on both the mass accretion from the disk to the star and the launch of magnetocentrifugal outflows. In this work, we show an extensive set of topological types of axisymmetric magnetospheres of the star-disk system, obtained numerically under the current-free assumption. We find that the topologies fall under a few broad categories, with different degrees of magnetic linkage between the star and the disk. A particularly interesting topology features a saddle point in the stellar corona, which enables to implement, this time in a simplified current-free form, the simultaneous existence of three regions of considerable astrophysical significance, as first proposed for X-winds. These regions are a 'funnel' region of inward-pointing field lines along which matter can flow from the inner part of the disk to the star, a region of outward-pointing open field lines that can drive a magnetocentrifugal wind, and an axial region of open stellar fields that allow stellar wind to escape. The Coronal Saddle point topology and other current-free configurations can serve as a starting point for full MHD simulations of the complex, dynamic, magnetic interaction between the young star and its circumstellar disk.

  17. Angular Momentum Transport in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers Around Weakly Magnetized Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessah Martin E.


    Full Text Available The standard model for turbulent shear viscosity in accretion disks is based on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. This implies that the turbulent stress must be negative and thus transport angular momentum inwards, in the boundary layer where the accretion disk meets the surface of a weakly magnetized star. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI is inefficient in disk regions where, as expected in boundary layers, the angular frequency increases with radius. Motivated by the need of a deeper understanding of the behavior of an MHD fluid in a differentially rotating background that deviates from a Keplerian profile, we study the dynamics of MHD waves in configurations that are stable to the standard MRI. Employing the shearing-sheet framework, we show that transient amplification of shearing MHD waves can generate magnetic energy without leading to a substantial generation of hydromagnetic stresses. While these results are in agreement with numerical simulations, they emphasize the need to better understand the mechanism for angular momentum transport in the inner disk regions on more solid grounds.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, C. P.; Wadsley, J.; Couchman, H. M. P.


    We demonstrate a significant difference in the angular momentum transport properties of galactic disks between regions in which the interstellar medium is single phase or two phase. Our study is motivated by observations of H I in extended galactic disks which indicate velocity dispersions of nonthermal origin, suggesting that turbulence in the gas may be contributing significantly to the observed dispersion. To address this, we have implemented a shearing-box framework within the FLASH code. The new code was used to perform local simulations of galactic disks that incorporate differential rotation, self-gravity, vertical stratification, hydrodynamics, and cooling. These simulations explore plausible mechanisms for driving turbulent motions via the thermal and self-gravitational instabilities coupling to differential rotation. Where a two-phase medium develops, gravitational angular momentum transporting stresses are much greater, creating a possible mechanism for transferring energy from galactic rotation to turbulence. In simulations where the disk conditions do not trigger the formation of a two-phase medium, it is found that perturbations to the flow damp without leading to a sustained mechanism for driving turbulence. The differing angular momentum transport properties of the single- and two-phase regimes of the disk suggest that a significant, dynamically motivated division can be drawn between the two, even when this division occurs far outside the star formation cutoff in a galactic disk.

  19. Inefficient Angular Momentum Transport in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers: Angular Momentum Belt in the Boundary Layer (United States)

    Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Quataert, Eliot


    We present unstratified 3D MHD simulations of an accretion disk with a boundary layer (BL) that have a duration ˜1000 orbital periods at the inner radius of the accretion disk. We find the surprising result that angular momentum piles up in the boundary layer, which results in a rapidly rotating belt of accreted material at the surface of the star. The angular momentum stored in this belt increases monotonically in time, which implies that angular momentum transport mechanisms in the BL are inefficient and do not couple the accretion disk to the star. This is in spite of the fact that magnetic fields are advected into the BL from the disk and supersonic shear instabilities in the BL excite acoustic waves. In our simulations, these waves only carry a small fraction (˜10%) of the angular momentum required for steady state accretion. Using analytical theory and 2D viscous simulations in the R - ϕ plane, we derive an analytical criterion for belt formation to occur in the BL in terms of the ratio of the viscosity in the accretion disk to the viscosity in the BL. Our MHD simulations have a dimensionless viscosity (α) in the BL that is at least a factor of ˜100 smaller than that in the disk. We discuss the implications of these results for BL dynamics and emission.

  20. Spontaneous rotation of a melting ice disk (United States)

    Dorbolo, Stephane; Vandewalle, Nicolas; Darbois-Texier, Baptiste; Grasp Team

    Ice disks were released at the surface of a thermalised aluminium plate. The fusion of the ice creates a lubrication film between the ice disk and the plate. The situation is similar to the Leidenfrost effect reported for liquid droplet evaporating at the surface of a plate which temperature is above the boiling temperature of the liquid. An analogy is depicted between the Leidenfrost phenomenon and the rapid fusion of a solid at the contact of a hot plate. Similarly to Leidenfrost droplet, we observe that, while the ice disks were melting, the disks were very mobile: translation and rotation. SD acknowledges support from FNRS as Senior Research Associate. This research has been funded by the Interuniversity Attraction Pole Programme (IAP 7/38 MicroMAST) initiated by the Belgian Science Policy Office.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M. M.


    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if

  2. Influence of pharyngeal airway respiration pressure on Class II mandibular retrusion in children: A computational fluid dynamics study of inspiration and expiration. (United States)

    Iwasaki, T; Sato, H; Suga, H; Takemoto, Y; Inada, E; Saitoh, I; Kakuno, K; Kanomi, R; Yamasaki, Y


    To examine the influence of negative pressure of the pharyngeal airway on mandibular retraction during inspiration in children with nasal obstruction using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. Sixty-two children were divided into Classes I, II (mandibular retrusion) and III (mandibular protrusion) malocclusion groups. Cone-beam computed tomography data were used to reconstruct three-dimensional shapes of the nasal and pharyngeal airways. Airflow pressure was simulated using CFD to calculate nasal resistance and pharyngeal airway pressure during inspiration and expiration. Nasal resistance of the Class II group was significantly higher than that of the other two groups, and oropharyngeal airway inspiration pressure in the Class II (-247.64 Pa) group was larger than that in the Class I (-43.51 Pa) and Class III (-31.81 Pa) groups (P<.001). The oropharyngeal airway inspiration-expiration pressure difference in the Class II (-27.38 Pa) group was larger than that in the Class I (-5.17 Pa) and Class III (0.68 Pa) groups (P=.006). Large negative inspiratory pharyngeal airway pressure due to nasal obstruction in children with Class II malocclusion may be related to their retrognathia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Ocular ultrasound findings in optic disk melanocytoma


    Andrés Lisker-Cervantes; David Arturo Ancona-Lezama; Luis Javier Arroyo-Garza; Jaime D. Martinez; Roberta Gomez Diaz Barreiro; Victor Daniel Valdepeña-López-Velarde; Virgilio Morales-Canton; Eduardo Moragrega-Adame


    Purpose: To describe the echographic characteristics of optic disk melanocytoma using a high resolution 10–20 MHz ophthalmic ultrasound. Methods: We conducted a 10-year retrospective review finding 9 cases with optic disk melanocytoma. The echographic studies were performed by the same experienced ophthalmologist. The form and density of the tumors were evaluated with B-scan ultrasound. Internal reflectivity and vascularity of the tumors were assessed with a standardized A-scan. Base (vert...

  4. Scaling Ratios and Triangles in Siegel Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buff, Xavier; Henriksen, Christian


    Let f(z)=e^{2i\\pi \\theta} + z^2, where \\theta is a quadratic irrational. McMullen proved that the Siegel disk for f is self-similar about the critical point, and we show that if \\theta = (\\sqrt{5}-1)/2 is the golden mean, then there exists a triangle contained in the Siegel disk, and with one ver...

  5. Synthesis of disk-on-rod antennas (United States)

    Dubrovka, F. F.; Lenivenko, V. A.


    The analysis and synthesis of disk-on-rod antennas (DORAs) with canonical and stepwise disk shapes are considered. A comparison of theoretical and experimental results shows that mathematical models and software developed by solving the appropriate boundary value problems can be used for the design of optimal DORAs. A broadband centimeter-wave DORA is considered as an example of the application of the proposed method for the constructive synthesis of DORAs using multicriterial optimization.

  6. Variational thermodynamics of relativistic thin disks (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Piñeres, Antonio C.; Lopez-Monsalvo, Cesar S.; Quevedo, Hernando


    We present a relativistic model describing a thin disk system composed of two fluids. The system is surrounded by a halo in the presence of a non-trivial electromagnetic field. We show that the model is compatible with the variational multifluid thermodynamics formalism, allowing us to determine all the thermodynamic variables associated with the matter content of the disk. The asymptotic behavior of these quantities indicates that the single fluid interpretation should be abandoned in favor of a two-fluid model.

  7. Linear stability of magnetized massive protoplanetary disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Min-Kai, E-mail: [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 Saint George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)


    Magnetorotational instability (MRI) and gravitational instability (GI) are the two principle routes to turbulent angular momentum transport in accretion disks. Protoplanetary disks (PPDs) may develop both. This paper aims to reinvigorate interest in the study of magnetized massive PPDs, starting from the basic issue of stability. The local linear stability of a self-gravitating, uniformly magnetized, differentially rotating, three-dimensional stratified disk subject to axisymmetric perturbations is calculated numerically. The formulation includes resistivity. It is found that the reduction in the disk thickness by self-gravity (SG) can decrease MRI growth rates; the MRI becomes global in the vertical direction, and MRI modes with small radial length scales are stabilized. The maximum vertical field strength that permits the MRI in a strongly self-gravitating polytropic disk with polytropic index Γ = 1 is estimated to be B{sub z,max}≃c{sub s0}Ω√(μ{sub 0}/16πG), where c{sub s0} is the midplane sound speed and Ω is the local angular velocity. In massive disks with layered resistivity, the MRI is not well localized to regions where the Elsasser number exceeds unity. For MRI modes with radial length scales on the order of the disk thickness, SG can enhance density perturbations, an effect that becomes significant in the presence of a strong toroidal field, and which depends on the symmetry of the underlying MRI mode. In gravitationally unstable disks where GI and MRI growth rates are comparable, the character of unstable modes can transition smoothly between MRI and GI. Implications for nonlinear simulations are discussed briefly.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, R. B.; Steiner, J. E.; Ricci, T. V., E-mail: [Instituto de Astronomia Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP CEP 05508-090 (Brazil)


    Due to its proximity, the mass of the supermassive black hole in the nucleus of the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the most massive black hole in the Local Group of galaxies, has been measured by several methods involving the kinematics of a stellar disk which surrounds it. We report here the discovery of an eccentric H{alpha} emitting disk around the black hole at the center of M31 and show how modeling this disk can provide an independent determination of the mass of the black hole. Our model implies a mass of 5.0{sup +0.8}{sub -1.0} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} for the central black hole, consistent with the average of determinations by methods involving stellar dynamics, and compatible (at 1{sigma} level) with measurements obtained from the most detailed models of the stellar disk around the central black hole. This value is also consistent with the M-{sigma} relation. In order to make a comparison, we applied our simulation on the stellar kinematics in the nucleus of M31 and concluded that the parameters obtained for the stellar disk are not formally compatible with the parameters obtained for the H{alpha} emitting disk. This result suggests that the stellar and the H{alpha} emitting disks are intrinsically different from each other. A plausible explanation is that the H{alpha} emission is associated with a gaseous disk. This hypothesis is supported by the detection of traces of weaker nebular lines in the nuclear region of M31. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the H{alpha} emission is, at least partially, generated by stars.

  9. Security policy analysis in network-attached optical disk storage system (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Xie, Changsheng; Huang, Hao


    The network-attached optical disk storage system has the advantages of the network-attached storage system and the optical storage device. Due to the data reliability and the removability of the storage medium, this optical storage system is very effective on massive data providing and backup. Recently, achievements have been made in security models and policies in a distributed network system environment and the network-attached storage system environment. However, the relevant research is not enough in the network-attached optical disk storage system, especially in a network-attached optical disc device. So it is significant to analyze the security policy and setup a good security model for the network-attached optical disk storage system. This paper makes a theoretical analysis on the security policy in the network-attached optical disk storage system. Firstly, the difference of the network-attached optical disk storage system and the distributed network system environment is presented. The network-attached optical disk storage system is a special distributed network system, and to meet the requirements of the system security, we use the authentication and key exchange protocol method to decide who is authorized to have what access rights on which objects with respect to some security models and policies in compute system. Secondly, we compare the effect of several types of authentication and key distribution protocols in a distributed network system environment. Then we port these authentication and key exchange protocols on the network-attached optical disk storage system environment. Based on these analyses, this paper proposes a secure key management scheme for security services in the network-attached optical disk storage system over open networks. This scheme focuses on the framework for authentication and the centralized key management, and future work will focus on dynamic membership management.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Medina, L. A. [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico); Pichardo, B.; Moreno, E. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-264, 04510, México D.F. (Mexico); Pérez-Villegas, A., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)


    The first mechanism invoked to explain the existence of the thick disk in the Milky Way Galaxy was the spiral arms. Up-to-date work summons several other possibilities that together seem to better explain this component of our Galaxy. All these processes must affect distinct types of galaxies differently, but the contribution of each one has not been straightforward to quantify. In this work, we present the first comprehensive study of the effect of the spiral arms on the formation of thick disks, looking at early- to late-type disk galaxies in an attempt to characterize and quantify this specific mechanism in galactic potentials. To this purpose, we perform test particle numerical simulations in a three-dimensional spiral galactic potential (for early- to late-types spiral galaxies). By varying the parameters of the spiral arms we found that the vertical heating of the stellar disk becomes very important in some cases and strongly depends on the galactic morphology, pitch angle, arm mass, and the arm pattern speed. The later the galaxy type, the larger is the effect on the disk heating. This study shows that the physical mechanism causing the vertical heating is different from simple resonant excitation. The spiral pattern induces chaotic behavior not linked necessarily to resonances but to direct scattering of disk stars, which leads to an increase of the velocity dispersion. We applied this study to the specific example of the Milky Way Galaxy, for which we have also added an experiment that includes the Galactic bar. From this study we deduce that the effect of spiral arms of a Milky-Way-like potential on the dynamical vertical heating of the disk is negligible, unlike later galactic potentials for disks.

  11. Disk Masses around Solar-mass Stars are Underestimated by CO Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mo; Evans II, Neal J. [Astronomy Department, University of Texas, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E. [University of Delaware, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 217 Sharp Lab, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Willacy, Karen; Turner, Neal J. [Mail Stop 169-506, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)


    Gas in protostellar disks provides the raw material for giant planet formation and controls the dynamics of the planetesimal-building dust grains. Accurate gas mass measurements help map the observed properties of planet-forming disks onto the formation environments of known exoplanets. Rare isotopologues of carbon monoxide (CO) have been used as gas mass tracers for disks in the Lupus star-forming region, with an assumed interstellar CO/H{sub 2} abundance ratio. Unfortunately, observations of T-Tauri disks show that CO abundance is not interstellar, a finding reproduced by models that show CO abundance decreasing both with distance from the star and as a function of time. Here, we present radiative transfer simulations that assess the accuracy of CO-based disk mass measurements. We find that the combination of CO chemical depletion in the outer disk and optically thick emission from the inner disk leads observers to underestimate gas mass by more than an order of magnitude if they use the standard assumptions of interstellar CO/H{sub 2} ratio and optically thin emission. Furthermore, CO abundance changes on million-year timescales, introducing an age/mass degeneracy into observations. To reach a factor of a few accuracy for CO-based disk mass measurements, we suggest that observers and modelers adopt the following strategies: (1) select low- J transitions; (2) observe multiple CO isotopologues and use either intensity ratios or normalized line profiles to diagnose CO chemical depletion; and (3) use spatially resolved observations to measure the CO-abundance distribution.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Soko; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Thommes, Edward W.


    The growth of Jovian mass planets during migration in their protoplanetary disks is one of the most important problems that needs to be solved in light of observations of the small orbital radii of exosolar planets. Studies of the migration of planets in standard gas disk models routinely show that the migration speeds are too high to form Jovian planets, and that such migrating planetary cores generally plunge into their central stars in less than a million years. In previous work, we have shown that a poorly ionized, less viscous region in a protoplanetary disk called a dead zone slows down the migration of fixed-mass planets. In this paper, we extend our numerical calculations to include dead zone evolution along with the disk, as well as planet formation via accretion of rocky and gaseous materials. Using our symplectic integrator-gas dynamics code, we find that dead zones, even in evolving disks wherein planets grow by accretion as they migrate, still play a fundamental role in saving planetary systems. We demonstrate that Jovian planets form within 2.5 Myr for disks that are 10 times more massive than a minimum-mass solar nebula (MMSN) with an opacity reduction and without slowing down migration artificially. Our simulations indicate that protoplanetary disks with an initial mass comparable to the MMSN only produce Neptunian mass planets. We also find that planet migration does not help core accretion as much in the oligarchic planetesimal-accretion scenario as was expected in the runaway planetesimal-accretion scenario. Therefore, we expect that an opacity reduction (or some other mechanisms) is needed to solve the formation timescale problem even for migrating protoplanets, as long as we consider the oligarchic growth. We also point out a possible role of a dead zone in explaining long-lived, strongly accreting gas disks.

  13. Discrimination between glioma grades II and III in suspected low-grade gliomas using dynamic contrast-enhanced and dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Anna; Fahlström, Markus; Rostrup, Egill


    that could best discriminate between grade II and III gliomas. METHODS: MRI (3 T) including morphological ((T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1-weighted (T1W)+Gd)) and perfusion (DCE and DSC) sequences was performed in 39 patients with newly diagnosed suspected low-grade glioma after...... written informed consent in this review board-approved study. Regions of interests (ROIs) in tumour area were delineated on FLAIR images co-registered to DCE and DSC, respectively, in 25 patients with histopathological grade II (n = 18) and III (n = 7) gliomas. Statistical analysis of differences between...... grade II and grade III gliomas in histogram perfusion parameters was performed, and the areas under the curves (AUC) from the ROC analyses were evaluated. RESULTS: In DCE, the skewness of transfer constant (k(trans)) was found superior for differentiating grade II from grade III in all gliomas (AUC 0...

  14. YottaYotta announces new world record set for TCP disk-to-disk bulk transfer

    CERN Document Server


    The Yottabyte NetStorage(TM) Company, today announced a new world record for TCP disk-to-disk data transfer using the company's NetStorager(R) System. The record-breaking demonstration transferred 5 terabytes of data between Chicago, Il. to Vancouver, BC and Ottawa, ON, at a sustained average throughput of 11.1 gigabits per second. Peak throughput exceeded 11.6 gigabits per second, more than 15-times faster than previous records for TCP transfer from disk-to-disk (1 page).

  15. Power Spectrum Density of Stochastic Oscillating Accretion Disk GB ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    radius in the disk, Rout is the outer radius of the disk, and the surface density index η is either 3/5 or 3/4 (Shakura & Sunyaev 1973). We assume that the restoring force of the disk oscillation is caused by gravitational attraction of the central compact object. We can deduce the characteristic frequency of the disk using ...

  16. The Birth of Disks Around Protostars (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    The dusty disks around young stars make the news regularly due to their appeal as the birthplace of early exoplanets. But how do disks like these first form and evolve around their newly born protostars? New observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) are helping us to better understand this process.Formation from CollapseStars are born from the gravitational collapse of a dense cloud of molecular gas. Long before they start fusing hydrogen at their centers when they are still just hot overdensities in the process of contracting we call them protostars. These low-mass cores are hidden at the hearts of the clouds of molecular gas from which they are born.Aerial image of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. [EFE/Ariel Marinkovic]During this contraction phase, before a protostar transitions to a pre-main-sequence star (which it does by blowing away its outer gas envelope, halting the stars growth), much of the collapsing material will spin into a centrifugally supported Keplerian disk that surrounds the young protostar. Later, these circumstellar disks will become the birthplace for young planets something for which weve seen observational evidence in recent years.But how do these Keplerian disks which eventually have scales of hundreds of AU first form and grow around protostars? We need observations of these disks in their early stages of formation to understand their birth and evolution a challenging prospect, given the obscuring molecular gas that hides them at these stages. ALMA, however, is up to the task: it can peer through to the center of the gas clouds to see the emission from protostellar cores and their surroundings.ALMA observations of the protostar Lupus 3 MMS. The molecular outflows from the protostar are shown in panel a. Panel b shows the continuum emission, which has a compact component that likely traces a disk surrounding the protostar. [Adapted from Yen et al. 2017]New Disks Revealed?In a recent

  17. Angular momentum transport in accretion disk boundary layers around weakly magnetized stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, M.E.; Chan, C.-K.


    ) is inefficient in disk regions where, as expected in boundary layers, the angular frequency increases with radius. Motivated by the need of a deeper understanding of the behavior of an MHD fluid in a differentially rotating background that deviates from a Keplerian profile, we study the dynamics of MHD waves...

  18. HI study of the warped spiral galaxy NGC5055 : a disk/dark matter halo offset?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, G.; Fraternali, F.; Oosterloo, T.; Sancisi, R.


    Abstract: We present a study of the HI distribution and the dynamics of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC5055 based on observations with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The gaseous disk of NGC5055 extends out to about 40 kpc, equal to 3.5 R_25 and shows a pronounced warp, starting at the end of

  19. HI study of the warped spiral galaxy NGC5055 : a disk/dark matter halo offset?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, G; Fraternali, F; Oosterloo, T; Sancisi, R

    We present a study of the Hi distribution and dynamics of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5055 based on observations with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The gaseous disk of NGC5055 extends out to about 40 kpc, equal to 3.5 R-25, and shows a pronounced warp that starts at the end of the

  20. Noise Depression of Parasitic Capacitance for Frequency Detection of Micromechanical Bulk Disk Resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Meng; Cagliani, Alberto; Escouflaire, Marie


    A bulk disk resonator working in dynamic mode is used for mass detection. In the capacitive transduction scheme, the parasitic capacitance between the electrodes produces an anti resonance in the transmission curve, which distorts the phase shift at the resonant frequency and increases the freque...

  1. Head-Disk Interface Technology: Challenges and Approaches (United States)

    Liu, Bo

    Magnetic hard disk drive (HDD) technology is believed to be one of the most successful examples of modern mechatronics systems. The mechanical beauty of magnetic HDD includes simple but super high accuracy positioning head, positioning technology, high speed and stability spindle motor technology, and head-disk interface technology which keeps the millimeter sized slider flying over a disk surface at nanometer level slider-disk spacing. This paper addresses the challenges and possible approaches on how to further reduce the slider disk spacing whilst retaining the stability and robustness level of head-disk systems for future advanced magnetic disk drives.

  2. Solution NMR and molecular dynamics reveal a persistent alpha helix within the dynamic region of PsbQ from photosystem II of higher plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rathner, P.; Rathner, A.; Horničáková, M.; Wohlschlager, Ch.; Chandra, K.; Kohoutová, Jaroslava; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Wimmer, R.; Müller, N.


    Roč. 83, č. 9 (2015), s. 1677-1686 ISSN 0887-3585 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : dynamic N-terminus * extrinsic photosynthetic protein * hydrogen bond dynamics Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.499, year: 2015

  3. Interstellar Explorer Observations of the Solar System's Debris Disks (United States)

    Lisse, C. M.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Brandt, P. C.


    Planetesimal belts and debris disks full of dust are known as the "signposts of planet formation" in exosystems. The overall brightness of a disk provides information on the amount of sourcing planetesimal material, while asymmetries in the shape of the disk can be used to search for perturbing planets. The solar system is known to house two such belts, the Asteroid belt and the Kuiper Belt; and at least one debris cloud, the Zodiacal Cloud, sourced by planetisimal collisions and Kuiper Belt comet evaporative sublimation. However these are poorly understood in toto because we live inside of them. E.g., while we know of the two planetesimal belt systems, it is not clear how much, if any, dust is produced from the Kuiper belt since the near-Sun comet contributions dominate near-Earth space. Understanding how much dust is produced in the Kuiper belt would give us a much better idea of the total number of bodies in the belt, especially the smallest ones, and their dynamical collisional state. Even for the close in Zodiacal cloud, questions remain concerning its overall shape and orientation with respect to the ecliptic and invariable planes of the solar system - they aren't explainable from the perturbations caused by the known planets alone. In this paper we explore the possibilities of using an Interstellar Explorer telescope placed at 200 AU from the sun to observe the brightness, shape, and extent of the solar system's debris disk(s). We should be able to measure the entire extent of the inner, near-earth zodiacal cloud; whether it connects smoothly into an outer cloud, or if there is a second outer cloud sourced by the Kuiper belt and isolated by the outer planets, as predicted by Stark & Kuchner (2009, 2010) and Poppe et al. (2012, 2016; Figure 1). VISNIR imagery will inform about the dust cloud's density, while MIR cameras will provide thermal imaging photometry related to the cloud's dust particle size and composition. Observing at high phase angle by looking

  4. Impurity Dynamics under Neutral Beam Injection at TJ-II (simulation); Dinamica de Impurezas durante la Inyeccion de Haces Neutros en el TJ-II (simulacion)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasp, J.; Fuentes, C.; Liniers, M.


    In this study the simulations of plasma transport under NBI for TJ-II, previously performed, are extended. Since than a considerable number of important modifications have been introduced in the model: change of magnetic configuration, use of experimental initial profiles, expansion of the Data base from NBI calculations and, mainly, a detailed handling of impurities with inclusion of sputtering effects. Moreover there is now a particular emphasis on the analysis of the conditions for discharge collapse and on the possible effects of single beam injection. This analysis of impurity behaviour with sputtering shows that in the expected usual cases there is no radioactive collapse and that if the recycling coefficients remain lower the unity it is always possible to find a strategy for external gas puffing leading to a stationary state, with densities below the limit and efficient NBI absorption (>50%). The radioactive collapse can appear either at high densities (central value higher than 1.4x10''20 m''3), excessive influx of impurities (i. e. with sputtering rates higher than twice the expected values) o for insufficient injected beam power (less than 45 kW). The present study analyses only the 100{sub 4}4{sub 6}4 configuration of TJ-II, but future works will start a systematic scan of configuration using this same model. (Author) 12 Refs.

  5. Warm H2O and OH Disk Emission in V1331 Cyg (United States)

    Doppmann, Greg W.; Najita, Joan R.; Carr, John S.; Graham, James R.


    We present high-resolution (R = 24, 000) L-band spectra of the young intermediate-mass star V1331 Cyg obtained with NIRSPEC on the Keck II telescope. The spectra show strong, rich emission from water and OH that likely arises from the warm surface region of the circumstellar disk. We explore the use of the new BT2 water line list in fitting the spectra, and we find that it does a much better job than the well-known HITRAN water line list in the observed wavelength range and for the warm temperatures probed by our data. By comparing the observed spectra with synthetic disk emission models, we find that the water and OH emission lines have similar widths (FWHM ~= 18 km s-1). If the line widths are set by disk rotation, the OH and water emission lines probe a similar range of disk radii in this source. The water and OH emission are consistent with thermal emission for both components at a temperature ~1500 K. The column densities of the emitting water and OH are large, ~1021 cm-2 and ~1020 cm-2, respectively. Such a high column density of water is more than adequate to shield the disk midplane from external UV irradiation in the event of complete dust settling out of the disk atmosphere, enabling chemical synthesis to continue in the midplane despite a harsh external UV environment. The large OH-to-water ratio is similar to expectations for UV irradiated disks, although the large OH column density is less easily accounted for. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory from telescope time allocated to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the agency's scientific partnership with the California Institute of Technology and the University of California. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  6. Dynamic Science Data Services for Display, Analysis and Interaction in Widely-Accessible, Web-Based Geospatial Platforms, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TerraMetrics, Inc., proposes a Phase II R/R&D program to implement the TerraBlocksTM Server architecture that provides geospatial data authoring, storage and...

  7. Photoionization Models for the Inner Gaseous Disks of Herbig Be Stars: Evidence against Magnetospheric Accretion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, P.; Sigut, T. A. A.; Landstreet, J. D., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)


    We investigate the physical properties of the inner gaseous disks of three hot Herbig B2e stars, HD 76534, HD 114981, and HD 216629, by modeling CFHT-ESPaDOns spectra using non-LTE radiative transfer codes. We assume that the emission lines are produced in a circumstellar disk heated solely by photospheric radiation from the central star in order to test whether the optical and near-infrared emission lines can be reproduced without invoking magnetospheric accretion. The inner gaseous disk density was assumed to follow a simple power-law in the equatorial plane, and we searched for models that could reproduce observed lines of H i (H α and H β ), He i, Ca ii, and Fe ii. For the three stars, good matches were found for all emission line profiles individually; however, no density model based on a single power-law was able to reproduce all of the observed emission lines. Among the single power-law models, the one with the gas density varying as ∼10{sup −10}( R {sub *}/ R ){sup 3} g cm{sup −3} in the equatorial plane of a 25 R {sub *} (0.78 au) disk did the best overall job of representing the optical emission lines of the three stars. This model implies a mass for the H α -emitting portion of the inner gaseous disk of ∼10{sup −9} M {sub *}. We conclude that the optical emission line spectra of these HBe stars can be qualitatively reproduced by a ≈1 au, geometrically thin, circumstellar disk of negligible mass compared to the central star in Keplerian rotation and radiative equilibrium.

  8. Equilibrium configuration of a stratus floating above accretion disks: Full-disk calculation (United States)

    Itanishi, Yusuke; Fukue, Jun


    We examine floating strati above a luminous accretion disk, supported by the radiative force from the entire disk, and calculate the equilibrium locus, which depends on the disk luminosity and the optical depth of the stratus. Due to the radiative transfer effect (albedo effect), the floating height of the stratus with a finite optical depth generally becomes high, compared with the particle case. In contrast to the case of the near-disk approximation, moreover, the floating height becomes yet higher in the present full-disk calculation, since the intense radiation from the inner disk is taken into account. As a result, when the disk luminosity normalized by the Eddington luminosity is ˜0.3 and the stratus optical depth is around unity, the stable configuration disappears at around r ˜ 50 rg, rg being the Schwarzschild radius, and the stratus would be blown off as a cloudy wind consisting of many strati with appropriate conditions. This luminosity is sufficiently smaller than the Eddington one, and the present results suggest that the radiation-driven cloudy wind can be easily blown off from the sub-Eddington disk, and this can explain various outflows observed in ultra-fast outflow objects as well as in broad-absorption-line quasars.

  9. A novel rotating disk electrode cell design; The inverted rotating disk electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdunek, A.D.; Selman, J.R. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)


    In this paper a new cell configuration for use with the rotating disk electrode (RDE), the inverted rotating disk electrode (IRDE), is outlined. The IRDE faces upwards in solution and rotates without electrolyte leakage, even in highly corrosive solutions. This facilitates gas evolution and free convection studies. Mass transfer characteristics obtained by limiting current measurements agree well with literature for the RDE.

  10. Miniaturized Dynamic Pressure Sensor Arrays with Sub-Millimeter (mm) Spacing for Cross-Flow Transition Measurements, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation (IC2) and in partnership with the University of Florida (UF) propose a microfabricated, dynamic piezoelectric pressure...

  11. Neutron Crystallography Detects Differences in Protein Dynamics: Structure of the PKG II Cyclic Nucleotide Binding Domain in Complex with an Activator. (United States)

    Gerlits, Oksana; Campbell, James C; Blakeley, Matthew P; Kim, Choel; Kovalevsky, Andrey


    As one of the main receptors of a second messenger, cGMP, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) isoforms I and II regulate distinct physiological processes. The design of isoform-specific activators is thus of great biomedical importance and requires detailed structural information about PKG isoforms bound with activators, including accurate positions of hydrogen atoms and a description of the hydrogen bonding and water architecture. Here, we determined a 2.2 Å room-temperature joint X-ray/neutron (XN) structure of the human PKG II carboxyl cyclic nucleotide binding (CNB-B) domain bound with a potent PKG II activator, 8-pCPT-cGMP. The XN structure directly visualizes intermolecular interactions and reveals changes in hydrogen bonding patterns upon comparison to the X-ray structure determined at cryo-temperatures. Comparative analysis of the backbone hydrogen/deuterium exchange patterns in PKG II:8-pCPT-cGMP and previously reported PKG Iβ:cGMP XN structures suggests that the ability of these agonists to activate PKG is related to how effectively they quench dynamics of the cyclic nucleotide binding pocket and the surrounding regions.

  12. Phase-Averaged Method Applied to Periodic Flow Between Shrouded Corotating Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Chun Wu


    Full Text Available This study investigates the coherent flow fields between corotating disks in a cylindrical enclosure. By using two laser velocimeters and a phase-averaged technique, the vortical structures of the flow could be reconstructed and their dynamic behavior was observed. The experimental results reveal clearly that the flow field between the disks is composed of three distinct regions: an inner region near the hub, an outer region, and a shroud boundary layer region. The outer region is distinguished by the presence of large vortical structures. The number of vortical structures corresponds to the normalized frequency of the flow.

  13. Moving alcohol prevention research forward-Part II: new directions grounded in community-based system dynamics modeling. (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Lemke, Michael K; Barry, Adam E; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller


    Given the complexity of factors contributing to alcohol misuse, appropriate epistemologies and methodologies are needed to understand and intervene meaningfully. We aimed to (1) provide an overview of computational modeling methodologies, with an emphasis on system dynamics modeling; (2) explain how community-based system dynamics modeling can forge new directions in alcohol prevention research; and (3) present a primer on how to build alcohol misuse simulation models using system dynamics modeling, with an emphasis on stakeholder involvement, data sources and model validation. Throughout, we use alcohol misuse among college students in the United States as a heuristic example for demonstrating these methodologies. System dynamics modeling employs a top-down aggregate approach to understanding dynamically complex problems. Its three foundational properties-stocks, flows and feedbacks-capture non-linearity, time-delayed effects and other system characteristics. As a methodological choice, system dynamics modeling is amenable to participatory approaches; in particular, community-based system dynamics modeling has been used to build impactful models for addressing dynamically complex problems. The process of community-based system dynamics modeling consists of numerous stages: (1) creating model boundary charts, behavior-over-time-graphs and preliminary system dynamics models using group model-building techniques; (2) model formulation; (3) model calibration; (4) model testing and validation; and (5) model simulation using learning-laboratory techniques. Community-based system dynamics modeling can provide powerful tools for policy and intervention decisions that can result ultimately in sustainable changes in research and action in alcohol misuse prevention. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Discovery of new class of methoxy carrying isoxazole derivatives as COX-II inhibitors: Investigation of a detailed molecular dynamics study (United States)

    Joy, Monu; Elrashedy, Ahmed A.; Mathew, Bijo; Pillay, Ashona Singh; Mathews, Annie; Dev, Sanal; Soliman, Mahmoud E. S.; Sudarsanakumar, C.


    Two novel isoxazole derivatives were synthesized and characterized by NMR and single crystal X-ray crystallography techniques. The methoxy and dimethoxy functionalized variants of isoxazole were screened for its anti-inflammatory profile using cyclooxygenase fluorescent inhibitor screening assay methods along with standard drugs, Celecoxib and Diclofenac. The potent and selective nature of the two isoxazole derivatives on COX-II isoenzyme with a greater magnitude of inhibitory concentration, as compared to the standard drugs and further exploited through molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Classical, accelerated and multiple MD simulations were performed to investigate the actual binding mode of the two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug candidates and addressed their functional selectivity towards COX-II enzyme inhibitory nature.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivlev, A. V.; Caselli, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Akimkin, V. V., E-mail: [Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyatnitskaya Street 48, 119017 Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Ionization–recombination balance in dense interstellar and circumstellar environments is a key factor for a variety of important physical processes, such as chemical reactions, dust charging and coagulation, coupling of the gas with magnetic field, and development of instabilities in protoplanetary disks. We determine a critical gas density above which the recombination of electrons and ions on the grain surface dominates over the gas-phase recombination. For this regime, we present a self-consistent analytical model, which allows us to calculate exactly the abundances of charged species in dusty gas, without making assumptions on the grain charge distribution. To demonstrate the importance of the proposed approach, we check whether the conventional approximation of low grain charges is valid for typical protoplanetary disks, and discuss the implications for dust coagulation and development of the “dead zone” in the disk. The presented model is applicable for arbitrary grain-size distributions and, for given dust properties and conditions of the disk, has only one free parameter—the effective mass of the ions, shown to have a small effect on the results. The model can be easily included in numerical simulations following the dust evolution in dense molecular clouds and protoplanetary disks.

  16. Effects of inclined star-disk encounter on protoplanetary disk size (United States)

    Bhandare, Asmita; Breslau, Andreas; Pfalzner, Susanne


    Most, if not all, young stars are initially surrounded by protoplanetary disks. Owing to the preferential formation of stars in stellar clusters, the protoplanetary disks around these stars may potentially be affected by the cluster environment. Various works have investigated the influence of stellar fly-bys on disks, although many of them consider only the effects due to parabolic, coplanar encounters often for equal-mass stars, which is only a very special case. We perform numerical simulations to study the fate of protoplanetary disks after the impact of parabolic star-disk encounter for the less investigated case of inclined up to coplanar, retrograde encounters, which is a much more common case. Here, we concentrate on the disk size after such encounters because this limits the size of the potentially forming planetary systems. In addition, with the possibilities that ALMA offers, now a direct comparison to observations is possible. Covering a wide range of periastron distances and mass ratios between the mass of the perturber and central star, we find that despite the prograde, coplanar encounters having the strongest effect on the disk size, inclined and even the least destructive retrograde encounters mostly also have a considerable effect, especially for close periastron passages. Interestingly, we find a nearly linear dependence of the disk size on the orbital inclination for the prograde encounters, but not for the retrograde case. We also determine the final orbital parameters of the particles in the disk such as eccentricities, inclinations, and semi-major axes. Using this information the presented study can be used to describe the fate of disks and also that of planetary systems after inclined encounters.

  17. Potential and flux field landscape theory. II. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of spatially inhomogeneous stochastic dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wei; Wang, Jin


    We have established a general non-equilibrium thermodynamic formalism consistently applicable to both spatially homogeneous and, more importantly, spatially inhomogeneous systems, governed by the Langevin and Fokker-Planck stochastic dynamics with multiple state transition mechanisms, using the potential-flux landscape framework as a bridge connecting stochastic dynamics with non-equilibrium thermodynamics. A set of non-equilibrium thermodynamic equations, quantifying the relations of the non-equilibrium entropy, entropy flow, entropy production, and other thermodynamic quantities, together with their specific expressions, is constructed from a set of dynamical decomposition equations associated with the potential-flux landscape framework. The flux velocity plays a pivotal role on both the dynamic and thermodynamic levels. On the dynamic level, it represents a dynamic force breaking detailed balance, entailing the dynamical decomposition equations. On the thermodynamic level, it represents a thermodynamic force generating entropy production, manifested in the non-equilibrium thermodynamic equations. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and more specific examples, the spatial stochastic neuronal model, in particular, are studied to test and illustrate the general theory. This theoretical framework is particularly suitable to study the non-equilibrium (thermo)dynamics of spatially inhomogeneous systems abundant in nature. This paper is the second of a series

  18. Identifying Planet-Forming Disks Around Young Stars (United States)

    Espaillat, C.


    In the past few years, several disks with inner holes that are relatively empty of small dust grains have been detected and are known as transitional disks. Spitzer identified a new class of “pre-transitional disks” with gaps; these objects have an optically thick inner disk separated from an optically thick outer disk by an optically thin disk gap. Here we review spectral observations which provided the first confirmations of gaps in the pre-transitional disks of LkCa 15 and UX Tau A. We also review the results of a Spitzer IRS study of variability in transitional and pre-transitional objects. The structure and behavior of pre-transitional and transitional disks may be a sign of young planets forming in these disks and future studies of these disks will provide constraints to aid in theoretical modeling of planet formation.

  19. Formulas for Radial Transport in Protoplanetary Disks (United States)

    Desch, Steven J.; Estrada, Paul R.; Kalyaan, Anusha; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.


    The quantification of the radial transport of gaseous species and solid particles is important to many applications in protoplanetary disk evolution. An especially important example is determining the location of the water snow lines in a disk, which requires computing the rates of outward radial diffusion of water vapor and the inward radial drift of icy particles; however, the application is generalized to evaporation fronts of all volatiles. We review the relevant formulas using a uniform formalism. This uniform treatment is necessary because the literature currently contains at least six mutually exclusive treatments of radial diffusion of gas, only one of which is correct. We derive the radial diffusion equations from first principles using Fick's law. For completeness, we also present the equations for radial transport of particles. These equations may be applied to studies of diffusion of gases and particles in protoplanetary and other accretion disks.

  20. Intelligent multi-unit disk controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirot, Lucien


    This controller has been designed as a link between a 16 bits minicomputer and two types of disks units interface: the SMD interface and an equivalent to the DRI unit interface. Four units of each type can be handled by the controller. A bit slice microprocessor controls the interface with the disks units. The maximum exchange rate is 8 megabits per second. A CRC feature has been provided for error detection. A 16 bits microprocessor implements the interface to the computer, assuring head positioning, the management of bad tracks, as well as the supervision of each transfer. A internal buffer memory allows an asynchronous dialogue with the computer. The implementation of the controller makes easy the adaptation to disks units of various types, and though it has been initially intended for a minicomputer of the MITRA type, its microprocessor based design makes it fitted to any minicomputer. (author) [fr

  1. Industrial application of high power disk lasers (United States)

    Brockmann, Rüdiger; Havrilla, David


    Laser welding has become one of the fastest growing areas for industrial laser applications. The increasing cost effectiveness of the laser process is enabled by the development of new highly efficient laser sources, such as the Disk laser, coupled with decreasing cost per Watt. TRUMPF introduced the Disk laser several years ago, and today it has become the most reliable laser tool on the market. The excellent beam quality and output powers of up to 10 kW enable its application in the automotive industry as well as in the range of thick plate welding, such as heavy construction and ship building. This serves as an overview of the most recent developments on the TRUMPF Disk laser and its industrial applications like cutting, welding, remote welding and hybrid welding, too. The future prospects regarding increased power and even further improved productivity and economics are presented.

  2. Seeded inert gas driven disk generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, N.K.; Venkatramani, N.; Rohatgi, V.K.


    This report outlines the present status of work being carried out in closed cycle MHD and disk generators. It gives the basic principles and discusses a proposal for setting up an experimental facility to study nonequilibrium plasmas using an inert gas driven disk generator. Disk geometry is a near ideal geometry for plasma studies since it has single or few pair electrodes combined with near perfect insulating walls. The proposed outlay of facility with components and subsystem is given. The facility may also be used to study the concept of fully ionized seed and to develop advanced diagnostic techniques. The absic equation describing the working parameters of such a system is also given in the Appendix. (author). 57 refs

  3. Permeable disks at low Reynolds numbers (United States)

    Viola, Ignazio Maria; Cummins, Cathal; Mastropaolo, Enrico; Nakayama, Naomi


    The wake of a permeable disk can be rather exceptional: a toroidal vortex can form and remains stably at a fixed distance from the disk. The streamwise length of the vortex depends on the Reynolds and Darcy numbers. We investigate this fascinating flow for Reynolds numbers from 10 to 130 and Darcy numbers (Da) from 10-9 to 1. Direct numerical simulations are performed on a 2D grid with axisymmetric boundary conditions. Three flow regimes are observed: for low Da (effectively impervious), the wake is characterized by the presence of a toroidal vortex whose length is approximately equal to that of an impervious disk. For 10-6 RPG-2015-255].

  4. Destruction of Refractory Carbon in Protoplanetary Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dana E.; Blake, Geoffrey A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bergin, Edwin A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107 (United States); Ciesla, Fred J. [Department of Geophysical Sciences, The University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Visser, Ruud [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Lee, Jeong-Eun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, 1732, Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104 (Korea, Republic of)


    The Earth and other rocky bodies in the inner solar system contain significantly less carbon than the primordial materials that seeded their formation. These carbon-poor objects include the parent bodies of primitive meteorites, suggesting that at least one process responsible for solid-phase carbon depletion was active prior to the early stages of planet formation. Potential mechanisms include the erosion of carbonaceous materials by photons or atomic oxygen in the surface layers of the protoplanetary disk. Under photochemically generated favorable conditions, these reactions can deplete the near-surface abundance of carbon grains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by several orders of magnitude on short timescales relative to the lifetime of the disk out to radii of ∼20–100+ au from the central star depending on the form of refractory carbon present. Due to the reliance of destruction mechanisms on a high influx of photons, the extent of refractory carbon depletion is quite sensitive to the disk’s internal radiation field. Dust transport within the disk is required to affect the composition of the midplane. In our current model of a passive, constant- α disk, where α = 0.01, carbon grains can be turbulently lofted into the destructive surface layers and depleted out to radii of ∼3–10 au for 0.1–1 μ m grains. Smaller grains can be cleared out of the planet-forming region completely. Destruction may be more effective in an actively accreting disk or when considering individual grain trajectories in non-idealized disks.

  5. Featured Image: Mini-Disks in a Black-Hole Binary (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    This image shows a snapshot from a simulation of a relativistic binary black hole system. A recent study led by Dennis Bowen (Rochester Institute of Technology) presents the first exploration of gas dynamics in relativistic binary black hole systems in which each black hole is surrounded by its own small accretion disk. Bowen and collaborators use their 2D hydrodynamical simulations to explore how gas is passed back and forth between the two mini-disks as the black holes orbit each other. They also examine what kind of distinctive observable signals might be caused by this sloshing and by tidally driven spiral waves in the disks. To read more about their outcomes, check out the article below!CitationDennis B. Bowen et al 2017 ApJ 838 42. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa63f3


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flock, M.; Turner, N. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Fromang, S. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris 7, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Benisty, M., E-mail: [Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France)


    Many stars host planets orbiting within a few astronomical units (AU). The occurrence rate and distributions of masses and orbits vary greatly with the host star’s mass. These close planets’ origins are a mystery that motivates investigating protoplanetary disks’ central regions. A key factor governing the conditions near the star is the silicate sublimation front, which largely determines where the starlight is absorbed, and which is often called the inner rim. We present the first radiation hydrodynamical modeling of the sublimation front in the disks around the young intermediate-mass stars called Herbig Ae stars. The models are axisymmetric and include starlight heating; silicate grains sublimating and condensing to equilibrium at the local, time-dependent temperature and density; and accretion stresses parameterizing the results of MHD magnetorotational turbulence models. The results compare well with radiation hydrostatic solutions and prove to be dynamically stable. Passing the model disks into Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations, we show that the models satisfy observational constraints on the inner rim’s location. A small optically thin halo of hot dust naturally arises between the inner rim